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Sample records for amoxicillin

  1. Amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoxicillin is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, such as pneumonia; bronchitis; gonorrhea; and infections ... eliminate H. pylori, a bacteria that causes ulcers. Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin- ...

  2. Lansoprazole, Clarithromycin, and Amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin are used to treat and prevent the return of ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) ... of medications called proton pump inhibitors. Clarithromycin and amoxicillin are in a class of medications called antibiotics. ...

  3. Susceptibilities of 540 anaerobic gram-negative bacilli to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-BRL 42715, amoxicillin-clavulanate, temafloxacin, and clindamycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Appelbaum, P. C.; Spangler, S K; Shiman, R; Jacobs, M R

    1992-01-01

    Agar dilution MIC testing of amoxicillin, amoxicillin-BRL 42715, amoxicillin-clavulanate, temafloxacin, and clindamycin against 496 beta-lactamase-producing anaerobic gram-negative rods revealed MICs for 90% of the strains tested of 256.0 (amoxicillin), 2.0 (amoxicillin-BRL 42715 and amoxicillin-clavulanate), and 4.0 (temafloxacin and clindamycin) microgram/ml. Amoxicillin, temafloxacin, and clindamycin inhibited all 44 beta-lactamase-negative strains (MICs for 90% of the strains tested, less...

  4. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi Shahien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of aseptic meningitis due to amoxicillin, and then review the literature on this rare idiosyncratic event which may occur after local or systemic drug administration. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Seven days before admission he had a dental and gingival inflammation. He was treated with two oral doses of 500 mg daily of amoxicillin for one week. The seventh day he awoke with the complaints that prompted hospital admittance. Amoxicillin was stopped 1 day before his admission. From his history we knew of two similar episodes: The first episode was after a dental procedure 3 months before this incident. He had received a 1-week course of postprocedure amoxicillin of 500 mg daily and had similar headache, fever, and chills during the entire course of treatment. He wasn’t admitted to the hospital, because he stopped taking amoxicillin and he felt spontaneous pain relief after taking symptomatic pain treatment. The second episodes was 6 months after his first admission, he had been admitted to our hospital with the same symptoms. Amoxicillin was stopped and changed with intravenous (IV ceftriaxone (CTRX for 10 days due to suspected partial untreated meningitis. The patient improved rapidly within 2 days and was discharged from the hospital. On the basis of these three confirmed episodes of meningitis after recurrent exposure to amoxicillin, with repetitive negative testing for viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial

  5. Dental enamel, fluorosis and amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ciarrocchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most used antibiotics among pediatric patients for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and specially for acute otitis media (AOM, a common diseases of infants and childhood. It has been speculated that the use of amoxicillin during early childhood could be associated with dental enamel fluorosis, also described in literature with the term Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH, because they are generally situated in one or more 1st permanent molars and less frequently in the incisors. The effect of Amoxicillin seems to be independent of other risk factors such as fluoride intake, prematurity, hypoxia, hypocalcaemia, exposure to dioxins, chikenpox, otitis media, high fever and could have a significant impact on oral health for the wide use of this drug in that period of life. Objective: The aim of this work was to review the current literature about the association between amoxicillin and fluorosis. Methods and Results: A literature survey was done by applying the Medline database (Entrez PubMed; the Cochrane Library database of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL. The databases were searched using the following strategy and keywords: amoxicillin* AND (dental fluorosis* OR dental enamel* AND MIH*. After selecting the studies, only three relevant articles published between 1966 and 2011 were included in the review. Conclusion: The presence of several methodological issues does not allow to draw any evidence-based conclusions. No evidence of association was detected, therefore, there is a need of further well-designed studies to assess the scientific evidence of the relationship between amoxicillin and fluorosis and to restrict the prescription of this drug for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections especially acute otitis media (AOM during the first two years of life. When it is possible can be opportune to use an alternative antibiotic treatment.

  6. 21 CFR 556.38 - Amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin. 556.38 Section 556.38 Food and Drugs... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.38 Amoxicillin. A tolerance of 0.01 part per million is established for negligible residues of amoxicillin in milk and in the uncooked edible tissues of cattle....

  7. Comparative trial between the use of amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulanate in the removal of third molars

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Martin, Fernando; García-Perla García, Alberto; Yáñez Vico, Rosa María; Aced Jiménez, Elena; Arjona Gerveno, Esther; J.D. González Padilla; Gutiérrez Pérez, José Luis; Torres Lagares, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the use of amoxicillin (1g) vs amoxicillin and clavulanate (875/125mg) after extraction of retained third molars for prevention of infectious complications. Study Design: The study involved 546 patients attending for removal a retained third molar and divided in to two groups: Group 1 - amoxicillin and clavunate (875/125mg) group (n=257) and Group 2 - amoxicillin (1g) group (n=289). All patients were recalled for investigating the possibili...

  8. Effect of Bioenhancers on Amoxicillin bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    Barve, Kalyani; Ruparel, Kushal

    2015-01-01

    Amoxicillin, which inspite of being effective is losing its importance due to less bioavailability. Bioavailability could be enhanced by combining the antibiotics with bioenhancers like Piperine and Ginger resin. The present abstract deals with the use of piperine and ginger resin in increasing the bioavailability of amoxicillin using the insitu SPIP method. Piperine, isolated was found to be 99 % pure and ginger resin contained 4.36 % w/w of gingerol. The absorption of amoxicillin increased ...

  9. Bioavailability enhancement studies of amoxicillin with Nigella

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Babar; Amin, Saima; Ahmad, Javed; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohd; Showkat R Mir

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Nigella sativa Linn. is extensively used in the Indian diasporas as spice, which may interact with co-administered drugs and affect their intestinal availability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Nigella on bioavailability of amoxicillin in animal model. Methods: Everted rat intestinal sacs were used for in vitro experiment to study the transfer of amoxicillin across the gut. Amoxicillin (6 mg/ml) was co-infused with 3 and 6 mg of methanol an...

  10. Sustained Release of Amoxicillin from Ethyl Cellulose-Coated Amoxicillin/Chitosan–Cyclodextrin-Based Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Songsurang, Kultida; Pakdeebumrung, Jatuporn; Praphairaksit, Narong; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2010-01-01

    Sustained release mucoadhesive amoxicillin tablets with tolerance to acid degradation in the stomach were studied. The sustained-release tablets of amoxicillin were prepared from amoxicillin coated with ethyl cellulose (EC) and then formulated into tablets using chitosan (CS) or a mixture of CS and beta-cyclodextrin (CD) as the retard polymer. The effects of various (w/w) ratios of EC/amoxicillin, the particle sized of EC coated amoxicillin and the different (w/w) ratios of CS/CD for the reta...

  11. Once-Daily Amoxicillin for Pharyngitis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Megan; Condren, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    A once-daily antibiotic regimen for group A β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis (GABHS) could improve compliance and be effective in the prevention of rheumatic fever, a dangerous complication of untreated or poorly treated GABHS. Amoxicillin is ideal for once-daily dosing due to its low cost. Azithromycin, cefadroxil, ceftibuten, cefixime and extended release amoxicillin are also FDA approved to treat GABHS once daily; however, even when taken for short courses, these antibiotics are more ...

  12. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis in biofilms to amoxicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole......Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole...

  13. In Vivo Activities of Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Streptococcus pneumoniae: Application to Breakpoint Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Andes, D.; Craig, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    The in vivo activities of amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 17 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae with penicillin MICs of 0.12–8.0 mg/liter were assessed in a cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenic murine thigh infection model. Renal impairment was produced by administration of uranyl nitrate to prolong the amoxicillin half-life in the mice from 21 to 65 min, simulating human pharmacokinetics. Two hours after thigh infection with 105 to 106 CFU, groups of mice were treated with 7...

  14. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets. 520.88f Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88f Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 50,...

  15. 21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. 520.88c... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88c Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. (a) Specifications. Each 0.8-milliliter dose contains amoxicillin...

  16. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension. 522... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.88 Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension. (a)(1) Specifications. Each vial contains 3 grams of amoxicillin as the trihydrate. The powder is reconstituted with sterile water...

  17. Effect of Amoxicillin Use on Oral Microbiota in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ready, D.; Lancaster, H.; Qureshi, F.; Bedi, R.; Mullany, P; Wilson, M.

    2004-01-01

    Dental plaque samples from 40 children were screened for the presence of bacteria resistant to amoxicillin. Fifteen children had used amoxicillin and 25 had not used any antibiotic in the 3 months prior to sample collection. All (100%) of the children harbored amoxicillin-resistant oral bacteria. The median percentage of the total cultivable oral microbiota resistant to amoxicillin was 2.4% (range, 0.1 to 14.3%) in children without amoxicillin use and 10.9% (range, 0.8 to 97.3%) in children w...

  18. Comparative Bacteriological Efficacy of Pharmacokinetically Enhanced Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Streptococcus pneumoniae with Elevated Amoxicillin MICs and Haemophilus influenzae

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Valerie; Hoover, Jennifer; Singley, Christine; Woodnutt, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000 mg of amoxicillin/125 mg of clavulanate twice a day; ratio 16:1) has been designed, with sustained-release technology, to allow coverage of bacterial strains with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid MICs of at least 4/2 μg/ml. The bacteriological efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanate, 2,000/125 mg twice a day, ratio 16:1, was compared in a rat model of respiratory tract infection versus four other amoxicillin-clavulanate f...

  19. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharmaceuticals are new contaminants of concern in the aquatic environment, having been identified in groundwater, surface water, and residential tap water. Possible sources of pharmaceuticals include household wastewaters, runoff from feedlots, or waste discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. When surface water or groundwater supplies impacted by pharmaceuticals are used in drinking water production, the contaminants may reduce drinking water quality. Many pharmaceuticals, such as amoxicillin, pass through the body largely unmetabolized and directly enter wastewater collection systems. Pharmaceuticals are designed to persist in the body long enough to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, they may also have the ability to persist in the environment (Seiler et al, 1999). The purpose of this work is to determine the overall transformation potential of a candidate pharmaceutical in wastewater treatment with specific emphasis on recycle systems. Amoxicillin is the selected pharmaceutical agent, an orally absorbed broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of clinical uses including ear, nose, and throat infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Experiments were conducted using an anaerobic reactor (with NO3- and NO2- as the e- acceptors) followed by a two-phase nitrifying tubular reactor. Influent composed of water, urine and surfactant was spiked with amoxicillin and fed into the wastewater recycle system. The concentration of amoxicillin in the feed and effluent was quantified using an HPLC. Results from this study include potential for long-term buildup in recycled systems, accumulation of breakdown products and possible transfer of antibiotic resistance to microorganisms in the system effluent. In addition, the results of this study may provide information on contamination potential for communities that are considering supplementing drinking water supplies with recovered wastewater or for entities considering a closed loop wastewater

  20. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, A.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K. [Texas Tech Univ., Water Resources Center, Lubbock, Texas (United States); Pickering, K. [Johnson Space Center, NASA, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2002-06-15

    Pharmaceuticals are new contaminants of concern in the aquatic environment, having been identified in groundwater, surface water, and residential tap water. Possible sources of pharmaceuticals include household wastewaters, runoff from feedlots, or waste discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. When surface water or groundwater supplies impacted by pharmaceuticals are used in drinking water production, the contaminants may reduce drinking water quality. Many pharmaceuticals, such as amoxicillin, pass through the body largely unmetabolized and directly enter wastewater collection systems. Pharmaceuticals are designed to persist in the body long enough to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, they may also have the ability to persist in the environment (Seiler et al, 1999). The purpose of this work is to determine the overall transformation potential of a candidate pharmaceutical in wastewater treatment with specific emphasis on recycle systems. Amoxicillin is the selected pharmaceutical agent, an orally absorbed broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of clinical uses including ear, nose, and throat infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Experiments were conducted using an anaerobic reactor (with NO{sub 3}{sup -} and NO{sub 2}{sup -} as the e{sup -} acceptors) followed by a two-phase nitrifying tubular reactor. Influent composed of water, urine and surfactant was spiked with amoxicillin and fed into the wastewater recycle system. The concentration of amoxicillin in the feed and effluent was quantified using an HPLC. Results from this study include potential for long-term buildup in recycled systems, accumulation of breakdown products and possible transfer of antibiotic resistance to microorganisms in the system effluent. In addition, the results of this study may provide information on contamination potential for communities that are considering supplementing drinking water supplies with recovered wastewater or for entities

  1. Amoxicillin pulsatile - MiddleBrook: APC 111, APC-111, PULSYS-enhanced amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals (formerly Advancis Pharmaceutical) is developing an improved version of amoxicillin using its pulsatile oral drug delivery technology, called PULSYS. Amoxicillin PULSYS is intended to provide a lower treatment dose, once-daily alternative to currently approved amoxicillin and penicillin regimens for the treatment of adolescents/adults with pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis. If amoxicillin PULSYS is approved, it will be the first and only once-daily amoxicillin therapy approved for use in the US. Regulatory submissions for the treatment of pharyngitis/tonsillitis have been made in the US. Amoxicillin PULSYS is in clinical development for the treatment of pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis due to group A streptococcal infections in adolescents/adults as a tablet formulation. MiddleBrook was conducting clinical development of a sprinkle formulation for children. However, this has been put on hold for financial reasons. MiddleBrook is seeking regulatory approval for this product as a 505(b)(2) product, which is one that is not considered to be a completely new product, but is also not a generic product. It is a product with some differences from a previously approved product and clinical data to support such differences are required; however, the basic safety and efficacy studies may have been conducted by other organisations. In June 2007, Advancis Pharmaceutical was renamed as MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, Inc. MiddleBrook and Par Pharmaceuticals entered a co-promotion agreement for this product in June 2004. Par was to fund future development in exchange for co-exclusive marketing rights and exclusive rights to sell amoxicillin PULSYS. MiddleBrook retained responsibility for the manufacturing programme and also retained all patents and brand names and was responsible for their enforcement. However, this collaboration was subsequently terminated in August 2005 by Par Pharmaceutical. MiddleBrook received the US $4.75 million R&D reimbursement

  2. Research of Amoxicillin Microcapsules Preparation Playing Micro-Jetting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Huaiyuan; Gu, Qingqing; Liao, Yuehua; Sun, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    With polylactic-co-glycolic acid(PLGA) as shell material of microcapsule, amoxicillin as the model, poly(vinyl alcohol) and twain as surfactant, amoxicillin-PLGA microcapsules were manufactured using digital micro-jetting technology and a glass nozzle of 40μm diameter. The influences of the parameters of micro-jetting system on the mean grain size and size distribution of amoxicillin-PLGA microcapsules were studied with single factor analysis and orthogonal experiment method, namely, PLGA sol...

  3. 75 FR 76016 - Determination That AUGMENTIN `125' (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Chewable Tablet and Six...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That AUGMENTIN `125' (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Chewable Tablet and Six Other AUGMENTIN (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Drug Products Were... (amoxicillin; clavulanate potassium) drug products listed in this notice were not withdrawn from sale...

  4. 21 CFR 520.88 - Amoxicillin oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin oral dosage forms. 520.88 Section 520.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88 Amoxicillin...

  5. 21 CFR 526.88 - Amoxicillin trihydrate for intramammary infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of subclinical infectious bovine mastitis due to Streptococcus agalactiae and Straphylococcus aureus (penicillin sensitive). (3) Limitations. Administer after milking... amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 62.5 milligrams of amoxicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in §...

  6. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension. 520... Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 50 milligrams of amoxicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000069 in §...

  7. 21 CFR 520.88g - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium film-coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... milligrams of amoxicillin and 12.5 milligrams clavulanic acid, or 100 milligrams of amoxicillin and 25 milligrams clavulanic acid, or 200 milligrams amoxicillin and 50 milligrams clavulanic acid or 300 milligrams amoxicillin and 75 milligrams clavulanic acid. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000069 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  8. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates during continuous intravenous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boekholt, A; Fleuren, H; Mouton, J; Kramers, C; Sprong, T; Gerrits, P; Semmekrot, B

    2016-06-01

    Amoxicillin is commonly used for the treatment of neonatal bacterial infection with intermittent dosing (ID) regimens. However, increasing bacterial resistance, in addition to a lack of new antimicrobial agents, urges the optimization of current therapeutic options. Clinical studies in adults suggest continuous infusion (CI) regimens of beta-lactam antibiotics to be superior to ID. There are as yet no guidelines concerning the CI dosing of amoxicillin. The present study was developed to describe the CI pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of amoxicillin during the first 3 days of life in search of the optimal dosing regimen. Neonates with a gestational age above 34 weeks, at risk of neonatal infection and requiring amoxicillin therapy, were included. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin were measured during CI on days 1 and 3 in the steady state. Twenty-two serum samples of 11 patients were collected. All patients reached and retained serum concentrations of amoxicillin within the therapeutic range without exceeding the toxic concentration (serum concentrations on day 1 mean 55.4 mg/l, range 30.9-69.5, SD 10.5, and on day 3 48.8 mg/l, range 25.5-92.4, SD 18.4). There was no significant decrease in concentration from day 1 to day 3 (p = 0.38). This study showed therapeutic, nontoxic concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates on CI of amoxicillin in the first 3 days of life. Randomized controlled trials should reveal whether the clinical benefits of the CI of amoxicillin exceed those of ID regimens. PMID:27039340

  9. IR, Raman, SERS and DFT study of amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebu, Andreea; Szabó, László; Leopold, Nicolae; Berindean, Cătălin; David, Leontin

    2011-05-01

    In this work a joint experimental and theoretical study on amoxicillin is reported. The molecular vibrations of amoxicillin were investigated by FTIR, FT-Raman and SERS spectroscopies. In parallel, quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were used to determine the geometrical, energetic and vibrational characteristics of the molecule with particular emphasis put on the interaction and adsorption geometry of the molecule to the silver colloidal surface. The SERS spectrum of amoxicillin was recorded using a 532 nm laser line and hydroxylamine reduced silver colloid as SERS substrate. FTIR, FT-Raman and SERS spectra of amoxicillin were assigned based on DFT calculations with the hybrid B3LYP exchange-correlation functional, coupled with the standard 6-31G(d) basis set. The calculated molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was used in conjunction with SERS data to predict the adsorption geometry of the molecule on the silver surface.

  10. Response of Streptococcus pyogenes to therapy with amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in a mouse model of mixed infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, R J; Beale, A S

    1987-01-01

    The response of Streptococcus pyogenes to amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Augmentin; Beecham Group) therapy of a mixed streptococcal-staphylococcal infection was studied in a surgical wound in mice. A superficial wound was produced on the backs of anesthetized mice, and a suture infected with S. pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, or a mixed inoculum of both organisms was inserted. Oral therapy was started 4 h after infection and continued for 3 days. Both amoxicillin and amoxicillin...

  11. ESTIMATION OF AMOXICILLIN RESIDUES IN COMMERCIAL MEAT AND MILK SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Ainee Irum; Huma Saeed; Shafaqat Ali; Mujahid Farid; Rushda Parveen; Uzma Maqbool; Rehan Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the extent of ß - lactam antibiotic, amoxicillin residues in market milk and meat. Samples were randomly collected from Faisalabad city, Pakistan. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method with inflorescent detector was used to detect, identify and quantify the amoxicillin residues in milk and meat samples. The milk samples were purified by performing a protein precipitation step, followed by derivatization. To clean up tissue samples, a ...

  12. Treatment of Cervical Chlamydial Infection With Amoxicillin/Clavulanate Potassium

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Melinda S.; Sebastian Faro; Maccato, Maurizio L.; Kaufman, Raymond H.

    1993-01-01

    Objective: To determine if amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium is effective in the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervicitis. Methods: Thirty-two patients with culture-proven endocervical infection were treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium, 500 mg orally 3 times a day for 10 days. Post-treatment endocervical specimens were obtained at 2, 4, and 6 weeks for culture of C. trachomatis. Male partners were treated with doxycycline, 100 mg orally twice daily for 10 days. The couples...

  13. Human pharmacokinetics and disposition of sarmoxicillin, a lipophilic amoxicillin prodrug.

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, R D; Pfeffer, M; Van Harken, D R; Cohen, A.; Hottendorf, G H

    1981-01-01

    Sarmoxicillin, an amoxicillin prodrug, is the methoxymethyl ester of hetamoxicillin. Esterification converted amoxicillin from an amphoteric to a cationic compound and resulted in a 30- to 600-fold increase in lipid partitioning. Oral absorption studies in normal subjects demonstrated that sarmoxicillin was only partially hydrolyzed by nonenzymatic and gut or hepatic first-pass metabolism and that significant quantities of intact ester appeared in the systemic circulation. Sarmoxicillin was c...

  14. Is the standard dose of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid sufficient?

    OpenAIRE

    Haeseker, Michiel; Havenith, Thomas; Stolk, Leo; Neef, Cees; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Verbon, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Background The pharmacodynamic (PD) efficacy target of amoxicillin is 40% time above the minimal inhibition concentration (40%T > MIC). Recent studies of other antibiotics have shown that PD-efficacy targets are not always reached. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage of hospitalised patients, using amoxicillin/clavulanic acid intravenously (iv), that reach the pharmacodynamic efficacy target 40%T > MIC. Additionally, the association of demographic anthropomorphic and clinical...

  15. Formulation of controlled release gellan gum macro beads of amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, R Jayachandra; Sathigari, Sateesh; Kumar, M Thilek; Pandit, J K

    2010-01-01

    Gellan gum has been reported to have wide pharmaceutical applications such as tablet binder, disintegrant, gelling agent and as a controlled release polymer. Multiparticulate delivery systems spread out more uniformly in the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the local irritation. The purpose of this study is to explore possible applicability of gellan macro beads as an oral controlled release system of a sparingly soluble drug, amoxicillin. Gellan gum beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation with calcium ions. The effect of drug loading, stirring time, polymer concentration, electrolyte (CaCl2) concentration, curing time etc. influencing the preparation of the gellan gum macro beads and the drug release from gellan gum beads were investigated in this study. Optimal preparation conditions allowed very high incorporation efficiency for amoxicillin (91%) The release kinetics of amoxicillin from gellan beads followed the diffusion model for an inert porous matrix in the order: 0.1 N HCl > phosphate buffer > distilled water. Change in curing time did not significantly affect the release rate constant, but drug concentration, polymer concentration and electrolyte concentration significantly affect the release rate of amoxicillin from the beads. The gellan macro beads may be suitable for gastro retentive controlled delivery of amoxicillin. PMID:19863487

  16. Stability of amoxicillin in portable pumps is drug concentration dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlicot, N; Marie, A; Cade, C; Laffon, M; Antier, D

    2011-08-01

    Continuous amoxicillin infusion for deep infection's intravenous treatment is performed using elastomeric portable pumps carried under clothing and requires high doses of antibiotic. Therefore, we evaluated the stability of amoxicillin in those medical devices, with particular focus on both drug concentration and storage temperature. Stability of 20, 40, and 60g/L amoxicillin solutions in 300 mL portable pumps stored at 20 or 35 degrees C was studied by visual examination and drug concentration measurements at T0; T0 + 12 h; T0 + 24 h and; T0 + 48 h. Twenty and 40 g/L amoxicillin solutions were stable over 48 h, with a degradation rate that never exceeded 12% at T0 + 24 h, and 18% at T 0 + 48 h. However, the 60 g/L amoxicillin solution degradation rate was significant (p pump is guarantied over 48 h up to concentrations of 40 g/L. At 60 g/L major degradation of the antibiotic was observed. PMID:21901990

  17. ESTIMATION OF AMOXICILLIN RESIDUES IN COMMERCIAL MEAT AND MILK SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainee Irum

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the extent of ß - lactam antibiotic, amoxicillin residues in market milk and meat. Samples were randomly collected from Faisalabad city, Pakistan. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method with inflorescent detector was used to detect, identify and quantify the amoxicillin residues in milk and meat samples. The milk samples were purified by performing a protein precipitation step, followed by derivatization. To clean up tissue samples, a liquid extraction, followed by a solid-phase extraction procedure C18 (4.0X4.6mm, 5μm was performed. A 50% meat and 90% milk samples were found contaminated with residues. The residues of amoxicillin in milk were in range of 28 to 46μg/kg and in meat were 9 to 84μg/kg. All of the contaminated milk and 40 out of 50% meat samples fall in maximum residue limits.

  18. In vitro activity of amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cynamon, M H; Palmer, G S

    1983-01-01

    The comparative in vitro activity of amoxicillin alone and in combination with clavulanic acid against 15 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated by broth dilution susceptibility testing. Amoxicillin inhibited 4 of 15 isolates at 8 micrograms/ml or less but was not bactericidal against any of the isolates at that concentration. Amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid was bactericidal for 14 of 15 isolates tested at an amoxicillin concentration of 4 micrograms/ml or less a...

  19. Distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in infected animals and efficacy against experimental infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, R J; Beale, A S; Comber, K. R.; Pierce, C V; Sutherland, R.

    1982-01-01

    The therapeutic effects produced by formulations of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (BRL 25 000A and BRL 25 000G) were compared with those of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid separately against a variety of infections produced by amoxicillin-susceptible and beta-lactamase-producing (amoxicillin-resistant) bacteria. The infection models studied included intraperitoneal infections, a mouse pneumonia, experimental pyelonephritis, and local lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacteroides ...

  20. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets. 520.88a Section 520.88a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains amoxicillin...

  1. 21 CFR 520.88h - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of amoxicillin with clavulanate potassium equivalent to 12.5 milligrams of clavulanic acid. (b... milligrams (equivalent to 5 milligrams amoxicillin and 1.25 milligrams clavulanic acid) per pound of body....5 milligrams (1 milliliter) (50 milligrams of amoxicillin and 12.5 milligrams clavulanic acid)...

  2. Pharmakokinetik und Pharmakodynamik der kombinierten Anwendung von Amoxicillin und Omeprazol

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khasch, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: Omeprazole (Ome) with amoxicillin (Amox) has been used to treat Helicobacter pylori infection. It was speculated that omeprazole induced hypoacidity enhances the antibacterial activity of Amox. Limited information exists about intragatric pH and bioavailability of Amox during combination therapy. No data are available about possible effects of the antibiotic on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Ome. This study investigated the...

  3. Enhancement of Amoxicillin Resistance after Unsuccessful Helicobacter pylori Eradication▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Muraoka, Hiroe; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Hirata, Kenro; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    A high rate of resistance (49.5 to 72.7%) to amoxicillin (AMX) was observed in Helicobacter pylori after two or three unsuccessful eradication attempts. Unsuccessful eradication regimens significantly increase resistance to not only clarithromycin (CLR) and metronidazole (MNZ) but also AMX.

  4. Interchangeability of two 500 mg amoxicillin capsules with one 1000 mg amoxicillin tablet after a single oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate if two capsules (Amoxil® capsules, 500 mg/capsule and one tablet (Amoxicare® tablets, 1000 mg/tablet of amoxicillin have similar bioequivalence parameters. For this purpose a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy, male volunteers, divided into two groups of 12 subjects each. One group was treated with the reference standard (Amoxil® and the other one with the generic tablet Amoxicare® , with a crossover after a wash-out period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals and amoxicillin was determined by a validated HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC 0-8 , AUC 0-͵, C max , T max , K e and T 1/2 were determined for both formulations and statistically compared to evaluate the bioequivalence between the two brands of amoxicillin, using the statistical model recommended by the FDA. C max and AUC 0-͵ were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA; no statistically significant difference was observed between the two formulations. The 90% confidence intervals between the mean values of C max and AUC 0-͵ fall within the FDA specified bioequivalent limits (80-125% suggesting that the two products are bioequivalent and the two formulations are interchangeable. Based on these findings it was concluded that the practice of interchangeability between the above formulations to achieve better patient compliance could be followed without compromising the extent of amoxicillin absorption.

  5. Sweet Syndrome Associated with Upper Respiratory Infection and Amoxicillin Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is an uncommon dermatologic eruption characterized by acute onset of painful papules, plaques or nodules on the skin that are red, blue, or violaceous in color. It has been associated with various infections, medications, and malignancies. Here we report the case of a middle-aged male who presents with Sweet syndrome after an upper resipiratory infection and while using amoxicillin. We also review the diagnostic criteria, laboratory testing, and treatment options. PMID:27186450

  6. Neodymium(III) complexing with ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalexin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of Nd3+ ions with ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalexin anions (L) in aqueous solution at 20 deg C and ionic strength of 0.1 (KNO3) was studied by pH titration. The NdL and Nd(OH)L complexes are formed in a weak alkaline solution. The distribution curves of neodymium(III) complex species depending on pH were constructed. The formation constants of the complexes were determined

  7. Research of amoxicillin microcapsules preparation playing micro-jetting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huaiyuan; Gu, Qingqing; Liao, Yuehua; Sun, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    With polylactic-co-glycolic acid(PLGA) as shell material of microcapsule, amoxicillin as the model, poly(vinyl alcohol) and twain as surfactant, amoxicillin-PLGA microcapsules were manufactured using digital micro-jetting technology and a glass nozzle of 40μm diameter. The influences of the parameters of micro-jetting system on the mean grain size and size distribution of amoxicillin-PLGA microcapsules were studied with single factor analysis and orthogonal experiment method, namely, PLGA solution concentration, driving voltage, jetting frequency, stirrer speed, etc. The optimal result was obtained; the form representation of microcapsule was analyzed as well. The results show that, under certain conditions of experimental drug prescription, driving voltage was proportional to the particle size; jetting frequency and stirrer speed were inversely proportional. When the PLGA concentration for 3%, driving voltage for 80V, the jetting frequency for 10000Hz and the stirrer speed for 750rpm, the particles were in an ideal state with the mean grain size of 60.246μm, the encapsulation efficiency reached 62.39% and 2.1% for drug loading. PMID:25937851

  8. Acute cholestatic hepatitis caused by amoxicillin/clavulanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, Daniel Oliveira; Melo, Joanderson Fernandes; Bonfim, Alexandre Vidal; Teixeira, Andrei Alkmim; Teixeira, Ricardo Alkmim; Duarte, André Loyola

    2013-12-14

    Amoxicillin/clavulanate is a synthetic penicillin that is currently commonly used, especially for the treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In general, it is a well-tolerated oral antibiotic. However, amoxicillin/clavulanate can cause adverse effects, mainly cutaneous, gastrointestinal, hepatic and hematologic, in some cases. Presented here is a case report of a 63-year-old male patient who developed cholestatic hepatitis after recent use of amoxicillin/clavulanate. After 6 wk of prolonged use of the drug, he began to show signs of cholestatic icterus and developed severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin > 300 mg/L). Diagnostic investigation was conducted by ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, serum tests for infection history, laboratory screening of autoimmune diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the abdomen with bile duct-NMR and transcutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound. The duration of disease was approximately 4 mo, with complete resolution of symptoms and laboratory changes at the end of that time period. Specific treatment was not instituted, only a combination of anti-emetic (metoclopramide) and cholestyramine for pruritus. PMID:24379601

  9. Effects of amoxicillin-clavulanate combination on the motility of the small intestine in human beings.

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, F.; Ducrotte, P; Lerebours, E.; Colin, R; Humbert, G; Denis, P

    1991-01-01

    The amoxicillin-clavulanate combination (Augmentin) frequently induces gastric complaints and diarrhea by an unknown mechanism. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two orally therapeutic regimens of amoxicillin-clavulanate on small bowel motility in human beings. Duodeno-jejunal manometric recordings were performed in six healthy subjects treated in a cross-over double-blind study with placebo; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 1 g plus 250 mg per os every 12 h for 3 days; or amoxicilli...

  10. A case of amoxicillin-induced hepatocellular liver injury with bile-duct damage

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ju Seung; Jang, Young Rock; Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Jin Yong; Jung, Young Kul; Chung, Dong Hae; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Yun Soo; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Amoxicillin, an antibiotic that is widely prescribed for various infections, is associated with a very low rate of drug-induced liver injury; hepatitis and cholestasis are rare complications. Here we present a case of a 39-year-old woman who was diagnosed with abdominal actinomycosis and received amoxicillin treatment. The patient displayed hepatocellular and bile-duct injury, in addition to elevated levels of liver enzymes. The patient was diagnosed with amoxicillin-induced cholestatic hepat...

  11. Comparative study of cephradine and amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of recurrent urinary tract infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Brumfitt, W; Hamilton-Miller, J M

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-eight female patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections were treated according to a randomization scheme with either 1 g of cephradine every 12 h (47 patients) or 375 mg of amoxicillin-clavulanate every 8 h (41 patients) for 7 days. The treatments were equally effective (cure rates of 89% for cephradine and 88% for amoxicillin-clavulanate) and showed similar relapse rates (cephradine, 14%; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 11%). Adverse effects were similar in both groups (ce...

  12. EVALUATION OF CONTENT AND DISSOLUTION PROFILE OF GENERIC AMOXICILLIN TABLETS MARKETED IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nyi Mekar Saptarini; Rusniyanti

    2012-01-01

    Amoxicillin is the penicillin derivatives and used to treat bacterial infection that caused by Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria. Generic amoxicillin tablets in Indonesia produced by government and private. The aims this study were to compare the content and dissolution profiles of generic amoxicillin tablets marketed in Indonesia which produced by government and private was determined using a method from the United Stated Pharmacopoeia. The result showed that there was no significant ...

  13. Pharmacokinetics of potassium clavulanate in combination with amoxicillin in pediatric patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, J.D.; Kusmiesz, H; Shelton, S

    1982-01-01

    Two dosages of a liquid suspension formulation of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate were tested in 34 infants and children. The smaller dosage resulted in suboptimal plasma concentrations. With a greater dosage (3.3 mg of clavulanate per kg and 13.3 mg of amoxicillin per kg), the mean peak plasma concentrations were 1.6 micrograms clavulanic acid per ml and 4.9 micrograms amoxicillin per ml.

  14. Quantitation of Amoxicillin in Urine by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Application to Five Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Elise Champeil

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this paper, we propose a procedure for the analysis and quantification of amoxicillin in urine with minimum pre-treatment of the samples using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Five clinical samples were analyzed and amoxicillin was detected and quantified in each case. Material and Method: Samples of urine from amoxicillin users were collected in accordance with an IRB-approved protocol. Donors were asked to record the day of urine collection, the length of treatment and...

  15. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS DISINTEGRANTS ON AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE DISPERSIBLE TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaprakash S; Mathew Ebin P Sovichan; Lalith cherian; Rani S; R Praveen Raj

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a formulation of amoxicillin trihydrate dispersible tablets of 320mg in a low production value, using cheap amoxicillin trihydrate raw materials available in the market, with direct compression or wet granulation method. Amoxicillin trihydrate is a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analogue of ampicillin with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against gram +ve and gram –ve organism. Dispersible tablets are uncoated or film coated tablets intended to...

  16. Interchangeability of two 500 mg amoxicillin capsules with one 1000 mg amoxicillin tablet after a single oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, A N; Cortesi, R; Kort, J; Sweileh, W

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if two capsules (Amoxil(®) capsules, 500 mg/capsule) and one tablet (Amoxicare(®) tablets, 1000 mg/tablet) of amoxicillin have similar bioequivalence parameters. For this purpose a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy, male volunteers, divided into two groups of 12 subjects each. One group was treated with the reference standard (Amoxil(®)) and the other one with the generic tablet Amoxicare(®), with a crossover after a wash-out period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals and amoxicillin was determined by a validated HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-8), AUC(0-∞), C(max), T(max), K(e) and T(1/2) were determined for both formulations and statistically compared to evaluate the bioequivalence between the two brands of amoxicillin, using the statistical model recommended by the FDA. C(max) and AUC(0-∞) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA); no statistically significant difference was observed between the two formulations. The 90% confidence intervals between the mean values of C(max) and AUC(0-∞) fall within the FDA specified bioequivalent limits (80-125%) suggesting that the two products are bioequivalent and the two formulations are interchangeable. Based on these findings it was concluded that the practice of interchangeability between the above formulations to achieve better patient compliance could be followed without compromising the extent of amoxicillin absorption. PMID:21218049

  17. Functional changes of dendritic cells in hypersensivity reactions to amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.F. Lima

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of dendritic cell (DC involvement in responses to haptenic drugs is needed, because it represents a possible approach to the development of an in vitro test, which could identify patients prone to drug allergies. There are two main DC subsets: plasmacytoid DC (pDC and myeloid DC (mDC. β-lactams form hapten-carrier conjugates and may provide a suitable model to study DC behavior in drug allergy reactions. It has been demonstrated that drugs interact differently with DC in drug allergic and non-allergic patients, but there are no studies regarding these subsets. Our aim was to assess the functional changes of mDC and pDC harvested from an amoxicillin-hypersensitive 32-year-old woman who experienced a severe maculopapular exanthema as reflected in interleukin-6 (IL-6 production after stimulation with this drug and penicillin. We also aim to demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of this method for dendritic cell isolation followed by in vitro stimulation for studies of drug allergy physiopathology. DC were harvested using a double Percoll density gradient, which generates a basophil-depleted cell (BDC suspension. Further, pDC were isolated by blood DC antigen 4-positive magnetic selection and gravity filtration through magnetized columns. After stimulation with amoxicillin, penicillin and positive and negative controls, IL-6 production was measured by ELISA. A positive dose-response curve for IL-6 after stimulation with amoxicillin and penicillin was observed for pDC, but not for mDC or BDC suspension. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of this methodology to expand the knowledge of the effect of dendritic cell activation by drug allergens.

  18. Preparation and Physicochemical Characterization of Amoxicillin β-cyclodextrin Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Bisson-Boutelliez, Catherine; Fontanay, Stephane; Finance, Chantal; Kedzierewicz, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Amoxicillin (AMOX), a penicillin A, belongs to the β-lactam family It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better absorbed, following oral administration, than other β-lactam antibiotics. Its β-lactamase degradation might be prevented by using a molecular [AMOX:β-CD] complex. The aim of this work was to prepare complexes using two methods and then characterize interactions between AMOX and the native β-CD. The extent of complexation in solution has been evaluated by hi...

  19. Synergistic effects between amoxicillin, metronidazole, and the hydroxymetabolite of metronidazole against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    OpenAIRE

    Pavicić, M J; van Winkelhoff, A J; de Graaff, J

    1991-01-01

    Interactions between metronidazole and amoxicillin, metronidazole and its hydroxymetabolite, and amoxicillin and the hydroxymetabolite of metronidazole were investigated with checkerboard titrations in combination with accurately determined MICs and MBCs. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was used as the test organism. Synergism was found for all three combinations. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices and fractional bactericidal concentration indices varied from 0.3 to 0.7. These s...

  20. Pulsatile Delivery of Clarithromycin Alone or in Combination with Amoxicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Leuthner, Kimberly D.; Cheung, Chrissy M.; Rybak, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated pulsatile dosing of clarithromycin and amoxicillin alone or combined against Streptococcus pneumoniae with various susceptibilities. When combined, pulsatile amoxicillin with clarithromycin was superior to either 8- or 12-h dosing against the intermediate strain and was identical for the susceptible strain. Pulse dosing of antimicrobials warrants further investigation.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of amoxicillin in healthy and Salmonella Typhimurium-inoculated pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerso, H.; Friis, C.; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    pigs and from 0.22 to 0.36 in inoculated pigs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Salmonella Typhimurium inoculation altered absorption of amoxicillin from the injection sire and prolonged elimination half-life. However, distribution of amoxicillin to intestinal tract tissue was only affected to a...

  2. Interactions between Microcystis aeruginosa and coexisting amoxicillin contaminant at different phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Shi; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Baoyu

    2015-10-30

    Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured with 0.05-5 mg L(-1) of phosphorus and exposed to 200-500 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin for seven days. Amoxicillin presented no significant effect (p>0.05) on the growth of M. aeruginosa at phosphorus levels of 0.05 and 0.2 mg L(-1), but stimulated algal growth as a hormesis effect at phosphorus levels of 1 and 5 mg L(-1). Phosphorus and amoxicillin affected the contents of chlorophyll-a, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and malondialdehyde, the expression of psbA and rbcL, as well as the activities of adenosinetriphosphatase and glutathione S-transferase in similar manners, but regulated the production and release of microcystins and the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in different ways. Increased photosynthesis activity was related with the ATP consumption for the stress response to amoxicillin, and the stress response was enhanced as the phosphorus concentration increased. The biodegradation of amoxicillin by M. aeruginosa increased from 11.5% to 28.2% as the phosphorus concentration increased. Coexisting amoxicillin aggravated M. aeruginosa pollution by increasing cell density and concentration of microcystins, while M. aeruginosa alleviated amoxicillin pollution via biodegradation. The interactions between M. aeruginosa and amoxicillin were significantly regulated by phosphorus (p<0.05) and led to a complicated situation of combined pollution. PMID:25956638

  3. Contribution of Specific Amino Acid Changes in Penicillin Binding Protein 1 to Amoxicillin Resistance in Clinical Helicobacter pylori isolates ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Nadia N.; Morikis, Dimitrios; Schiller, Neal L.

    2010-01-01

    Amoxicillin is commonly used to treat Helicobacter pylori, a major cause of peptic ulcers, stomach cancer, and B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Amoxicillin resistance in H. pylori is increasing steadily, especially in developing countries, leading to treatment failures. In this study, we characterize the mechanism of amoxicillin resistance in the U.S. clinical isolate B258. Transformation of amoxicillin-susceptible strain 26695 with the penicillin binding protein 1 gene (pbp...

  4. Transfer and distribution of amoxicillin in the rat gastric mucosa and gastric juice and the effects of rabeprazole

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hai-lun; Hu, Yong-mei; Bao, Jun-jun; Xu, Jian-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the distribution of amoxicillin in the gastric juice and gastric mucosa of rats and to investigate the effects of proton pump inhibitor rabeprazole on amoxicillin concentrations in various compartments. Methods: One hundred and sixty anesthetized rats were divided into five groups, and given intravenously different doses of amoxicillin or amoxicillin and rabeprazole. The pH value and volume of gastric juice was aspirated were measured and separated gastric mucosa was homog...

  5. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in treatment of urinary tract infection due to gram-negative bacteria resistant to penicillin.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinelli, R; A.A. Lopes; Oliveira, M.M.; Rocha, H

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-two adult patients with urinary tract infections caused by penicillin-resistant bacteria completed treatment with amoxicillin alone or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid in a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Of the 13 patients treated with amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, the absence of bacteriuria within 7 days of therapy was observed in 85%, as compared with only 25% of the 8 patients receiving amoxicillin only. There were no significant side effects nor any clinical, biochemic...

  6. Proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin-clarithromycin versus proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin-metronidazole as first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of the first-line Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication regimen composed of proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, with those of a regimen composed of proton pump inhibitor, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. Data of patients, who were administered the first-line H. pylori eradication regimen at Tokyo Medical Center between 2008 and 2011, were reviewed. All patients had H. pylori gastritis without peptic ul...

  7. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of amoxicillin in healthy and Salmonella Typhimurium-inoculated pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerso, H.; Friis, C.; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Objective--To determine pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of amoxicillin in healthy and Salmonella Typhimurium-inoculated pigs. Animals--12 healthy pigs and 12 S Typhimurium-inoculated pigs. Procedure-Concentration of amoxicillin in tissue was measured by use of high-performance liquid...... chromatography 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after IM administration. Pharmacokinetic values of amoxicillin in plasma were assessed by use of a l-compartment model with first-order absorption. Results--Inoculation caused diarrhea and increased rectal temperature and WBC count. Absorption half-life was shorter in...... pigs and from 0.22 to 0.36 in inoculated pigs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Salmonella Typhimurium inoculation altered absorption of amoxicillin from the injection sire and prolonged elimination half-life. However, distribution of amoxicillin to intestinal tract tissue was only affected to a...

  8. False-Positive Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Results In Vivo during Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mattei, Daniele; Rapezzi, Davide; Mordini, Nicola; Cuda, Federica; Lo Nigro, Cristiana; Musso, Maura; Arnelli, Aldo; Cagnassi, Sebastiano; Gallamini, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Positive Platelia Aspergillus test results were observed in consecutive serum samples from an immunocompromised host during amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment, and a correlation between plasmatic amoxicillin concentration and galactomannan optical density index was observed. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid vials tested positive for galactomannan but were negative for Aspergillus DNA.

  9. Effect of amoxicillin-clavulanate and cephradine on the fecal flora of healthy volunteers not exposed to a hospital environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Brumfitt, W; Franklin, I; Grady, D.; Hamilton-Miller, J M

    1986-01-01

    A 7-day course of either cephradine or amoxicillin-clavulanate treatment caused no significant change in fecal flora composition, except that staphylococci were virtually eliminated in both groups. Some amoxicillin-resistant coliforms were isolated after treatment in both groups, but cephradine- or amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant coliforms were rarely isolated.

  10. Interchangeability of Two 500 Mg Amoxicillin Capsules with One 1000 Mg Amoxicillin Tablet After a Single Oral Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Zaid A; Cortesi R; Kort J; Sweileh W

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if two capsules (Amoxil® capsules, 500 mg/capsule) and one tablet (Amoxicare® tablets, 1000 mg/tablet) of amoxicillin have similar bioequivalence parameters. For this purpose a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy, male volunteers, divided into two groups of 12 subjects each. One group was treated with the reference standard (Amoxil® ) and the other one with the generic tablet Amoxicare® , wit...

  11. Amoxicillin induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimin B. Patel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Each year many patients are hospitalized due to adverse drug reactions. Adverse reactions are the recognized hazards of drug therapy and they can occur with any class of drugs and many studies revealed that the incidence is more in case of antibiotics. Amoxicillin is a broad spectrum, bactericidal, beta lactam antibiotic, commonly used to combat various infections. Penicillin group of drugs are known to cause cutaneous drug eruptions especially in pediatric population. Most of the time, these eruptions are mild in nature, however, sometimes they represent the early manifestation of rare, severe drug-induced cutaneous reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN is a rare, life threatening dermatological disorder that is usually induced by medications. Seventy percent of the cases of TEN are drug induced, most commonly implicated drugs being anticonvulsants, antibiotics and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS. Here, we report a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by amoxicillin in a 16 year old female patient. Rigorous treatment with systemic corticosteroids and immunoglobulins helped in recovery of the patient. The case is being reported to emphasize the need for efficient pharmacovigilance in order to motivate adverse drug reaction reporting so as to gather more and more data regarding adverse drug reactions. Through this report, we also seek the support of everyone concerned to detect and, if possible, prevent adverse reactions to drugs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 1011-1014

  12. Differential effect of impaired renal function on the kinetics of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin.

    OpenAIRE

    Horber, F. F.; Frey, F J; Descoeudres, C; Murray, A T; Reubi, F C

    1986-01-01

    Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid are prescribed as a fixed drug combination. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of various degrees of renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], less than 5 to greater than 75 ml/min per 1.73 m2) on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid following oral (500 and 125 mg of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, respectively) and intravenous (1,000 and 200 mg, respectively) dosing. The volume of distribution and the ...

  13. Amoxicillin Oxidative Degradation Synthesized by Nano Zero Valent Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Yazdanbakhsh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most important groups of pharmaceuticals that benefits humans and animals. However, antibiotics excertion in wastewaters and environment have emerged as a serious risk to the biotic environment, and their toxic effects can harm the organisms. Iron-based metallic nanoparticles have received special attention in regard with remediation of groundwater contaminants. In the typical nZVI-based bimetallic particle system, Fe acts as the reducing agent. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the synthesis and characteristics of nZVI in regard with degrading AMX. Methods: In this study, nZVI nanoparticles were synthesized using the liquid-phase reduction method by EDTA as a stabilizer material. Structure and properties of nanoparticles were characterized by BET, SEM, XRD and EDX analysis. A multi-variate analysis was applied using a response surface methodology (RSM in order to develop a quadratic model as a functional relationship between AMX removal efficiency and independent variables ( initial pH values, dosage of nZVI, contact time and amoxicillin concentration. The four independent variables of solution pH (2–10, AMX concentration (5-45mg/l, contact time (5-85 min and nanoparticles dose (0.25 – 1.25 g were transformed to the coded values. Results: The study results demonstrated that more than 69 % of AMX was removed by nZVI. The optimal AMX removal conditions using nZVI were found as 1.25 g of nZVI, pH 4, contact time of 80 min and concentration of 30 mg/l. Conclusions: The ability of nZVI in degradation of AMX revealed that these materials can serve as a potential nano material with respect to the environmental remediation.

  14. Poly(Propylene Imine Dendrimers and Amoxicillin as Dual-Action Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wrońska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with poly(propylene imine (PPI dendrimers, or derivatives thereof, in which 100% of the available hydrogen atoms are substituted with maltose (PPI 100%malG3. The concentrations of dendrimers used remained in the range non-toxic to eukaryotic cells. The results indicate that PPI dendrimers significantly enhance the antibacterial effect of amoxicillin alone, allowing antibiotic doses to be reduced. It is important to reduce doses of amoxicillin because its widespread use in medicine could lead to the development of bacterial resistance and environmental pollution. This is the first report on the combined antibacterial activity of PPI surface-modified maltose dendrimers and amoxicillin.

  15. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE AND BROMHEXINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN ORAL SOLID DOSAGE FORMS BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhoka Madhura Vishal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Two accurate, precise, rapid and economical methods were developed and validated for the estimation of Amoxicillin Trihydrate and Bromhexine Hydrochloride in Bulk and combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form. First method is First order Derivative method, wherein wavelengths selected for quantitation were 283 nm, for Amoxicillin Trihydrate and 218.6 nm, for Bromhexine Hydrochloride. Second method is area under curve method wherein two wavelength ranges chosen were 271-274nm and 244-248nm for Amoxicillin trihydrate and Bromhexine hydrochloride respectively. In both of the methods linearity for detector response was observed in the concentration range of 100-300μg/ml for Amoxicillin Trihydrate and 2-10μg/ml for Bromhexine Hydrochloride. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in capsule dosage form. The results of the analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  16. Rabeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: Report of an efficacy study

    OpenAIRE

    Onyekwere, Charles Asabamaka; Odiagah, Joan Nwabuaku; Igetei, Rufina; Duro Emanuel, Amancia Olufunmilayo; Ekere, Francis; Smith, Stella

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of a standard triple therapy (comprising rabeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, noting factors that influence the outcome and documenting any adverse events.

  17. Immediate and non-immediate allergic reactions to amoxicillin present a diagnostic dilemma: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Weisser, Caroline; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergic reactions to amoxicillin are very common occurrences in the pediatric age group; however, onset of symptoms can present a diagnostic dilemma. Case presentation We present a case series that describes three children (8-year-old white girl, 2-year-old white boy and 14-month-old Chinese boy) who presented with varied onset of allergic reactions to amoxicillin, specifically immediate (within the first hour after exposure) and non-immediate onset. One child developed immediate ...

  18. Susceptibilities of Eikenella corrodens, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens Clinical Isolates to Amoxicillin and Tetracycline

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, N.; Tsai, J.; Chen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The AB Biodisk Etest showed that 106 (100%) and 98 (92%) isolates of Eikenella corrodens were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Twenty-three (68%) Prevotella intermedia isolates and 14 (67%) Prevotella nigrescens isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin. Seventy-nine percent of the P. intermedia isolates and 67% of the P. nigrescens isolates were susceptible to tetracycline. A higher percentage of β-lactamase-producing isolates of P. intermedia and P. nigrescens were ...

  19. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid administered alone and in combination.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Adam; Visser, I.; Koeppe, P

    1982-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, administered alone and in combination, were studied in six male and six female normal human volunteers. Each ingested 500 mg of amoxicillin or 125 mg of clavulanic acid or the above agents in combination in randomized sequences. The results indicate that most of the parameters tested for either substance are essentially independent of the presence of the other one.

  20. Comparative clinical efficacy of single oral doses of cefuroxime axetil and amoxicillin in uncomplicated gonococcal infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, I W; Linton, W; Simbul, M; Hinton, N A

    1986-01-01

    Cefuroxime axetil (1.5 g) was compared with amoxicillin (3 g), both given as a single oral dose combined with probenecid (1 g) for the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Of 60 evaluable patients receiving amoxicillin, 55 (91.7%) were cured, whereas 55 (96.5%) of the 57 patients receiving cefuroxime axetil were cured (P greater than 0.1). Both drugs were well tolerated.

  1. Resistance Mechanisms in an In Vitro-Selected Amoxicillin-Resistant Strain of Helicobacter pylori▿

    OpenAIRE

    Co, Edgie-Mark A.; Schiller, Neal L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the β-lactam resistance mechanism(s) of an in vitro-selected amoxicillin-resistant Helicobacter pylori strain (AmoxR). Our results demonstrated that resistance is due to a combination of amino acid substitutions in penicillin binding protein 1 (PBP1), HopB, and HopC identified in AmoxR, resulting in decreased affinity of PBP1 for amoxicillin and decreased accumulation of penicillin.

  2. IR spectroscopic investigations of amoxicillin trihydrate, included in the technological models sirup granules in ethylcellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasheva, L. M.; Kalinkova, G.; Minkov, E.; Krestev, V.

    1984-03-01

    Employing IR spectroscopy some technological models of amoxicillin trihydrate, included in ethyl-, methyl-, carboxymethyl- and methylhydroxyethyl-cellulose have been studied. Interactions were established only between amoxicillin trihydrate and ethylcellulose. The IR absorption spectra suggest a H-bonded antibiotic with hydroxyl groups in the ethylcellulose molecule. The IR spectral differences observed are not due to polymorphic transformation; this was proved by X-ray powder diffraction.

  3. Activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae of amoxicillin and cefotaxime at physiological concentrations: in vitro pharmacodynamic simulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Balcabao, I P; Aguilar, L.; Martín, M; García, Y.; Dal-Ré, R; Prieto, J.

    1996-01-01

    An in vitro model simulating amoxicillin and cefotaxime concentrations in human serum (after standard doses) was used to explore the activities of these drugs over time against penicillin-susceptible and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. An initial inoculum reduction percentage of > or = 90% was obtained with amoxicillin and maintained for 2 to 8 h, regardless of the strain tested. In contrast, experiments showed that cefotaxime had significantly (P < 0.001) less capabili...

  4. Prenatal effects by exposing to amoxicillin on dental enamel in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gottberg, Beatriz; Berné, Jeanily; Quiñónez, Belkis; Solórzano Navarro, Eduvigis

    2014-01-01

    Amoxicillin is an antibiotic widely prescribed; its most frequent side effects are gastrointestinal disorders and hypersensitivity reactions. Over the last 10 years studies have been published which suggest that amoxicillin may cause dental alterations similar to dental fluorosis. Never the less, the results are not conclusive, this is why it was planned the need to make controlled studies on test animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect produced by amoxicill...

  5. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE AND BROMHEXINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN ORAL SOLID DOSAGE FORMS BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Dhoka Madhura Vishal; Gawande Vandana Tukaram; Joshi Pranav Pramod

    2011-01-01

    Two accurate, precise, rapid and economical methods were developed and validated for the estimation of Amoxicillin Trihydrate and Bromhexine Hydrochloride in Bulk and combined Pharmaceutical Dosage Form. First method is First order Derivative method, wherein wavelengths selected for quantitation were 283 nm, for Amoxicillin Trihydrate and 218.6 nm, for Bromhexine Hydrochloride. Second method is area under curve method wherein two wavelength ranges chosen were 271-274nm and 244-248nm for Amoxi...

  6. Pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of amoxicillin in chicken infected with caecal coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, M

    2015-10-01

    Chicken infected with caecal coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) was used to evaluate the effect of coccidiosis on the pharmacokinetic and bioavailability of amoxicillin. The level of amoxicillin was estimated by high-performance chromatography (HPLC) to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters and oral bioavailability. For i.v. injection of amoxicillin, Vd and CL were 0.29 and 0.27 (mg/kg)/(μg/mL)/h, respectively. Compared with healthy chicken, intravenous injection of amoxicillin in the infected chicken showed higher distribution and elimination constants, delayed clearance and statistically significant higher AUC and MRT. Oral administration in healthy chicken was accompanied by rapid absorption and high bioavailability with Tmax , Cmax and F about 1.03 h, 3.26 μg/mL and 40.2, respectively. Furthermore, oral administration in the infected chicken produced higher mean absorption time, delayed Tmax, lower Cmax, smaller AUC value and lower bioavailability (16.76). Based on these results, monitoring and adjustment of amoxicillin dosing could be practiced during the presence of coccidiosis. The measured Cmax values suggest the administration of 1.3-folds of the normal dose to maintain the normal maximal serum concentrations of amoxicillin in chicken infected with caecal coccidiosis. PMID:25623275

  7. In vitro synergy testing of clarithromycin and 14-hydroxyclarithromycin with amoxicillin or bismuth subsalicylate against Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.M.; Ryu, S; Pendland, S L; Danziger, L H

    1997-01-01

    The activity of clarithromycin-14-hydroxyclarithromycin (2:1 ratio) and bismuth subsalicylate or amoxicillin against Helicobacter pylori was determined by the checkerboard technique in vitro. Clarithromycin-14-hydroxyclarithromycin and amoxicillin resulted in additive effects in 7 of 22 isolates, compared to 14 of 22 isolates when bismuth subsalicylate was substituted for amoxicillin. Synergy was not demonstrated and is probably not responsible for the clinical success of treatment combinatio...

  8. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for potency determination of amoxicillin in commercial preparations and for stability studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, M. C.; Hsu, P W

    1992-01-01

    A reversed-phase column liquid chromatographic method was developed for the assay of amoxicillin and its preparations. The linear calibration range was 0.2 to 2.0 mg/ml (r = 0.9998), and recoveries were generally greater than 99%. The high-performance liquid chromatographic assay results were compared with those obtained from a microbiological assay of bulk drug substance and capsule, injection, and granule formulations containing amoxicillin and degraded amoxicillin. At the 99% confidence le...

  9. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING TABLET OF AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Varun T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation concerns the design and evaluation of floating tablets of Amoxicillintrihydrate, which after oral administration, are designed to prolonged the gastric residence time and toobtain site-specific drug delivery for the stomach and increased drug bioavailability. Amoxicillin is aSemisynthetic antibiotic, belonging Beta-lactum family, which is effective for bacterial treatment,especially for helicobacter pylori infection. The dosage form was designed by using HPMC K100M,HPMC K15M and HPMC K4M polymers as gelling agents, sodium bicarbonate as gas-generating agentand other excipients. The interaction between drug and excipients in prepared floating tablets werestudied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and FT-IR. Floating tablets prepared by directcompression technique. The prepared floating tablets were evaluated in terms of their pre-compressionparameters, physical characteristics like hardness, friability, uniformity of weight, uniformity of drugcontent, swelling index, in-vitro floating studies, in-vitro drug release and short term stability studies..The floating properties and drug release characteristics were determined for the prepared tablets in 0.1 NHCl and water dissolution media. Dissolution Profile was compared with dissolution profile of marketedtablet. The data obtained from in-vitro dissolution studies were fitted in different models. Finaloptimized formulation batch F10 released 93.02% and 73.02% drug in 0.1N HCl and water respectively.

  10. Molecular modelling of four penicillins: bencylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Penicillins differ structurally among themselves by the lateral chains. At the same time, they have differences in their pharmacological action that can be associated to modifications included in the betalactamic ring and/or effects localized in the same chains. Making it clear would be a contribution to the search of the most adequate structural and electronic characteristics to design better penicillins. Objective:To compare structural properties, density of the atomic charges and the frontier orbitals of four penicillins: bencylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Method:The molecular structures were optimized with PM3 semiempirical calculi. The molecular properties were calculated according to the Density Functional Theory, at a B3LYP/6-31G(d level. The density of the atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. The effect of the substituents on the properties of the betalactamic ring was evaluated. Results: The structural parameters of the betalactamic ring do not change as consequence of the modifications in the lateral chain linked to carbon 6. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. There are no variations in the density of the positive charge of the carbonylic carbon. Conclusions: The structures and electronic properties of the betalactamic ring, structural basis of these antibiotics, do not have significant modifications among modelled penicillins.

  11. Evidence for neurotoxicity associated with amoxicillin in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, O; Demir-Ozkay, U; Ilgin, S; Aydin, T H; Akbulut, E N; Sener, E

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for children, and childhood is the period to have the highest risk for toxicity cases including drug-induced adverse reactions. Some neurological adverse effects (anxiety, hyperactivity, confusion, convulsions, and behavioral changes) have been reported related to AMX treatment. In the present study, we aimed to determine the neurotoxic effects of AMX administration at clinically relevant doses in female juvenile rats. AMX was administered in single oral daily doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 14 days. According to our results, while AMX administration caused a significant increase in the immobility time of animals, swimming time of these animals significantly decreased. AMX administration significantly reduced the onset of pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. The serotonin levels of brain tissues in the AMX-administered groups were decreased significantly, which is thought to be related to depression. The glutamate levels in brain tissues increased significantly in AMX-administered groups, which is thought to be related to convulsion. Otherwise, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly decreased in brain tissues of AMX-administered groups. In conclusion, AMX administration triggered depression and shortened the time of the appearance of first seizure in juvenile rats. Also, altered brain neurotransmitter levels and increased oxidative stress observed in our study were thought to be the possible underlying mechanisms of AMX-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:26429924

  12. [Betalactam antibiotics combined with bectalactamases inhibitors. Amoxicillin-sulbactam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona, Laura; Marín, Marcelo; Stamboulian, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Betalactamases production is one of the main bacterial resistance mechanisms to betalactam antibiotics. The use of bectalactamases inhibitors combined with betalactam antibiotics allows the inactivation of certain betalactamases produced by Gram positive, Gram negative and anaerobic organisms, and even by mycobacteria. Betalactamases inhibitors are an improved therapeutic alternative compared with the other betalactam since, in most cases, they cover a wider antimicrobial spectrum than their analogues. Betalactamases enzimatic activity is specifically directed to the betalactam ring hydrolisis, producing a compound without antibacterial activity. According to their genomic position within microorganisms, betalactamases can be either chromosomic or plasmidic. Currently there are three betalactamases inhibitors locally available: clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam. Of them, only sulbactam has an intrinsic antimicrobial activity against penicillin binding proteins. The clinical experience from over 20 years confirms that the combination of betalactam antibiotics is effective in the empirical initial treatment of respiratory, intraabdominal, urinary tract and gynecologic infections, including those of polymicrobial origin. In the specific case of amoxicillin-sulbactam, experiences have shown the effectiveness of the combination in the treatment of peritonsillar abscess, otitis media, sinusitis, community acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonar disease (COPD), urinary tract infection and obstetric/gynecologic infections. The spectrum and pharmacologic properties of this combination makes it also an excellent option for the treatment of skin/soft tissue and intraabdominal infections. PMID:18416324

  13. Amoxicillin Is Effective against Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains in a Mouse Pneumonia Model Simulating Human Pharmacokinetics▿

    OpenAIRE

    Abgueguen, Pierre; Azoulay-Dupuis, Esther; Noel, Violaine; Moine, Pierre; Rieux, Veronique; Fantin, Bruno; Bedos, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    High-dose oral amoxicillin (3 g/day) is the recommended empirical outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in many European guidelines. To investigate the clinical efficacy of this treatment in CAP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with MICs of amoxicillin ≥2 μg/ml, we used a lethal bacteremic pneumonia model in leukopenic female Swiss mice with induced renal failure to replicate amoxicillin kinetics in humans given 1 g/8 h orally. Amoxicillin (15 mg/kg of body weig...

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of amoxicillin in its pharmaceutical formulation at boron doped diamond (BDD electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneil Quand-Meme Gnamba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, voltammetric andelectrolysis experiments have been carried out on a conductive boron dopeddiamond (BDD electrode in solution containing amoxicillin in itspharmaceutical formulation. The physical characterization of the BDD surface byscanning electron microscopy (SEM reveals a polycrystalline structure withgrain sizes ranging between 0.3 and 0.6 µm. With Raman spectroscopy, BDDsurface is composed of diamons (Csp3 type carbon (Csp3and graphitic type carbon (Csp2. The electrochemical characterization of the BDD electrode in sulfuric acid electrolyte showed a wide potential window worthing 2.74 V. The oxidation of Amoxicillin showed an irreversible anodic wave on the voltammogram in the domain of water stability indicating a direct oxidation of amoxicillin at BDD surface. The treatment of Amoxicillin in the synthetic wastewaters under various constant current densities 20, 50, 100, 135 mA cm-2 on BDD showed that Amoxicillin is highly reducedunder 100 mA cm-2 reaching 92% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODremoval after 5 h of electrolysis. Investigation performed in perchloric acidas supporting electrolyte led to 87% of COD removal after 5 h of electrolysis.Mineralization of amoxicillin occurs on BDD and the chemical oxygen demandremoval was higher in sulfuric acid than in perchloric acid owing to theinvolvement of the in-situ formed persulfate and perchlorate  to the degradation process mainly in the bulkof the solution. The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE presents anexponential decay indicating that the process was limited by diffusion. Thespecific energy consumed after 5h of the amoxicillin electrolysis was 0.096 kWh COD-1and 0.035 kWh COD-1 in sulfuric acid and in perchloric acidrespectively.

  15. Effects of Low-Dose Amoxicillin on Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, Kevin D; Callahan, Mary T; Shimkevitch, Anton V; Farmer, Jackson T; Endres, Jennifer L; Marchand, Mélodie; Bayles, Kenneth W; Horswill, Alexander R; Kaplan, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies showed that sub-MIC levels of β-lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Here, we investigated this process by measuring the effects of sub-MIC amoxicillin on biofilm formation by the epidemic community-associated MRSA strain USA300. We found that sub-MIC amoxicillin increased the ability of USA300 cells to attach to surfaces and form biofilms under both static and flow conditions. We also found that USA300 biofilms cultured in sub-MIC amoxicillin were thicker, contained more pillar and channel structures, and were less porous than biofilms cultured without antibiotic. Biofilm formation in sub-MIC amoxicillin correlated with the production of extracellular DNA (eDNA). However, eDNA released by amoxicillin-induced cell lysis alone was evidently not sufficient to stimulate biofilm. Sub-MIC levels of two other cell wall-active agents with different mechanisms of action-d-cycloserine and fosfomycin-also stimulated eDNA-dependent biofilm, suggesting that biofilm formation may be a mechanistic adaptation to cell wall stress. Screening a USA300 mariner transposon library for mutants deficient in biofilm formation in sub-MIC amoxicillin identified numerous known mediators of S. aureus β-lactam resistance and biofilm formation, as well as novel genes not previously associated with these phenotypes. Our results link cell wall stress and biofilm formation in MRSA and suggest that eDNA-dependent biofilm formation by strain USA300 in low-dose amoxicillin is an inducible phenotype that can be used to identify novel genes impacting MRSA β-lactam resistance and biofilm formation. PMID:26856828

  16. Evaluation of Amoxicillin & Cephalexin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraei AH.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the most important complications after tooth extraction and oral and maxillofacial surgery is transient bacteraemia and prescription of prophylactic antibiotic is necessary to prevent postoperative infections in immunocompromised patients. Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of cephalexin and amoxicillin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets following tooth extraction. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 80 healthy patients subjected to tooth extraction were divided into two groups. Each group received 1 gr amoxicillin or cephalexin and teeth were extracted 30-60-90-120-180 minutes after antibiotic intake. Blood sampling was performed immediately after extraction and concentrations of two antibiotics were measured in microbiology laboratory. ANOVA test and Post-hoc (Duncan test were used for statistical analysis with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The maximum serum concentration was 10.1006 μg/ml for amoxicillin at 120 minutes and 41.5467 μg/ml for cephalexin at 90 minutes after drug intake. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of cephalexin and amoxicillin for Streptococcus sanguis was 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: The mean concentration for amoxicillin was 10 times and for cephalexin was 20 times higher than MIC.

  17. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  18. SERUM LEVEL AND PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS OF SINGLE ORAL DOSE OF AMOXICILLIN IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Abdulhafidh Kurji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many pathophysiological processes can affect the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs in people with diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of diabetes mellitus on the pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin administered as single oral dose. Twelve healthy volunteers and twelve diabetic patients were enrolled in the present study. On day 1, a single oral dose of amoxicillin 500 mg was administered orally to all participants at 9:00 am after a 10-hour fasting. Over the following 24 hours, blood samples were taken at frequent intervals and serum amoxicillin concentrations were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography method for assessment of pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The values of Cmax, AUCtotal, AUClast were significantly decreased in diabetic patients compared to healthy subjects. At the same time, Tmax and Kelim. were non-significantly affected compared to healthy subjects, while T½ was significantly increased. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus affects some of the pharmacokinetic values of orally administered amoxicillin, an event that point to the requirement for dose monitoring of some drugs in such cases.

  19. A combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of pyoderma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid was compared with that of amoxicillin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole in an open label, randomized trial in 50 children in each group (total 200 with mild to severe pyodermas. Majority (47% had impetigo. Fifty (25% children had mild pyoderma, 56 (28% had moderate and 94 (47% children had severe pyoderma. Pure growth of S aureus was isolated in 130 (65% children, S pyogenes in 42 (21% and both organisms in 28 (14% children. In mild to moderate pyoderma either of the drug tried was equally effective. In severe pyoderma, 24 of twenty five (96% children receiving amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 18 of twenty (90% children in amoxicillin group, 20 of twenty four (83.3% children in erythromycin group and 13 of twenty five (52% children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure of therapy. Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid was well tolerated in children and there was no significant side effect except mild diarrhoea in two cases (4% which was well controlled by taking the drug with meals.

  20. Hydrolytic and photochemistry degradation of the amoxicillin in β-cyclodextrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has like purpose monitors the degradation of the drug amoxicillin in the presence and absence of β-cyclodextrin, through techniques spectroscopy. For this, there was accompanied the hydrolysis of the drug protected of the light for around 400 hours. The results indicate that, initially, the cyclodextrin does not alter the hydrolysis of the amoxicillin, however, after 250 hours there is an increase of the hydrolysis of the amoxicillin when present at cyclodextrin. Another variable was the irradiation of the sample with radiation in the region of the UV, we see that the solutions containing β- cyclodextrin suffer a slower phototransformation (26,8%) than the solutions without β-cyclodextrin, when irradiated by UV radiation. (author)

  1. Development of aminoglycoside and β-lactamase resistance among intestinal microbiota of swine treated with lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jian; Liang LI; Liu, Baotao; Xia, Jing; Liao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yahong

    2014-01-01

    Lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin are commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and infectious disease prophylaxis in swine production. In this study, we investigated the shifts and resistance development among intestinal microbiota in pregnant sows before and after lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin treatment by using phylogenetic analysis, bacterial enumeration, and PCR. After the antimicrobial treatment, shifts in microbial community, an increased proportio...

  2. Emergence in France of Multiple Clones of Clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates with High-Level Resistance to Amoxicillin

    OpenAIRE

    Doit, Catherine; Loukil, Chawki; Fitoussi, Frederic; Geslin, Pierre; Bingen, Edouard

    1999-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of French isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae highly resistant to amoxicillin (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml, equal to or exceeding those of penicillin) was investigated by molecular fingerprinting. The results suggest that high-level resistance to amoxicillin has emerged within preexisting penicillin-resistant clones.

  3. Comparative tolerability of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole suspensions in children with otitis media.

    OpenAIRE

    Feder, H M

    1982-01-01

    The tolerabilities of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) suspensions were evaluated in 263 children with otitis media. Because of watery stools, therapy was discontinued in 6 of 83 patients treated with ampicillin, in none of 89 patients treated with amoxicillin (P less than 0.01), and in 1 of 91 patients treated with TMP-SMX (P less than 0.03). Of the patients who completed the treatment courses, 13 recipients of ampicillin suffered loose or watery stools fo...

  4. Reduced amoxicillin uptake into human gastric mucosa when gastric juice pH is high.

    OpenAIRE

    Cardaci, G; Lambert, J.R.; King, R. G.; Onishi, N; Midolo, P

    1995-01-01

    Amoxicillin when administered with gastric acid suppressors has been shown to be effective in eradication of Helicobacter pylori in 50 to 80% of subjects. The aim of this investigator-blind crossover study was to determine if gastric mucosal amoxicillin uptake was affected by increasing gastric juice pH. Fifteen male subjects (7 H. pylori positive and 8 H. pylori negative) were randomized to receive 150 mg of ranitidine twice a day, 300 mg of ranitidine twice a day, or no drug for 2 days prio...

  5. Comparative efficacy of amoxicillin, cefuroxime and clarithromycin in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the clinical response to amoxicillin, cefuroxime and clarithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children and to see the cost effectiveness of each treatment. Subjects and Methods: Patients between 3 to 72 months of age, admitted in the hospital with community acquired pneumonia, were randomly divided into three groups 1,2,3. They were started on amoxicillin, cefuroxime and clarithromycin respectively. The patients were assessed daily. If there was no clinical improvements at 48 hours the antibiotic was changed. ANOVA statistical test was applied to see the clinical response to the treatment in the three groups. Cost effectiveness of the treatment was compared. Results: There was no statistical difference in the clinical response at 48 hours of initiating treatment and discharge (p>0.01 each). The mean hospital stay in group 1 and 2 was 3.3 days and group 3 was 3.2 days respectively (p>0.01). Ninety-seven percent patients in group 1 and 3, and 95% patients in group 2 showed clinical improvement. The cost of treatment of community acquired pneumonia for 8 days was Rs. 496/-, 730/-, 1018/- for amoxicillin, clarithromycin and cefuroxime respectively. Conclusion: Amoxicillin was found in the most cost effective followed by clarithromycin and cefuroxime respectively in the treatment of non-severe and severe community-acquired pneumonia. (author)

  6. Purification and functionalization of nanodiamond to serve as a platform for amoxicillin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Parvaneh; Govindaraju, Nirmal; Iyer, Janaki K; Kaul, Rashmi; Kaul, Anil; Singh, Raj N

    2016-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) cost $0.4-0.5billion a year in the US and is the second most common disease affecting millions of people. As resistance to antibiotics becomes more common, a greater need for alternative treatments is needed. Nanodiamond particles (NDPs) are actively researched as drug delivery platforms due to their biocompatibility, particle size, and stable inert core. This research is aimed at developing NDPs as antibiotic drug delivery platforms for treating UTIs. To this end, 100nm, 75nm, 25nm and 6nm size NDPs are purified with acid and heat treatment techniques. Raman spectra of the NDPs showed that the acid treatment method resulted in higher diamond yield. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed that both purification techniques result in oxygen terminated surface groups. Efficiency of loading amoxicillin on 25nm NDPs based on electrostatic interaction of NDPs, functionalizing surfaces of NDPs with hydrogen, and polyethylenimine (PEI) are investigated. It is found that the electrostatic and surface hydrogenation approaches are not efficient in loading amoxicillin on the NDPs. On the other hand, PEI functionalized NDPs produced successful loading with amoxicillin as indicated by the presence of the β-lactam peak at 1770cm(-1), amide peak at 1680cm(-1), and bond between PEI NH stretching and amoxicillin -COOH group at 3650cm(-1) by the FTIR spectra. These results are expected to lay the foundation for developing NDP based targeted drug delivery treatment techniques for treating UTIs and other infectious diseases. PMID:27040226

  7. The detection of amoxicillin medicines by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kun; Li, Zeren; Liu, Qiao

    2012-03-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a new spectroscopic technique, which improve a good complement for other spectroscopic techniques and has broad application prospects in the biomedical field. In this paper, a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system is set up. Using this system, the amoxicillin drugs are detected, and the spectrum are analyzed.

  8. Delayed tooth replantation in rats: effect of systemic antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin and tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Weglis Dyanne de Souza; Silva, Cristina Antoniali; Melo, Moriel Evangelista; Silva, Vanessa Ferreira da; Almeida, Melyna Marques de; Pedrini, Denise; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Panzarini, Sônia Regina

    2015-12-01

    Systemic antibiotic therapy (SAT) has usually been recommended after tooth replantation, but its actual value has been questioned. As there are no reports in the literature about its influence on tooth replantation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of systemic administration of antibiotics (amoxicillin and tetracycline) at the different phases of the repair process (7, 15, 30 days) in delayed rat tooth replantation. Ninety Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) had their maxillary right incisors extracted and bench-dried for 60 min. The dental papilla, enamel organ, pulp tissue, and root surface-adhered periodontal ligament were removed, and the teeth were replanted. The animals received no antibiotics (n = 30) or were medicated systemically with amoxicillin (n = 30) and tetracycline (n = 30), and were euthanized after 7, 15, and 30 days. Regardless of the evaluation period, the acute inflammatory infiltrate was less intense and root resorption presented smaller extent and depth in the group treated with amoxicillin. The results suggest that SAT has a positive influence on the repair process in delayed tooth replantation and that amoxicillin is an excellent treatment option. PMID:26332890

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection in hemodialysis patients: Susceptibility to amoxicillin and clarithromycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selim Aydemir; Sedat Boyacioglu; Gurden Gur; Muge Demirbilek; Fusun Kamber Can; Murat Korkmaz; Ugur Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to amoxicillin and clarithromycin in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and non-uremic controls.METHODS: The subjects with dyspeptic complaints were 33 ESRD patients and 46 age- and sex-matched nonuremic controls who exhibited H pylori on antral biopsy specimens. The two groups were age and sex matched.The H pylori strains' pattern of susceptibility to amoxicillin and clarithromycin was investigated with the agar dilution technique.RESULTS: None of the H pylori strains from either group showed resistance to amoxicillin with the agar dilution method. Twelve (36.4%) of the ESRD group strains and 7 (15.2%) of the control group strains showed resistance to clarithromycin, and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Resistance to amoxicillin does not appear to be an important problem in H pylori-infected ESRD and non-uremic patients in our region. In contrast, the rates of resistance to clarithromycin are high, particularly in the ESRD population.

  10. Prophylactic antibiotics for hysterectomy and cesarean section: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid versus cefazolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Malik

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Broad spectrum amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was not superior to cefazolin in prevention of post-operative infection when given as prophylaxis in hysterectomy and elective cesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 980-983

  11. High Dose Ilaprazole/Amoxicillin as First-Line Regimen for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) following standard triple therapy has declined over the past few decades. This study has determined whether high dose dual therapy (PPI and amoxicillin) is adequate for eradicating H. pylori in Korea. Methods. This was an open-labeled study of H. pylori infected treatment-naive patients. Subjects received dual therapy for 14 days: ilaprazole 40 mg tablets given twice a day and amoxicillin 750 mg tablets given 4 times a day. At the end of the therapy, the subjects visited the clinic to confirm compliance and monitor for any side effects. Subjects visited again after 4–6 weeks to confirm H. pylori status through a urea breath test. Results. The cure rate of H. pylori was 79.3% (23 of 29) (95% confidence interval: 61.6–90.2) in the intention-to-treat analysis and 82.1% (23 of 28) in the per-protocol analysis. Compliance rates were high (96.6%) and side effects were minimal and tolerable. Conclusion. A high dose of ilaprazole + amoxicillin was ineffective as the first-line therapy for eradicating H. pylori in Korea. Future studies should focus on intragastric pH measurements and assess amoxicillin resistance. PMID:27413365

  12. Targeted Delivery of Amoxicillin to C. trachomatis by the Transferrin Iron Acquisition Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Jun; Serradji, Nawal; Mouton, Ludovic; Redeker, Virginie; Cornu, David; El Hage Chahine, Jean-Michel; Verbeke, Philippe; Hémadi, Miryana

    2016-01-01

    Weak intracellular penetration of antibiotics makes some infections difficult to treat. The Trojan horse strategy for targeted drug delivery is among the interesting routes being explored to overcome this therapeutic difficulty. Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia develops in a vacuole and is therefore protected by four membranes (plasma membrane, bacterial inclusion membrane, and bacterial membranes). In this work, the iron-transport protein, human serum-transferrin, was used as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery into the bacterial vacuole. Amoxicillin was grafted onto transferrin. The transferrin-amoxicillin construct was characterized by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Its affinity for transferrin receptor 1, determined by fluorescence emission titration [KaffTf-amox = (1.3 ± 1.0) x 108], is very close to that of transferrin [4.3 x 108]. Transmission electron and confocal microscopies showed a co-localization of transferrin with the bacteria in the vacuole and were also used to evaluate the antibiotic capability of the construct. It is significantly more effective than amoxicillin alone. These promising results demonstrate targeted delivery of amoxicillin to suppress Chlamydia and are of interest for Chlamydiaceae and maybe other intracellular bacteria therapies. PMID:26919720

  13. Targeted Delivery of Amoxicillin to C. trachomatis by the Transferrin Iron Acquisition Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hai

    Full Text Available Weak intracellular penetration of antibiotics makes some infections difficult to treat. The Trojan horse strategy for targeted drug delivery is among the interesting routes being explored to overcome this therapeutic difficulty. Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia develops in a vacuole and is therefore protected by four membranes (plasma membrane, bacterial inclusion membrane, and bacterial membranes. In this work, the iron-transport protein, human serum-transferrin, was used as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery into the bacterial vacuole. Amoxicillin was grafted onto transferrin. The transferrin-amoxicillin construct was characterized by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Its affinity for transferrin receptor 1, determined by fluorescence emission titration [KaffTf-amox = (1.3 ± 1.0 x 108], is very close to that of transferrin [4.3 x 108]. Transmission electron and confocal microscopies showed a co-localization of transferrin with the bacteria in the vacuole and were also used to evaluate the antibiotic capability of the construct. It is significantly more effective than amoxicillin alone. These promising results demonstrate targeted delivery of amoxicillin to suppress Chlamydia and are of interest for Chlamydiaceae and maybe other intracellular bacteria therapies.

  14. Solvation behaviour of biologically active compounds in aqueous solutions of antibacterial drug amoxicillin at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Densities and speeds of sound of amino acids in aqueous amoxicillin solutions. • Partial molar volumes and compressibility of transfer. • Group contribution have been calculated. • (Ion + hydrophilic) and (hydrophilic + hydrophilic) interactions are present. • Pair-wise interactions are dominant in the mixtures. - Abstract: The interactions of glycine (Gly), L-alanine (Ala), L-valine (Val) and L-Leucine (Leu) with drug amoxicillin (AMX) as a function of temperature have been investigated by combination of volumetric and acoustic measurements. Densities and speeds of sound of amino acids in aqueous solutions of amoxicillin have been measured at T = (305.15, 310.15 and 315.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The apparent molar volume (Vϕ), the partial molar volume (Vϕ0) and standard partial molar volumes of transfer (ΔVϕ0) for amino acids from water to aqueous amoxicillin solutions have been calculated from density data. Group contributions of amino acids to partial molar volume were determined. Partial molar isentropic compression (κϕ,s) and partial molar isentropic compression of transfer (Δκϕ,S0) have been calculated from speed of sound data. The pair and triplet interaction coefficient have been calculated from both the properties. The results have been explained based on competing patterns of interactions of co-solvents and the solute

  15. Safety and Tolerability of Nebulized Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in Patients with COPD (STONAC 1 and STONAC 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam, L C; Assink, M D M; Kuijvenhoven, J C; de Saegher, M E A; van der Valk, P D L P M; van der Palen, J; Brusse-Keizer, M G J; Movig, K L L

    2016-08-01

    The safety and tolerability of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid were determined in patients with stable COPD and during severe exacerbations of COPD. Nine stable COPD patients received doses ranging from 50:10 mg up to 300:60 mg amoxicillin clavulanic acid and eight patients hospitalised for a COPD exacerbation received fixed doses 200/40 mg twice daily. Safety was evaluated by spirometry before and after inhalation. Tolerability was evaluated by questionnaire. Plasma and expectorated sputum samples were assayed for amoxicillin content. Seventeen patients underwent in total 100 nebulizations with amoxicillin clavulanic acid. In this safety and tolerability study no clinically relevant deteriorations in FEV1 were observed. Nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid produces sputum concentrations well above the Minimal Inhibiting Concentration of 90% for potential pathogenic micro-organisms, with low concentrations in the central compartment (low systemic exposure). Based on spirometry and reported side effects, inhalation of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid seems to be safe and well tolerated, both in stable patients with COPD as in those experiencing a severe exacerbation. Levels of amoxicillin were adequate. PMID:26744171

  16. Photodegradation of amoxicillin by catalyzed Fe3+/H2O2 process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Li; Tingting Shen; Dongbo Wang; Xiu Yue; Xian Liu; Qi Yang; Jianbin Cao; Wei Zheng; Guangming Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Three oxidation processes of UV-Fe3+(EDTA)/H2O2 (UV:ultraviolet light; EDTA:ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid),UV-Fe3+/H2O2 and Fe3+/H2O2 were simultaneously investigated for the degradation of amoxicillin at pH 7.0.The results indicated that,100% amoxicillin degradation and 81.9% chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) removal could be achieved in the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process.The treatment efficiency of amoxicillin and CODcr removal were found to decrease to 59.0% and 43.0% in the UV-Fe3+/H2O2 process;39.6% and 31.3% in the Fe3+/H2O2 process.Moreover,the results of biodegradability (biological oxygen demand (BOD5)/CODCr ratio) revealed that the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process was a promising strategy to degrade amoxicillin as the biodegradability of the effluent was improved to 0.45,compared with the cases of UV-Fe3+/H2O2 (0.25) and Fe3+/H2O2 (0.10) processes.Therefore,it could be deduced that EDTA and UV light performed synergetic catalytic effect on the Fe3+/H2O2 process,enhancing the treatment efficiency.The degradation mechanisms were also investigated via UV-Vis spectra,and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra.The degradation pathway of amoxicillin was further proposed.

  17. In vitro and in vivo synergism between amoxicillin and clavulanic acid against ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    OpenAIRE

    Yogev, R; Melick, C; Kabat, W J

    1981-01-01

    Eight strans of ampicillin-resistant beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae type b were studied in vitro for synergy between amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for amoxicillin alone were 6.25 to 12.5 microgram/ml, and for clavulanic acid alone they were 12.5 to 25 microgram/ml. However, seven of eight strains were inhibited by a combination of 0.36 microgram of amoxicillin and 0.36 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. Infant rat models of bacteremi...

  18. Comparative efficacy of novobiocin and amoxicillin in experimental sepsis caused by β-lactam-susceptible and highly resistant pneumococci

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Cerrato, Violeta; Prado, Gema del; Huelves, Lorena; Naves, Plínio; Ruiz, Vicente; García, Ernesto; Ponte, Carmen; Soriano, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic alternatives are needed against infections caused by highly multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Novobiocin, an old antibiotic, was tested in vitro and in a murine sepsis model against one amoxicillin-susceptible and three amoxicillin-resistant strains [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) 8–64mg/L]. Novobiocin MICs for all strains were 0.25–0.5mg/L. In sepsis, novobiocin and amoxicillin were evaluated at 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg given at 1, 5, 24 and 48h post bacteri...

  19. Comparative efficacy of novobiocin and amoxicillin in experimental sepsis caused by β-lactam-susceptible and highly resistant pneumococci

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Cerrato, Violeta; del Prado, Gema; Huelves, Lorena; Naves, Plínio; Ruiz, Vicente; García, Ernesto; Ponte, Carmen; Soriano, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    International audience Therapeutic alternatives are needed against infections caused by highly multidrug-resistant . Novobiocin, an old antibiotic, was tested in vitro and in a murine sepsis model against one amoxicillin-susceptible and three amoxicillin-resistant strains [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) 8-64mg/L]. Novobiocin MICs for all strains were 0.25-0.5mg/L. In sepsis, novobiocin and amoxicillin were evaluated at 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg given at 1, 5, 24 and 48h post bacte...

  20. Comparison of cefixime and amoxicillin plus metronidazole in the treatment of chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukić Smiljka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Despite significant advances in current medicine and improvement of overall health education, chronic periodontitis is still a widespread disease. Losing teeth is the most serious complication of this particular illness. The aim of this study was to examine patients with chronic periodontitis in order to evaluate the efficacy of non-surgical therapy and combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole compared with cefixime, which has not been so far used for the treatment of this disease. Methods. Adult patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 90 underwent non-surgical periodontal treatment (zero-day and then randomly divided into three groups. The group I served as a control, the group II was additionally treated with the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole (for 7 days, while the group III was treated with cefixime (also for 7 days. To assess the condition of periodontium before and seven days after the therapy, four clinical parameters were used: gingival index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results. On the day 7 after the beginning of the therapy, we found that all the three groups of patients had statistically significant clinical improvement of three parameters: GI, BOP and PD, but not of the CAL. However, the improvement of PD was only statistically, but not clinically significant. The improvement in the control group of patients on the day 7 was 19% in BOP and 28% in GI; this improvement was statistically highly significant after the addition of amoxicillin plus metronodazole (71% in BOP and 77% in GI or cefixime (62% in BOP and 82% in GI. Compared to the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole, cefixim was statistically significantly more effective for GI (p < 0.05, while for the other three clinical parameters their effects were equal. Conclusion. The conjunction of amoxicillin plus metronidazole or cefixime to the causal treatment of patients with

  1. The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and spironolactone for treatment-resistant acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Cheryl Bansal; James, William D

    2007-01-01

    In situations where acne has proved resistant to other systemic agents or they are not indicated and isotretinoin is not desired by patients, the authors find amoxicillin, TMP-SMX, and spironolactone, alone or in combination, useful alternatives. In women who have acne, spironolactone can be used, and in patients who have sulfa allergy, amoxicillin can be used. It is important to continue alternate topical therapy along with these interventions to augment the improvement and to assist in the eventual discontinuance of oral medication. All of the authors' patients were using topical therapy concomitantly and, although this may have contributed to improvement, the authors believe the addition of amoxicillin, TMP-SMX, or spironolactone contributes to the majority of improvement. Tetrospective chart analysis provides supportive data for amoxicillin, TMP-SMX, and spironolactone in the treatment of refractory acne vulgaris. PMID:18159900

  2. The pharmacodynamic effect of amoxicillin and danofloxacin against Salmonella typhimurium in an in-vitro pharmacodynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Friis, C.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2000-01-01

    The pharmacodynamic effect of amoxicillin and danofloxacin against two strains of Salmonella typhimurium was examined in an in-vitro pharmacodynamic model. For amoxicillin, peak concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 mu g ml(-1) and half-lives (t(1/2) of 3 and 15 hours were evaluated. For danofloxacin peak...... concentrations of 0.25, 0.50 and 1.50 mu g ml(-1) and half-lives of 7 and 15 hours were examined. For amoxicillin both the peak concentration and the half-life influenced the pharmacodynamic effect (P <0.001). Maximal pharmacodynamic effect was observed when the antibiotic concentration was greater than minimum...... inhibitory concentration for 79 per cent or more of the dosing interval. The hires of the isolates increased when the amoxicillin concentrations were close to the nac during the first hours of exposure. For danofloxacin the pharmacodynamic effect was dependent on the peak concentration only (P <0...

  3. beta-lactamase-producing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae fails to protect Streptococcus pneumoniae from amoxicillin during experimental acute otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, E.; Lundin, S.; Hermansson, Ann; Melhus, Åsa

    2004-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common reason for outpatient antimicrobial therapy. Mixed infections pose a potential problem, since the first-line drug used for the treatment of AOM, amoxicillin, can be neutralized by ß-lactamase-producing pathogens of the upper respiratory tract. To study the effects of a 5-day course of amoxicillin on a mixed middle ear infection, rats were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae alone or in combination with ß-lactamase-producing nontypeable Haemophi...

  4. β-Lactamase-Producing Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Fails To Protect Streptococcus pneumoniae from Amoxicillin during Experimental Acute Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, Eva; Lundin, Susanne; Hermansson, Ann; Melhus, Åsa

    2004-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common reason for outpatient antimicrobial therapy. Mixed infections pose a potential problem, since the first-line drug used for the treatment of AOM, amoxicillin, can be neutralized by β-lactamase-producing pathogens of the upper respiratory tract. To study the effects of a 5-day course of amoxicillin on a mixed middle ear infection, rats were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae alone or in combination with β-lactamase-producing nontypeable Haemophi...

  5. A comparison of the efficacy of amoxicillin and nasal irrigation in treatment of acute sinusitis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Panahande, Gholam Reza; Noorbakhsh, Mohamad Kazem; Malek Ahmadi, Mohamad Reza; Lotfizadeh, Masoud; Parvin, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy of antibiotic therapy for acute sinusitis is controversial. This study aimed to compare the efficacies of amoxicillin with nasal irrigation and nasal irrigation alone for acute sinusitis in children. Methods This randomized, double-blind, controlled study included 80 children aged 4-15 years with a clinical presentation of acute sinusitis. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either amoxicillin (80 mg/kg/day) in 3 divided doses orally for 14 days with saline nasal i...

  6. Eradication of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Nasopharyngeal Flora of Children with Acute Otitis Media after Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, Itzhak; Gober, Alan E.

    2004-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained from 60 children with acute otitis media before and after treatment with either 45 or 90 mg of amoxicillin (given as amoxicillin-clavulanate) per kg of body weight per day for 10 days. The number of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in the 45-mg/kg group was reduced from 12 to 6 and was reduced from 14 to 1 (P = 0.0261) in the 90-mg/kg group.

  7. Development of Bilayer Floating Tablet of Amoxicillin and Aloe vera Gel Powder for Treatment of Gastric Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Ranade, Arati N.; Wankhede, Sonali S.; Ranpise, Nisharani S.; Mundada, Mayur S.

    2012-01-01

    Usual treatment for Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer includes a ‘triple therapy’ consisting of two antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole). The objective of this project work was defined with a view to retain the drug in stomach for better antiulcer activity and substituting one of the synthetic drugs in this therapy with a herbal alternative. Hence, aim of the present work was to design and develop a bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin...

  8. Impact of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Amoxicillin on Streptococcus suis Capsule Gene Expression and Inflammatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Haas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent worldwide causing meningitis, endocarditis, arthritis and septicemia. Among the 29 serotypes identified to date, serotype 2 is mostly isolated from diseased pigs. Although several virulence mechanisms have been characterized in S. suis, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections remains only partially understood. This study focuses on the response of S. suis P1/7 to sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin. First, capsule expression was monitored by qRT-PCR when S. suis was cultivated in the presence of amoxicillin. Then, the pro-inflammatory potential of S. suis P1/7 culture supernatants or whole cells conditioned with amoxicillin was evaluated by monitoring the activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes and quantifying pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages. It was found that amoxicillin decreased capsule expression in S. suis. Moreover, conditioning the bacterium with sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin caused an increased activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes following exposure to bacterial culture supernatants and to a lesser extent to whole bacterial cells. This was associated with an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL8, IL-6, IL-1β by macrophages. This study identified a new mechanism by which S. suis may increase its inflammatory potential in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, a cell wall-active antibiotic, thus challenging its use for preventive treatments or as growth factor.

  9. Degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin antibiotics in aqueous solution by the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Chaudhuri, Malay [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-01-15

    The study examined the effect of operating conditions (zinc oxide concentration, pH and irradiation time) of the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process on degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution. pH has a great effect on amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation. The optimum operating conditions for complete degradation of antibiotics in an aqueous solution containing 104, 105 and 103 mg/L amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively were: zinc oxide 0.5 g/L, irradiation time 180 min and pH 11. Under optimum operating conditions, complete degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin occurred and COD and DOC removal were 23.9 and 9.7%, respectively. The photocatalytic reactions under optimum conditions approximately followed a pseudo-first order kinetics with rate constant (k) 0.018, 0.015 and 0.029 min{sup -1} for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively. UV/ZnO photocatalysis can be used for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation in aqueous solution.

  10. Degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin antibiotics in aqueous solution by the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study examined the effect of operating conditions (zinc oxide concentration, pH and irradiation time) of the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process on degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution. pH has a great effect on amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation. The optimum operating conditions for complete degradation of antibiotics in an aqueous solution containing 104, 105 and 103 mg/L amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively were: zinc oxide 0.5 g/L, irradiation time 180 min and pH 11. Under optimum operating conditions, complete degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin occurred and COD and DOC removal were 23.9 and 9.7%, respectively. The photocatalytic reactions under optimum conditions approximately followed a pseudo-first order kinetics with rate constant (k) 0.018, 0.015 and 0.029 min-1 for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively. UV/ZnO photocatalysis can be used for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation in aqueous solution.

  11. [Comparison between penicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of recurrent tonsillopharyngitis in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensi, F; López-Hontangas, J L; Otero, M; Santos, M; Román, J; Pérez-Tamarit, D

    1999-09-01

    Fifty-one children aged 2-14 years with recurrent tonsillopharyngitis, presenting dysphagia, fever and lymphadenitis, with more than two similar episodes in the last three years and showing a beta-hemolytic group A streptococci in the pharyngeal smear, were studied. They underwent random treatment for ten days with phenoxymethylpenicillin (40-60 mg/kg/day) (n = 28) or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (20-40 mg/kg/day) (n = 23) taken orally three times a day. Clinical and bacteriological tests were carried out at 10 days and 2, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. The clinical and bacteriological results showed the superiority of the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment both in the short term (disappearance of symptoms) and in the long term (decrease in recurrence). These results support the idea that betalactamases produced by the pharyngeal flora play an important role in the failures of penicillin. PMID:10878510

  12. Poly(Propylene Imine) Dendrimers and Amoxicillin as Dual-Action Antibacterial Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Wrońska; Aleksandra Felczak; Katarzyna Zawadzka; Martyna Poszepczyńska; Sylwia Różalska; Maria Bryszewska; Dietmar Appelhans; Katarzyna Lisowska

    2015-01-01

    Besides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX) against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers, or derivatives thereof, in which 100% of the available hydrogen atoms are substituted with maltose (PPI 100%malG3). The concentrations of dendrimers u...

  13. Comparative evaluation of loracarbef and amoxicillin-clavulanate for acute otitis media.

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, V N; Kusmiesz, H; Shelton, S; Nelson, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    One hundred five infants and children with acute otitis media were randomized to therapy with loracarbef, an experimental carbacephem antibiotic, or amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin), an approved drug for this disease. Ninety-two were evaluable (46 in each group). Middle ear fluid samples obtained for culture before therapy grew Haemophilus spp. in 30% of cases, pneumococci in 29% of cases, and Moraxella catarrhalis in 15% of cases. beta-Lactamase-producing bacteria were found in 37% of pat...

  14. A comparative study of amoxicillin, clindamycin and chlorhexidine in the prevention of post-extraction bacteraemia

    OpenAIRE

    Maharaj, Breminand; Coovadia, Yacoob; Vayej, Ahmed C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated some of the regimens recommended for the antimicrobial prophylaxis of infective endocarditis prior to dental extraction in 160 patients. Group A patients served as the control group, group B subjects rinsed their mouths with chlorhexidene, group C subjects took 3 g amoxicillin orally and group D patients took 600 mg clindamycin orally. The proportion of patients who had post-extraction bacteraemia in groups A, B, C and D was 35, 40, 7.5 and 20%, respectively. The differe...

  15. Epidemiological and clinical complexity of amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Oteo, Jesús; Ortega, Adriana; Villar, Macarena; Conejo, M Carmen; Bou, Germán; Aranzamendi-Zaldumbide, Maitane; Cercenado, Emilia; Gurguí, Mercè; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Merino, María; Rivera, Alba; Oliver, Antonio; Weber, Irene; Pascual, Alvaro; Bartolomé, Rosa M; Gónzalez-López, Juan José; Campos, José

    2013-07-01

    Two hundred twelve patients with colonization/infection due to amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC)-resistant Escherichia coli were studied. OXA-1- and inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT)-producing strains were associated with urinary tract infections, while OXA-1 producers and chromosomal AmpC hyperproducers were associated with bacteremic infections. AMC resistance in E. coli is a complex phenomenon with heterogeneous clinical implications. PMID:23637303

  16. Design and evaluation of controlled release mucoadhesive microspheres of amoxicillin for anti Helicobacter pylori therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Venkateswaramurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop controlled release mucoadhesive microspheres of amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using carbopol 974P, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K4M (HPMC K4M and Eudragit RS 100. The prepared microspheres were subjected to evaluation for particle size, incorporation efficiency, in vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release characteristics. Absence of drug-polymer interaction was confirmed using differential scanning calorimetry analysis and fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. The prepared microspheres showed a strong mucoadhesive property. The polymer concentration influenced the in vitro drug release significantly in 0.1N HCl. The particle sizes of systems ranged between 123±8.35 μm and 524±11.54 μm. Percent drug entrapment and release profiles of amoxicillin trihydrate in 0.1 N HCl were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The percentage drug entrapment and percentage yield of formulations were about 56.71±1.66% to 88.32±0.65% and 39.20±1.62% to 92.40±1.32%, respectively. The stability of the drugs was assessed in 0.1 N HCl. The results further substantiated that mucoadhesive microspheres improved the gastric stability of amoxicillin trihydrate (due to entrapment within the microsphere. From the above results, it was concluded that the mucoadhesive microspheres of amoxicillin trihydrate has feasibility for eradicating H. pylori from the stomach more effectively because of the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time and controlled release of drug from the formulation.

  17. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS DISINTEGRANTS ON AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE DISPERSIBLE TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a formulation of amoxicillin trihydrate dispersible tablets of 320mg in a low production value, using cheap amoxicillin trihydrate raw materials available in the market, with direct compression or wet granulation method. Amoxicillin trihydrate is a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analogue of ampicillin with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against gram +ve and gram –ve organism. Dispersible tablets are uncoated or film coated tablets intended to be dispersed in water before administration giving a homogeneous dispersion. The WHO prefers dispersible dosage form for the elderly and paediatric patients due to its ease in the administration. Amoxicillin trihydrate dispersible tablet was manufactured with the different disintegrants such as maize starch, crospovidone, croscarmellose, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose. The powder blend was evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and hausner’s ratio. After compression the tablets were subjected to weight variation, %drug content, buoyancy studies and in-vitro release studies. The wet granulation was excluded from the formulation due to its high cost if production, direct compression was selected due to its low cost and ease of production. The optimized formulation F10 had showed 99.11% of drug release in 40 min and disintegration of tablet was 25 seconds. The result of FTIR analysis of pure drug alone and drug with excipients there was not showed any physical and chemical interaction. F10 had undergone DTA, which shows the thermal stability of the formulation. The stability studies of optimized formulation F10 at 30◦C / 65%RH, 40◦C / 75%RH did not show any change in tested parameters and release.

  18. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE AND DICLOXACILLIN SODIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariah Markose; K.G. Parthiban

    2012-01-01

    In the present work attempts were made to prepare dispersible tablets of Amoxicillin trihydrate and Dicloxacillin sodium by direct compression technique to enhance patient compliance. The three superdisintegrents used in the study were Crosscarmellose sodium, Crospovidone and Sodium starch glycolate. Tablet batches having superdisintegrents at different concentrations (20,30 and 60 gm) level were prepared. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, thickness, har...

  19. Effects of amoxicillin repeated administration on the hemogram and biogram of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrazzag Elmajdoub

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: These data may suggest that although the side changes caused by amoxicillin are minor in sheep, yet the liver and kidney functions should be monitored during its usage in therapy and it should be used with care for treatment of sheep with renal and/or hepatic impairments; its dosage regimen should be adjusted to avoid its hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 676-680

  20. Analysis of Three Penicillin Antibiotics (Ampicillin, Amoxicillin and Cloxacillin) of Several Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ashnagar; N. Gharib Naseri

    2007-01-01

    Penicillin has been the most widely used antibiotic for many gram-positive bacterial infections. In this research the purity of the standard active ingredients of the various dosage forms of three penicillins (Amoxicillin, Cloxacillin and Ampicillin) imported and the purity percentage of the active ingredients in each of the various dosage forms of these drugs manufactured by several pharmaceutical companies of Iran (Kosar, Farabi and Jaber Ibn Hayan) were investigated and determined by HPLC ...

  1. The Use of Converter Slag (Magnetite and Bentonite Clay for Amoxicillin Adsorption from Polluted Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maichin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pharmaceuticals compounds in the aquatic environment has attracted much interest from the academic community, since these compounds are potential endocrine disrupters and persist in the environment causing irreversible damage to the ecosystem. In Brazil little research has been conducted to measure, treat and remove β-lactam antibiotics such as amoxicillin present in surface water. Thus, the development and implementation of new treatment method which allow the removal or reduction of these compounds in surface waters are need. This study, focus on the development of low cost adsorbent material composed by steel manufacture converter slag (magnetite and bentonite clay to adsorb and remove amoxicillin (amox from water under laboratory conditions. To demonstrate the favorable aspects, the study was performed by experimental calculations of thermodynamics, kinetic and empirical model. The obtained results were similar with others found in literature which indicate the steel industry residue -magnetite and bentonite clay can be use to remove amoxicillin, with approximately 50% of removal percentage.

  2. Bioequiwalence of clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin(1:7) dispersible tablets in healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国新; 代宗顺; 龙利红; 韩颖; 侯淑贤; 吴立

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To study the bioequivalence of Clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin (1: 7) dispersible tablets, a randomized cross - over study was conducted in 18 healthy volunteers. A single oral dose of 1000 mg Clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin (1:7) dispersible tablets (Tested formulation, T) or Augmentin syrup (Reference formulation, R). Concentrations in plasma were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The main paramaters of T were: for Clavu lanate Potassium and Amoxicillin, Cmax: 2. 46±1.11 μg/ml and 18. 81±7. 26 μg/ml, Tmax 1. 12±0. 23h and 1. 30±0. 34h, AUC(0- 6h): 5. 18±2.24 μg * h/ml and 45. 09±14. 53 μg * h/ml, t1/2:1.43±0. 44 h and 1. 09±0.22 h. , respectively. The relative bioavailability of T to R were 96. 5±19. 2 % and 98. 4±26. 1 % , respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the two formulations were bioequivalent.

  3. RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1% H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9% to amoxicillin and three (5.5% to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.

  4. Resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori strains to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Khademi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori resistance to antibiotics has become a global problem and is an important factor in determining the outcome of treatment of infected patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in gastrointestinal disorders patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 260 gastric antrum biopsy specimens were collected from patients with gastrointestinal disorders who referred to Endoscopy Section of the Isfahan Hospitals. The E-test and Modified Disk Diffusion Method (MDDM were used to verify the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in 78 H. pylori isolates to the clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. Results: H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin were 15.3, 55.1, and 6.4%, respectively. In this studyΈ we had one multidrug resistance (MDR isolates from patient with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Conclusion: Information on antibiotic susceptibility profile plays an important role in empiric antibiotic treatment and management of refractive cases. According to the results obtained in this study, H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole was relatively high. MDR strains are emerging and will have an effect on the combination therapy.

  5. A New Case of DRESS Syndrome Induced by Sulfasalazine and Triggered by Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Girelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug Rash Eosinophilia Systemic Symptoms (DRESS syndrome is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction characterized by exfoliative dermatitis and maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, fever, eosinophilia, leukocytosis, and involvement of internal organs as liver, lung, heart, and kidney; the disorder starts within 2–6 weeks after taking a drug with an incidence that ranges from 1/1000 to 1/10000 exposures. Fatal cases are reported. The exact pathogenesis of DRESS syndrome is not completely understood, while it is reported that amoxicillin could trigger it in patients who are taking allopurinol, sulfasalazine, NSAIDs, carbamazepine, strontium ranelate, lisinopril, lansoprazole, and minocycline. Amoxicillin could act directly, inducing the reactivation of a viral infection (HHV 6 and EBV with symptoms similar to DRESS syndrome or by reducing the patients’ ability to detoxify the body from substances chronically taken. We describe a case of a patient admitted to our hospital for a DRESS syndrome flared after amoxicilline intake during treatment with sulfasalazine; this combination can activate severe reactions often with an insidious onset that can mimic an infectious disease.

  6. Toxic effects of amoxicillin on the photosystem II of Synechocystis sp. characterized by a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoxicillin is one of the widely used antibiotics of environmental concern. This study shows that amoxicillin has toxic effects on the photosynthesis of Synechocystis sp. Its inhibitory effects on photosystem II (PSII) of Synechocystis sp. were investigated by using a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests. The inhibitory effects of amoxicillin on PSII activity of Synechocystis sp. are concentration-dependent. Amoxicillin exposure leads to slowing down of electron transport on both donor side and acceptor side and causes accumulation of P680+. QA- reoxidation test revealed that amoxicillin hinders electron transfer from QA- to QB/QB- and more QA- is oxidized through S2(QAQB)- charge recombination. Analysis of PSII heterogeneity demonstrated that an exposure to amoxicillin increases the proportion of inactive PSII (PSIIX) centers and the proportion of PSII centers with small antenna (PSIIβ). These changes finally result in deterioration of full photosynthesis performance

  7. Dual drug delivery system for targeting H. pylori in the stomach: preparation and in vitro characterization of amoxicillin-loaded Carbopol® nanospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha, Sree

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods: A dual (immediate/sustained-release) oral amoxicillin suspension was developed as a new dosage form to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. Carbopol®-loaded amoxi-cillin nanospheres could bind with the mucosa after delivery to the stomach and could increase the efficiency of the drug, providing both an immediate and a sustained action. Results: The objective of this research was to develop amoxicillin nanospheres using a spray-drying technique and to investigate such feature...

  8. Single-Dose Oral Amoxicillin or Linezolid for Prophylaxis of Experimental Endocarditis Due to Vancomycin-Susceptible and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Moreillon, Philippe; Wilson, Walter R.; Leclercq, Roland; Entenza, José M,

    2007-01-01

    Endocarditis prophylaxis following genitourinary or gastrointestinal procedures targets Enterococcus faecalis. Prophylaxis recommendations advocate oral amoxicillin (2 g in the United States and 3 g in the United Kingdom) in moderate-risk patients and intravenous amoxicillin (2 g) or vancomycin (1 g) plus gentamicin in high-risk patients. While ampicillin-resistant (or amoxicillin-resistant) E. faecalis is still rare, there is a concern that these regimens might fail against vancomycin-resist...

  9. Clinical evaluation of pivmecillinam in intractable urinary-tract infections with complications. A comparative study with amoxicillin by a randomized double-blind technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, J; Tanikaze, S; Miyazaki, S; Ono, S; Kuroda, M; Hirooka, K; Mita, T; Sugimoto, M; Kuroda, K; Nakatsuka, E; Suemitsu, H; Tomioka, S; Takahashi, Y; Hara, S; Terasoma, K; Tanaka, K; Ueharaguchi, H; Hikosaka, K; Yasumuro, T; Kaneda, K; Akita, Y; Okano, H; Kobayashi, M; Kataoka, N

    1977-11-01

    A comparative study was made by the double-blind technique in order to make clear the usefulness of pivmecillinam in the treatment of intractable complicated urinary-tract infections using amoxicillin as a reference drug. Pivmecillinam was given in dosage of 400 mg (potency) per day which was one-fifth the dose of amoxicillin 2,000 mg (potency) per day. In global judgement, pivmecillinam was found superior to amoxicillin. It showed a "significant" superiority over amoxicillin for the treatment of, among others, the urinary-tract infections after prostatectomy, which are intractable diseases. When evaluated by symptoms, pivmecillinam improved bacteriuria "significantly" better than amoxicillin. When seen by causative organisms, the pivmecillinam treatment was "significantly" superior to the amoxicillin treatment against E. coli infections. Pivmecillinam was active against amoxicillin-resistant E. coli. Incidence of adverse reactions was less frequent with pivmecillinam than with amoxicillin. These results indicate that pivmecillinam is a drug of high usefulness for the treatment of intractable complicated urinary-tract infections when evaluated using amoxicillin as a reference drug. PMID:201786

  10. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate reduce ethanol intake and increase GLT-1 expression as well as AKT phosphorylation in mesocorticolimbic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwani, Sunil; Rao, P S S; Bell, Richard L; Sari, Youssef

    2015-10-01

    Studies have shown that administration of the β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CEF) attenuates ethanol consumption and cocaine seeking behavior as well as prevents ethanol-induced downregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression in central reward brain regions. However, it is not known if these effects are compound-specific. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of two other β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMOX) and amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin, AUG), on ethanol drinking, as well as GLT-1 and phosphorylated-AKT (pAKT) levels in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. P rats were exposed to free-choice of ethanol (15% and 30%) for five weeks and were given five consecutive daily i.p. injections of saline vehicle, 100 mg/kg AMOX or 100mg/kg AUG. Both compounds significantly decreased ethanol intake and significantly increased GLT-1 expression in the Acb. AUG also increased GLT-1 expression in the mPFC. Results for changes in pAKT levels matched those for GLT-1, indicating that β-lactam antibiotic-induced reductions in ethanol intake are negatively associated with increases in GLT-1 and pAKT levels within two critical brains regions mediating drug reward and reinforcement. These findings add to a growing literature that pharmacological increases in GLT-1 expression are associated with decreases in ethanol intake and suggest that one mechanism mediating this effect may be increased phosphorylation of AKT. Thus, GLT-1 and pAKT may serve as molecular targets for the treatment of alcohol and drug abuse/dependence. PMID:26168897

  11. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archiel Launch Tancawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n=235 or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n=237 for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7% was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7% in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.

  12. Pharmacokinetic interactions between ilaprazole and clarithromycin following ilaprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin triple therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan CAO; Hai-tang HU; Xiang-hong QIN; Hong-hao ZHOU; Wei ZHANG; Gan ZHOU; Dong-sheng OU-YANG; Hui-zi WU; Kui XIAO; Yao CHEN; Dong GUO; Lan FAN; Zhi-rong TAN

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the drug interactions between ilaprazole,a new proton pump inhibitor,and clarithromycin following ilaprazole,clarithromycin and amoxicillin combination therapy.Methods:Twelve healthy Chinese volunteers were recruited in a randomized,open-label,3-period crossover study.All subjects were administered ilaprazole (5 mg),clarithromycin (500 mg) or a triple therapy,including ilaprazole (5 mg),clarithromycin (500 mg) and amoxicillin (1 g),twice daily for 6 consecutive days.On the 7th day,the drugs were given once,and blood samples were collected and analyzed using a well-validated HPLC/MS/MS method.Results:Following the triple therapy,the peak concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to 12 h (AUC0→12) of ilaprazole were significantly decreased,as compared with the single medication group (Cmax:1025.0+319.6 vs 1452.3±324.6 ng/mL; AUC0→12:9777.7±3789.8 vs 11363.1±3442.0 ng·h/mL).Similar changes were found for ilaprazole sulfone (Cmax:5.9±0.5 vs 9.3±1.7 ng/mL; AUC0→12:201.4±32.1 vs 277.1±66.2 ng.h/mL).The triple therapy significantly elevated the Cmax of clarithromycin (3161.5+702.2 vs 2541.9+476.2 ng/mL).Conclusion:The H pylori eradication therapy with clarithromycin,amoxicillin and ilaprazole may cause pharmacokinetic interactions that decrease the amount of ilaprazole and its metabolites and elevate that of clarithromycin.

  13. Furazolidone,amoxicillin,bismuth and rabeprazole quadruple rescue therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Cheng; Fu-Lian Hu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To compare the efficacy and side effect profiles of three furazolidone and amoxicillin-based quadruple rescue therapies for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori).METHODS: Patients who failed in the H pylori eradication therapy for at least one course were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A received rebaprazole 10 mg + amoxicillin 1 g + furazolidone 100 mg, and bismuth subcitrate 220 mg, twice daily for 1 wk; group B received the same regimen of group A but for 2 wk; and group C received the same regimen of group B, but furazolidone was replaced by furazolidone 100 mg three times daily. To record the side effect profiles at the end of the treatment, H pylori eradication was assessed with 13C-urea breath test 4 wk after therapy. RESULTS: Sixty patients were enrolled including 28 males, and 20 patients in each group. The average age of the patients was 49.2 years, ranging from 18 to 84 years. H pylori eradication rates with per-protocol analysis were 82%, 89% and 90% in the three groups, respectively. Side effects were found in 11 patients, including mild dizziness, nausea, diarrhea and increased bowel movement. None of the 11 patients needed treatment for their side effects. CONCLUSION: One- or two-week furazolidone and amoxicillin-based quadruple rescue therapy with a low dose furazolidone (100 mg bid) for the eradication of H pylori is effective. Extending the antibiotic course to 14 d could improve the eradication rates. 2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship, and withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yong; Awji, Elias Gebru; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2016-06-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium in olive flounder and its activity against pathogenic bacteria of olive flounder were investigated. 2. Intramuscular administration (12.5 or 125 mg/kg, n = 160) and HPLC analysis of sera were used. 3. Rapid absorption (Tmax 2.6 and 2.2 h), prolonged action (terminal half-life, 15.52 and 10.42 h; MRT, 18.79 and 14.44 h), and dose-proportional exposure (AUC0-∞, 273.69 and 2755.37 h. μg/ml) were observed after 12.5 and 125 mg/kg doses. 4. The withdrawal period of amoxicillin sodium from muscle plus skin of olive flounder (n =40, water temperature, 23 °C) was 12 d (276 degree days). 5. Amoxicillin sodium had small MICs against Streptococcus iniae (0.008-0.06 μg/ml) and Streptococcus parauberis (0.03-1.0 μg/ml), whereas higher concentrations were required to inhibit Edwardsiella tarda isolates (0.06-16 μg/ml). 6. While large AUC0-24 h/MIC90 and Cmax/MIC90 ratios were obtained for S. iniae and S. parauberis, with drug concentrations in serum greater than MICs for the entire dosing interval (T > MIC90 of 100%), the lower dose (12.5 mg/kg) could not achieve target values of the PK-pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for E. tarda isolates, suggesting the need for higher doses to combat pathogenic bacteria with large MICs. PMID:26407038

  15. Børn foretrækker amoxicillin - og helst på flaske

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUKTION: Vi ønskede at finde ud af, om vi, bevæbnet med data fra tusindvis af recepter, kunne besvare et simpelt spørgsmål, der især presser sig på i disse kolde julemåneder: Hvilket penicillin accepteres bedst? MATERIALE OG METODER: Via Odense Universitets Pharmako- Epidemiologiske Database...... for behandlingsskift ved henholdsvis Primcillin og Flemoxin sammenlignet med Imacillin var 14,7 og 3,3. KONKLUSION: Primcillin accepteres dårligst. Børnene foretrækker amoxicillin og helst på flaske....

  16. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE AND DICLOXACILLIN SODIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah Markose

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work attempts were made to prepare dispersible tablets of Amoxicillin trihydrate and Dicloxacillin sodium by direct compression technique to enhance patient compliance. The three superdisintegrents used in the study were Crosscarmellose sodium, Crospovidone and Sodium starch glycolate. Tablet batches having superdisintegrents at different concentrations (20,30 and 60 gm level were prepared. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration test and invitro – dissolution study. Tablet containing combination of Crosscarmellose sodium and Crospovidone showed excellent invitro disintegration time and drug release as compared to other formulations.

  17. Contribution of the Autolysin AtlA to the Bactericidal Activity of Amoxicillin against Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bravetti, Anne-Lise; Mesnage, Stéphane; Lefort, Agnès; Chau, Françoise; Eckert, Catherine; Garry, Louis; Arthur, Michel; Fantin, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The bactericidal activity of amoxicillin was investigated against Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 and against an isogenic mutant deficient in the production of the N-acetylglucosaminidase AtlA. Comparison of the two strains indicated that this autolysin contributes to killing by amoxicillin both in vitro and in a rabbit model of experimental endocarditis.

  18. Moxifloxacin and Azithromycin but not Amoxicillin Protect Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells against Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro when Administered up to 6 Hours after Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, Martina; Albers, Cordula; Möller, Jan-Georg; Dalhoff, Axel; Korfmann, Gisela; Künkele, Frank; Döring, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    We determined the protective effect of moxifloxacin, azithromycin, and amoxicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection of respiratory cells. Moxifloxacin and azithromycin effectively killed intracellular S. pneumoniae strains and protected respiratory epithelial cells significantly even when given 6 h after S. pneumoniae challenge. Amoxicillin was less effective.

  19. Bioequivalence evaluation of two capsule formulations of amoxicillin in healthy adult male bangladeshi volunteers: A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Ashik; Azad, Mohammad Abul Kalam; Sultana, Rebeka; Akbor, Maruf Mohammad; Hasan, Ahasanul; Latif, Mahbub; Hasnat, Abul

    2008-01-01

    Background: Amoxicillin, a semisynthetic penicillin antibiotic, is widely prescribed in Bangladesh due to its extended spectrum and its rapid and extensive oral absorption with good tolerability. Although a number of generic oral formulations of amoxicillin are available in Bangladesh, a study of the bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic properties of these formulations has not yet been conducted in a Bangladeshi population.

  20. Pharmaceutical suspension containing both immediate/sustained-release amoxicillin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles: preparation and in vitro characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sree HarshaDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Pharmaceutical suspension containing oral dosage forms delivering both immediate-release and sustained-release amoxicillin was developed as a new dosage form to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. Amoxicillin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles are able to bind with the mucosal membrane after delivery to the stomach and could escalate the effectiveness of a drug, providing dual release. The objective of this study was to develop amoxicillin nanoparticles using innovative new technology – the Büchi Nano Spray Dryer B-90 – and investigate such features as drug content, particle morphology, yield, in vitro release, flow properties, and stability. The nanoparticles had an average particle size of 571 nm. The drug content and percentage yield was 89.2% ± 0.5% and 93.3% ± 0.6%, respectively. Angle of repose of nanoparticle suspension was 26.3° and bulk density was 0.59 g/cm3. In vitro drug release of formulations was best fitted by first-order and Peppas modeld with R2 of 0.9841 and 0.9837 respectively; release profile was 15.9%, while; for the original drug, amoxicillin, under the same conditions, 90% was released in the first 30 minutes. The nanoparticles used in this study enabled sustained release of amoxicillin over an extended period of time, up to 12 hours, and were stable for 12 months under accelerated storage conditions of 25°C ± 2°C and 60% ± 5% relative humidity.Keywords: nanoparticles, drug delivery, nano spray dryer, amoxicillin, H. pylori

  1. Double-Blind, Randomized Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Pharmacokinetically Enhanced Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (2,000/125 Milligrams) versus Those of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (875/125 Milligrams), Both Given Twice Daily for 7 Days, in Treatment of Bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    File, T M; Lode, H; Kurz, H.; Kozak, R; H. Xie; Berkowitz, E

    2004-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial was designed to demonstrate that pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 mg) was at least as effective clinically as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg, both given twice daily for 7 days, in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. In total, 633 clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia patients (intent-to-treat population) were randomized to receive either oral amoxicillin-c...

  2. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after oral administration in recently weaned piglets with experimentally induced Escherichia coli subtype O149 : F4 diarrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.;

    2004-01-01

    Objective-To measure the effect of Escherichia coli subtype 0149:F4-induced diarrhea on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered amoxicillin in affected piglets relative to that of uninfected piglets. Animals-22 healthy 4-week-old recently weaned Danish crossbred piglets. Procedure-12 piglets...... were orally inoculated through gastric intubation with 10(9) CFUs of an E coli 0149:F4 strain and responded by developing diarrhea 12 to 16 hours later. Piglets were dosed with amoxicillin trihydrate solution (20 mg/kg) by gastric intubation. A control group of 10 age-matched piglets without signs of...... diarrhea was dosed similarly. Blood samples were obtained before amoxicillin administration and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after amoxicillin administration. The plasma concentration of amoxicillin was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results-A significant 39% decrease in...

  3. Different spectrophotometric methods applied for the analysis of binary mixture of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Three different spectrophotometric methods were applied for the quantitative analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixture, namely, ratio subtraction, absorbance subtraction and amplitude modulation. A comparative study was done listing the advantages and the disadvantages of each method. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines and the obtained accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixtures.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacokinetically Enhanced Amoxicillin-Clavulanate at 2,000/125 Milligrams Twice Daily for 5 Days versus Amoxicillin-Clavulanate at 875/125 Milligrams Twice Daily for 7 Days in the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Sanjay; Breton, John; Wynne, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This randomized, controlled trial was designed to show that a short, 5-day course of pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg (Augmentin XR) is as effective clinically as a longer, 7-day course of conventional amoxicillin-clavulanate at 875/125 mg (both given twice daily) in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB). Amoxicillin-clavulanate at 2,000/125 mg was designed to extend the therapeutic levels of amoxicillin in serum over the 12-h do...

  5. Influence of particle size of nano zinc oxide on the controlled delivery of Amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanikumar, L.; Ramasamy, S.; Hariharan, G.; Balachandran, C.

    2013-10-01

    A great effort has been exerted to develop drug carriers aiming at satisfying the requirements, such as safety, greater efficiency, predictable therapeutic response, and prolonged release period. The present study aims at developing the use of zinc oxide nanoparticles as a carrier as a function of particle size for amoxicillin drug delivery system. The amoxicillin-loaded zinc oxide nanoparticles have a good antibacterial activity against infectious Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been prepared by wet chemical precipitation method varying the pH values. Particle size and morphology of the as-prepared ZnO powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope. Drug loading, in vitro drug release and antibacterial activity have been analyzed. Maximum zone of inhibition is observed for Staphylococcus epidermis. The results show that inhibitory efficacy of drug-loaded ZnO nanoparticles is very much dependent on its chosen concentration, drug loading, and size.

  6. Determination of amoxicillin in catfish and salmon tissues by liquid chromatography with precolumn formaldehyde derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, C.Y.W.; Wenhong Luo; Hansen, E.B. Jr.; Freeman, J.P.; Thompson, H.C. Jr. [Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method with fluorescence detection was developed for analysis of amoxicillin in catfish and salmon tissued. The tissue was extracted with phosphate buffer (pH 4.5), followed by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation of proteins and solid-phase (C{sub 18}) extraction. Trace amounts of nonpolar interfering substances present after solid-phase extraction were removed by ether liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was reacted with formaldehyde and TCA at 100{degrees}C for 30 min. A fluorescent derivative was extracted with ether, concentrated, and analyzed by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Average recoveries of amoxicillin spiked at 2.5-20 ppb were > 80% for catfish and >75% for salmon muscle tissue, with coefficients of variation of <6%. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for catfish tissue were 0.5 and 1.2 ppb, respectively. LOD and LOQ for salmon muscle tissue were 0.8 and 2.0 ppb, respectively. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Highly sensitive colorimetric determination of amoxicillin in pharmaceutical formulations based on induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhond, Morteza; Absalan, Ghodratollah; Ershadifar, Hamid

    2015-05-01

    A novel, simple and highly sensitive colorimetric method is developed for determination of Amoxicillin (AMX). The system is based on aggregation of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNP) in acetate buffer (pH = 4.5) in the presence of the degradation product of Amoxicillin (DPAMX). It was found that the color of gold nanoparticles changed from red to purple and the intensity of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak of AuNPs decreased. A new absorption band was appeared in the wavelength range of 600-700 nm upon addition of DPAMX. The absorbance ratio at the wavelength of 660 and 525 nm (A660/A525) was chosen as the analytical signal indirectly related to AMX concentration. The linearity of the calibration graph was found over the concentration range of 0.3-4.5 μM AMX with a correlation coefficient of 0.9967. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limit was found to be 0.15 μM. The applicability of the method was successfully demonstrated by analysis of AMX in pharmaceutical formulations including capsules and oral suspensions.

  8. High-Dose Amoxicillin with Clavulanate for the Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huei Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study uses the acute otitis media clinical practice guideline proposed in 2004 as a reference to evaluate whether antibiotics doses that are in line with the recommendations lead to better prognosis. The study also attempts to clarify possible factors that influence the outcome. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects and Methods. A total of 400 children with acute otitis media were enrolled. The dosage of amoxicillin was considered to be appropriate when in accord with clinical practice guidelines, that is, 80–90 mg/kg/day. The outcome was defined according to the description of tympanic membrane on medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between antibiotic dosage and prognosis after adjusting for baseline factors. Results. The majority of prescriptions were under dosage (89.1% but it was not noticeably associated with outcome (P= 0.41. The correlation between under dosage and poor prognosis was significant in children below 20 kg with bilateral acute otitis media (odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.02–2.59, P=0.04. Conclusion. Treating acute otitis media in children, high-dose amoxicillin with clavulanate as recommended in the clinical practice guideline was superior to conventional doses only in children under 20 kg with bilateral diseases.

  9. Outbreak of amoxicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b: variable number of tandem repeats as novel molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); W.J. Melchers; C. IJsseldijk; L. Nohlmans; J.F. Meis; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAn outbreak caused by amoxicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b was noted among patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since infections were clustered in time and place, an ongoing outbreak was suspected. The spread of the s

  10. Evaluation of the routine use of amoxicillin as part of the home-based treatment of severe acute malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether the inclusion of amoxicillin correlates with better recovery rates in the home-based treatment of severe acute malnutrition with ready-to-use therapeutic food. This retrospective cohort study compared data from the treatment of two groups of children in Malawi aged 6-59 months w...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated in newly-hatched chickens and effect of amoxicillin treatment during their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Doménech, Eva; Villagrá, Arantxa; Fenollar, Alejandro; Ferrús, Maria Antonia

    2016-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals is the major determinant for the propagation of resistant bacteria in the animal reservoir. However, other factors may also play a part, and in particular vertical spread between the generations has been suggested to be an important transmission pathway. The objective of this paper was to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from newly-hatched chickens as well as to study the antibiotic pressure effect when amoxicillin was administered during their growing period. With this aim, meconium from 22 one-day-old Ross chickens was analysed. In addition, during their growth period, amoxicillin treatments at days 7, 21 and 35 were carried out. Results showed a high number of E. coli-resistant strains were isolated from the treated one-day-old chickens, and were the highest for β-lactams group, followed by quinolone and tetracyclines. After treatment with amoxicillin, the highest percentage of resistances were detected for this antibiotic compared to the others analysed, with significant differences in resistance percentages between control and treated broilers detected in relation to ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Differences in resistances to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid between control and treated animals were not observed and there was lack of resistance for amikacin and ceftriaxone. These results suggest the possibility of vertical transmission of resistant strains to newly-hatched chicks from parent flocks, and seem to indicate that the treatment with amoxicillin increased the resistance of E. coli to other antibiotics. PMID:27035748

  12. EFFECT OF HYDROPHILIC AND HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC MATTER ON AMOXICILLIN AND CEPHALEXIN RESIDUALS REJECTION FROM WATER BY NANOFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.Zazouli, M.Ulbricht, S. Nasseri, H. Susanto,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics such as amoxicillin and cephalexin are a group of pharmaceutical compounds in human medicine practice that have been entered in water bodies. Presence of these compounds in the environment has raised concerns regarding the toxicity to aquatic organisms and the emergence of strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Removal of these substances before entering the aquatic environment as well as water reuse plant is very important. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM on the removal efficiency of cephalexin and amoxicillin, by using two different commercially available composite NF membranes (TFC-SR2 and TFC-SR3. In addition, the effect of NOM fractions on retention mechanism and permeates flux behavior was studied. Amoxicillin and cephalexin were used as models of antibiotics; alginate and humic acid were used as models of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of NOM, respectively. It was observed that the rejection and permeate flux of amoxicillin and cephalexin were influenced by the membrane characteristics and properties of NOM. The results showed that as the alginate proportion was increased, the rejection improved. The permeate flux decreased with increasing alginate ratio. It was observed that the rejections of amoxicillin and cephalexin in TFC-SR2 were >97.3% and >95.8% in all experiments, respectively. In TFC-SR3, the rejection percentage were (95.9%-100% and (86.1%-96.3%, respectively. Alginate and humic acid had synergistic effect on flux decline. In other words, increasing alginate concentration increased the rate and extent of flux reduction.

  13. Hollow-fiber pharmacodynamic studies and mathematical modeling to predict the efficacy of amoxicillin for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis in pregnant women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Arnold; Vanscoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G L

    2013-12-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ≥94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of 1.75 μg/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children. PMID:24041894

  14. Rationale behind high-dose amoxicillin therapy for acute otitis media due to penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci: support from in vitro pharmacodynamic studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lister, P D; Pong, A; Chartrand, S A; Sanders, C C

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether increased doses of amoxicillin should be used to treat acute pneumococcal otitis media, an in vitro pharmacokinetic model was used to evaluate the killing of pneumococci by amoxicillin when middle ear pharmacokinetics were simulated. Logarithmic-phase cultures were exposed to peak concentrations of 3, 6, and 9 microg of amoxicillin per ml every 12 h, and an elimination half-life of 1.6 h was simulated. Changes in viable bacterial counts were measured over 36 h. All three d...

  15. Kounis syndrome secondary to simultaneous oral amoxicillin and parenteral ampicillin use in a young man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezgin, Tahir; Geçmen, Çetin; Özkan, Birol; Alici, Gökhan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Kargin, Ramazan; Esen, Ali Metin

    2013-03-01

    The concurrence of acute coronary syndrome with allergy or hypersensitivity as well as with anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions is increasingly encountered in daily clinical practice. There are several reports associating mast cell activation with acute cardiovascular events in adults. This was first described by Kounis as 'allergic angina syndrome',progressing to 'allergic myocardial infarction'. The main mechanism proposed is the vasospasm of coronary arteries. We present a case of a 28-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with thoracic pain and dyspnoea. The symptoms recurred after simultaneous use of 1 g amoxicillin/clavulanic acid orally and 1 g ampicillin/sulbactam parenterally for tonsillitis the night before presentation and on the morning of admission. PMID:23152096

  16. Maculopapular skin rash due to amoxicillin tri-hydrate hypersensitivity reaction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walli Mohammed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin tri-hydrate (AMT is a commonly used penicillin group of antibacterial agent to combat various bacterial infections. Penicillin group of drugs are known to cause cutaneous drug eruptions as a hypersensitivity reaction. Most of the time, these eruptions are mild in nature, however, sometimes they represent the early manifestation of rare and severe drug-induced cutaneous reactions, such as; Stevens and ndash;Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Here, we report a case of maculopapular skin rash developed due to AMT hypersensitivity reaction in a 48-year-old Indian male patient. Pheniramine maleate, hydrocortisone and skin protecting lotion were prescribed to manage the situation. This case is being reported to emphasize the need for reporting of drug induced complications and their management procedures. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 175-178

  17. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin administered in drinking water to recently weaned 3- to 4-week-old pigs with diarrhea experimentally induced by Escherichia coli O149 : F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.;

    2006-01-01

    Objective-To measure effects of Escherichia coli 0149:F4-induced diarrhea on water consumption and pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after administration in drinking water. Animals-24 recently weaned 24- to 28-day-old crossbred pigs. Procedure-10 pigs were inoculated with E coli O149:F4; all 10 pigs...... subsequently developed diarrhea. Pigs were medicated by administration of amoxicillin in the drinking water (0.75 mg/mL) for a 4-hour period on 2 consecutive days. Fourteen age-matched noninfected healthy pigs (control group) were medicated in a similar manner. Blood samples were obtained from both groups...... daily, and plasma concentrations of amoxicillin were analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Results-Diarrhea reduced the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (C-max) of amoxicillin on the first day of medication by 56% and 63...

  18. In vitro activity of cefmetazole, cefotetan, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and other antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria from endometrial cultures of women with pelvic infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm-Smith, M J; Sweet, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The MICs of the new antimicrobial agents cefmetazole, cefotetan, and amoxicillin-clauvulanic acid were compared with the MICs of other antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria from endometrial cultures from women with pelvic inflammatory disease or endometritis. The activity of cefmetazole was similar to that of cefoxitin and generally greater than that of cefotetan. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was generally more active than all cephamycins tested.

  19. Alterations of Penicillin-Binding Proteins 1A, 2X, and 2B in Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates for Which Amoxicillin MICs Are Higher than Penicillin MICs

    OpenAIRE

    Kosowska, K.; Jacobs, M R; Bajaksouzian, S.; Koeth, L.; Appelbaum, P. C.

    2004-01-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of 15 selected penicillin- and amoxicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (MICs of 2 to 8 and 8 to 16 μg/ml, respectively) were studied. In addition to typical changes in PBPs 1A and 2X, these strains had 10 unique changes in PBP 2B, including a 618A-G substitution, which may be the key alteration associated with amoxicillin resistance.

  20. Ex Vivo Pharmacodynamics of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in a Yucatan Miniature Pig Model That Mimics Human Pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, Stéphane; Murbach, Valérie; Peter, Jean-Daniel; Levêque, Dominique; Elkhaïli, Hassan; Salmon, Yves; Dhoyen, Nathalie; Monteil, Henri; Woodnutt, Gary; Jehl, François

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential bactericidal activity of amoxicillin-clavulanate against β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains and to elucidate the extent to which enzyme production affects the activity. Six adult Yucatan miniature pigs received a single intravenous dose of 1.1 g of amoxicillin-clavulanate as an intravenous infusion over 30 min. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for the serum samples and compared to the published data ...

  1. Two Pharmacodynamic Models for Assessing the Efficacy of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Experimental Respiratory Tract Infections Caused by Strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Woodnutt, Gary; Berry, Valerie

    1999-01-01

    Two models of respiratory tract infection were used to investigate the pharmacodynamics of amoxicillin-clavulanate against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Eight strains of S. pneumoniae were used in a mouse model in which the animals were infected intranasally and were then treated with a range of doses and dose intervals. The time that the plasma amoxicillin concentration remained above the MIC (T>MIC) correlated well with bacterial killing, such that if T>MIC was below 20% there was no effect on ...

  2. Hollow-Fiber Pharmacodynamic Studies and Mathematical Modeling To Predict the Efficacy of Amoxicillin for Anthrax Postexposure Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Arnold; VanScoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G L

    2013-01-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharma...

  3. Toxic effects of amoxicillin on the photosystem II of Synechocystis sp. characterized by a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Xiangliang [Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumuqi, 830011 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China); Deng Chunnuan [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130012 (China); Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Zhang Daoyong [Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumuqi, 830011 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, 550002 (China)], E-mail: zhangdaoyong@vip.gyig.ac.cn; Wang Jianlong [Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Mu Guijin [Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumuqi, 830011 (China); Chen Ying [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2008-09-29

    Amoxicillin is one of the widely used antibiotics of environmental concern. This study shows that amoxicillin has toxic effects on the photosynthesis of Synechocystis sp. Its inhibitory effects on photosystem II (PSII) of Synechocystis sp. were investigated by using a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests. The inhibitory effects of amoxicillin on PSII activity of Synechocystis sp. are concentration-dependent. Amoxicillin exposure leads to slowing down of electron transport on both donor side and acceptor side and causes accumulation of P680{sup +}. Q{sub A}{sup -} reoxidation test revealed that amoxicillin hinders electron transfer from Q{sub A}{sup -} to Q{sub B}/Q{sub B}{sup -} and more Q{sub A}{sup -} is oxidized through S{sub 2}(Q{sub A}Q{sub B}){sup -} charge recombination. Analysis of PSII heterogeneity demonstrated that an exposure to amoxicillin increases the proportion of inactive PSII (PSII{sub X}) centers and the proportion of PSII centers with small antenna (PSII{beta}). These changes finally result in deterioration of full photosynthesis performance.

  4. Development of aminoglycoside and β-lactamase resistance in intestinal microbiota of swine treated with lincomycin, chlorotetracycline and amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eSun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin are commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and infectious disease prophylaxis in swine production. In this study, we investigated the shifts and resistance development among intestinal microbiota in pregnant sows before and after lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin treatment by using phylogenetic analysis, bacterial enumeration, and PCR. After the antimicrobial treatment, shifts in microbial community, an increased proportion of resistant bacteria, and genes related to antimicrobial resistance as compared to the day before antimicrobial administration (day 0 were observed. Importantly, a positive correlation between antimicrobial resistance gene expression in different categories, especially those encoding aminoglycoside and β-lactamase and antimicrobial resistance, was observed. These findings demonstrate an important role of antimicrobial usage in animals in the development of antimicrobial resistance, and support the notion that prudent use of antimicrobials in swine is needed to reduce the risk of the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR zoonotic pathogens.

  5. Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological studies of transition metal complexes of novel schiff bases derived from amoxicillin and sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe (II), Co (II) and Ni (II) metal complexes of new Schiff bases derived from amoxicillin with sugars (D-Glucose, D-Galactose and D-Mannose) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, electronic absorption, and atomic absorption spectroscopy, magnetic moment measurements and thermal analysis. It has been found that Schiff bases behave as bi-dentate ligands forming complexes with 1:2 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry. The complexes were neutral as confirmed by their low conductance values. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on two gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) microorganisms by Agar diffusion disc method. It has been found that all the complexes have higher biological activities than the pure amoxicillin. (author)

  6. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan-poly (acrylic acid hydrogels as stomach specific delivery for amoxicillin and metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Yadav K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to develop stomach specific delivery systems for amoxicillin and metronidazole using chitosan and poly(acrylic acid hydrogels. Chitosan and poly(acrylic acid hydrogels were prepared with different composition of copolymers. The hydrogels were evaluated for swelling studies, mucoadhesive studies, in vitro drug release, scanning electron microscopic and FTIR analysis. The effect of chitosan and poly (acrylic acid on swelling and in vitro drug release was carried out. The n value calculated was < 0.5 for all the formulations containing amoxicillin and metronidazole indicating Fickian diffusion mechanism. The hydrogels with chitosan and poly (acrylic acid ratio of 0.25:1 showed greater mucoadhesive property, maximum swelling and complete release of drugs, hence can be used for stomach specific delivery of drugs.

  7. Fast mineralization and detoxification of amoxicillin and diclofenac by photocatalytic ozonation and application to an urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Nuno F F; Orge, Carla A; Ribeiro, Ana R; Faria, Joaquim L; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, M Fernando R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-12-15

    The degradation of two organic pollutants (amoxicillin and diclofenac) in 0.1 mM aqueous solutions was studied by using advanced oxidation processes, namely ozonation, photolysis, photolytic ozonation, photocatalysis and photocatalytic ozonation. Diclofenac was degraded quickly under direct photolysis by artificial light (medium-pressure vapor arc, λ(exc) > 300 nm), while amoxicillin remained very stable. In the presence of ozone, regardless of the type of process, complete degradation of both organic pollutants was observed in less than 20 min. Photolysis or ozonation on their own led to modest values of total organic carbon (TOC) removal (micropollutants (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, hormones and an industrial compound) detected in non-spiked urban wastewater. PMID:26397450

  8. Assay of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, the components of Augmentin, in biological fluids with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Foulstone, M; Reading, C

    1982-01-01

    Augmentin is a new antibacterial formulation comprised of amoxicillin and the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. In the present paper, the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to provide a rapid assay of the components of Augmentin in body fluids is described. Clavulanic acid was assayed by reacting the sample with imidazole, which readily produces a derivative absorbing at 311 nm. This derivative chromatographs on reverse-phase HPLC columns clear of interfering compone...

  9. Activity of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in an Experimental Respiratory Infection Model in Rats†

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Gillian M.; Slocombe, Brian; Abbott, Karen H.; Mizen, Linda W.

    1998-01-01

    High doses of amoxicillin, equivalent to those produced by 500- and 750-mg oral doses in humans (area under the plasma concentration-time curve), were effective against a penicillin-resistant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae in an experimental respiratory tract infection in immunocompromised rats; this superior activity confirms the results of previous studies. An unexpected enhancement of amoxicillin’s antibacterial activity in vivo against penicillin-resistant and -susceptible S. pneumoni...

  10. Effects of packaging and storage conditions on the quality of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid – an analysis of Cambodian samples

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Hatanaka, Kirara; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Casas, Lidia Cecilia Cadena; Yoshida, Naoko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of substandard and degraded medicines is a major public health problem in developing countries such as Cambodia. A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the quality of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid preparations under tropical conditions in a developing country. Methods Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid tablets were obtained from outlets in Cambodia. Packaging condition, printed information, and other sources of information were examined. The samples were tested for quantity...

  11. Oral Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Treatment in Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase–Producing Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Beytur, Ali; Yakupogullari, Yusuf; Oguz, Fatih; Otlu, Baris; Kaysadu, Halim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasing problems. The involvement of ESBL-producing organisms is associated with higher rates of carbapenem usage in urinary tract infections (UTIs). Though some strains are susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) in vitro, there is very less data about the consequences of AMC usage for such infections. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological outcomes of AMC treatment in UTIs caus...

  12. Comparison of the 7 and 14 days lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin protocol in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Uygun, Ahmet; TÜZÜN, Ahmet; YEŞİLOVA, Zeki; Aslan, Murat; Ateş, Yüksel; POLAT, Zülfikar; ERDİL, Ahmet; BAĞCI, Sait; GÜNHAN, Ömer; GÜLŞEN, Mustafa; DAĞALP, Kemal

    2005-01-01

    Background/aim: There is currently a debate on the duration of treatment protocols for the first-line eradication treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp). The aim of this study was to compare the eradication rates of 7- and 14-day treatment protocols including lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia. Materials and methods: 188 patients (92 female, 96 male, mean age 44.8 years) with Hp-positive nonulcer dyspepsia were enrolled in the study. The pre...

  13. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Amoxicillin-Sulbactam, a Novel Aminopenicillin–β-Lactamase Inhibitor Combination, against Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Bantar, Carlos; Nicola, Federico; Arenoso, Hector J.; Galas, Marcelo; Soria, Liliana; Dana, Diego; Rossi, Alicia; Bianchini, Hebe; Jasovich, Abel

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin-sulbactam (AMX-SUL), a novel drug combination, and its pharmacodynamics against Escherichia coli in 12 volunteers receiving a single oral dose (1,000 mg). Peak serum bactericidal and urine inhibitory activities in most volunteers were observed against E. coli strains for which AMX-SUL MICs were low (2- to 4-mg/liter) (2 strains) and high (≥16-mg/liter) (47 strains), respectively.

  14. Influence of clavulanic acid on the activity of amoxicillin against an experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae-Staphylococcus aureus mixed respiratory infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G.M; Boon, R J; Beale, A S

    1990-01-01

    An experimental respiratory infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae was established in weanling rats by intrabronchial instillation. Treatment of this infection with amoxicillin rapidly eliminated the pneumococci from the lung tissue. A beta-lactamase-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in a similar manner, did not persist adequately in the lungs long enough to permit a reasonable assessment of the therapy, but staphylococcal survival was extended in the lungs of r...

  15. Looking for the interactions between omeprazole and amoxicillin in a disordered phase. An experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marcos G.; Sancho, Matias I.; Silva, Lorena M. A.; Baldoni, Hector A.; Venancio, Tiago; Ellena, Javier; Narda, Griselda E.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, co-grinding mixtures of omeprazole-amoxicillin trihydrate (CGM samples) and omeprazole-anhydrous amoxicillin (CGMa samples) at 3:7, 1:1 and 7:3 molar ratios, respectively, were studied with the aim of obtaining a co-amorphous system and determining the potential intermolecular interactions. These systems were fully characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR). The co-grinding process was not useful to get a co-amorphous system but it led to obtaining the 1:1 CGMa disordered phase. Moreover, in this system both FTIR and ssNMR analysis strongly suggest intermolecular interactions between the sulfoxide group of omeprazole and the primary amine of amoxicillin anhydrous. The solubility measurements were performed in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) to prove the effect of the co-grinding process. Complementarily, we carried out density functional theory calculations (DFT) followed by quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses in order to shed some light on the principles that guide the possible formation of heterodimers at the molecular level, which are supported by spectroscopic experimental findings.

  16. Late-onset rash in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis treated with amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Kimura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed late-onset rashes in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS pharyngitis. Of 1028 patients with GAS pharyngitis, which was principally treated with amoxicillin, we evaluated those who developed a late-onset rash and excluded those with scarlet fever alone. Twenty-one patients developed a rash (2.0%, 95% confidence interval, 1.3- 3.1%, 7 to 20 days (median, 8 days after GAS pharyngitis onset. The rashes were characterized by maculopapules, which increased in size with coalescence and some developing into plaques, with a symmetrical distribution with a propensity for the extremities, including the palms and soles. The clinical courses of the patients were good, and the rashes subsided within 14 days. A non-immediate reaction to β-lactams, which usually manifests as a maculopapular rash, is a possible cause in our patients, however, repeated courses of amoxicillin in 3 patients did not induce the rash. The underlying mechanism of the late-onset rash after GAS pharyngitis with amoxicillin treatment remains unclear.

  17. Late-onset Rash in Patients with Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis Treated with Amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masahiko

    2015-12-01

    We observed late-onset rashes in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Of 1028 patients with GAS pharyngitis, which was principally treated with amoxicillin, we evaluated those who developed a late-onset rash and excluded those with scarlet fever alone. Twenty-one patients developed a rash (2.0%, 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.1%), 7 to 20 days (median, 8 days) after GAS pharyngitis onset. The rashes were characterized by maculopapules, which increased in size with coalescence and some developing into plaques, with a symmetrical distribution with a propensity for the extremities, including the palms and soles. The clinical courses of the patients were good, and the rashes subsided within 14 days. A non-immediate reaction to β-lactams, which usually manifests as a maculopapular rash, is a possible cause in our patients, however, repeated courses of amoxicillin in 3 patients did not induce the rash. The underlying mechanism of the late-onset rash after GAS pharyngitis with amoxicillin treatment remains unclear. PMID:26734124

  18. Development of bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and Aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Arati N; Wankhede, Sonali S; Ranpise, Nisharani S; Mundada, Mayur S

    2012-12-01

    Usual treatment for Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer includes a 'triple therapy' consisting of two antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole). The objective of this project work was defined with a view to retain the drug in stomach for better antiulcer activity and substituting one of the synthetic drugs in this therapy with a herbal alternative. Hence, aim of the present work was to design and develop a bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and Aloe vera gel powder for the treatment of peptic ulcer. A. vera gel powder is used for its cytoprotective action. Bilayer floating tablets were prepared by applying direct compression technique. The proportion of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was adjusted to get the least possible lag time with good matrix integrity and total floating time. Polymer concentration was adjusted to get the maximum release in 8 h. The formulation was developed using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M and HPMC K100M in a ratio of 85:15 along with 1:4 ratio of effervescent agents was found to give floating lag time of less than 1 min with total floating time of more than 8 h and 97.0% drug release in 8 h. In vivo study in rats meets the requirement of antiulcer activity for bilayer tablet in comparison to single amoxicillin as standard. PMID:23135966

  19. Floating modular drug delivery systems with buoyancy independent of release mechanisms to sustain amoxicillin and clarithromycin intra-gastric concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alessandra; Conti, Chiara; Colombo, Gaia; Castrati, Luca; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Barata, Pedro; Sandri, Giuseppina; Caramella, Carla; Bettini, Ruggero; Buttini, Francesca; Colombo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Release modules of amoxicillin and clarithromycin combined in a single dosage form designed to float in the gastric content and to sustain the intra-gastric concentrations of these two antibiotics used for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori have been studied. The modules having a disc shape with curved bases were formulated as hydrophilic matrices. Two modules of clarithromycin were assembled by sticking the concave base of one module to the concave base of the other, creating an internal void chamber. The final dosage form was a floating assembly of three modules of clarithromycin and two of amoxicillin in which the drug release mechanism did not interfere with the floatation mechanism. The assembled system showed immediate in vitro floatation at pH 1.2, lasting 5 h. The in vitro antibiotics release profiles from individual modules and assembled systems exhibited linear release rate during buoyancy for at least 8 h. The predicted antibiotic concentrations in the stomach maintained for long time levels significantly higher than the respective minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). In addition, an in vivo absorption study performed on beagle dogs confirmed the slow release of clarithromycin and amoxicillin from the assembled system during the assembly's permanence in the stomach for at least 4 h. PMID:26065531

  20. Antibiotic removal from water: Elimination of amoxicillin and ampicillin by microscale and nanoscale iron particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghauch, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.ghauch@aub.edu.l [American University of Beirut, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, 1107-2020 Beirut (Lebanon); Tuqan, Almuthanna; Assi, Hala Abou [American University of Beirut, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, 1107-2020 Beirut (Lebanon)

    2009-05-15

    Zerovalent iron powder (ZVI or Fe{sup 0}) and nanoparticulate ZVI (nZVI or nFe{sup 0}) are proposed as cost-effective materials for the removal of aqueous antibiotics. Results showed complete removal of Amoxicillin (AMX) and Ampicillin (AMP) upon contact with Fe{sup 0} and nFe{sup 0}. Antibiotics removal was attributed to three different mechanisms: (i) a rapid rupture of the beta-lactam ring (reduction), (ii) an adsorption of AMX and AMP onto iron corrosion products and (iii) sequestration of AMX and AMP in the matrix of precipitating iron hydroxides (co-precipitation with iron corrosion products). Kinetic studies demonstrated that AMP and AMX (20 mg L{sup -1}) undergo first-order decay with half-lives of about 60.3 +- 3.1 and 43.5 +- 2.1 min respectively after contact with ZVI under oxic conditions. In contrast, reactions under anoxic conditions demonstrated better degradation with t{sub 1/2} of about 11.5 +- 0.6 and 11.2 +- 0.6 min for AMP and AMX respectively. NaCl additions accelerated Fe{sup 0} consumption, shortening the service life of Fe{sup 0} treatment systems. - Fe{sup 0} is efficient for the aqueous removal of the beta-lactam antibiotics and chlorides enhanced the removal rate by sustaining the process of iron corrosion.

  1. Nondestructive determination of compound amoxicillin powder by NIR spectroscopy with the aid of chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Nan; Zhu, Mingchao; Mi, Hong; Dou, Ying; Ren, Yulin

    2008-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, in combination with chemometrics, enables nondestructive analysis of solid samples without time-consuming sample preparation methods. A new method for the nondestructive determination of compound amoxicillin powder drug via NIR spectroscopy combined with an improved neural network model based on principal component analysis (PCA) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks is investigated. The PCA technique is applied to extraction relevant features from lots of spectra data in order to reduce the input variables of the RBF neural networks. Various optimum principal component analysis-radial basis function (PCA-RBF) network models based on conventional spectra and preprocessing spectra (standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC)) have been established and compared. Principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibrations are also used, which are compared with PCA-RBF neural networks. Experiment results show that the proposed PCA-RBF method is more efficient than PCR and PLS multivariate calibrations. And the PCA-RBF approach with SNV preprocessing spectra is found to provide the best performance.

  2. Degradation of the antibiotic amoxicillin by photo-Fenton process--chemical and toxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovó, Alam G; Nogueira, Raquel F Pupo; Agüera, Ana; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R; Malato, Sixto

    2011-01-01

    The influence of iron species on amoxicillin (AMX) degradation, intermediate products generated and toxicity during the photo-Fenton process using a solar simulator were evaluated in this work. The AMX degradation was favored in the presence of the potassium ferrioxalate complex (FeOx) when compared to FeSO(4). Total oxidation of AMX in the presence of FeOx was obtained after 5 min, while 15 min were necessary using FeSO(4). The results obtained with Daphnia magna biossays showed that the toxicity decreased from 65 to 5% after 90 min of irradiation in the presence of FeSO(4). However, it increased again to a maximum of 100% after 150 min, what indicates the generation of more toxic intermediates than AMX, reaching 45% after 240 min. However, using FeOx, the inhibition of mobility varied between 100 and 70% during treatment, probably due to the presence of oxalate, which is toxic to the neonates. After 240 min, between 73 and 81% TOC removal was observed. Different pathways of AMX degradation were suggested including the opening of the four-membered β-lactamic ring and further oxidations of the methyl group to aldehyde and/or hydroxylation of the benzoic ring, generating other intermediates after bound cleavage between different atoms and further oxidation to carboxylates such acetate, oxalate and propionate, besides the generation of nitrate and ammonium. PMID:21093887

  3. Antibiotic removal from water: Elimination of amoxicillin and ampicillin by microscale and nanoscale iron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerovalent iron powder (ZVI or Fe0) and nanoparticulate ZVI (nZVI or nFe0) are proposed as cost-effective materials for the removal of aqueous antibiotics. Results showed complete removal of Amoxicillin (AMX) and Ampicillin (AMP) upon contact with Fe0 and nFe0. Antibiotics removal was attributed to three different mechanisms: (i) a rapid rupture of the β-lactam ring (reduction), (ii) an adsorption of AMX and AMP onto iron corrosion products and (iii) sequestration of AMX and AMP in the matrix of precipitating iron hydroxides (co-precipitation with iron corrosion products). Kinetic studies demonstrated that AMP and AMX (20 mg L-1) undergo first-order decay with half-lives of about 60.3 ± 3.1 and 43.5 ± 2.1 min respectively after contact with ZVI under oxic conditions. In contrast, reactions under anoxic conditions demonstrated better degradation with t1/2 of about 11.5 ± 0.6 and 11.2 ± 0.6 min for AMP and AMX respectively. NaCl additions accelerated Fe0 consumption, shortening the service life of Fe0 treatment systems. - Fe0 is efficient for the aqueous removal of the β-lactam antibiotics and chlorides enhanced the removal rate by sustaining the process of iron corrosion.

  4. Amoxicillin Separation from Pharmaceutical Wastewater by High Permeability Polysulfone Nanofiltration Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Derakhsheshpoor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high permeability flat sheet polysulfone nanofiltration membranes were prepared for amoxicillin (AMX recovery from pharmaceutical wastewater. Membrane fabrication includes two steps: raw ultrafiltration membrane synthesis by phase inversion method and nanaofiltration membrane synthesis by surface photopolymerization. Raw ultrafiltration membranes were synthesized using different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG as pore former and different coagulation bath temperatures (CBTs. The synthesized ultrafiltration membranes were modified using UV-assisted polymerization technique and their performance in the separation of AMX at different pHs, were studied. The results showed that the more irradiation time, the smaller surface pore size. Moreover, the membranes made with higher molecular weight of PEG and coagulation bath temperatures were more susceptible for UV-modification at these conditions; fabricated membranes had higher flux as well as relatively high AMX separation. Moreover, pH enhancement increased AMX rejection by 85%. The effect of irradiation on membrane surface morphology was studied by SEM surface images and the morphological effects of pore former and coagulation bath temperatures on membrane structure were confirmed by SEM cross section images. A fairly comprehensive discussion about the effects of PEG, coagulation bath temperature and irradiation time on membrane structure and AMX recovery performance was represented in this study.

  5. Floating mucoadhesive alginate beads of amoxicillin trihydrate: A facile approach for H. pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanjoy Kumar; De, Pintu Kumar; De, Arnab; Ojha, Souvik; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Samanta, Amalesh

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the design of sunflower oil entrapped floating and mucoadhesive beads of amoxicillin trihydrate using sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as matrix polymers and chitosan as coating polymer to localize the antibiotic at the stomach site against Helicobacter pylori. Beads prepared by ionotropic gellation technique were evaluated for different physicochemical, in-vitro and in-vivo properties. Beads of all batches were floated for >24h with a maximum lag time of 46.3±3.2s. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the beads were spherical in shape with few oil filled channels distributed throughout the surfaces and small pocket structures inside the matrix confirming oil entrapment. Prepared beads showed good mucoadhesiveness of 75.7±3.0% to 85.0±5.5%. The drug release profile was best fitted to Higuchi model with non fickian driven mechanism. The optimized batch showed 100% Helicobacter pylori growth inhibition in 15h in in-vitro culture. Furthermore, X-ray study in rabbit stomach confirmed the gastric retention of optimized formulation. The results exhibited that formulated beads may be preferred to localize the antibiotic in the gastric region to allow more availability of antibiotic at gastric mucus layer acting on Helicobacter pylori, thereby improving the therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27177460

  6. Design and Characterization of Amoxicillin trihydrate Mucoadhesive Microspheres for Prolonged Gastric retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar Yellanki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Whilst there is keen interest in developing improved drug delivery systems to gastro intestinal tract for treatment of Helicobacter pylori induced peptic and duodenal ulcers, In an effort to augment the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of Amoxicillin trihydrate mucoadhesive microspheres, which have the ability to reside in the gastrointestinal tract for an extended period, were prepared with ethyl cellulose as a matrix and carbopol 934P as a mucoadhesive polymer. Particle size was determined by optical micrometer and average particle size was found in the range of 500-560 m for all batches. All the batches showed good in vitro mucoadhesive property. Cumulative percent drug release was found to be maximum for FI (91.12 %. Formulation FII found to follow Higuchi matrix with the regression value of 0.9985. Form the all batches FI formulated microspheres showed more mucoadhesive property due to less amount of ethyl cellulose. In conclusion, the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time and controlled release might make contribution to H. Pylori clearance.

  7. Simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate in different commercial drugs using PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjani, A.; Roumié, M.; Akkad, S.; El-Yazbi, F.; Nsouli, B.

    2016-03-01

    We have demonstrated, in previous studies that Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is one of the most rapid and accurate choices for quantification of an active ingredient, in a solid drug, from the reactions induced on its specific heteroatom using pellets made from original tablets. In this work, PIXE is used, for the first time, for simultaneous quantification of two active ingredients, amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate, in six different commercial antibiotic type of drugs. Since the quality control process of a drug covers a large number of samples, the scope of this study was also to found the most rapid and low cost sample preparation needed to analyze these drugs with a good precision. The chosen drugs were analyzed in their tablets' "as received" form, in pellets made from the powder of the tablets and also in pellets made from the powder of the tablets after being heated up to 70 °C to avoid any molecular destruction until constant weight and removal of humidity. The quantification validity related to the aspects of each sample preparation (homogeneity of the drug components and humidity) are presented and discussed.

  8. [The efficacy and safety of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women: a randomized, prospective, multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafal'skiĭ, V V; Dovgan', E V; Kozyrev, Iu V; Gustovarova, T A; Khlybova, S V; Novoselova, A V; Filippenko, N G; Likhikh, D G

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of efficacy and safety of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. A prospective, multicenter, randomized study that included 112 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria was performed. 58 women were randomized in group 1 (cefixime [suprax solutab] 400 mg 1 time a day, 7 days), 54 women were included in group 2 (amoxicillin/clavulanate [amoksiklav] 625 mg 3 times a day, 7 days). The average age of the patients in group 1 was 25.2 +/- 6.6; in group 2--26.6 +/- 5.8 years. Physical examination, evaluation of complaints, collection of data on adverse reactions, and bacteriological analysis of urine were performed after enrollment in the study at visit 2 (day 10 +/- 1) and 3 (day 35 +/- 2). Comparable effectiveness of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was found. Eradication of the pathogen and sustained bacteriological response were observed in 94.8 and 92.7% of women treated with cefixime, and in 98.2 and 92.5% of women treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively (P > 0.05). At the same time, the use of amoxicillin/clavulanate compared with cefixime significantly higher was followed by the development of adverse reactions (13% and 1.7; respectively; P = 0.02). Seven-day courses of cefixime at a dose 400 mg 1 time a day and amoxicillin/clavulanate at a dose of 625 mg 3 times a day are high-effective treatment regimens for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women in Russia. The use of amoxicillin/clavulanate is significantly more often accompanied by the development of adverse reactions compared with cefixime. PMID:24437236

  9. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-Induced Round Bodies of In Vitro Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10–20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under experimental stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that appear resistant in vitro to customary first-line antibiotics for Lyme disease. To identify more effective drugs with activity against the round body form of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by exposure to amoxicillin (50 μg/ml) and then screened the Food and Drug Administration drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven individual drugs scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. In this amoxicillin-induced round body model, some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine also displayed enhanced activity which was similar to a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters not exposure to amoxicillin. Additional candidate drugs active against round bodies identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against amoxicillin-induced round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi

  10. Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography: Mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Quantitative analysis of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in biological matrices requires sensitive and specific methods which allow determination of therapeutic concentration in μg/mL range. Analytical methods for determination of their concentrations in body fluids described in literature include high performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV detector (HPLC-UV and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS method which could be used for the spectral identification and quantification of the low concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma. Method. A sensitive and specific UPLC/MS method for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid determination was developed in this study. The samples were taken from the adult healthy volunteers receiving per os one tablet of amoxicillin (875 mg in combination with clavulanic acid (125 mg. Results. Plasma samples were pretreated by direct deproteinization with perchloric acid. Quantification limit of 0.01 μg/ml for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was achieved. The method was reproducible day by day (RSD < 7 %. Analytical recoveries for amoxicillin ranged from 98.82% to 100.9% (for concentrations of 1, 5 and 20 μg/mL, and recoveries for clavulanic acid were 99,89% to 100.1% (for concentrations of 1, 2 and 5 μg/mL. This assay was successfully applied to a pilot pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers after a single-oral administration of amoxicillin/ clavulanic combination. The determined plasma concentrations of both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were in the range of the expected values upon the literature data for HPLC-UV and LC-MS methods. Conclusion. The described method provided a few advantages comparing with LC/MS-MS method. The method is faster using running time of 5 minute, has lower limit of quantification (LOQ and it

  11. Improving Drug Loading of Mucosal Solvent Cast Films Using a Combination of Hydrophilic Polymers with Amoxicillin and Paracetamol as Model Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Boateng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent cast mucosal films with improved drug loading have been developed by combining carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, sodium alginate (SA, and carrageenan (CAR using paracetamol and amoxicillin as model drugs and glycerol (GLY as plasticizer. Films were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, folding resilience, swelling capacity, mucoadhesivity, and drug dissolution studies. SA, CMC, and GLY (5 : 3 : 6 films showed maximum amoxicillin loading of 26.3% whilst CAR, CMC, and GLY (1 : 2 : 3 films had a maximum paracetamol loading of 40%. XRPD analysis showed different physical forms of the drugs depending on the amount loaded. Films containing 29.4% paracetamol and 26.3% amoxicillin showed molecular dispersion of the drugs while excess paracetamol was observed on the film surface when the maximum 40% was loaded. Work of adhesion was similar for blank films with slightly higher cohesiveness for CAR and CMC based films, but the differences were significant between paracetamol and amoxicillin containing films. The stickiness and cohesiveness for drug loaded films were generally similar with no significant differences. The maximum percentage cumulative drug release was 84.65% and 70.59% for paracetamol and amoxicillin, respectively, with anomalous case two transport mechanism involving both drug diffusion and polymer erosion.

  12. [Omeprazole/amoxicillin: improved eradication of Helicobacter pylori in smokers because of N-acetylcysteine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zala, G; Flury, R; Wüst, J; Meyenberger, C; Ammann, R; Wirth, H P

    1994-08-01

    Colonization of Helicobacter pylori (HP) beneath the protective film of gastric mucus enables the organism to survive in the hostile environment of the gastric mucosa. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl compound with potent mucolytic activity, induces a reduction of gastric barrier mucus thickness of about 75% and reduces mucus viscoelasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis whether better eradication results could be achieved by addition of NAC to omeprazole/amoxicillin (OME/AMOX). 34 HP positive outpatients with endoscopically documented recurrent duodenal ulcer were included in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial. Exclusion criteria were: alcoholism, previous gastric surgery, or intake of antibiotics, OME, bismuth salts, corticosteroids or NSAIDs within 4 weeks before study entry. Patients currently smoking > 10 cigarettes/day were classified as smokers. HP infection was confirmed by histology (3 biopsy specimens from gastric antrum and 2 from gastric body; H&E, Giemsa) and at least positive rapid urease test or culture. All 34 patients underwent ulcer therapy with OME (20 mg per day) for 20 days (d 1-20). Group A: in 17 patients (5 females, 12 males, mean age 46 [29-74] years; 8 smokers, 9 nonsmokers) the subsequent eradication therapy, consisting of oral OME (40 mg bid) and AMOX solute (750 mg tid) for 10 days, was combined with NAC solute (2 x 600 mg bid (d 21-30). Group B: 17 patients (2 females, 15 males, mean age 39 [19-70] years; 11 smokers, 6 nonsmokers) underwent eradication therapy without NAC (d 21-30). Control endoscopy was done after a minimal interval of 30 days from the end of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8091167

  13. Kinetic Isotherm of Amoxicillin Antibiotic through Adsorption and its Removal by Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Chatterjee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment because they have adverse effects on the aquatic life and humans. The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine has a significant effect on the quality of surface and groundwater. The relevance of an electrocoagulation (EC process for the removal of an antibiotic was selected because of its wide application, high solubility in water, high residual toxicity and an absence of biodegradability, was examined in this study. Metal hydroxides generated during EC were used to remove Amoxicillin (AMX from aqueous solution. The knowledge regarding the removal mechanism of this substance has not yet been investigated till now. Experiments were carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor using aluminum electrodes. The removal of AMX was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached within 20 min. The effects of the main operating parameters were examined and showed that irrespective of the initial concentration and for pH ranging from 3 to 10, maximum removal efficiency remained close to 95%; while a sharp decrease was recorded at pH 2 (8 % removal. The results of this study also showed that the removal of AMX from water was strongly affected by the current intensity. The mechanism of electrocoagulation was modeled using isotherm models and showed that the Sips isotherm matched satisfactorily the experimental data, suggesting monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules and assumed a quasi-Gaussian distribution energy owing to the high correlation also found for the Toth model. In addition, adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities, as when the pH and initial antibiotic concentrations were considered.

  14. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Macrolides- and Amoxicillin/Clavulanate-induced Acute Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Pili; Amelio, Justyna; Ballarín, Elena; Sabaté, Mònica; Vidal, Xavi; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Schmiedl, Sven; Laporte, Joan-Ramon; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Antibacterials are frequently associated with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI). The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of macrolides and amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC) on DILI. We conducted a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) with studies retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane Library Plus, Web of Knowledge, clinicaltrials.gov, Livertox and Toxline (1980-2014). We searched for macrolides, AMC and MeSH and synonym terms for DILI. We included all study designs except case reports/series, all population ages and studies with a placebo/non-user comparator. We summarized the evidence with a random-effects MA. Quality of the studies was appraised with a checklist developed for SR of adverse effects. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed with different exploratory tools. We finally included 10 (two randomized clinical trials, six case-control, one cohort and one case-population studies) and 9 (case-population excluded) articles in the SR and MA, respectively. The overall summary relative risk of DILI for macrolides was 2.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81-4.47], p studies were perceived to be missing in the area of low statistical significance. Year of study and selected exposure window partly explained the variability between studies. For AMC, the risk of DILI was 9.38 (95% CI 0.65-135.41) p = 0.3, I2 = 95%. In conclusion, although spontaneous reports and case series have long established an association between macrolides and AMC with acute liver injury, these SR and MA have assessed the magnitude of this association. The low incidence of DILI and the therapeutic place of these antibiotics might tilt the balance in favour of their benefits. PMID:26707367

  15. The role of IgE recognition in allergic reactions to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Montañez, M I; Ariza, A; Salas, M; Fernandez, T D; Barbero, N; Mayorga, C; Blanca, M

    2016-02-01

    Betalactam (BL) antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in IgE-mediated reactions. The culprit BL varies according to consumption patterns, with amoxicillin (AX) more prevalent in Southern Europe and penicillin V in Scandinavian countries. Nowadays, the combination of AX and clavulanic acid (CLV) is the most highly consumed BL containing medicine worldwide. Both BLs, AX and CLV, can independently be involved in reactions, which poses a diagnostic challenge. In patients with immediate allergic reactions to AX, two patterns of responses have been described, those responding to benzylpenicillin (cross-reactors) and those selective to AX. In addition, selective reactions to CLV account for around 30% of allergic reactions to the combination AX-CLV. These patterns of IgE recognition could be related to differences in the haptenation process, in the immunological response, or in the BL involved in the first sensitization. In this regard, patients with selective responses to CLV are generally younger than those allergic to AX or benzylpenicillin. So far, no evidence of cross-reactivity between CLV and other BLs has been reported. This shows the importance of an accurate diagnosis of CLV allergy, as patients with selective reactions to CLV could take other BLs including AX. Diagnosis can be performed in vivo and in vitro, although no immunoassay currently exists. Research regarding the CLV antigenic determinants and protein conjugates is essential to improve diagnosis. BLs need to covalently bind to a carrier protein to be immunogenic. The antigenic determinant of AX is the amoxicilloyl amide, but CLV leads to unstable structures, many of which are unknown. Moreover, the nature of the BL-protein conjugates plays an important role in IgE recognition. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the immunochemistry, diagnostic approaches as well as chemical and proteomic studies for both AX and CLV. PMID:26662186

  16. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) following intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinphithakkul, P; Klangkaew, N; Sanyathitiseree, P; Giorgi, M; Kumagai, S; Poapolathep, A; Poapolathep, S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin (AMX) trihydrate in male Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, following intramuscular administration at two dosages of 5.5 and 11 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected from 0.5 up to 72 h. The concentration of AMX in elephant plasma was measured using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. AMX was measurable up to 24 h after administration at two dosages. Peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) was 1.20 ± 0.39 μg/mL after i.m. administration at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg b.w., whereas it was 3.40 ± 0.63 μg/mL at a dosage of 11 mg/kg b.w. A noncompartment model was developed to describe the disposition of AMX in Asian elephants. Based on the preliminary findings found in this research, the dosage of 5.5 and 11 mg/kg b.w. produced drug plasma concentrations higher than 0.25 mg/mL for 24 h after i.m. administration. Thereafter, i.m. administration with AMX at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg b.w. appeared a more suitable dose than 11 mg/kg b.w. However, more studies are needed to determine AMX clinical effectiveness in elephants. PMID:26411748

  17. Solar photocatalytic oxidation of recalcitrant natural metabolic by-products of amoxicillin biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, João H O S; Reis, Ana C; Homem, Vera; Silva, José A; Alves, Arminda; Borges, Maria T; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P; Nunes, Olga C

    2014-11-15

    The contamination of the aquatic environment by non-metabolized and metabolized antibiotic residues has brought the necessity of alternative treatment steps to current water decontamination technologies. This work assessed the feasibility of using a multistage treatment system for amoxicillin (AMX) spiked solutions combining: i) a biological treatment process using an enriched culture to metabolize AMX, with ii) a solar photocatalytic system to achieve the removal of the metabolized transformation products (TPs) identified via LC-MS, recalcitrant to further biological degradation. Firstly, a mixed culture (MC) was obtained through the enrichment of an activated sludge sample collected in an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Secondly, different aqueous matrices spiked with AMX were treated with the MC and the metabolic transformation products were identified. Thirdly, the efficiency of two solar assisted photocatalytic processes (TiO2/UV or Fe(3+)/Oxalate/H2O2/UV-Vis) was assessed in the degradation of the obtained TPs using a lab-scale prototype photoreactor equipped with a compound parabolic collector (CPC). Highest AMX specific biodegradation rates were obtained in buffer and urban wastewater (WW) media (0.10 ± 0.01 and 0.13 ± 0.07 g(AMX) g(biomass)(-1) h(-1), respectively). The resulting TPs, which no longer presented antibacterial activity, were identified as amoxicilloic acid (m/z = 384). The performance of the Fe(3+)/Oxalate/H2O2/UV-Vis system in the removal of the TPs from WW medium was superior to the TiO2/UV process (TPs no longer detected after 40 min (QUV = 2.6 kJ L(-1)), against incomplete TPs removal after 240 min (QUV = 14.9 kJ L(-1)), respectively). PMID:25150518

  18. Diffuse reflectance near infrared-chemometric methods development and validation of amoxicillin capsule formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed Nawaz; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ajayakumar, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of present study was to establish near infrared-chemometric methods that could be effectively used for quality profiling through identification and quantification of amoxicillin (AMOX) in formulated capsule which were similar to commercial products. In order to evaluate a large number of market products easily and quickly, these methods were modeled. Materials and Methods: Thermo Scientific Antaris II near infrared analyzer with TQ Analyst Chemometric Software were used for the development and validation of the identification and quantification models. Several AMOX formulations were composed with four excipients microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, croscarmellose sodium and colloidal silicon dioxide. Development includes quadratic mixture formulation design, near infrared spectrum acquisition, spectral pretreatment and outlier detection. According to prescribed guidelines by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and European Medicine Agency (EMA) developed methods were validated in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, and robustness. Results: On diffuse reflectance mode, an identification model based on discriminant analysis was successfully processed with 76 formulations; and same samples were also used for quantitative analysis using partial least square algorithm with four latent variables and 0.9937 correlation of coefficient followed by 2.17% root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), 2.38% root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), 2.43% root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV). Conclusion: Proposed model established a good relationship between the spectral information and AMOX identity as well as content. Resulted values show the performance of the proposed models which offers alternate choice for AMOX capsule evaluation, relative to that of well-established high-performance liquid chromatography method. Ultimately three commercial products were successfully evaluated using developed

  19. Antimicrobial resistance characteristics and fitness of Gram negative faecal bacteria from volunteers treated with minocycline or amoxicillin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda eKirchner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A yearlong study was performed to examine the effect of antibiotic administration on the bacterial gut flora. Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria were recovered from the faeces of healthy adult volunteers administered amoxicillin, minocycline or placebo, and changes determined in antimicrobial resistance (AMR gene carriage. Seventy percent of the 1039 facultative anaerobic isolates recovered were identified by MALDI-TOF as Escherichia coli. A microarray used to determine virulence and resistance gene carriage demonstrated that AMR genes were widespread in all administration groups, with the most common resistance genes being blaTEM, dfr, strB, tet(A and tet(B. Following amoxicillin administration, an increase in the proportion of amoxicillin resistant E. coli and a three-fold increase in the levels of blaTEM gene carriage was observed, an effect not observed in the other two treatment groups. Detection of virulence genes, including stx1A, indicated not all E. coli were innocuous commensals. Approximately 150 E. coli collected from 6 participants were selected for pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and a subset used for characterisation of plasmids and Phenotypic Microarrays (PM. PFGE indicated some E. coli clones had persisted in volunteers for up to 1 year, while others were transient. Although there were no unique characteristics associated with plasmids from persistent or transient isolates, PM assays showed transient isolates had greater adaptability to a range of antiseptic biocides and tetracycline; characteristics which were lost in some, but not all persistent isolates. This study indicates healthy individuals carry bacteria harbouring resistance to a variety of antibiotics and biocides in their intestinal tract. Antibiotic administration can have a temporary effect of selecting bacteria, showing co-resistance to multiple antibiotics, some of which can persist within the gut for up to 1 year.

  20. A comparison of a single-dose and a seven-day treatment with Amoxicillin in asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Niro Manesh S; Amiri A; Ali yari Sh

    1994-01-01

    In this study, 1600 pregnant women who had referred to two prenatal clinics (Imam Khomeini and Mirza Kochek-Khan) were investigated. Ninety cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria were observed; 77 of those cooperated with us until the end of our study. The subjects, who were within the 14-36 weeks of gestational age, were randomly divided into two groups: Group A received the medicine (Amoxicillin) in a single-dose (3gr.); and, group B received it within seven days (1gr. TDS). The rate of recovery...

  1. In situ one-pot preparation of superparamagnetic hydrophilic porous microspheres for covalently immobilizing penicillin G acylase to synthesize amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ping; Gu, Yaohua; Su, Weiguang; Shuai, Huihui; Wang, Julan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic hydrophilic porous microspheres were successfully one-pot synthesized for the first time via in situ inverse suspension polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate, N,N‧-methylene bisacrylamide and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in the presence of Fe3+ and Fe2+ dispersed in formamide, which were denoted as magnetic Fe3O4-GMH microspheres. The morphology and properties of magnetic Fe3O4-GMH microspheres were characterized by SEM, VSM, XRD, FTIR, and so on. The formamide content had an important influence on the morphology of Fe3O4-GMH, and nearly perfectly spherical Fe3O4-GMH particles were formed when the amount of formamide was 15 ml. The diameters of the microspheres were in the range of 100-200 μm and Fe3O4-GMH exhibited superparamagnetic behavior with the saturation magnetization of 5.44 emu/g. The specific surface area of microspheres was 138.7 m2/g, the average pore diameter and pore volume were 15.1 nm and 0.60 cm3/g, respectively. The content of oxirane groups on Fe3O4-GMH was 0.40 mmol/g. After penicillin G acylase (PGA) was covalently immobilized on Fe3O4-GMH microspheres, the catalytic performance for amoxicillin synthesis by 6-aminopenicillanic acid and D-hydroxyphenylglycine methyl ester was largely improved. As a result, 90.1% amoxicillin yield and 1.18 of the synthesis/hydrolysis (S/H) ratio were achieved on PGA/Fe3O4-GMH with ethylene glycol as solvent, but only 62.6% amoxicillin yield and 0.37 of the S/H ratio were obtained on free PGA under the same reaction conditions. Furthermore, the amoxicillin yield and S/H ratio were still kept at 88.2% and 1.06, respectively after the immobilized PGA was magnetically separated and recycled for 10 times, indicating that PGA/Fe3O4-GMH had a very good reusability.

  2. Efficacy of omeprazole and amoxicillin with either clarithromycin or metronidazole on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Chinese peptic ulcer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hao Sun; Han Su; Xi-Long Ou; Da-Zhong Cao; Qian Yu; Ting Yu; Jin-Ming Hu; Feng Zhu; Yun-Liang Sun; Xi-Ling Fu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: One-week triple therapy with proton pump inhibitors, clarithromycin and amoxicillin has recently been proposed as the first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection; however, data regarding the effects of this regimen in China are scarce. The aim of this prospective and randomized study was to compare the efficacy of clarithromycin and metronidazole when they were combined with omeprazole and amoxicillin on eradication of H pylori and ulcer healing in Chinese peptic ulcer patients.METHODS: A total of 103 subjects with H pylori-positive peptic ulcer were randomly divided into two groups, and accepted triple therapy with omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1 000 mg and either clarithromycin 500 mg (OAC group,n = 58) or metronidazole 400 mg (OAM group, n = 45).All drugs were given twice daily for 7 d. Patients with active peptic ulcer were treated with omeprazole 20 mg daily for 2-4 wk after anti-H pylori therapy. Six to eight weeks after omeprazole therapy, all patients underwent endoscopies and four biopsies (two from the antrum and two others from the corpus of stomach) were taken for rapid urease test and histological analysis (with modified Giemsa staining) to examine H pylori. Successful eradication was defined as negative results from both examination methods.RESULTS: One hundred patients completed the entire course of therapy and returned for follow-up. The eradication rate of H pylori for the per-protocol analysis was 89.3% (50/56) in OAC group and 84.1% (37/44) in OAM group. Based on the intention-to-treat analysis, the eradication rate of H pylori was 86.2% (50/58) in OAC group and 82.2% (37/45) in OAM group. There were no significant differences in eradication rates between the two groups on either analysis. The active ulcer-healing rate was 96.7% (29/30) in OAC group and 100% (21/21)in OAM group (per-protocol analysis, P>0.05). Six patients in OAC group (10.3%) and five in OAM group (11.1%)reported adverse events (P>0.05).CONCLUSION

  3. Propagation of TEM- and PSE-Type β-Lactamases among Amoxicillin-Resistant Salmonella spp. Isolated in France

    OpenAIRE

    Llanes, Catherine; Kirchgesner, Veronique; Plesiat, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted between 1987 and 1994 at the University Hospital of Besançon, France, demonstrated a dramatic increase (from 0 to 42.5%) in the prevalence of amoxicillin resistance among Salmonella spp. Of the 96 resistant isolates collected during this period (including 77 Typhimurium), 54 were found to produce TEM-1 β-lactamase, 40 produced PSE-1 (equivalent to CARB-2), one produced PSE-1 plus TEM-2, and one produced OXA-1 in isoelectric focusing and DNA hybridization experiments. Plasmi...

  4. Hydrolytic and photochemistry degradation of the amoxicillin in {beta}-cyclodextrin; Degradacao hidrolitica e fotoquimica da amoxicilina na presenca de {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bariccatti, R.A.; Silva, C.; Souza, M.L.; Lindino, C.A.; Rosa, M.F. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharias e Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: reinaldo0207@brturbo.com.br

    2008-10-15

    This work has like purpose monitors the degradation of the drug amoxicillin in the presence and absence of {beta}-cyclodextrin, through techniques spectroscopy. For this, there was accompanied the hydrolysis of the drug protected of the light for around 400 hours. The results indicate that, initially, the cyclodextrin does not alter the hydrolysis of the amoxicillin, however, after 250 hours there is an increase of the hydrolysis of the amoxicillin when present at cyclodextrin. Another variable was the irradiation of the sample with radiation in the region of the UV, we see that the solutions containing {beta}- cyclodextrin suffer a slower phototransformation (26,8%) than the solutions without {beta}-cyclodextrin, when irradiated by UV radiation. (author)

  5. Synthesis, sustained release properties of magnetically functionalized organic-inorganic materials: Amoxicillin anions intercalated magnetic layered double hydroxides via calcined precursors at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Guangchun; Li, Zhanshuang; Yang, Piaoping; Jing, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Milin; Liu, Tianfu; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2009-09-01

    Zinc-aluminum-carbonate-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-CO 3-LDHs), loaded with magnetic substrates (Fe 3O 4), were prepared for sustained drug-targeting delivery. From the X-ray diffraction results, it was found that the magnetic substrates were successfully incorporated with LDHs and highly dispersed in the hydrotalcite structure. After intercalation with an antibiotic drug (amoxicillin) by using a calcinations-reconstruction method, the basal spacing of layered double hydroxides increased from 7.51 Å to 12.35 Å, indicating that amoxicillin was successfully intercalated into the interlay space of LDHs as a monolayer. Furthermore, in vitro drug release experiments in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) showed sustained release profiles with amoxicillin as a model drug. Magnetic measurements revealed that the composite possessed paramagnetic properties at room temperature.

  6. Cefotaxime and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Synergism against Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in a Murine Model of Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, B; Soubirou, J F; Chau, F; Massias, L; Dion, S; Lepeule, R; Fantin, B; Lefort, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the efficacies of cefotaxime (CTX) and amoxicillin (AMX)-clavulanate (CLA) (AMC) against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in vitro and in a murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI). MICs, the checkerboard dilution method, and time-kill curves were used to explore the in vitro synergism between cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate against two isogenic E. coli strains-CFT073-RR and its transconjugant, CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15)-harboring a bla(CTX-M-15) plasmid and a bla(OXA-1) plasmid. For in vivo experiments, mice were separately infected with each strain and treated with cefotaxime, amoxicillin, and clavulanate, alone or in combination, or imipenem, using therapeutic regimens reproducing time of free-drug concentrations above the MIC (fT≥MIC) values close to that obtained in humans. MICs of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem were 4/>1,024, 0.125/1,024, and 0.5/0.5 mg/liter, for CFT073-RR and CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15), respectively. The addition of 2 mg/liter of clavulanate (CLA) restored the susceptibility of CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15) to CTX (MICs of the CTX-CLA combination, 0.125 mg/liter). The checkerboard dilution method and time-kill curves confirmed an in vitro synergy between amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime against CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15). In vivo, this antibiotic combination was similarly active against both strains and as effective as imipenem. In conclusion, the cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate combination appear to be an effective, easy, and already available alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of UTI due to CTX-M-producing E. coli strains. PMID:26525800

  7. Effektivität der neuen 7-Tage-Tripel-Therapie mit Esomeprazol, Rifabutin und Amoxicillin bei Infektionen mit Makrolid- und Imidazolresistenten Helicobacter pylori Stämmen

    OpenAIRE

    Kroettinger, Annett

    2002-01-01

    In der Therapiestudie wurden 72 Patienten, nach vorherigem Therapieversagen und kulturell nachgewiesenem gegen Metronidazol und Clarithromycin doppeltresistentem Helicobacter pylori, mit der Rifabutin-Tripel-Terapie ( ERA – 2 x 20 mg Esomeprazol, 2 x 150 mg Rifabutin und 2 x 1000 mg Amoxicillin über 7 Tage) oder der modifizierten Hochdosis-Dualtherapie (mOA – Omeprazol 3 x 40 mg und 3 x 1000 mg Amoxicillin über 14 Tage) behandelt. Die ERA-Therapie wurde von allen Patienten ohne nennenswerte u...

  8. In vivo activity and pharmacodynamics of amoxicillin in combination with fosfomycin in fibrin clots infected with highly penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Chavanet, P; Peyrard, N.; Pechinot, A.; Buisson, M; Duong, M.; Neuwirth, C; Kazmierczak, A; Portier, H

    1996-01-01

    Using a clinical pneumococcal strain for which MICs were 4, 2, and 32 mg/liter for penicillin, amoxicillin, and fosfomycin, respectively, we studied the efficacies of these antibiotics alone and their combinations in the treatment of prolonged (48-h) experimental fibrin clot infection in rabbits. Treatments were as follows: amoxicillin IV at 20 mg/kg of body weight in one dose (Amo20), 50 mg/kg in one dose (Amo50), or two doses 6 h apart (Amo20 x 2 and Amo50 x 2); fosfomycin IV at a fixed dos...

  9. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Yun Lee,1 Wooseong Huh,2 Jin Ah Jung,3 Hye Min Yoo,2 Jae-Wook Ko,1,2 Jung-Ryul Kim2,4 1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, 4Department of Clinical Research and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Valproic acid (VPA is mainly metabolized via glucuronide, which is hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and undergoes enterohepatic circulation. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC administration leads to decreased levels of β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, suggesting that these antibiotics could interrupt enterohepatic circulation and thereby alter the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AMC on the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This was an open-label, two-treatment, one-sequence study in 16 healthy volunteers. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment VPA, in which a single dose of VPA 500 mg was administered, and treatment AMC + VPA, in which multiple doses of AMC 500/125 mg were administered three times daily for 7 days and then a single dose of VPA was administered. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Systemic exposures and peak concentrations of VPA were slightly lower with treatment AMC + VPA than with treatment VPA (AUClast, 851.0 h·mg/L vs 889.6 h·mg/L; Cmax, 52.1 mg/L vs 53.0 mg/L. There were no significant between-treatment effects on pharmacokinetics (95% confidence interval [CI] of AUClast and Cmax (95.7 [85.9–106.5] and 98.3 [91.6–105.6], respectively. Multiple doses of AMC had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of VPA; thus, no dose adjustment is necessary. Keywords: drug–drug interaction, pharmacokinetics

  10. Levofloxacin/amoxicillin-based schemes vs quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in second-line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simona Di Caro; Lucia Fini; Yayha Daoud; Fabio Grizzi; Antonio Gasbarrini; Antonino De Lorenzo; Laura Di Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori)infection is approximately 50%,with the highest being in developing countries.We compared cure rates and tolerability (SE) of second-line anti-H,pylori levofloxacin/amoxicillin (LA)-based triple regimens vs standard quadruple therapy (QT).An English language literature search was performed up to October 2010.A meta-analysis was performed including randomized clinical trials comparing 7-or 10-d LA with 7-d QT.In total,10 articles and four abstracts were identified.Overall eradication rate in LA was 76.5% (95%CI:64.4%-97.6%).When only 7-d regimens were included,cure rate was 70.6% (95% CI:40.2%-99.1%),whereas for 10-d combinations,cure rate was significantly higher (88.7%; 95% CI:56.1%-109.9%;P < 0.05).Main eradication rate for QT was 67.4% (95% CI:49.7%-67.9%).The 7-d LA and QT showed comparable efficacy [odds ratio (OR):1.09; 95% CI:0.63-1.87],whereas the 10-d LA regimen was significantly more effective than QT (OR:5.05; 95% CI:2.74-9.31; P < 0.001;I2 =75%).No differences were reported in QT eradication rates among Asian and European studies,whereas LA regimens were more effective in European populations (78.3% vs 67.7%; P =0.05).Incidence of SE was lower in LA therapy than QT (OR:0.39; 95% CI:0.18-0.85; P =0.02).A higher rate of side effects was reported in Asian patients who received QT.Our findings support the use of 10-d LA as a simple second-line treatment for H.pylori eradication with an excellent eradication rate and tolerability.The optimal second-line alternative scheme might differ among countries depending on quinolone resistance.

  11. Spanish multicenter study of the epidemiology and mechanisms of amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Adriana; Oteo, Jesús; Aranzamendi-Zaldumbide, Maitane; Bartolomé, Rosa M; Bou, Germán; Cercenado, Emilia; Conejo, M Carmen; González-López, Juan José; Marín, Mercedes; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Merino, María; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Pascual, Alvaro; Rivera, Alba; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Weber, Irene; Aracil, Belén; Campos, José

    2012-07-01

    We conducted a prospective multicenter study in Spain to characterize the mechanisms of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) in Escherichia coli. Up to 44 AMC-resistant E. coli isolates (MIC ≥ 32/16 μg/ml) were collected at each of the seven participant hospitals. Resistance mechanisms were characterized by PCR and sequencing. Molecular epidemiology was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and by multilocus sequence typing. Overall AMC resistance was 9.3%. The resistance mechanisms detected in the 257 AMC-resistant isolates were OXA-1 production (26.1%), hyperproduction of penicillinase (22.6%), production of plasmidic AmpC (19.5%), hyperproduction of chromosomic AmpC (18.3%), and production of inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) (17.5%). The IRTs identified were TEM-40 (33.3%), TEM-30 (28.9%), TEM-33 (11.1%), TEM-32 (4.4%), TEM-34 (4.4%), TEM-35 (2.2%), TEM-54 (2.2%), TEM-76 (2.2%), TEM-79 (2.2%), and the new TEM-185 (8.8%). By PFGE, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed although two well-defined clusters were detected in the OXA-1-producing isolates: the C1 cluster consisting of 19 phylogroup A/sequence type 88 [ST88] isolates and the C2 cluster consisting of 19 phylogroup B2/ST131 isolates (16 of them producing CTX-M-15). Each of the clusters was detected in six different hospitals. In total, 21.8% of the isolates were serotype O25b/phylogroup B2 (O25b/B2). AMC resistance in E. coli is widespread in Spain at the hospital and community levels. A high prevalence of OXA-1 was found. Although resistant isolates were genetically diverse, clonality was linked to OXA-1-producing isolates of the STs 88 and 131. Dissemination of IRTs was frequent, and the epidemic O25b/B2/ST131 clone carried many different mechanisms of AMC resistance. PMID:22491692

  12. The Role of Chronic Exposure to Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid on the Developmental Enamel Defects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalaş, Eugeniu; Matricala, Lavinia; Chelmuş, Alina; Gheţu, Nicolae; Petcu, Ana; Paşca, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin used in early childhood may be associated with enamel hypomineralization. Our aim was to assess disturbances of amelogenesis in mice lower incisors induced by chronic administration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC). Twenty-eight C57BL/6 male mice, of similar age, randomly divided into a control and 3 treatment groups (n = 7) received subcutaneous injection, once per day, for 60 days: 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg BW of AMC. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis in AMC treatment groups showed higher content in F and a decrease in P and Ca. Morphology changes ranged from scratched patterns, and small isolated pits-like enamel loss, to generalized demineralized enamel surface, giving a rough, foamy, scaly, or even cracked eggshell appearance to the affected areas. Histological analysis showed disturbances of maturation ameloblasts, which were less organized, with increased amounts of clear vacuoles in the cytoplasm and slightly more elongated and less condensed nucleus. Additionally, they were often detached from the enamel matrix. Transitional ameloblasts formed underlying the cysts of varied sizes. In conclusion, AMC dose-dependently affect ameloblast functions especially in the maturation phase, causing hypomineralized enamel formation with quantitative and/or qualitative defects. PMID:26534941

  13. Molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of healthy dogs after enrofloxacin or amoxicillin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sherine A; Debavalya, Nipattra; Suh, Sang-Jin; Oryazabal, Omar A; Boothe, Dawn M

    2012-11-01

    Escherichia coli respond to selective pressure of antimicrobial therapy by developing resistance through a variety of mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in fecal E. coli after the routine use of 2 popular antimicrobials. Fourteen resistant E. coli isolates, representing predominant clones that emerged in healthy dogs' feces after treatment with either amoxicillin (11 E. coli isolates) or enrofloxacin (3 E. coli isolates), were tested for mutations in DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and in topoisomerase IV (parC) and for the presence of β-lactamases (bla(TEM), bla(SHV), bla(PSE-1) and bla(CTX-M)) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib, and qepA), by polymerase chain reaction. Escherichia coli isolates cultured following amoxicillin therapy only expressed single-drug resistance to β-lactams, while the isolates cultured from dogs receiving enrofloxacin therapy expressed multidrug resistance (MDR). The use of RND efflux pump inhibitors increased the susceptibility of the 3 MDR E. coli isolates to doxycycline, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, which indicates a role of the efflux pump in the acquisition of the MDR phenotype. Amplification and sequencing of AcrAB efflux pump regulators (soxR, soxS, marR, and acrR) revealed only the presence of a single mutation in soxS in the 3 MDR isolates. PMID:23145826

  14. Fosfomycin in a single dose versus a 7-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebanez, A; Pascual, R; Gil, V; Ortiz, F; Santibáñez, M; Pérez Barba, C

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the efficacy of a single dose of 3 g of fosfomycin to that of a 7-day regimen of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A randomised, prospective, interventional, analytical, longitudinal study was undertaken, in which the efficacy of two antibiotic regimens (one short and the other long) in the treatment of pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria is compared. One hundred and nine patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 56 were treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate and 53 with fosfomycin. The two groups were similar in terms of co-morbidity, treatments received during pregnancy, obstetric, gynaecological and surgical history and laboratory data. The efficacy of the two regimens was similar and the eradication rate was over 80% in both groups (P = 0.720) (relative risk [RR] 1.195, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.451-3.165). The number of reinfections was greater in the amoxicillin-clavulanate group (P = 0.045). The secondary effects were lower in the fosfomycin group (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in the number of persistences (P = 0.39), development of symptomatic urinary infections (P = 0.319) or recurrences (P = 0.96). Treatment with a single dose of fosfomycin is as effective as the standard course of treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate and may be preferable due to its simpler administration and the smaller number of reinfections. PMID:19768649

  15. Effects of Amoxicillin and Augmentin on Cystine-Glutamate Exchanger and Glutamate Transporter 1 Isoforms as well as Ethanol Intake in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakami, Alqassem Y.; Hammad, Alaa M.; Sari, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with alteration of glutamate transport and glutamate neurotransmission. Glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is a major transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate concentration, which is also regulated by cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT). Importantly, we recently reported that amoxicillin and Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate) upreglulated GLT-1 expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) as well as reduced ethanol consumption in male P rats. In this study, we examined the effects of amoxicillin and Augmentin on GLT-1 isoforms (GLT-1a and GLT-1b), xCT, and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) expression in NAc and PFC as well as ethanol intake in male P rats. We found that both compounds significantly reduced ethanol intake, and increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in NAc. However, only Augmentin increased GLT-1a, GLT-1b, and xCT expression in PFC. There were no effects of these compounds on GLAST expression in NAc and PFC. These findings demonstrated that Augmentin and amoxicillin have the potential to upregulate GLT-1 isoforms and xCT expression, and consequently attenuate ethanol dependence. PMID:27199635

  16. Efficiency of powder activated carbon magnetized by Fe3O4 nanoparticles for amoxicillin removal from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium and kinetic studies of adsorption process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Kakavandi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that the magnetic activated carbon has high potential for adsorption of amoxicillin, in addition to features like simple and rapid separation. Therefore, it can be used for adsorption and separation of such pollutants from aqueous solutions.

  17. A comparison of a single-dose and a seven-day treatment with Amoxicillin in asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niro Manesh S

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 1600 pregnant women who had referred to two prenatal clinics (Imam Khomeini and Mirza Kochek-Khan were investigated. Ninety cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria were observed; 77 of those cooperated with us until the end of our study. The subjects, who were within the 14-36 weeks of gestational age, were randomly divided into two groups: Group A received the medicine (Amoxicillin in a single-dose (3gr.; and, group B received it within seven days (1gr. TDS. The rate of recovery (65% in group A and 56.8% in group B, based on chi-squared test, showed no significant difference (P=0.747%. According to the results of this study, we can conclude that single-dose treatment has the same value as a seven-day treatment and the advantages such as decreased total dose, lower cost, and a better patient compliance.

  18. Amoxicillin Plus Metronidazole Therapy for Patients with Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-year Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashiro, N S; Duarte, P M; Miranda, T S; Maciel, S S; Figueiredo, L C; Faveri, M; Feres, M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the changes occurring in subgingival biofilm composition and in the periodontal clinical parameters of subjects with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) treated by means of scaling and root planing (SRP) only or combined with systemic metronidazole (MTZ) and amoxicillin (AMX). Fifty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to receive SRP only (n = 29) or with MTZ (400 mg/thrice a day [TID]) and AMX (500 mg/TID) (n = 29) for 14 d. Six subgingival plaque samples/subject were analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization for 40 bacterial species at baseline and 3 mo, 1 y, and 2 y posttherapy. At 2 y posttherapy, the antibiotic-treated group harbored lower mean proportions (5.5%) of red complex pathogens than the control group (12.1%) (P periodontitis and type 2 DM up to 2 y (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02135952). PMID:27013640

  19. Radiation Synthesis and Characterization of Polyvinyl alcohol/Acrylic acid Hydrogel and its Amoxicillin drug Delivery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinyl alcohol /Acrylic acid based hydrogels can be synthesized by Gamma radiation technique using 60Co irradiation cell at irradiation dose rate 1.8 Gray/second. The optimum conditions of hydrogel preparation takes place at different factors such as composition ratios of PVA/AAc, different comonomer concentration and different irradiation doses resulting in hydrogel with maximum gel percent as it obtained 98%. The structures of hydrogels were characterized by FTIR analysis. The results can be confirmed the expected structures as well as free radical copolymerization. According to the swelling studies, hydrogels with high content of AAc gave relatively high swelling percent. The hydrogel showed a super adsorbent with swelling capacity 10320 %. Water diffusion into such prepared hydrogel showed a non-Fickian type where a Fickian number was 0.77. This hydrogel was used for the adsorption of amoxicillin drug from their aqueous solutions. The factors affected on the uptake conditions such as ph, time and initial feed concentration on the amoxicillin adsorption capacity of hydrogel was studied depending on Freundlish model of adsorption isotherm.. It was observed that the interaction between drug and ionic comonomers was enhanced in alkaline medium and high initial feed concentration of the drug. The ability of the hydrogel and the affinity of the drug to be adsorbed can be cleared by determining the empirical constants n and k respectively from the logarithmic form of Freundlish equation. The recovery of drug was also investigated in different ph values to study the suitable condition of drug release as drug delivery system.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junejo, Y.; Güner, A.; Baykal, A.

    2014-10-01

    We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2-5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs are novel, rapid, and highly cost-effective for environmental safety against pollution by antibiotics in wastewater and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

  1. Sofalcone, a mucoprotective agent, increases the cure rate of Helicobacter pyloriinfection when combined with rabeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajime Isomoto; Hisashi Furusu; Ken Ohnita; Chun-Yang Wen; Kenichiro Inoue; Shigeru Kohno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The mucoprotective agents, sofalcone and polaprezinc have anti-Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori)activities. We determined the therapeutic effects of sofalcone and polaprezinc when combined with rabeprazole,amoxicillin and clarithromycin for Helicobacter pylori infection.METHODS: One hundred and sixty-five consecutive outpatients with peptic ulcer and H pylori infection were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups and medicated for 7 d. Group A: triple therapy with rabeprazole (10 mg twice daily), clarithromycin (200 mg twice daily) and amoxicillin (750 mg twice daily). Group B: sofalcone (100 mg thrice daily) plus the triple therapy.Group C: polaprezinc (150 mg twice daily) plus the triple therapy. Eradication was considered successful if 13C-urea breath test was negative at least 4 wk after cessation of eradication regimens or successive famotidine in the cases of active peptic ulcer.RESULTS: On intention-to-treat basis, H pyloricure wasachieved in 43 of 55 (78.2%) patients, 47 of 54 (87.0%)and 45 of 56 (80.4%) for the groups A, B and Crespectively. Using per protocol analysis, the eradication rates were 81.1% (43/53), 94.0% (47/50) and 84.9% (45/53) respectively. There was a significant difference in the cure rates between group A and B. Adverse events occurred in 10, 12 and 11 patients, from groups A, B and C respectively, but the events were generally mild.CONCLUSION: The addition of sofalcone, but not polaprezinc, significantly increased the cure rate of H pylori infection when combined with the rabeprazole-amoxicillinclarithromycin regimen.

  2. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Children by Triple Therapy Regimens of Amoxicillin, Omeprazole, and Clarithromycin or Azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Esmaeili-Dooki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of classical and azithromycin-containing triple therapy eradication regimen against H. Pylori in children, and to determine the level of patients’ tolerance. Patients and Methods: This single clinical trial was performed in 2014 on 2 to 15 years old children. All children, in whom H. Pylori infection was confirmed through multiple biopsies of the stomach and required treatment, were enrolled in the study. H. Pylori-positive patients were treated alternately with two different drug regimens; Group OCA received clarithromycin 7.5 mg/kg/day every 12 hours for 10 days, amoxicillin 50 mg/kg/day every 12 hours for 10 days, and omeprazole 1 mg/kg/day every 12 hours for two weeks, and Group OAA received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day once a day (before meal for 6 days along with amoxicillin and omeprazole. Four to six weeks after completion of treatment, patients’ stool was tested for H. Pylori through the monoclonal method using the Helicobacter antigen quick kit. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding gender and age of patients. Based on ITT analysis, the therapeutic response in the OAA and OCA groups were 56.2% and 62.5%, respectively (P = 0.40. Drug adverse effects were 15.6% in the OCA and 3.1% in the OAA group (P = 0.19. Conclusions: The therapeutic response was seen in more than half of the patients treated with triple therapy of H. Pylori eradication regimen including azithromycin or clarithromycin, and there was no significant difference between the two treatment groups.

  3. Comparative efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin in the reduction of postsurgical sequelae after third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in a Nigerian university teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizito Chioma Ndukwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common sequelae after surgical removal of mandibular third molar are pain, trismus, swelling, and dysphagia. However, these symptoms can also signal the onset of surgical site infection and alveoli osteitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin and preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the reduction of postinflammatory complications, surgical site infection, and alveolar osteitis following the third molar surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 135 patients were randomized into three equal groups: Group A (preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid with preoperative dose of 875/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid followed by 500/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 12 hourly for 5 days, Group B (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid prophylaxis with a single preoperative dose of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 875/125 mg tablets, and Group C (levofloxacin prophylaxis with a single preoperative dose of levofloxacin 1000 mg tablets. All patients had ostectomy using surgical handpiece and burs and received same analgesics (tabs ibuprofen 400 mg 8 hourly for 3 days. Results: No case of surgical site infection or alveoli osteitis was recorded in the study groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups with regard to pain, mouth opening, postoperative facial dimension, and body temperature. Conclusion: Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as a single preoperative bolus should be adequate for the prevention of postoperative wound infection and alveoli osteitis following the third molar extraction as there is no need for an extension of the antibiotic. Moreover, levofloxacin can be utilized as prophylaxis in patients undergoing mandibular third molar extraction if such patients are allergic to penicillins.

  4. Development of an Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Amoxicillin in Broth Medium and its Application to an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujing; Yang, Fan; Guo, Beining; Chen, Yuancheng; Wu, Xiaojie; Liang, Wang; Shi, Yaoguo; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    A simple, rapid and highly sensitive liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of amoxicillin in broth-a liquid bacterial culture medium. After appropriate dilution with ultrapure water, broth samples containing amoxicillin and an internal standard (IS) were extracted by acetonitrile and dichloromethane. The extract was injected into the system. The analyte and the IS were separated by a prepacked Atlantis C18 column using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid as a mobile phase and detected by selected reaction monitoring in electrospray ionization positive ion mode. The calibration curve of amoxicillin was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-20.00 µg/mL. The mean recovery of amoxicillin from broth was 71.7%, and the intra- and interday precision and accuracies of the assay were within 10%. Amoxicillin was stable in broth for 12 h at room temperature (24°C), for 6.5 months at -80°C and for 24 h after preparation in an autosampler at room temperature. It has been successfully applied to an in vitro pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) model in which the broth is used for bacterial growth. The method provides high-throughput biological analysis to facilitate the in vitro PK and PD model of amoxicillin. PMID:26386906

  5. Synthesis, thermal and spectroscopic behaviors of metal-drug complexes: La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) amoxicillin trihydrate antibiotic drug complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-07-01

    The metal complexes of Amoxicillin trihydrate with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) are synthesized with 1:1 (metal:Amox) molar ratio. The suggested formula structures of the complexes are based on the results of the elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, as well as the thermal analysis (TG), and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained suggested that Amoxicillin reacted with metal ions as tridentate ligands, coordinating the metal ion through its amino, imino, and β-lactamic carbonyl. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves.

  6. Establishing the validity of different susceptibility testing methods to evaluate the in vitro activity of amoxicillin-clavulanate against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    María, Díez-Aguilar; María-Isabel, Morosini; María-Carmen, Conejo; Álvaro, Pascual; Jorge, Calvo; Luis, Martínez-Martínez; Francesc, Marco; Jordi, Vila; Adriana, Ortega; Jesús, Oteo; Rafael, Cantón

    2016-04-01

    Amoxicillin-clavulanate MICs of 160 Escherichia coli isolates with characterized resistance mechanisms were obtained by 2 MIC gradient strip brands, 3 automated systems, and reference ISO microdilution method using EUCAST (fixed 2μg/mL clavulanate) and CLSI (2:1 ratio) criteria. Discrepancies, mainly obtained with gradient strips, lead to an essential agreement range of 76.2-92.5. PMID:26830054

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Amoxicillin and Metronidazole as Treatment Adjunct to Dental Scaling and Root Planning in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    J. Moradi Haghgoo; M. Khoshhal; L. Ghorbaninejad; N. Rabienejad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the tooth supporting tissues by a specific group of microorganisms, leading to progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of amoxicillin and metronidazole as an adjunct, after scaling and root planning in reducing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss in chronic periodontitis (moderate to severe) patients. Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial rand...

  8. Treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in under-five children in developing country: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence regarding efficacy of oral amoxicillin compared to standard treatment for WHO-defined severe community acquired pneumonia in under-five children in developing country. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data from published Randomized trials (RCTs. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1970- July 2012 via PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, July 2012, and EMBASE (1988- June 2012. METHODS: Eligible trials compared oral amoxicillin administered in ambulatory setting versus standard treatment for WHO-defined severe community acquired pneumonia in children under-five. Primary outcomes were proportion of children developing treatment failure at 48 hr, and day 6. GRADE criteria was used to rate the quality of evidence. RESULTS: Out of 281 full text articles assessed for eligibility, 5 trials including 12364 children were included in the meta-analysis. Oral amoxicillin administered either in hospital or community setting is effective in treatment of severe pneumonia and is not inferior to the standard treatment. None of the clinical predictors of treatment failure by 48 hr (very severe disease, fever and lower chest indrawing, and voluntary with-drawl and loss to follow up was significant between the two groups. The clinical predictors of treatment failure that were significant by day 6 were very severe disease, inability to drink, change of antibiotic, and fever alone. The effect was almost consistent across the studies. CONCLUSION: Though oral amoxicillin is effective in treatment of severe CAP in under-five children in developing country, the evidence generated is of low-quality. More trials with uniform comparators are needed in order to strengthen the evidence.

  9. Amoxicillin treatment of experimental acute otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae with non-beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactams: aspects of virulence and treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Melhus, A; Janson, H; Westman, E.; Hermansson, A.; Forsgren, A; Prellner, K

    1997-01-01

    Through alterations primarily in the penicillin-binding proteins, a non-beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactams has evolved in Haemophilus influenzae. The virulence of these chromosomally changed strains has been questioned. To ascertain whether these alterations involve a reduction in virulence of H. influenzae and whether they could be advantageous for the bacterium during amoxicillin treatment of acute otitis media, a total of 70 Sprague-Dawley rats were challenged with a suscep...

  10. Complexation of manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zink(II), and cadmium(II) cations with amoxicillin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of amoxicillin anions (Axn-) with Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ in aqueous solution at 20 deg C and an ionic strength of 0.1 (KNO3) has been studied pH-metrically. In a neutral and weak alkaline solution, MAxn+ and M(OH)Axn complexes are formed. The formation constants and the pH ranges of existence of these complexes have been determined

  11. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-induced Round Bodies of Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eFeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. To identify more effective drugs that are active against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by amoxicillin and screened the Food and Drug Administration (FDA drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven of these scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. While some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine overlapped with a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters, additional drug candidates active against round bodies we identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi persisters in vitro, even if pre-treated with amoxicillin. These findings may have implications for improved treatment of Lyme disease.

  12. Comparison of 7and 14-day lansoprazole, metronidazole and amoxicillin protocol as a first-line treatment option in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Uygun, Ahmet; KANTARCIOĞLU, Murat; POLAT, Zülfikar; KİLCİLER, Güldem; GÜLŞEN, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim: There is currently a debate on the duration of treatment protocols for the first-line eradication treatment of Helicobacter pylori. The aim of this study was to compare the eradication rates of 7and 14-day treatment protocols including lansoprazole, metronidazole and amoxicillin in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia. Materials and Methods: 180 patients (84 female, 96 male, mean age: 54.2 years) with Hp-positive nonulcer dyspepsia were enrolled in the study. The presence of H...

  13. Amoxicillin plus temocillin as an alternative empiric therapy for the treatment of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia: results from a retrospective audit

    OpenAIRE

    Habayeb, H.; Sajin, B.; Patel, K.; Grundy, C; Al-Dujaili, A.; van de Velde, S.

    2015-01-01

    A formulary decision was made at a large provider of acute hospital services in Surrey to replace piperacillin/tazobactam with amoxicillin+temocillin for the empiric treatment of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia. This decision was made because the use of broad-spectrum-β-lactam antibiotics is a known risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and for the selection of resistance. After the antibiotic formulary was changed, a retrospective audit was conducted to assess the effect o...

  14. Omeprazole-based triple therapy with low-versus high-dose of clarithromycin plus amoxicillin for H pylori eradication in Iranian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Asghar Keshavarz; Homayoon Bashiri; Mahtab Rahbar

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of Hpylori eradication in an omeprazole-based triple therapy with high- and low-dose of clarithromycin and amoxicillin.METHODS: One hundred and sixty H pylori positive patients were randomly assigned to two groups based on the following 2 wk investigation; (1) group A or low-dose regimen received omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d, clarithromycin 250 mg b.i.d and amoxicillin 500 mg b.i.d; and (2) group B or high-dose regimen received omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d, clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d and amoxicillin 1000 mg b.i.d. During the study H pylori status was assessed by histology and rapid urease test prior and by 13C-urea breath test 6 wk after the therapy. Standard questionnaires were administered to determine the compliance to treatment and possible adverse events of therapy. Data were subject to % to compare the eradication rates in the two groups. The significant level of 95% (P≤0.05) was considered statistically different.RESULTS: We found that the per-protocol eradication rate was 88% (68/77) in group A, and 89% (67/75) in group B. The intension-to-treat eradication rate was 85% (68/80) in group A and 83.75% (67/80) in group B. Overall adverse events were 26% in group A and 31% in group B. The adverse events were generally mild in nature and tolerated well in both groups with a compliance of 98% in group A vs 96% in group B.CONCLUSION: The omeprazole-based low dose regimen of clarithromycin and amoxicillin for two weeks in H pylori eradication is as effective as high dose regimen in Iranian population.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were prepared by simple one-pot chemical reduction method. • Ampicillin as an antibiotic was used as both reducing and capping agents in this study. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs have proved as the remarkably efficient catalysts with enhanced rate of reduction for cefdinir, cefditoren, cefixime, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were showed excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of these antibiotics. - Abstract: We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2–5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs

  16. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junejo, Y. [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Güner, A., E-mail: aguner@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Biology, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were prepared by simple one-pot chemical reduction method. • Ampicillin as an antibiotic was used as both reducing and capping agents in this study. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs have proved as the remarkably efficient catalysts with enhanced rate of reduction for cefdinir, cefditoren, cefixime, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were showed excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of these antibiotics. - Abstract: We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2–5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs

  17. Evaluation of the Effect of Amoxicillin and Metronidazole as Treatment Adjunct to Dental Scaling and Root Planning in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moradi Haghgoo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the tooth supporting tissues by a specific group of microorganisms, leading to progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of amoxicillin and metronidazole as an adjunct, after scaling and root planning in reducing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss in chronic periodontitis (moderate to severe patients. Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial randomized control study, scaling and root planning were performed for 30 chronic periodontitis (moderate to severe patients.15 patients were given amoxicillin 500 mg and metronidazole 250 mg every 8 hours for 7 days as an adjunct after scaling and root planning, For 15 other patients only scaling and root planning were per-formed. Probing depth and clinical attachment loss were measured in each group in base line and were compared 1 month before and after scaling and root planning. Statistical analysis was done using a paired t-test, ANOVA and by SPSS16 software. Results: Mean pocket depth and clinical attachment loss in the test group compared to control group, 1 month after the intervention was not statistically significant(P=0. 082, P = 0.540. Conclusion: Amoxicillin and metronidazole as an adjunct to scaling and root planning do not have a significant impact on reducing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss over one month after treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21(2:92-98

  18. Evaluation of Microcrystalline Chitosan and Fibrin Membranes as Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB Carriers with Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimiera H. Bodek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the mechanical and sorption features of homogeneous and composite membranes which consist of microcrystalline chitosan (MCCh and fibrin (Fb in various proportions as well as the in vitro kinetics of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB released from ten types of membranes in the presence or absence of amoxicillin (Am. The films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, mechanical tests: breaking strength (Bs and elongation at break (Eb, as well as SEM images, and swelling study. The influence of the form of samples (dry or wet on Young’s modulus (E was also examined. The homogeneous MCCh (M1 and composite M3 and M4 (MCCh : Fb = 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 membranes were characterized by good sorption properties and higher mechanical strength, when compared with Fb (M2 membrane. Connecting MCCh with Fb decreases release of PDGF-BB and increases release of Am. The most efficient release of PDGF-BB was observed in the case of M4 (the optimum MCCh : Fb ratio was 1 : 1 membrane. It was found that the degree of PDGF-BB release from the membrane is influenced by the physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of the films and by its affinity to growth factor PDGF-BB.

  19. Effects of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tiamulin and tulathromycin on pig humoral immune responses induced by erysipelas vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, M; Kwit, K; Wierzchosławski, K; Dors, A; Pejsak, Z

    2016-05-28

    It addition to their antimicrobial properties, antibiotics can influence the host immune system (modulation of cytokine secretion, antibody production and T-cell proliferation). In the present study, the authors studied the effects of therapeutic doses of amoxicillin (AMX), ceftiofur (CEF), doxycycline (DOXY), tiamulin (TIAM) and tulathromycin (TUL) on the postvaccinal immune response after pigs had been vaccinated against erysipelas. Because humoral immunity is considered as the most important in the protection against swine erysipelas, the present study focused on the interactions between antibiotics and postvaccinal humoral immunity. One hundred and five, eight-week-old pigs of both sexes were used. Specific antibodies to the Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antigen were determined using a commercial ELISA test. In pigs treated with DOXY or CEF or TIAM, a significant reduction in the number of positive pigs was observed four and six weeks after the second dose of vaccine, compared with the remaining vaccinated groups. In pigs treated with CEF, the ELISA score was significantly lower than in non-treated vaccinated pigs. While in vaccinated pigs treated with AMX or TUL, the ELISA score was significantly higher than in pigs treated with the remaining antibiotics and than in non-treated vaccinated controls. The results of the present study indicate that vaccination of pigs against erysipelas in the presence of antibiotics may result in a decrease (CEF, DOXY, TIAM) or enhancement (AMX, TUL) in the production of specific antibodies. PMID:27072375

  20. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Kumar, M; Virdi, J S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs) were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs) of β-lactamase gene (bla A) or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes. PMID:26776125

  1. Simultaneous detection and comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone in cows' milk by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Kui; Wang, Jianfen; Huang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Guanlin; Li, Congying; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin (AMOX), clavulanic acid (CLAV) and prednisolone (PSL) are widely used in combination for the treatment of mastitis in lactating dairy cows. However, no method has been reported to detect these three chemicals in milk in a single assay. In the present work, a reliable and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in cow's milk. The analytes were determined by a positive and negative ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring. The linear ranges of AMOX, CLAV and PSL were from 2 to 1000ng/mL, 20-1000ng/mL and 1-1000ng/mL, respectively, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2ng/mL (AMOX), 20ng/mL (CLAV) and 1ng/mL (PSL). Recoveries of the analytes of interest in milk samples were in the ranges of 84.2-101.4%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions ranged from 1.8% to 11.9%. This method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in milk from healthy and mastitic cows. The elimination times of AMOX and PSL in mastitic cows were longer than that in healthy cows, but the elimination times of CLAV did not show significant difference. PMID:26638031

  2. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs of β-lactamase gene (bla A or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  3. Photocatalytic Decomposition of Amoxicillin Trihydrate Antibiotic in Aqueous Solutions under UV Irradiation Using Sn/TiO2 Nanoparticles

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    Robab Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 and Sn/TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, and BET analysis methods. The effects of Sn-doping on the crystal structure, surface area, adsorption properties, pore size distribution, and optical absorption properties of the catalysts were investigated. The effect of different Sn content on the amount of hydroxyl radical was discussed by using salicylic acid as probe molecule. The photocatalytic activity of samples was tested by photocatalytic mineralization of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX as a model pollutant. Sn/TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited high photocatalytic activity during the mineralization of AMOX under UV light due to increase in the generated hydroxyl radicals, band gap energy, specific surface area, and decrease in the crystallite size. The kinetic of the mineralization of AMOX can be explained in terms of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The values of the adsorption equilibrium constant (AMOX and the kinetic rate constant of surface reaction (c were 0.56 (mg L−1−1 and 1.86 mg L−1 min−1, respectively.

  4. Biocompatible Fe3O4 Increases the Efficacy of Amoxicillin Delivery against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

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    Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin- functionalized magnetite nanostructures (Fe3O4@AMO, revealing and discussing several biomedical applications of these nanomaterials. Our results proved that 10 nm Fe3O4@AMO nanoparticles does not alter the normal cell cycle progression of cultured diploid cells, and an in vivo murine model confirms that the nanostructures disperse through the host body and tend to localize in particular sites and organs. The nanoparticles were found clustered especially in the lungs, kidneys and spleen, next to the blood vessels at this level, while being totally absent in the brain and liver, suggesting that they are circulated through the blood flow and have low toxicity. Fe3O4@AMO has the ability to be easily circulated through the body and optimizations may be done so these nanostructures cluster to a specific target region. Functionalized magnetite nanostructures proved a great antimicrobial effect, being active against both the Gram positive pathogen S. aureus and the Gram negative pathogen E. coli. The fabricated nanostructures significantly reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the active drug. This result has a great practical relevance, since the functionalized nanostructures may be used for decreasing the therapeutic doses which usually manifest great severe side effects, when administrated in high doses. Fe3O4@AMO represents also a suitable approach for the development of new alternative strategies for improving the activity of therapeutic agents by targeted delivery and controlled release.

  5. The in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Florfenicol in Combination with Amoxicillin or Cefuroxime against Pathogenic Bacteria of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Jin Choia, Eun-Mi Leea, Seung-Jin Lee, Md. Ahsanur Reza, Joong-Su Lee, Elias Gebru, Man-Hee Rhee and Seung-Chun Park*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro activity of florfenicol (F in combination with amoxicillin (AM or cefuroxime (CRM against pathogenic bacteria of animal origin, including E. coli, S. aureus, S. cholerasuis and P. mirabilis. The MIC of AM ranged from 16 to 256 μg/ml. The MBC of AM (64 μg/ml was four-fold higher than its MIC value (16 μg/ml for E. coli, and similar to the MIC for the other three species. The MIC of F ranged from 8 to 16 μg/ml. The MBC values of F for E. coli, S. aureus, and S. cholerasuis were eight-fold higher than the respective MIC values, and 32-fold higher than the MIC of P. mirabilis. The MIC of CRM ranged from 8 to 128 μg/ml. The MBC of CRM was the highest ( 256 μg/ml, except for E. coli. The F/AM combination resulted in synergism (FIC index  0.5 for E. coli, S. aureus, and P. mirabilis and in-difference (FIC index >1 for S. cholerasuis. For F/CRM combination, synergism (E. coli and S. cholerasuis and in-difference (S. aureus and P. mirabilis were observed. Killing rate study showed a 1.5 - > 3 log 10 cfu/ml reduction of E. coli with F/AM compared to AM or F alone. The highest activity of the combinations was observed when F comprised at least 50% of the combination. Further studies using many bacterial isolates and various proportion of each drug would reveal the potential of a combination product containing F and AM/CRM for use in veterinary practice.

  6. Multiwall carbon nanotubes decorated with FeCr2O4, a new selective electrochemical sensor for amoxicillin determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FeCr2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized and then multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were decorated with FeCr2O4 nanoparticles. The new nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as vibrating sample magnetometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning surface microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results of the study confirm that the particles are pure FeCr2O4–MWCNTs with a cubic structure. No diffraction peaks of other impurities such as FeO or Cr2O3 were observed. The diffractive peaks of FeCr2O4–MWCNTs are broadened, implying that the crystalline size of FeCr2O4–MWCNTs particles is quite small. The mean particle size of FeCr2O4–MWCNTs calculated by Scherrer equation is about 25 nm, whereas the existence of particles with less than 30 nm size at FeCr2O4–MWCNTs is clearly reflected in 2D and 3D AFM images. The TEM image confirms that the spaghetti-like FeCr2O4–MWCNTs formed a porous structure. The synthesized FeCr2O4–MWCNTs nanoparticles could be used as a new electrocatalysis for voltammetric determination of amoxicillin (AMC). Under the optimized conditions at pH 7.5 and in differential pulse voltammetry, the oxidation peak current of AMC at the surface of the mediator has two linear dynamic ranges including 0.1–10.0 and 10.0–70.0 μmol L−1. The detection limit of 0.05 μmol L−1 was achieved. The influence of potential interfering compounds on the selectivity was studied. Finally, the modified electrode showed good sensitivity, selectivity, and stability for the determination of AMC in real samples.

  7. Synergistic anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of amoxicillin in combination withEmblica officinalis and Nymphae odorataextracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha DebMandal; Nishith Kumar Pal; Krishnendu Saha

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity ofEmblica officinalis Gaertn (E. officinalis; Family: Euphorbiaceae) seed andNymphae odorata Aiton (N. odorata; Family: Nymphaeaceae) stamen extracts, alone and in combination, and in combination with amoxicillin (Ax) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).Methods:Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of amla,E. officinalis, seed (AMS; 500 μg) and sapla,N. odorata, stamen (SAP; 500 μg) for12 methicillin-resistantS. aureus(MRSA) isolates was determined following agar diffusion; in order to assess the combined antibacterial activity, AMS (250 μg) plusSAP (250 μg) were considered. The Ax (10μg) activity alone and in combination withAMS (250μg), andSAP(250 μg) was determined by disk diffusion. The zone diameters of inhibition (ZDIs) for the agents were recorded, and growth inhibitory indices (GIIs) were calculated.Results:TheMRSA isolates (n=12) hadAMS(500μg) andSAP (500μg)ZDIs of12-19 mm and21-24mm, respectively. The ZDIs (range24-27mm) increased by3-4mm due to combined action of AMS (250 μg) andSAP (250μg) indicating synergy between extracts forMRSA(GII 0.634-0.742). TheMRSA isolates were resistant to Ax (ZDI: 8-11 mm), which in combination withAMS andSAP had synergistic effect, both due to increasedZDI [mean±SD=(3.5±0.577) mm] andGII (0.631-0.894).Conclusions: The data suggest that the plants,E. officinalis andN. odorata alone or in combination, are promising in the development of phytomedicines, which may be used, alone or in combination with the antibiotic, Ax, against MRSA infection.

  8. Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of pH-Sensitive Oil Entrapped Polymeric Blend Amoxicillin Beads for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Girish Kumar; Singh, Satyawan; Nath, Gopal

    2012-01-01

    Oral pH sensitive drug delivery systems are of utmost importance as these systems deliver the drug at specific part of the gastrointestine (GI) as per the pH of GI, resulting in improved patient therapeutic efficacy and compliance. The pH range of fluids in various segments of the GI tract may provide environmental stimuli for drug release. The aim of this study was to design buoyant beads containing amoxicillin (Am) and to evaluate its potential for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H....

  9. An Open-label, Randomized Comparison of Levofloxacin and Amoxicillin/ Clavulanate plus Clarithromycin for the Treatment of Hospitalized Patients with Community-acquired Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Han-Pin Kuo; Ling-Ling Hsieh; Chih-Ten Yu; Horng-Chyuan Lin; Chien-Ying Liu; Min-Li Chang; Chun-Hua Wang; Yu-Min Wang; Chih-Jan Wang; Hao-Cheng Chen; Shu-Min Lin; Ting-Yu Lin; Chien-Da Huang

    2007-01-01

    Background: Anti-pneumococcal fluoroquinolone has been used to treat communityacquiredpneumonia (CAP) frequently because of its broad antimicrobialspectrum.Methods: This randomized, open-label study was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital.Eligible patients were randomized to levofloxacin 500 mg IV q24h followedby 500 mg orally q24h or a combination of amoxicillin/clavulanate500 mg/100 mg IV q8h with oral clarithromycin 500 mg q12h and then oralamoxicillin/clavulanate 250 mg/125 mg q8h w...

  10. Effect of genetic algorithm as a variable selection method on different chemometric models applied for the analysis of binary mixture of amoxicillin and flucloxacillin: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Different chemometric models were applied for the quantitative analysis of amoxicillin (AMX), and flucloxacillin (FLX) in their binary mixtures, namely, partial least squares (PLS), spectral residual augmented classical least squares (SRACLS), concentration residual augmented classical least squares (CRACLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). All methods were applied with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm GA). The methods were used for the quantitative analysis of the drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and real market sample via handling the UV spectral data. Robust and simpler models were obtained by applying GA. The proposed methods were found to be rapid, simple and required no preliminary separation steps.

  11. Effect of MMX® mesalamine coadministration on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin XR, metronidazole, and sulfamethoxazole: results from four randomized clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available David Pierce,1 Mary Corcoran,2 Patrick Martin,2 Karen Barrett,1 Susi Inglis,1 Peter Preston,2 Thomas N Thompson,3 Sandra K Willsie3 1Shire, Basingstoke, UK; 2Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 3PRA International, Lenexa, KS, USA Background: MMX® mesalamine is a once daily oral 5-aminosalicylic acid formulation, effective in induction and maintenance of ulcerative colitis remission. Patients on long-term mesalamine maintenance may occasionally require concomitant antibiotic treatment for unrelated infections. Aim: To evaluate the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions between MMX mesalamine and amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin extended release (XR, metronidazole, or sulfamethoxazole in four open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover studies. Methods: In all four studies, healthy adults received placebo once daily or MMX mesalamine 4.8 g once daily on days 1–4 in one of two treatment sequences. In studies 1 and 2, subjects also received a single dose of amoxicillin 500 mg (N=62 or ciprofloxacin XR 500 mg (N=30 on day 4. In studies 3 and 4, subjects received metronidazole 750 mg twice daily on days 1–3 and once on day 4 (N=30; or sulfamethoxazole 800 mg/trimethoprim 160 mg twice daily on days 1–3 and once on day 4 (N=44. Results: MMX mesalamine had no significant effects on systemic exposure to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, or metronidazole; the 90% confidence intervals (CIs around the geometric mean ratios (antibiotic + MMX mesalamine: antibiotic + placebo for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC fell within the predefined equivalence range (0.80–1.25. Sulfamethoxazole exposure increased by a statistically significant amount when coadministered with MMX mesalamine; however, increased exposure (by 12% in Cmax at steady state; by 15% in AUC at steady state was not considered clinically significant, as the 90% CIs for each point estimate fell entirely within the predefined

  12. Zinc for Acute Diarrhea and Amoxicillin for Pneumonia, Do They Work? : Delivered at the AIIMS, IJP Excellence Award for the year 2013 on 7th September 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana

    2015-08-01

    Acute diarrhea and pneumonia are the two largest killers of under-five children in the world. Zinc, used in management of acute diarrhea and Amoxicillin, used in community acquired pneumonia, feature in the list of 13 Life Saving Commodities for Women's and Children Health by the UN Commission. Zinc has caught wide scientific attention for the conceptual promise it has to offer for prevention, control and treatment of acute diarrhea. This presentation focuses on author's research on the mechanisms by which zinc might contribute to the pathogenesis of acute diarrhea and the degree of success achieved in diarrhea control and treatment by zinc supplementation including its impact on mortality. However, emerging evidence in terms of controlled studies in humans beckons a more complete understanding of the mechanistic basis for zinc supplementation. Current evidence indicates that studies specifically addressing the variability in response to zinc supplementation need to be undertaken to better comprehend these mechanisms. Similarly, the author presented her research that examined the role of oral amoxicillin in community management of severe pneumonia in children and the need to assess its universal efficacy in all children with severe pneumonia. PMID:25731896

  13. A randomized trial of the efficacy and safety of sequential intravenous/oral moxifloxacin monotherapy versus intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate for complicated skin and skin structure infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyssens, I.C.J.; Dryden, M.; Kujath, P.; Nathwani, D.; Schaper, N.; Hampel, B.; Reimnitz, P.; Alder, J.; Arvis, P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the RELIEF study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two sequential intravenous (iv)/oral regimens: moxifloxacin iv/oral versus piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) iv followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study had a prospective, ra

  14. Betalactámicos con inhibidores de betalactamasas: Amoxicilina-sulbactam Betalactam antibiotics combined with bectalactamases inhibitors: Amoxicillin-sulbactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barcelona

    2008-02-01

    de infecciones de piel y partes blandas e infecciones intraabdominales.Betalactamases production is one of the main bacterial resistance mechanisms to betalactam antibiotics. The use of bectalactamases inhibitors combined with betalactam antibiotics allows the inactivation of certain betalactamases produced by Gram positive, Gram negative and anaerobic organisms, and even by mycobacteria. Betalactamases inhibitors are an improved therapeutic alternative compared with the other betalactam since, in most cases, they cover a wider antimicrobial spectrum than their analogues. Betalactamases enzimatic activity is specifically directed to the betalactam ring hydrolisis, producing a compound without antibacterial activity. According to their genomic position within microorganisms, betalactamases can be either chromosomic or plasmidic. Currently there are three betalactamases inhibitors locally available: clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam. Of them, only sulbactam has an intrinsic antimicrobial activity against penicillin binding proteins. The clinical experience from over 20 years confirms that the combination of betalactam antibiotics is effective in the empirical initial treatment of respiratory, intraabdominal, urinary tract and gynecologic infections, including those of polymicrobial origin. In the specific case of amoxicillin-sulbactam, experiences have shown the effectiveness of the combination in the treatment of peritonsillar abscess, otitis media, sinusitis, community acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonar disease (COPD, urinary tract infection and obstetric/ gynecologic infections. The spectrum and pharmacologic properties of this combination makes it also an excellent option for the treatment of skin/soft tissue and intraabdominal infections.

  15. Selection and persistence of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of pigs treated with amoxicillin, ceftiofur, or cefquinome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Abatih, E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2008-01-01

    amoxicillin, ceftiofur, or cefquinome according to the instructions on the product label was initiated immediately after bacterial inoculation. Feces were collected from the rectum before inoculation and on days 4, 8, 15, 22, and 25 after the start of treatment. The total and resistant coliforms were counted...... on MacConkey agar with and without cefotaxime (CTX). Furthermore, MacConkey agar with CTX and NAL was used to count the number of CFU of the inoculated strain. Significantly higher counts of CTX-resistant coliforms were observed in the three treatment groups than in the control group for up to 22...... number of CTX-resistant coliforms was mainly due to the proliferation of indigenous CTX-M-producing strains and the possible emergence of strains that acquired CTX-M genes by horizontal transfer. The study provides evidence that the cephalosporins used in pig production select for CTX-M-producing E. coli...

  16. Adsorptivity of amoxicillin from the aqueous solutions with organic bentonite%有机膨润土对溶液中阿莫西林的吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查双兴; 周琰; 金晓英; 陈祖亮

    2012-01-01

    应用膨润土吸附阿莫西林,探讨了4种吸附剂的吸附效果,并以改性十六烷基三甲基铵盐(DKI)为试验材料,研究了吸附时间、溶液pH值、投加量、初始质量浓度和温度等因素对有机膨润土吸附溶液中阿莫西林效果的影响.结果表明,在自然pH值条件下,DKI的吸附剂效果最佳,且吸附在15 min内快速达到平衡.吸附过程符合伪二级动力学方程,同时符合Freundlich、Langmuir和Temkin型等温吸附方程,是个吸热的过程,Langmuir理论最大吸附容量在30℃时可达27.86 mg/g.对等温方程的研究表明,DKI对阿莫西林的吸附呈单分子层形式,吸附性能良好,易于进行.%This paper is concerned about our research report of the adsorptivity of amoxicillin from the aqueous solutions with the help of organic bentonite. As a technical process, amoxicillin is a widely used in penicillin-like antibiotic, though its residue may have toxic impact on the algae and other lower organisms within the food chain. Adsorption. as a chemical process to remove contaminants from water and/or other liquids, has also been widely used in modern technology. So far as we know, of the four bentoniles, DK1 modified with hexadeeyl trimethyl ammonium is generally regarded as the moat effective absorbent. The removal percentages of amoxicillin account for 97.9 and 13.8% for DKl and Na-B, respectively. More modified bentonite proves much more effective than unmodified one. The conditions influencing the adsorption of DK1 for amoxicillin may include the contact time, pH value, the initial concentration and tempera- ture, dosage to be used, etc. The results of our batch adsorption experiments indicate that under the natural pH, the adsorption of DK1 can reach its equilibrium quickly in a period of time of 15 min, with pH being a crucial factor that may affect the adsorption. However, with the increase of amoxicillin and the dosage from 1 to 15 g/L, the adsorption capacity( qe) tends to

  17. [In vitro and in vivo activity of a combination of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin against Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended broad-spectrum betalactamase (CTX-1, SHV-3, SHV-4)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migueres, M L; Ronco, E; Guenounou, M; Philippon, A

    1989-05-01

    In vitro activity of an aminopenicillin (amoxicillin or ampicillin) combined with a betalactamase inhibitor (clavulanic acid or sulbactam, 2 mg/l) was examined against 39 strains of K. pneumoniae producing 3 types of extended broad spectrum betalactamases (CTX-1, SHV-3, SHV-4). Clavulanic acid produces the best synergistic effect. The in vivo activity of Augmentin (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid), 1 g once or twice a day, during 10 +/- 3 days was evaluated on 10 cases urinary tract infections in paraplegic patients. After 3 days, no leucocyturia was observed and bacteria were no more detected. The inhibitory effect of clavulanic acid for the extended broad-spectrum betalactamases shows that such an association could be probably chosen as well for treatment urinary infection. PMID:2674869

  18. A randomized trial of the efficacy and safety of sequential intravenous/oral moxifloxacin monotherapy versus intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate for complicated skin and skin structure infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge C; Dryden, Matthew; Kujath, Peter; Nathwani, Dilip; Schaper, Nicolaas; Hampel, Barbara; Reimnitz, Peter; Alder, Jeff; Arvis, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of the RELIEF study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two sequential intravenous (iv)/oral regimens: moxifloxacin iv/oral versus piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) iv followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC). Patients and methods The study had a prospective, randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, multicentre design. Patients ≥18 years were prospectively stratified according to complicated skin and skin structure infection (cSSSI) subtype/diagnosis (major ...

  19. In Vitro Dissolution of Generic Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms Containing BCS Class I Drugs: Comparative Assessment of Metronidazole, Zidovudine, and Amoxicillin Versus Relevant Comparator Pharmaceutical Products in South Africa and India

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Nallagundla H. S.; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

    2014-01-01

    Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchase...

  20. Pharmacodynamic assessment of Amoxicillin-Sulbactam against Acinetobacter baumannii: searching the optimal dose and infusion time through a human ex-vivo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bantar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin-sulbactam (AMX-SUL is an aminopenicillin/ß-lactamase inhibitor combination currently available in 29 countries and may be a suitable option for treating infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. Thus, we sought to search the optimal dosing strategy for this formulation through an ex vivo pharmacodynamic human model against Acinetobacter baumanniii. Four volunteers were randomized to receive alternatively a single dose AMX-SUL infused both either over 30 min or 3h at the following ratios (g/g: 1/0.5; 1/1, and 0/2. Time-kill studies were performed with the 0-, 0.5-, 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-h sera after dose against a clinical isolate of A. baumannii (sulbactam MIC, 4µg/mL. Bactericidal activity (i.e. a mean decrease >3 log10 CFU/mL in the viable cell counts from the initial inoculum was displayed by the 0.5- and the 2-h sera after dose for all formulations. The 4-h sera proved inhibitory with the AMX-SUL 1g/1g formulation, albeit a trend to regrowth was observed after 24-h incubation. With the AMX-SUL 0g/2g dose, the 4-h sera proved almost bactericidal activity (i.e. a mean decrease of 2.4 log10 CFU/mL in the viable cell counts from the initial inoculum, whereas the 6-h sera was inhibitory, with a trend to regrowth after 24-h incubation. When infused over 3h, AMX-SUL 1g/0.5g and 1g/1g, bactericidal activity was displayed by the 0.5-, 2- and the 4-h sera after dose and the 6-h sera proved inhibitory with the AMX-SUL 1g/1g formulation. The present study, albeit preliminary, might give a rationale for the dosing strategy to treat infections caused by A. baumannii with sulbactam, either alone or combined with amoxicillin. A 2-g sulbactam dose seems to be optimal to be infused over 30 min with a 6-h dosing interval. When infused over 3h, AMX-SUL 1g/1g given every 6h or 8h seems a suitable dosing schedule.

  1. Stomach specific polymeric low density microballoons as a vector for extended delivery of rabeprazole and amoxicillin for treatment of peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sandeep; Jain, Ashay; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Mishra, Vijay; Agrawal, Govind P; Kesharwani, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    The study was intended to develop a new intra-gastric floating in situ microballoons system for controlled delivery of rabeprazole sodium and amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Eudragit S-100 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose based low density microballoons systems were fabricated by employing varying concentrations of Eudragit S-100 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, to which varying concentrations of drug was added, and formulated by stirring at various speed and time to optimize the process and formulation variable. The formulation variables like concentration and ratio of polymers significantly affected the in vitro drug release from the prepared floating device. The validation of the gastro-retentive potential of the prepared microballoons was carried out in rabbits by orally administration of microballoons formulation containing radio opaque material. The developed formulations showed improved buoyancy and lower ulcer index as compared to that seen with plain drugs. Ulcer protective efficacies were confirmed in ulcer-bearing mouse model. In conclusion, greater compatibility, higher gastro-retention and higher anti-ulcer activity of the presently fabricated formulations to improve potential of formulation for redefining ulcer treatment are presented here. These learning exposed a targeted and sustained drug delivery potential of prepared microballoons in gastric region for ulcer therapeutic intervention as corroborated by in vitro and in vivo findings and, thus, deserves further attention for improved ulcer treatment. PMID:26859118

  2. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species. PMID:27219711

  3. Partial Least-Squares and Linear Support Vector Regression Chemometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Amoxicillin Trihydrate and Dicloxacillin Sodium in the Presence of Their Common Impurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Ibrahim A; Abdelaleem, Eglal A; Zaazaa, Hala E; Hussein, Essraa A

    2016-07-01

    Two multivariate chemometric models, namely, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and linear support vector regression (SVR), are presented for the analysis of amoxicillin trihydrate and dicloxacillin sodium in the presence of their common impurity (6-aminopenicillanic acid) in raw materials and in pharmaceutical dosage form via handling UV spectral data and making a modest comparison between the two models, highlighting the advantages and limitations of each. For optimum analysis, a three-factor, four-level experimental design was established, resulting in a training set of 16 mixtures containing different ratios of interfering species. To validate the prediction ability of the suggested models, an independent test set consisting of eight mixtures was used. The presented results show the ability of the two proposed models to determine the two drugs simultaneously in the presence of small levels of the common impurity with high accuracy and selectivity. The analysis results of the dosage form were statistically compared to a reported HPLC method, with no significant difference regarding accuracy and precision, indicating the ability of the suggested multivariate calibration models to be reliable and suitable for routine analysis of the drug product. Compared to the PLSR model, the SVR model gives more accurate results with a lower prediction error, as well as high generalization ability; however, the PLSR model is easy to handle and fast to optimize. PMID:27305461

  4. 阿莫西林与阿莫西林双氯西林钠对幽门螺杆菌根治的对照研究%The comparative study of amoxicillin and amoxicillin dicloxacillin sodium for the eradication of H.pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯金珍; 郑建玮; 张志阳; 陈雅真

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effecacy of amoxicillin and amoxicillin didoxacillin sodium for the eradication of H. pylori. Methods Totally 155 helicobaeter pylori - infected patients with peptic ulcer diagnosed by endoscopy were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into three groups, and drugs were given as follows: each of the 52 patients of group A was given lansoprazole 30 mg + amoxicillm 1. 0 g + tinidazole 0. 5 g; each of the 51 patients of group B was given lansoprazole 30 mg + amoxicillin didoxacillin sodium 0. 75 g + tinidazole 0. 5 g; each of the 52 patients of group C was given lansoprazole 30 mg + amoxicillin didoxacillin sodium 1. 5 g + tinidazole 0. 5 g. All drugs were given twice a day for seven days. After finishing of H. pylori therapy at least four weeks, and after withdrawing of PPI at least two weeks, we compared the H. pylori status, ulcer healing, and side - effects among three groups by inquisition, endosecopy and 13C breathing test. Results There was significant difference of the H. pylori eradication rate among the three groups ( P 0. 05) among the three groups. There was significant difference among the three groups (P <0. 05). The results between group A and group B were significantly different(P <0. 0167). The results between group A and group C were not significantly different, either were the results between group B and group C. The rate of ADR showed no significant difference among the three groups. Conclusion Comparison of three groups, amoxicillin, which has highest H. pylori eradication rate, highest ulcerative healing, lowest incidence of ADR, is better than amoxicillin dicloxacillin sodium as an antibiotics for H. pylori eradication.%目的 评价阿莫西林与阿莫西林双氯西林钠对幽门螺杆菌(H.pylori)的疗效.方法 155例确诊为消化性溃疡(PU)(A期)且H.pylori阳性的患者随机分为3组,A组52例,给予兰索拉唑30 mg+阿莫西林1.0g+替硝唑0.5g;B组51例,给予兰索拉唑30 mg

  5. In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

    2014-10-01

    Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product. PMID:24848760

  6. Measurement of Activity of Synthesis Amoxicillin from Immobilized Penicillin Acylase%固定化青霉素酰化酶合成阿莫西林活性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严正人; 朱军; 刘慧勤; 魏士倩; 张海燕; 李红颖; 刘丹

    2015-01-01

    The level of activity of immobilized penicillin acylase is the important factor which affects the speed of enzymatic synthesis of amoxicillin, thus it plays signiifcant role how to determine synthetic activity of immobilized penicillin acylase. Currently, the determination of activity of penicillin acylase is focus on hydrolytic activity of penicillin acylase. But there is lack of the reports on determination in activity of synthesis of amoxicillin, which leads to the fact that fast determination of the synthesis speed from penicillin acylase to amoxicillin may be impossible and the production cannot be guided from theory. In this article, the activity of amoxicillin synthesized from penicillin acylase was deifned and the method for measuring the activity was studied. It was shown that this method is easy to operate and the result is accurate and reliable. Moreover, by using this method the activities of penicillin acylases produced from different factories are easy to be compared so that the comparing results can be used as guidance for production.%固定化青霉素酰化酶的活性高低是影响酶催化合成阿莫西林速度的决定性因素,如何测定固定化青霉素酰化酶的合成活性起着至关重要的作用。目前,对青霉素酰化酶活性的测定主要集中在青霉素酰化酶的水解活性,而对其合成阿莫西林活性的研究较少,这导致不能快速的鉴别青霉素酰化酶合成阿莫西林的快慢,不能有效的指导生产。文章对固定化青霉素酰化酶合成阿莫西林的活性进行了定义,并研究了合成活性的测定方法,该测定方法准确可靠,操作简捷,便于比较不同厂家生产的青霉素酰化酶活性的高低,对工业生产起指导作用。

  7. Multiwall carbon nanotubes decorated with FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, a new selective electrochemical sensor for amoxicillin determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensafi, Ali Asghar, E-mail: Ensafi@cc.iut.ac.ir; Allafchian, Ali Reza; Rezaei, Behzad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized and then multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were decorated with FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The new nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as vibrating sample magnetometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning surface microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results of the study confirm that the particles are pure FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs with a cubic structure. No diffraction peaks of other impurities such as FeO or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} were observed. The diffractive peaks of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs are broadened, implying that the crystalline size of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs particles is quite small. The mean particle size of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs calculated by Scherrer equation is about 25 nm, whereas the existence of particles with less than 30 nm size at FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs is clearly reflected in 2D and 3D AFM images. The TEM image confirms that the spaghetti-like FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs formed a porous structure. The synthesized FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs nanoparticles could be used as a new electrocatalysis for voltammetric determination of amoxicillin (AMC). Under the optimized conditions at pH 7.5 and in differential pulse voltammetry, the oxidation peak current of AMC at the surface of the mediator has two linear dynamic ranges including 0.1-10.0 and 10.0-70.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The detection limit of 0.05 {mu}mol L{sup -1} was achieved. The influence of potential interfering compounds on the selectivity was studied. Finally, the modified electrode showed good sensitivity, selectivity, and stability for the determination of AMC in real samples.

  8. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans after Systemic Administration of Amoxicillin Plus Metronidazole as an Adjunct to Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakic, Aleksandar; Boillot, Adrien; Colliot, Cyrille; Carra, Maria-Clotilde; Czernichow, Sébastien; Bouchard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variations in the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and/or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans before and after systemic administration of amoxicillin plus metronidazole in association with non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Background: The adjunctive use of antibiotics has been advocated to improve the clinical outcomes of NSPT. However, no systematic review has investigated the microbiological benefit of this combination. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was conducted up to December 2015. Randomized clinical trials comparing the number of patients testing positive for P. gingivalis and/or A. actinomycetemcomitans before and after NSPT with (test group) or without (control group) amoxicillin plus metronidazole were included. The difference between groups in the variation of positive patients was calculated using the inverse variance method with a random effects model. Results: The frequency of patients positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans was decreased by 30% (p = 0.002) and by 25% (p = 0.01) in the test group compared to the control group at 3- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Similar findings were observed when considering the frequency of patients positive for Porphyromonas gingivalis, with a reduction by 28% (p periodontal therapy alone or with a placebo.

  9. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Radi Shahien; Vetaly Vieksler; Abdalla Bowirrat

    2010-01-01

    Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of asepti...

  10. 阿莫西林原料药中有关物质的UPLC-TOF-MS/MS鉴定%Identification of related substances in amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients by UPLC-TOF-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷勇胜; 宋丽明; 郝英魁; 王云; 李瑜; 蒋庆峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:快速鉴定阿莫西林原料药中的有关物质。方法采用UPLC-TOF-MS/MS法测定。Waters Acquity UPLCTM BEH色谱柱(100 mm×2.1 mm,1.7μm);流动相为乙酸铵体系;体积流量0.5 mL/min;检测波长254 nm;柱温30℃;进样量10μL。电喷雾电离源;正离子检测;毛细管电压3.0 kV;离子源温度120℃;雾化气温度500℃;雾化气体积流量700 L/h;锥孔气体积流量50 L/h。结果推测了阿莫西林原料药中6个杂质的化学结构及其裂解规律,同时与欧洲药典中的杂质进行了比对归属。结论建立的UPLC-TOF-MS/MS的方法和实验数据可为阿莫西林原料药的质量控制提供了重要依据。%Objective To establish a rapid identification method for related substances in amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients. Methods UPLC-TOF-MS/MS method was used. HPLC was carried out on Waters Acquity UPLCTM BEH column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7μm) with ammonium acetate solution as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 254 nm and injection volume was 10μL at the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The column temperature was set for 30℃. MS conditions were that a mass spectrometry equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) (+) source for detection. Capillary voltage was 3.0 kV, and source temperature was 120℃. The desolvation temperature and flow rate of desolvation gas were 500℃ and 700 L/h. The flow rate of cone gas was 50 L/h. Results The structures and fragmentation regularities of six related substances in amoxicillin were elucidated according to their MS characteristics. At the same time, related substances were compared to the impurities from European Pharmacopoeia. Conclusion UPLC-TOF-MS/MS method and results can establish a basis for quality control and stability study of amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  11. Determination of amoxicillin content in powdered pharmaceutical formulations using DRIFTS and PLS Determinação de amoxicilina em formulações farmacêuticas em pó empregando DRIFTS-PLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Parisotto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of amoxicillin in pharmaceutical formulations was determined using spectra of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS, in association with partial least squares (PLS regression. The spectra of 24 different samples (17 for the calibration set and 7 for the validation set, which had been registered using a Nicolet Magna 550 spectrophotometer, contained 76.7-94.3% of amoxicillin in starch. The PLS models were constructed with auto-scaled or variance-scaled data, and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC. The best model presented R²=0.9936, RMSEC=0.441 and RMSEV=0.790. The analytical method proposed is non-destructive and the cost and time of analysis are very much reduced, allowing for the fast and direct determination of amoxicillin content.Neste trabalho propõe-se a quantificação de amoxicilina em formulações farmacêuticas empregando espectroscopia por refletância difusa no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (DRIFTS e regressão por mínimos quadrados parciais (PLS. Foram coletados em um espectrômetro Nicolet Magna 550 os espectros de 24 amostras (17 para o conjunto de calibração e 7 para o conjunto de validação contendo de 76,7-94,3 % de amoxicilina em amido. Para a construção dos modelos PLS foi empregada a correção do espalhamento de luz (MSC e os dados foram autoescalados ou escalados pela variância. Foi obtido um excelente modelo para a previsão da amoxicilina o qual apresentou R²=0,9936, RMSEC=0,441 e RMSEV=0,790. O método proposto além de não destrutivo apresenta baixo tempo de análise e baixo custo podendo ser facilmente empregado no controle de qualidade das indústrias farmacêuticas.

  12. Molecular modelling of four penicillins: bencylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin Modelación molecular de cuatro penicilinas: bencilpenicilina, fenoximetilpenicilina, ampicilina y amoxicilina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslhey María Sánchez Domínguez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background:Penicillins differ structurally among themselves by the lateral chains. At the same time, they have differences in their pharmacological action that can be associated to modifications included in the betalactamic ring and/or effects localized in the same chains. Making it clear would be a contribution to the search of the most adequate structural and electronic characteristics to design better penicillins. Objective:To compare structural properties, density of the atomic charges and the frontier orbitals of four penicillins: bencylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Method:The molecular structures were optimized with PM3 semiempirical calculi. The molecular properties were calculated according to the Density Functional Theory, at a B3LYP/6-31G(d level. The density of the atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. The effect of the substituents on the properties of the betalactamic ring was evaluated. Results: The structural parameters of the betalactamic ring do not change as consequence of the modifications in the lateral chain linked to carbon 6. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. There are no variations in the density of the positive charge of the carbonylic carbon. Conclusions: The structures and electronic properties of the betalactamic ring, structural basis of these antibiotics, do not have significant modifications among modelled penicillins.

    Fundamento: Las penicilinas se diferencian estructuralmente entre sí por las cadenas laterales. Al mismo tiempo, poseen diferencias en su acción farmacológica, que pueden estar asociadas a modificaciones inducidas en el anillo betalactámico y/o efectos localizados en las propias cadenas. Esclarecerlo, sería un aporte en la búsqueda de las características estructurales y electrónicas más adecuadas para el diseño de

  13. Bioequivalence assessment of amoxicillin by limited sampling strategy in Chinese healthy volunteers%LSS法估算中国健康志愿者口服阿莫西林的生物等效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽芳; 焦建杰; 张才丽; 娄建石

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop limited sampling strategy ( LSS) for estimating bioequivalence of amoxicillin. Methods Twenty male healthy subjects were enrolled in this bioequivalence study. All subjects were divided into two groups randomly and administered orally reference and test formulation of 500 mg amoxicillin. The blood concentrations of amoxicillin were determined by the validated HPLC method. A multiple linear regression analysis was developed for estimating Cmax and AUC0_t using the amoxicillin concentration of the reference formulation to develop LSS models. The LSS models were internally validated by the Jackknife meth od. The models were also externally validated by bioequivalence assessment of the test amoxicillin formulation based on LSS derived Cmax and AUC0-t values, The results were compared with those obtained using traditional method. Results The results indicate: several models for these parameters estimation met the predefined criteria. Validation tests indicated that most informative sampling points C1, C3 and C1 ,C2,C4 provided accurate estimations of the parameters AUC0-1, ( prediction error < 1% , absolute percentage < 10% ) ,And C1 ,C1.5 and C1.5 ,C2,C6 provided accurate estimations of the parameters Cmax ( prediction error < 2% , absolute percentage < 9%) . The combination of C1.5, C2, C6 might be chosen as sampling hours for predicting AUC0-t, and Cmax according to requirement. It is according with classical assessment. Conclusion The bioequivalence assessment results showed that LSS models provided correct assessment of bio equivalence between two amoxicillin preparations. The method is accurant and can be considered desirable for amoxicil lin bioequivalence study.%目的 用有限采样法(LSS)估算口服阿莫西林的生物等效性.方法 20名健康志愿者口服阿莫西林参比药物和受试药物500 mg后采集若干时间点血浆样品,用高效液相色谱法测定阿莫西林血药浓度,用经典方法计算药代动力学参

  14. Bioequivalence of Amoxicillin Suspension Injection in Pigs%阿莫西林混悬注射液在猪体内的生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘娟; 严凤; 顾欣

    2015-01-01

    为了研究阿莫西林混悬注射液在猪体内的药代动力学和生物等效性,采用双处理、双周期随机交叉试验设计,将24头健康猪随机分成2组,按15 mg/kg体重肌肉分别单剂量注射受试制剂和参比制剂,采用高效液相色谱法测定血浆中阿莫西林的浓度,利用WinNonlin6.4软件计算主要药动学参数,并评价两种制剂的生物等效性。结果显示,受试制剂和参比制剂的 Tmax分别为(3.45±2.49) h,(1.34±1.74) h;Cmax分别为(6.94±4.73) mg/L,(4.39±2.87) mg/L;AUC0-t分别为(37.00±11.48) mg·h·L-1,(30.02±8.93) mg·h·L-1;AUC0-∞分别为(40.26±13.36) mg·h·L-1,(38.46±15.38) mg·h·L-1。阿莫西林混悬注射液受试制剂和参比制剂的AUC0-t、AUC0-∞、Cmax、Tmax均有显著性差异,双单侧t检验结果显示两种制剂生物不等效,试验为兽医临床给药方案的制定以及合理用药提供参考。%To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of amoxicillin suspension injection in pigs. In a randomized two-way self-crossover study, 24 healthy pigs were randomly divided into two groups, and were given respectively a single dose of test or reference preparations by intramuscular injection ( 15 mg/kg ) . Plasma concentrations of amoxicillin were measured by HPLC. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by WinNonlin6.4 software, and the bioequivalence were evaluated. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of the test and reference preparations were as follows: Tmax were ( 3. 45 ± 2. 49 ) h, ( 1. 34 ± 1. 74 ) h; Cmax were (6.94±4.73) mg/L, (4.39±2.87) mg/L; AUC0-t were (37.00±11.48) mg·h·L-1, (30.02±8.93) mg·h·L-1;AUC0-∞ were (40.26±13.36) mg·h·L-1, (38.46±15.38) mg·h·L-1. The pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-t、AUC0-∞, Cmax、Tmax) showed significant difference between test and reference preparations of

  15. Triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children and adolescents Terapia tríplice com claritromicina, amoxicilina e omeprazol para erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em crianças e adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAKAMI Elisabete; Ogata, Silvio Kazuo; Áurea C. M. PORTORREAL; Ana Maria MAGNI; PARDO Mário Luís E.; PATRÍCIO Francy R. S.

    2001-01-01

    Background — Helicobacter pylori infection presents high prevalence in developing countries, but there are few pediatric assays evaluating antimicrobial treatment. Objective - The aim of this study was to investigate Helicobacter pylori eradication rate using a short regimen (7 and 10 days) of triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole. Patients and methods - Twenty-five Hp positive patients who presented severe epigastralgia, were submitted to antimicrobial treatment...

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Eight β-Lactam Antibiotics, Amoxicillin, Cefazolin, Cefepime, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Cloxacillin, Oxacillin, and Piperacillin, in Human Plasma by Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Tiphaine; Vodovar, Dominique; Tournier, Nicolas; Khoudour, Nihel; Hulin, Anne

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method using UV detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight β-lactam antibiotics in human plasma, including four penicillins, amoxicillin (AMX), cloxacillin (CLX), oxacillin (OXA), and piperacillin (PIP), and four cephalosporins, cefazolin (CFZ), cefepime (FEP), cefotaxime (CTX), and ceftazidime (CAZ). One hundred-microliter samples were spiked with thiopental as an internal standard, and proteins were precipitated by acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. Separation was achieved on a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column with a mobile phase composed of phosphoric acid (10 mM) and acetonitrile in gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 500 μl/min. Detection was performed at 230 nm for AMX, CLX, OXA, and PIP and 260 nm for CFZ, FEP, CTX, and CAZ. The total analysis time did not exceed 13 min. The method was found to be linear at concentrations ranging from 2 to 100 mg/liter for each compound, and all validation parameters fulfilled international requirements. Between- and within-run accuracy errors ranged from -5.2% to 11.4%, and precision was lower than 14.2%. This simple method requires small-volume samples and can easily be implemented in most clinical laboratories to promote the therapeutic drug monitoring of β-lactam antibiotics. The simultaneous determination of several antibiotics considerably reduces the time to results for clinicians, which may improve treatment efficiency, especially in critically ill patients. PMID:27216076

  17. 传统中药与阿莫西林联合治疗压疮的临床研究%Clinical Study of a Traditional Chinese Drug Combined with Amoxicillin in Treating Bedsore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玉梅; 刘如月

    2015-01-01

    To Study a traditional Chinese drug Combined with Amoxicillin in treating I - IV Bedsore ,the paper used the combined therapy in treating 60 cases of Bedsore in different stages during 2011 - 2015 .Effective rate in the treatment group was 97 .1% and ulceration healing time was shorter .T he conclusion is that the combined therapy has significant effect and low cost in treating bedsore in different stages and it’s worth popularizing in clinic .%文章主要研究传统中药去腐生肌的原理,探索联合阿莫西林制成中、西药配方治疗各期压疮疗的疗效.对商丘医学高等专科学校附院2011年~2015年收治的60例130处不同分期的压疮,随机分成对照组30例60处压疮和治疗组各30例70处压疮,对照组采用常规方法治疗和护理,治疗组按压疮的分期分别采用自制中、西药联合配方进行治疗.结果显示,治疗组30例患者70处Ⅰ~Ⅳ期压疮有效率高达97.1%以上,并且能显著缩短溃疡愈合时间.结论:中、西药联合配方对各期压疮均有显著效果且费用低,值得在临床推广.

  18. Determination of Amoxicillin and Polymyxin E Residues in Animal-derived Food by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography- Tandem Mass Spectrometry%超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定动物组织中阿莫西林与多占菌素E的残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕言锋; 汪霞; 何家康; 李兰; 徐士新; 肖希龙

    2011-01-01

    建立了动物源性食品中阿莫西林和多粘菌素E残留检测的超高效液相色谱-串联质谱( UPLC - MS/MS)分析方法.组织样品经三氯乙酸溶液提取,同时用乙酸铅沉淀蛋白,经正己烷除脂后,再用HLB固相萃取柱净化,浓缩后用超高效液相色谱-串联质谱仪检测,以基质匹配标准溶液定量.结果表明,阿莫西林和多粘菌素E的检出限( LOD,S/N>3)分别为6、15 μg/kg,定量下限(LOQ,S/N> 10)分别为20、50μg/kg.以猪肉、猪肝、猪肾和脂肪空白样品进行加标回收实验,阿莫西林、多粘菌素E的回收率分别为76% ~ 96%和74% ~92%,批内和批间相对标准偏差均小于10%.方法应用于阿莫西林和多粘菌素E复方制剂的残留消 除实验,并根据实验结果计算了药物的休药期.结果证明,该法前处理简单易行,稳定性好,适用于大量样品中阿莫西林和多粘菌素E残留的同时检测.%An ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometric method( UPLC -MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and polymyxin E residues in animal-derived food. Mass spectrometric study on amoxicillin and polymyxin E was performed, and UPLC - MS/MS conditions were optimized. Samples were extracted with trichloroacetic acid solu tion. The protein was precipitated with lead acetate and the fat was removed with hexane. The other impurities were removed with HLB solid phase, extraction cartridge. After concentration, the analytes were detected by UPLC - MS/MS and quantified with the matrix-matched standard. The limits of de tection (LOD, S/N>3) for amoxicillin and polymyxin E were 6 (xg/kg and 15 μg/kg, and the limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N>10) were 20 μg/kg and 50 μg/kg, respectively. The average recover ies at three spiked concentrations in muscle, liver, kidney and fat were 76% -96% for amoxicillin and 74% -92% for polymyxin E with RSDs less than 10% . Furthermore, this method was

  19. Inhibitor-resistant TEM- and OXA-1-producing Escherichia coli isolates resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate are more clonal and possess lower virulence gene content than susceptible clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, Jesús; González-López, Juan José; Ortega, Adriana; Quintero-Zárate, J Natalia; Bou, Germán; Cercenado, Emilia; Conejo, María Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Bartolomé, Rosa M; Campos, José

    2014-07-01

    In a previous prospective multicenter study in Spain, we found that OXA-1 and inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) β-lactamases constitute the most common plasmid-borne mechanisms of genuine amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) resistance in Escherichia coli. In the present study, we investigated the population structure and virulence traits of clinical AMC-resistant E. coli strains expressing OXA-1 or IRT and compared these traits to those in a control group of clinical AMC-susceptible E. coli isolates. All OXA-1-producing (n = 67) and IRT-producing (n = 45) isolates were matched by geographical and temporal origin to the AMC-susceptible control set (n = 56). We performed multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic group characterization for each isolate and then studied the isolates for the presence of 49 virulence factors (VFs) by PCR and sequencing. The most prevalent clone detected was distinct for each group: group C isolates of sequence type (ST) 88 (C/ST88) were the most common in OXA-1 producers, B2/ST131 isolates were the most common in IRT producers, and B2/ST73 isolates were the most common in AMC-susceptible isolates. The median numbers of isolates per ST were 3.72 in OXA-1 producers, 2.04 in IRT producers, and 1.69 in AMC-susceptible isolates; the proportions of STs represented by one unique isolate in each group were 19.4%, 31.1%, and 48.2%, respectively. The sum of all VFs detected, calculated as a virulence score, was significantly higher in AMC-susceptible isolates than OXA-1 and IRT producers (means, 12.5 versus 8.3 and 8.2, respectively). Our findings suggest that IRT- and OXA-1-producing E. coli isolates resistant to AMC have a different and less diverse population structure than AMC-susceptible clinical E. coli isolates. The AMC-susceptible population also contains more VFs than AMC-resistant isolates. PMID:24777096

  20. 碳二亚胺法制备阿莫西林人工抗原及其鉴定%Preparation and Identification of Amoxicillin Artificial Antigen by EDC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆堂; 王磊; 职爱民; 滕蔓; 胡骁飞; 孙亚宁; 宋春美; 王寅彪; 张改平

    2012-01-01

    合成、鉴定了阿莫西林(amoxicillin,AMO)人工抗原,并通过动物免疫法生产了亲和力高、特异性好的鼠源AMO多克隆抗血清.采用碳二亚胺(EDC)法将AMO分别与载体蛋白BSA和OVA偶联,合成完全免疫抗原AMO - BSA和检测抗原AMO - OVA,经紫外分光光度法和SDS -PAGE以及动物免疫进行鉴定.结果表明,偶联后的紫外吸收峰与BSA和AMO相比都发生了一定的位移,AMO - BSA在276 nm处出现最大吸收峰,BSA的泳动速度大于AMO - BSA.免疫后获得的3只小鼠多抗血清,通过间接竞争ELISA测定,效价可达1×10-4以上,1号小鼠半数抑制浓度(IC50)为573.75 ng/mL,敏感性较好.AMO完全人工抗原的合成以及鼠源多克隆抗体血清的制备,为AMO单克隆抗体的制备奠定了基础.%To synthesize the artificial antigen of AMO and obtain its mouse polyclonal antiserum, the immunogen AMO-BSA and coating antigen AMO-OVA were synthesized using EDC method and identified by ultraviolet scanning and SDS-PAGE. BALB/c mice were immunized with the synthesized antigens and the polyclonal antiserum was determined by indirect and blocking ELISA. The results showed that after conjugation, the ultraviolet absorption peak of AMO-BSA appeared at 276 nm, indicating that certain displacement occurred comparing with the ultraviolet absorption peaks of both AMO and BSA. The electropharetic mobility of BSA was observed bigger than that of AMO-BSA. Indirect ELISA showed that the antiserum titres of all the three immunized BALB/c mice were above 1 X 10~4. With the IC50 of 573. 75 ng/mL,No, 1 mouse polyclonal antiserum showed the best sensitivity. In this study, AMO-BSA and AMO-OVA were successfully synthesized and high sensitive polyclonal antiserums against AMO were prepared,which provides a basis for the preparation of monoclonal antibodies against AMO.

  1. Effect of betamethasone and diclofenac sodium on serum and tissue concentration of amoxicillin: in vivo study in rats Efeito da betametasona e do diclofenaco sódico na concentração sérica e tecidual da amoxicilina: estudo in vivo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Rocha Mattos Filho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial agents in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs have been usually prescribed in both Medicine and Dentistry. However, few scientific reports support this clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of betamethasone and diclofenac sodium on serum and tissue concentration of amoxicillin in rats. METHODS: Four polyurethane sponges were implanted in the back skin of 48 rats. After seven days the animals were divided into 6 groups (n=8. Group 1: amoxicillin (25 mg/kg; G2: diclofenac sodium (2.5 mg/kg; G3: betamethasone (0.1 mg/kg; G4: diclofenac sodium and amoxicillin; G5: betamethasone and amoxicillin; and G6: 0.9% sodium chloride solution (1.0 mL - control group. All drugs were administered in a single dose. After 90 minutes, the granulomatous tissues of each animal were surgically removed and weighed. Blood was collected from cervical plexus, centrifuged and 10µL of serum was placed on paper discs. In order to estimate amoxicillin concentration, serum and granulomatous tissues were separately submitted to microbiological assay, which used 10(8cfu/mL of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (penicillin-susceptible strain. After incubation (18 hours, 37ºC the inhibition zones were measured and compared to a regression curve. RESULTS: No inhibition zones were observed for groups 2, 3 and 6. Tissue and serum concentrations of both G1 (4.14µg/g and 2.06µg/mL, respectively and G5 (3.87µg/g and 1.70µg/mL, respectively showed statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis, p0.05. CONCLUSION: Considering single doses, betamethasone did not interfere with amoxicillin levels but diclofenac sodium reduced both tissue and serum levels of amoxicillin in rats.OBJETIVO: A prescrição de antimicrobianos associados a antiinflamatórios é uma prática comum em odontologia, embora na maioria das vezes não haja justificativa para tal conduta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em um estudo in vivo em

  2. Validação de método para determinação de resíduos de amoxicilina aplicado à validação de limpeza em indústria farmacêutica de penicilânicos Validation of a method for determination of amoxicillin residues applied to cleaning validation process in penicillins pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Pinheiro Costa Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the single-laboratory validation of a quantitative method for the determination of amoxicillin residues in support of cleaning control and validation. Linearity was demonstrated between 2.5 and 17.5 μg/mL, without matrix effects. Mean recoveries ranged from 84.00 to 103.74% and the relative standard deviation under repetitivity and within-reproducibility conditions were from 0.58 to 4.20% and from 0.79 to 4.39%, respectively. The theoretical limits of detection and quantification were 0.133 and 0.442 μg/mL, respectively. The studied method was suitable for cleaning control purpose within good manufacturing practices.

  3. Effect analysis of amoxicillin and dicloxacillin etc triple therapy for eradicating helicobacter pylori infection%阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊等三联疗法治疗幽门螺杆菌阳性的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦锦兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of standard triple therapy amoxicillin and dicloxacillin,esomeprazole,clar-ithromycin and amoxicillin,esomeprazole,clarithromycin therapy for eradication of helicobacter pylori 10 days. Methods By 14C - urea breath test were analyzed and the gastric mucosa pathologic examination ( Warthin - Stary dyeing positive) confirmed that Hp infection in 198 cases of material were randomly divided into two groups; experiment group of 115 patients were treated with amoxicillin and dicloxacillin,1. 125 ,bid,esomeprazole,20 mg,bid,clarithromyc ,500 mg,bid for 10 days,the compare group of 83 patients were treated with amoxicillin,1000mg,bid,esomeprazole,20mg,Bid,clarithromyci - n,500 mg,Bid for 10 days. All of the patients stop drug above 14C - urea breath test and gastroscope gastric mucosa pathology were used to examine whether HP was eradicated 4 weeks after treatment. Results Totally 198 cases were all 10 days to complete treatment duration and one mounth review the HP. Two groups of Hp eradicate rate were 94. 78% and 73. 49% ,respectively ( P 0. 05 ) ,not found serious adverse effects,all of the patients tolerated. Experiment group and compare group Hp eradication rates have significant difference (P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusions The curative effect of experiment group for eradication of HP is significantly better than that of the control group ( P < 0. 05 ).%目的 比较三联疗法阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊、埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片、克拉霉素片和阿莫西林钠胶囊、埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片、克拉霉素片根除幽门螺杆菌10d疗效.方法 分析经14C尿素呼气实验及胃黏膜病理检查(Warthin - Stary染色阳性)证实有Hp感染患者198例资料.随机分两组,试验组115例患者口服阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊1.125,埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片20mg,克拉霉素片500mg,对照组83例患者口服阿莫西林1.0,埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片20mg,克拉霉素片500mg,三联药

  4. Efficacy of triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin as first-line treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori Eficacia de una triple terapia con un inhibidor de la bomba de protones, levofloxacino y amoxicilina, como primer tratamiento, en la erradicación de Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castro-Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: triple therapy including a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (PPI-CA is the first-choice treatment used for H. pylori eradication. The efficacy of this treatment is declining of late, and alternative therapies are currently under evaluation. Objectives: to evaluate the efficacy, safety and compliance of a triple therapy with a PPI, amoxicillin and levofloxacin (PPI-LA - replacing clarithromycin - for the eradication of H. pylori. Methods: the study included 135 patients (65% women, mean age 53 years, with dyspeptic symptoms and H. pylori infection proven by a positive urease rapid test, histological analysis, or C13-urea breath test. Diagnosis: non-investigated dyspepsia 48.9%, functional dyspepsia 36.3%, and ulcerative dyspepsia 14.8%. Treatment was indicated with a proton pump inhibitor at usual doses, amoxicillin 1 g, and levofloxacin 500 mg, administered jointly during breakfast and dinner for 10 days. We studied the performance of this triple therapy and its effects using a questionnaire, and effectiveness by the negativity of the C13-urea breath test after 6-8 weeks after treatment discontinuation. Per protocol, we compared the effectiveness of PPI-LA with a control group of 270 patients treated with PPI-CA for 10 days. Results: 130 patients (96.2% could complete the treatment and follow-up protocol. Effectiveness (intention to treat was 71.8% (97/135 and 74.6% (per protocol (97/130. Sixteen patients (11.8% had well-tolerated adverse effects, except for 5 subjects (3.7% who dropped out. PPI-CA was effective (per protocol in 204 patients out of 270 (75.5% in the control group. Conclusions: triple therapy with a PPI, amoxicillin and levofloxacin for 10 days is a well-tolerated treatment that is easy to comply with; however it has low efficiency - less than 80% - and is not recommended as a first-choice treatment for H. pylori eradication. Similar results were obtained with the classic triple therapy using a

  5. Utilização do óleo de alho e da amoxilina, metronidazol e omeprazol no controle de Helicobacter spp. em cães Use of garlic oil and amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazol in the control of Helicobacter spp. in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a eficácia do óleo de alho e da terapia tripla (amoxicilina, metronidazol e omeprazol no tratamento de 21 cães infectados por Helicobacter spp., que apresentavam alterações histológicas nas biopsias endoscópicas da mucosa gástrica e reação positiva ao teste de urease. Os animais foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em três grupos de sete cães, os quais receberam os seguintes tratamentos: grupo 1 - cápsulas vazias; grupo 2 - 500mg de óleo de alho em cápsulas, diariamente, por um período de 30 dias; grupo 3 - amoxicilina, metronidazol e omeprazol, respectivamente, nas doses de 20mg/kg a cada 12 horas, 25mg/kg e 20mg/kg a cada 24 horas, durante 15 dias. Ao final dos tratamentos, os cães foram submetidos à endoscopia com realização de biopsias da mucosa gástrica. O tratamento com amoxicilina, metronidazol e omeprazol resultou em erradicação de Helicobacter spp. tanto na região fúndica quanto na pilórica. No grupo 2, houve redução da degeneração glandular na região fúndica em dois animais e em outros dois na pilórica. O tratamento com óleo de alho não foi eficaz em erradicar Helicobacter spp., apenas reduziu a sua colonização em quatro dos animais tratados.The efficacy of garlic oil and triple therapy (amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazol were evaluated in the treatment of 21 dogs infected by Helicobacter spp., which presented histological alterations of the gastric mucosa according to endoscopic biopsies and positive reaction to urease test. The animals were randomly distributed into three groups of seven dogs each, and received the following treatment, group 1 - empty capsules; group 2 - 500mg of garlic oil capsules daily for a period of 30 days; and group 3 - amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazol, in doses of 20mg/kg every 12 hours, 25mg/kg and 20mg/kg every 24 hours, respectively, for 15 days. By the end of the treatment, the dogs were subjected to new endoscopic procedure with gastric

  6. Eficácia e segurança de Sultamicilina (Ampicilina/Sulbactam e Amoxacilina/Clavulanato no tratamento das infecções de via aéreas superiores em adultos: um estudo multicêntrico, aberto e randomizado Efficacy and safety of Sultamicillin (Ampicillin/Sulbactan and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in adults: an open-label, multicentric, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Ferreira

    2006-02-01

    pro-drug of Ampicillin/Sulbactan, is a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor which can face this challenge. AIM: evaluate efficacy, safety and tolerability of Ampicillin/Sulbactan compared to Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in upper respiratory tract infections in adults. METHODS: 102 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive Ampicillin/Sulbactan or Amoxicillin/Clavulanate during 10 days. They were evaluated 10 and 30 days after treatment to learn about the therapeutic response. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two groups respecting cure at the end of treatment (visit 2 or at the end of the study (visit 3. Cure ratio was 61.7% and 93.2% (visits 2 and 3 in the Amoxicillin/Clavulanate group compared to 64.4% and 97.4%, respectively, in Ampicillin/Sulbactan group. The adverse events ratio for the two groups was the same (p=0.940. The number of patients with diarrhea was greater in the group of patients receiving Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (70.6% than in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan (29.4% (p=0.0164. CONCLUSIONS: Ampicillin/Sulbactan is as safe and efficient as Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in the empiric treatment of upper respiratory infections in adults. The low occurrence of diarrhea in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan needs confirmation in other studies.

  7. Comparação entre a azitromicina e a amoxicilina no tratamento da exacerbação infecciosa da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Comparison between azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rúbia Andre-Alves

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a eficácia, segurança e tolerabilidade da azitromicina e da amoxicilina no tratamento de pacientes com quadro clínico de exacerbação infecciosa da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. MÉTODOS: Seis centros brasileiros incluíram 109 pacientes com idades entre 33 e 82 anos. Desses pacientes, 102 foram randomizados para receber azitromicina (500 mg por dia por três dias, n = 49 ou amoxicilina (500 mg a cada oito horas por dez dias, n = 53. Os pacientes foram avaliados no início do estudo, após dez dias e depois de um mês. A avaliação clínica, de acordo com os sinais e sintomas presentes após dez dias e após um mês, consistiu na classificação dos casos nas categorias cura, melhora ou falha terapêutica. A avaliação microbiológica foi feita pela cultura de amostras de escarro consideradas adequadas após contagem de leucócitos e coloração de Gram. Avaliações secundárias de eficácia foram feitas com relação aos sintomas (tosse, dispnéia e expectoração e à função pulmonar. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças entre as proporções de casos classificados como cura ou melhora entre os grupos tratados com a azitromicina ou a amoxicilina. Essas proporções foram, respectivamente, de 85% vs. 78% (p = 0,368 após dez dias, e de 83% vs. 78% (p = 0,571 após um mês. Também não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos quando comparadas as variáveis secundárias de eficácia e a incidência de eventos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: A azitromicina tem eficácia e tolerabilidade semelhantes às da amoxicilina para o tratamento da exacerbação aguda da Doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica.OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of patients with infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: This study was conducted at six medical centers across Brazil and included 109 patients from 33 to 82

  8. The comparative analysis on the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound pholcodine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效随机对照分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 徐洁; 唐新业; 姚红兵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound phol-codine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection.Methods One hundred and sixty chil-dren with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection were chosen,and divided into treatment group(80 cases) and control group(80 cases)randomly.Amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with compound pholcodine syrup were enrolled in the treatment group,while amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with lung cough syrup were in the con-trol group.The bacterial clearance rate,oral secretory SIgA and total effective rate were compared before and after the treatment for 7 days.Results There was no significant difference in the bacterial clearance rate in the two groups (P >0.05).The oral secretory SigA increased after treatment comparing with that before treatment(P 0.05)in the control one.The total effective rate in the treatment group was higher than that in the control one(93.75% vs.86.25%)(P <0.05).No serious side effect occurred in the two groups.Conclusion It has significant effect using amoxicillin clavulanic combined with compound pholcodine syrup in treatment of pediatric acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection.%目的:观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效。方法选择急性细菌性上呼吸道感染患儿160例,分为治疗组(80例)和对照组(80例),治疗组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+复方福尔可定口服溶液,对照组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+肺力咳糖浆。治疗疗程均为7 d,比较治疗前后两组细菌清除率、口腔分泌性 SIgA 和总有效率。结果细菌清除率两组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗后实验组患儿口腔分泌性 SIgA 较治疗前有升高(P <0.05),而对照组

  9. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效随机对照分析%The comparative analysis on the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound pholcodine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 徐洁; 唐新业; 姚红兵

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效。方法选择急性细菌性上呼吸道感染患儿160例,分为治疗组(80例)和对照组(80例),治疗组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+复方福尔可定口服溶液,对照组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+肺力咳糖浆。治疗疗程均为7 d,比较治疗前后两组细菌清除率、口腔分泌性 SIgA 和总有效率。结果细菌清除率两组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗后实验组患儿口腔分泌性 SIgA 较治疗前有升高(P <0.05),而对照组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗组总有效率93.75%。显著高于对照组86.25%(P <0.05),两组患儿均无严重的不良反应发生。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染疗效显著。%Objective To observe the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound phol-codine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection.Methods One hundred and sixty chil-dren with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection were chosen,and divided into treatment group(80 cases) and control group(80 cases)randomly.Amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with compound pholcodine syrup were enrolled in the treatment group,while amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with lung cough syrup were in the con-trol group.The bacterial clearance rate,oral secretory SIgA and total effective rate were compared before and after the treatment for 7 days.Results There was no significant difference in the bacterial clearance rate in the two groups (P >0.05).The oral secretory SigA increased after treatment comparing with that before treatment(P 0.05)in the control one.The total effective rate in the treatment group was higher than that

  10. Triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children and adolescents Terapia tríplice com claritromicina, amoxicilina e omeprazol para erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em crianças e adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete KAWAKAMI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Background — Helicobacter pylori infection presents high prevalence in developing countries, but there are few pediatric assays evaluating antimicrobial treatment. Objective - The aim of this study was to investigate Helicobacter pylori eradication rate using a short regimen (7 and 10 days of triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole. Patients and methods - Twenty-five Hp positive patients who presented severe epigastralgia, were submitted to antimicrobial treatment with amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 1g bid, clarithromycin (30 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 500 mg bid and omeprazole (0.6 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 20 mg bid during 7 or 10 days. After 2 months, clinical symptoms were evaluated and gastric biopsies were taken to test Hp eradication. Results - Overall eradication rate was achieved in 16/25 patients (64% - IC(95% = 45-83%, in 11/15 (73% - IC(95% = 51-95% patients who used 10 days therapy course and in 5/10 (50% - IC(95% = 19-81% who used 7 days therapy course. Eradication drugs were well accepted and adverse effects were reported in two patients (8%. Conclusions - This triple therapy regimen had moderate efficacy (64%. The data suggests that 10 days therapy course achieves better eradication rate (73% than 7 days course (50% to treat Hp infection in our population.Racional — Apesar da alta prevalência da infecção por Helicobacter pylori em países em desenvolvimento, existem poucos ensaios pediátricos avaliando o tratamento antimicrobiano para erradicação. Objetivo - Avaliar a eficácia de esquema tríplice contendo claritromicina, amoxicilina e omeprazol para erradicação da infecção por Helicobacter pylori durante 7 e 10 dias. Pacientes e Métodos - Vinte e cinco crianças e adolescentes Helicobacter pylori positivo com queixas dispépticas de forte intensidade foram submetidas a tratamento com amoxicilina (50 mg/kg/dia - dose máxima 1 g bid, claritromicina (30 mg/kg/dia - dose máxima 500 mg

  11. Helicobacter pylori eradication using tetracycline and furazolidone versus amoxicillin and azithromycin in lansoprazole based triple therapy: an open randomized clinical trial Erradicação de Helicobacter pylori com o uso de tetraciclina e furazolidona versus amoxicilina e azitromicina em terapia tríplice com lansoprazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cidrão Frota

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment has not yet been established. AIM: To evaluate H. pylori eradication using tetracycline and furazolidone versus amoxicillin and azithromycin in lansoprazole based triple therapy in northeastern of Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and four patients with H. pylori infection, as determined by rapid urease testing and histology, were randomly assigned to receive either: lansoprazole (30 mg q.d., tetracycline (500 mg q.i.d., and furazolidone (200 mg t.i.d. for 7 days (LTF; n = 52; or lansoprazole (30 mg b.i.d. and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d. for 1 week, plus azithromycin (500 mg q.d. for the first 3 days (LAAz; n = 52. H. pylori eradication was assessed 3 months following completion of therapy by means of rapid urease testing, histology and a 14C-urea breath test. RESULTS: H. pylori eradication was achieved in 46 of 52 (88.4%, 95% CI: 77.5%-95.1% patients in LTF group and in 14 of 52 (26.9%, 95% CI: 16.2%-40,1% patients in LAAz group. On a per-protocol analysis, eradication rates were 91.8% (95% CI: 81.4%-97.3% and 28.5% (95% CI: 17.2%-42.3%, respectively in LTF and LAAz groups. CONCLUSION: The LAAz regimen yielded unacceptably low eradication rates. On the other hand, the LTF scheme represents a suitable alternative for H. pylori eradication.RACIONAL: Ainda não está estabelecida a melhor terapêutica anti-H. pylori. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a erradicação de H.pylori usando tetraciclina e furazolidona versus amoxicilina e azitromicina em terapia tríplice com lansoprazol no nordeste do Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Cento e quatro pacientes infectados por H. pylori, diagnosticado através do teste rápido da urease e histologia, foram selecionados aleatoriamente para receber: lansoprazol (30 mg q.d., tetraciclina (500 mg q.i.d., furazolidona (200 mg t.i.d. por 7 dias (LTF; n = 52; ou lansoprazol (30 mg b.i.d. e amoxicilina (1 g b.i.d. por 1 semana, mais azitromicina (500 mg q.d. nos primeiros 3

  12. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter. (d) Conditions of use. Preruminating calves including veal calves—(1) Amount. 400... enteritis when due to susceptible Escherichia coli in preruminating calves including veal calves. (3) Limitations. For oral use in preruminating calves including veal calves only, not for use in other...

  13. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tolerances. See § 556.38 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of use. Preruminating calves including veal calves... veal calves. (3) Limitations. Administer by drench or by mixing in milk. Treatment should be continued... calves including veal calves only, not for use in other animals which are raised for food production....

  14. 乳房炎牛奶中复方阿莫西林纳米乳的残留检测及消除试验%Residue detection and elimination trail of compound amoxicillin and levofloxacin hydrochloride nanoemulsion in milk from mastitis cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 姜金庆; 孙红武; 欧阳五庆

    2012-01-01

    利用高效液相色谱仪建立复方阿莫西林纳米乳(AMX-LH-NE)在牛奶中的残留监控高效液相色谱法(HPLC),并通过残留消除试验,研究AMX-LH-NE在乳房炎牛奶中的残留消除规律,确定其弃奶期。结果显示,阿莫西林(AMX)和盐酸左氧氟沙星(LH)分别在7.5~400μg/L和40~600μg/L线性关系良好;平均回收率为(99.72±1.46)%和(99.65±1.53)%;相对标准偏差(relative standard deviation,RSD)为1.46%和1.54%;平均保留时间为(11.59±0.21)min和(6.87±0.02)min;日内精密度RSD为1.59%和1.39%,日间精密度RSD为3.17%和3.29%。在乳房炎牛奶中,AMX和LH的残留量均随着休药时间的延长而迅速降低;AMX的弃奶期为停药后35.96h,LH的弃奶期为停药后32.94h。结果表明,所建立的HPLC方法专属性好,回收率、重复性和精密度高,可为牛奶中AMX-LH-NE的残留监控提供检测方法;利用此检测方法确定的AMX-LH-NE的弃奶期为停药后36h。%The experiment was conducted to establish the residual detection methods, research the residue elimination rule and decide the withdrawal time of compound amoxicillin and levofloxacin hydrochloride nanoemulsion (AMX- LH-NE) in milk from cows with mastitis disease. Two different high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical methods for residual concentration monitoring of amoxicillin(AMX) and levofloxacin hydrochloride (LH) were established, respectively. Then the withdrawal time was decided by the residue elimination trial. The results showed that two good linearity were obtained by AMX in the range of 7.5-400 μg/L and by LH in the range of 40- 600 μg/L, respectively, and the average recovery, RSD (relative standard deviation), the average retention time, RSD of the with-in-day precision,RSD of the day-to-day precision of AMX and LH were (99.72±1.46)% and (99.65±1.53) %,1.46% and 1.54% ,(11.59±0.21) rain and (6.87±0.02) min,1

  15. Comparison of the In Vitro Efficacies of Moxifloxacin and Amoxicillin against Listeria monocytogenes▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Grayo, S.; Join-Lambert, O.; Desroches, M. C.; Le Monnier, A.

    2008-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes severe infections associated with a high mortality rate. Moxifloxacin presents extended activity against gram-positive bacteria and has recently been suggested to be a potential alternative in the treatment of listeriosis. We evaluated the in vitro efficacy of moxifloxacin against L. monocytogenes using a combination of epidemiological and experimental approaches. The median MIC of moxifloxacin for a large collection ...

  16. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Lee SY; Huh W; Jung JA; Yoo HM; Ko JW; Kim JR

    2015-01-01

    Soo-Yun Lee,1 Wooseong Huh,2 Jin Ah Jung,3 Hye Min Yoo,2 Jae-Wook Ko,1,2 Jung-Ryul Kim2,4 1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, 4Department of Clinical Research and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Valproic acid (VPA) is mainly meta...

  17. Moxifloxacin Compared With Ciprofloxacin/Amoxicillin in Treating Fever and Neutropenia in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Fever, Sweats, and Hot Flashes; Infection; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Neutropenia; Precancerous Condition; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  18. Laboratory efficacy of oxytetracyline and amoxicillin for the control of Streptococcus iniae infection in tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae infection of tilapia is common in different parts of the world including the United States. The infection has caused devastating economic losses and the closure of many tilapia operations. Proper husbandry and health management practices are essential but when a virulent outbre...

  19. RP-HPLC Determination of Amoxicillin and Dicloxacillin in Amoxicillin/Dicloxacillin Sodium Tablets%RP-HPLC法测定阿双西林片中阿莫西林和双氯西林的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 张丹

    2003-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定阿双西林片中阿莫西林和双氯西林含量的反相高效液相色谱法.方法:采用Hypersil C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,10 μm),甲醇-20 mmol*L-1磷酸盐缓冲液(52∶48,磷酸调pH 5.0±0.1)为流动相,检测波长为230 nm.结果:阿莫西林在50~500 μg*mL-1范围内,峰面积与其浓度线性关系良好(r=0.999 9),平均回收率为99.92%,重复性试验RSD为0.82%(n=6);双氯西林在25~250 μg*mL-1范围内,峰面积与其浓度线性关系良好(r=0.999 9),平均回收率为100.2%,重复性试验RSD为0.86%(n=6).结论:本法准确、简便、快速,适用于阿双西林片剂的质量控制.

  20. Amoxicillin concentrations in relation to beta-lactamase activity in sputum during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brusse-Keizer M; VanderValk P; van der Zanden RW; Nijdam L; van der Palen J; Hendrix R; Movig K

    2015-01-01

    Marjolein Brusse-Keizer,1 Paul VanderValk,2 Rogier W van der Zanden,3 Lars Nijdam,4 Job van der Palen,1,5 Ron Hendrix,6,7 Kris Movig4 1Medical School Twente, 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Medisch Spectrum Twente, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement and Data Analysis, University of Twente, 6Regional Laboratory ...

  1. Betalactámicos con inhibidores de betalactamasas: Amoxicilina-sulbactam Betalactam antibiotics combined with bectalactamases inhibitors: Amoxicillin-sulbactam

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Barcelona; Marcelo Marin; Daniel Stamboulian

    2008-01-01

    La producción de betalactamasas constituye uno de los principales mecanismos de resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos betalactámicos. La utilización de inhibidores de betalactamasas en combinación con antibióticos betalactámicos permite la inactivación de determinadas betalactamasas producidas por gérmenes Gram positivos, Gram negativos, anaerobios, y aun por micobacterias. Los inhibidores de betalactamasas representan una alternativa terapéutica mejorada respecto del resto de los betalac...

  2. Dental Plaque Streptococci and Their Amoxicillin Resistance in Children with Congenital Heart Anomalies: Results of a Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Rexhepi; Raimonda Niko; Agim Begzati; Mergime Prekazi Loxha; Vjosa Krasniqi; Zana Agani; Blerta Xhemajli; Teuta Kutllovci; Urata Tahiri

    2014-01-01

    Children with congenital heart diseases (CHD) are considered to be at higher risk of development of a Bacterial Endocarditic (BE) from infectious diseases of the oral cavity and following dental treatments. They represent the largest group of patients with special medical needs who appear in the daily dental practice. Maintenance of oral health and oral hygiene is suitable to reduce the incidence of bacteremia. Oral hygiene is more important in reducing the risk of BE than the administration ...

  3. Comparative therapeutic activities of Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin, Ceftriaxone and Cotrimoxazole in a new model of experimental infection with Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Hof, H.; Christen, A; Hacker, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    A new mouse model for systemic infection with Escherichia coli is presented. Whereas in other models 107_108 bacteria have to be injected into an animal to induce toxic effects resulting in death within 24 hours, now, only 103_104 bacteria of an appropriate strain are required to produce a genuine infection characterized by an increase in the bacterial load over several days. The quantitative determination of bacterial counts per liver allows a more sensitive measurement than recording death ...

  4. Drug: D10246 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10246 Mixture, Drug Omeprazole - clarithromycin - amoxicillin mixt; Omeclamox-pak ...cter pylori A02BD05 Omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin D10246 Omeprazole - clarithromycin - amoxicillin mixt PubChem: 163312277 ...

  5. Drug: D10519 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10519 Mixture, Drug Rabeprazole - amoxicillin - clarithromycin mixt; Rabecure (TN)...tibiotics 619 Miscellaneous 6199 Miscellaneous D10519 Rabeprazole - amoxicillin - clarithromycin mixt ...

  6. Wirksamkeit der modifizierten Dualtherapie mit Omeprazol und Amoxicillin bei Helicobacter pylori -Infektionen mit Metronidazol- und Clarithromycin-resistenten Stämmen : eine Pilotstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Die Bedeutung einer HP-Gastritis ist bekannt. Therapiestudien haben gezeigt, dass eine prätherapeutische Resistenz von HP gegenüber Metronidazol und/oder Clarithromycin zu einer Minderung der Eradikationsrate von 20-30% bis hin zum Versagen führt. Die Zahl der Patienten mit doppelresistentem HP-Stamm nimmt rasch zu. Dies macht die Suche nach einer alternativen bzw. Reservetherapie erforderlich. 49 Patienten mit kulturell nachgewiesener Doppelresistenz von HP gegen Metronidazol und...

  7. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  8. Molecular modelling of four penicillins: bencylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin Modelación molecular de cuatro penicilinas: bencilpenicilina, fenoximetilpenicilina, ampicilina y amoxicilina

    OpenAIRE

    Eslhey María Sánchez Domínguez; Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2009-01-01

    Background:Penicillins differ structurally among themselves by the lateral chains. At the same time, they have differences in their pharmacological action that can be associated to modifications included in the betalactamic ring and/or effects localized in the same chains. Making it clear would be a contribution to the search of the most adequate structural and electronic characteristics to design better penicillins. Objective:

  9. Delayed Anaphylaxis with Methimazole: Nicolau Syndrome After Oxytocin Intramuscular Administration Anastrazole-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis Amoxicillin- and Cephalexin-Induced Eosinophilic Colitis Docetaxel-Induced Supravenous Erythematous Eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancano, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA's MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:27559184

  10. Amoxicillin residue depletion in chicken excreta%阿莫西林在鸡排泄物中的残留消除规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏庆荣; 刘建宇; 崔璐璐; 谢恺舟; 郭辉生; 高强; 刘亚楠; 王波; 张杨杨

    2015-01-01

    为研究阿莫西林(AMO)在鸡排泄物中的残留消除规律,将鸡排泄物先经乙腈提取、饱和二氯甲烷萃取,上清液在酸性条件下经水杨醛沸水浴衍生化后,于激发波长354 nm、发射波长445 nm处用高效液相色谱荧光检测器检测.结果表明:该方法测定鸡排泄物中AMO的检测限为3.0ng· g-1(S/N=3)、定量限为6.0 ng· g-1(S/N=10).AMO在鸡排泄物样品中平均回收率为71.52%~81.23%,相对标准偏差均低于8.61%.将京海黄鸡分成2组,以25.0、50.0 mg· (kg·d)-1剂量内服AMO,每天给药1次,连续5d.投药第1天AMO在鸡排泄物中残留量即可检测到,投药第5天达峰值.休药后AMO在鸡排泄物中残留量迅速降低.低剂量组,休药第5天鸡排泄物中AMO残留量低于检测限;高剂量组,休药第7天鸡排泄物中AMO残留量低于检测限.鸡排泄物中AMO残留量与给药剂量呈正相关,鸡排泄物中高含量AMO残留存在较大的环境风险.

  11. HPLC法测定阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊含量%Analysis of amoxicillin and dicloxacillin by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪建文; 魏雪芳; 余彩娣

    2006-01-01

    目的 建立阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊中阿莫西林和双氯西林钠的含量测定方法.方法 采用Shimadzu VP-ODS色谱柱,流动相为0.008 mol/L十二烷基硫酸钠(用磷酸调节至pH4.5)-甲醇(体积比68:32),检测波长225 nm. 结果阿莫西林和双氯西林在该色谱条件下均有合适的保留,测定可在10 min内完成.阿莫西林在0.0050~1.0000 mg/mL,双氯西林在0.0025~0.5036 mg/mL质量浓度范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系.阿莫西林和双氯西林钠平均回收率(n=9)分别为99.4%(RSD=1.0%)和99.1%(RSD=0.97%). 结论该方法准确、重复性好、灵敏度高,可用于该产品的质量控制.

  12. In vitro activity of Ro 19-5247 (T-2525) and interpretive criteria for disk diffusion susceptibility testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Beskid, G; Fallat, V; Siebelist, J; Durkin, J W; Lipschitz, E R; McGarry, D H

    1987-01-01

    The activity of Ro 19-5247 (the active metabolite of the oral cephalosporin Ro 19-5248 [T-2588]) was compared with that of five orally active agents against a total of 331 bacterial strains. Ro 19-5247 was more active in vitro than amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefaclor, cefuroxime, and cephalexin against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and amoxicillin overall were more active than the other four agents against staphylococci. Ro 19-5247, amoxicillin-c...

  13. Drug: D08774 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08774 Mixture, Drug Amoxicillin hydrate - clarithromycin - lansoprazole mixt; Lansap (TN) Amoxicillin hydr...erapeutic category: 6199 ATC code: A02BD07 J01RA01 Enzyme: CYP2C19 [HSA:1557], CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] Therapeutic category of dr...d parasites 61 Antibiotics 619 Miscellaneous 6199 Miscellaneous D08774 Amoxicillin hydrate - clarithromycin ...ansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin D08774 Amoxicillin hydrate - clarithromycin - lansoprazole mixt ...ntibacterials D08774 Amoxicillin hydrate - clarithromycin - lansoprazole mixt PubChem: 96025457 ...

  14. Oral antibiotics for infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Jessie S; Markelz, Ana E; Zera, Wendy C; Beckius, Miriam L; Mende, Katrin; Murray, Clinton K

    2011-08-01

    We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations of rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefdinir, plus a combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefdinir by broth microdilution for mainly wound isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. E. coli and K. pneumoniae susceptibilities increased by combining amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefdinir. PMID:21466257

  15. In vitro activities of 10 antimicrobial agents against bacterial vaginosis-associated anaerobic isolates from pregnant Japanese and Thai women.

    OpenAIRE

    Puapermpoonsiri, S; Watanabe, K; Kato, N; K. Ueno

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro activities of 10 antimicrobial agents against 159 bacterial vaginosis-associated anaerobic isolates from pregnant Japanese and Thai women were determined. Clindamycin, imipenem, cefmetazole, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole were highly active against all anaerobic isolates except Prevotella bivia and Mobiluncus species, which were resistant to amoxicillin and metronidazole, respectively. Cefotiam, ceftazidime, and ofloxacin were variably effective, while ce...

  16. Drug: D10520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10520 Mixture, Drug Rabeprazole - amoxicillin - metronidazole mixt; Rabefine (TN) ...(Sodium rabeprazole [DR:D00724] | Trimethobenzamide [DR:D08643]), (Amoxicillin hydrate [DR:D00229] | Amoxici...llin [DR:D07452]), Metronidazole [DR:D00409] [DS:H00320] Therapeutic category: 6199 Therapeutic category of dr

  17. Effect of Amoxicillin Combined With Bismuth Pectin in the Treatment of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis%阿莫西林配合果胶铋治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏同森; 刘文翠; 王均成

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze the clinical effect of amoxicilin and bismuth pectin bismuth in treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis. Methods According to the principle of voluntary patients,94 cases of chronic atrophic gastritis patients composition study group(47 cases)and control group(47 cases),the former treated with amoxicilin and bismuth pectin,the latter to be clarithromycin and coloidal bismuth pectin treatment,and compared between the two groups of patients with clinical curative effect observation.ResultsThe effective rate of the study group(93.6%)was significantly higher than that in the control group(76.6%),the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05,χ2=8.115),recurrence rate of the study group(6.4%) was lower than that of the control group(12.8%),the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05,χ2=7.361).Conclusion The effect of amoxicilin combined with bismuth pectin bismuth on chronic atrophic gastritis is significant,and the recurrence rate is low.%目的:观察与分析阿莫西林联合果胶铋在慢性萎缩性胃炎疾病治疗中的临床运用效果。方法依据患者自愿原则,将94例慢性萎缩性胃炎患者成分研究组(47例)与对照组(47例),前者予以阿莫西林+果胶铋治疗,后者予以克拉霉素+果胶铋治疗;观察与比较两组患者的临床疗效。结果研究组患者治疗后的有效率(93.6%)比对照组患者(76.6%)高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,χ2=8.115);研究组患者复发率(6.4%)低于对照组(12.8%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,χ2=7.361)。结论采取阿莫西林联合果胶铋治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎,效果显著,且复发率低。

  18. Efficacy and safety of IV/PO moxifloxacin and IV piperacillin/tazobactam followed by PO amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of diabetic foot infections: results of the RELIEF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, N.C.; Dryden, M.; Kujath, P.; Nathwani, D.; Arvis, P.; Reimnitz, P.; Alder, J.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of two antibiotic regimens in patients with diabetic foot infections (DFIs). METHODS: Data of a subset of patients enrolled in the RELIEF trial with DFIs requiring surgery and antibiotics were evaluated retrospectively. DFI was diagnosed on t

  19. 阿莫西林、硫酸黏菌素混悬注射液无菌检查方法研究%Confirmatory Experiment of Sterility Test Method for Amoxicillin and Colistin Sulfate Injectable Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晖; 刘轶秋; 王小慈; 杨秀玉

    2011-01-01

    目的建立阿莫西林、硫酸黏菌素混悬注射液的无菌检查方法.方法按2005年版一部附录进行试验.结果采用薄膜过滤法,每管培养基中加入不少于100万单位的青霉素酶,以1%聚山梨酯80的0.1%蛋白胨水溶液冲洗液,选择冲洗量为300 mL,可消除样品对各菌株的抗菌活性.结论阿莫西林、硫酸黏菌素混悬注射液可用该方法进行无菌检查.

  20. Determination of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Disperible Tablet by HPLC%HPLC法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾分散片的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玲; 王功霞; 张广洲

    2004-01-01

    采用HPLC法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾分散片的含量.用Phenomenex C18(4.6×150mm 5μm)色谱柱;甲醇-0.057mol*L-1磷酸二氢钠缓冲液(用磷酸或10N的氢氧化钠调pH值至4.4±0.1)(5∶95)为流动相;检测波长为220nm.阿莫西林在40.48~202.40μg*ml-1浓度范围内呈良好线性(r=0.9999),最低检出限0.04ng;克拉维酸在40.08~200.40μg*ml-1浓度范围内呈良好线性(r=0.9999),最低检出限0.08ng.阿莫西林及克拉维酸钾的回收率分别为100.1%(RSD=0.68%)和99.8%(RSD=1.26%).

  1. Effects of CYP2C19, MDR1, and interleukin 1-B gene variants on the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori infection by triple therapy with pantoprazole, amoxicillin, and metronidazole

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective Eradication of H. pylori is an important treatment strategy in peptic ulcer patients. Current regimens of eradication consist of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and two antibiotics. Effects of PPI may depend on their metabolism, and other factors important for the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease. Aim of the present study was to evaluate an association of CYP2C19, MDR1, and IL-1B polymorphisms with the eradication rate of H. pylori i...

  2. Study on mucoadhesiveness and stability of mucoadhesive microspheres loading amoxicillin%阿莫西林黏膜黏附微球稳定性及黏附性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘哲鹏; 潘俊; 陆伟跃

    2004-01-01

    目的比较pH 1盐酸溶液条件下阿莫西林原料药与黏膜黏附微球中阿莫西林稳定性,考察阿莫西林黏膜黏附微球(Amo-Cb-Ec)与阿莫西林乙基纤维素微球(Amo-Ec)体内外黏膜黏附效果.方法用乳化-溶媒蒸发法制备Amo-Cb-Ec和AmoEc;以高效液相色谱法测定Amo-Cb-Ec中阿莫西林及阿莫西林原料药在pH 1条件下稳定性;分别以拉力法和冲洗法考察AmoCb-Ec与离体大鼠肠黏膜和胃黏膜表面的黏附效果;以灌胃法考察微球在大鼠胃肠道黏附滞留程度.结果 pH 1条件下,37℃振荡放置6 h,阿莫西林原料药降解大于50%,含0.5%卡波普有助于减少其降解程度,而Amo-Cb-Ec中阿莫西林相对含量均在85%左右.Amo-Cb-Ec与大鼠离体肠黏膜间黏附力显著高于不含黏附材料的Amo-Ec(P<0.05);Amo-Cb-Ec在大鼠离体胃黏膜表面滞留率显著高于Amo-Ec(P<0.05);Amo-Cb-Ec在大鼠胃肠道内的滞留率也显著高于Amo-Ec.结论在pH 1条件下游离阿莫西林不稳定,而卡波普对阿莫西林具有一定保护作用,Amo-Cb-Ec中所含阿莫西林稳定程度显著提高.体内外黏附试验结果显示,Amo-Cb-Ec对离体和活体胃黏膜具有良好的黏附作用.

  3. 阿莫西林/双氯西林钠分散片的人体生物等效性研究%Study on Bioequivalence of Amoxicillin and Dicloxacillin Sodium Dispersible Tablets in Human Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王川平; 任进民; 崔爱荣; 蒋晔

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究阿莫西林/双氯西林钠分散片的人体生物等效性.方法:采用双周期交叉设计试验,20名健康男性受试者随机交叉单剂量口服阿莫西林/双氯西林钠分散片(受试制剂)和阿莫西林/双氯西林钠胶囊(参比制剂)750mg,以高效液相色谱法测定人血浆中阿莫西林、双氯西林经-时血药浓度,用DAS软件拟合计算药动学参数.结果:受试制剂与参比制剂阿莫西林的tmax分别为(1.16±0.26)、(1.24±0.27)h,Cmax分别为(6.32±2.56)、(6.59±2.33)μg·mL-1,AUC0-7分别为(12.27±2.25)、(12.66±2.68)μg·h·mL-1,AUC0~∞分别为(15.48±2.38)、(15.47±3.71)μg·h·mL-1;双氯西林的tmax分别为(0.94±0.23)、(0.93±0.18)h,Cmax分别为(12.12±5.71)、(12.12±4.15)μg·mL-1,AUC0~7分别为(23.49±4.20)、(23.25±3.64)μg·h·mL-1,AUC0~∞分别为(24.93±3.96)、(24.50±3.66)μg·h·mL-1.受试制剂阿莫西林与双氯西林的相对生物利用度分别为(97.7±8.2)%、(102.0±16.8)%.结论:阿莫西林/双氯西林钠分散片与阿莫西林/双氯西林钠胶囊具有生物等效性.

  4. 高效液相色谱法测定人血浆中双氯西林和阿莫西林的含量%HPLC determination of dicloxacillin and amoxicillin in human plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦军; 张惠静; 管潇; 肖正华

    2006-01-01

    目的:建立人血浆中双氯西林和阿莫西林的测定方法.方法:高效液相色谱法,血浆样品以甲醇除蛋白,色谱柱为岛津Shim-pack VP-ODS C18(150 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm),双氯西林的测定以0.05 mol·L-1磷酸盐缓冲液(pH4.5)-乙腈(68:32),加0.3%三乙胺为流动相,检测波长为225 nm,柱温为25℃;阿莫西林的测定以0.033 mol·L-1磷酸盐缓冲液(pH 7.2)-甲醇(88:12)为流动相,检测波长为229 nm,柱温为20℃,流速均为1.0 mL·min-1,进样量均为20 μL.结果:在不同的色谱条件下,血浆样品中双氯西林和阿莫西林无干扰,双氯西林的线性范围为0.2~102.4μg·mL-1,r=0.9999,最低检测浓度为0.2μg·mL-1;阿莫西林的线性范围为0.25~128.0μg·mL-1,r=0.9998,最低检测浓度为0.25μg·mL-1.双氯西林和阿莫西林的平均回收率分别为104.2%,101.6%.结论:这种以相同的样品预处理方法,不同的色谱分离条件分析双氯西林和阿莫西林的方法简便、准确、可靠,结果稳定,可用于阿双西林胶囊或片剂的药代动力学研究和生物利用度研究.

  5. Evaluate the effect and adverse effect of amoxicillin-dicloxacillin in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during ambulatory treatment%阿莫西林-双氯西林治疗慢性阻塞性肺病疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察阿莫西林-双氯西林在门诊治疗慢性阻塞性肺病患者的疗效及不良反应.方法:将119例门诊治疗的患者随机分成治疗组和对照组,治疗组62例,对照组57例.治疗组用阿莫西林-双氯西林0.75g po tid,对照组用阿莫西林0.5g po qid.结果:观察治疗组和对照组的临床有效率分别为93.54%和49.12%,细菌清除率为83.33%和50.00%.结论:阿莫西林-双氯西林用于治疗门诊慢性阻塞性肺病患者安全性高且有可靠确切的疗效,值得推广应用.

  6. Improved method for determination of amoxicillin and dicloxacillin in compound capsules%阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊含量测定方法的改进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦峰; 刘浩; 潘颖

    2009-01-01

    目的:改进现有阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊含量测定色谱系统中色谱峰易变形及裂分的缺陷,并建立一个新的高效液相色谱方法.方法:采用YWG C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,10 μm),流动相为含0.015 mol·L-1十二烷基硫酸钠和0.03 mol·L-1醋酸钠的溶液(用醋酸调节pH至4.2)-甲醇(80:20),流速1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为225 nm.结果:在考察了不同离子对试剂和离子强度等冈素对色谱系统中系统峰的形状和保留值的影响及系统峰对被分析物色谱峰形的影响后,对原先的方法进行改进.改进后阿莫西林浓度在0.87~34.9 μg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,r=1.000;双氯丙林浓度在0.57~22.7μg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,r=1.000.阿莫西林、双氯西林的平均回收率(n=3)分别为99.2%和100.2%;RSD分别为1.1%和2.1%.结论:本法准确,专属性好,可用作控制阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊质量的方法.

  7. HPLC法测定阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊中阿莫西林和双氯西林的含量%HPLC Determination of Amoxicillin and Dicloxacillin in Compound Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹利辉; 乐健; 洪战英; 胡昌勤

    2005-01-01

    目的:采用高效液相色谱法同时测定阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊中阿莫西林和双氯西林的含量.方法:采用YWG C18柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm);流动相为0.01 mol·L-1SDS溶液(用磷酸调pH至4.2)-甲醇(60:40);柱温35℃,流速1.0 mL·min-1,紫外检测波长225 nm.结果:阿莫西林在25~5000 ng范围内线性关系良好,r=1.0000;双氯西林在12.5~2500 ng范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9999.阿莫西林、双氯西林的平均回收率(n=6)分别为99.6%,99.4%;RSD分别为1.8%,1.6%.结论:此法可作为控制阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊质量的方法.

  8. 阿莫西林-双氯西林的体外抗菌作用研究%In vitro antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin-dicloxacillin against clinical isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德妹; 张婴元; 周乐; 吴湜; 叶信予

    2005-01-01

    目的评价阿莫西林-双氯西林对常见感染临床分离菌的体外抗菌作用.方法收集临床分离菌按CLSI/NCCLS推荐的琼脂对倍稀释法测定阿莫西林-双氯西林的最低抑菌浓度(MIC),并与相关抗菌药物进行比较.结果收集临床分离菌共513株,其中需氧革兰阳性菌248株,需氧革兰阴性菌265株.阿莫西林-双氯西林对受试的需氧革兰阳性球菌,包括肺炎链球菌、化脓性链球菌等链球菌属、甲氧西林敏感葡萄球菌、粪肠球菌具有高度抗菌活性,大多与阿莫西林-克拉维酸相仿,亦优于其他受试药,该药对卡他莫拉菌、流感嗜血杆菌抗菌作用强,其中对流感嗜血杆菌的产酶株作用略差;对伤寒沙门菌具有良好抗菌作用,对大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、奇异变形杆菌和志贺菌的抗菌作用较差.结论阿莫西林-双氯西林对社区获得的上、下呼吸道感染和单纯性皮肤软组织感染的常见病原菌具有良好抗菌作用,对伤寒沙门菌作用亦强,提示该药为治疗上述感染的适宜选用药物之一.

  9. 阿莫西林配合果胶铋治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的效果探讨%Effect of Amoxicillin Combined With Bismuth Pectin in the Treatment of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏同森; 刘文翠; 王均成

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察与分析阿莫西林联合果胶铋在慢性萎缩性胃炎疾病治疗中的临床运用效果。方法依据患者自愿原则,将94例慢性萎缩性胃炎患者成分研究组(47例)与对照组(47例),前者予以阿莫西林+果胶铋治疗,后者予以克拉霉素+果胶铋治疗;观察与比较两组患者的临床疗效。结果研究组患者治疗后的有效率(93.6%)比对照组患者(76.6%)高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,χ2=8.115);研究组患者复发率(6.4%)低于对照组(12.8%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,χ2=7.361)。结论采取阿莫西林联合果胶铋治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎,效果显著,且复发率低。%Objective To observe and analyze the clinical effect of amoxicilin and bismuth pectin bismuth in treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis. Methods According to the principle of voluntary patients,94 cases of chronic atrophic gastritis patients composition study group(47 cases)and control group(47 cases),the former treated with amoxicilin and bismuth pectin,the latter to be clarithromycin and coloidal bismuth pectin treatment,and compared between the two groups of patients with clinical curative effect observation.ResultsThe effective rate of the study group(93.6%)was significantly higher than that in the control group(76.6%),the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05,χ2=8.115),recurrence rate of the study group(6.4%) was lower than that of the control group(12.8%),the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05,χ2=7.361).Conclusion The effect of amoxicilin combined with bismuth pectin bismuth on chronic atrophic gastritis is significant,and the recurrence rate is low.

  10. Efficacy of Levofloxacin and Rifaximin based Quadruple Therapy in Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastroduodenal Disease: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kang Hyun; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang Nyol; Kim, Eun Jung; Kang, Bong Koo; Oak, Ju Hyun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin and rifaximin based quadruple regimen as first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. A prospectively randomized, double-blinded, parallel group, comparative study was performed. Three hundred consecutive H. pylori positive patients were randomized to receive: omeprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin (OAC); omeprazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin (OAL); and omeprazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, rifaximin (OAL-R). The ...

  11. In Vitro Activities of Co-Amoxiclav at Concentrations Achieved in Human Serum against the Resistant Subpopulation of Heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus: a Controlled Study with Vancomycin

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, J.; Aguilar, L.; Giménez, M. J.; Toro, D.; Gómez-Lus, M L; Dal-Ré, R; Balcabao, I P

    1998-01-01

    The effects of concentrations that simulated those in human serum after a single intravenous dose of amoxicillin (2 g), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (2,000 and 200 mg, respectively), or vancomycin (500 mg), on the viability and β-lactamase activity of two isogenic (β-lactamase and non-β-lactamase producer) heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were studied in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model. A reduction of ≥97% of the initial inoculum was obtained with vancomycin and amoxicillin-clav...

  12. Optimasi Dan Analisis Kadar Campuran Amoksisilin Dan Kalium Klavulanat Dengan Metode Spektrofotometri Derivatif

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Husnayani

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays many dosage form of drug which contain more than one active ingredient. One of combinations which is often used is amoxicillin and clavulanate pottasium in tablet form. The mixture of amoxicillin and clavulanate pottasium is a combination of the β-lactam antibiotic and β-lactamase inhibitor. The purpose of this research is to optimize the method for determining amoxicillin and clavulanate pottasium mixture using derivative spectrophotometry with zero crossing method in methanol....

  13. Preparation and Quality Control of 99mTc-6-[[2- amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-acetyl]amino] -3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo-heptane-2-carboxylic Acid Complex as a Model for Detecting Sites of Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeling of amoxicilline with technetium-99m using stannous chloride as a reducing agent was investigated. Dependence of the yield of 99mTc-amoxicilline complex on the concentration of amoxicilline, reducing agent, ph and reaction time was studied. Under optimum conditions, the labeling yield of 99mTc-amoxicilline complex (95%) was achieved by using 2.5 mg amoxicilline, 50 μg Sn(II), ph 10 and 30-minutes reaction time. 99mTc-amoxicilline complex was stable for 3h after labeling then the yield decreased gradually to 81.9% at 6h. Biodistribution studies in rats were carried out in experimentally induced infection in the left thigh using Staphylococcus aureus. The ratios of bacterial infected thigh/contralateral thigh were then evaluated. The time for maximum accumulation of 99mTc-amoxicilline at the site of infection was 30-minutes after administration followed by gradual decline. The abscess-to-muscle ratio for 99mTc-amoxicilline was 5.9 ±0.7 while that for the commercially available 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was 3.8 ±0.5 under the same experimental paradigm, indicating that 99mTc-amoxicilline could be used for infection imaging.

  14. The non-enzymatic inactivation of thirteen β-lactam antibiotics in human faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Weissing, F; de Vries Hospers, H; Tonk, R; van der Waaij, D

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain a method that could predict the in vitro inactivation of an antibiotic in the digestive tract, the non-enzymatic inactivation of 13 beta-lactam antibiotics by human faeces was investigated. Benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cloxacillin, piperacillin, temocill

  15. The non-enzymatic inactivation of thirteen beta-lactam antibiotics in human faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Weissing, F; de Vries-Hospers, H; Tonk, R; van der Waaij, D

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain a method that could predict the in vitro inactivation of an antibiotic in the digestive tract, the non-enzymatic inactivation of 13 beta-lactam antibiotics by human faeces was investigated. Benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cloxacillin, piperacillin, temocill

  16. Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) Agar

    OpenAIRE

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar was used to develop a disk diffusion assay for Leptospira spp. Ten pathogenic Leptospira isolates were tested, all of which were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doripenem, doxycycline, gentamicin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and tetracycline). All 10 isolates had no zone ...

  17. Multi-analytical approach for profiling some essential medical drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counterfeit and substandard pharmaceutical drugs are chiefly rampant in developing countries due to inadequate analytical facilities and lack of regulatory oversight. The production of counterfeit or substandard drugs is broadly problematic. Underestimating it therefore leads to morbidity, mortality, drug resistance, introduction of toxic substances into the body and loss of confidence in health care systems. Medical drugs that are often counterfeited range from antimalarial drugs to antiretroviral drugs with antibiotics being counterfeited the most. This research work, therefore, aims at contributing towards the establishment of measures/processes for distinguishing between fake and genuine amoxicillin drugs. This was achieved by the identification and quantification of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and the excipients in the drug formulation. The major analytical techniques employed for this research work were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro Dissolution Test. The amoxicillin samples analyzed were the foreign generic amoxicillin purchased from Ernest Chemists pharmacy at East Legon, Accra, the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) amoxicillin purchased at Fair Mile pharmacy at West Legon, Accra and the Suspected Fake amoxicillin purchased at Okaishi market. For the establishment of fingerprint for identification of substandard amoxicillin, INAA was used to qualitatively determine the short lived radionuclides (excipients) which then facilitated the correct identification of the API and the excipient phases in each of the amoxicillin groups. The phases identified were Amoxicillin Trihydrate as the excipient, Magnesium Stearate (hydrated) and Magnesium Stearate (anhydrous) as the excipients. For Quality control purposes, High Performance Liquid Chromatography approach and also, the in vitro Dissolution test were conducted on each of the groups of

  18. Utilização do óleo de alho e da amoxilina, metronidazol e omeprazol no controle de Helicobacter spp. em cães Use of garlic oil and amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazol in the control of Helicobacter spp. in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Costa; P.R.S. Costa; J.C.P. Silva; R.E.N. Maia; J.C.L. Moreira; Carvalho, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Avaliaram-se a eficácia do óleo de alho e da terapia tripla (amoxicilina, metronidazol e omeprazol) no tratamento de 21 cães infectados por Helicobacter spp., que apresentavam alterações histológicas nas biopsias endoscópicas da mucosa gástrica e reação positiva ao teste de urease. Os animais foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em três grupos de sete cães, os quais receberam os seguintes tratamentos: grupo 1 - cápsulas vazias; grupo 2 - 500mg de óleo de alho em cápsulas, diariamente, por um p...

  19. 对阿莫西林硫酸黏菌素可溶性粉含量测定中热破坏前处理法的探讨%Discussion on Thermal Destruction Method in the Determination of Amoxicillin and Colistin Sulfate Soluble Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晖; 刘轶秋; 韩宁宁; 张秀英

    2013-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法和管碟法对阿莫西林硫酸黏菌素可溶性粉中黏菌素含量方法的前处理条件(95℃水浴加热1h)进行了研究.结果表明,95℃加热破坏阿莫西林的同时,硫酸黏菌素也产生降解,效价下降约12%,提示该前处理条件有待进一步改进.本实验可为完善该质量标准提供参考.

  20. 复方阿莫西林纳米乳对奶牛乳房炎3种主要病原菌的体外联合抗菌效应%Combination antibacterial effect of compound amoxicillin and levofloxacin hydrochloride nanoemulsion against three main pathogenic bacteria of cow mastitis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 欧阳五庆; 李向辉; 张文娟; 刘玉梅

    2009-01-01

    通过单药纸片搭桥试验、复合药物纸片试验、单药最小抑菌浓度(MIC)测定、联合药敏试验、Kirby-Baueer试验,研究复方阿莫西林纳米乳(AMX-LH-NE)对奶牛乳房炎3种主要病原菌的体外联合抗菌效应.结果表明:阿莫西林(AMX)和盐酸左氧氟沙星(LH)联用时表现为协同抗菌作用;二者联用时对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)的MIC分别是单用时的1/4倍和1/8倍,对无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)的MIC均是单用时的1/4倍,对大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)的MIC 均是单用时的1/8倍;二者联用对3种病原菌的部分抑菌浓度(FIC)指数均不大于0.5;AMX-LH-NE对3种病原菌的抑菌圈直径与其他各组相比,差异均极显著(P<0.01).结果提示,AMX-LH-NE对奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌的联合抗菌活性强.

  1. 阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊等三联疗法治疗幽门螺杆菌阳性的疗效分析%Analyse Effect of Amoxicillin and Dicloxacillin etc By Triple Therapy for Eradicating Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓衍部; 刘有理; 王义文; 贺道兴

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较三联疗法阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊、埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片、克拉霉素片( 试验组) 和阿莫西林钠胶囊、埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片、克拉霉素片(对照组)根除幽门螺杆菌10 天疗效.方法 分析经14C 尿素呼气实验及胃黏膜病理检查(Warthin-Stary 染色阳性)证实有HP 感染患者198 例资料.随机分两组,试验组115 例患者和对照组83 例患者口服三联药物均为每日2 次,总疗程10d,所有患者停药4 周以上复查HP.结果 198 例患者均完成10d 治疗疗程及1 月复查HP.两组HP 根除率分别为94.78% 和73.49%(P<0.05),试验组与对照组HP 根除率有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 试验组根除HP 疗效显著优于对照组 (P<0.05).

  2. Bactericidal activity of moxifloxacin against multidrug-resistant Streptoccocus pneumoniae at clinically achievable serum and epithelial lining fluid concentrations compared with three other antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafini, Fabio; Alou, Luis; Sevillano, David; Valero, Eva; Prieto, José

    2004-10-01

    Time-kill studies compared the activities of moxifloxacin with those of levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 10 pneumococcal strains with various drug susceptibilities. Three Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were resistant to moxifloxacin: 6, 7 and 2 strains were resistant to levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. Of these, 1 strain was resistant to all antimicrobial agents studied. Moxifloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were bactericidal after 24h at serum Cmax levels against 9 and 8 strains, respectively, while levofloxacin and azithromycin were bactericidal against 3 and 2 strains, respectively. A higher activity was only observed for amoxicillin-clavulanate for logarithmic phase cultures at 1, 4 and 8h compared with stationary phase organisms. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and moxifloxacin were bactericidal at free serum levels (protein unbound) after 24h against 8 and 3 strains, respectively. Moxifloxacin was bactericidal at epithelial lining fluid levels against all strains at 24h, including one moxifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and azithromycin-resistant strain; lower levels of bactericidal activity was observed for levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 7, 2 and 4 strains, respectively. This demonstrated the importance of moxifloxacin tissue levels. PMID:15380257

  3. Is concomitant quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication really needed for Japanese patients?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincenzo; De; Francesco; Angelo; Zullo; Cesare; Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The study found that the 7 d of concomitant therapy (lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole) achieved significantly higher eradication rates compared to 7 d of triple therapy (lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin), the intention to treat (ITT) cure rates being 94.9% and 68.3%, respectively. According to our opinion, this study is clinically relevant for Japanese physicians for at least 2 reasons: (1) the standard triple therapy (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin) achieved disappointing cure rates in Japan-in agreement with what was observed in several countries; and (2) the concomitant quadruple therapy is an effective therapeutic alternative.

  4. Experimental Simulation of the Effects of an Initial Antibiotic Treatment on a Subsequent Treatment after Initial Therapy Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Feng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Therapy failure of empirical antibiotic treatments prescribed by primary care physicians occurs commonly. The effect of such a treatment on the susceptibility to second line antimicrobial drugs is unknown. Resistance to amoxicillin was rapidly induced or selected in E. coli at concentrations expected in the patient’s body. Strains with reduced susceptibility outcompeted the wild-type whenever antibiotics were present, even in low concentrations that did not affect the growth rates of both strains. Exposure of E. coli to amoxicillin caused moderate resistance to cefotaxime. The combined evidence suggests that initial treatment by amoxicillin has a negative effect on subsequent therapy with beta-lactam antibiotics.

  5. Killing curve activity of ciprofloxacin is comparable to synergistic effect of beta-lactam-tobramycin combinations against Haemophilus species endocarditis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H; Frimodt-Møller, N; Gutschik, E;

    1992-01-01

    Nine Haemophilus species strains, all beta-lactamase negative, isolated from patients with endocarditis were tested in killing curve experiments. Antibiotics used were penicillin, amoxicillin, aztreonam alone and in combination with tobramycin, as well as ciprofloxacin alone. Synergism between beta...

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Oliveira, A. P.; Watts, J. L.; Salmon, S. A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2000-01-01

    (123), Switzerland (69), United States (53), and Zimbabwe (6). The antimicrobial agents tested were penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanate, penicillin + novobiocin, enrofloxacin, premafloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, pirlimycin, neomycin...

  7. Fluoroquinolones in the treatment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans associated periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinfelder, JW; Mueller, RF; Lange, DE

    2000-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis patients harboring Actinobacillus actinmycetemcomitans (Aa) are prime candidates for systemic antibiotic therapy. Besides tetracycline and the combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin the fluoroquinolones are also believed to have antibacterial activity against Aa. The

  8. Drug: D00230 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available anate combination J01R COMBINATIONS OF ANTIBACTERIALS J01RA Combinations of antibacterial...s J01RA01 Penicillins, combinations with other antibacterials D00230 Amoxicillin - potassium clavula

  9. Drug: D09742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LS J01RA Combinations of antibacterials J01RA01 Penicillins, combinations with other antibacterials D09742 Lansoprazole - amoxicillin hydrate - metronidazole mixt PubChem: 124490482 ...

  10. Drug: D06485 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TIONS OF ANTIBACTERIALS J01RA Combinations of antibacterials J01RA01 Penicillins,... combinations with other antibacterials D06485 Amoxicillin hydrate - potassium clavulanate mixt PubChem: 47208141 ...

  11. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy-a new strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antsupova, Valeria; Nørgaard, Nis; Bisbjerg, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are extensively used as prophylaxis for transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUBP). Emerging fluoroquinolone resistance and selection of multiresistant organisms warrant new prophylactic strategies. Pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid have...

  12. Comparative virulence genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of environmental and clinical Salmonella enterica from Cochin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Vijayan, J.; Murali, G.; Chandran, P.

    . Newport revealed multiple drug resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, trimethorprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cephalothin, and cephalexin. In comparison, S. Typhi were susceptible to all clinically relevant...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI in Yasuj city during 1391-1392.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: It is recommended to treat urinary tract infections by using fewer antibiotics such as Amoxicillin / Clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole, and administration of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin should be used with caution.

  14. Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in France: Antimicrobial Resistance, Serotype, and Molecular Epidemiology Findings from a Monthly National Study in 2000 to 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Pina, Patrick; Viguier, Florent; Picot, Franc; Courvalin, Patrice; Allouch, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    A study of 257 French invasive pneumococci isolated between 2000 and 2002 showed high rates of nonsusceptibility to penicillin and macrolides (50%), contrasting with a low frequency of resistance to amoxicillin or levofloxacin (

  15. Simultaneous removal and evaluation of organic substrates and NH3-N by a novel combined process in treating chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We research a novel combined process to treat chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater. ► The mechanism of amoxicillin verifies that the biodegradation, adsorption, hydrolysis and unknown mechanism were able to remove amoxicillin from wastewater. ► In this study demonstrates that biodegradation is the major factor for removal mechanism at work for amoxicillin. ► Mathematical statistic methods were employed to evaluate the performance of the WWTP. - Abstract: A full-scale novel combined anaerobic/micro-aerobic and two-stage aerobic biological process is used for the treatment of an actual chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater containing amoxicillin. The anaerobic system is an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), the micro-aerobic system is a novel micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification reactor (NHAR) and the two-stage aerobic process comprised cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and biological contact oxidation tank (BCOT). The influent wastewater was high in COD, NH3-N varying daily 4016–13,093 mg-COD L−1 and 156.4–650.2 mg-NH3-N L−1, amoxicillin varying weekly between 69.1 and 105.4 mg-amoxicillin L−1, respectively; Almost all the COD, NH3-N, amoxicillin were removed by the biological combined system, with removal percentages 97%, 93.4% and 97.2%, respectively, leaving around 104 mg-COD L−1, 9.4 mg-NH3-N L−1 and 2.6 ± 0.8 mg-amoxicillin L−1 in the final clarifier effluent. The performance evaluation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by mathematical statistic methods shown that at most of time effluent can meet the higher treatment discharge standard. In addition, the fate of amoxicillin in the full-scale WWTP and the amoxicillin removal rate of each different removal routes in UASB, NHAR, CASS, BCOT and final clarifier processes are investigated in this paper. The results show that biodegradation, adsorption and hydrolysis are the major mechanisms for amoxicillin removal.

  16. Simultaneous removal and evaluation of organic substrates and NH{sub 3}-N by a novel combined process in treating chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhaobo [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wang, Hongcheng [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Ren, Nanqi, E-mail: rnq@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Cui, Minhua; Nie, Shukai; Hu, Dongxue [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We research a novel combined process to treat chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of amoxicillin verifies that the biodegradation, adsorption, hydrolysis and unknown mechanism were able to remove amoxicillin from wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study demonstrates that biodegradation is the major factor for removal mechanism at work for amoxicillin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mathematical statistic methods were employed to evaluate the performance of the WWTP. - Abstract: A full-scale novel combined anaerobic/micro-aerobic and two-stage aerobic biological process is used for the treatment of an actual chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater containing amoxicillin. The anaerobic system is an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), the micro-aerobic system is a novel micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification reactor (NHAR) and the two-stage aerobic process comprised cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and biological contact oxidation tank (BCOT). The influent wastewater was high in COD, NH{sub 3}-N varying daily 4016-13,093 mg-COD L{sup -1} and 156.4-650.2 mg-NH{sub 3}-N L{sup -1}, amoxicillin varying weekly between 69.1 and 105.4 mg-amoxicillin L{sup -1}, respectively; Almost all the COD, NH{sub 3}-N, amoxicillin were removed by the biological combined system, with removal percentages 97%, 93.4% and 97.2%, respectively, leaving around 104 mg-COD L{sup -1}, 9.4 mg-NH{sub 3}-N L{sup -1} and 2.6 {+-} 0.8 mg-amoxicillin L{sup -1} in the final clarifier effluent. The performance evaluation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by mathematical statistic methods shown that at most of time effluent can meet the higher treatment discharge standard. In addition, the fate of amoxicillin in the full-scale WWTP and the amoxicillin removal rate of each different removal routes in UASB, NHAR, CASS, BCOT and final clarifier processes are investigated

  17. Detection of Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigenemia To Determine Biological and Clinical Implications of Beta-Lactam Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bart-Delabesse, Emmanuelle; Basile, Maria; Al Jijakli, Ahmad; Souville, Didier; Gay, Frédérick; Philippe, Bruno; Bossi, Philippe; Danis, Martin; Vernant, Jean-Paul; Datry, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) in serum with the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is useful for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. From May 2003 to November 2004, 65 patients who did not develop aspergillosis had at least two positive sera while receiving a beta-lactam treatment (GM index [GMI], ≥0.5). Of the 69 treatment episodes scored, 41 consisted of a beta-lactam other than piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 29), namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate (n = 25), amoxicillin (...

  18. Effect of hyperproduction of TEM-1 beta-lactamase on in vitro susceptibility of Escherichia coli to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, P J; Shannon, K; Phillips, I

    1994-01-01

    The susceptibility of 173 TEM-1-producing isolates of Escherichia coli was assessed by determination of MICs by the agar dilution method. MICs of amoxicillin, mezlocillin, cephaloridine, and, to a smaller extent, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (but not cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, or imipenem) were higher for isolates that produced large amounts of beta-lactamase than for isolates that produced smaller amounts. The effect of fixed concentrations of clavulanic acid on resistan...

  19. Characterization of Beta-lactam Resistance in the Gastric Pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Nadia Naeem

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of peptic ulcer disease and potentially stomach cancer. Treatment of patients with gastritis is warranted and normally done with a combination of antibiotics (such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin or others) and a proton pump inhibitor. Resistance to most of these antibiotics in H. pylori has been seen worldwide and is constantly increasing. The purpose of this thesis was to more systematically characterize the mechanisms of amoxicillin resistance in H. py...

  20. Resistance of group A beta Haemolytic streptococcus isolated from children with tonsillopharyngitis against commonly used antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Cüneyt Tayman; Alparslan Tonbul; Gül Güner Soylu; Halise Akça; Ferhat Çatal

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility (penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, amoxicillin and azithromycin), of A group beta haemolytic streptococci (AGBHS) isolated from children with tonsillopharyngitis.Materials and methods: AGBHS were isolated from throat swaps cultures according to CLSI criteria from children aged 5 to 15 years who applied to the Pediatric outpatient policlinics with complaints of high fever, sore throat and difficulty in swallowing. Antimicrobial...

  1. Cardiovascular outcomes associated with use of clarithromycin: population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, AY; Root, A.; Douglas, IJ; Chui, CS; Chan, EW; Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Y.; Siu, CW; Smeeth, L; Wong, IC

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION:  What is the association between clarithromycin use and cardiovascular outcomes? METHODS:  In this population based study the authors compared cardiovascular outcomes in adults aged 18 or more receiving oral clarithromycin or amoxicillin during 2005-09 in Hong Kong. Based on age within five years, sex, and calendar year at use, each clarithromycin user was matched to one or two amoxicillin users. The cohort analysis included patients who received clarithromycin (n=108 988) or ...

  2. Simultaneous removal and evaluation of organic substrates and NH3-N by a novel combined process in treating chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaobo; Wang, Hongcheng; Ren, Nanqi; Cui, Minhua; Nie, Shukai; Hu, Dongxue

    2011-12-15

    A full-scale novel combined anaerobic/micro-aerobic and two-stage aerobic biological process is used for the treatment of an actual chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater containing amoxicillin. The anaerobic system is an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), the micro-aerobic system is a novel micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification reactor (NHAR) and the two-stage aerobic process comprised cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and biological contact oxidation tank (BCOT). The influent wastewater was high in COD, NH(3)-N varying daily 4016-13,093 mg-COD L(-1) and 156.4-650.2 mg-NH(3)-N L(-1), amoxicillin varying weekly between 69.1 and 105.4 mg-amoxicillin L(-1), respectively; Almost all the COD, NH(3)-N, amoxicillin were removed by the biological combined system, with removal percentages 97%, 93.4% and 97.2%, respectively, leaving around 104 mg-COD L(-1), 9.4 mg-NH(3)-N L(-1) and 2.6±0.8 mg-amoxicillin L(-1) in the final clarifier effluent. The performance evaluation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by mathematical statistic methods shown that at most of time effluent can meet the higher treatment discharge standard. In addition, the fate of amoxicillin in the full-scale WWTP and the amoxicillin removal rate of each different removal routes in UASB, NHAR, CASS, BCOT and final clarifier processes are investigated in this paper. The results show that biodegradation, adsorption and hydrolysis are the major mechanisms for amoxicillin removal. PMID:21974848

  3. Effect of sequential versus standard Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy on the associated iron deficiency anemia in children

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Said Ali Habib; Hussam Aly Sayed Murad; Elamir Mahmoud Amir; Taher Fawzy Halawa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Helicobacter pylori infection may be associated with low iron stores and iron deficiency anemia. Eradication of infection by the standard 10-day therapy (a proton pump inhibitor [PPI], clarithromycin and amoxicillin; each given orally, twice daily) is decreasing. The sequential 10-day therapy (a PPI and amoxicillin; each given orally twice daily for 5 days; followed by a PPI, clarithromycin and tinidazole; each given orally twice daily for another 5 days) may achieve higher eradic...

  4. Adverse reactions associated with aminopenicillins in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, J K; Tyagi, D

    1993-07-01

    The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions following ampicillin and amoxicillin administration to 439 and 169 indoor patients of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi were 19.13% and 15.5% respectively. Ampicillin produced diarrhoea (7.74%), nausea and vomiting (7.74%) anorexia (5.46%) headache (4.10%) and allergic reactions (2.9%). With amoxicillin, anorexia was observed in 4.79%, epigastric distress in 5.9% headache in 6.58%, coating of tongue in 8.98% and dizziness in 1.79% of patients. Intramuscular route of administration of ampicillin produced least ADRs. Females were more susceptible to adverse reactions of ampicillin and males to amoxicillin. Incidence of ADRs by these two aminopenicillins is less than that reported from abroad. PMID:8276508

  5. Design and evaluation of novel pH-sensitive ureido-conjugated chitosan/TPP nanoparticles targeted to Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zi-Wei; Jia, Yi-Yang; Wan, Ning; Luo, Min; Huan, Meng-Lei; Kang, Tai-Bin; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Bang-Le

    2016-04-01

    The covalently modified ureido-conjugated chitosan/TPP multifunctional nanoparticles have been developed as targeted nanomedicine delivery system for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori can specifically express the urea transport protein on its membrane to transport urea into cytoplasm for urease to produce ammonia, which protects the bacterium in the acid milieu of stomach. The clinical applicability of topical antimicrobial agent is needed to eradicate H. pylori in the infected fundal area. In this study, we designed and synthesized two ureido-conjugated chitosan derivatives UCCs-1 and UCCs-2 for preparation of multifunctional nanoparticles. The process was optimized in order to prepare UCCs/TPP nanoparticles for encapsulation of amoxicillin. The results showed that the amoxicillin-UCCs/TPP nanoparticles exhibited favorable pH-sensitive characteristics, which could procrastinate the release of amoxicillin at gastric acids and enable the drug to deliver and target to H. pylori at its survival region effectively. Compared with unmodified amoxicillin-chitosan/TPP nanoparticles, a more specific and effective H. pylori growth inhibition was observed for amoxicillin-UCCs/TPP nanoparticles. Drug uptake analysis tested by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy verified that the uptake of FITC-UCCs-2/TPP nanoparticles was associated with urea transport protein on the membrane of H. pylori and reduced with the addition of urea as competitive transport substrate. These findings suggest that the multifunctional amoxicillin-loaded nanoparticles have great potential for effective therapy of H. pylori infection. They may also serve as pharmacologically effective nanocarriers for oral targeted delivery of other therapeutic drugs to treat H. pylori. PMID:26851392

  6. Empirical antimicrobial therapy of acute dentoalveolar abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijević Stevo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common cause of acute dental infections are oral streptococci and anaerobe bacteria. Acute dentoalveolar infections are usually treated surgically in combination with antibiotics. Empirical therapy in such infections usually requires the use of penicillin-based antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficiency of amoxicillin and cefalexin in the empirical treatment of acute odontogenic abscess and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in early phases of its development. Methods. This study included 90 patients with acute odontogenic abscess who received surgical treatment (extraction of a teeth and/or abscess incision and were divided into three groups: two surgicalantibiotic groups (amoxicillin, cefalexin and the surgical group. In order to evaluate the effects of the applied therapy following clinical symptoms were monitored: inflammatory swelling, trismus, regional lymphadentytis and febrility. In all the patients before the beginning of antibiotic treatment suppuration was suched out of the abscess and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was tested by using the disk diffusion method. Results. The infection signs and symptoms lasted on the average 4.47 days, 4.67 days, and 6.17 days in the amoxicillin, cefalexin, and surgically only treated group, respectively. A total of 111 bacterial strains were isolated from 90 patients. Mostly, the bacteria were Gram-positive facultative anaerobs (81.1%. The most common bacteria isolated were Viridans streptococci (68/111. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria to amoxicillin was 76.6% and cefalexin 89.2%. Conclusion. Empirical, peroral use of amoxicillin or cefalexin after surgical treatment in early phase of development of dentoalveolar abscess significantly reduced the time of clinical symptoms duration in the acute odontogenic infections in comparison to surgical treatment only. Bacterial strains

  7. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactam...

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in veal calves is associated with antimicrobial drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, A B; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A; Vernooij, J C M; Mevius, D J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between farm management factors, including antimicrobial drug usage, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the faeces of white veal calves. Ninety E. coli isolates from one pooled sample per farm (n = 48) were tested for their phenotypical resistance against amoxicillin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). Logistic regression analysis revealed the following risk factors (P 40 ADD/pc, tetracyclines (tetracycline, OR 13·1; amoxicillin, OR 6·5). In this study antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli was mainly associated with antimicrobial drug use. PMID:24152540

  9. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhika Devi, A.; Murty, B. S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Chelvane, J. A. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabhakar, P. K.; Padma Priya, P. V.; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-03-28

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells.

  10. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells

  11. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaeren, Emilienne; Epelboin, Loïc; Epelboin, Sylvie; Boddaert, Nathalie; Brossier, Florence; Caumes, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner. PMID:25449232

  12. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilienne Verkaeren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  13. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Erica L.; Carvalho, Juliana F.; Pontes, Thales R.F.; Oliveira, Elquio E. [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Francelino, Barbara L.; Medeiros, Aldo C. [Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Egito, E. Socrates T. do [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Araujo, Jose H. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Carrico, Artur S. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)], E-mail: ascarrico@dfte.ufrn.br

    2009-05-15

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 {mu}m, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  14. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica L.; Carvalho, Juliana F.; Pontes, Thales R. F.; Oliveira, Elquio E.; Francelino, Bárbara L.; Medeiros, Aldo C.; do Egito, E. Sócrates T.; Araujo, José H.; Carriço, Artur S.

    2009-05-01

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit ®S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 μm, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  15. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 μm, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  16. First Trimester Listeria monocytogenes Septicemia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariëtte Goddijn; Schipper, Hans G.; Lodewijk Spanjaard; Hans Wolf

    1997-01-01

    Background: Little is known about fetal outcome after Listeria monocytogenes septicemia in the first trimester of pregnancy. Case: A primigravida with L. monocytogenes septicemia at 9 weeks gestation was treated with amoxicillin. At 40 weeks gestation a healthy female infant was born. Conclusion: This case shows that fetal outcome can be normal after appropriate treatment of maternal L. monocytogenes septicemia during embryogenesis.

  17. Bacteriology in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted to hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette V; Janner, Julie H; Nielsen, Susanne D; Friis-Møller, Alice; Ringbaek, Thomas; Lange, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial flora and antimicrobial sensitivity in sputum from patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in order to recommend the best empirical treatment for these patients. The survey was a retrospective study of a...... AECOPD we recommend either cefuroxime for intravenous treatment or amoxicillin-clavulanate for oral treatment....

  18. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in Danish isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Schmidt, A.S.; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    were tested and the resulting antibiograms were used to predict the theoretical therapeutic efficacy and to evaluate if resistance had changed as a course of time. Antimicrobial agents included in this investigation were oxolinic acid (OXA), amoxicillin (AMX), potentiated sulfadiazine, oxytetracycline...

  19. Effect of anaerobiosis on indigenous microorganisms in blackwater with fish offal as co-substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Heiske, Stefan; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Villumsen, Arne; Jenssen, Petter Deinboll

    2014-01-01

    . Amoxicillin resistant bacteria were reduced in the anaerobic samples in the beginning of the study but increased towards the end of it. The opposite pattern was observed in the aerobic samples, with a growth in the beginning followed by a reduction. During the anaerobic digestion tetracycline resistant...

  20. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera; Linninge, Caroline; Ahrne, Siv; Højberg, Ole; Licht, Tine Rask; Bahl, Martin Iain

    potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (n=12 per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin...

  1. New mutation points in 23S rRNA gene associated with Helicobacter Pylori resistance to clarithromycin in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Hao; Yan Li; Zhi-Jie Zhang; Yong Liu; Hong Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori (Hpylori) to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and tetracycline to guide clinical practice, and to study the mechanism of H pyloriresistant to clarithromycin.METHODS: Thirty H pyloristrains were isolated from the mucosa of peptic ulcer, gastric tumor and chronic gastritis patients, then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and tetracycline was evaluated by E-test method. The sequence analysis of PCR fragments was conducted in 23S rRNA gene of H pylori resistant to clarithromycin to get the resistance mechanism of the bacteria.RESULTS: Among 30 H pyloristrains, 7 cases were resistant to clarithromycin, 12 to metronidazole, 2 to tetracycline and no strain was found to be resistant to amoxicillin. The resistance rates were 23.3%, 40%, 6.7% and 0%,respectively. Three new mutation points were found to be related to the clarithromycin resistance in H pyloriisolates,which were G2224A, C2245T and T2289C.CONCLUSION: In northeast China, H pylorishows high resistance to metronidazole, while sensitive to amoxicillin.The mechanism of resistance to clarithromycin may be related to the mutation of G2224A, C2245T and T2289C in the 23S rRNA gene.

  2. TOE ABSCESS WITH SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM IN SICKLE CELL ANEMIA PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rangaiahagari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella are a rare cause of toe abscess. We report a case of Salmonella typhimurium in sickle cell anemia in a pediatric patient. The isolate was sensitive to commonly used antibiotics and the patient was treated successfully with a course of amoxicillin.

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Clinical Sources of Dolosigranulum pigrum Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    LaClaire, L.; Facklam, R

    2000-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibilities of 27 clinical isolates of Dolosigranulum pigrum were determined. All were susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, clindamycin, levofloxacin, meropenem, penicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Fifteen of the isolates were intermediate to chloramphenicol. One isolate was resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Two isolates were susceptible, 10 were intermediate, and 15 were resistant to erythromycin.

  4. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Four Antibiotics against Borrelia burgdorferi: a Comparison of Results for the Three Genospecies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Sicklinger, Martin; Wienecke, Ralf; Neubert, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were evaluated for the four antibiotics azithromycin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline against the three main genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In MBC testing, statistically significant differences between the genospecies could be found in 7 out of 12 comparative evaluations (P < 0.05).

  5. In-vitro-Sensibilität von Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato gegenüber vier Antibiotika: ein Vergleich der Genospezies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii und Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Sicklinger, Martin

    2006-01-01

    MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were evaluated for the four antibiotics azithromycin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline against the three main genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In MBC testing, statistically significant differences between the genospecies could be found in 7 out of 12 comparative evaluations (P < 0.05).

  6. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in Danish isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Schmidt, A.S.; Madsen, Lone;

    2000-01-01

    were tested and the resulting antibiograms were used to predict the theoretical therapeutic efficacy and to evaluate if resistance had changed as a course of time. Antimicrobial agents included in this investigation were oxolinic acid (OXA), amoxicillin (AMX), potentiated sulfadiazine, oxytetracycline...

  7. Multicenter Survey of Routine Determinations of Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to Antimicrobials over the Last 20 Years (1990 to 2009) in Belgium▿

    OpenAIRE

    Deyi, V. Y. Miendje; Bontems, P.; Vanderpas, J.; De Koster, E.; Ntounda, R.; Van den Borre, C; Cadranel, S; Burette, A

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the rates of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients from 1990 to 2009 and identified risk factors associated with resistance. Gastric biopsy specimens were collected from several digestive disease centers in Brussels, Belgium. We routinely performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing for clarithromycin (CLR), metronidazole, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. Evaluable susceptibility testing was obtained for 9,430 strains isolate...

  8. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    %, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), str...

  9. Evaluation of nasopharyngeal microbial flora and antibiogram and its relation to otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourizadeh, Navid; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Gharavi, Vahideh; Nourizadeh, Niloufar; Movahed, Rahman

    2016-04-01

    Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion (OME) are the main causes of hearing impairment in children which require proper treatment, mainly antibiotic therapy. Patients whom were appropriate candidates for adenoidectomy were divided into two groups regarding the presence of middle ear effusion. Adenoid tissue specimens were cultured in both groups and the bacterial flora and anti-microbial resistance pattern were determined. 72 patients were studied, 42 % had OME while 58 % did not. The following bacteria were isolated and cultured from both groups with no meaningful difference in prevalence: Streptococcus viridans (p = 0.265), Staphylococcus aureus (p = 0.72), H. influenza (p = 0.806), Entrococcus. spp (0.391), Streptococcus pneumonia (p = 0.391), nonhemolytic Streptococcus (p = 0.230). Bacterial sensitivity was similar for Amoxicillin-clavulanate (p = 0.935), Amoxicillin (p = 0.935), Cephalexin (p = 0.806), Cefixime (p = 0.391) and Azithromycin in both groups. The two groups showed no meaningful difference considering the bacterial flora of nasopharynx and their sensitivity. Bacteria in both groups were sensitive to Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin-clavulanate and resistant to Azithromycin, Cefixime and Cephalexin. PMID:25929414

  10. A Combination Of Amoxicillian And Clavulanic Acid In The Treatment Of Impetigo In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Kar Col

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (ACA a combination of potentially effective antibiotic against beta-lactamase producing bacteria was compared with that of amoxicillin, erythomycin and co-trimoxazole in an open label, randomized trial in 100 children with mild to severe impetigo. 22% children had mild, 25% had moderate and 53% children had severe impetigo. Pure growth of S. aureus was isolated in 68% children, S.pyogenes in 26% and both staphyto and streptococci in 6% children. In mild to moderate infection 100% children receiving ACA were cured clinically after first week, whereas 7 out of 15(46.6% children in amoxicillin group, 7 out of 13(53.1% children in erythromycin group and 4 out 12 (33.3% children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure after first week. In severe impetigo 46.1% children receiving ACA, 20% children in amoxicillin group, 16.6% children inerythromycin group and 7.6% in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure on therapy after one week. ACA was well tolerated in children.

  11. Augmentin treatment during pregnancy and the prevalence of congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik T; Olsen, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the human teratogenic potential of augmentin (amoxicillin+clavulanic acid) treatment during pregnancy. Materials and methods: Pair analysis of cases with different congenital abnormalities and their matched controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case...

  12. Safe and feasible outpatient treatment following induction and consolidation chemotherapy for patients with acute leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Nielsen, Ove Juul; Welinder, Pernille;

    2010-01-01

    incorporating comprehensive patient education for self-care management at home during pancytopenia and involvement of patients in care of their tunnelled central venous catheter (CVC). During neutropenia, patients are treated with prophylactic ciprofloxacine, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and fluconazole. Herein...

  13. Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in France: Antimicrobial Resistance, Serotype, and Molecular Epidemiology Findings from a Monthly National Study in 2000 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Pina, Patrick; Viguier, Florent; Picot, Franc; Courvalin, Patrice; Allouch, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    A study of 257 French invasive pneumococci isolated between 2000 and 2002 showed high rates of nonsusceptibility to penicillin and macrolides (50%), contrasting with a low frequency of resistance to amoxicillin or levofloxacin (<1%) and tolerance to vancomycin (0%). The genetic homogeneity of some serogroups, including serogroup 1, enhanced the risk of epidemiological changes. PMID:15328146

  14. Uptake of antibiotics from irrigation water by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanu, David; Mortey, Christiana; Darko, Godfred; Weisser, Johan Juhl; Styrishave, Bjarne; Abaidoo, Robert Clement

    2016-08-01

    The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through consumption of uncooked vegetables. Antibiotics in potted plants that had been irrigated with known concentrations of the antibiotics were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed on a liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer. The plants absorbed the antibiotics from water in all tested concentrations of 0.1-15 mg L(-1). Tetracycline was detected in all plant samples, at concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 28.3 ng/g in lettuce and 12.0-36.8 ng g(-1) fresh weight in carrots. Amoxicillin showed absorption with concentrations ranging from 13.7 ng g(-1) to 45.2 ng g(-1) for the plant samples. The mean concentration of amoxicillin (27.1 ng g(-1)) in all the samples was significantly higher (p = 0.04) than that of tetracycline (20.2 ng g(-1)) indicating higher uptake of amoxicillin than tetracycline. This suggests that the low antibiotic concentrations found in plants could be important for causing antibiotics resistance when these levels are consumed. PMID:27213239

  15. Combined Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals and Antibiotics on a Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain ZY2 Isolated from Swine Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ZY2, isolated from swine wastewater, was used to investigate the synergistic effects of five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr(VI and Hg on bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Results indicate that the combined effects of antibiotic type, heavy metal type and concentration were significant (p < 0.01. Cross-resistance to Hg and antibiotics was the most noticeable. Moreover, the resistance to Hg and cefradine or amoxicillin, and Cr and amoxicillin were synergistic for low heavy metal concentrations, and turned antagonistic with increasing concentrations, while the resistances to Cr or Cu and cefradine, Pb or Cu and amoxicillin, Cu and norfloxacin showed reverse effects. In addition, resistance to Zn and amoxicillin were always synergetic, while resistance to Pb and cefradine or norfloxacin, Cr or Hg and norfloxacin as well as all the heavy metals and tetracycline were antagonistic. These results indicate that bacterial resistance to antibiotics can be affected by the type and concentration of co-exposed heavy metals and may further threaten people’s health and ecological security severely via horizontal gene transfer.

  16. Evolution of Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to antibiotics during a 10-year period in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupcinskas, Limas; Rasmussen, Lone; Jonaitis, Laimas;

    2013-01-01

    /2008. Susceptibility to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline was tested using E-test or agar dilution method. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was only tested in 2007/2008. Data about utilization of all authorized and available on market macrolides and clindamycin in Lithuania during 2003...

  17. Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

    1996-01-01

    of Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC...

  18. Urinary Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their relationship with community antibiotic use in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meumann, Ella M; Mitchell, Brett G; McGregor, Alistair; McBryde, Emma; Cooley, Louise

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed urinary Escherichia coli antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Tasmania, Australia, and examined their association with community antibiotic use. The susceptibility profiles of all urinary E. coli isolates collected in Tasmania between January 2010 and December 2012 were included. The amount of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS)-subsidised use of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), cefalexin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was retrieved (at the Tasmanian population level) and the number of defined daily doses per 1000 population per day in Tasmania for these antibiotics was calculated for each month during the study period. Antimicrobial susceptibility data were assessed for changes over time in the 3-year study period. Antimicrobial use and susceptibility data were assessed for seasonal differences and lag in resistance following antibiotic use. Excluding duplicates, 28145 E. coli isolates were included. Resistance levels were low; 35% of isolates were non-susceptible to amoxicillin, 14% were non-susceptible to trimethoprim and cefalexin, gentamicin and norfloxacin. Amoxicillin use increased by 35% during winter/spring compared with summer/autumn, and AMC use increased by 21%. No seasonal variation in quinolone use or resistance was detected. The low levels of antimicrobial resistance identified may relate to Tasmania's isolated geographical location. Significant seasonal variation in amoxicillin and AMC use is likely to be due to increased use of these antibiotics for treatment of respiratory tract infections in winter. Quinolone use is restricted by the PBS in Australia, which is the likely explanation for the low levels of quinolone use and resistance identified. PMID:26187365

  19. Drug Release Assays from New Chitosan/Phema Membranes Obtained by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide derived from chitin, which presents biocompatibility, biodegradability and antimicrobial properties. Thus, applications in biomedical and environmental fields have been reported. Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) is a synthetic hydrogel which possesses high mechanical strength and biocompatibility, and the conjunction of these two components may result in a new matrix that combines the useful properties of both polymers. With the purpose of obtaining a biocompatible and sterilized matrix for controlled drug release systems, membranes with different contents in chitosan and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) have been prepared by γ irradiation from a 60Co source. Antibiotic release experiments were performed before and after irradiation over amoxicillin loaded chitosan/pHEMA membranes in physiological saline solution. Results point out a fast amoxicillin release, dependent on membranes network crosslinking and membrane thickness

  20. Hepatotoxicity by Drugs: The Most Common Implicated Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar S. Björnsson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI is an underreported and underestimated adverse drug reaction. Information on the documented hepatotoxicity of drugs has recently been made available by a website that can be accessed in the public domain: LiverTox (http://livertox.nlm.nih.gov. According to critical analysis of the hepatotoxicity of drugs in LiverTox, 53% of drugs had at least one case report of convincing reports of liver injury. Only 48 drugs had more than 50 case reports of DILI. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most commonly implicated agent leading to DILI in the prospective series. In a recent prospective study, liver injury due to amoxicillin-clavulanate was found to occur in approximately one out of 2300 users. Drugs with the highest risk of DILI in this study were azathioprine and infliximab.

  1. Drug release assays from new chitosan/pHEMA membranes obtained by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casimiro, M.H. [Department of Physics, Nuclear and Technological Institute, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: casimiro@itn.pt; Gil, M.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, Polo II Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Leal, J.P. [Department of Chemistry, Nuclear and Technological Institute, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Chemistry and Biochemistry Centre and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-12-15

    With the purpose of obtaining a biocompatible and microbiologically safe matrix that simultaneously could be used as wound dressing material and as a controlled drug release system, membranes with different thickness and different contents in chitosan and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) have been prepared by {gamma} irradiation from a {sup 60}Co source. Antibiotic release experiments were performed before or after irradiation over amoxicillin loaded chitosan/pHEMA membranes in physiological saline solution, and monitored by UV-Vis spectrometry. Results point out a fast amoxicillin release with similar release profile in all studied membranes. The amount of released drug was shown to be dependent on membranes network crosslinking due composition, radiation and membrane thickness.

  2. Drug release assays from new chitosan/pHEMA membranes obtained by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of obtaining a biocompatible and microbiologically safe matrix that simultaneously could be used as wound dressing material and as a controlled drug release system, membranes with different thickness and different contents in chitosan and hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) have been prepared by γ irradiation from a 60Co source. Antibiotic release experiments were performed before or after irradiation over amoxicillin loaded chitosan/pHEMA membranes in physiological saline solution, and monitored by UV-Vis spectrometry. Results point out a fast amoxicillin release with similar release profile in all studied membranes. The amount of released drug was shown to be dependent on membranes network crosslinking due composition, radiation and membrane thickness

  3. Novel Steroidal (6R)-Spiro-1,3,4-thiadiazoline Derivatives as Anti-bacterial Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khan Salman A.; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Novel steroidal (6R)-spiro-1,3,4-thiadiazoline derivatives have been synthesized by the cyclization of steroidal thiosemiearbazones. Thiosemicarbazones have been synthesized by the reaction of steroidal ketones with thiosemi- carbazide. All the compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H NMR, mass and elemental analyses. The antibacterial activities of these compounds have been first tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been determined with the reference of standard drug amoxicillin. The results showed that steroidal thiadiazoline de- rivatives exhibited better antibacterial activity than the steroidal thiosemicarbazone derivatives. Chloro and acetoxy substituents on the 3β-position of the steroidal thiadiazoline ring increased the anti-bacterial activity. Among all the compounds, compounds 7 and 8 were found better inhibitors as compared to the respective drug amoxicillin.

  4. •OH and e-aq are yet good candidates for demolishing the β-lactam system of a penicillin eliminating the antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Rácz, Gergely; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2016-07-01

    Tracking the pharmacophore of a drug subjected to advanced oxidation is essential for evaluating the efficiency of the process in terms of wastewater treatment. From this standpoint, the •OH and eaq- induced deactivation mechanism of amoxicillin, a penicillin derivative was investigated in dilute aqueous solution using pulse- and gamma-radiolysis techniques. Based on IR measurements, •OH and eaq- destroys the β-lactam system of amoxicillin with ~55% and ~84% efficiency, respectively. In aerated solution the elimination of the pharmacophore was slightly impaired since the reaction pathway of the ring-opening was disturbed owing to the reactivity of O2 and O2• - toward the intermediates of sulfur oxidation. The high potency of eaq- for β-lactam deactivation is attributed to the enhanced electron deficiency of the carbonyl carbon inside the lactam ring.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z Y; Liu, P Y; Lau, Y; Lin, Y; Hu, B S; Shir J-M

    1996-02-01

    The in-vitro activity of 18 antimicrobial agents alone or in combination against 248 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Taiwan were tested by agar dilution. The MIC90S of ampicillin, amoxicillin, piperacillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and amikacin were at least 128 mu g/ml. Ceftazidime, cefepime, sulbactam, clavulanic acid, and tazobactam presented moderate activity with MIC90S of 32, 16, 16, 32, and 32 mu g/ml, respectively. The increased activity of ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and piperacillin/tazobactam was due to the intrinsic effect of sulbactam, clavulanic acid, and tazobactam, respectively. Imipenem, meropenem, and ciprofloxacin were the most active antimicrobial agents with MIC90S of 1, 1, and 0.5 mu g/ml, respectively. Nineteen isolates (7.7%) were resistant to all aminoglycosides and beta-lactam antibiotics, except carbapenems and ciprofloxacin. We are concerned about the multidrug resistance of A. baumannii in this study. PMID:9147913

  6. Preliminary investigations of the colonisation of upper respiratory tract tissues of infants using a paediatric formulation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, D A; Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Dawes, P J; Tagg, J R

    2008-12-01

    A powder preparation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been given to 19 young otitis media-prone children following a 3-day course of amoxicillin administered as a preliminary to ventilation tube placement. In two subjects, the use of strain K12 appeared to effect the expansion of an indigenous population of inhibitory S. salivarius. In other children, strain K12 colonisation extended beyond the oral cavity to also include the nasopharynx or adenoid tissue. The relatively low proportion (33%) of subjects that colonised was attributed to failure of the amoxicillin pre-treatment to sufficiently reduce the indigenous S. salivarius populations prior to dosing with strain K12 powder. PMID:18560907

  7. Antibacterial potency screening of Capparis zeylanica Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rezaul Haque; Wahedul Islam; Selina Parween

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To conduct the antibacterial potency and minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts (n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol) obtained from the root, leaf and stem of Capparis zeylanica. Methods: The powdered leaf, root and stem samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially in n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol. Antibacterial potency was evaluated by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a control. Results: In vitro antibacterial activity against 12 bacteria was performed with crude extracts. Among them, all the bacteria showed the moderate activity but chloroform and methanolic extracts showed promising antibacterial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae (leaf > root > stem). This activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method with a standard antibiotic, 30 µg/disc of amoxicillin. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial potency of chloroform and methanolic extracts provides new antibacterial compounds.

  8. Mycophenolate mofetil for drug-induced vanishing bile duct syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Amoxicillin/clavulanate is associated with liver injury,mostly of a cholestatic pattern. While outcomes are usually benign, progression to cirrhosis and death has been reported. The role of immunosuppressive therapy for patients with a protracted course is unclear. We report the case of an elderly patient who developed prolonged cholestasis secondary to amoxicillin/clavulanate. Vanishing bile duct syndrome was confirmed by sequential liver biopsies. The patient responded to prednisone treatment,but could not be weaned off corticosteroids, even when azathioprine was added. Complete withdrawal of both prednisone and azathioprine was possible by using mycophenolate mofetil, an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor. Sustained remission has been maintained for more than 3 years with low-dose mycophenolate mofetil.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated From Poultry Manure Used To Fertilize Fish Ponds In New Bussa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funso Omojowo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to isolate and identify antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry manure usually used for pond fertilization. Poultry manure from 120 Chickens in National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR integrated fish farms, New-Bussa, Nigeria was collected. Five bacterial pathogens; Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing carried out using the disk diffusion technique. Antibiotics used were; ofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. All the isolated organisms were 100% sensitive to ofloxacin. The multiple resistance pattern revealed that 100% were resistant to tetracycline, 84.34% resistant to ampicillin, 76.68% resistant to amoxicillin, 66% resistant to chloramphenicol, 66% resistant to gentamicin, 29% resistant to erythromycin, 28.34% resistant to nalidixic acid. The risk posed by untreated poultry manure used in fish pond fertilization and the public health implications of these results were discussed.

  10. Regional features of gastroduodenal disease, associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, in the North Ossetia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kornienko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of gastroduodenal disorders, virulent feathers of Helicobacter pylori (HP strains and efficacy of eradication therapy in children of the North Ossetia (Alania. 1265 children from 4 till 18 years old were examined, НР was found in 84%. 53% of HP(+ atients had erosions and ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. Strains, resistant to clarithromycin, were revealed in 13% of the patients. We have estimated efficacy of 4 regimes of eradication therapy. Regimes, that included clarithromycin and metronidazole, had the lowest efficacy the worst compliance. The best results were observed in triple therapy, including PPI, amoxicillin and bismuth, and quadrotherapy with PPI amoxicillin, bismuth and nifuratel. The duration of therapy should not be shorter than 10 days.

  11. [Oral antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Claus; Småbrekke, Lars; Døllner, Henrik; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov

    2009-06-25

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in childhood. Empiric antibiotic therapy is guided by the clinical presentation, the patient's ability to take oral agents and the local resistance pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli), the most common pathogen. Most children (with both upper and lower UTI) can safely be treated with oral antibiotics. We recommend pivmecillinam or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid as first-line empiric therapy for upper UTI. Amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are no longer first-line oral agents due to increasing E. coli resistance to both drugs. For lower UTI nitrofurantoin is an excellent first choice. In Norway, lack of paediatric antibiotic syrups is a great challenge and we recommend that such formulations are introduced to the Norwegian market. PMID:19561661

  12. Monitoring and Analysis on Multi Drug Resistance of Escherichia coli from Captive Population Amur Tiger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue; Yuan; Li; Fengyong; Sun; Jing; Cai; Longhui; Wu; Qingming; Zhou; Ming; Huang; Xianguang; Hua; Yuping

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the multi drug resistance to Escherichia coli from captive population Amur tiger,E. coli strains were isolated from the fecal samples of tiger in Heilongjiang Amur Tiger Park in Harbin. The sensitivity of E. coli isolates to 14 antibiotics was determined by scrip diffusion method. The results indicated that all the isolates varied in drug resistance to different antibiotics; the isolates gave high resistance to ampicillin,with a drug fast rate of 100%; over80% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and Paediatric Compound Sulfamethoxazole Tablets(SMZ- TMP),and over 70% of the isolates were sensitive to aztreonam,amoxicillin /potassium clavulanate. Most of the isolates had high sensitive to aztreonam and amoxicillin / clavulanate acid.

  13. Quantitative assessment of histological changes in chronic gastritis after eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Di Napoli, A; Petrino, R; Boero, M.; Bellis, D; Chiandussi, L

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the effect of 10 day triple treatment on H pylori eradication and associated gastritis. METHODS: Fifty patients with H pylori positive non-ulcer dyspepsia were treated for 10 days with amoxicillin, tinidazole, and bismuth salts. Histological examination of the antral mucosa was performed before (T0), six weeks (T1), and six months (T2) after treatment. The new Sydney classification of gastritis was used, using a score from 0 to 3 to grade degree of inflammation, atrophy, act...

  14. Serum and Subcutaneous Chamber Fluid Dynamics of Penicillins After Single Large Parenteral Doses

    OpenAIRE

    Tight, Robert R.; White, Arthur C.

    1980-01-01

    Serum and subcutaneous chamber fluid (CF) dynamics of penicillin G, ampicillin, and amoxicillin were studied in rabbits after single large parenteral doses comparable to doses used in treating gonorrhea and endocarditis. The effects of parenteral probenecid and of injection of an antibiotic directly into a subcutaneous chamber (“intrachamber” injection) also were studied. Peak serum antibiotic concentrations exceeded peak CF concentrations and occurred sooner. Antimicrobial activity persisted...

  15. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Jane A. Morton; Kasten, Rickie W.; Chao-chin Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans) bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) may have prolonged the typ...

  16. [Association of chronic urticaria with Helicobacter pylori-induced antrum gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmeyer, J; Heller, A; Hartig, C; Wetenberger-Treumann, M; Huchzermeyer, H; Otte, H G; Stadler, R

    1996-02-01

    In spite of its high incidence, not much is known about the etiology of chronic urticaria. We performed gastroscopic evaluation of 10 patients in whom no cause for chronic urticaria had been found. In 8 of these 10 patients, Helicobacter pylori was identified in the gastric mucosa. The chronic urticarial lesions disappeared within a few days after starting therapy with amoxicillin and omeprazol. PMID:8868453

  17. Rifaximin Plus Levofloxacin-Based Rescue Regimen for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Sang-Pil; Seon, Han Gyung; Ok, Chang Soo; Yoo, Kwang Ho; Kang, Min Kyung; Kim, Won Hee; Kwon, Chang Il; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Park, Pil Won; Hong, Sung Pyo

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims This study assessed the efficacy of a rifaximin plus levofloxacin-based rescue regimen in patients that had failed both triple and quadruple standard regimens for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Methods We treated patients for H. pylori between August 2009 and April 2011. The triple regimen consisted of combined treatment with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and pantoprazole for 1 week. For failed cases, a quadruple regimen of tetracycline, metronidazole, bismuth dicitrat...

  18. Acute otitis media in children

    OpenAIRE

    Cherpillod J

    2011-01-01

    Jacques CherpillodEar, Nose and Throat Department, Childrens’ University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandDate of preparation: 6th March 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: What is the best treatment for acute otitis media in children?Results: Watchful waiting, followed by amoxicillin treatment, if necessary, is the best first-line treatment for acute otitis media in children aged six months or older.Keywords: acute otitis media, antibiotics, watchful waitin

  19. Electron spin resonance studies of some irradiated pharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibella, M.; Crucq, A-S.; Tilquin, B. E-mail: tilquin@cham.ucl.ac.bc; Stocker, P.; Lesgards, G.; Raffi, J

    2000-03-01

    Five antibiotics belonging to the cephalosporins and penicillins groups have been irradiated: anhydrous ampicilline acid, amoxicilline acid trihydrate, cefuroxime sodium salt, cloxacilline sodium salt monohydrate and ceftazidime pentahydrate. ESR studies have been carried out, showing the influence of irradiation and storage parameters on the nature and concentration of the free radicals trapped. These results may be used to detect an irradiation treatment on such pharmaceuticals. (author)

  20. In vivo evaluation of tigemonam, a novel oral monobactam.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, J M; Olsen, S. J.; Weinberg, D S; Dalvi, M.; Whitney, R R; Bonner, D P; Sykes, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Tigemonam, a new monobactam with excellent activity against gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated for in vivo efficacy and absorption after oral administration to laboratory animals. Tigemonam is absorbed when administered orally to mice and dogs. In a variety of gram-negative systemic infections in mice, orally administered tigemonam was efficacious in all infections studied. Comparison drugs such as amoxicillin, cephalexin, and cefaclor were less efficacious, especially in infections caused...

  1. Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (CMY-2) gene in Salmonella typhimurium isolated from diarrheic pigs in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ki-Eun; Lim, Seong-In; Choi, Hwan-Won; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Song, Jae-Young; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Background Salmonella resistant to third-generation cephalosporin has been isolated from an increasing number of animals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine ESBL (extended-spectrum β-lactamases)-producing and PABL (plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases)-producing Salmonella isolates from pigs in South Korea. Results Salmonella Typhimurium KVCC-BA1300259 was resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, cefoxithin, genta...

  2. Rapid Eradication of Listeria monocytogenes by Moxifloxacin in a Murine Model of Central Nervous System Listeriosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Grayo, Solène; Lott-Desroches, Marie-Catherine; Dussurget, Olivier; Respaud, Renaud; Fontanet, Arnaud; Join-Lambert, Olivier; Singlas, Eric; Le Monnier, Alban

    2008-01-01

    Listeriosis is a rare but life-threatening infection. A favorable outcome is greatly aided by early administration of antibiotics with rapid bactericidal activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Moxifloxacin, a new-generation fluoroquinolone with extended activity against gram-positive bacteria, has proved its effectiveness in vitro against intracellular reservoirs of bacteria. The efficacies of moxifloxacin and amoxicillin were compared in vivo by survival curve assays and by studying the ki...

  3. [Differential diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of Q-fever in a male prisoner. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Zámolyi, Szilvia; Magyar, Hajnalka; Kőrösi, Gábor; Benkő, Árpád; Hornyák, Anna; Hegedűs, Zsolt; György, Lajos

    2015-05-01

    The authors describe the case of a 46-year-old man, who developed atypical pneumonia caused by Coxiella burnetii. Chest X-ray revealed interstitial pneumonia. Western blot and ELISA test were positive for Coxiella burnetii antibody. After treatment with doxycyclin and amoxicillin supplemented with vitamin B6 for 10 days, the patient displayed a clinical improvement. The authors conclude that in cases with atypical pneumonia, Coxiella burnetii antibody as well as other bacterial or viral antibodies should be determined. PMID:26042781

  4. Exogenous pulmonary surfactant as a drug delivering agent: influence of antibiotics on surfactant activity.

    OpenAIRE

    van 't Veen, A; Gommers, D.; Mouton, J. W.; Kluytmans, J.A.; Krijt, E. J.; Lachmann, B.

    1996-01-01

    1. It has been proposed to use exogenous pulmonary surfactant as a drug delivery system for antibiotics to the alveolar compartment of the lung. Little, however, is known about interactions between pulmonary surfactant and antimicrobial agents. This study investigated the activity of a bovine pulmonary surfactant after mixture with amphotericin B, amoxicillin, ceftazidime, pentamidine or tobramycin. 2. Surfactant (1 mg ml-1 in vitro and 40 mg ml-1 in vivo) was mixed with 0.375 mg ml-1 amphote...

  5. Heridas por Mordedura / Bites Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Coturel A; Caamaño Daniela; Rico J.; Ramirez Wosnuk; Quesada B

    2015-01-01

    Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanu...

  6. Assessment of antibiotic prescribing in Latvian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumpis Uga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though general antibiotic consumption data is available, information on the actual patterns of prescribing antibiotics locally is difficult to obtain. An easy to use methodology was designed to assess ambulatory management of infections by Latvian general practitioners (GPs. Methods GPs were asked to record data in a patient data collection form for every patient that received antibiotics. Study period – (7 days one week in November, 2008. Data recorded included the following details: an antibiotic, the prescribed dose, dosing interval, route of administration combined with the demographic factors of the patient and clinical diagnosis based on a pre-defined list. Results Two hundred forty eight forms out of the 600 (41% were returned by post. Antibiotics were prescribed in 6.4% (1711/26803 of outpatient consultations. In total, 1763 antibiotics were prescribed during the study period. Ninety seven percent of the patients received monotherapy and only 47 (2.7% patients were prescribed two antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (33.9% of prescribed, amoxicillin/clavulanate (18,7% and clarithromycin (7.6%. The most commonly treated indications were pharyngitis (29.8%, acute bronchitis (25.3% and rhinosinusitis (10.2%. Pneumonia was mostly treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate (25,7%, amoxicillin (15.7% and clarithromycin (19.3%. Conclusions Methodology employed provided useful additional information on ambulatory practice of prescribing antibiotics and could be used in further assessment studies. Educational interventions should be focused on treatment of acute pharyngitis and bronchitis in children and unnecessary use of quinolones in adults for uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

  7. Activity of OPT-80, a Novel Macrocycle, Compared with Those of Eight Other Agents against Selected Anaerobic Species

    OpenAIRE

    Credito, Kim L.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    Agar dilution MIC was used to compare activities of OPT-80, linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 350 gram-positive and -negative anaerobes. OPT-80 was active against gram-positive strains only, especially Clostridium spp. (85 strains tested, including 21 strains of C. difficile), with MICs ranging between ≤0.016 and 0.25 μg/ml.

  8. Activities of oral and parenteral agents against penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci.

    OpenAIRE

    Pankuch, G A; Visalli, M A; Jacobs, M. R.; Appelbaum, P C

    1995-01-01

    This study examined bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of oral and parenteral antibiotics for penicillin-susceptible and intermediately and fully penicillin-resistant pneumococci. beta-Lactamase inhibitors did not affect beta-lactam results. The activities of ampicillin, amoxicillin +/- clavulanate, WY-49605, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, cefdinir, cefixime, and cefaclor against two penicillin-susceptible, two intermediately penicillin-resistant, and two fully penicillin-resistant pneumoco...

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Singapore.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuah, B G; Kumarasinghe, G; Doran, J.; Chang, H R

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro activities of 17 antimicrobial agents alone or in combination against 70 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Singapore were determined by broth microdilution. The MICs of amoxicillin, ampicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and piperacillin for 90% of the strains were > or = 128 micrograms/ml. Addition of sulbactam to ampicillin produced improved activity, whereas adding tazobactam to piperacillin did not. The MICs of amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem ...

  10. A Challenge for Diagnosing Acute Liver Injury with Concomitant/Sequential Exposure to Multiple Drugs: Can Causality Assessment Scales Be Utilized to Identify the Offending Drug?

    OpenAIRE

    Roxanne Lim; Hassan Choudry; Kim Conner; Wikrom Karnsakul

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity most commonly manifests as an acute hepatitis syndrome and remains the leading cause of drug-induced death/mortality and the primary reason for withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. We report a case of acute liver injury in a 12-year-old Hispanic boy, who received a series of five antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, ampicillin/sulbactam, and clindamycin) for cervical lymphadenitis/retropharyngeal cellulitis. Histopathology of the liver ...

  11. Pseudomembranous colitis associated with a triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Trifan, Anca; Girleanu, Irina; Cojocariu, Camelia; Sfarti, Catalin; Singeap, Ana Maria; Dorobat, Carmen; Grigore, Lucia; Stanciu, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common chronic bacterial infections in humans, affecting half of world’s population. Therapy for H. pylori infection has proven to be both effective and safe. The one-week triple therapy including proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin or metronidazole is still recommended as a first-line treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection in countries with low clarithromycin resistance. Generally, this therapy is well-tolerated, with ...

  12. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    OpenAIRE

    Laxman Pokhrel; Bigyan Sharma; Bajracharya, Gan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’...

  13. Determination of Susceptibilities of 26 Leptospira sp. Serovars to 24 Antimicrobial Agents by a Broth Microdilution Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Clinton K.; Hospenthal, Duane R.

    2004-01-01

    The MICs of 24 antimicrobials for 26 Leptospira spp. serovars were determined using a broth microdilution technique. The MICs at which 90% of isolates tested were inhibited (MIC90s) of cefepime, imipenem-cilastatin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and telithromycin were all ≤0.01 μg/ml. The MIC90s of amoxicillin, aztreonam, cefdinir, chloramphenicol, and penicillin G were ≥3.13 μg/ml. Many antimicrobials have excellent in vitro activity against Leptospira.

  14. Emergence of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli producing TEM-1 derivatives or an OXA-1 beta-lactamase conferring resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, X. Y.; Bordon, F; Sirot, D; Kitzis, M D; Gutmann, L

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen Escherichia coli clinical isolates which were resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate but susceptible to cephalothin were studied. Eight strains showed the presence of a beta-lactamase which comigrates with reference OXA-1 enzyme. The eight other strains produced different TEM-1 derivatives which had in common a higher Km for penicillins and a higher 50% inhibitory concentration for the beta-lactamase inhibitors. By oligotyping and sequencing of PCR products, it was shown ...

  15. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized gold nanoparticles — Design, characterization and antimicrobial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manju, V. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Dhandapani, P. [Corrosion Materials and Protection Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, 630006 (India); Gurusamy Neelavannan, M. [Characterization and Measurement lab, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Maruthamuthu, S. [Corrosion Materials and Protection Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, 630006 (India); Berchmans, S. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Palaniappan, A., E-mail: palani112@gmail.com [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India)

    2015-04-01

    A facile one-step approach is developed to synthesize highly stable (up to 6 months) gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Clavam, pharmaceutical form of amoxicillin which contains a mixture of amoxicillin and potassium salt of clavulanic acid, at room temperature (25–30 °C). The clavam stabilized GNPs are characterized using various techniques including UV–Visible, FT-IR spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using intracellular concentrations of glutathione (GSH). The process is monitored using an UV–Vis spectroscopy and the amount of clavam released in terms of amoxicillin concentration is quantitatively estimated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) technique. In vitro study reveals that the clavam released from GNPs' surface was found to show a significant enhancement in antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the cause of enhancement is addressed. - Graphical abstract: Stable and nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared at room temperature (~ 25–30 °C) using clavam; commercial form of amoxicillin antibiotic. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated by the addition of varying concentrations of glutathione. Interactions between clavam and gold core are investigated in detail. The mechanism of enhanced antimicrobial activity of clavam released from clavam stabilized GNPs is probed. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared without reducing agent using antibiotic clavam{sup TR}. • Our work shed lights on the nature of interaction between the clavam and GNPs. • Sustained release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using glutathione. • Antimicrobial activity of the released clavam is confirmed using various techniques. • Our study suggests that the clavam released from GNPs shows better inhibition of E. coli.

  16. Use of PCR and culture to detect Helicobacter pylori in naturally infected cats following triple antimicrobial therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, S E; Yan, L L; Shen, Z.; Hayward, A; Murphy, J C; Fox, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is linked to gastric cancer. Domestic cats from a commercial source were found to be naturally infected with H. pylori, and studies were undertaken to eradicate H. pylori from infected cats by using triple antimicrobial therapy. Eight cats infected with H. pylori were used in the study. Six cats received a 21-day course of oral amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazole, and two cats served as controls. Two weeks and 4 weeks posttreat...

  17. Recommendations for the empirical treatment of complicated urinary tract infections using surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Koningstein

    Full Text Available Complicated urinary tract infections (c-UTIs are among the most common nosocomial infections and a substantial part of the antimicrobial agents used in hospitals is for the treatment of c-UTIs. Data from surveillance can be used to guide the empirical treatment choices of clinicians when treating c-UTIs. We therefore used nation-wide surveillance data to evaluate antimicrobial coverage of agents for the treatment of c-UTI in the Netherlands.We included the first isolate per patient of urine samples of hospitalised patients collected by the Infectious Disease Surveillance Information System for Antibiotic Resistance (ISIS-AR in 2012, and determined the probability of inadequate coverage for antimicrobial agents based on species distribution and susceptibility. Analyses were repeated for various patient groups and hospital settings.The most prevalent bacteria in 27,922 isolates of 23,357 patients were Escherichia coli (47%, Enterococcus spp. (14%, Proteus mirabilis (8%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7%. For all species combined, the probability of inadequate coverage was <5% for amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combined with gentamicin and the carbapenems. When including gram-negative bacteria only, the probability of inadequate coverage was 4.0%, 2.7%, 2.3% and 1.7%, respectively, for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, a second or a third generation cephalosporin in combination with gentamicin, and the carbapenems (0.4%. There were only small variations in results among different patient groups and hospital settings.When excluding Enterococcus spp., considered as less virulent, and the carbapenems, considered as last-resort drugs, empirical treatment for c-UTI with the best chance of adequate coverage are one of the studied beta-lactam-gentamicin combinations. This study demonstrates the applicability of routine surveillance data for up-to-date clinical practice guidelines on empirical antimicrobial therapy, essential in patient

  18. Antibiotic residues in broiler and layer meat in Chittagong district of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmina Sattar; Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan; S. K. M. Azizul Islam; Mahabub Alam; Md. Shohel Al Faruk; Suchayan Chowdhury; Saifuddin, A. K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was described thin layer chromatography (TLC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method for the detection of antibacterial substances in poultry muscle (breast and thigh), kidney, and liver. Materials and Methods: TLC method was used for screening detection of tetracycline, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin residues in poultry tissues. The samples were extracted with trichloroacetic acid (30%), diethyl ether, followed by detection in ...

  19. Susceptibility of respiratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children hospitalized in the Clinical center Niš

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Marina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of respiratory infections. The aim was to study the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of respiratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from hospitalized children. Material and Methods. A total of 190 respiratory pneumococcal isolates obtained from children aged from 0 to 14 years were isolated and identified by using standard microbiological methods. Susceptibility to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin and rifampicin was tested by disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for amoxicillin and ceftriaxone were determined by means of E test. The macrolide-resistant phenotype was detected by double disc diffusion test. Results. All tested isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftriaxone. The minimal amoxicillin concentration inhibiting the growth of 50% of isolates and of 90% of isolates was 0.50 μg/ml and 1.0 μg/ml, respectively and the minimal ceftriaxone concentration inhibiting the growth of 50% of isolates and of 90% of isolates was 0.25 μg/ml and 0.50 μg/ml, respectively. Susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin was observed in 21.6% and 29.47% of isolates, respectively. The resistence to macrolides - M phenotype was detected in 10.07% of isolates and constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin phenotype (constitutive MLS phenotype was found in 89.93% of isolates. All tested isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin and rifampicin. Conclusion. Amoxicillin could be the therapy of choice in pediatric practice. The macrolides should not be recommended for the empirical therapy of pneumococcal respiratory tract infection in our local area.

  20. Transformation of Sexually Transmitted Infection-Causing Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis Using Blasticidin for Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Honglei Ding; Siqi Gong; Yingxin Tian; Zhangsheng Yang; Robert Brunham; Guangming Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI)-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, ...

  1. Shigella flexneri-induced vaginitis in a prepubertal children: description of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Restelli; Manuela Colosimo; Anna Maraschini; Anna Grancini; Rosaria Colombo; Romualdo Grande; Maria Rosa Araldi; Erminio Torresani

    2011-01-01

    In prepuberal girls vulvo-vaginitis are caused by germs of intestinal origin,mycetes, Gardnerella vaginalis, protozoa. Shigella is an uncommon agent able to induce valvovaginitis in children. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with chronic vulvo-vaginitis caused by S. flexneri. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing revealed that S. flexnery was sensible to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, but resistant to amikacin, cefazolin, gentamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. A treatm...

  2. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    OpenAIRE

    Emilienne Verkaeren; Loïc Epelboin; Sylvie Epelboin; Nathalie Boddaert; Florence Brossier; Eric Caumes

    2014-01-01

    International audience Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was...

  3. Evaluation of the functional state of the small intestine of patients using antibiotics for treatment of out-hospital pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Y. M. Vahrushev; N. N. Shulyateva

    2015-01-01

    Processes of hydrolysis and absorbtion in small intestine were assessed with 60 of patients using amoxicillin/ clavulanate for treatment of out-hospital pneumonia. It is established that when carrying out an antibiotikoterapiya band digestion and absorption at the kept parietal digestion is broken. Further analysis of the factors presented will allow to work out practical recommendations on prevention of side effects of antibiotics usage in small intestine.

  4. Cost Effectiveness in Canada of a Multidrug Prepackaged Regimen (Hp-PAC(R)) Use of tradenames is for product identification only and does not imply endorsement. for Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Agro; Gordon Blackhouse; Ron Goeree; Willan, Andrew R; Jia-Qing Huang; Hunt, Richard H; Bernie J. O'Brien

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the cost effectiveness of a multidrug prepackaged regimen for Helicobacter pylori, the Hp-PAC(R) (lansoprazole 30mg, clarithromycin 500mg, amoxicillin 1g, all twice daily), relative to alternative pharmacological strategies in the management of confirmed duodenal ulcer over a 1-year period from 2 perspectives: (i) a strict healthcare payer perspective (Ontario Ministry of Health) excluding the patient copayment; and (ii) a healthcare payer perspective including the patien...

  5. Eficacia del tratamiento antinflamatorio comparado con antibiótico y placebo en pacientes con bronquitis aguda no complicada y expectoración purulenta. Ensayo clínico aleatorio controlado con placebo.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayona Faro, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of anti-inflammatory (ibuprofen 600 mg t.i.d./10 days) or antibiotic therapy (amoxicillin/clavulanate 500/125 mg t.i.d./10 days) compared to placebo in the resolution of cough in patients with uncomplicated acute bronchitis. Multicentre, parallel, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial (trial registration: ISRCTN07852892), in which patients from 18 to 70 years of age presenting symptoms associated with respiratory tract ...

  6. Study of rationality and utilization pattern of antimicrobials in ear, nose, throat outpatient department of Tertiary Care Hospital, Nanded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol C. Deshmukh

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Amoxicillin is the most common AMA prescribed and URTI is the most common diagnosis made. All AMAs should be prescribed only when needed and should be used in proper dose and for proper duration. Institution wise antibiotic policy should be used to contain resistance. Proper training and regular orientation programs of the juniors' doctors for judicial use of AMAs will foster the habit of rational prescribing of AMA. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 734-738

  7. PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL USE FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTION DURING PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Haldia Priyanka, Sharma Taruna, Nautiyal Ruchira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) may be classified as lower (cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria) or upper urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis). The recommended antibiotics for use in pregnancy for management of ASB include amoxicillin, oral cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin; and for the treatment of lower UTI during pregnancy include penicillins, oral cephalosporins. Data from the antibiotic usage study in UTI during pregnancy will help in establishing a proper antibiotic uti...

  8. Use of Animal Models To Support Revising Meningococcal Breakpoints of β-Lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacem, Nouria; Hong, Eva; Antunes, Ana; Terrade, Aude; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) in Neisseria meningitidis is an important part of the management of invasive meningococcal disease. It defines MICs of antibiotics that are used in treatment and/or prophylaxis and that mainly belong to the beta-lactams. The interpretation of the AST results requires breakpoints to classify the isolates into susceptible, intermediate, or resistant. The resistance to penicillin G is defined by a MIC of >0.25 mg/liter, and that of amoxicillin is defined by a MIC of >1 mg/liter. We provide data that may support revision of resistance breakpoints for beta-lactams in meningococci. We used experimental intraperitoneal infection in 8-week-old transgenic female mice expressing human transferrin and human factor H. Dynamic bioluminescence imaging was performed to follow the infection by bioluminescent meningococcus strains with different MICs. Three hours later, infected mice were treated intramuscularly using several doses of amoxicillin or penicillin G. Signal decreased during infection with a meningococcus strain showing a penicillin G MIC of 0.064 mg/liter at all doses. Signals decreased for the strain with a penicillin G MIC of 0.5 mg/liter only after treatment with the highest doses, corresponding to 250,000 units/kg of penicillin G or 200 mg/kg of amoxicillin, although this decrease was at a lower rate than that of the strain with a MIC of 0.064 mg/liter. The decrease in bioluminescent signals was associated with a decrease in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Our data suggest that a high dose of amoxicillin or penicillin G can reduce growth during infection by isolates showing penicillin G MICs of >0.25 mg/liter and ≤1 mg/liter. PMID:27090179

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Wareham David W.; Krahe Daniel; Bean David C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI). Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, ...

  10. Penicillin G acylase encapsulation studies in polyvinyl alcohol based matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Maduro, Filipa Cristiana Duarte Fangueiro

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação mest., Biotecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2009 Penicillin G acylase (EC 3.5.1.11) (PGA) hydrolyses penicillin G (PG) producing 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), an important building block in the synthesis of semi-synthetic antibiotics such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. The synthesis of these antibiotics by PGA is already successfully used in lab and pilot scales and more recently in the synthesis of cefalexin (CEX) at industrial scale. This work characterizes the stabili...

  11. Synergistic effect of propolis and antibiotics on the Salmonella Typhi Efeito sinérgico da própolis e antibióticos sobre Salmonella Typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi; José Maurício Sforcin; Silvia Regina Cunha Funari; Ary Fernandes Junior; Vassya Bankova

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate a possible synergistic effect between ethanolic extracts of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria and some antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin) against Salmonella Typhi. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action, but the sample from Bulgaria was shown to be more efficient. Both samples showed a similar synergistic effect with these antibiotics. One may conclude that the propolis samples show an important antibacterial a...

  12. Empirical antimicrobial therapy of acute dentoalveolar abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Matijević Stevo; Lazić Zoran; Kuljić-Kapulica Nada; Nonković Zorka

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim. The most common cause of acute dental infections are oral streptococci and anaerobe bacteria. Acute dentoalveolar infections are usually treated surgically in combination with antibiotics. Empirical therapy in such infections usually requires the use of penicillin-based antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficiency of amoxicillin and cefalexin in the empirical treatment of acute odontogenic abscess and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility ...

  13. Synergistic effect of propolis and antibiotics on the Salmonella Typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Orsi Ricardo de Oliveira; Sforcin José Maurício; Funari Silvia Regina Cunha; Fernandes Junior Ary; Bankova Vassya

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate a possible synergistic effect between ethanolic extracts of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria and some antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin) against Salmonella Typhi. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action, but the sample from Bulgaria was shown to be more efficient. Both samples showed a similar synergistic effect with these antibiotics. One may conclude that the propolis samples show an important antibacterial a...

  14. 阿莫西林的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜廷旭; 王宇; 杨玲

    2010-01-01

    @@ 阿莫西林(Amoxicillin,AMO)是一种带有氨基侧链的青霉素,其化学结构在AMP的侧链苯环上多一个羟基,两者性质类似.AMO为白色或类白色结晶性粉末,味微苦,微溶于水,不溶于乙醇,比旋度为(+2900)~(+3100).

  15. Factors influencing antibiotic resistance burden in municipal wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Novo, Ana; Manaia, Célia M.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants are recognized reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Three municipal wastewater treatment plants differing on the dimensions and bio-treatment processes were compared for the loads of amoxicillin-, tetracycline-, and ciprofloxacinresistant heterotrophic bacteria, enterobacteria, and enterococci in the raw inflow and in the treated effluents. The sewage received by each plant, in average, corresponded to 85,000 inhabitant equ...

  16. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal colonization in nonhospitalized HIV-infected patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhawan, V K; Nachum, R; Bhat, N.; Tolbert, L; Agrawal, M

    1998-01-01

    We studied fecal colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in 89 HIV-infected nonhospitalized patients ages 24 to 62 years, including 70 (79%) men (including 41 homosexual and 5 bisexual men) and 19 (21%) women. Of the 89 patients, 61 (69%) were black, 25 (28%) Hispanic, and 3 (3%) white; 53 (60%) had history of ongoing or recent antibacterial therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (29), clarithromycin (18), amoxicillin (7), ofloxacin (3), and metronidazole, doxycycline, di...

  17. Lack of in vitro efficacy of oral forms of certain cephalosporins, erythromycin, and oxacillin against Pasteurella multocida.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Richwald, G A

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of human isolates of Pasteurella multocida to oral antimicrobial agents from our current study and from a review of the literature suggests that dicloxacillin (oxacillin), erythromycin, clindamycin, cephalexin, cefaclor, and cefadroxil should not be used for empiric therapy of animal bite wounds. Agents that were consistently active against P. multocida were penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, trimethopri...

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL POTENCY AGAINST MICROBES FOUND IN CLINICAL SAMPLES AND TOXICITY STUDIES ON SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Jahan; Mansoor Ahmad; Mehjabeen; Sikandar Khan Sherwani; Ghazala Raza Naqvi

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Terminalia arjuna, Tephrosia purpurea and Thuja occidentalis extracts were investigated against the standard drugs, which are presently available in the market as Gentamicin, Cephradine, Amoxicillin clavulanate, Norfloxacin and Itraconazole. Well method was used for antimicrobial activity and the zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. The antibacterial activity was observed on three gram negative bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsie...

  19. Association between Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance in Escherichia coli▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Miika; Nyberg, Solja T; Huovinen, Pentti; Paakkari, Pirkko; Hakanen, Antti J.

    2008-01-01

    During a 9-year study period from 1997 through 2005, the association between antimicrobial resistance rates in Escherichia coli and outpatient antimicrobial consumption was investigated in 20 hospital districts in Finland. A total of 754,293 E. coli isolates, mainly from urine samples, were tested for antimicrobial resistance in 26 clinical microbiology laboratories. The following antimicrobials were studied: ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim,...

  20. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized gold nanoparticles — Design, characterization and antimicrobial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile one-step approach is developed to synthesize highly stable (up to 6 months) gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Clavam, pharmaceutical form of amoxicillin which contains a mixture of amoxicillin and potassium salt of clavulanic acid, at room temperature (25–30 °C). The clavam stabilized GNPs are characterized using various techniques including UV–Visible, FT-IR spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using intracellular concentrations of glutathione (GSH). The process is monitored using an UV–Vis spectroscopy and the amount of clavam released in terms of amoxicillin concentration is quantitatively estimated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) technique. In vitro study reveals that the clavam released from GNPs' surface was found to show a significant enhancement in antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the cause of enhancement is addressed. - Graphical abstract: Stable and nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared at room temperature (~ 25–30 °C) using clavam; commercial form of amoxicillin antibiotic. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated by the addition of varying concentrations of glutathione. Interactions between clavam and gold core are investigated in detail. The mechanism of enhanced antimicrobial activity of clavam released from clavam stabilized GNPs is probed. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared without reducing agent using antibiotic clavamTR. • Our work shed lights on the nature of interaction between the clavam and GNPs. • Sustained release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using glutathione. • Antimicrobial activity of the released clavam is confirmed using various techniques. • Our study suggests that the clavam released from GNPs shows better inhibition of E. coli

  1. In vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and six other antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, H; Tenovuo, J; Huovinen, P

    1993-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and to six commonly used, systemic antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, cefuroxime, penicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline, and erythromycin) was studied for 424 clinical isolates from 116 children and students. The MIC of chlorhexidine for all isolates was < or = 1 micrograms/ml. No resistance to the other antimicrobial agents was detected. Although widely exposed to various antimicrobial agents, S. mutans has remaine...

  2. Use of a Continuous-Culture Biofilm System To Study the Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Muli, F.; Struthers, J. K.

    1998-01-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus have been shown to grow to high titers in a simple biofilm system. This system was used in the present investigation to compare the biofilm-eradicating concentrations (BECs) of amoxicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, and metronidazole to standard tube MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) results. With the lactobacillus, the BEC/tube MBC ratio was at least 16:1, while for G. vaginalis the ratio varied from 2:1 to 512:1. The simple...

  3. Clinical Characteristics of Symptomatic Clostridium difficile Infection in Children: Conditions as Infection Risks and Whether Probiotics Is Effective

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong Mo; Lee, Kyung Suk; Kang, Jung Oak; Oh, Sung Hee; Kim, Yong Joo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the clinical presentations of symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 43 children aged 3 days, and the most frequently prescribed antibiotic was amoxicillin-clavulanate (35.7%). Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed with CDI despite taking probiotic supplements, most commonly Lactobacillus acidophilus (53.6%). The most common symptom was diarrhea (72.1%) at the time CDI was diagnosed. C. difficile...

  4. Experience developing national evidence-based clinical guidelines for childhood pneumonia in a low-income setting - making the GRADE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agweyu Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines has gained wide acceptance in high-income countries and reputable international organizations. Whereas this approach may be a desirable standard, challenges remain in low-income settings with limited capacity and resources for evidence synthesis and guideline development. We present our experience using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach for the recent revision of the Kenyan pediatric clinical guidelines focusing on antibiotic treatment of pneumonia. Methods A team of health professionals, many with minimal prior experience conducting systematic reviews, carried out evidence synthesis for structured clinical questions. Summaries were compiled and distributed to a panel of clinicians, academicians and policy-makers to generate recommendations based on best available research evidence and locally-relevant contextual factors. Results We reviewed six eligible articles on non-severe and 13 on severe/very severe pneumonia. Moderate quality evidence suggesting similar clinical outcomes comparing amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole for non-severe pneumonia received a strong recommendation against adopting amoxicillin. The panel voted strongly against amoxicillin for severe pneumonia over benzyl penicillin despite moderate quality evidence suggesting clinical equivalence between the two and additional factors favoring amoxicillin. Very low quality evidence suggesting ceftriaxone was as effective as the standard benzyl penicillin plus gentamicin for very severe pneumonia received a strong recommendation supporting the standard treatment. Conclusions Although this exercise may have fallen short of the rigorous requirements recommended by the developers of GRADE, it was arguably an improvement on previous attempts at guideline development in low-income countries and offers valuable lessons for future similar exercises where

  5. Comparative evaluation of a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, YTR 830, combined with different beta-lactam antibiotics against bacteria harboring known beta-lactamases.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, L; Kitzis, M D; Yamabe, S; Acar, J F

    1986-01-01

    YTR 830, a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, combined with amoxicillin or carbenicillin, showed a synergistic effect similar to that observed with clavulanic acid, and generally better than that with sulbactam, against strains harboring chromosome-encoded penicillinases and broad-spectrum beta-lactamases or plasmid-determined beta-lactamases. With ampicillin, YTR 830 showed the best synergistic activity of the inhibitors against Proteus morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae and...

  6. Simultaneous pyometra and viable puppies’ gestation in a bitch

    OpenAIRE

    A. Risso; F.J. Pellegrino; Y. Corrada

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a case of pyometra coexisting with gestation in a 4.5 year-old miniature short-haired Dachshund. The dog exhibited depression, vaginal discharge, polydipsia and dehydration. Ultrasound examination revealed the presence of low to moderate anechoic fluid collection in the left uterine horn. Blood analysis revealed mild neutrophilia with a left shift. Based on these findings a presumptive diagnosis of pyometra was made and the bitch was treated using amoxicillin-clavulanate with...

  7. How Can the Current Strategies for Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy be Improved?

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Alex; Moayyedi, Paul

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is advocated in an increasing variety of situations. It is therefore important to optimise current strategies to eradicate H pylori infectionOBJECTIVES: To define the optimum dosage, drugs and duration of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) triple therapy.METHODS: A review of the literature was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews addressing these issues.RESULTS: In PPI, amoxicillin and clarithromycin ...

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinical Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats in the United States: January 2008 through January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thungrat, Kamoltip; Price, Stuart B; Carpenter, D Mark; Boothe, Dawn Merton

    2015-09-30

    Escherichia coli is among the most common bacterial pathogens in dogs and cats. The lack of a national monitoring program limits evidence-based empirical antimicrobial choices in the United States. This study describes antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for presumed clinical E. coli isolates from dogs (n=2392) or cats (n=780) collected from six geographic regions in the United States between May 2008 and January 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for 17 drugs representing 6 drug classes. Urinary tract isolates were most common (71%). Population MIC distributions were generally bimodal with the second mode above the resistant breakpoint for all drugs except gentamicin, amikacin, and meropenem. The MIC90 exceeded the susceptible breakpoint for ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin (surrogate drug for cephalexin), and doxycycline but was below the susceptible breakpoint for all others. None of isolates was susceptible or resistant to all drug tested; 46% were resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobial categories, and 52% to more than three categories. The resistance percentages were as follows: doxycycline (100%), cephalothin (98%)>ampicillin (48%)>amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (40%)>ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (18%)>cefpodoxime (13%), cefotaxime (12%), cefoxitin (11%), cefazolin (11%), enrofloxacin (10%), chloramphenicol (9.6%)>ciprofloxacin (9.2%), ceftazidime (8.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.9%), gentamicin (7.9%)>meropenem (1.5%), amikacin (0.7%) (P<0.05). Resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was greatest in the South-Central region (P<0.05). E. coli resistance may preclude empirical treatment with doxycycline, cephalexin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Based on susceptibility patterns, trimethoprim-sulfonamides may be the preferred empirical oral treatment. PMID:26165272

  9. Standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) eradication in a randomized, double-blinded, comparative clinical trial in China. METHODS: A total of 215 H. pylori -positive patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated into three groups: group A (n = 72) received a 10-d bismuth pectin quadruple therapy (20 mg rabeprazole bid , 1000 mg amoxicillin bid , 100 mg bismuth pectin qid , and 500 mg levofloxaci...

  10. 1O-Minute Consultation Otorrhoea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miran Pankhania; Owen Judd; Andy Ward

    2011-01-01

    A 49 year old woman presents to her general practitioner with discharge from her left ear and otalgia.She had used olive oil drops for ear wax and completed a course of amoxicillin for presumed otitis media.Her symptoms have persisted despite treatment.What you should cover Ask about:Otorrhoea;Otalgia;Tinnitus;Vertigo;Hearing loss.Most ear disorders will present with one or more of these five symptoms.

  11. Comparative analysis of the prices of essential medicines among Bulgaria and Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra; Bukilica, M; Todorov, Todor; Petrova, Guenka

    2005-01-01

    The prices of medicines differ because of many reasons as the sector that is purchasing medicines, distribution channel, patent status, trade mark and methodology of pricing. The current study aims at comparing the manufactoring, wholesale and retail prices of 30 30 INN essential medicines in Bulgaria and Macedonia as well their affordability to the population. There are presented the results for amoxicillin and glibenclamid. The collection, verification and data analysis are following the ne...

  12. Increased Release Time of Antibiotics from Bone Allografts through a Novel Biodegradable Coating

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The use of bone allografts is contraindicated in septic revision surgery due to the high risk of graft reinfection. Antibiotic release from the graft may solve the problem and these combinations can theoretically be used for prevention or even therapy of infection. The present study investigated whether amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and vancomycin alone or in combination with chitosan or alginate are suitable for short-term or long-term bone coating. Human bone allografts were prepared from fem...

  13. Ciprofloxacin, a quinolone carboxylic acid compound active against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, N X; Neu, H C

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of norfloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, ceftazidime, moxalactam, amoxicillin, and methicillin and other agents, as appropriate. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for 90% of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria spp., and Bacteroides fragilis were between 0.005 and 0.8 micrograms/ml, whereas streptococci and staphylococci were all inhibited by less than o...

  14. Characterization of the oral absorption of several aminopenicillins: determination of intrinsic membrane absorption parameters in the rat intestine in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinko, P. J.; Amidon, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    The absorption mechanism of several penicillins was characterized using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in the rat. The intrinsic membrane parameters were determined using a modified boundary layer model (fitted value +/- S.E.): Jmax* = 11.78 +/- 1.88 mM, Km = 15.80 +/- 2.92 mM, Pm* = 0, Pc* = 0.75 +/- 0.04 for ampicillin; Jmax* = 0.044 +/- 0.018 mM, Km = 0.058 +/- 0.026 mM, Pm* = 0.558 +/- 0.051, Pc* = 0.757 +/- 0.088 for amoxicillin; and Jmax* = 16.30 +/- 3.40 mM, Km = 14.00 +/- 3.30 mM, Pm* = 0, Pc* = 1.14 +/- 0.05 for cyclacillin. All of the aminopenicillins studied demonstrated saturable absorption kinetics as indicated by their concentration-dependent wall permeabilities. Inhibition studies were performed to confirm the existence of a nonpassive absorption mechanism. The intrinsic wall permeability (Pw*) of 0.01 mM ampicillin was significantly lowered by 1 mM amoxicillin and the Pw* of 0.01 mM amoxicillin was reduced by 2 mM cephradine consistent with competitive inhibition.

  15. Three unsuccessful treatments of Helicobacter pylori infection by a highly virulent strain with quadruple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Yordanov, Daniel; Markovska, Rumyana; Mitov, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    We report a case of an adult patient undergoing three unsuccessful Helicobacter pylori treatments, including proton pump inhibitor (PPI), bismuth subcitrate, metronidazole and tetracycline in 2012, PPI, amoxicillin and clarithromycin in 2013, and PPI, amoxicillin and rifampin in 2014. Following the first treatment, the isolate was metronidazole and ciprofloxacin/levofloxacin resistant. After the second treatment, the isolate was resistant to metronidazole, ciprofloxacin/levofloxacin and rifampin, developing secondary clarithromycin resistance by A2143G mutation and was susceptible only to tetracycline. After the third treatment, the patient still remained H. pylori positive. Patient's strain was highly virulent (cagA (+) , cagE (+) and vacA s1a/m1/i1). The evolution of the patient's disease was from gastroesophageal reflux disease in 2012 to two duodenal ulcers in 2015. Briefly, the infecting strain showed quadruple antibiotic resistance and a transient amoxicillin resistance. Triple clarithromycin-based treatment induced secondary clarithromycin resistance by A2143G mutation, while rifampin resistance caused the third treatment failure. Several options for the next treatment regimens are discussed. PMID:26634607

  16. Enhancement of wettability and antibiotic loading/release of hydroxyapatite thin film modified by 100 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elayaraja, K. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Rajesh, P. [Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India); Ahymah Joshy, M.I.; Sarath Chandra, V.; Suganthi, R.V. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Kennedy, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Kulriya, P.K.; Sulania, I.; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Avasthi, D.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Varma, H.K. [Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India); Narayana Kalkura, S., E-mail: kalkurasn@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction in particle size on irradiation leading to nanosized HAp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of surface roughness and bioactivity on irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation at lower fluence transforms the surface hydrophobic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface turned hydrophilic at higher fluence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved drug (amoxicillin) loading on irradiated samples. - Abstract: The effect of swift heavy 100 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ions irradiation was studied on hydroxyapatite (HAp) thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD). The GIXRD analysis confirmed the absence of any phase in the HAp phase due to irradiation. In addition, there was a considerable decrease in crystallinity and crystallite size on irradiation. There was no significant variation in the stoichiometry of the irradiated films. Irradiation seemed to decrease the optical band gap energy of HAp thin films. The surface roughness, wettability and bioactivity were improved on irradiation of the samples. Amount of amoxicillin loading/release increased (10%) in ion beam irradiated (1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup -2}) sample. Irradiated sample showed fast rate of amoxicillin (AMX) release than the pristine. Bactericidal effect was found to increase on irradiation. Surface modified and antibiotics incorporated HAp coated titanium implants may be used to prevent post-surgical infections and to promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

  17. Enhancement of wettability and antibiotic loading/release of hydroxyapatite thin film modified by 100 MeV Ag7+ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Reduction in particle size on irradiation leading to nanosized HAp. ► Enhancement of surface roughness and bioactivity on irradiation. ► Irradiation at lower fluence transforms the surface hydrophobic. ► The surface turned hydrophilic at higher fluence. ► Improved drug (amoxicillin) loading on irradiated samples. - Abstract: The effect of swift heavy 100 MeV Ag7+ ions irradiation was studied on hydroxyapatite (HAp) thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD). The GIXRD analysis confirmed the absence of any phase in the HAp phase due to irradiation. In addition, there was a considerable decrease in crystallinity and crystallite size on irradiation. There was no significant variation in the stoichiometry of the irradiated films. Irradiation seemed to decrease the optical band gap energy of HAp thin films. The surface roughness, wettability and bioactivity were improved on irradiation of the samples. Amount of amoxicillin loading/release increased (10%) in ion beam irradiated (1 × 1012 ions cm−2) sample. Irradiated sample showed fast rate of amoxicillin (AMX) release than the pristine. Bactericidal effect was found to increase on irradiation. Surface modified and antibiotics incorporated HAp coated titanium implants may be used to prevent post-surgical infections and to promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

  18. Monitoring the Use of Antibiotics by the ATC/DDD Method and DU 90%: Observational Studies in Community Health Service Centers in North Gorontalo District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarini Pani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrational use of antibiotics may lead to increase morbidity and mortality. Monitoring of antibiotics was required to support government programs, especially The Department of Health stating the use of antibiotics for non-respiratory diseases pneumonia was less than 20%. The evaluation of antibiotics use in this research applied ATC / DDD methods and DU 90%. The antibiotic used for non-pneumonia ARI were 9 types and the antibiotics contained DU 90% were three types namely amoxicillin 500 mg (2,723 DDD/1000 patients-year, ciprofloxacin (0,378 DDD/1000 patients-day and cefadroxil (0,202 DDD/1000 patients-day. Quantitative data analysis using the ATC / DDD indicated that the most used antibiotic was amoxicillin (500 mg 2723 DDD / 1000 patients-day and the least was amoxicillin (125 mg / 5 ml 1.5 DDD / 1000 patients-day. The effects of short-term use of antibiotic prescribing in primary medical care could increase the resistance. Qualitative studies were needed to determine the pattern of irrational antibiotic use in community health service center and to develop the intervention model.

  19. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  20. [Acute toxicity of antibiotics and anaerobic digestion intermediates in pharmaceutical wastewaters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jun-Yuan; Xing, Ya-Juan; Zheng, Ping

    2012-12-01

    In order to determine the toxicity of antibiotics and anaerobic digestion intermediates on anaerobic treatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters containing antibiotics, the single and joint toxicities of some antibiotics and intermediates to Photobacterium phosphoreum were tested by using the 15-min half inhibitory concentration (15 min-IC50) at pH = 7.00 +/- 0.05. The results showed that the 15 min-IC50 of ethanol, acetate, propionate and butyrate were 19.40, 20.71, 10.47 and 12.17 g x L(-1), respectively, which indicated that the toxicity descended in the order of propionate, butyrate, ethanol and acetate. The 15 min-IC50 of Amoxicillin, Kanamycin, Lincomycin and Ciprofloxacin were 3.99, 5.11, 4.32 and 5.63 g x L(-1), respectively, so the toxicity descended in the order of Amoxicillin, Lincomycin, Kanamycin and Ciprofloxacin. Using equal effect mixing method, the joint toxicity of four anaerobic digestion intermediates, the four intermediates together with Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Kanamycin, Lincomycin individually and all together were investigated, which demonstrated that the first three interactions were additive and the last three were synergistic. The observations have laid a foundation for control and optimization of anaerobic biotechnology for pharmaceutical wastewater containing antibiotics. PMID:23379166