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Sample records for amoxicillin

  1. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi Shahien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of aseptic meningitis due to amoxicillin, and then review the literature on this rare idiosyncratic event which may occur after local or systemic drug administration. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Seven days before admission he had a dental and gingival inflammation. He was treated with two oral doses of 500 mg daily of amoxicillin for one week. The seventh day he awoke with the complaints that prompted hospital admittance. Amoxicillin was stopped 1 day before his admission. From his history we knew of two similar episodes: The first episode was after a dental procedure 3 months before this incident. He had received a 1-week course of postprocedure amoxicillin of 500 mg daily and had similar headache, fever, and chills during the entire course of treatment. He wasn’t admitted to the hospital, because he stopped taking amoxicillin and he felt spontaneous pain relief after taking symptomatic pain treatment. The second episodes was 6 months after his first admission, he had been admitted to our hospital with the same symptoms. Amoxicillin was stopped and changed with intravenous (IV ceftriaxone (CTRX for 10 days due to suspected partial untreated meningitis. The patient improved rapidly within 2 days and was discharged from the hospital. On the basis of these three confirmed episodes of meningitis after recurrent exposure to amoxicillin, with repetitive negative testing for viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial

  2. Dental enamel, fluorosis and amoxicillin

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    I. Ciarrocchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most used antibiotics among pediatric patients for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and specially for acute otitis media (AOM, a common diseases of infants and childhood. It has been speculated that the use of amoxicillin during early childhood could be associated with dental enamel fluorosis, also described in literature with the term Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH, because they are generally situated in one or more 1st permanent molars and less frequently in the incisors. The effect of Amoxicillin seems to be independent of other risk factors such as fluoride intake, prematurity, hypoxia, hypocalcaemia, exposure to dioxins, chikenpox, otitis media, high fever and could have a significant impact on oral health for the wide use of this drug in that period of life. Objective: The aim of this work was to review the current literature about the association between amoxicillin and fluorosis. Methods and Results: A literature survey was done by applying the Medline database (Entrez PubMed; the Cochrane Library database of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL. The databases were searched using the following strategy and keywords: amoxicillin* AND (dental fluorosis* OR dental enamel* AND MIH*. After selecting the studies, only three relevant articles published between 1966 and 2011 were included in the review. Conclusion: The presence of several methodological issues does not allow to draw any evidence-based conclusions. No evidence of association was detected, therefore, there is a need of further well-designed studies to assess the scientific evidence of the relationship between amoxicillin and fluorosis and to restrict the prescription of this drug for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections especially acute otitis media (AOM during the first two years of life. When it is possible can be opportune to use an alternative antibiotic treatment.

  3. Amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat certain infections caused by bacteria, such as pneumonia; bronchitis; gonorrhea; and infections of the ears, nose, ... hives seizures yellowing of the skin or eyes unusual bleeding or bruising pale skin excessive tiredness lack ...

  4. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis in biofilms to amoxicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole......Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole...

  5. Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Caused by Amoxicillin

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    Celalettin Sever

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a severe skin reaction related to drugs and infections, characterized by fever, stomatitis and conjunctivitis. Many drug related TEN cases have been reported in literature but amoxicillin related TEN cases are rare. In this article, a case of amoxicillin related severe TEN in a female patient during treatment of tonsillitis has been reported. The increased use of amoxicillin, especially for control of infection, may be the reason for the increased incidence TEN due to the same drug. The identification of a drug as the cause for the immune related cytotoxic reaction may be difficult if the molecule is not generally known to be a classical cause of this reaction.

  6. Comparative Bacteriological Efficacy of Pharmacokinetically Enhanced Amoxicillin-Clavulanate against Streptococcus pneumoniae with Elevated Amoxicillin MICs and Haemophilus influenzae

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Valerie; Hoover, Jennifer; Singley, Christine; Woodnutt, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000 mg of amoxicillin/125 mg of clavulanate twice a day; ratio 16:1) has been designed, with sustained-release technology, to allow coverage of bacterial strains with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid MICs of at least 4/2 μg/ml. The bacteriological efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanate, 2,000/125 mg twice a day, ratio 16:1, was compared in a rat model of respiratory tract infection versus four other amoxicillin-clavulanate f...

  7. Amoxicillin pulsatile - MiddleBrook: APC 111, APC-111, PULSYS-enhanced amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals (formerly Advancis Pharmaceutical) is developing an improved version of amoxicillin using its pulsatile oral drug delivery technology, called PULSYS. Amoxicillin PULSYS is intended to provide a lower treatment dose, once-daily alternative to currently approved amoxicillin and penicillin regimens for the treatment of adolescents/adults with pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis. If amoxicillin PULSYS is approved, it will be the first and only once-daily amoxicillin therapy approved for use in the US. Regulatory submissions for the treatment of pharyngitis/tonsillitis have been made in the US. Amoxicillin PULSYS is in clinical development for the treatment of pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis due to group A streptococcal infections in adolescents/adults as a tablet formulation. MiddleBrook was conducting clinical development of a sprinkle formulation for children. However, this has been put on hold for financial reasons. MiddleBrook is seeking regulatory approval for this product as a 505(b)(2) product, which is one that is not considered to be a completely new product, but is also not a generic product. It is a product with some differences from a previously approved product and clinical data to support such differences are required; however, the basic safety and efficacy studies may have been conducted by other organisations. In June 2007, Advancis Pharmaceutical was renamed as MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, Inc. MiddleBrook and Par Pharmaceuticals entered a co-promotion agreement for this product in June 2004. Par was to fund future development in exchange for co-exclusive marketing rights and exclusive rights to sell amoxicillin PULSYS. MiddleBrook retained responsibility for the manufacturing programme and also retained all patents and brand names and was responsible for their enforcement. However, this collaboration was subsequently terminated in August 2005 by Par Pharmaceutical. MiddleBrook received the US $4.75 million R&D reimbursement

  8. 21 CFR 526.88 - Amoxicillin trihydrate for intramammary infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of subclinical infectious bovine mastitis due to Streptococcus agalactiae and Straphylococcus aureus (penicillin sensitive). (3) Limitations. Administer after milking... amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 62.5 milligrams of amoxicillin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in §...

  9. 21 CFR 520.88g - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium film-coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... milligrams of amoxicillin and 12.5 milligrams clavulanic acid, or 100 milligrams of amoxicillin and 25 milligrams clavulanic acid, or 200 milligrams amoxicillin and 50 milligrams clavulanic acid or 300 milligrams amoxicillin and 75 milligrams clavulanic acid. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000069 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  10. Microanalysis of amoxicillin, flucloxacillin, and rifampicin in neonatal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, J; Stolk, L M L; Neef, C; Zimmermann, L J I

    2007-12-01

    Simple and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic assays with ultraviolet detection have been developed and validated for the determination of amoxicillin, flucloxacillin and rifampicin in neonatal plasma. Plasma samples were either precipitated with perchloric acid (amoxicillin) or methanol (rifampicin) or extracted with methylene chloride (flucloxacillin). Precision coefficients of variation and inaccuracy were less than 15% for all three assays. Only small sample volumes (20-40 microL) were required, making the assays suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies in preterm and term neonates. The assays have successfully been applied to analysis of amoxicillin, flucloxacillin and rifampicin in previously published pharmacokinetic studies in neonates.

  11. Kounis syndrome associated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid

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    A Shimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kounis syndrome (KS is a life-threatening medical condition that causes severes allergic reaction and acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We describe the case of 56-year-old woman who developed ACS following an anaphylactic reaction to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Immediately after the administration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, she presented a chest pain, cutaneous allergic, hypotension, and ST depression on the electrocardiogram. After the necessary diagnostic test, the final diagnosis was variant I of KS.

  12. Formulation of controlled release gellan gum macro beads of amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, R Jayachandra; Sathigari, Sateesh; Kumar, M Thilek; Pandit, J K

    2010-01-01

    Gellan gum has been reported to have wide pharmaceutical applications such as tablet binder, disintegrant, gelling agent and as a controlled release polymer. Multiparticulate delivery systems spread out more uniformly in the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the local irritation. The purpose of this study is to explore possible applicability of gellan macro beads as an oral controlled release system of a sparingly soluble drug, amoxicillin. Gellan gum beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation with calcium ions. The effect of drug loading, stirring time, polymer concentration, electrolyte (CaCl2) concentration, curing time etc. influencing the preparation of the gellan gum macro beads and the drug release from gellan gum beads were investigated in this study. Optimal preparation conditions allowed very high incorporation efficiency for amoxicillin (91%) The release kinetics of amoxicillin from gellan beads followed the diffusion model for an inert porous matrix in the order: 0.1 N HCl > phosphate buffer > distilled water. Change in curing time did not significantly affect the release rate constant, but drug concentration, polymer concentration and electrolyte concentration significantly affect the release rate of amoxicillin from the beads. The gellan macro beads may be suitable for gastro retentive controlled delivery of amoxicillin. PMID:19863487

  13. Stability of amoxicillin in portable pumps is drug concentration dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlicot, N; Marie, A; Cade, C; Laffon, M; Antier, D

    2011-08-01

    Continuous amoxicillin infusion for deep infection's intravenous treatment is performed using elastomeric portable pumps carried under clothing and requires high doses of antibiotic. Therefore, we evaluated the stability of amoxicillin in those medical devices, with particular focus on both drug concentration and storage temperature. Stability of 20, 40, and 60g/L amoxicillin solutions in 300 mL portable pumps stored at 20 or 35 degrees C was studied by visual examination and drug concentration measurements at T0; T0 + 12 h; T0 + 24 h and; T0 + 48 h. Twenty and 40 g/L amoxicillin solutions were stable over 48 h, with a degradation rate that never exceeded 12% at T0 + 24 h, and 18% at T 0 + 48 h. However, the 60 g/L amoxicillin solution degradation rate was significant (p pump is guarantied over 48 h up to concentrations of 40 g/L. At 60 g/L major degradation of the antibiotic was observed. PMID:21901990

  14. 21 CFR 520.88h - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of amoxicillin with clavulanate potassium equivalent to 12.5 milligrams of clavulanic acid. (b... milligrams (equivalent to 5 milligrams amoxicillin and 1.25 milligrams clavulanic acid) per pound of body....5 milligrams (1 milliliter) (50 milligrams of amoxicillin and 12.5 milligrams clavulanic acid)...

  15. Relation Between Amoxicillin Concentration in Sputum of COPD Patients and Length of Hospitalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; ten Bokum, Leonore; Movig, Kris; van der Valk, Paul; Kerstjens, Huib; van der Palen, Job; Hendrix, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Amoxicillin is a widely used antibiotic in COPD. Little is known about the transfer of amoxicillin into sputum of COPD patients. The objective was to investigate the relationship between the concentration of amoxicillin in sputum in hospitalized COPD patients and length of hospitalization. To be eff

  16. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets. 520.88a Section 520.88a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains amoxicillin...

  17. Pharmakokinetik und Pharmakodynamik der kombinierten Anwendung von Amoxicillin und Omeprazol

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khasch, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: Omeprazole (Ome) with amoxicillin (Amox) has been used to treat Helicobacter pylori infection. It was speculated that omeprazole induced hypoacidity enhances the antibacterial activity of Amox. Limited information exists about intragatric pH and bioavailability of Amox during combination therapy. No data are available about possible effects of the antibiotic on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Ome. This study investigated the...

  18. Enhancement of Amoxicillin Resistance after Unsuccessful Helicobacter pylori Eradication▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Muraoka, Hiroe; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Hirata, Kenro; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    A high rate of resistance (49.5 to 72.7%) to amoxicillin (AMX) was observed in Helicobacter pylori after two or three unsuccessful eradication attempts. Unsuccessful eradication regimens significantly increase resistance to not only clarithromycin (CLR) and metronidazole (MNZ) but also AMX.

  19. Interchangeability of two 500 mg amoxicillin capsules with one 1000 mg amoxicillin tablet after a single oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate if two capsules (Amoxil® capsules, 500 mg/capsule and one tablet (Amoxicare® tablets, 1000 mg/tablet of amoxicillin have similar bioequivalence parameters. For this purpose a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy, male volunteers, divided into two groups of 12 subjects each. One group was treated with the reference standard (Amoxil® and the other one with the generic tablet Amoxicare® , with a crossover after a wash-out period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals and amoxicillin was determined by a validated HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC 0-8 , AUC 0-͵, C max , T max , K e and T 1/2 were determined for both formulations and statistically compared to evaluate the bioequivalence between the two brands of amoxicillin, using the statistical model recommended by the FDA. C max and AUC 0-͵ were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA; no statistically significant difference was observed between the two formulations. The 90% confidence intervals between the mean values of C max and AUC 0-͵ fall within the FDA specified bioequivalent limits (80-125% suggesting that the two products are bioequivalent and the two formulations are interchangeable. Based on these findings it was concluded that the practice of interchangeability between the above formulations to achieve better patient compliance could be followed without compromising the extent of amoxicillin absorption.

  20. Sweet Syndrome Associated with Upper Respiratory Infection and Amoxicillin Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is an uncommon dermatologic eruption characterized by acute onset of painful papules, plaques or nodules on the skin that are red, blue, or violaceous in color. It has been associated with various infections, medications, and malignancies. Here we report the case of a middle-aged male who presents with Sweet syndrome after an upper resipiratory infection and while using amoxicillin. We also review the diagnostic criteria, laboratory testing, and treatment options. PMID:27186450

  1. Acute cholestatic hepatitis caused by amoxicillin/clavulanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, Daniel Oliveira; Melo, Joanderson Fernandes; Bonfim, Alexandre Vidal; Teixeira, Andrei Alkmim; Teixeira, Ricardo Alkmim; Duarte, André Loyola

    2013-01-01

    Amoxicillin/clavulanate is a synthetic penicillin that is currently commonly used, especially for the treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In general, it is a well-tolerated oral antibiotic. However, amoxicillin/clavulanate can cause adverse effects, mainly cutaneous, gastrointestinal, hepatic and hematologic, in some cases. Presented here is a case report of a 63-year-old male patient who developed cholestatic hepatitis after recent use of amoxicillin/clavulanate. After 6 wk of prolonged use of the drug, he began to show signs of cholestatic icterus and developed severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin > 300 mg/L). Diagnostic investigation was conducted by ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, serum tests for infection history, laboratory screening of autoimmune diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the abdomen with bile duct-NMR and transcutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound. The duration of disease was approximately 4 mo, with complete resolution of symptoms and laboratory changes at the end of that time period. Specific treatment was not instituted, only a combination of anti-emetic (metoclopramide) and cholestyramine for pruritus. PMID:24379601

  2. Interchangeability of two 500 mg amoxicillin capsules with one 1000 mg amoxicillin tablet after a single oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, A N; Cortesi, R; Kort, J; Sweileh, W

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if two capsules (Amoxil(®) capsules, 500 mg/capsule) and one tablet (Amoxicare(®) tablets, 1000 mg/tablet) of amoxicillin have similar bioequivalence parameters. For this purpose a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy, male volunteers, divided into two groups of 12 subjects each. One group was treated with the reference standard (Amoxil(®)) and the other one with the generic tablet Amoxicare(®), with a crossover after a wash-out period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals and amoxicillin was determined by a validated HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-8), AUC(0-∞), C(max), T(max), K(e) and T(1/2) were determined for both formulations and statistically compared to evaluate the bioequivalence between the two brands of amoxicillin, using the statistical model recommended by the FDA. C(max) and AUC(0-∞) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA); no statistically significant difference was observed between the two formulations. The 90% confidence intervals between the mean values of C(max) and AUC(0-∞) fall within the FDA specified bioequivalent limits (80-125%) suggesting that the two products are bioequivalent and the two formulations are interchangeable. Based on these findings it was concluded that the practice of interchangeability between the above formulations to achieve better patient compliance could be followed without compromising the extent of amoxicillin absorption. PMID:21218049

  3. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS DISINTEGRANTS ON AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE DISPERSIBLE TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaprakash S; Mathew Ebin P Sovichan; Lalith cherian; Rani S; R Praveen Raj

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a formulation of amoxicillin trihydrate dispersible tablets of 320mg in a low production value, using cheap amoxicillin trihydrate raw materials available in the market, with direct compression or wet granulation method. Amoxicillin trihydrate is a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analogue of ampicillin with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against gram +ve and gram –ve organism. Dispersible tablets are uncoated or film coated tablets intended to...

  4. Amoxicillin concentrations in serum, jaw cyst, and jawbone following a single oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Y; Kaneko, K; Tamura, T

    1982-05-01

    Forty-four patient who underwent enucleation of jaw cysts were administered amoxicillin preoperatively. Specimens of venous blood (44), walls and fluids from periodontal (31) and dentigerous (13) cysts, and jawbone (26) were obtained during the operation and assayed for amoxicillin content. Measurable concentrations were found in all specimens. The levels were higher in periodontal cysts than in dentigerous cysts, and higher in maxillary bone than in mandibular bone. Since amoxicillin can easily and rapidly pass through the epithelial lining according to the change in concentration, the penetration by amoxicillin of blood/cyst wall/cyst fluid probably depends on simple diffusion.

  5. Functional changes of dendritic cells in hypersensivity reactions to amoxicillin

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    C.M.F. Lima

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of dendritic cell (DC involvement in responses to haptenic drugs is needed, because it represents a possible approach to the development of an in vitro test, which could identify patients prone to drug allergies. There are two main DC subsets: plasmacytoid DC (pDC and myeloid DC (mDC. β-lactams form hapten-carrier conjugates and may provide a suitable model to study DC behavior in drug allergy reactions. It has been demonstrated that drugs interact differently with DC in drug allergic and non-allergic patients, but there are no studies regarding these subsets. Our aim was to assess the functional changes of mDC and pDC harvested from an amoxicillin-hypersensitive 32-year-old woman who experienced a severe maculopapular exanthema as reflected in interleukin-6 (IL-6 production after stimulation with this drug and penicillin. We also aim to demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of this method for dendritic cell isolation followed by in vitro stimulation for studies of drug allergy physiopathology. DC were harvested using a double Percoll density gradient, which generates a basophil-depleted cell (BDC suspension. Further, pDC were isolated by blood DC antigen 4-positive magnetic selection and gravity filtration through magnetized columns. After stimulation with amoxicillin, penicillin and positive and negative controls, IL-6 production was measured by ELISA. A positive dose-response curve for IL-6 after stimulation with amoxicillin and penicillin was observed for pDC, but not for mDC or BDC suspension. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of this methodology to expand the knowledge of the effect of dendritic cell activation by drug allergens.

  6. Preparation and Physicochemical Characterization of Amoxicillin β-cyclodextrin Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Bisson-Boutelliez, Catherine; Fontanay, Stephane; Finance, Chantal; Kedzierewicz, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Amoxicillin (AMOX), a penicillin A, belongs to the β-lactam family It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better absorbed, following oral administration, than other β-lactam antibiotics. Its β-lactamase degradation might be prevented by using a molecular [AMOX:β-CD] complex. The aim of this work was to prepare complexes using two methods and then characterize interactions between AMOX and the native β-CD. The extent of complexation in solution has been evaluated by hi...

  7. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pemphigus vulgaris: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Adone; Russo, Teresa; Faccenda, Franco; Piccolo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced pemphigus is a well-established variety of pemphigus, presenting with clinical and histopathologic features identical to idiopathic form. Medical history plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis of drug-induced pemphigus. A large variety of drugs have been implicated in its pathogenesis and they may induce acantholysis via biochemical and/or immune mechanism. We present a case of a 69-year-old woman affected by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pemphigus and discuss its pathogenetic mechanism.

  8. Interchangeability of Two 500 Mg Amoxicillin Capsules with One 1000 Mg Amoxicillin Tablet After a Single Oral Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Zaid A; Cortesi R; Kort J; Sweileh W

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if two capsules (Amoxil® capsules, 500 mg/capsule) and one tablet (Amoxicare® tablets, 1000 mg/tablet) of amoxicillin have similar bioequivalence parameters. For this purpose a randomized, two-way, crossover, bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy, male volunteers, divided into two groups of 12 subjects each. One group was treated with the reference standard (Amoxil® ) and the other one with the generic tablet Amoxicare® , wit...

  9. Amoxicillin Oxidative Degradation Synthesized by Nano Zero Valent Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Yazdanbakhsh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most important groups of pharmaceuticals that benefits humans and animals. However, antibiotics excertion in wastewaters and environment have emerged as a serious risk to the biotic environment, and their toxic effects can harm the organisms. Iron-based metallic nanoparticles have received special attention in regard with remediation of groundwater contaminants. In the typical nZVI-based bimetallic particle system, Fe acts as the reducing agent. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the synthesis and characteristics of nZVI in regard with degrading AMX. Methods: In this study, nZVI nanoparticles were synthesized using the liquid-phase reduction method by EDTA as a stabilizer material. Structure and properties of nanoparticles were characterized by BET, SEM, XRD and EDX analysis. A multi-variate analysis was applied using a response surface methodology (RSM in order to develop a quadratic model as a functional relationship between AMX removal efficiency and independent variables ( initial pH values, dosage of nZVI, contact time and amoxicillin concentration. The four independent variables of solution pH (2–10, AMX concentration (5-45mg/l, contact time (5-85 min and nanoparticles dose (0.25 – 1.25 g were transformed to the coded values. Results: The study results demonstrated that more than 69 % of AMX was removed by nZVI. The optimal AMX removal conditions using nZVI were found as 1.25 g of nZVI, pH 4, contact time of 80 min and concentration of 30 mg/l. Conclusions: The ability of nZVI in degradation of AMX revealed that these materials can serve as a potential nano material with respect to the environmental remediation.

  10. Poly(Propylene Imine Dendrimers and Amoxicillin as Dual-Action Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wrońska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with poly(propylene imine (PPI dendrimers, or derivatives thereof, in which 100% of the available hydrogen atoms are substituted with maltose (PPI 100%malG3. The concentrations of dendrimers used remained in the range non-toxic to eukaryotic cells. The results indicate that PPI dendrimers significantly enhance the antibacterial effect of amoxicillin alone, allowing antibiotic doses to be reduced. It is important to reduce doses of amoxicillin because its widespread use in medicine could lead to the development of bacterial resistance and environmental pollution. This is the first report on the combined antibacterial activity of PPI surface-modified maltose dendrimers and amoxicillin.

  11. Rabeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: Report of an efficacy study

    OpenAIRE

    Onyekwere, Charles Asabamaka; Odiagah, Joan Nwabuaku; Igetei, Rufina; Duro Emanuel, Amancia Olufunmilayo; Ekere, Francis; Smith, Stella

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of a standard triple therapy (comprising rabeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, noting factors that influence the outcome and documenting any adverse events.

  12. Molecular modelling of four penicillins: bencylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Penicillins differ structurally among themselves by the lateral chains. At the same time, they have differences in their pharmacological action that can be associated to modifications included in the betalactamic ring and/or effects localized in the same chains. Making it clear would be a contribution to the search of the most adequate structural and electronic characteristics to design better penicillins. Objective:To compare structural properties, density of the atomic charges and the frontier orbitals of four penicillins: bencylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Method:The molecular structures were optimized with PM3 semiempirical calculi. The molecular properties were calculated according to the Density Functional Theory, at a B3LYP/6-31G(d level. The density of the atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. The effect of the substituents on the properties of the betalactamic ring was evaluated. Results: The structural parameters of the betalactamic ring do not change as consequence of the modifications in the lateral chain linked to carbon 6. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. There are no variations in the density of the positive charge of the carbonylic carbon. Conclusions: The structures and electronic properties of the betalactamic ring, structural basis of these antibiotics, do not have significant modifications among modelled penicillins.

  13. Evidence for neurotoxicity associated with amoxicillin in juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, O; Demir-Ozkay, U; Ilgin, S; Aydin, T H; Akbulut, E N; Sener, E

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for children, and childhood is the period to have the highest risk for toxicity cases including drug-induced adverse reactions. Some neurological adverse effects (anxiety, hyperactivity, confusion, convulsions, and behavioral changes) have been reported related to AMX treatment. In the present study, we aimed to determine the neurotoxic effects of AMX administration at clinically relevant doses in female juvenile rats. AMX was administered in single oral daily doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg for 14 days. According to our results, while AMX administration caused a significant increase in the immobility time of animals, swimming time of these animals significantly decreased. AMX administration significantly reduced the onset of pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. The serotonin levels of brain tissues in the AMX-administered groups were decreased significantly, which is thought to be related to depression. The glutamate levels in brain tissues increased significantly in AMX-administered groups, which is thought to be related to convulsion. Otherwise, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly decreased in brain tissues of AMX-administered groups. In conclusion, AMX administration triggered depression and shortened the time of the appearance of first seizure in juvenile rats. Also, altered brain neurotransmitter levels and increased oxidative stress observed in our study were thought to be the possible underlying mechanisms of AMX-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:26429924

  14. Effects of Low-Dose Amoxicillin on Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, Kevin D; Callahan, Mary T; Shimkevitch, Anton V; Farmer, Jackson T; Endres, Jennifer L; Marchand, Mélodie; Bayles, Kenneth W; Horswill, Alexander R; Kaplan, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies showed that sub-MIC levels of β-lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Here, we investigated this process by measuring the effects of sub-MIC amoxicillin on biofilm formation by the epidemic community-associated MRSA strain USA300. We found that sub-MIC amoxicillin increased the ability of USA300 cells to attach to surfaces and form biofilms under both static and flow conditions. We also found that USA300 biofilms cultured in sub-MIC amoxicillin were thicker, contained more pillar and channel structures, and were less porous than biofilms cultured without antibiotic. Biofilm formation in sub-MIC amoxicillin correlated with the production of extracellular DNA (eDNA). However, eDNA released by amoxicillin-induced cell lysis alone was evidently not sufficient to stimulate biofilm. Sub-MIC levels of two other cell wall-active agents with different mechanisms of action-d-cycloserine and fosfomycin-also stimulated eDNA-dependent biofilm, suggesting that biofilm formation may be a mechanistic adaptation to cell wall stress. Screening a USA300 mariner transposon library for mutants deficient in biofilm formation in sub-MIC amoxicillin identified numerous known mediators of S. aureus β-lactam resistance and biofilm formation, as well as novel genes not previously associated with these phenotypes. Our results link cell wall stress and biofilm formation in MRSA and suggest that eDNA-dependent biofilm formation by strain USA300 in low-dose amoxicillin is an inducible phenotype that can be used to identify novel genes impacting MRSA β-lactam resistance and biofilm formation. PMID:26856828

  15. Electrochemical oxidation of amoxicillin in its pharmaceutical formulation at boron doped diamond (BDD electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneil Quand-Meme Gnamba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, voltammetric andelectrolysis experiments have been carried out on a conductive boron dopeddiamond (BDD electrode in solution containing amoxicillin in itspharmaceutical formulation. The physical characterization of the BDD surface byscanning electron microscopy (SEM reveals a polycrystalline structure withgrain sizes ranging between 0.3 and 0.6 µm. With Raman spectroscopy, BDDsurface is composed of diamons (Csp3 type carbon (Csp3and graphitic type carbon (Csp2. The electrochemical characterization of the BDD electrode in sulfuric acid electrolyte showed a wide potential window worthing 2.74 V. The oxidation of Amoxicillin showed an irreversible anodic wave on the voltammogram in the domain of water stability indicating a direct oxidation of amoxicillin at BDD surface. The treatment of Amoxicillin in the synthetic wastewaters under various constant current densities 20, 50, 100, 135 mA cm-2 on BDD showed that Amoxicillin is highly reducedunder 100 mA cm-2 reaching 92% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODremoval after 5 h of electrolysis. Investigation performed in perchloric acidas supporting electrolyte led to 87% of COD removal after 5 h of electrolysis.Mineralization of amoxicillin occurs on BDD and the chemical oxygen demandremoval was higher in sulfuric acid than in perchloric acid owing to theinvolvement of the in-situ formed persulfate and perchlorate  to the degradation process mainly in the bulkof the solution. The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE presents anexponential decay indicating that the process was limited by diffusion. Thespecific energy consumed after 5h of the amoxicillin electrolysis was 0.096 kWh COD-1and 0.035 kWh COD-1 in sulfuric acid and in perchloric acidrespectively.

  16. Bone Penetration of Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid Evaluated by Population Pharmacokinetics and Monte Carlo Simulation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landersdorfer, Cornelia B.; Kinzig, Martina; Bulitta, Jürgen B.; Hennig, Friedrich F.; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sörgel, Fritz; Gusinde, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Amoxicillin (amoxicilline)-clavulanic acid has promising activity against pathogens that cause bone infections. We present the first evaluation of the bone penetration of a beta-lactam by population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic profiling via Monte Carlo simulations. Twenty uninfected patients undergoing total hip replacement received a single intravenous infusion of 2,000 mg/200 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid before surgery. Blood and bone specimens were collected. Bone samples were pulverized under liquid nitrogen with a cryogenic mill, including an internal standard. The drug concentrations in serum and total bone were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We used NONMEM and S-ADAPT for population pharmacokinetic analysis and a target time of the non-protein-bound drug concentration above the MIC for ≥50% of the dosing interval for near-maximal bactericidal activity in serum. The median of the ratio of the area under the curve (AUC) for bone/AUC for serum was 20% (10th to 90th percentile for between-subject variability [variability], 16 to 25%) in cortical bone and 18% (variability, 11 to 29%) in cancellous bone for amoxicillin and 15% (variability, 11 to 21%) in cortical bone and 10% (variability, 5.1 to 21%) in cancellous bone for clavulanic acid. Analysis in S-ADAPT yielded similar results. The equilibration half-lives between serum and bone were 12 min for amoxicillin and 14 min for clavulanic acid. For a 30-min infusion of 2,000 mg/200 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid every 4 h, amoxicillin achieved robust (≥90%) probabilities of target attainment (PTAs) for MICs of ≤12 mg/liter in serum and 2 to 3 mg/liter in bone and population PTAs above 95% against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in bone and serum. The AUC of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 5 to 10 times lower in bone than in serum, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid achieved a rapid equilibrium and favorable population PTAs against pathogens commonly

  17. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  18. SERUM LEVEL AND PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS OF SINGLE ORAL DOSE OF AMOXICILLIN IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Abdulhafidh Kurji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many pathophysiological processes can affect the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs in people with diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of diabetes mellitus on the pharmacokinetic parameters of amoxicillin administered as single oral dose. Twelve healthy volunteers and twelve diabetic patients were enrolled in the present study. On day 1, a single oral dose of amoxicillin 500 mg was administered orally to all participants at 9:00 am after a 10-hour fasting. Over the following 24 hours, blood samples were taken at frequent intervals and serum amoxicillin concentrations were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography method for assessment of pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The values of Cmax, AUCtotal, AUClast were significantly decreased in diabetic patients compared to healthy subjects. At the same time, Tmax and Kelim. were non-significantly affected compared to healthy subjects, while T½ was significantly increased. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus affects some of the pharmacokinetic values of orally administered amoxicillin, an event that point to the requirement for dose monitoring of some drugs in such cases.

  19. Evaluation of Amoxicillin & Cephalexin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraei AH.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the most important complications after tooth extraction and oral and maxillofacial surgery is transient bacteraemia and prescription of prophylactic antibiotic is necessary to prevent postoperative infections in immunocompromised patients. Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of cephalexin and amoxicillin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets following tooth extraction. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 80 healthy patients subjected to tooth extraction were divided into two groups. Each group received 1 gr amoxicillin or cephalexin and teeth were extracted 30-60-90-120-180 minutes after antibiotic intake. Blood sampling was performed immediately after extraction and concentrations of two antibiotics were measured in microbiology laboratory. ANOVA test and Post-hoc (Duncan test were used for statistical analysis with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The maximum serum concentration was 10.1006 μg/ml for amoxicillin at 120 minutes and 41.5467 μg/ml for cephalexin at 90 minutes after drug intake. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of cephalexin and amoxicillin for Streptococcus sanguis was 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: The mean concentration for amoxicillin was 10 times and for cephalexin was 20 times higher than MIC.

  20. A combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of pyoderma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid was compared with that of amoxicillin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole in an open label, randomized trial in 50 children in each group (total 200 with mild to severe pyodermas. Majority (47% had impetigo. Fifty (25% children had mild pyoderma, 56 (28% had moderate and 94 (47% children had severe pyoderma. Pure growth of S aureus was isolated in 130 (65% children, S pyogenes in 42 (21% and both organisms in 28 (14% children. In mild to moderate pyoderma either of the drug tried was equally effective. In severe pyoderma, 24 of twenty five (96% children receiving amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 18 of twenty (90% children in amoxicillin group, 20 of twenty four (83.3% children in erythromycin group and 13 of twenty five (52% children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure of therapy. Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid was well tolerated in children and there was no significant side effect except mild diarrhoea in two cases (4% which was well controlled by taking the drug with meals.

  1. Development of aminoglycoside and β-lactamase resistance among intestinal microbiota of swine treated with lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jian; Liang LI; Liu, Baotao; Xia, Jing; Liao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yahong

    2014-01-01

    Lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin are commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and infectious disease prophylaxis in swine production. In this study, we investigated the shifts and resistance development among intestinal microbiota in pregnant sows before and after lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin treatment by using phylogenetic analysis, bacterial enumeration, and PCR. After the antimicrobial treatment, shifts in microbial community, an increased proportio...

  2. Safety and Tolerability of Nebulized Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in Patients with COPD (STONAC 1 and STONAC 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, L.C.; Assink, M.D.M.; Kuijvenhoven, J.C.; Saegher, de M.E.A.; Valk, van der P.D.L.P.M.; Palen, van der J.; Brusse-Keizer, M.G.J.; Movig, K.L.L.

    2016-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid were determined in patients with stable COPD and during severe exacerbations of COPD. Nine stable COPD patients received doses ranging from 50:10 mg up to 300:60 mg amoxicillin clavulanic acid and eight patients hospitalised for a

  3. In vitro activity of clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, and ticarcillin against Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, W R

    1986-01-01

    In vitro, growth of Chlamydia trachomatis was not entirely eliminated by 960 micrograms of ticarcillin per ml, 64 micrograms of amoxicillin per ml, 32 micrograms of clavulanic acid per ml, a combination of ticarcillin (480 micrograms/ml) and clavulanic acid (32 micrograms/ml), and a combination of amoxicillin (32 micrograms/ml) and clavulanic acid (8 micrograms/ml). However, a greater than or equal to 99% decrease in the number of inclusions was obtained at concentrations readily attainable in serum. PMID:3707116

  4. Delayed tooth replantation in rats: effect of systemic antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin and tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Weglis Dyanne de Souza; Silva, Cristina Antoniali; Melo, Moriel Evangelista; Silva, Vanessa Ferreira da; Almeida, Melyna Marques de; Pedrini, Denise; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Panzarini, Sônia Regina

    2015-12-01

    Systemic antibiotic therapy (SAT) has usually been recommended after tooth replantation, but its actual value has been questioned. As there are no reports in the literature about its influence on tooth replantation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of systemic administration of antibiotics (amoxicillin and tetracycline) at the different phases of the repair process (7, 15, 30 days) in delayed rat tooth replantation. Ninety Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) had their maxillary right incisors extracted and bench-dried for 60 min. The dental papilla, enamel organ, pulp tissue, and root surface-adhered periodontal ligament were removed, and the teeth were replanted. The animals received no antibiotics (n = 30) or were medicated systemically with amoxicillin (n = 30) and tetracycline (n = 30), and were euthanized after 7, 15, and 30 days. Regardless of the evaluation period, the acute inflammatory infiltrate was less intense and root resorption presented smaller extent and depth in the group treated with amoxicillin. The results suggest that SAT has a positive influence on the repair process in delayed tooth replantation and that amoxicillin is an excellent treatment option. PMID:26332890

  5. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of amoxicillin in healthy and Salmonella Typhimurium-inoculated pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerso, H.; Friis, C.; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    chromatography 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after IM administration. Pharmacokinetic values of amoxicillin in plasma were assessed by use of a l-compartment model with first-order absorption. Results--Inoculation caused diarrhea and increased rectal temperature and WBC count. Absorption half-life was shorter...

  6. Prophylactic antibiotics for hysterectomy and cesarean section: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid versus cefazolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Malik

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Broad spectrum amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was not superior to cefazolin in prevention of post-operative infection when given as prophylaxis in hysterectomy and elective cesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 980-983

  7. The effect of clindamycin and amoxicillin on neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrzycka, Weronika; Moskalik, Aneta; Sieczkowska, Sandra; Manda-Handzlik, Aneta; Demkow, Urszula; Ciepiela, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are threads of nuclear DNA complexed with antimicrobial proteins released by neutrophils to extracellular matrix to bind, immobilise, and kill different pathogens. NET formation is triggered by different physiological and non-physiological stimulants. It is also suggested that antibiotics could be non-physiological compounds that influence NET release. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of clindamycin and amoxicillin on NET release and the phagocyte function of neutrophils. Neutrophils isolated from healthy donors by density centrifugation method were incubated with amoxicillin or clindamycin for two hours, and then NET release was stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). After three hours of incubation with PMA NETs were quantified as amount of extracellular DNA by fluorometry and visualised by immunofluorescent microscopy. The percent of phagocyting cells was measured by flow cytometry. We showed that amoxicillin induces NET formation (increase of extracellular DNA fluorescence, p = 0.03), while clindamycin had no influence on NET release (p > 0.05), as confirmed by quantitative measurement and fluorescent microscopy. Regarding phagocyte function, both antibiotics increased bacterial uptake (43.3% and 61.6% median increase for amoxicillin and clindamycin, respectively). We concluded that the ability of antibiotics to modulate NET release depends on the antibiotic used and is not associated with their ability to influence phagocytosis.

  8. High Dose Ilaprazole/Amoxicillin as First-Line Regimen for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) following standard triple therapy has declined over the past few decades. This study has determined whether high dose dual therapy (PPI and amoxicillin) is adequate for eradicating H. pylori in Korea. Methods. This was an open-labeled study of H. pylori infected treatment-naive patients. Subjects received dual therapy for 14 days: ilaprazole 40 mg tablets given twice a day and amoxicillin 750 mg tablets given 4 times a day. At the end of the therapy, the subjects visited the clinic to confirm compliance and monitor for any side effects. Subjects visited again after 4–6 weeks to confirm H. pylori status through a urea breath test. Results. The cure rate of H. pylori was 79.3% (23 of 29) (95% confidence interval: 61.6–90.2) in the intention-to-treat analysis and 82.1% (23 of 28) in the per-protocol analysis. Compliance rates were high (96.6%) and side effects were minimal and tolerable. Conclusion. A high dose of ilaprazole + amoxicillin was ineffective as the first-line therapy for eradicating H. pylori in Korea. Future studies should focus on intragastric pH measurements and assess amoxicillin resistance. PMID:27413365

  9. Targeted Delivery of Amoxicillin to C. trachomatis by the Transferrin Iron Acquisition Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Jun; Serradji, Nawal; Mouton, Ludovic; Redeker, Virginie; Cornu, David; El Hage Chahine, Jean-Michel; Verbeke, Philippe; Hémadi, Miryana

    2016-01-01

    Weak intracellular penetration of antibiotics makes some infections difficult to treat. The Trojan horse strategy for targeted drug delivery is among the interesting routes being explored to overcome this therapeutic difficulty. Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia develops in a vacuole and is therefore protected by four membranes (plasma membrane, bacterial inclusion membrane, and bacterial membranes). In this work, the iron-transport protein, human serum-transferrin, was used as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery into the bacterial vacuole. Amoxicillin was grafted onto transferrin. The transferrin-amoxicillin construct was characterized by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Its affinity for transferrin receptor 1, determined by fluorescence emission titration [KaffTf-amox = (1.3 ± 1.0) x 108], is very close to that of transferrin [4.3 x 108]. Transmission electron and confocal microscopies showed a co-localization of transferrin with the bacteria in the vacuole and were also used to evaluate the antibiotic capability of the construct. It is significantly more effective than amoxicillin alone. These promising results demonstrate targeted delivery of amoxicillin to suppress Chlamydia and are of interest for Chlamydiaceae and maybe other intracellular bacteria therapies. PMID:26919720

  10. Targeted Delivery of Amoxicillin to C. trachomatis by the Transferrin Iron Acquisition Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hai

    Full Text Available Weak intracellular penetration of antibiotics makes some infections difficult to treat. The Trojan horse strategy for targeted drug delivery is among the interesting routes being explored to overcome this therapeutic difficulty. Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia develops in a vacuole and is therefore protected by four membranes (plasma membrane, bacterial inclusion membrane, and bacterial membranes. In this work, the iron-transport protein, human serum-transferrin, was used as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery into the bacterial vacuole. Amoxicillin was grafted onto transferrin. The transferrin-amoxicillin construct was characterized by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Its affinity for transferrin receptor 1, determined by fluorescence emission titration [KaffTf-amox = (1.3 ± 1.0 x 108], is very close to that of transferrin [4.3 x 108]. Transmission electron and confocal microscopies showed a co-localization of transferrin with the bacteria in the vacuole and were also used to evaluate the antibiotic capability of the construct. It is significantly more effective than amoxicillin alone. These promising results demonstrate targeted delivery of amoxicillin to suppress Chlamydia and are of interest for Chlamydiaceae and maybe other intracellular bacteria therapies.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection in hemodialysis patients: Susceptibility to amoxicillin and clarithromycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selim Aydemir; Sedat Boyacioglu; Gurden Gur; Muge Demirbilek; Fusun Kamber Can; Murat Korkmaz; Ugur Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to amoxicillin and clarithromycin in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and non-uremic controls.METHODS: The subjects with dyspeptic complaints were 33 ESRD patients and 46 age- and sex-matched nonuremic controls who exhibited H pylori on antral biopsy specimens. The two groups were age and sex matched.The H pylori strains' pattern of susceptibility to amoxicillin and clarithromycin was investigated with the agar dilution technique.RESULTS: None of the H pylori strains from either group showed resistance to amoxicillin with the agar dilution method. Twelve (36.4%) of the ESRD group strains and 7 (15.2%) of the control group strains showed resistance to clarithromycin, and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Resistance to amoxicillin does not appear to be an important problem in H pylori-infected ESRD and non-uremic patients in our region. In contrast, the rates of resistance to clarithromycin are high, particularly in the ESRD population.

  12. Safety and Tolerability of Nebulized Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in Patients with COPD (STONAC 1 and STONAC 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam, L C; Assink, M D M; Kuijvenhoven, J C; de Saegher, M E A; van der Valk, P D L P M; van der Palen, J; Brusse-Keizer, M G J; Movig, K L L

    2016-08-01

    The safety and tolerability of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid were determined in patients with stable COPD and during severe exacerbations of COPD. Nine stable COPD patients received doses ranging from 50:10 mg up to 300:60 mg amoxicillin clavulanic acid and eight patients hospitalised for a COPD exacerbation received fixed doses 200/40 mg twice daily. Safety was evaluated by spirometry before and after inhalation. Tolerability was evaluated by questionnaire. Plasma and expectorated sputum samples were assayed for amoxicillin content. Seventeen patients underwent in total 100 nebulizations with amoxicillin clavulanic acid. In this safety and tolerability study no clinically relevant deteriorations in FEV1 were observed. Nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid produces sputum concentrations well above the Minimal Inhibiting Concentration of 90% for potential pathogenic micro-organisms, with low concentrations in the central compartment (low systemic exposure). Based on spirometry and reported side effects, inhalation of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid seems to be safe and well tolerated, both in stable patients with COPD as in those experiencing a severe exacerbation. Levels of amoxicillin were adequate. PMID:26744171

  13. Safety and Tolerability of Nebulized Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in Patients with COPD (STONAC 1 and STONAC 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam, L C; Assink, M D M; Kuijvenhoven, J C; de Saegher, M E A; van der Valk, P D L P M; van der Palen, J; Brusse-Keizer, M G J; Movig, K L L

    2016-08-01

    The safety and tolerability of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid were determined in patients with stable COPD and during severe exacerbations of COPD. Nine stable COPD patients received doses ranging from 50:10 mg up to 300:60 mg amoxicillin clavulanic acid and eight patients hospitalised for a COPD exacerbation received fixed doses 200/40 mg twice daily. Safety was evaluated by spirometry before and after inhalation. Tolerability was evaluated by questionnaire. Plasma and expectorated sputum samples were assayed for amoxicillin content. Seventeen patients underwent in total 100 nebulizations with amoxicillin clavulanic acid. In this safety and tolerability study no clinically relevant deteriorations in FEV1 were observed. Nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid produces sputum concentrations well above the Minimal Inhibiting Concentration of 90% for potential pathogenic micro-organisms, with low concentrations in the central compartment (low systemic exposure). Based on spirometry and reported side effects, inhalation of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid seems to be safe and well tolerated, both in stable patients with COPD as in those experiencing a severe exacerbation. Levels of amoxicillin were adequate.

  14. Photodegradation of amoxicillin by catalyzed Fe3+/H2O2 process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Li; Tingting Shen; Dongbo Wang; Xiu Yue; Xian Liu; Qi Yang; Jianbin Cao; Wei Zheng; Guangming Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Three oxidation processes of UV-Fe3+(EDTA)/H2O2 (UV:ultraviolet light; EDTA:ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid),UV-Fe3+/H2O2 and Fe3+/H2O2 were simultaneously investigated for the degradation of amoxicillin at pH 7.0.The results indicated that,100% amoxicillin degradation and 81.9% chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) removal could be achieved in the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process.The treatment efficiency of amoxicillin and CODcr removal were found to decrease to 59.0% and 43.0% in the UV-Fe3+/H2O2 process;39.6% and 31.3% in the Fe3+/H2O2 process.Moreover,the results of biodegradability (biological oxygen demand (BOD5)/CODCr ratio) revealed that the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process was a promising strategy to degrade amoxicillin as the biodegradability of the effluent was improved to 0.45,compared with the cases of UV-Fe3+/H2O2 (0.25) and Fe3+/H2O2 (0.10) processes.Therefore,it could be deduced that EDTA and UV light performed synergetic catalytic effect on the Fe3+/H2O2 process,enhancing the treatment efficiency.The degradation mechanisms were also investigated via UV-Vis spectra,and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra.The degradation pathway of amoxicillin was further proposed.

  15. Comparative efficacy of novobiocin and amoxicillin in experimental sepsis caused by β-lactam-susceptible and highly resistant pneumococci

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Cerrato, Violeta; del Prado, Gema; Huelves, Lorena; Naves, Plínio; Ruiz, Vicente; García, Ernesto; Ponte, Carmen; Soriano, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    International audience Therapeutic alternatives are needed against infections caused by highly multidrug-resistant . Novobiocin, an old antibiotic, was tested in vitro and in a murine sepsis model against one amoxicillin-susceptible and three amoxicillin-resistant strains [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) 8-64mg/L]. Novobiocin MICs for all strains were 0.25-0.5mg/L. In sepsis, novobiocin and amoxicillin were evaluated at 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg given at 1, 5, 24 and 48h post bacte...

  16. The pharmacodynamic effect of amoxicillin and danofloxacin against Salmonella typhimurium in an in-vitro pharmacodynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Friis, C.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2000-01-01

    The pharmacodynamic effect of amoxicillin and danofloxacin against two strains of Salmonella typhimurium was examined in an in-vitro pharmacodynamic model. For amoxicillin, peak concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 mu g ml(-1) and half-lives (t(1/2) of 3 and 15 hours were evaluated. For danofloxacin peak...... concentrations of 0.25, 0.50 and 1.50 mu g ml(-1) and half-lives of 7 and 15 hours were examined. For amoxicillin both the peak concentration and the half-life influenced the pharmacodynamic effect (P

  17. In vitro and in vivo synergism between amoxicillin and clavulanic acid against ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    OpenAIRE

    Yogev, R; Melick, C; Kabat, W J

    1981-01-01

    Eight strans of ampicillin-resistant beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae type b were studied in vitro for synergy between amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for amoxicillin alone were 6.25 to 12.5 microgram/ml, and for clavulanic acid alone they were 12.5 to 25 microgram/ml. However, seven of eight strains were inhibited by a combination of 0.36 microgram of amoxicillin and 0.36 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. Infant rat models of bacteremi...

  18. The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and spironolactone for treatment-resistant acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Cheryl Bansal; James, William D

    2007-01-01

    In situations where acne has proved resistant to other systemic agents or they are not indicated and isotretinoin is not desired by patients, the authors find amoxicillin, TMP-SMX, and spironolactone, alone or in combination, useful alternatives. In women who have acne, spironolactone can be used, and in patients who have sulfa allergy, amoxicillin can be used. It is important to continue alternate topical therapy along with these interventions to augment the improvement and to assist in the eventual discontinuance of oral medication. All of the authors' patients were using topical therapy concomitantly and, although this may have contributed to improvement, the authors believe the addition of amoxicillin, TMP-SMX, or spironolactone contributes to the majority of improvement. Tetrospective chart analysis provides supportive data for amoxicillin, TMP-SMX, and spironolactone in the treatment of refractory acne vulgaris. PMID:18159900

  19. Influence of clavulanic acid on the activity of amoxicillin against an experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae-Staphylococcus aureus mixed respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G M; Boon, R J; Beale, A S

    1990-01-01

    An experimental respiratory infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae was established in weanling rats by intrabronchial instillation. Treatment of this infection with amoxicillin rapidly eliminated the pneumococci from the lung tissue. A beta-lactamase-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in a similar manner, did not persist adequately in the lungs long enough to permit a reasonable assessment of the therapy, but staphylococcal survival was extended in the lungs of rats infected 24 h previously with S. pneumoniae. Amoxicillin therapy was relatively ineffective against the pneumococci in this polymicrobial infection and had no effect on the growth of S. aureus. In contrast, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid eliminated the pneumococci from the lung tissue and brought about a reduction in the numbers of staphylococci. The data illustrate the utility of this model for the study of polymicrobial lung infections and demonstrate the role of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in the treatment of polymicrobial infections involving beta-lactamase-producing bacteria. PMID:2327767

  20. Cefepime combined with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid: a new choice for the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Ji

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: In contrast to the currently recommended tigecycline-based therapy, cefepime and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination was an effective and economical option to KPC-KP infection in China.

  1. Development of Bilayer Floating Tablet of Amoxicillin and Aloe vera Gel Powder for Treatment of Gastric Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Ranade, Arati N.; Wankhede, Sonali S.; Ranpise, Nisharani S.; Mundada, Mayur S.

    2012-01-01

    Usual treatment for Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer includes a ‘triple therapy’ consisting of two antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole). The objective of this project work was defined with a view to retain the drug in stomach for better antiulcer activity and substituting one of the synthetic drugs in this therapy with a herbal alternative. Hence, aim of the present work was to design and develop a bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin...

  2. beta-lactamase-producing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae fails to protect Streptococcus pneumoniae from amoxicillin during experimental acute otitis media

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, E.; Lundin, S.; Hermansson, Ann; Melhus, Åsa

    2004-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common reason for outpatient antimicrobial therapy. Mixed infections pose a potential problem, since the first-line drug used for the treatment of AOM, amoxicillin, can be neutralized by ß-lactamase-producing pathogens of the upper respiratory tract. To study the effects of a 5-day course of amoxicillin on a mixed middle ear infection, rats were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae alone or in combination with ß-lactamase-producing nontypeable Haemophi...

  3. β-Lactamase-Producing Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Fails To Protect Streptococcus pneumoniae from Amoxicillin during Experimental Acute Otitis Media

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, Eva; Lundin, Susanne; Hermansson, Ann; Melhus, Åsa

    2004-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common reason for outpatient antimicrobial therapy. Mixed infections pose a potential problem, since the first-line drug used for the treatment of AOM, amoxicillin, can be neutralized by β-lactamase-producing pathogens of the upper respiratory tract. To study the effects of a 5-day course of amoxicillin on a mixed middle ear infection, rats were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae alone or in combination with β-lactamase-producing nontypeable Haemophi...

  4. Augmented renal clearance implies a need for increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Pieter A J G; Standing, Joseph F; Barker, Charlotte I S; de Jaeger, Annick; Dhont, Evelyn; Carlier, Mieke; Verstraete, Alain G; Delanghe, Joris R; Robays, Hugo; De Paepe, Peter

    2015-11-01

    There is little data available to guide amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in this pediatric subpopulation. Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) in whom intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was indicated (25 to 35 mg/kg of body weight every 6 h) were enrolled. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, and the clinical outcome was documented. A total of 325 and 151 blood samples were collected from 50 patients (median age, 2.58 years; age range, 1 month to 15 years) treated with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, respectively. A three-compartment model for amoxicillin and a two-compartment model for clavulanic acid best described the data, in which allometric weight scaling and maturation functions were added a priori to scale for size and age. In addition, plasma cystatin C and concomitant treatment with vasopressors were identified to have a significant influence on amoxicillin clearance. The typical population values of clearance for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 17.97 liters/h/70 kg and 12.20 liters/h/70 kg, respectively. In 32% of the treated patients, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy was stopped prematurely due to clinical failure, and the patient was switched to broader-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that four-hourly dosing of 25 mg/kg was required to achieve the therapeutic target for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. For patients with augmented renal function, a 1-h infusion was preferable to bolus dosing. Current published dosing regimens result in subtherapeutic concentrations in the early period of sepsis due to augmented renal clearance, which risks clinical failure in critically ill children, and therefore need to be updated. (This study has been registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as an observational study [NCT02456974].).

  5. Impact of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Amoxicillin on Streptococcus suis Capsule Gene Expression and Inflammatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Haas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent worldwide causing meningitis, endocarditis, arthritis and septicemia. Among the 29 serotypes identified to date, serotype 2 is mostly isolated from diseased pigs. Although several virulence mechanisms have been characterized in S. suis, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections remains only partially understood. This study focuses on the response of S. suis P1/7 to sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin. First, capsule expression was monitored by qRT-PCR when S. suis was cultivated in the presence of amoxicillin. Then, the pro-inflammatory potential of S. suis P1/7 culture supernatants or whole cells conditioned with amoxicillin was evaluated by monitoring the activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes and quantifying pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages. It was found that amoxicillin decreased capsule expression in S. suis. Moreover, conditioning the bacterium with sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin caused an increased activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes following exposure to bacterial culture supernatants and to a lesser extent to whole bacterial cells. This was associated with an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL8, IL-6, IL-1β by macrophages. This study identified a new mechanism by which S. suis may increase its inflammatory potential in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, a cell wall-active antibiotic, thus challenging its use for preventive treatments or as growth factor.

  6. Recurrent drug-induced liver injury (DILI) with ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luís; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Vergara, Mercedes; Casas, Meritxell; Miquel, Mireia; Dalmau, Blai

    2015-12-01

    Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic are two widely used antibiotics due to their high efficacy and few side effects. While the percentage of hepatotoxicity of these antibiotics is low, their frequent use has led to a progressive increase in the number of cases. Both antibiotics have been associated with a wide variety of hepatotoxic reactions, from a slight rise of transaminases to fulminant hepatitis. Once hepatotoxicity secondary to a drug appears, the first step is to discontinue the drug. Physicians may opt to administer an alternative treatment with a different chemical structure. It should be borne in mind, however, that different chemical structures may also cause recurrent drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). We present the case of a patient who consecutively developed DILI due to ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic.

  7. Analysis of Three Penicillin Antibiotics (Ampicillin, Amoxicillin and Cloxacillin) of Several Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ashnagar; N. Gharib Naseri

    2007-01-01

    Penicillin has been the most widely used antibiotic for many gram-positive bacterial infections. In this research the purity of the standard active ingredients of the various dosage forms of three penicillins (Amoxicillin, Cloxacillin and Ampicillin) imported and the purity percentage of the active ingredients in each of the various dosage forms of these drugs manufactured by several pharmaceutical companies of Iran (Kosar, Farabi and Jaber Ibn Hayan) were investigated and determined by HPLC ...

  8. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS DISINTEGRANTS ON AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE DISPERSIBLE TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a formulation of amoxicillin trihydrate dispersible tablets of 320mg in a low production value, using cheap amoxicillin trihydrate raw materials available in the market, with direct compression or wet granulation method. Amoxicillin trihydrate is a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analogue of ampicillin with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against gram +ve and gram –ve organism. Dispersible tablets are uncoated or film coated tablets intended to be dispersed in water before administration giving a homogeneous dispersion. The WHO prefers dispersible dosage form for the elderly and paediatric patients due to its ease in the administration. Amoxicillin trihydrate dispersible tablet was manufactured with the different disintegrants such as maize starch, crospovidone, croscarmellose, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose. The powder blend was evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and hausner’s ratio. After compression the tablets were subjected to weight variation, %drug content, buoyancy studies and in-vitro release studies. The wet granulation was excluded from the formulation due to its high cost if production, direct compression was selected due to its low cost and ease of production. The optimized formulation F10 had showed 99.11% of drug release in 40 min and disintegration of tablet was 25 seconds. The result of FTIR analysis of pure drug alone and drug with excipients there was not showed any physical and chemical interaction. F10 had undergone DTA, which shows the thermal stability of the formulation. The stability studies of optimized formulation F10 at 30◦C / 65%RH, 40◦C / 75%RH did not show any change in tested parameters and release.

  9. Epidemiological and clinical complexity of amoxicillin-clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Oteo, Jesús; Ortega, Adriana; Villar, Macarena; Conejo, M Carmen; Bou, Germán; Aranzamendi-Zaldumbide, Maitane; Cercenado, Emilia; Gurguí, Mercè; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Merino, María; Rivera, Alba; Oliver, Antonio; Weber, Irene; Pascual, Alvaro; Bartolomé, Rosa M; Gónzalez-López, Juan José; Campos, José

    2013-07-01

    Two hundred twelve patients with colonization/infection due to amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC)-resistant Escherichia coli were studied. OXA-1- and inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT)-producing strains were associated with urinary tract infections, while OXA-1 producers and chromosomal AmpC hyperproducers were associated with bacteremic infections. AMC resistance in E. coli is a complex phenomenon with heterogeneous clinical implications. PMID:23637303

  10. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE AND DICLOXACILLIN SODIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariah Markose; K.G. Parthiban

    2012-01-01

    In the present work attempts were made to prepare dispersible tablets of Amoxicillin trihydrate and Dicloxacillin sodium by direct compression technique to enhance patient compliance. The three superdisintegrents used in the study were Crosscarmellose sodium, Crospovidone and Sodium starch glycolate. Tablet batches having superdisintegrents at different concentrations (20,30 and 60 gm) level were prepared. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, thickness, har...

  11. Effects of amoxicillin treatment on the salivary microbiota in children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevic, V; Manzano, S; Gaïa, N; Girard, M; Whiteson, K; Hibbs, J; François, P; Gervaix, A; Schrenzel, J

    2013-08-01

    Amoxicillin is a first-line antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media in children and one of the most commonly used antibiotics for human bacterial infections. We investigated changes in salivary bacterial communities among children treated with amoxicillin for acute otitis media (n = 18), using a culture-independent approach based on pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The control group consisted of children with acute otitis media who were not given antibiotics (n = 15). One species-level phylotype assigned to the genus Streptococcus was identified across all (n = 99) saliva samples. Two additional species-level phylotypes from the genera Gemella and Granulicatella were shared by all (n = 45) samples of control subjects. Amoxicillin treatment resulted in reduced species richness and diversity, and a significant shift in the relative abundance of 35 taxa at different ranks from phylum to species-level phylotype. At the phylum level, prevalence of TM7 and Actinobacteria decreased at the end of treatment, whereas Proteobacteria had a higher relative abundance post-treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that samples from the same control subject taken over time intervals tended to cluster together. Among antibiotic-treated subjects, samples taken before and at the end of amoxicillin treatment formed two relatively well-separated clusters both of which greatly overlapped with samples taken about 3 weeks post-treatment. Our results point to a substantial but incomplete recovery of the salivary bacterial community from the antibiotic about 3 weeks after the end of treatment.

  12. Design and evaluation of controlled release mucoadhesive microspheres of amoxicillin for anti Helicobacter pylori therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Venkateswaramurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop controlled release mucoadhesive microspheres of amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using carbopol 974P, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K4M (HPMC K4M and Eudragit RS 100. The prepared microspheres were subjected to evaluation for particle size, incorporation efficiency, in vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release characteristics. Absence of drug-polymer interaction was confirmed using differential scanning calorimetry analysis and fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. The prepared microspheres showed a strong mucoadhesive property. The polymer concentration influenced the in vitro drug release significantly in 0.1N HCl. The particle sizes of systems ranged between 123±8.35 μm and 524±11.54 μm. Percent drug entrapment and release profiles of amoxicillin trihydrate in 0.1 N HCl were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The percentage drug entrapment and percentage yield of formulations were about 56.71±1.66% to 88.32±0.65% and 39.20±1.62% to 92.40±1.32%, respectively. The stability of the drugs was assessed in 0.1 N HCl. The results further substantiated that mucoadhesive microspheres improved the gastric stability of amoxicillin trihydrate (due to entrapment within the microsphere. From the above results, it was concluded that the mucoadhesive microspheres of amoxicillin trihydrate has feasibility for eradicating H. pylori from the stomach more effectively because of the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time and controlled release of drug from the formulation.

  13. UNUSUALLY STABLE ADDUCT BETWEEN METHANOLYZED AMOXICILLIN OR AMPICILLIN AND THEIR DIKETOPIPERAZINE DERIVATIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosińska, Katarzyna; Frański, Rafał; Frańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin and ampicillin were subjected to methanolysis. As expected, the methanolysis products were observed by HPLC-ESI-MS. Besides these products, diketopiperazine derivatives were also detected. Additionally, unusually stable adduct formed between the products of methanolysis and diketopiperazine derivatives was also identified. Analogical adducts were detected when ethanolysis was performed instead of methanolysis. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of the separated adducts confirmed that the adducts were composed of methanolysis products and diketopiperazine derivatives.

  14. Effects of amoxicillin repeated administration on the hemogram and biogram of sheep

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    Abdelrazzag Elmajdoub

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: These data may suggest that although the side changes caused by amoxicillin are minor in sheep, yet the liver and kidney functions should be monitored during its usage in therapy and it should be used with care for treatment of sheep with renal and/or hepatic impairments; its dosage regimen should be adjusted to avoid its hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 676-680

  15. A New Case of DRESS Syndrome Induced by Sulfasalazine and Triggered by Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Girelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug Rash Eosinophilia Systemic Symptoms (DRESS syndrome is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction characterized by exfoliative dermatitis and maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, fever, eosinophilia, leukocytosis, and involvement of internal organs as liver, lung, heart, and kidney; the disorder starts within 2–6 weeks after taking a drug with an incidence that ranges from 1/1000 to 1/10000 exposures. Fatal cases are reported. The exact pathogenesis of DRESS syndrome is not completely understood, while it is reported that amoxicillin could trigger it in patients who are taking allopurinol, sulfasalazine, NSAIDs, carbamazepine, strontium ranelate, lisinopril, lansoprazole, and minocycline. Amoxicillin could act directly, inducing the reactivation of a viral infection (HHV 6 and EBV with symptoms similar to DRESS syndrome or by reducing the patients’ ability to detoxify the body from substances chronically taken. We describe a case of a patient admitted to our hospital for a DRESS syndrome flared after amoxicilline intake during treatment with sulfasalazine; this combination can activate severe reactions often with an insidious onset that can mimic an infectious disease.

  16. Resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori strains to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Khademi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori resistance to antibiotics has become a global problem and is an important factor in determining the outcome of treatment of infected patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in gastrointestinal disorders patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 260 gastric antrum biopsy specimens were collected from patients with gastrointestinal disorders who referred to Endoscopy Section of the Isfahan Hospitals. The E-test and Modified Disk Diffusion Method (MDDM were used to verify the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in 78 H. pylori isolates to the clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. Results: H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin were 15.3, 55.1, and 6.4%, respectively. In this studyΈ we had one multidrug resistance (MDR isolates from patient with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Conclusion: Information on antibiotic susceptibility profile plays an important role in empiric antibiotic treatment and management of refractive cases. According to the results obtained in this study, H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole was relatively high. MDR strains are emerging and will have an effect on the combination therapy.

  17. Moxifloxacin versus amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in outpatient acute exacerbations of COPD: MAESTRAL results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert; Anzueto, Antonio; Miravitlles, Marc; Arvis, Pierre; Alder, Jeff; Haverstock, Daniel; Trajanovic, Mila; Sethi, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    Bacterial infections causing acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) frequently require antibacterial treatment. More evidence is needed to guide antibiotic choice. The Moxifloxacin in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis TriaL (MAESTRAL) was a multiregional, randomised, double-blind non-inferiority outpatient study. Patients were aged ≥ 60 yrs, with an Anthonisen type I exacerbation, a forced expiratory volume in 1 s clavulanic acid 875/125 mg p.o. b.i.d. (7 days). The primary end-point was clinical failure 8 weeks post-therapy in the per protocol population. Moxifloxacin was noninferior to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the primary end-point (111 (20.6%) out of 538, versus 114 (22.0%) out of 518, respectively; 95% CI -5.89-3.83%). In patients with confirmed bacterial AECOPD, moxifloxacin led to significantly lower clinical failure rates than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (in the intent-to-treat with pathogens, 62 (19.0%) out of 327 versus 85 (25.4%) out of 335, respectively; p=0.016). Confirmed bacterial eradication at end of therapy was associated with higher clinical cure rates at 8 weeks post-therapy overall (p=0.0014) and for moxifloxacin (p=0.003). Patients treated with oral corticosteroids had more severe disease and higher failure rates. The MAESTRAL study showed that moxifloxacin was as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of outpatients with AECOPD. Both therapies were well tolerated.

  18. Bioequiwalence of clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin(1:7) dispersible tablets in healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国新; 代宗顺; 龙利红; 韩颖; 侯淑贤; 吴立

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To study the bioequivalence of Clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin (1: 7) dispersible tablets, a randomized cross - over study was conducted in 18 healthy volunteers. A single oral dose of 1000 mg Clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin (1:7) dispersible tablets (Tested formulation, T) or Augmentin syrup (Reference formulation, R). Concentrations in plasma were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The main paramaters of T were: for Clavu lanate Potassium and Amoxicillin, Cmax: 2. 46±1.11 μg/ml and 18. 81±7. 26 μg/ml, Tmax 1. 12±0. 23h and 1. 30±0. 34h, AUC(0- 6h): 5. 18±2.24 μg * h/ml and 45. 09±14. 53 μg * h/ml, t1/2:1.43±0. 44 h and 1. 09±0.22 h. , respectively. The relative bioavailability of T to R were 96. 5±19. 2 % and 98. 4±26. 1 % , respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the two formulations were bioequivalent.

  19. RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS

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    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1% H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9% to amoxicillin and three (5.5% to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.

  20. Toxic effects of amoxicillin on the photosystem II of Synechocystis sp. characterized by a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoxicillin is one of the widely used antibiotics of environmental concern. This study shows that amoxicillin has toxic effects on the photosynthesis of Synechocystis sp. Its inhibitory effects on photosystem II (PSII) of Synechocystis sp. were investigated by using a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests. The inhibitory effects of amoxicillin on PSII activity of Synechocystis sp. are concentration-dependent. Amoxicillin exposure leads to slowing down of electron transport on both donor side and acceptor side and causes accumulation of P680+. QA- reoxidation test revealed that amoxicillin hinders electron transfer from QA- to QB/QB- and more QA- is oxidized through S2(QAQB)- charge recombination. Analysis of PSII heterogeneity demonstrated that an exposure to amoxicillin increases the proportion of inactive PSII (PSIIX) centers and the proportion of PSII centers with small antenna (PSIIβ). These changes finally result in deterioration of full photosynthesis performance

  1. The influence of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid on the aerobic flora of the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaspolder, F; de Zeeuw, G; Rozenberg-Arska, M; Egyedi, P; Verhoef, J

    1987-01-01

    In a randomized study, 42 patients undergoing extensive maxillo-facial surgery (correction of the position of the mandible or maxilla by using autologous bone transplants) received prophylactically ten-day courses of either flucloxacillin or amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. Patients were comparable with regard to age and type of surgery. During the prophylactic treatment the effect of antibiotics used on the microbial flora of the alimentary tract was studied. Patients receiving flucloxacillin showed increased numbers of Klebsiella spp. isolated from the faeces (59% of the patients versus 19% of the patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid). Patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid showed higher colonization rates of oropharynx with Enterobacteriaceae than patients receiving flucloxacillin (ten patients versus five patients). 60% of those strains isolated from patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid were resistant to this combination, as compared to 20% of gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients receiving flucloxacillin. In 50% of patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, colonization of the gut with yeast occurred, as compared to 18% of patients receiving flucloxacillin. Only one infection leading to a partial loss of the graft was seen in the group of patients receiving flucloxacillin.

  2. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archiel Launch Tancawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n=235 or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n=237 for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7% was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7% in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.

  3. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancawan, Archiel Launch; Pato, Maria Noemi; Abidin, Khamiza Zainol; Asari, A S Mohd; Thong, Tran Xuan; Kochhar, Puja; Muganurmath, Chandra; Twynholm, Monique; Barker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.

  4. 针对阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应分析%Analysis on the adverse effect of amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于博

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨并比较阿莫西林和阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾的不良反应,为临床用药提供参考。方法检索中国期刊数据库,对2005~2013年阿莫西林和阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应的发生率、类型以及性别、年龄差异进行分析。结果阿莫西林所致不良反应共计455例,阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾所致不良反应共计16例;阿莫西林所致不良反应男女比例为1∶1.5,阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾所致不良反应男女比例无差异,两者不良反应均可发生于任何年龄段;阿莫西林所致皮肤过敏反应明显高于阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾(P<0.05);阿莫西林中有2例患者因过敏性休克死亡,而阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾中无死亡病例。结论阿莫西林所致不良反应的发生率和种类均明显高于阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾,因而后者更具安全性。%Objective We aimed to study and compare the adverse of reactions amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and provide reference for clinical medication.Methods We retrieve the Chinese periodical database, analyzed the incidence and type of adverse reactions induced by amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and gender and age from the year 2005 to 2013.Results Adverse reactions caused by amoxicillin occurred in 455 cases and totally 16 cases of adverse reactions induced by amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium.The male to female ratio was 1:1.5 in the amoxicillin induced adverse reactions.Both types of adverse reactions can occur in any age.Incidence of allergic reactions caused by amoxicillin was significantly higher than amoxicillin clavulanic (P<0.05).2 patients died from anaphylactic shock caused by Amoxicillin.Conclusions The incidence of adverse reactions caused by amoxicillin and species were significantly higher than that caused by amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium.

  5. Disposition Kinetics of Amoxicillin in Healthy, Hepatopathic and Nephropathic Conditions in Chicken after Single Oral Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloy Kumar Bhar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen broiler chickens (COBB 400 of 42 days of age weighing 1.8 to 2.0 kg were equally divided into 3 groups, each consisting of 5 birds. Hepatopathy was induced by oral administration of paracetamol while nephropathy was induced by intravenous administration of uranyl nitrate. Kinetic study was investigated in healthy, hepatopathic and nephropathic birds following single oral administration of amoxicillin at 40 mg kg-1. Blood samples were collected at different time schedule. Plasma concentrations of amoxicillin in healthy, hepatopathic and nephropathic birds were 41.90 ± 5.59, 9.93 ± 0.76 and 38.75 ± 6.08 µg ml-1, respectively at 1 hr; 15.34 ± 1.99, 18.57 ± 1.66 and 67.40 ± 2.62 µg ml-1, respectively at 4 hr and 2.03 ± 0.28, 15.54 ± 0.82 and 30.63 ± 1.58 µg ml-1, respectively at 24 hr. Maximum plasma concentration was detected at 1 hr in healthy birds (41.90 ± 5.59 µg ml-1 , at 8 hr in hepatopathic birds (23.51 ± 1.64 µg ml-1 and at 4 hr in nephropathic birds (67.40 ± 2.62 µg ml-1. The drug could not be detected in plasma beyond 24 hr in healthy, 72 hr in both hepatopathic and nephropathic birds. The concentration of amoxicillin was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in most of the samples of hepatopathic and nephropathic birds compared to healthy birds. Significant higher values (P < 0.01 of t1/2 K, AUC, and MRT and lower values of K and ClB in the hepatopathic and nephropathic birds in comparison to healthy birds were observed.

  6. Pharmacokinetic interactions between ilaprazole and clarithromycin following ilaprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin triple therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan CAO; Hai-tang HU; Xiang-hong QIN; Hong-hao ZHOU; Wei ZHANG; Gan ZHOU; Dong-sheng OU-YANG; Hui-zi WU; Kui XIAO; Yao CHEN; Dong GUO; Lan FAN; Zhi-rong TAN

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the drug interactions between ilaprazole,a new proton pump inhibitor,and clarithromycin following ilaprazole,clarithromycin and amoxicillin combination therapy.Methods:Twelve healthy Chinese volunteers were recruited in a randomized,open-label,3-period crossover study.All subjects were administered ilaprazole (5 mg),clarithromycin (500 mg) or a triple therapy,including ilaprazole (5 mg),clarithromycin (500 mg) and amoxicillin (1 g),twice daily for 6 consecutive days.On the 7th day,the drugs were given once,and blood samples were collected and analyzed using a well-validated HPLC/MS/MS method.Results:Following the triple therapy,the peak concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to 12 h (AUC0→12) of ilaprazole were significantly decreased,as compared with the single medication group (Cmax:1025.0+319.6 vs 1452.3±324.6 ng/mL; AUC0→12:9777.7±3789.8 vs 11363.1±3442.0 ng·h/mL).Similar changes were found for ilaprazole sulfone (Cmax:5.9±0.5 vs 9.3±1.7 ng/mL; AUC0→12:201.4±32.1 vs 277.1±66.2 ng.h/mL).The triple therapy significantly elevated the Cmax of clarithromycin (3161.5+702.2 vs 2541.9+476.2 ng/mL).Conclusion:The H pylori eradication therapy with clarithromycin,amoxicillin and ilaprazole may cause pharmacokinetic interactions that decrease the amount of ilaprazole and its metabolites and elevate that of clarithromycin.

  7. Furazolidone,amoxicillin,bismuth and rabeprazole quadruple rescue therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Cheng; Fu-Lian Hu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To compare the efficacy and side effect profiles of three furazolidone and amoxicillin-based quadruple rescue therapies for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori).METHODS: Patients who failed in the H pylori eradication therapy for at least one course were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A received rebaprazole 10 mg + amoxicillin 1 g + furazolidone 100 mg, and bismuth subcitrate 220 mg, twice daily for 1 wk; group B received the same regimen of group A but for 2 wk; and group C received the same regimen of group B, but furazolidone was replaced by furazolidone 100 mg three times daily. To record the side effect profiles at the end of the treatment, H pylori eradication was assessed with 13C-urea breath test 4 wk after therapy. RESULTS: Sixty patients were enrolled including 28 males, and 20 patients in each group. The average age of the patients was 49.2 years, ranging from 18 to 84 years. H pylori eradication rates with per-protocol analysis were 82%, 89% and 90% in the three groups, respectively. Side effects were found in 11 patients, including mild dizziness, nausea, diarrhea and increased bowel movement. None of the 11 patients needed treatment for their side effects. CONCLUSION: One- or two-week furazolidone and amoxicillin-based quadruple rescue therapy with a low dose furazolidone (100 mg bid) for the eradication of H pylori is effective. Extending the antibiotic course to 14 d could improve the eradication rates. 2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of OSN in membrane cascade for purification of the API Amoxicillin

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Susana Cristina Dias Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Química e Bioquímica The present work developed at Imperial College London (ICL) in collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) had the objective of purifying the API amoxicillin containing an initial concentration of 30ppm of the compound 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine (impurity) using an OSN membrane cascade. Project proposal:  Solubility and stability studies of the API in different solvents.  Solv...

  9. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE AND DICLOXACILLIN SODIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah Markose

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work attempts were made to prepare dispersible tablets of Amoxicillin trihydrate and Dicloxacillin sodium by direct compression technique to enhance patient compliance. The three superdisintegrents used in the study were Crosscarmellose sodium, Crospovidone and Sodium starch glycolate. Tablet batches having superdisintegrents at different concentrations (20,30 and 60 gm level were prepared. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for uniformity of weight, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration test and invitro – dissolution study. Tablet containing combination of Crosscarmellose sodium and Crospovidone showed excellent invitro disintegration time and drug release as compared to other formulations.

  10. Moxifloxacin and Azithromycin but not Amoxicillin Protect Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells against Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro when Administered up to 6 Hours after Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, Martina; Albers, Cordula; Möller, Jan-Georg; Dalhoff, Axel; Korfmann, Gisela; Künkele, Frank; Döring, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    We determined the protective effect of moxifloxacin, azithromycin, and amoxicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection of respiratory cells. Moxifloxacin and azithromycin effectively killed intracellular S. pneumoniae strains and protected respiratory epithelial cells significantly even when given 6 h after S. pneumoniae challenge. Amoxicillin was less effective.

  11. [Pharmacokinetic and clinical research on a new antibiotic combination (amoxicillin and flucloxacillin in equivalent-weight dose)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nola, F; Soranzo, M L; Bosio, G; Sachelariu, N; Mastroviti, S

    1977-03-24

    A controlled double-blind biometric and an open clinical trial were conducted to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of a new equal-dose w/w association of amoxicillin and flucloxacillin. The following conclusions were drawn. Both antibiotics were present in high serum levels; those of flucloxacillin were higher and more persistent. Analysis of variance on 89 patients pointed to the superiority of the association by comparison with amoxicillin alone. The clinical study made it clear that the broad and complementary spectrum of the association, its synergy, absence of toxicity and good gastric tolerance make it a valuable and effective therapeutic aid, also in presence of germs that produce beta-lactase.

  12. Different spectrophotometric methods applied for the analysis of binary mixture of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Three different spectrophotometric methods were applied for the quantitative analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixture, namely, ratio subtraction, absorbance subtraction and amplitude modulation. A comparative study was done listing the advantages and the disadvantages of each method. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines and the obtained accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixtures.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after oral administration in recently weaned piglets with experimentally induced Escherichia coli subtype O149 : F4 diarrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.;

    2004-01-01

    Objective-To measure the effect of Escherichia coli subtype 0149:F4-induced diarrhea on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered amoxicillin in affected piglets relative to that of uninfected piglets. Animals-22 healthy 4-week-old recently weaned Danish crossbred piglets. Procedure-12 piglets...... were orally inoculated through gastric intubation with 10(9) CFUs of an E coli 0149:F4 strain and responded by developing diarrhea 12 to 16 hours later. Piglets were dosed with amoxicillin trihydrate solution (20 mg/kg) by gastric intubation. A control group of 10 age-matched piglets without signs of...... diarrhea was dosed similarly. Blood samples were obtained before amoxicillin administration and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after amoxicillin administration. The plasma concentration of amoxicillin was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results-A significant 39% decrease in...

  14. Triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAWAKAMI Elisabete

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Helicobacter pylori infection presents high prevalence in developing countries, but there are few pediatric assays evaluating antimicrobial treatment. Objective - The aim of this study was to investigate Helicobacter pylori eradication rate using a short regimen (7 and 10 days of triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole. Patients and methods - Twenty-five Hp positive patients who presented severe epigastralgia, were submitted to antimicrobial treatment with amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 1g bid, clarithromycin (30 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 500 mg bid and omeprazole (0.6 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 20 mg bid during 7 or 10 days. After 2 months, clinical symptoms were evaluated and gastric biopsies were taken to test Hp eradication. Results - Overall eradication rate was achieved in 16/25 patients (64% - IC(95% = 45-83%, in 11/15 (73% - IC(95% = 51-95% patients who used 10 days therapy course and in 5/10 (50% - IC(95% = 19-81% who used 7 days therapy course. Eradication drugs were well accepted and adverse effects were reported in two patients (8%. Conclusions - This triple therapy regimen had moderate efficacy (64%. The data suggests that 10 days therapy course achieves better eradication rate (73% than 7 days course (50% to treat Hp infection in our population.

  15. High-Dose Amoxicillin with Clavulanate for the Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huei Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study uses the acute otitis media clinical practice guideline proposed in 2004 as a reference to evaluate whether antibiotics doses that are in line with the recommendations lead to better prognosis. The study also attempts to clarify possible factors that influence the outcome. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects and Methods. A total of 400 children with acute otitis media were enrolled. The dosage of amoxicillin was considered to be appropriate when in accord with clinical practice guidelines, that is, 80–90 mg/kg/day. The outcome was defined according to the description of tympanic membrane on medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between antibiotic dosage and prognosis after adjusting for baseline factors. Results. The majority of prescriptions were under dosage (89.1% but it was not noticeably associated with outcome (P= 0.41. The correlation between under dosage and poor prognosis was significant in children below 20 kg with bilateral acute otitis media (odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.02–2.59, P=0.04. Conclusion. Treating acute otitis media in children, high-dose amoxicillin with clavulanate as recommended in the clinical practice guideline was superior to conventional doses only in children under 20 kg with bilateral diseases.

  16. Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin-clavulanate Potassium Comparative Study of Adverse Reactions%阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium cause adverse reactions to compare and research.Methods Select our hospital, 164 patients were divided into observation group and control group, 82 cases in the observation group patients receiving amoxicillin treatment and control group patients received amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium treatment. Treatment of two groups of patients to track and observation. Results All patients experienced varying degrees of adverse reactions, adverse reactions were compared with gender and age, no significant difference (P>0.05). Two groups of patients with various number of cases of adverse reactions, there were significant differences (P0.05)。两组患者出现的各项不良反应例数均存在显著差异(P<0.05)。经治疗,观察组中3例(3.7%)、对照组中1例(1.2%)患者的不良反应对患者疾病产生了显著影响,两组差异显著(P<0.05)。结论阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾比阿莫西林不良反应小,较为安全,值得在临床推广应用。

  17. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin and flucloxacillin following the simultaneous intravenous administration of 4 g and 1 g, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D; Koeppe, P; Heilmann, H D

    1983-01-01

    The combination of amoxicillin and flucloxacillin not only widens the spectrum of pathogenic organisms covered by either of the substances alone; synergy has also been observed, particularly against beta-lactamase-producing organisms. For this reason, the possible interaction of these two penicillins regarding their pharmacokinetics was investigated with respect to therapeutic application. The parameters were calculated on the basis of an open two-compartment model. The highest serum levels of amoxicillin from 551 to 1074 mg/l when 4 g were administered alone, and from 403 to 1133 mg/l when administered together with 1 g flucloxacillin. Flucloxacillin concentrations ranged from 118 to 357 mg/l when administered alone, and from 151 to 226 mg/l in the presence of amoxicillin. Thus, there is no significant difference in the peak levels of either substance when given alone or in combination. The pharmacokinetic parameters of both substances basically do not depend on the presence of the other. A slight decrease was observed in the distribution rate of amoxicillin from the central to the peripheral compartment in the presence of flucloxacillin. Its relevance is questionable, however, since the effect was only minor.

  18. Fast mineralization and detoxification of amoxicillin and diclofenac by photocatalytic ozonation and application to an urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Nuno F F; Orge, Carla A; Ribeiro, Ana R; Faria, Joaquim L; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, M Fernando R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-12-15

    The degradation of two organic pollutants (amoxicillin and diclofenac) in 0.1 mM aqueous solutions was studied by using advanced oxidation processes, namely ozonation, photolysis, photolytic ozonation, photocatalysis and photocatalytic ozonation. Diclofenac was degraded quickly under direct photolysis by artificial light (medium-pressure vapor arc, λ(exc) > 300 nm), while amoxicillin remained very stable. In the presence of ozone, regardless of the type of process, complete degradation of both organic pollutants was observed in less than 20 min. Photolysis or ozonation on their own led to modest values of total organic carbon (TOC) removal (ozone present) a significant fraction of nonoxidizable compounds remained in the treated water (∼15% after 180 min). In the case of photolytic ozonation, the kinetics of TOC removal was slow. In contrast, a relatively fast and complete mineralization of amoxicillin and diclofenac (30 and 120 min, respectively) was achieved when applying the photocatalytic ozonation process. The absence of toxicity of the treated waters was confirmed by growth inhibition assays using two different microorganisms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Photocatalytic ozonation was also applied to an urban wastewater spiked with both amoxicillin and diclofenac. The parent pollutants were easily oxidized, but the TOC removal was only as much as 68%, mainly due to the persistent presence of oxamic acid in the treated sample. The same treatment allowed the effective degradation of a wide group of micropollutants (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, hormones and an industrial compound) detected in non-spiked urban wastewater.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated in newly-hatched chickens and effect of amoxicillin treatment during their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Doménech, Eva; Villagrá, Arantxa; Fenollar, Alejandro; Ferrús, Maria Antonia

    2016-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals is the major determinant for the propagation of resistant bacteria in the animal reservoir. However, other factors may also play a part, and in particular vertical spread between the generations has been suggested to be an important transmission pathway. The objective of this paper was to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from newly-hatched chickens as well as to study the antibiotic pressure effect when amoxicillin was administered during their growing period. With this aim, meconium from 22 one-day-old Ross chickens was analysed. In addition, during their growth period, amoxicillin treatments at days 7, 21 and 35 were carried out. Results showed a high number of E. coli-resistant strains were isolated from the treated one-day-old chickens, and were the highest for β-lactams group, followed by quinolone and tetracyclines. After treatment with amoxicillin, the highest percentage of resistances were detected for this antibiotic compared to the others analysed, with significant differences in resistance percentages between control and treated broilers detected in relation to ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Differences in resistances to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid between control and treated animals were not observed and there was lack of resistance for amikacin and ceftriaxone. These results suggest the possibility of vertical transmission of resistant strains to newly-hatched chicks from parent flocks, and seem to indicate that the treatment with amoxicillin increased the resistance of E. coli to other antibiotics. PMID:27035748

  20. Outbreak of amoxicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b: variable number of tandem repeats as novel molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); W.J. Melchers; C. IJsseldijk; L. Nohlmans; J.F. Meis; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAn outbreak caused by amoxicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b was noted among patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since infections were clustered in time and place, an ongoing outbreak was suspected. The spread of the s

  1. EFFECT OF HYDROPHILIC AND HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC MATTER ON AMOXICILLIN AND CEPHALEXIN RESIDUALS REJECTION FROM WATER BY NANOFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.Zazouli, M.Ulbricht, S. Nasseri, H. Susanto,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics such as amoxicillin and cephalexin are a group of pharmaceutical compounds in human medicine practice that have been entered in water bodies. Presence of these compounds in the environment has raised concerns regarding the toxicity to aquatic organisms and the emergence of strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Removal of these substances before entering the aquatic environment as well as water reuse plant is very important. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM on the removal efficiency of cephalexin and amoxicillin, by using two different commercially available composite NF membranes (TFC-SR2 and TFC-SR3. In addition, the effect of NOM fractions on retention mechanism and permeates flux behavior was studied. Amoxicillin and cephalexin were used as models of antibiotics; alginate and humic acid were used as models of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of NOM, respectively. It was observed that the rejection and permeate flux of amoxicillin and cephalexin were influenced by the membrane characteristics and properties of NOM. The results showed that as the alginate proportion was increased, the rejection improved. The permeate flux decreased with increasing alginate ratio. It was observed that the rejections of amoxicillin and cephalexin in TFC-SR2 were >97.3% and >95.8% in all experiments, respectively. In TFC-SR3, the rejection percentage were (95.9%-100% and (86.1%-96.3%, respectively. Alginate and humic acid had synergistic effect on flux decline. In other words, increasing alginate concentration increased the rate and extent of flux reduction.

  2. Hollow-fiber pharmacodynamic studies and mathematical modeling to predict the efficacy of amoxicillin for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis in pregnant women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Arnold; Vanscoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G L

    2013-12-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ≥94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of 1.75 μg/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children. PMID:24041894

  3. Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties, and Antimicrobial Studies of Iron (III Complexes of Ciprofloxacin, Cloxacillin, and Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian I. Eze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (III complexes of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and cloxacillin were synthesized and their aqueous solubility profiles, relative stabilities, and antimicrobial properties were evaluated. The complexes showed improved aqueous solubility when compared to the corresponding ligands. Relative thermal and acid stabilities were determined spectrophotometrically and the results showed that the complexes have enhanced thermal and acid stabilities when compared to the pure ligands. Antimicrobial studies showed that the complexes have decreased activities against most of the tested microorganisms. Ciprofloxacin complex, however, showed almost the same activity as the corresponding ligand. Job’s method of continuous variation suggested 1 : 2 metals to ligand stoichiometry for ciprofloxacin complex but 1 : 1 for cloxacillin complex.

  4. Kounis syndrome secondary to simultaneous oral amoxicillin and parenteral ampicillin use in a young man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezgin, Tahir; Geçmen, Çetin; Özkan, Birol; Alici, Gökhan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Kargin, Ramazan; Esen, Ali Metin

    2013-03-01

    The concurrence of acute coronary syndrome with allergy or hypersensitivity as well as with anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions is increasingly encountered in daily clinical practice. There are several reports associating mast cell activation with acute cardiovascular events in adults. This was first described by Kounis as 'allergic angina syndrome',progressing to 'allergic myocardial infarction'. The main mechanism proposed is the vasospasm of coronary arteries. We present a case of a 28-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with thoracic pain and dyspnoea. The symptoms recurred after simultaneous use of 1 g amoxicillin/clavulanic acid orally and 1 g ampicillin/sulbactam parenterally for tonsillitis the night before presentation and on the morning of admission. PMID:23152096

  5. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin administered in drinking water to recently weaned 3- to 4-week-old pigs with diarrhea experimentally induced by Escherichia coli O149 : F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.;

    2006-01-01

    Objective-To measure effects of Escherichia coli 0149:F4-induced diarrhea on water consumption and pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after administration in drinking water. Animals-24 recently weaned 24- to 28-day-old crossbred pigs. Procedure-10 pigs were inoculated with E coli O149:F4; all 10 pigs......%, respectively. The AUC of amoxicillin on the second day of medication for diarrheic pigs did not differ significantly from that of control pigs on the first day of medication. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-E coli-induced diarrhea reduced the AUC of amoxicillin and time that plasma concentration...... of amoxicillin may be appropriate for administration in drinking water during a 4-hour period on the first day that pigs have diarrhea attributable to E coli 0149:F4....

  6. Hollow-Fiber Pharmacodynamic Studies and Mathematical Modeling To Predict the Efficacy of Amoxicillin for Anthrax Postexposure Prophylaxis in Pregnant Women and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Arnold; VanScoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G L

    2013-01-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharma...

  7. Sensitivity of clinical isolates from German hospitals to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin) compared with other antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, J; Klietmann, W; Nösner, K; Rolinson, G N; Johnsen, J

    1988-01-01

    17,244 pathogens isolated from clinical specimens of 24 hospitals in the Moers area (North-Rhine Westphalia, FRG) were tested in regard to their susceptibility to Augmentin (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). For this purpose, minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by use of microbroth dilution technique. 80% of Gram-negative, 98% of Gram-positive and 97% of anaerobic isolates were susceptible to Augmentin (breakpoint 4 mg/l amoxicillin in the presence of 2.5 mg/l clavulanic acid). In a second part of the study the susceptibility to Augmentin of 4.137 Gram-negative and 10.958 Gram-positive pathogens was compared to their sensitivity against benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin, mezlocillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, fusidic acid, ampicillin, cefaclor and doxycyclin.

  8. Fast mineralization and detoxification of amoxicillin and diclofenac by photocatalytic ozonation and application to an urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Nuno F F; Orge, Carla A; Ribeiro, Ana R; Faria, Joaquim L; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, M Fernando R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-12-15

    The degradation of two organic pollutants (amoxicillin and diclofenac) in 0.1 mM aqueous solutions was studied by using advanced oxidation processes, namely ozonation, photolysis, photolytic ozonation, photocatalysis and photocatalytic ozonation. Diclofenac was degraded quickly under direct photolysis by artificial light (medium-pressure vapor arc, λ(exc) > 300 nm), while amoxicillin remained very stable. In the presence of ozone, regardless of the type of process, complete degradation of both organic pollutants was observed in less than 20 min. Photolysis or ozonation on their own led to modest values of total organic carbon (TOC) removal (micropollutants (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, hormones and an industrial compound) detected in non-spiked urban wastewater. PMID:26397450

  9. Development of aminoglycoside and β-lactamase resistance in intestinal microbiota of swine treated with lincomycin, chlorotetracycline and amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eSun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin are commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and infectious disease prophylaxis in swine production. In this study, we investigated the shifts and resistance development among intestinal microbiota in pregnant sows before and after lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin treatment by using phylogenetic analysis, bacterial enumeration, and PCR. After the antimicrobial treatment, shifts in microbial community, an increased proportion of resistant bacteria, and genes related to antimicrobial resistance as compared to the day before antimicrobial administration (day 0 were observed. Importantly, a positive correlation between antimicrobial resistance gene expression in different categories, especially those encoding aminoglycoside and β-lactamase and antimicrobial resistance, was observed. These findings demonstrate an important role of antimicrobial usage in animals in the development of antimicrobial resistance, and support the notion that prudent use of antimicrobials in swine is needed to reduce the risk of the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR zoonotic pathogens.

  10. Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid vs ceftazidime in the surgical extraction of impacted third molar: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisalli, U; Lalli, C; Cerone, L; Maida, S; Manzoli, L; Serra, E; Dolci, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness and the side effects of two different drugs, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid vs ceftazidime, used as antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical extraction of third molars and to demonstrate that the use of second choice antibiotic has no significant advantages in comparison with a first choice antibiotic. One hundred and seven patients with impacted third molar were selected and divided into two groups: amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were administered to group 1 and ceftazidime to group 2 for five days after surgery and we observed the postoperative period. The statistical analysis showed no differences between the two groups which lead to the conclusion that there is no indication to routinely administrate intramuscular second-choice antibiotic prophylatic therapy (ceftazidime) in case of surgical extraction of the third molar.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of chitosan-poly (acrylic acid hydrogels as stomach specific delivery for amoxicillin and metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Yadav K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to develop stomach specific delivery systems for amoxicillin and metronidazole using chitosan and poly(acrylic acid hydrogels. Chitosan and poly(acrylic acid hydrogels were prepared with different composition of copolymers. The hydrogels were evaluated for swelling studies, mucoadhesive studies, in vitro drug release, scanning electron microscopic and FTIR analysis. The effect of chitosan and poly (acrylic acid on swelling and in vitro drug release was carried out. The n value calculated was < 0.5 for all the formulations containing amoxicillin and metronidazole indicating Fickian diffusion mechanism. The hydrogels with chitosan and poly (acrylic acid ratio of 0.25:1 showed greater mucoadhesive property, maximum swelling and complete release of drugs, hence can be used for stomach specific delivery of drugs.

  12. Influence of clavulanic acid on the activity of amoxicillin against an experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae-Staphylococcus aureus mixed respiratory infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G.M; Boon, R J; Beale, A S

    1990-01-01

    An experimental respiratory infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae was established in weanling rats by intrabronchial instillation. Treatment of this infection with amoxicillin rapidly eliminated the pneumococci from the lung tissue. A beta-lactamase-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in a similar manner, did not persist adequately in the lungs long enough to permit a reasonable assessment of the therapy, but staphylococcal survival was extended in the lungs of r...

  13. Effects of packaging and storage conditions on the quality of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid – an analysis of Cambodian samples

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Hatanaka, Kirara; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Casas, Lidia Cecilia Cadena; Yoshida, Naoko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kazuko

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of substandard and degraded medicines is a major public health problem in developing countries such as Cambodia. A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the quality of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid preparations under tropical conditions in a developing country. Methods Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid tablets were obtained from outlets in Cambodia. Packaging condition, printed information, and other sources of information were examined. The samples were tested for quantity...

  14. Newly designed silver coated-magnetic, monodisperse polymeric microbeads as SERS substrate for low-level detection of amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibar, Güneş; Topal, Ahmet Emin; Dana, Aykutlu; Tuncel, Ali

    2016-09-01

    We report the preparation of silver-coated magnetic polymethacrylate core-shell nanoparticles for use in surface-enhanced Raman scattering based drug detection. Monodisperse porous poly (mono-2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl succinate-co-glycerol dimethacrylate), poly (MMES-co-GDMA) microbeads of ca. 5 μm diameter were first synthesized through a multistage microsuspension polymerization technique to serve as a carboxyl-bearing core region. Microspheres were subsequently magnetized by the co-precipitation of ferric ions, aminated through the surface hydroxyl groups and decorated with Au nanoparticles via electrostatic attraction. An Ag shell was then formed on top of the Au layer through a seed-mediated growth process, resulting in micron-sized monodisperse microbeads that exhibit Raman enhancement effects due to the roughness of the Ag surface layer. The core-shell microspheres were used as a new substrate for the detection of amoxicillin at trace concentrations up to 10-8 M by SERS. The proposed SERS platform can be evaluated as a useful tool for the follow-up amoxicillin pollution and low-level detection of amoxicillin in aqueous media.

  15. Late-onset Rash in Patients with Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis Treated with Amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We observed late-onset rashes in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Of 1028 patients with GAS pharyngitis, which was principally treated with amoxicillin, we evaluated those who developed a late-onset rash and excluded those with scarlet fever alone. Twenty-one patients developed a rash (2.0%, 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.1%), 7 to 20 days (median, 8 days) after GAS pharyngitis onset. The rashes were characterized by maculopapules, which increased in size with coalescence and some developing into plaques, with a symmetrical distribution with a propensity for the extremities, including the palms and soles. The clinical courses of the patients were good, and the rashes subsided within 14 days. A non-immediate reaction to β-lactams, which usually manifests as a maculopapular rash, is a possible cause in our patients, however, repeated courses of amoxicillin in 3 patients did not induce the rash. The underlying mechanism of the late-onset rash after GAS pharyngitis with amoxicillin treatment remains unclear. PMID:26734124

  16. Late-onset rash in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis treated with amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Kimura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed late-onset rashes in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS pharyngitis. Of 1028 patients with GAS pharyngitis, which was principally treated with amoxicillin, we evaluated those who developed a late-onset rash and excluded those with scarlet fever alone. Twenty-one patients developed a rash (2.0%, 95% confidence interval, 1.3- 3.1%, 7 to 20 days (median, 8 days after GAS pharyngitis onset. The rashes were characterized by maculopapules, which increased in size with coalescence and some developing into plaques, with a symmetrical distribution with a propensity for the extremities, including the palms and soles. The clinical courses of the patients were good, and the rashes subsided within 14 days. A non-immediate reaction to β-lactams, which usually manifests as a maculopapular rash, is a possible cause in our patients, however, repeated courses of amoxicillin in 3 patients did not induce the rash. The underlying mechanism of the late-onset rash after GAS pharyngitis with amoxicillin treatment remains unclear.

  17. Removal of amoxicillin and cefuroxime axetil by advanced membranes technology, activated carbon and micelle-clay complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Mohammad; Al-Rimawi, Fuad; Dajani, Khuloud Jamal Khayyat; Khamis, Mustafa; Nir, Shlomo; Karaman, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    Two antibacterials, amoxicillin trihydrate and cefuroxime axetil spiked into wastewater were completely removed by sequential wastewater treatment plant's membranes, which included activated sludge, ultrafiltration (hollow fibre and spiral wound membranes with 100 and 20 kDa cut-offs), activated carbon column and reverse osmosis. Adsorption isotherms in synthetic water which employed activated carbon and micelle-clay complex (octadecyltrimethylammonium-montmorillonite) as adsorbents fitted the Langmuir equation. Qmax of 100 and 90.9 mg g(-1), and K values of 0.158 and 0.229 L mg(-1) were obtained for amoxicillin trihydrate using activated carbon and micelle-clay complex, respectively. Filtration of antibacterials in the ppm range, which yielded variable degrees of removal depending on the volumes passed and flow rates, was simulated and capacities for the ppb range were estimated. Stability study in pure water and wastewater revealed that amoxicillin was totally stable for one month when kept at 37°C, whereas cefuroxime axetil underwent slow hydrolysis to cefuroxime.

  18. Development of bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and Aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Arati N; Wankhede, Sonali S; Ranpise, Nisharani S; Mundada, Mayur S

    2012-12-01

    Usual treatment for Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer includes a 'triple therapy' consisting of two antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole). The objective of this project work was defined with a view to retain the drug in stomach for better antiulcer activity and substituting one of the synthetic drugs in this therapy with a herbal alternative. Hence, aim of the present work was to design and develop a bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and Aloe vera gel powder for the treatment of peptic ulcer. A. vera gel powder is used for its cytoprotective action. Bilayer floating tablets were prepared by applying direct compression technique. The proportion of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was adjusted to get the least possible lag time with good matrix integrity and total floating time. Polymer concentration was adjusted to get the maximum release in 8 h. The formulation was developed using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M and HPMC K100M in a ratio of 85:15 along with 1:4 ratio of effervescent agents was found to give floating lag time of less than 1 min with total floating time of more than 8 h and 97.0% drug release in 8 h. In vivo study in rats meets the requirement of antiulcer activity for bilayer tablet in comparison to single amoxicillin as standard. PMID:23135966

  19. Late-onset Rash in Patients with Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis Treated with Amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masahiko

    2015-12-01

    We observed late-onset rashes in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Of 1028 patients with GAS pharyngitis, which was principally treated with amoxicillin, we evaluated those who developed a late-onset rash and excluded those with scarlet fever alone. Twenty-one patients developed a rash (2.0%, 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.1%), 7 to 20 days (median, 8 days) after GAS pharyngitis onset. The rashes were characterized by maculopapules, which increased in size with coalescence and some developing into plaques, with a symmetrical distribution with a propensity for the extremities, including the palms and soles. The clinical courses of the patients were good, and the rashes subsided within 14 days. A non-immediate reaction to β-lactams, which usually manifests as a maculopapular rash, is a possible cause in our patients, however, repeated courses of amoxicillin in 3 patients did not induce the rash. The underlying mechanism of the late-onset rash after GAS pharyngitis with amoxicillin treatment remains unclear. PMID:26734124

  20. Simultaneous diffuse reflectance infrared determination of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin using multivariate calibration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Aline Lima Hermes; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Ferrão, Marco Flores; da Silva, Fabiana Ernestina Barcellos; Müller, Edson Irineu; Flores, Erico Marlon de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of clavulanic acid (CA) and amoxicillin (AMO) in commercial tablets was developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and multivariate calibration. Twenty-five samples (10 commercial and 15 synthetic) were used as a calibration set and 15 samples (10 commercial and 5 synthetic) were used for a prediction set. Calibration models were developed using partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS), and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms. The best algorithm for CA determination was siPLS model with spectra divided in 30 intervals and combinations of 2 intervals. This model showed a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 5.1 mg g(-1). For AMO determination, the best siPLS model was obtained with spectra divided in 10 intervals and combinations of 4 intervals. This model showed a RMSEP of 22.3 mg g(-1). The proposed method was considered as a suitable for the simultaneous determination of CA and AMO in commercial pharmaceuticals products.

  1. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Yun; Huh, Wooseong; Jung, Jin Ah; Yoo, Hye Min; Ko, Jae-Wook; Kim, Jung-Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is mainly metabolized via glucuronide, which is hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and undergoes enterohepatic circulation. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) administration leads to decreased levels of β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, suggesting that these antibiotics could interrupt enterohepatic circulation and thereby alter the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AMC on the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This was an open-label, two-treatment, one-sequence study in 16 healthy volunteers. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment VPA, in which a single dose of VPA 500 mg was administered, and treatment AMC + VPA, in which multiple doses of AMC 500/125 mg were administered three times daily for 7 days and then a single dose of VPA was administered. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Systemic exposures and peak concentrations of VPA were slightly lower with treatment AMC + VPA than with treatment VPA (AUClast, 851.0 h·mg/L vs 889.6 h·mg/L; C max, 52.1 mg/L vs 53.0 mg/L). There were no significant between-treatment effects on pharmacokinetics (95% confidence interval [CI]) of AUClast and C max (95.7 [85.9-106.5] and 98.3 [91.6-105.6], respectively). Multiple doses of AMC had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of VPA; thus, no dose adjustment is necessary.

  2. Levofloxacin/amoxicillin-based schemes vs quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in second-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Simona; Fini, Lucia; Daoud, Yayha; Grizzi, Fabio; Gasbarrini, Antonio; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Renzo, Laura; McCartney, Sara; Bloom, Stuart

    2012-10-28

    Worldwide prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is approximately 50%, with the highest being in developing countries. We compared cure rates and tolerability (SE) of second-line anti-H. pylori levofloxacin/amoxicillin (LA)-based triple regimens vs standard quadruple therapy (QT). An English language literature search was performed up to October 2010. A meta-analysis was performed including randomized clinical trials comparing 7- or 10-d LA with 7-d QT. In total, 10 articles and four abstracts were identified. Overall eradication rate in LA was 76.5% (95% CI: 64.4%-97.6%). When only 7-d regimens were included, cure rate was 70.6% (95% CI: 40.2%-99.1%), whereas for 10-d combinations, cure rate was significantly higher (88.7%; 95% CI: 56.1%-109.9%; P therapy than QT (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.85; P = 0.02). A higher rate of side effects was reported in Asian patients who received QT. Our findings support the use of 10-d LA as a simple second-line treatment for H. pylori eradication with an excellent eradication rate and tolerability. The optimal second-line alternative scheme might differ among countries depending on quinolone resistance.

  3. Floating mucoadhesive alginate beads of amoxicillin trihydrate: A facile approach for H. pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanjoy Kumar; De, Pintu Kumar; De, Arnab; Ojha, Souvik; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Samanta, Amalesh

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the design of sunflower oil entrapped floating and mucoadhesive beads of amoxicillin trihydrate using sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as matrix polymers and chitosan as coating polymer to localize the antibiotic at the stomach site against Helicobacter pylori. Beads prepared by ionotropic gellation technique were evaluated for different physicochemical, in-vitro and in-vivo properties. Beads of all batches were floated for >24h with a maximum lag time of 46.3±3.2s. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the beads were spherical in shape with few oil filled channels distributed throughout the surfaces and small pocket structures inside the matrix confirming oil entrapment. Prepared beads showed good mucoadhesiveness of 75.7±3.0% to 85.0±5.5%. The drug release profile was best fitted to Higuchi model with non fickian driven mechanism. The optimized batch showed 100% Helicobacter pylori growth inhibition in 15h in in-vitro culture. Furthermore, X-ray study in rabbit stomach confirmed the gastric retention of optimized formulation. The results exhibited that formulated beads may be preferred to localize the antibiotic in the gastric region to allow more availability of antibiotic at gastric mucus layer acting on Helicobacter pylori, thereby improving the therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27177460

  4. Amoxicillin Separation from Pharmaceutical Wastewater by High Permeability Polysulfone Nanofiltration Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Derakhsheshpoor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high permeability flat sheet polysulfone nanofiltration membranes were prepared for amoxicillin (AMX recovery from pharmaceutical wastewater. Membrane fabrication includes two steps: raw ultrafiltration membrane synthesis by phase inversion method and nanaofiltration membrane synthesis by surface photopolymerization. Raw ultrafiltration membranes were synthesized using different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG as pore former and different coagulation bath temperatures (CBTs. The synthesized ultrafiltration membranes were modified using UV-assisted polymerization technique and their performance in the separation of AMX at different pHs, were studied. The results showed that the more irradiation time, the smaller surface pore size. Moreover, the membranes made with higher molecular weight of PEG and coagulation bath temperatures were more susceptible for UV-modification at these conditions; fabricated membranes had higher flux as well as relatively high AMX separation. Moreover, pH enhancement increased AMX rejection by 85%. The effect of irradiation on membrane surface morphology was studied by SEM surface images and the morphological effects of pore former and coagulation bath temperatures on membrane structure were confirmed by SEM cross section images. A fairly comprehensive discussion about the effects of PEG, coagulation bath temperature and irradiation time on membrane structure and AMX recovery performance was represented in this study.

  5. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-Induced Round Bodies of In Vitro Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10–20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under experimental stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that appear resistant in vitro to customary first-line antibiotics for Lyme disease. To identify more effective drugs with activity against the round body form of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by exposure to amoxicillin (50 μg/ml) and then screened the Food and Drug Administration drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven individual drugs scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. In this amoxicillin-induced round body model, some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine also displayed enhanced activity which was similar to a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters not exposure to amoxicillin. Additional candidate drugs active against round bodies identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against amoxicillin-induced round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi

  6. Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography: Mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Quantitative analysis of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in biological matrices requires sensitive and specific methods which allow determination of therapeutic concentration in μg/mL range. Analytical methods for determination of their concentrations in body fluids described in literature include high performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV detector (HPLC-UV and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS method which could be used for the spectral identification and quantification of the low concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma. Method. A sensitive and specific UPLC/MS method for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid determination was developed in this study. The samples were taken from the adult healthy volunteers receiving per os one tablet of amoxicillin (875 mg in combination with clavulanic acid (125 mg. Results. Plasma samples were pretreated by direct deproteinization with perchloric acid. Quantification limit of 0.01 μg/ml for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was achieved. The method was reproducible day by day (RSD < 7 %. Analytical recoveries for amoxicillin ranged from 98.82% to 100.9% (for concentrations of 1, 5 and 20 μg/mL, and recoveries for clavulanic acid were 99,89% to 100.1% (for concentrations of 1, 2 and 5 μg/mL. This assay was successfully applied to a pilot pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers after a single-oral administration of amoxicillin/ clavulanic combination. The determined plasma concentrations of both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were in the range of the expected values upon the literature data for HPLC-UV and LC-MS methods. Conclusion. The described method provided a few advantages comparing with LC/MS-MS method. The method is faster using running time of 5 minute, has lower limit of quantification (LOQ and it

  7. Improving Drug Loading of Mucosal Solvent Cast Films Using a Combination of Hydrophilic Polymers with Amoxicillin and Paracetamol as Model Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Boateng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent cast mucosal films with improved drug loading have been developed by combining carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, sodium alginate (SA, and carrageenan (CAR using paracetamol and amoxicillin as model drugs and glycerol (GLY as plasticizer. Films were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, folding resilience, swelling capacity, mucoadhesivity, and drug dissolution studies. SA, CMC, and GLY (5 : 3 : 6 films showed maximum amoxicillin loading of 26.3% whilst CAR, CMC, and GLY (1 : 2 : 3 films had a maximum paracetamol loading of 40%. XRPD analysis showed different physical forms of the drugs depending on the amount loaded. Films containing 29.4% paracetamol and 26.3% amoxicillin showed molecular dispersion of the drugs while excess paracetamol was observed on the film surface when the maximum 40% was loaded. Work of adhesion was similar for blank films with slightly higher cohesiveness for CAR and CMC based films, but the differences were significant between paracetamol and amoxicillin containing films. The stickiness and cohesiveness for drug loaded films were generally similar with no significant differences. The maximum percentage cumulative drug release was 84.65% and 70.59% for paracetamol and amoxicillin, respectively, with anomalous case two transport mechanism involving both drug diffusion and polymer erosion.

  8. [Omeprazole/amoxicillin: improved eradication of Helicobacter pylori in smokers because of N-acetylcysteine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zala, G; Flury, R; Wüst, J; Meyenberger, C; Ammann, R; Wirth, H P

    1994-08-01

    Colonization of Helicobacter pylori (HP) beneath the protective film of gastric mucus enables the organism to survive in the hostile environment of the gastric mucosa. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl compound with potent mucolytic activity, induces a reduction of gastric barrier mucus thickness of about 75% and reduces mucus viscoelasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis whether better eradication results could be achieved by addition of NAC to omeprazole/amoxicillin (OME/AMOX). 34 HP positive outpatients with endoscopically documented recurrent duodenal ulcer were included in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial. Exclusion criteria were: alcoholism, previous gastric surgery, or intake of antibiotics, OME, bismuth salts, corticosteroids or NSAIDs within 4 weeks before study entry. Patients currently smoking > 10 cigarettes/day were classified as smokers. HP infection was confirmed by histology (3 biopsy specimens from gastric antrum and 2 from gastric body; H&E, Giemsa) and at least positive rapid urease test or culture. All 34 patients underwent ulcer therapy with OME (20 mg per day) for 20 days (d 1-20). Group A: in 17 patients (5 females, 12 males, mean age 46 [29-74] years; 8 smokers, 9 nonsmokers) the subsequent eradication therapy, consisting of oral OME (40 mg bid) and AMOX solute (750 mg tid) for 10 days, was combined with NAC solute (2 x 600 mg bid (d 21-30). Group B: 17 patients (2 females, 15 males, mean age 39 [19-70] years; 11 smokers, 6 nonsmokers) underwent eradication therapy without NAC (d 21-30). Control endoscopy was done after a minimal interval of 30 days from the end of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Kinetic Isotherm of Amoxicillin Antibiotic through Adsorption and its Removal by Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Chatterjee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment because they have adverse effects on the aquatic life and humans. The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine has a significant effect on the quality of surface and groundwater. The relevance of an electrocoagulation (EC process for the removal of an antibiotic was selected because of its wide application, high solubility in water, high residual toxicity and an absence of biodegradability, was examined in this study. Metal hydroxides generated during EC were used to remove Amoxicillin (AMX from aqueous solution. The knowledge regarding the removal mechanism of this substance has not yet been investigated till now. Experiments were carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor using aluminum electrodes. The removal of AMX was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached within 20 min. The effects of the main operating parameters were examined and showed that irrespective of the initial concentration and for pH ranging from 3 to 10, maximum removal efficiency remained close to 95%; while a sharp decrease was recorded at pH 2 (8 % removal. The results of this study also showed that the removal of AMX from water was strongly affected by the current intensity. The mechanism of electrocoagulation was modeled using isotherm models and showed that the Sips isotherm matched satisfactorily the experimental data, suggesting monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules and assumed a quasi-Gaussian distribution energy owing to the high correlation also found for the Toth model. In addition, adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities, as when the pH and initial antibiotic concentrations were considered.

  10. The role of IgE recognition in allergic reactions to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Montañez, M I; Ariza, A; Salas, M; Fernandez, T D; Barbero, N; Mayorga, C; Blanca, M

    2016-02-01

    Betalactam (BL) antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in IgE-mediated reactions. The culprit BL varies according to consumption patterns, with amoxicillin (AX) more prevalent in Southern Europe and penicillin V in Scandinavian countries. Nowadays, the combination of AX and clavulanic acid (CLV) is the most highly consumed BL containing medicine worldwide. Both BLs, AX and CLV, can independently be involved in reactions, which poses a diagnostic challenge. In patients with immediate allergic reactions to AX, two patterns of responses have been described, those responding to benzylpenicillin (cross-reactors) and those selective to AX. In addition, selective reactions to CLV account for around 30% of allergic reactions to the combination AX-CLV. These patterns of IgE recognition could be related to differences in the haptenation process, in the immunological response, or in the BL involved in the first sensitization. In this regard, patients with selective responses to CLV are generally younger than those allergic to AX or benzylpenicillin. So far, no evidence of cross-reactivity between CLV and other BLs has been reported. This shows the importance of an accurate diagnosis of CLV allergy, as patients with selective reactions to CLV could take other BLs including AX. Diagnosis can be performed in vivo and in vitro, although no immunoassay currently exists. Research regarding the CLV antigenic determinants and protein conjugates is essential to improve diagnosis. BLs need to covalently bind to a carrier protein to be immunogenic. The antigenic determinant of AX is the amoxicilloyl amide, but CLV leads to unstable structures, many of which are unknown. Moreover, the nature of the BL-protein conjugates plays an important role in IgE recognition. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the immunochemistry, diagnostic approaches as well as chemical and proteomic studies for both AX and CLV.

  11. [Omeprazole/amoxicillin: improved eradication of Helicobacter pylori in smokers because of N-acetylcysteine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zala, G; Flury, R; Wüst, J; Meyenberger, C; Ammann, R; Wirth, H P

    1994-08-01

    Colonization of Helicobacter pylori (HP) beneath the protective film of gastric mucus enables the organism to survive in the hostile environment of the gastric mucosa. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl compound with potent mucolytic activity, induces a reduction of gastric barrier mucus thickness of about 75% and reduces mucus viscoelasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis whether better eradication results could be achieved by addition of NAC to omeprazole/amoxicillin (OME/AMOX). 34 HP positive outpatients with endoscopically documented recurrent duodenal ulcer were included in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial. Exclusion criteria were: alcoholism, previous gastric surgery, or intake of antibiotics, OME, bismuth salts, corticosteroids or NSAIDs within 4 weeks before study entry. Patients currently smoking > 10 cigarettes/day were classified as smokers. HP infection was confirmed by histology (3 biopsy specimens from gastric antrum and 2 from gastric body; H&E, Giemsa) and at least positive rapid urease test or culture. All 34 patients underwent ulcer therapy with OME (20 mg per day) for 20 days (d 1-20). Group A: in 17 patients (5 females, 12 males, mean age 46 [29-74] years; 8 smokers, 9 nonsmokers) the subsequent eradication therapy, consisting of oral OME (40 mg bid) and AMOX solute (750 mg tid) for 10 days, was combined with NAC solute (2 x 600 mg bid (d 21-30). Group B: 17 patients (2 females, 15 males, mean age 39 [19-70] years; 11 smokers, 6 nonsmokers) underwent eradication therapy without NAC (d 21-30). Control endoscopy was done after a minimal interval of 30 days from the end of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8091167

  12. Antimicrobial resistance characteristics and fitness of Gram negative faecal bacteria from volunteers treated with minocycline or amoxicillin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda eKirchner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A yearlong study was performed to examine the effect of antibiotic administration on the bacterial gut flora. Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria were recovered from the faeces of healthy adult volunteers administered amoxicillin, minocycline or placebo, and changes determined in antimicrobial resistance (AMR gene carriage. Seventy percent of the 1039 facultative anaerobic isolates recovered were identified by MALDI-TOF as Escherichia coli. A microarray used to determine virulence and resistance gene carriage demonstrated that AMR genes were widespread in all administration groups, with the most common resistance genes being blaTEM, dfr, strB, tet(A and tet(B. Following amoxicillin administration, an increase in the proportion of amoxicillin resistant E. coli and a three-fold increase in the levels of blaTEM gene carriage was observed, an effect not observed in the other two treatment groups. Detection of virulence genes, including stx1A, indicated not all E. coli were innocuous commensals. Approximately 150 E. coli collected from 6 participants were selected for pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and a subset used for characterisation of plasmids and Phenotypic Microarrays (PM. PFGE indicated some E. coli clones had persisted in volunteers for up to 1 year, while others were transient. Although there were no unique characteristics associated with plasmids from persistent or transient isolates, PM assays showed transient isolates had greater adaptability to a range of antiseptic biocides and tetracycline; characteristics which were lost in some, but not all persistent isolates. This study indicates healthy individuals carry bacteria harbouring resistance to a variety of antibiotics and biocides in their intestinal tract. Antibiotic administration can have a temporary effect of selecting bacteria, showing co-resistance to multiple antibiotics, some of which can persist within the gut for up to 1 year.

  13. An isocratic ion exchange HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in a pharmaceutical formulation for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Hongwu; Sunderland, V Bruce

    2005-02-23

    An isocratic ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in pharmaceutical formulations for injections. The separation was made by a ZORBAX 300-SCX column using 0.025 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (adjusted to pH 2.6 with phosphoric acid)-acetonitrile (95:5) as mobile phase. The validation of the method was performed, and specificity, reproducibility, precision and accuracy were confirmed. The limits of quantification were approximately 0.2 microg/ml for each drug. Due to its simplicity and accuracy the method is particularly suitable for routine pharmaceutical quality control.

  14. In situ one-pot preparation of superparamagnetic hydrophilic porous microspheres for covalently immobilizing penicillin G acylase to synthesize amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ping; Gu, Yaohua; Su, Weiguang; Shuai, Huihui; Wang, Julan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic hydrophilic porous microspheres were successfully one-pot synthesized for the first time via in situ inverse suspension polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate, N,N‧-methylene bisacrylamide and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in the presence of Fe3+ and Fe2+ dispersed in formamide, which were denoted as magnetic Fe3O4-GMH microspheres. The morphology and properties of magnetic Fe3O4-GMH microspheres were characterized by SEM, VSM, XRD, FTIR, and so on. The formamide content had an important influence on the morphology of Fe3O4-GMH, and nearly perfectly spherical Fe3O4-GMH particles were formed when the amount of formamide was 15 ml. The diameters of the microspheres were in the range of 100-200 μm and Fe3O4-GMH exhibited superparamagnetic behavior with the saturation magnetization of 5.44 emu/g. The specific surface area of microspheres was 138.7 m2/g, the average pore diameter and pore volume were 15.1 nm and 0.60 cm3/g, respectively. The content of oxirane groups on Fe3O4-GMH was 0.40 mmol/g. After penicillin G acylase (PGA) was covalently immobilized on Fe3O4-GMH microspheres, the catalytic performance for amoxicillin synthesis by 6-aminopenicillanic acid and D-hydroxyphenylglycine methyl ester was largely improved. As a result, 90.1% amoxicillin yield and 1.18 of the synthesis/hydrolysis (S/H) ratio were achieved on PGA/Fe3O4-GMH with ethylene glycol as solvent, but only 62.6% amoxicillin yield and 0.37 of the S/H ratio were obtained on free PGA under the same reaction conditions. Furthermore, the amoxicillin yield and S/H ratio were still kept at 88.2% and 1.06, respectively after the immobilized PGA was magnetically separated and recycled for 10 times, indicating that PGA/Fe3O4-GMH had a very good reusability.

  15. Efficacy of omeprazole and amoxicillin with either clarithromycin or metronidazole on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Chinese peptic ulcer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hao Sun; Han Su; Xi-Long Ou; Da-Zhong Cao; Qian Yu; Ting Yu; Jin-Ming Hu; Feng Zhu; Yun-Liang Sun; Xi-Ling Fu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: One-week triple therapy with proton pump inhibitors, clarithromycin and amoxicillin has recently been proposed as the first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection; however, data regarding the effects of this regimen in China are scarce. The aim of this prospective and randomized study was to compare the efficacy of clarithromycin and metronidazole when they were combined with omeprazole and amoxicillin on eradication of H pylori and ulcer healing in Chinese peptic ulcer patients.METHODS: A total of 103 subjects with H pylori-positive peptic ulcer were randomly divided into two groups, and accepted triple therapy with omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1 000 mg and either clarithromycin 500 mg (OAC group,n = 58) or metronidazole 400 mg (OAM group, n = 45).All drugs were given twice daily for 7 d. Patients with active peptic ulcer were treated with omeprazole 20 mg daily for 2-4 wk after anti-H pylori therapy. Six to eight weeks after omeprazole therapy, all patients underwent endoscopies and four biopsies (two from the antrum and two others from the corpus of stomach) were taken for rapid urease test and histological analysis (with modified Giemsa staining) to examine H pylori. Successful eradication was defined as negative results from both examination methods.RESULTS: One hundred patients completed the entire course of therapy and returned for follow-up. The eradication rate of H pylori for the per-protocol analysis was 89.3% (50/56) in OAC group and 84.1% (37/44) in OAM group. Based on the intention-to-treat analysis, the eradication rate of H pylori was 86.2% (50/58) in OAC group and 82.2% (37/45) in OAM group. There were no significant differences in eradication rates between the two groups on either analysis. The active ulcer-healing rate was 96.7% (29/30) in OAC group and 100% (21/21)in OAM group (per-protocol analysis, P>0.05). Six patients in OAC group (10.3%) and five in OAM group (11.1%)reported adverse events (P>0.05).CONCLUSION

  16. Effektivität der neuen 7-Tage-Tripel-Therapie mit Esomeprazol, Rifabutin und Amoxicillin bei Infektionen mit Makrolid- und Imidazolresistenten Helicobacter pylori Stämmen

    OpenAIRE

    Kroettinger, Annett

    2002-01-01

    In der Therapiestudie wurden 72 Patienten, nach vorherigem Therapieversagen und kulturell nachgewiesenem gegen Metronidazol und Clarithromycin doppeltresistentem Helicobacter pylori, mit der Rifabutin-Tripel-Terapie ( ERA – 2 x 20 mg Esomeprazol, 2 x 150 mg Rifabutin und 2 x 1000 mg Amoxicillin über 7 Tage) oder der modifizierten Hochdosis-Dualtherapie (mOA – Omeprazol 3 x 40 mg und 3 x 1000 mg Amoxicillin über 14 Tage) behandelt. Die ERA-Therapie wurde von allen Patienten ohne nennenswerte u...

  17. Spanish multicenter study of the epidemiology and mechanisms of amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Adriana; Oteo, Jesús; Aranzamendi-Zaldumbide, Maitane; Bartolomé, Rosa M; Bou, Germán; Cercenado, Emilia; Conejo, M Carmen; González-López, Juan José; Marín, Mercedes; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Merino, María; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Pascual, Alvaro; Rivera, Alba; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Weber, Irene; Aracil, Belén; Campos, José

    2012-07-01

    We conducted a prospective multicenter study in Spain to characterize the mechanisms of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) in Escherichia coli. Up to 44 AMC-resistant E. coli isolates (MIC ≥ 32/16 μg/ml) were collected at each of the seven participant hospitals. Resistance mechanisms were characterized by PCR and sequencing. Molecular epidemiology was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and by multilocus sequence typing. Overall AMC resistance was 9.3%. The resistance mechanisms detected in the 257 AMC-resistant isolates were OXA-1 production (26.1%), hyperproduction of penicillinase (22.6%), production of plasmidic AmpC (19.5%), hyperproduction of chromosomic AmpC (18.3%), and production of inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) (17.5%). The IRTs identified were TEM-40 (33.3%), TEM-30 (28.9%), TEM-33 (11.1%), TEM-32 (4.4%), TEM-34 (4.4%), TEM-35 (2.2%), TEM-54 (2.2%), TEM-76 (2.2%), TEM-79 (2.2%), and the new TEM-185 (8.8%). By PFGE, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed although two well-defined clusters were detected in the OXA-1-producing isolates: the C1 cluster consisting of 19 phylogroup A/sequence type 88 [ST88] isolates and the C2 cluster consisting of 19 phylogroup B2/ST131 isolates (16 of them producing CTX-M-15). Each of the clusters was detected in six different hospitals. In total, 21.8% of the isolates were serotype O25b/phylogroup B2 (O25b/B2). AMC resistance in E. coli is widespread in Spain at the hospital and community levels. A high prevalence of OXA-1 was found. Although resistant isolates were genetically diverse, clonality was linked to OXA-1-producing isolates of the STs 88 and 131. Dissemination of IRTs was frequent, and the epidemic O25b/B2/ST131 clone carried many different mechanisms of AMC resistance. PMID:22491692

  18. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

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    Lee SY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Yun Lee,1 Wooseong Huh,2 Jin Ah Jung,3 Hye Min Yoo,2 Jae-Wook Ko,1,2 Jung-Ryul Kim2,4 1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, 4Department of Clinical Research and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Valproic acid (VPA is mainly metabolized via glucuronide, which is hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and undergoes enterohepatic circulation. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC administration leads to decreased levels of β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, suggesting that these antibiotics could interrupt enterohepatic circulation and thereby alter the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AMC on the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This was an open-label, two-treatment, one-sequence study in 16 healthy volunteers. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment VPA, in which a single dose of VPA 500 mg was administered, and treatment AMC + VPA, in which multiple doses of AMC 500/125 mg were administered three times daily for 7 days and then a single dose of VPA was administered. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Systemic exposures and peak concentrations of VPA were slightly lower with treatment AMC + VPA than with treatment VPA (AUClast, 851.0 h·mg/L vs 889.6 h·mg/L; Cmax, 52.1 mg/L vs 53.0 mg/L. There were no significant between-treatment effects on pharmacokinetics (95% confidence interval [CI] of AUClast and Cmax (95.7 [85.9–106.5] and 98.3 [91.6–105.6], respectively. Multiple doses of AMC had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of VPA; thus, no dose adjustment is necessary. Keywords: drug–drug interaction, pharmacokinetics

  19. Levofloxacin/amoxicillin-based schemes vs quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in second-line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simona Di Caro; Lucia Fini; Yayha Daoud; Fabio Grizzi; Antonio Gasbarrini; Antonino De Lorenzo; Laura Di Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori)infection is approximately 50%,with the highest being in developing countries.We compared cure rates and tolerability (SE) of second-line anti-H,pylori levofloxacin/amoxicillin (LA)-based triple regimens vs standard quadruple therapy (QT).An English language literature search was performed up to October 2010.A meta-analysis was performed including randomized clinical trials comparing 7-or 10-d LA with 7-d QT.In total,10 articles and four abstracts were identified.Overall eradication rate in LA was 76.5% (95%CI:64.4%-97.6%).When only 7-d regimens were included,cure rate was 70.6% (95% CI:40.2%-99.1%),whereas for 10-d combinations,cure rate was significantly higher (88.7%; 95% CI:56.1%-109.9%;P < 0.05).Main eradication rate for QT was 67.4% (95% CI:49.7%-67.9%).The 7-d LA and QT showed comparable efficacy [odds ratio (OR):1.09; 95% CI:0.63-1.87],whereas the 10-d LA regimen was significantly more effective than QT (OR:5.05; 95% CI:2.74-9.31; P < 0.001;I2 =75%).No differences were reported in QT eradication rates among Asian and European studies,whereas LA regimens were more effective in European populations (78.3% vs 67.7%; P =0.05).Incidence of SE was lower in LA therapy than QT (OR:0.39; 95% CI:0.18-0.85; P =0.02).A higher rate of side effects was reported in Asian patients who received QT.Our findings support the use of 10-d LA as a simple second-line treatment for H.pylori eradication with an excellent eradication rate and tolerability.The optimal second-line alternative scheme might differ among countries depending on quinolone resistance.

  20. The Role of Chronic Exposure to Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid on the Developmental Enamel Defects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalaş, Eugeniu; Matricala, Lavinia; Chelmuş, Alina; Gheţu, Nicolae; Petcu, Ana; Paşca, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin used in early childhood may be associated with enamel hypomineralization. Our aim was to assess disturbances of amelogenesis in mice lower incisors induced by chronic administration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC). Twenty-eight C57BL/6 male mice, of similar age, randomly divided into a control and 3 treatment groups (n = 7) received subcutaneous injection, once per day, for 60 days: 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg BW of AMC. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis in AMC treatment groups showed higher content in F and a decrease in P and Ca. Morphology changes ranged from scratched patterns, and small isolated pits-like enamel loss, to generalized demineralized enamel surface, giving a rough, foamy, scaly, or even cracked eggshell appearance to the affected areas. Histological analysis showed disturbances of maturation ameloblasts, which were less organized, with increased amounts of clear vacuoles in the cytoplasm and slightly more elongated and less condensed nucleus. Additionally, they were often detached from the enamel matrix. Transitional ameloblasts formed underlying the cysts of varied sizes. In conclusion, AMC dose-dependently affect ameloblast functions especially in the maturation phase, causing hypomineralized enamel formation with quantitative and/or qualitative defects.

  1. Adherence-adjusted estimates of benefits and harms from treatment with amoxicillin for LRTI : Secondary analysis of a 12-country randomised placebocontrolled trial using randomisationbased efficacy estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, David; Hood, Kerenza; Farewell, Daniel; Butler, Christopher C.; Verheij, Theo; Goossens, Herman; Stuart, Beth; Mullee, Mark; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Estimate the efficacy of amoxicillin for acute uncomplicated lower-respiratory-tract infection (LRTI) in primary care and demonstrate the use of randomisationbased efficacy estimators. Design: Secondary analysis of a two-arm individuallyrandomised placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Prima

  2. Efficiency of powder activated carbon magnetized by Fe3O4 nanoparticles for amoxicillin removal from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium and kinetic studies of adsorption process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Kakavandi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that the magnetic activated carbon has high potential for adsorption of amoxicillin, in addition to features like simple and rapid separation. Therefore, it can be used for adsorption and separation of such pollutants from aqueous solutions.

  3. Automated column liquid chromatographic determination of amoxicillin and cefadroxil in bovine serum and muscle tissue using on-line dialysis for sample preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, N; van de Merbel, N C; Ruiter, F P; Steijger, O M; Lingeman, H; Brinkman, U A

    1994-01-01

    A fully automated method is described for the determination of amoxicillin and cefadroxil in bovine serum and muscle tissue. The method is based on the on-line combination of dialysis and solid-phase extraction for sample preparation, and column liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. In o

  4. Efficacy of levofloxacin, amoxicillin and a proton pump inhibitor in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Brazilian patients with peptic ulcers

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    Fernando Marcuz Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The eradication of Helicobacter (H. pylori allows peptic ulcers in patients infected with the bacteria to be cured. Treatment with the classic triple regimen (proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin has shown decreased efficacy due to increased bacterial resistance to clarithromycin. In our country, the eradication rate by intention to treat with this regimen is 83%. In Brazil, a commercially available regimen for bacterial eradication that uses levofloxacin and amoxicillin with lansoprazole is available; however, its efficacy is not known. Considering that such a treatment may be an alternative to the classic regimen, we aimed to verify its efficacy in H. pylori eradication. METHODS: Patients with peptic ulcer disease infected with H. pylori who had not received prior treatment were treated with the following regimen: 30 mg lansoprazole bid, 1,000 mg amoxicillin bid and 500 mg levofloxacin, once a day for 7 days. RESULTS: A total of 66 patients were evaluated. The patients’ mean age was 52 years, and women comprised 55% of the sample. Duodenal ulcers were present in 50% of cases, and gastric ulcers were present in 30%. The eradication rate was 74% per protocol and 73% by intention to treat. Adverse effects were reported by 49 patients (74% and were mild to moderate, with a prevalence of diarrhea complaints. CONCLUSIONS: Triple therapy comprising lansoprazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin for 7 days for the eradication of H. pylori in Brazilian peptic ulcer patients showed a lower efficacy than that of the classic triple regimen.

  5. 甲基橙催化褪色光度法测定阿莫西林%Catalytic fade spectrophotometric determination of amoxicillin with helianthine system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海涛

    2012-01-01

    在硫酸介质中,阿莫西林可以催化溴酸钾氧化甲基橙使其褪色,且褪色程度(△A)与阿莫西林浓度在一定范围内符合朗伯-比尔定律,据此建立了催化光度法测定阿莫西林的新方法.在最优试验条件下,阿莫西林含量在0.70 ~ 9.0 μg/mL范围内与吸光度呈良好的线性关系,检出限0.33 μg/mL,回收率在96%~104%之间.可用于胶囊中阿莫西林含量的测定,结果满意.%Based on the catalytic effects of amoxicillin on the oxidation reactions of helianthine by potassium bromate under sulphuric acid medium and the fading obeyed the Lambert-Beer law with the concentration of amoxicillin in a certain range, a new catalytic spectrophotometric method was developed. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit for amoxicillin was 0.33 μg/mL and the recovery rate was 96% ~ 104%. And the linear range for amoxicillin was 0.70 ~9.00 μg/mL. The method has been applied to determine amoxicillin in capsule with satisfying results.

  6. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Induced by Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid: Report of a Case Presenting With Generalized Lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrigou, Ekaterini; Grapsa, Dimitra; Charpidou, Andriani; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare pustular skin reaction, most commonly triggered by antibiotics. Although its diagnosis is based primarily on the presence of specific clinical and histopathologic features, additional in vivo (patch testing) or in vitro testing may be required, especially in atypical cases, to more accurately determine the causative agent. The authors report a histologically confirmed case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis that was induced by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, as documented by subsequent patch testing, and presented with generalized painful lymphadenopathy, mimicking an acute infectious process. This is a very rare and diagnostically challenging clinical presentation of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, which has been reported, to the best of our knowledge, only once previously.

  7. Sofalcone, a mucoprotective agent, increases the cure rate of Helicobacter pyloriinfection when combined with rabeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hajime Isomoto; Hisashi Furusu; Ken Ohnita; Chun-Yang Wen; Kenichiro Inoue; Shigeru Kohno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The mucoprotective agents, sofalcone and polaprezinc have anti-Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori)activities. We determined the therapeutic effects of sofalcone and polaprezinc when combined with rabeprazole,amoxicillin and clarithromycin for Helicobacter pylori infection.METHODS: One hundred and sixty-five consecutive outpatients with peptic ulcer and H pylori infection were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups and medicated for 7 d. Group A: triple therapy with rabeprazole (10 mg twice daily), clarithromycin (200 mg twice daily) and amoxicillin (750 mg twice daily). Group B: sofalcone (100 mg thrice daily) plus the triple therapy.Group C: polaprezinc (150 mg twice daily) plus the triple therapy. Eradication was considered successful if 13C-urea breath test was negative at least 4 wk after cessation of eradication regimens or successive famotidine in the cases of active peptic ulcer.RESULTS: On intention-to-treat basis, H pyloricure wasachieved in 43 of 55 (78.2%) patients, 47 of 54 (87.0%)and 45 of 56 (80.4%) for the groups A, B and Crespectively. Using per protocol analysis, the eradication rates were 81.1% (43/53), 94.0% (47/50) and 84.9% (45/53) respectively. There was a significant difference in the cure rates between group A and B. Adverse events occurred in 10, 12 and 11 patients, from groups A, B and C respectively, but the events were generally mild.CONCLUSION: The addition of sofalcone, but not polaprezinc, significantly increased the cure rate of H pylori infection when combined with the rabeprazole-amoxicillinclarithromycin regimen.

  8. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Children by Triple Therapy Regimens of Amoxicillin, Omeprazole, and Clarithromycin or Azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Esmaeili-Dooki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of classical and azithromycin-containing triple therapy eradication regimen against H. Pylori in children, and to determine the level of patients’ tolerance. Patients and Methods: This single clinical trial was performed in 2014 on 2 to 15 years old children. All children, in whom H. Pylori infection was confirmed through multiple biopsies of the stomach and required treatment, were enrolled in the study. H. Pylori-positive patients were treated alternately with two different drug regimens; Group OCA received clarithromycin 7.5 mg/kg/day every 12 hours for 10 days, amoxicillin 50 mg/kg/day every 12 hours for 10 days, and omeprazole 1 mg/kg/day every 12 hours for two weeks, and Group OAA received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day once a day (before meal for 6 days along with amoxicillin and omeprazole. Four to six weeks after completion of treatment, patients’ stool was tested for H. Pylori through the monoclonal method using the Helicobacter antigen quick kit. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding gender and age of patients. Based on ITT analysis, the therapeutic response in the OAA and OCA groups were 56.2% and 62.5%, respectively (P = 0.40. Drug adverse effects were 15.6% in the OCA and 3.1% in the OAA group (P = 0.19. Conclusions: The therapeutic response was seen in more than half of the patients treated with triple therapy of H. Pylori eradication regimen including azithromycin or clarithromycin, and there was no significant difference between the two treatment groups.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junejo, Y.; Güner, A.; Baykal, A.

    2014-10-01

    We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2-5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs are novel, rapid, and highly cost-effective for environmental safety against pollution by antibiotics in wastewater and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

  10. Comparative efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin in the reduction of postsurgical sequelae after third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in a Nigerian university teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizito Chioma Ndukwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common sequelae after surgical removal of mandibular third molar are pain, trismus, swelling, and dysphagia. However, these symptoms can also signal the onset of surgical site infection and alveoli osteitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin and preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the reduction of postinflammatory complications, surgical site infection, and alveolar osteitis following the third molar surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 135 patients were randomized into three equal groups: Group A (preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid with preoperative dose of 875/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid followed by 500/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 12 hourly for 5 days, Group B (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid prophylaxis with a single preoperative dose of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 875/125 mg tablets, and Group C (levofloxacin prophylaxis with a single preoperative dose of levofloxacin 1000 mg tablets. All patients had ostectomy using surgical handpiece and burs and received same analgesics (tabs ibuprofen 400 mg 8 hourly for 3 days. Results: No case of surgical site infection or alveoli osteitis was recorded in the study groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups with regard to pain, mouth opening, postoperative facial dimension, and body temperature. Conclusion: Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as a single preoperative bolus should be adequate for the prevention of postoperative wound infection and alveoli osteitis following the third molar extraction as there is no need for an extension of the antibiotic. Moreover, levofloxacin can be utilized as prophylaxis in patients undergoing mandibular third molar extraction if such patients are allergic to penicillins.

  11. Synthesis, thermal and spectroscopic behaviors of metal-drug complexes: La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) amoxicillin trihydrate antibiotic drug complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-07-01

    The metal complexes of Amoxicillin trihydrate with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) are synthesized with 1:1 (metal:Amox) molar ratio. The suggested formula structures of the complexes are based on the results of the elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, as well as the thermal analysis (TG), and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained suggested that Amoxicillin reacted with metal ions as tridentate ligands, coordinating the metal ion through its amino, imino, and β-lactamic carbonyl. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves.

  12. Treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in under-five children in developing country: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence regarding efficacy of oral amoxicillin compared to standard treatment for WHO-defined severe community acquired pneumonia in under-five children in developing country. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data from published Randomized trials (RCTs. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1970- July 2012 via PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, July 2012, and EMBASE (1988- June 2012. METHODS: Eligible trials compared oral amoxicillin administered in ambulatory setting versus standard treatment for WHO-defined severe community acquired pneumonia in children under-five. Primary outcomes were proportion of children developing treatment failure at 48 hr, and day 6. GRADE criteria was used to rate the quality of evidence. RESULTS: Out of 281 full text articles assessed for eligibility, 5 trials including 12364 children were included in the meta-analysis. Oral amoxicillin administered either in hospital or community setting is effective in treatment of severe pneumonia and is not inferior to the standard treatment. None of the clinical predictors of treatment failure by 48 hr (very severe disease, fever and lower chest indrawing, and voluntary with-drawl and loss to follow up was significant between the two groups. The clinical predictors of treatment failure that were significant by day 6 were very severe disease, inability to drink, change of antibiotic, and fever alone. The effect was almost consistent across the studies. CONCLUSION: Though oral amoxicillin is effective in treatment of severe CAP in under-five children in developing country, the evidence generated is of low-quality. More trials with uniform comparators are needed in order to strengthen the evidence.

  13. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-induced Round Bodies of Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eFeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. To identify more effective drugs that are active against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by amoxicillin and screened the Food and Drug Administration (FDA drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven of these scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. While some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine overlapped with a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters, additional drug candidates active against round bodies we identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi persisters in vitro, even if pre-treated with amoxicillin. These findings may have implications for improved treatment of Lyme disease.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Amoxicillin and Metronidazole as Treatment Adjunct to Dental Scaling and Root Planning in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    J. Moradi Haghgoo; M. Khoshhal; L. Ghorbaninejad; N. Rabienejad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the tooth supporting tissues by a specific group of microorganisms, leading to progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of amoxicillin and metronidazole as an adjunct, after scaling and root planning in reducing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss in chronic periodontitis (moderate to severe) patients. Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial rand...

  15. Amoxicillin treatment of experimental acute otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae with non-beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactams: aspects of virulence and treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Melhus, A; Janson, H; Westman, E.; Hermansson, A.; Forsgren, A; Prellner, K

    1997-01-01

    Through alterations primarily in the penicillin-binding proteins, a non-beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactams has evolved in Haemophilus influenzae. The virulence of these chromosomally changed strains has been questioned. To ascertain whether these alterations involve a reduction in virulence of H. influenzae and whether they could be advantageous for the bacterium during amoxicillin treatment of acute otitis media, a total of 70 Sprague-Dawley rats were challenged with a suscep...

  16. The combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole in the treatment of Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma and Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najwa A Mhmoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic progressive disabling and destructive inflammatory disease which is commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. It is characterized by the formation of multiple discharging sinuses. It is usually treated by antifungal agents but it is assumed that the therapeutic efficiency of these agents is reduced by the co-existence of Staphylococcus aureus co-infection developing in these sinuses. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the safety, efficacy and clinical outcome of combined antibiotic and antifungal therapy in eumycetoma patients with superimposed Staphylococcus aureus infection. The study enrolled 337 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma and S. aureus co-infection. Patients were allocated into three groups; 142 patients received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole, 93 patients received ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole and 102 patients received ketoconazole only. The study showed that, patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment had an overall better clinical outcome compared to those who had combined ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole or to those who received ketoconazole only. In this study, 60.6% of the combined amoxicillin-clavulanic acid/ketoconazole group showed complete or partial clinical response to treatment compared to 30.1% in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 36.3% in the ketoconazole only group. The study also showed that 64.5% of the patients in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 59.8% in the ketoconazole only group had progressive disease and poor outcome. This study showed that the combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment is safe and offers good clinical outcome and it is therefore recommended to treat eumycetoma patients with Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

  17. The combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole in the treatment of Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma and Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhmoud, Najwa A; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2014-06-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic progressive disabling and destructive inflammatory disease which is commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. It is characterized by the formation of multiple discharging sinuses. It is usually treated by antifungal agents but it is assumed that the therapeutic efficiency of these agents is reduced by the co-existence of Staphylococcus aureus co-infection developing in these sinuses. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the safety, efficacy and clinical outcome of combined antibiotic and antifungal therapy in eumycetoma patients with superimposed Staphylococcus aureus infection. The study enrolled 337 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma and S. aureus co-infection. Patients were allocated into three groups; 142 patients received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole, 93 patients received ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole and 102 patients received ketoconazole only. The study showed that, patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment had an overall better clinical outcome compared to those who had combined ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole or to those who received ketoconazole only. In this study, 60.6% of the combined amoxicillin-clavulanic acid/ketoconazole group showed complete or partial clinical response to treatment compared to 30.1% in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 36.3% in the ketoconazole only group. The study also showed that 64.5% of the patients in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 59.8% in the ketoconazole only group had progressive disease and poor outcome. This study showed that the combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment is safe and offers good clinical outcome and it is therefore recommended to treat eumycetoma patients with Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

  18. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾复方制剂杂质谱的变化%Impurity Profiling Changes of Amoxicillin/Potassium Clavulanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓溪; 顾立素; 胡昌勤

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop the impurity control strategy of amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate. METHODS The impurity profiling changes of amoxicillin plus potassium clavulanate were compared with both amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate alone by HPLC. RESULTS Not only some new impurities were found. Both the impurities produced by amoxicillin or by potassium clavulanate in the complex medicine increased more quickly than in the antibiotics alone with acceleration test.CONCLUSION The results indicated that the impurity profiling of a complex medicine composed by β-lactam antibiotics and β-lactam inhibitor was not a simple mixture of both the components alone. The research should be focused on the interaction among the components influencing upon the impurity profiling of the complex medicine.%目的 探讨阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾复方药物的杂质控制策略.方法 采用HPLC,比较阿莫西林和克拉维酸钾单独存在及复方后杂质谱的变化.结果 加速实验中,复方样品产生新的未知杂质,且无论是源于阿莫西林的杂质还是源于克拉维酸钾的杂质均较其单独存在时变化快.结论 由β-内酰胺抗生素与β-内酰胺酶抑制剂组成的复方制剂的杂质谱,并不是其单独存在时的简单加和,新药研发中应重点探讨二者的相互作用对复方中杂质谱的影响.

  19. Omeprazole-based triple therapy with low-versus high-dose of clarithromycin plus amoxicillin for H pylori eradication in Iranian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Asghar Keshavarz; Homayoon Bashiri; Mahtab Rahbar

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of Hpylori eradication in an omeprazole-based triple therapy with high- and low-dose of clarithromycin and amoxicillin.METHODS: One hundred and sixty H pylori positive patients were randomly assigned to two groups based on the following 2 wk investigation; (1) group A or low-dose regimen received omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d, clarithromycin 250 mg b.i.d and amoxicillin 500 mg b.i.d; and (2) group B or high-dose regimen received omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d, clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d and amoxicillin 1000 mg b.i.d. During the study H pylori status was assessed by histology and rapid urease test prior and by 13C-urea breath test 6 wk after the therapy. Standard questionnaires were administered to determine the compliance to treatment and possible adverse events of therapy. Data were subject to % to compare the eradication rates in the two groups. The significant level of 95% (P≤0.05) was considered statistically different.RESULTS: We found that the per-protocol eradication rate was 88% (68/77) in group A, and 89% (67/75) in group B. The intension-to-treat eradication rate was 85% (68/80) in group A and 83.75% (67/80) in group B. Overall adverse events were 26% in group A and 31% in group B. The adverse events were generally mild in nature and tolerated well in both groups with a compliance of 98% in group A vs 96% in group B.CONCLUSION: The omeprazole-based low dose regimen of clarithromycin and amoxicillin for two weeks in H pylori eradication is as effective as high dose regimen in Iranian population.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junejo, Y. [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Güner, A., E-mail: aguner@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Biology, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were prepared by simple one-pot chemical reduction method. • Ampicillin as an antibiotic was used as both reducing and capping agents in this study. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs have proved as the remarkably efficient catalysts with enhanced rate of reduction for cefdinir, cefditoren, cefixime, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were showed excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of these antibiotics. - Abstract: We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2–5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs

  1. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were prepared by simple one-pot chemical reduction method. • Ampicillin as an antibiotic was used as both reducing and capping agents in this study. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs have proved as the remarkably efficient catalysts with enhanced rate of reduction for cefdinir, cefditoren, cefixime, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were showed excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of these antibiotics. - Abstract: We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2–5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Amoxicillin and Metronidazole as Treatment Adjunct to Dental Scaling and Root Planning in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moradi Haghgoo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the tooth supporting tissues by a specific group of microorganisms, leading to progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of amoxicillin and metronidazole as an adjunct, after scaling and root planning in reducing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss in chronic periodontitis (moderate to severe patients. Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial randomized control study, scaling and root planning were performed for 30 chronic periodontitis (moderate to severe patients.15 patients were given amoxicillin 500 mg and metronidazole 250 mg every 8 hours for 7 days as an adjunct after scaling and root planning, For 15 other patients only scaling and root planning were per-formed. Probing depth and clinical attachment loss were measured in each group in base line and were compared 1 month before and after scaling and root planning. Statistical analysis was done using a paired t-test, ANOVA and by SPSS16 software. Results: Mean pocket depth and clinical attachment loss in the test group compared to control group, 1 month after the intervention was not statistically significant(P=0. 082, P = 0.540. Conclusion: Amoxicillin and metronidazole as an adjunct to scaling and root planning do not have a significant impact on reducing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss over one month after treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21(2:92-98

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin, dicluxacillin, flucloxacillin and amoxicillin antibiotic drugs: ion-pair formation with molybdenum and thiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, G G

    2001-02-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of some antibiotic drugs such as ampicillin (amp), dicluxacillin (dicl), flucloxacillin (fluc) and amoxicillin (amox). The method involves the formation of ion-pairs between these drugs under investigation and inorganic complex of Mo (V) thiocyanate followed by its extraction with methylene chloride. The optimum conditions for the ion-pairs formation are established. The method permits the determination of amp, dicl, fluc and amox over a concentration range of 1.5-77.5, 3-75, 1.5-79 and 7.5-75 microg ml(-1) respectively. The sensitivity (S) is found to be 0.017, 0.061, 0.014 and 0.073 microg cm(-2) for amp, dicl, fluc and amox, respectively. The method is simple, rapid, reproducible and accurate within +/- 1%. The method is applicable for the assay of the four drugs under investigation in different dosage forms and the results are in good agreement with those obtained by the official method.

  4. Evaluation of Microcrystalline Chitosan and Fibrin Membranes as Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB Carriers with Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimiera H. Bodek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the mechanical and sorption features of homogeneous and composite membranes which consist of microcrystalline chitosan (MCCh and fibrin (Fb in various proportions as well as the in vitro kinetics of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB released from ten types of membranes in the presence or absence of amoxicillin (Am. The films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, mechanical tests: breaking strength (Bs and elongation at break (Eb, as well as SEM images, and swelling study. The influence of the form of samples (dry or wet on Young’s modulus (E was also examined. The homogeneous MCCh (M1 and composite M3 and M4 (MCCh : Fb = 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 membranes were characterized by good sorption properties and higher mechanical strength, when compared with Fb (M2 membrane. Connecting MCCh with Fb decreases release of PDGF-BB and increases release of Am. The most efficient release of PDGF-BB was observed in the case of M4 (the optimum MCCh : Fb ratio was 1 : 1 membrane. It was found that the degree of PDGF-BB release from the membrane is influenced by the physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of the films and by its affinity to growth factor PDGF-BB.

  5. Photocatalytic Decomposition of Amoxicillin Trihydrate Antibiotic in Aqueous Solutions under UV Irradiation Using Sn/TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 and Sn/TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, and BET analysis methods. The effects of Sn-doping on the crystal structure, surface area, adsorption properties, pore size distribution, and optical absorption properties of the catalysts were investigated. The effect of different Sn content on the amount of hydroxyl radical was discussed by using salicylic acid as probe molecule. The photocatalytic activity of samples was tested by photocatalytic mineralization of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX as a model pollutant. Sn/TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited high photocatalytic activity during the mineralization of AMOX under UV light due to increase in the generated hydroxyl radicals, band gap energy, specific surface area, and decrease in the crystallite size. The kinetic of the mineralization of AMOX can be explained in terms of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The values of the adsorption equilibrium constant (AMOX and the kinetic rate constant of surface reaction (c were 0.56 (mg L−1−1 and 1.86 mg L−1 min−1, respectively.

  6. Biocompatible Fe3O4 Increases the Efficacy of Amoxicillin Delivery against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin- functionalized magnetite nanostructures (Fe3O4@AMO, revealing and discussing several biomedical applications of these nanomaterials. Our results proved that 10 nm Fe3O4@AMO nanoparticles does not alter the normal cell cycle progression of cultured diploid cells, and an in vivo murine model confirms that the nanostructures disperse through the host body and tend to localize in particular sites and organs. The nanoparticles were found clustered especially in the lungs, kidneys and spleen, next to the blood vessels at this level, while being totally absent in the brain and liver, suggesting that they are circulated through the blood flow and have low toxicity. Fe3O4@AMO has the ability to be easily circulated through the body and optimizations may be done so these nanostructures cluster to a specific target region. Functionalized magnetite nanostructures proved a great antimicrobial effect, being active against both the Gram positive pathogen S. aureus and the Gram negative pathogen E. coli. The fabricated nanostructures significantly reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the active drug. This result has a great practical relevance, since the functionalized nanostructures may be used for decreasing the therapeutic doses which usually manifest great severe side effects, when administrated in high doses. Fe3O4@AMO represents also a suitable approach for the development of new alternative strategies for improving the activity of therapeutic agents by targeted delivery and controlled release.

  7. Simultaneous detection and comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone in cows' milk by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Kui; Wang, Jianfen; Huang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Guanlin; Li, Congying; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin (AMOX), clavulanic acid (CLAV) and prednisolone (PSL) are widely used in combination for the treatment of mastitis in lactating dairy cows. However, no method has been reported to detect these three chemicals in milk in a single assay. In the present work, a reliable and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in cow's milk. The analytes were determined by a positive and negative ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring. The linear ranges of AMOX, CLAV and PSL were from 2 to 1000ng/mL, 20-1000ng/mL and 1-1000ng/mL, respectively, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2ng/mL (AMOX), 20ng/mL (CLAV) and 1ng/mL (PSL). Recoveries of the analytes of interest in milk samples were in the ranges of 84.2-101.4%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions ranged from 1.8% to 11.9%. This method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in milk from healthy and mastitic cows. The elimination times of AMOX and PSL in mastitic cows were longer than that in healthy cows, but the elimination times of CLAV did not show significant difference.

  8. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs of β-lactamase gene (bla A or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  9. Synergistic anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of amoxicillin in combination withEmblica officinalis and Nymphae odorataextracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha DebMandal; Nishith Kumar Pal; Krishnendu Saha

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity ofEmblica officinalis Gaertn (E. officinalis; Family: Euphorbiaceae) seed andNymphae odorata Aiton (N. odorata; Family: Nymphaeaceae) stamen extracts, alone and in combination, and in combination with amoxicillin (Ax) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).Methods:Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of amla,E. officinalis, seed (AMS; 500 μg) and sapla,N. odorata, stamen (SAP; 500 μg) for12 methicillin-resistantS. aureus(MRSA) isolates was determined following agar diffusion; in order to assess the combined antibacterial activity, AMS (250 μg) plusSAP (250 μg) were considered. The Ax (10μg) activity alone and in combination withAMS (250μg), andSAP(250 μg) was determined by disk diffusion. The zone diameters of inhibition (ZDIs) for the agents were recorded, and growth inhibitory indices (GIIs) were calculated.Results:TheMRSA isolates (n=12) hadAMS(500μg) andSAP (500μg)ZDIs of12-19 mm and21-24mm, respectively. The ZDIs (range24-27mm) increased by3-4mm due to combined action of AMS (250 μg) andSAP (250μg) indicating synergy between extracts forMRSA(GII 0.634-0.742). TheMRSA isolates were resistant to Ax (ZDI: 8-11 mm), which in combination withAMS andSAP had synergistic effect, both due to increasedZDI [mean±SD=(3.5±0.577) mm] andGII (0.631-0.894).Conclusions: The data suggest that the plants,E. officinalis andN. odorata alone or in combination, are promising in the development of phytomedicines, which may be used, alone or in combination with the antibiotic, Ax, against MRSA infection.

  10. The in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Florfenicol in Combination with Amoxicillin or Cefuroxime against Pathogenic Bacteria of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Jin Choia, Eun-Mi Leea, Seung-Jin Lee, Md. Ahsanur Reza, Joong-Su Lee, Elias Gebru, Man-Hee Rhee and Seung-Chun Park*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro activity of florfenicol (F in combination with amoxicillin (AM or cefuroxime (CRM against pathogenic bacteria of animal origin, including E. coli, S. aureus, S. cholerasuis and P. mirabilis. The MIC of AM ranged from 16 to 256 μg/ml. The MBC of AM (64 μg/ml was four-fold higher than its MIC value (16 μg/ml for E. coli, and similar to the MIC for the other three species. The MIC of F ranged from 8 to 16 μg/ml. The MBC values of F for E. coli, S. aureus, and S. cholerasuis were eight-fold higher than the respective MIC values, and 32-fold higher than the MIC of P. mirabilis. The MIC of CRM ranged from 8 to 128 μg/ml. The MBC of CRM was the highest ( 256 μg/ml, except for E. coli. The F/AM combination resulted in synergism (FIC index  0.5 for E. coli, S. aureus, and P. mirabilis and in-difference (FIC index >1 for S. cholerasuis. For F/CRM combination, synergism (E. coli and S. cholerasuis and in-difference (S. aureus and P. mirabilis were observed. Killing rate study showed a 1.5 - > 3 log 10 cfu/ml reduction of E. coli with F/AM compared to AM or F alone. The highest activity of the combinations was observed when F comprised at least 50% of the combination. Further studies using many bacterial isolates and various proportion of each drug would reveal the potential of a combination product containing F and AM/CRM for use in veterinary practice.

  11. Acquired resistance of Nocardia brasiliensis to clavulanic acid related to a change in beta-lactamase following therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrube, V A; Wallace, R J; Brown, B A; Pang, Y; Zeluff, B; Steele, L C; Zhang, Y

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Nocardia brasiliensis is susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and that its beta-lactamases are inhibited in vitro by clavulanic acid. A cardiac transplant patient with disseminated infection caused by N. brasiliensis was treated with this drug combination with good response, but relapsed while still on therapy. The relapse isolate was found to be identical to the initial isolate by using genomic DNA restriction fragment patterns obtained by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, but it was resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. On isoelectric focusing, the beta-lactamase from the relapse isolate exhibited a shift in the isoelectric point (pI) of its major band from 5.10 to 5.04 compared with the enzyme from the pretreatment isolate. As determined by using values of the amount of beta-lactamase inhibitor necessary to give 50 +/- 5% inhibition of beta-lactamase-mediated hydrolysis of 50 microM nitrocefin, the beta-lactamase of the relapse isolate was also 200-fold more resistant than the enzyme from the pretreatment isolate to clavulanic acid and was more resistant to sulbactam, tazobactam, cloxacillin, and imipenem. The beta-lactamase of the relapse isolate exhibited a 10-fold decrease in hydrolytic activity for cephaloridine and other hydrolyzable cephalosporins compared with that for nitrocefin. Acquired resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in this isolate of N. brasiliensis appears to have resulted from a mutational change affecting the inhibitor and active site(s) in the beta-lactamase. Images PMID:2039203

  12. Effect of genetic algorithm as a variable selection method on different chemometric models applied for the analysis of binary mixture of amoxicillin and flucloxacillin: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Different chemometric models were applied for the quantitative analysis of amoxicillin (AMX), and flucloxacillin (FLX) in their binary mixtures, namely, partial least squares (PLS), spectral residual augmented classical least squares (SRACLS), concentration residual augmented classical least squares (CRACLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). All methods were applied with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm GA). The methods were used for the quantitative analysis of the drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and real market sample via handling the UV spectral data. Robust and simpler models were obtained by applying GA. The proposed methods were found to be rapid, simple and required no preliminary separation steps.

  13. An Open-label, Randomized Comparison of Levofloxacin and Amoxicillin/ Clavulanate plus Clarithromycin for the Treatment of Hospitalized Patients with Community-acquired Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Han-Pin Kuo; Ling-Ling Hsieh; Chih-Ten Yu; Horng-Chyuan Lin; Chien-Ying Liu; Min-Li Chang; Chun-Hua Wang; Yu-Min Wang; Chih-Jan Wang; Hao-Cheng Chen; Shu-Min Lin; Ting-Yu Lin; Chien-Da Huang

    2007-01-01

    Background: Anti-pneumococcal fluoroquinolone has been used to treat communityacquiredpneumonia (CAP) frequently because of its broad antimicrobialspectrum.Methods: This randomized, open-label study was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital.Eligible patients were randomized to levofloxacin 500 mg IV q24h followedby 500 mg orally q24h or a combination of amoxicillin/clavulanate500 mg/100 mg IV q8h with oral clarithromycin 500 mg q12h and then oralamoxicillin/clavulanate 250 mg/125 mg q8h w...

  14. Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of pH-Sensitive Oil Entrapped Polymeric Blend Amoxicillin Beads for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Girish Kumar; Singh, Satyawan; Nath, Gopal

    2012-01-01

    Oral pH sensitive drug delivery systems are of utmost importance as these systems deliver the drug at specific part of the gastrointestine (GI) as per the pH of GI, resulting in improved patient therapeutic efficacy and compliance. The pH range of fluids in various segments of the GI tract may provide environmental stimuli for drug release. The aim of this study was to design buoyant beads containing amoxicillin (Am) and to evaluate its potential for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H....

  15. Quality evaluation of domestic amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets%国产阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敏文; 袁耀佐; 张玫; 钱文; 侯玉荣; 赵恂; 范青峰; 胡昌勤

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the suitability of statutory standard and the quality condition of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. Methods: Using statutory methods to test the samples. Establish or improve some methods for the exploratory research: (1) Using the gradient elution method in ChP 2010 to determine the related substances for amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. (2)LC - MS method (Agilent 1100 IX! /MSD Trap) was carried on a shim -pack CLC -ODS C18column (4.6 mm x 150 mm,5 um Shimazu)to study the impurities profile of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. According to the result of this research,we established the new impurities calculation method(calculate in different division). (3)The stability of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in solution was detected in different time and temperature. (4) Use the crossed - validation method of NIR to validate and improve the qualitative and quantitative models using in the mobile Lab vehicle,and established the quantitativemodel of water - detection. (5)The automated sampling dissolution analyzer(SOTAX AT7 Smart) and the new established UPLC method (Agilent Technologies 1920 Infinity UPLC) were used to research the difference of dissolution behavior of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets between domestic and foreign tablets. Rseults: The quality of domestic amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets met the requirement of current statutory standards. 19 impurities were detected from the tablet. The result showed the impurities from different sources had obvious division, and the impurities of amoxicillin were eluted mainly after the peak of clavulanate in the chromatogram, whereas the impurities of clavulanate mainly before this peak. The off - standard rate of samples by using the new calculation method instead of the previous was increased significantly. The stability of the solution is not very good,especially clavulanate. Validate and improve the qualitative and

  16. Long-term changes in human colonic Bifidobacterium populations induced by a 5-day oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Irène; Lévêque, Christophe; Magne, Fabien; Suau, Antonia; Pochart, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the possible modifications due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) treatment on total bacteria and on Bifidobacterium species balance in human colonic microbiota. Eighteen healthy volunteers (19 to 36 years old) were given a 875/125 mg dose of AMC twice a day for 5 days. Fecal samples were obtained before and after antibiotic exposure. After total DNA extraction, total bacteria and bifidobacteria were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Dominant species were monitored over time using bacterial and bifidobacterial Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE). At the end of AMC exposure, total bacterial concentrations as well as bifidobacteria concentrations were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure:10.7±0.1 log(10) 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 11.1±0.1 log(10) (p = 0.003) and 8.1±0.5 log(10) 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 9.4±0.3 log(10) (p = 0.003), respectively. At the same time, the mean similarity percentages of TTGE bacteria and TTGE bifidobacteria profiles were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure: 51.6%±3.5% vs 81.4%±2.1% and 55.8%±7.6% vs 84.5%±4.1%, respectively. Occurrence of B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum species significantly decreased. Occurrence of B. longum remained stable. Moreover, the number of distinct Bifidobacterium species per sample significantly decreased (1.5±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3; p = 0.01). Two months after AMC exposure, the mean similarity percentage of TTGE profiles was 55.6% for bacteria and 62.3% for bifidobacteria. These results clearly demonstrated that a common antibiotic treatment may qualitatively alter the colonic microbiota. Such modifications may have potential long-term physiological consequences.

  17. Long-term changes in human colonic Bifidobacterium populations induced by a 5-day oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irène Mangin

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the possible modifications due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC treatment on total bacteria and on Bifidobacterium species balance in human colonic microbiota. Eighteen healthy volunteers (19 to 36 years old were given a 875/125 mg dose of AMC twice a day for 5 days. Fecal samples were obtained before and after antibiotic exposure. After total DNA extraction, total bacteria and bifidobacteria were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Dominant species were monitored over time using bacterial and bifidobacterial Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE. At the end of AMC exposure, total bacterial concentrations as well as bifidobacteria concentrations were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure:10.7±0.1 log(10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 11.1±0.1 log(10 (p = 0.003 and 8.1±0.5 log(10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 9.4±0.3 log(10 (p = 0.003, respectively. At the same time, the mean similarity percentages of TTGE bacteria and TTGE bifidobacteria profiles were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure: 51.6%±3.5% vs 81.4%±2.1% and 55.8%±7.6% vs 84.5%±4.1%, respectively. Occurrence of B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum species significantly decreased. Occurrence of B. longum remained stable. Moreover, the number of distinct Bifidobacterium species per sample significantly decreased (1.5±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3; p = 0.01. Two months after AMC exposure, the mean similarity percentage of TTGE profiles was 55.6% for bacteria and 62.3% for bifidobacteria. These results clearly demonstrated that a common antibiotic treatment may qualitatively alter the colonic microbiota. Such modifications may have potential long-term physiological consequences.

  18. [Efficacy and safety of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) dry syrup in the treatment of children with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Rinya; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Motoyama, Hidekatsu; Yarita, Masao

    2015-06-01

    To demonstrate clinical value of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (CVA/AMPC) 1:14 combination dry syrup for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS), the efficacy and safety were evaluated in a multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study in 27 children with ABRS. The proportion of subjects who were 'cured' at the test of cure as the primary endpoint was 88.5%. In subjects with a major pathogenic bacteria at baseline (i.e., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) bacterial eradication was achieved in ≥ 80% of the subjects with the exception of β-lactamase non-producing ampicillin resistant H. influenzae: BLNAR and β-lactamase producing ampicillin resistant H. influenzae: BLPAR (β-lactamase producing amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistant H. influenzae: BLPACR). The MIC of CVA/AMPC (1:14) was not higher than 4 μg/mL for all pathogens except one strain each of BLNAR and BLPAR (BLPACR). Drug-related adverse events were reported in 19% of patients (5/27 patients). All of the reported drug-related adverse events were classified as gastrointestinal disorders that have been commonly reported with antibacterial drugs. These results indicate that CVA/AMPC (1:14) was clinically useful for the treatment of ABRS and is also suggested that was effective especially for the treatment of ABRS in children caused by beta-lactamase-producing bacteria including M. catarrhalis.

  19. Determination of Amoxicillin Potassium Clavulanate Effervescent Tablets by HPLC%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾泡腾片的HPLC测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月联; 王健祥; 夏岭

    2001-01-01

    采用HPLC测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾泡腾片含量。用Spherisorb C18(250×4.6 mm, 10 μm)色谱柱,甲醇-磷酸盐缓冲液(10∶90)为流动相,流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长为220 nm。阿莫西林及克拉维酸钾的回收率分别为99.60%(RSD=0.83%)和99.64%(RSD=0.99%)。%Amoxicillin potassium clavulanate effervescent tablets were determined by HPLC, using Spherisorb C18 column with the mobile phase of methanol-phosphate buffer (10∶90) at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, and the detection wavelength of 220 nm. The average recoveries of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate were 99.60% (RSD=0.83%) and 99.64% (RSD=0.99%), respectively.

  20. A randomized trial of the efficacy and safety of sequential intravenous/oral moxifloxacin monotherapy versus intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate for complicated skin and skin structure infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyssens, I.C.J.; Dryden, M.; Kujath, P.; Nathwani, D.; Schaper, N.; Hampel, B.; Reimnitz, P.; Alder, J.; Arvis, P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the RELIEF study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two sequential intravenous (iv)/oral regimens: moxifloxacin iv/oral versus piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) iv followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study had a prospective, ra

  1. Clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in patients with adult periodontitis : A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, EG; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Barendregt, DS; van der Weijden, GA; Timmerman, MF; van der Velden, U

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with systemic amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid in adult periodontitis patients using a double-blind, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled protocol. 21 patients wit

  2. Betalactámicos con inhibidores de betalactamasas: Amoxicilina-sulbactam Betalactam antibiotics combined with bectalactamases inhibitors: Amoxicillin-sulbactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barcelona

    2008-02-01

    de infecciones de piel y partes blandas e infecciones intraabdominales.Betalactamases production is one of the main bacterial resistance mechanisms to betalactam antibiotics. The use of bectalactamases inhibitors combined with betalactam antibiotics allows the inactivation of certain betalactamases produced by Gram positive, Gram negative and anaerobic organisms, and even by mycobacteria. Betalactamases inhibitors are an improved therapeutic alternative compared with the other betalactam since, in most cases, they cover a wider antimicrobial spectrum than their analogues. Betalactamases enzimatic activity is specifically directed to the betalactam ring hydrolisis, producing a compound without antibacterial activity. According to their genomic position within microorganisms, betalactamases can be either chromosomic or plasmidic. Currently there are three betalactamases inhibitors locally available: clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam. Of them, only sulbactam has an intrinsic antimicrobial activity against penicillin binding proteins. The clinical experience from over 20 years confirms that the combination of betalactam antibiotics is effective in the empirical initial treatment of respiratory, intraabdominal, urinary tract and gynecologic infections, including those of polymicrobial origin. In the specific case of amoxicillin-sulbactam, experiences have shown the effectiveness of the combination in the treatment of peritonsillar abscess, otitis media, sinusitis, community acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonar disease (COPD, urinary tract infection and obstetric/ gynecologic infections. The spectrum and pharmacologic properties of this combination makes it also an excellent option for the treatment of skin/soft tissue and intraabdominal infections.

  3. Adsorptivity of amoxicillin from the aqueous solutions with organic bentonite%有机膨润土对溶液中阿莫西林的吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查双兴; 周琰; 金晓英; 陈祖亮

    2012-01-01

    应用膨润土吸附阿莫西林,探讨了4种吸附剂的吸附效果,并以改性十六烷基三甲基铵盐(DKI)为试验材料,研究了吸附时间、溶液pH值、投加量、初始质量浓度和温度等因素对有机膨润土吸附溶液中阿莫西林效果的影响.结果表明,在自然pH值条件下,DKI的吸附剂效果最佳,且吸附在15 min内快速达到平衡.吸附过程符合伪二级动力学方程,同时符合Freundlich、Langmuir和Temkin型等温吸附方程,是个吸热的过程,Langmuir理论最大吸附容量在30℃时可达27.86 mg/g.对等温方程的研究表明,DKI对阿莫西林的吸附呈单分子层形式,吸附性能良好,易于进行.%This paper is concerned about our research report of the adsorptivity of amoxicillin from the aqueous solutions with the help of organic bentonite. As a technical process, amoxicillin is a widely used in penicillin-like antibiotic, though its residue may have toxic impact on the algae and other lower organisms within the food chain. Adsorption. as a chemical process to remove contaminants from water and/or other liquids, has also been widely used in modern technology. So far as we know, of the four bentoniles, DK1 modified with hexadeeyl trimethyl ammonium is generally regarded as the moat effective absorbent. The removal percentages of amoxicillin account for 97.9 and 13.8% for DKl and Na-B, respectively. More modified bentonite proves much more effective than unmodified one. The conditions influencing the adsorption of DK1 for amoxicillin may include the contact time, pH value, the initial concentration and tempera- ture, dosage to be used, etc. The results of our batch adsorption experiments indicate that under the natural pH, the adsorption of DK1 can reach its equilibrium quickly in a period of time of 15 min, with pH being a crucial factor that may affect the adsorption. However, with the increase of amoxicillin and the dosage from 1 to 15 g/L, the adsorption capacity( qe) tends to

  4. 注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠在输液中的稳定性%Study on the stability of Amoxicillin Sodium and Flucloxacillin Sodium for injection in infusion solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋旭莹; 胡燕; 方明艳; 余洪秀; 金轶俊; 陈俊武

    2011-01-01

    目的:考察注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠在10%葡萄糖注射液和0.9%氯化钠注射液中的稳定性.方法:注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠分别与10%葡萄糖注射液和0.9%氯化钠注射液配伍后常温放置,观察配伍溶液的外观、pH值和含量变化.结果:注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠在10%葡萄糖注射液2 h内稳定,在0.9%氯化钠注射液中4 h内稳定.结论:注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠可与0.9%氯化钠注射液配伍应用.%Objective: To study the stability of Amoxicillin Sodium and Flucloxacillin Sodium in 10% glucose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Methods: Amoxicillin Sodium and Flucloxacillin Sodium for injection was combined with 10% glucose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection respectively and placed at room temperature, the appearance and pH were observed and the change of content was determined. Results: Amoxicillin Sodium and Flucloxacillin Sodium for injection was stable within 2 h in 10% glucose injection and within 4 h in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.Conclusion: Amoxicillin Sodium and Flucloxacillin Sodium for injection can be combined with 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

  5. 氟氯西林镁阿莫西林颗粒剂的HPLC法测定%Determination of Flucloxacillin Magnesium and Amoxicillin Granules by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕琦; 王欣

    2011-01-01

    An HPLC method was established for the determination of flucloxacillin magnesium and amoxicillin granules. A C18 column was used with mobile phase A of 0.02 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution (adjusted to pH 6.5 with 2 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution, containing 1.5% cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)-acetonitrile (60∶ 40) and mobile phase B of 0.02 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution (adjusted to pH 6.5 with 2 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution, containing 1.5% cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)-acetonitrile (30∶70) at the detection wavelength of 254 nm. The calibration curves offlucloxacillin and amoxicillin were linear in the range of 250 -2 500 μg/ml.Their average recoveries were 99.9% and 100.4%, with RSDs of 0.87% and 0.77%.%建立了HPLC法测定氟氯西林镁阿莫西林颗粒剂的含量.采用C_18色谱柱,流动相A为0.02 mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液(用2 mol/L氢氧化钠溶液调至pH 6.5,含1.5%溴化十六烷基三甲铵)-乙腈(60:40),流动相B为0.02 mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液(用2 mol/L氢氧化钠溶液调至pH 6.5,含1.5%溴化十六烷基三甲铵)-乙睛(30:70),线性梯度洗脱;检测波长254 mn.氟氯西林和阿莫西林在250~2 500 Rg/ml浓度范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率为99.9%和100.4%,RSD为0.87%和0.77%.

  6. Stomach specific polymeric low density microballoons as a vector for extended delivery of rabeprazole and amoxicillin for treatment of peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sandeep; Jain, Ashay; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Mishra, Vijay; Agrawal, Govind P; Kesharwani, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    The study was intended to develop a new intra-gastric floating in situ microballoons system for controlled delivery of rabeprazole sodium and amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Eudragit S-100 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose based low density microballoons systems were fabricated by employing varying concentrations of Eudragit S-100 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, to which varying concentrations of drug was added, and formulated by stirring at various speed and time to optimize the process and formulation variable. The formulation variables like concentration and ratio of polymers significantly affected the in vitro drug release from the prepared floating device. The validation of the gastro-retentive potential of the prepared microballoons was carried out in rabbits by orally administration of microballoons formulation containing radio opaque material. The developed formulations showed improved buoyancy and lower ulcer index as compared to that seen with plain drugs. Ulcer protective efficacies were confirmed in ulcer-bearing mouse model. In conclusion, greater compatibility, higher gastro-retention and higher anti-ulcer activity of the presently fabricated formulations to improve potential of formulation for redefining ulcer treatment are presented here. These learning exposed a targeted and sustained drug delivery potential of prepared microballoons in gastric region for ulcer therapeutic intervention as corroborated by in vitro and in vivo findings and, thus, deserves further attention for improved ulcer treatment. PMID:26859118

  7. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species.

  8. Partial Least-Squares and Linear Support Vector Regression Chemometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Amoxicillin Trihydrate and Dicloxacillin Sodium in the Presence of Their Common Impurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Ibrahim A; Abdelaleem, Eglal A; Zaazaa, Hala E; Hussein, Essraa A

    2016-07-01

    Two multivariate chemometric models, namely, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and linear support vector regression (SVR), are presented for the analysis of amoxicillin trihydrate and dicloxacillin sodium in the presence of their common impurity (6-aminopenicillanic acid) in raw materials and in pharmaceutical dosage form via handling UV spectral data and making a modest comparison between the two models, highlighting the advantages and limitations of each. For optimum analysis, a three-factor, four-level experimental design was established, resulting in a training set of 16 mixtures containing different ratios of interfering species. To validate the prediction ability of the suggested models, an independent test set consisting of eight mixtures was used. The presented results show the ability of the two proposed models to determine the two drugs simultaneously in the presence of small levels of the common impurity with high accuracy and selectivity. The analysis results of the dosage form were statistically compared to a reported HPLC method, with no significant difference regarding accuracy and precision, indicating the ability of the suggested multivariate calibration models to be reliable and suitable for routine analysis of the drug product. Compared to the PLSR model, the SVR model gives more accurate results with a lower prediction error, as well as high generalization ability; however, the PLSR model is easy to handle and fast to optimize. PMID:27305461

  9. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species. PMID:27219711

  10. Efficacy of ebrotidine and ranitidine combined with amoxicillin and metronidazole in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiela, T; Kulig, J; Karcz, D; Tabor, J; Torres, J; Márquez, M; Fillat, O; Herrero, E; Ortiz, J A

    1997-04-01

    This double-blind, randomized, phase III clinical trial was carried out in two parallel groups to assess the efficacy of ebrotidine (N-[(E)-[[2-[[[2-[(diaminomethylene) amino]-4-thiazolyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]amino] methylene]-4-bromo-benzenesulfonamide, CAS 100981-43-9, FI-3542) 400 mg and ranitidine 300 mg given in single evening dose, combined with amoxicillin 750 mg and metronidazole 500 mg three times daily for 14 days, in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with duodenal ulcer. Thirty patients were included, divided into two groups of 15, to whom one of the study therapies was administered based on a randomization code. Clinical and endoscopic controls were performed 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the onset of the treatment. No differences were seen between the two treatment groups with regard to demographic parameters and clinical histories. They were both perfectly homogeneous. There were no differences between the eradication of both therapies in both the antrum and gastric body samples (over 80% eradication), allowing the results to be classified as satisfactory. Moreover, perfect control was achieved through the study of clinical symptoms, which even disappeared in some cases. There were no differences in the healing rate of the duodenal ulcer after four weeks, 86.7% being achieved for both groups.

  11. 阿莫西林与阿莫西林双氯西林钠对幽门螺杆菌根治的对照研究%The comparative study of amoxicillin and amoxicillin dicloxacillin sodium for the eradication of H.pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯金珍; 郑建玮; 张志阳; 陈雅真

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effecacy of amoxicillin and amoxicillin didoxacillin sodium for the eradication of H. pylori. Methods Totally 155 helicobaeter pylori - infected patients with peptic ulcer diagnosed by endoscopy were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into three groups, and drugs were given as follows: each of the 52 patients of group A was given lansoprazole 30 mg + amoxicillm 1. 0 g + tinidazole 0. 5 g; each of the 51 patients of group B was given lansoprazole 30 mg + amoxicillin didoxacillin sodium 0. 75 g + tinidazole 0. 5 g; each of the 52 patients of group C was given lansoprazole 30 mg + amoxicillin didoxacillin sodium 1. 5 g + tinidazole 0. 5 g. All drugs were given twice a day for seven days. After finishing of H. pylori therapy at least four weeks, and after withdrawing of PPI at least two weeks, we compared the H. pylori status, ulcer healing, and side - effects among three groups by inquisition, endosecopy and 13C breathing test. Results There was significant difference of the H. pylori eradication rate among the three groups ( P 0. 05) among the three groups. There was significant difference among the three groups (P <0. 05). The results between group A and group B were significantly different(P <0. 0167). The results between group A and group C were not significantly different, either were the results between group B and group C. The rate of ADR showed no significant difference among the three groups. Conclusion Comparison of three groups, amoxicillin, which has highest H. pylori eradication rate, highest ulcerative healing, lowest incidence of ADR, is better than amoxicillin dicloxacillin sodium as an antibiotics for H. pylori eradication.%目的 评价阿莫西林与阿莫西林双氯西林钠对幽门螺杆菌(H.pylori)的疗效.方法 155例确诊为消化性溃疡(PU)(A期)且H.pylori阳性的患者随机分为3组,A组52例,给予兰索拉唑30 mg+阿莫西林1.0g+替硝唑0.5g;B组51例,给予兰索拉唑30 mg

  12. Molecular identification of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid isolated in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Marta; Miró, Elisenda; Ortega, Adriana; Bou, Germán; González-López, Juan José; Oliver, Antonio; Pascual, Alvaro; Cercenado, Emilia; Oteo, Jesús; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Navarro, Ferran

    2015-08-01

    The activity of eight aminoglycosides (amikacin, apramycin, arbekacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin) against a collection of 257 amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates was determined by microdilution. Aminoglycoside resistance rates, the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes, the relationship between AME gene detection and resistance phenotype to aminoglycosides, and the association of AME genes with mechanisms of AMC resistance in E. coli isolates in Spain were investigated. Aminoglycoside-resistant isolates were screened for the presence of genes encoding common AMEs [aac(3)-Ia, aac(3)-IIa, aac(3)-IVa, aac(6')-Ib, ant(2″)-Ia, ant(4')-IIa and aph(3')-Ia] or 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtB, rmtC and npmA). In total, 105 isolates (40.9%) were resistant to at least one of the aminoglycosides tested. Amikacin, apramycin and arbekacin showed better activity, with MIC90 values of 2mg/L (arbekacin) and 8mg/L (amikacin and apramycin). Kanamycin presented the highest MIC90 (128mg/L). The most common AME gene was aac(6')-Ib (36 strains; 34.3%), followed by aph(3')-Ia (31 strains; 29.5%), ant(2″)-Ia (29 strains; 27.6%) and aac(3)-IIa (23 strains; 21.9%). aac(3)-Ia, aac(3)-IVa, ant(4')-IIa and the four methylases were not detected. The ant(2″)-Ia gene was usually associated with OXA-1 [21/30; 70%], whilst 23/25 (92%) strains producing CTX-M-15 had the aac(6')-Ib gene. The most prevalent AME gene was aac(6')-Ib (18/41; 44%) in nosocomial isolates, whilst ant(2″)-Ia and aph(3')-Ia genes (20/64; 31%) were more frequent in strains of community origin. In 64.6% isolates the phenotypic profile correlated with the presence of commonly encountered AMEs.

  13. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾脉冲胶囊的制备%Preparation of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Pulsatile Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 张涛; 黄华

    2011-01-01

    Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium pellets were prepared by extrude-spheronization method.The pH-dependent pulsatile capsules were prepared by the above pellets uncoated, Eudragit(R) L30D-55 coated pellets and Eudragit S100 coated pellets with the ratio of 1 ∶ 1∶ 1. The in vitro release of pH dependent pulsatile capsules was discussed. The effects of coating level and HPMC insulation layer on in vitro released were performed. The pulsatile capsules exhibited an excellent pH dependent release profile in pH 2.0, pH 6.0 and pH 7.8 phosphate buffer solution.%采用挤出滚圆法制备阿莫西林克拉维酸钾微丸,再分别以Eudragit(R)L30D-55和Eudragit(R)S100包衣.将上述3种在不同pH条件下释放的微丸按等比例混匀后装入囊壳,得脉冲胶囊.并进行了体外释放度研究.考察了包衣增重以及pH敏感型材料包衣后添加HPMC隔离层对体外释放度的影响.结果显示,制备的脉冲胶囊在pH 2.0、6.0和7.8的磷酸盐缓冲液中,呈pH依赖型的脉冲释药.

  14. 氟氯西林钠阿莫西林治疗呼吸系感染80例临床观察%Clinical Observation of 80 Cases of Flucloxacillin Sodium Amoxicillin Treatment of Respiratory Tract Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔方

    2013-01-01

      目的观察氟氯西林钠阿莫西林胶囊在治疗呼吸系感染疾病的临床疗效,评价其应用价值。方法80例临床呼吸道感染患者随机分为治疗组40例和对照组40例。对照组给予头孢克洛片,治疗组给予氟氯西林钠阿莫西林胶囊,两周一个疗程。结果治疗组的显效率和总有效率高于对照组;治疗组的细菌清除率为100%,优于对照组细菌清除率的94.7%。结论氟氯西林钠阿莫西林可安全有效地治疗呼吸道感染疾病。%  Objective Observe clinical curative effect flucloxacillin sodium amoxicillin capsule in the treatment of respiratory system infection disease , evaluate its application value. Methods 80 cases of clinical respiratory tract infection patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group forty cases and cases. Control group received cefaclor tablet, the treatment group was given flucloxacillin sodium amoxicillin capsule, two weeks a treatment. Results Treatment group’s total effective rate of significant and the efficiency are higher than those in the control group;the treatment group of bacteria clearance is 100%,better than control bacterial clearance’s 94.7%. Conclusion Respiratory tract infection can be effectively and safely treated by Ampicillin sodium amoxicillin fluorine chlorine.

  15. Measurement of Activity of Synthesis Amoxicillin from Immobilized Penicillin Acylase%固定化青霉素酰化酶合成阿莫西林活性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严正人; 朱军; 刘慧勤; 魏士倩; 张海燕; 李红颖; 刘丹

    2015-01-01

    The level of activity of immobilized penicillin acylase is the important factor which affects the speed of enzymatic synthesis of amoxicillin, thus it plays signiifcant role how to determine synthetic activity of immobilized penicillin acylase. Currently, the determination of activity of penicillin acylase is focus on hydrolytic activity of penicillin acylase. But there is lack of the reports on determination in activity of synthesis of amoxicillin, which leads to the fact that fast determination of the synthesis speed from penicillin acylase to amoxicillin may be impossible and the production cannot be guided from theory. In this article, the activity of amoxicillin synthesized from penicillin acylase was deifned and the method for measuring the activity was studied. It was shown that this method is easy to operate and the result is accurate and reliable. Moreover, by using this method the activities of penicillin acylases produced from different factories are easy to be compared so that the comparing results can be used as guidance for production.%固定化青霉素酰化酶的活性高低是影响酶催化合成阿莫西林速度的决定性因素,如何测定固定化青霉素酰化酶的合成活性起着至关重要的作用。目前,对青霉素酰化酶活性的测定主要集中在青霉素酰化酶的水解活性,而对其合成阿莫西林活性的研究较少,这导致不能快速的鉴别青霉素酰化酶合成阿莫西林的快慢,不能有效的指导生产。文章对固定化青霉素酰化酶合成阿莫西林的活性进行了定义,并研究了合成活性的测定方法,该测定方法准确可靠,操作简捷,便于比较不同厂家生产的青霉素酰化酶活性的高低,对工业生产起指导作用。

  16. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性%InjectedwithSodiumAmoxicillinClavulanicAcidPotassiumandSodiumChlorideInjectionCompatibilityStability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability was analyzed to explore, to provide a reference basis for the rational use of drugs in the future. Methods Select A batch of injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection for compatibility, and 3 hours after compatibility respectively under different temperature to observation of the appearance of the liquid, pH value, at the same time the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) amoxicillin clavulanic acid and sodium potassium content determination, determine the stability of compatibility of liquid. Results In the study found that sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability is affected by the factors such as temperature and sunlight. Conclusion Poor compatibility stability of liquid, should avoid direct sunlight or at high temperatures is not easy to for a long time.%  目的对注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性进行分析探讨,为今后的合理用药提供参考依据。方法选取一批注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾和氯化钠注射液进行配伍,并在配伍后的3h内分别在不同温度下对药液的外观、pH值进行观察,同时采取高效液相色谱法对阿莫西林钠与克拉维酸钾含量进行测定,判断配伍液的稳定性。结果研究中发现阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性受到温度、日光等因素的影响。结论配伍液稳定性不佳,应避免阳光直射或者是在高温条件下不易久置。

  17. Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Profiles Are not Associated with Risk of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Induced Liver Injury in Spanish Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Camilla; Moreno-Casares, Antonia; López-Nevot, Miguel-Ángel; García-Cortés, Miren; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada; Hallal, Hacibe; Soriano, German; Roman, Eva; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Lucena, M Isabel; Andrade, Raúl J

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer cells are an integral part of the immune system and represent a large proportion of the lymphocyte population in the liver. The activity of these cells is regulated by various cell surface receptors, such as killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands on the target cell. The composition of KIR receptors has been suggested to influence the development of specific diseases, in particularly autoimmune diseases, cancer and reproductive diseases. The role played in idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is currently unknown. In this study, we examined KIR gene profiles and HLA class I polymorphisms in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC) DILI patients in search for potential risk associations. One hundred and two AC DILI patients and 226 controls were genotyped for the presence or absence of 16 KIR loci, including the two pseudogenes 2DP1 and 3DP1. No significant differences were found in the distribution of individual KIRs between patients and controls, which were comparable to previously reported KIR data from ethnically similar cohorts. The 21.6 and 21.2% of the patients and controls, respectively, were homozygous haplotype A carriers, while 78.4 and 78.8%, respectively, contained at least one B haplotype (Bx). The genotypes translated into 27 (AC DILI) and 46 (controls) different gene profiles, with 19 being present in both groups. The most frequent Bx gene profile containing KIRs 2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DP1, 2DL1, 3DL1, 2DS4, 3DL2, 3DL3, 2DL4, and 3PD1 was present in 16% of the DILI patients and 14% of the controls. The distribution of HLA class I epitopes did not differ significantly between AC DILI patients and controls. The most frequent receptor-ligand combinations in the DILI patients were 2DL3 + epitope C1 (67%) and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (67%), while 2DL1 + epitope C2 (69%) and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (69%) predominated in the controls. This is to our knowledge the first analysis of KIR receptor-HLA ligand

  18. Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Profiles Are not Associated with Risk of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate–Induced Liver Injury in Spanish Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Camilla; Moreno-Casares, Antonia; López-Nevot, Miguel-Ángel; García-Cortés, Miren; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada; Hallal, Hacibe; Soriano, German; Roman, Eva; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Lucena, M. Isabel; Andrade, Raúl J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer cells are an integral part of the immune system and represent a large proportion of the lymphocyte population in the liver. The activity of these cells is regulated by various cell surface receptors, such as killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands on the target cell. The composition of KIR receptors has been suggested to influence the development of specific diseases, in particularly autoimmune diseases, cancer and reproductive diseases. The role played in idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is currently unknown. In this study, we examined KIR gene profiles and HLA class I polymorphisms in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC) DILI patients in search for potential risk associations. One hundred and two AC DILI patients and 226 controls were genotyped for the presence or absence of 16 KIR loci, including the two pseudogenes 2DP1 and 3DP1. No significant differences were found in the distribution of individual KIRs between patients and controls, which were comparable to previously reported KIR data from ethnically similar cohorts. The 21.6 and 21.2% of the patients and controls, respectively, were homozygous haplotype A carriers, while 78.4 and 78.8%, respectively, contained at least one B haplotype (Bx). The genotypes translated into 27 (AC DILI) and 46 (controls) different gene profiles, with 19 being present in both groups. The most frequent Bx gene profile containing KIRs 2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DP1, 2DL1, 3DL1, 2DS4, 3DL2, 3DL3, 2DL4, and 3PD1 was present in 16% of the DILI patients and 14% of the controls. The distribution of HLA class I epitopes did not differ significantly between AC DILI patients and controls. The most frequent receptor-ligand combinations in the DILI patients were 2DL3 + epitope C1 (67%) and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (67%), while 2DL1 + epitope C2 (69%) and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (69%) predominated in the controls. This is to our knowledge the first analysis of KIR receptor-HLA ligand

  19. Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Profiles are not Associated with risk of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Induced Liver Injury in Spanish Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Stephens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells are an integral part of the immune system and represent a large proportion of the lymphocyte population in the liver. The activity of these cells is regulated by various cell surface receptors, such as killer Ig-like receptors (KIR that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I ligands on the target cell. The composition of KIR receptors has been suggested to influence the development of specific diseases, in particularly autoimmune diseases, cancer and reproductive diseases. The role played in idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI is currently unknown. In this study we examined KIR gene profiles and HLA class I polymorphisms in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC DILI patients in search for potential risk associations. 102 AC DILI patients and 226 controls were genotyped for the presence or absence of 16 KIR loci, including the two pseudogenes 2DP1 and 3DP1. No significant differences were found in the distribution of individual KIRs between patients and controls, which were comparable to previously reported KIR data from ethnically similar cohorts. 21.6% and 21.2% of the patients and controls, respectively, were homozygous haplotype A carriers, while 78.4% and 78.8%, respectively, contained at least one B haplotype (Bx. The genotypes translated into 27 (AC DILI and 46 (controls different gene profiles, with 19 being present in both groups. The most frequent Bx gene profile containing 2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DP1, 2DL1, 3DL1, 2DS4, 3DL2, 3DL3, 2DL4 and 3PD1 was present in 16% of the DILI patients and 14% of the controls. The distribution of HLA class I epitopes did not differ significantly between AC DILI patients and controls. The most frequent receptor-ligand combinations in the DILI patients were 2DL3 + epitope C1 (67% and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (67%, while 2DL1 + epitope C2 (69% and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (69% predominated in the controls. This is to our knowledge the first analysis of KIR receptor-HLA ligand associations in DILI

  20. [Antibacterial activity for clinical isolates from pediatric patients of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) -outcomes of special drug use investigation on antibacterial activity (annual changes)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Naomi; Okano, Hideyuki; Hara, Terufumi; Yoshida, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    As a special drug use investigation, we monitored and assessed trends in antibacterial activity of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1:14) (hereafter, "CVA/AMPC (1:14)") and other antimicrobial agents for clinical isolates from pediatric patients with otitis media or respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis isolated and identified from otorrhea, epipharynx and rhinorrhea of pediatric patients with otitis media, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in five years between 2006-2010 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae and 8 microg/mL for H. influenzae and 0.25-0.5microg/mL for M catarrhalis. The changes of MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) for penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) and beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae were two times, and no decrease in drug susceptibility was found in the period of the present investigation. In addition, the MIC changes of other antimicrobial agents for these three organisms were approximately two to four times as well. Against organisms isolated and identified from pus, sputum, pharynx, skin and urine of pediatric patients with respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in four years between 2008-2011 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae, < or =0.06microg/mL for penicillin susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) without any change, 0.5-1 microg/mL for penicillin intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP) with a twofold change and 1 microg/mL for PRSP with no change. The MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) were 2-8 microg/mL for S. aureus with a fourfold change, 2 microg/mL for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus without any change, 4-8 microg/mL for H. influenzae with a twofold change. Against beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae, MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) were 1 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin susceptible (BLNAS), 8 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR), showing no change. Neither

  1. 气相色谱法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片中的乙醇残留量%Determination of Ethanol in Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Tablets by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔霁虹; 臧恒昌; 王彦厚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for the determination of residual ethanol in Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Tablets. Methods GC with FID detector was adopted, and nitrogen was selected as the carrier gas. Results There is an excellent linearity between the peak area and the content of ethanol in the range of 0.316-2.37 g/mL. Conclusion The method was simple, accurate and of good reproducibility, and can be used for the determination of residual ethanol in Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Tablets.%目的:建立一种测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片中乙醇残留量的方法。方法采用气相色谱法测定乙醇残留量,载气为氮气。结果0.316~2.37μg/mL范围内,峰面积与乙醇浓度间呈良好的线性关系。结论该方法操作简单、准确、重复性好、灵敏度高,可用于阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片中乙醇残留量的测定。

  2. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans after Systemic Administration of Amoxicillin Plus Metronidazole as an Adjunct to Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakic, Aleksandar; Boillot, Adrien; Colliot, Cyrille; Carra, Maria-Clotilde; Czernichow, Sébastien; Bouchard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variations in the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and/or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans before and after systemic administration of amoxicillin plus metronidazole in association with non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Background: The adjunctive use of antibiotics has been advocated to improve the clinical outcomes of NSPT. However, no systematic review has investigated the microbiological benefit of this combination. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was conducted up to December 2015. Randomized clinical trials comparing the number of patients testing positive for P. gingivalis and/or A. actinomycetemcomitans before and after NSPT with (test group) or without (control group) amoxicillin plus metronidazole were included. The difference between groups in the variation of positive patients was calculated using the inverse variance method with a random effects model. Results: The frequency of patients positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans was decreased by 30% (p = 0.002) and by 25% (p = 0.01) in the test group compared to the control group at 3- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Similar findings were observed when considering the frequency of patients positive for Porphyromonas gingivalis, with a reduction by 28% (p periodontal therapy alone or with a placebo. PMID:27594851

  3. Molecular modelling of four penicillins: bencylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin Modelación molecular de cuatro penicilinas: bencilpenicilina, fenoximetilpenicilina, ampicilina y amoxicilina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslhey María Sánchez Domínguez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background:Penicillins differ structurally among themselves by the lateral chains. At the same time, they have differences in their pharmacological action that can be associated to modifications included in the betalactamic ring and/or effects localized in the same chains. Making it clear would be a contribution to the search of the most adequate structural and electronic characteristics to design better penicillins. Objective:To compare structural properties, density of the atomic charges and the frontier orbitals of four penicillins: bencylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin. Method:The molecular structures were optimized with PM3 semiempirical calculi. The molecular properties were calculated according to the Density Functional Theory, at a B3LYP/6-31G(d level. The density of the atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. The effect of the substituents on the properties of the betalactamic ring was evaluated. Results: The structural parameters of the betalactamic ring do not change as consequence of the modifications in the lateral chain linked to carbon 6. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. There are no variations in the density of the positive charge of the carbonylic carbon. Conclusions: The structures and electronic properties of the betalactamic ring, structural basis of these antibiotics, do not have significant modifications among modelled penicillins.

    Fundamento: Las penicilinas se diferencian estructuralmente entre sí por las cadenas laterales. Al mismo tiempo, poseen diferencias en su acción farmacológica, que pueden estar asociadas a modificaciones inducidas en el anillo betalactámico y/o efectos localizados en las propias cadenas. Esclarecerlo, sería un aporte en la búsqueda de las características estructurales y electrónicas más adecuadas para el diseño de

  4. 阿莫西林原料药中有关物质的UPLC-TOF-MS/MS鉴定%Identification of related substances in amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients by UPLC-TOF-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷勇胜; 宋丽明; 郝英魁; 王云; 李瑜; 蒋庆峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:快速鉴定阿莫西林原料药中的有关物质。方法采用UPLC-TOF-MS/MS法测定。Waters Acquity UPLCTM BEH色谱柱(100 mm×2.1 mm,1.7μm);流动相为乙酸铵体系;体积流量0.5 mL/min;检测波长254 nm;柱温30℃;进样量10μL。电喷雾电离源;正离子检测;毛细管电压3.0 kV;离子源温度120℃;雾化气温度500℃;雾化气体积流量700 L/h;锥孔气体积流量50 L/h。结果推测了阿莫西林原料药中6个杂质的化学结构及其裂解规律,同时与欧洲药典中的杂质进行了比对归属。结论建立的UPLC-TOF-MS/MS的方法和实验数据可为阿莫西林原料药的质量控制提供了重要依据。%Objective To establish a rapid identification method for related substances in amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients. Methods UPLC-TOF-MS/MS method was used. HPLC was carried out on Waters Acquity UPLCTM BEH column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7μm) with ammonium acetate solution as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 254 nm and injection volume was 10μL at the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The column temperature was set for 30℃. MS conditions were that a mass spectrometry equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) (+) source for detection. Capillary voltage was 3.0 kV, and source temperature was 120℃. The desolvation temperature and flow rate of desolvation gas were 500℃ and 700 L/h. The flow rate of cone gas was 50 L/h. Results The structures and fragmentation regularities of six related substances in amoxicillin were elucidated according to their MS characteristics. At the same time, related substances were compared to the impurities from European Pharmacopoeia. Conclusion UPLC-TOF-MS/MS method and results can establish a basis for quality control and stability study of amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  5. Determination of amoxicillin content in powdered pharmaceutical formulations using DRIFTS and PLS Determinação de amoxicilina em formulações farmacêuticas em pó empregando DRIFTS-PLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Parisotto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of amoxicillin in pharmaceutical formulations was determined using spectra of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS, in association with partial least squares (PLS regression. The spectra of 24 different samples (17 for the calibration set and 7 for the validation set, which had been registered using a Nicolet Magna 550 spectrophotometer, contained 76.7-94.3% of amoxicillin in starch. The PLS models were constructed with auto-scaled or variance-scaled data, and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC. The best model presented R²=0.9936, RMSEC=0.441 and RMSEV=0.790. The analytical method proposed is non-destructive and the cost and time of analysis are very much reduced, allowing for the fast and direct determination of amoxicillin content.Neste trabalho propõe-se a quantificação de amoxicilina em formulações farmacêuticas empregando espectroscopia por refletância difusa no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (DRIFTS e regressão por mínimos quadrados parciais (PLS. Foram coletados em um espectrômetro Nicolet Magna 550 os espectros de 24 amostras (17 para o conjunto de calibração e 7 para o conjunto de validação contendo de 76,7-94,3 % de amoxicilina em amido. Para a construção dos modelos PLS foi empregada a correção do espalhamento de luz (MSC e os dados foram autoescalados ou escalados pela variância. Foi obtido um excelente modelo para a previsão da amoxicilina o qual apresentou R²=0,9936, RMSEC=0,441 e RMSEV=0,790. O método proposto além de não destrutivo apresenta baixo tempo de análise e baixo custo podendo ser facilmente empregado no controle de qualidade das indústrias farmacêuticas.

  6. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎疗效分析%Efifcacy Analysis of Amoxicillin/clavulanic Acid in Treatment of Children With Purulent Tonsillitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽君; 李雅琪

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效。方法将化脓性扁桃体炎患儿62例随机分为两组各31例,治疗组给予阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗,对照组应用阿奇霉素治疗,对比其疗效。结果两组退热、脓点消失及白细胞恢复正常时间比较无明显差异(P>0.05),但治疗组的总有效率(96.77%)高于对照组(80.65%),比较有统计学差异(P<0.05)。两组均无明显不良反应发生。结论阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效确切,且安全可靠。%Objective To analyze the efficacy of amoxicillin / clavulanic acid therapy in children with purulent tonsillitis.Methods62 cases of suppurative tonsillitis in children were randomly divided into two groups of 31 cases, the treatment group received amoxicillin / clavulanic acid therapy, application of the reference group treated with azithromycin, compared to its efifcacy.Results There were fever, pus spots disappear and leukocyte recovery time was no significant difference (P>0.05), but the treatment group total effective rate (96.77%) was signiifcantly higher than the reference group (80.65%). There were signiifcant differences (P<0.05). There were no significant adverse events.Conclusion The efficacy of amoxicillin / clavulanate potassium treatment of children with purulent tonsillitis exact, and secure.

  7. Incompatibility with ambroxol in amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection%注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与沐舒坦的配伍禁忌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓竹; 邹利文; 蒋安定; 简祖丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾是否与沐舒坦(盐酸氨溴索注射液)存在配伍禁忌。方法观察和分析配伍试液。结果配伍试液存在沉淀物。结论注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾和沐舒坦(盐酸氨溴索)之间确实存在配伍禁忌,应当引起高度重视。为预防类似现象的发生,建议在输入阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾时禁止将盐酸氨溴索入壶或接续静点。使用时应以葡萄糖溶液或生理盐水溶液冲尽输液管内余液后再接续输入其他药物,以防药物在输液管滴壶内发生沉淀或混浊反应。%ABSTRACT:Objective To analyze the use of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium and whether Mucosolvan injection (ambroxol hydrochloride injection) are incompatibility. Methods to observe and analysis the compatibility solution. the compatibility test solution for sediment. Amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection andambroxol conclusion (ambroxol hydrochloride) exists between the incompatibility, should cause height to take seriously.For the prevention of similar phenomenon,suggest that in the input of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium banned the use ofambroxol hydrochloride into the pot or static point Connection.should be used in glucose Solution or saline solution infusion tube punching asresidual liquid after connecting the input of other drugs,to prevent the drugs in the infusion tube in the dropping pot precipitation or turbidityreaction.

  8. 2种不同规格的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片溶出度比较%Dissolution profiles of 2 specifications of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚玲; 刘艳; 杨传怀

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the dissolution of 2 specifications of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets (0.228 5 g and 0.457 g) . Methods High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid and 12 tablets from each batch were collected randomly from 3 batches. Samples were measured at 0, 5, 15 and 30 min after the dissolution, when the dissolution is beyond 90% or the dissolution platform was reached. All data were analyzed at each time point. The dissolution curve was calculated. Results At 15 min, samples of 2 specifications of the 3 batches reached the dissolution platform. Conclusion Dissolution between 0.457 g and 0.228 5 g specification of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets is highly similar with consistent quality.%目的 研究比较2种不同规格(0.457 g和0.2285 g)的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片的溶出度.方法 3个批次的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片用于实验,每批随即抽取12片,以水为溶剂,采用高效液相色谱法测定溶出度.除0时外,另选择5、15、30 min共3个时间点进行取样测定,直到药物溶出>90%或达到溶出平台,分别计算各时间点药物溶出百分比,绘制每批样品的药物溶出曲线.结果 2种规格各3批样品在15 min时溶出度均>90%,即已达到溶出平台.结论 0.457 g的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片与0.2285 g阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片的溶出度具有高度相似性,其质量具有一致性,可以开发.

  9. 头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童细菌感染的Meta分析%Meta analysis of cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on children with bacterial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方宝霞; 陈富超; 于琳; 林洁; 姚园林

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is to evaluate the curative effect and safety of cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on children with bacterial infections. Methods Randomized controlled trails ( RCTs ) of cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for bacterial infections in children were collected from VIP ( 1989 to 2010 ) and CBMdisc ( 1978 to 2010). The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated, and data analyses were performed with the Cochrane collaboration's software RevMan 5.0. Results A total of 672 patients involved in 7 papers were searched. As for the cure rates and effective rates in the treatment of children with bacterial infections, significant differences were noted between cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Cure rates: RRs and 95% CI were 1.66 ( 1.22 to 2.26 ), Z = 3.24, P =0.001, the difference was significant. Effective rates: RRs and 95% CIs were 3.07( 1.94 to 4.86 ), Z = 4.80 , P <0.01 , the difference was significant. Conclusion According to the domestic evidence, cefixime is effective in the treatment of bacterial infections in children versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. However, more high quality clinical trials are expected for further study.%目的 评价头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童细菌感染的疗效和安全性.方法 计算机检索中文科技期刊全文数据库(1989-2010)与中国生物医学文献数据库(1978-2010),纳入头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童细菌感染的随机对照试验(RCT)文献,对纳入研究进行方法学质量评价,并采用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析.结果 7篇随机对照试验,共672例患者符合纳入标准,Meta分析结果显示:头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾比较,痊愈率OR合并值1.66(95%CI为1.22~2.26),Z=3.24(P=0.001),有显著性差异;有效率OR合并值3.07(95%CI为1.94~4.86),Z=4.80(P<0.01),有显著性差异.结论 目前国内证据表明,头孢克肟治

  10. Efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate in combination with moxifloxacin and esomeprazole in treatment of drug resistant Helicobacter pylor infection%四联疗法治疗耐药幽门螺杆菌感染的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁祥; 杨英君; 卢惠伦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined with moxifloxacin and esomeprazole in treatment of Helicobactor pylori infection failed after treatment with conventional triple therapy for the treatment of failure of drug resistance of Helicobacter pylori infection,and a control group with quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication rate difference.Methods The 85 patients with Helicobacter pylori infections and treated with conventional triple therapy for a course of over 2 weeks and confirmed treatment failure by the C14 breath test were randomly divided into therapeutic group and control group.The patients in the therapeutic group were treated with amoxicillin potassium clavulanate 914mg Bid+ moxifloxacin tablet 400mg Qd+ esomeprazole 20mg Bid.Those in the control group were treated with esomeprazole 20mg Bid+ colloidal bismuth tartrate 165mg Qid+ amoxicillin capsule 1000mg Bid + clarithromycin 500mg Bid,for a course of 1 week.Results About 83.3% of Helicobacter pylori in the patients of therapeutic group was eradicated and eradication rate in the control group was 70% showing significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusions Combined use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,moxifloxacin and esomeprazole is superior to the quadruple therapy containing bismuth in treatment of Helicobactor pylori-infected patients failed with conventional triple therapy.The regimen could be used as the second-line therapy with mild side effects.%目的 观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾和莫西沙星与埃索美拉唑联用,治疗传统的三联疗法治疗失败的耐药幽门螺杆菌感染的根除率,并与对照组四联疗法比较是否存在差异. 方法 将85例传统的三联疗法治疗2周以上,经C14呼气试验检查证实治疗失败的耐药幽门螺杆菌感染病例,随机分为试验组及对照组,试验组治疗方案为阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片914mgBid+莫西沙星片400mgQd+埃索美拉唑片20mgBid,对

  11. Bioequivalence assessment of amoxicillin by limited sampling strategy in Chinese healthy volunteers%LSS法估算中国健康志愿者口服阿莫西林的生物等效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽芳; 焦建杰; 张才丽; 娄建石

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop limited sampling strategy ( LSS) for estimating bioequivalence of amoxicillin. Methods Twenty male healthy subjects were enrolled in this bioequivalence study. All subjects were divided into two groups randomly and administered orally reference and test formulation of 500 mg amoxicillin. The blood concentrations of amoxicillin were determined by the validated HPLC method. A multiple linear regression analysis was developed for estimating Cmax and AUC0_t using the amoxicillin concentration of the reference formulation to develop LSS models. The LSS models were internally validated by the Jackknife meth od. The models were also externally validated by bioequivalence assessment of the test amoxicillin formulation based on LSS derived Cmax and AUC0-t values, The results were compared with those obtained using traditional method. Results The results indicate: several models for these parameters estimation met the predefined criteria. Validation tests indicated that most informative sampling points C1, C3 and C1 ,C2,C4 provided accurate estimations of the parameters AUC0-1, ( prediction error < 1% , absolute percentage < 10% ) ,And C1 ,C1.5 and C1.5 ,C2,C6 provided accurate estimations of the parameters Cmax ( prediction error < 2% , absolute percentage < 9%) . The combination of C1.5, C2, C6 might be chosen as sampling hours for predicting AUC0-t, and Cmax according to requirement. It is according with classical assessment. Conclusion The bioequivalence assessment results showed that LSS models provided correct assessment of bio equivalence between two amoxicillin preparations. The method is accurant and can be considered desirable for amoxicil lin bioequivalence study.%目的 用有限采样法(LSS)估算口服阿莫西林的生物等效性.方法 20名健康志愿者口服阿莫西林参比药物和受试药物500 mg后采集若干时间点血浆样品,用高效液相色谱法测定阿莫西林血药浓度,用经典方法计算药代动力学参

  12. Bioequivalence of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid tabletsin healthy volunteers%国产阿莫西林/克拉维酸片人体生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵军; 李可欣; 刘蕾; 史爱欣; 李扬; 孙春华

    2001-01-01

    目的:以进口阿莫西林/克拉维酸片为对照,考察国 产制 剂的人体生物等效性。方法:10名健康受试者随机交叉单剂量口服2 种制剂(阿莫西林250 mg,克拉维酸钾125 mg)后,采用微生物法测定血浆中药物浓度。[ HT5”H 结果:血药浓度数据经3P97拟合,两者的体内过程皆符合血管外口服给 药一室模型,采用梯形法计算的阿莫西林AUC0~t分别为(12.89±1.03)和(13.54± 0.59)(mg*h)/L, 实测Cmax分别为(5.17±0.45)和(5.25±0.46)mg/L;T max分别为(1.05±0.16)和(1.08±0.23)h, t1/2分别为(1.16±0.17)和(1.37 ±0.23)h。克拉维酸钾的AUC0~t分别为(8.25±0.92)和(8.18±0.51)(mg *h)/L ,实测Cmax分别为(3.94±0.52)和(4.10±0.35)mg/L;Tmax分别 为(1.10±0.21)和(1.03±0.10)h,t1/2分别为(0.98±0.11)和(1.01±0. 14)h。阿莫西林的相对生物利用度为(95.3±7.3)%;克拉维酸钾的相对生物利 用度为(100.6±6 .0)%。结论:经统计学分析,被试制剂和参比制剂具有生物等效性 。%Objective:To study the relative bioequivalence of domest ic and imported amoxicillin and clavulanic acid tablets.Methods:The ra ndomized and crossover study was conducted in 10 healthy male volunteers.After a single dose of the drugs their plasma drug concentration was determined by micr obiological assay.Results:Both the domestic and imported tablets of am oxicillin and clavulanic acid fitted to one compartment model.The pharmacokineti cs parameters obtained were:Cmax=(5.17±0.45)mg/L,Tmax=(1.05±0. 16)h,t1/2=(1.16±0.17)h,AUC0~t=(12.89±1.03)(mg*h)/L for domestic amoxicillin;Cmax=(5.25±0.46)mg/L,Tmax=(1.08±0.23)h,t1/2=(1.3 7±0.23)h,AUC0~t=(13.54±0.59)(mg*h)/L for imported amoxicillin;Cmax =(3.94±0.52)mg/L,Tmax=(1.10±0.21)h,t1/2=(0.98±0.11)h,AUC 0~t=(8.25±0.92)(mg*h)/L for domestic clavulanic acid;Cmax=(4.10±0. 35)mg/L,Tmax=(1.03±0.10)h,t1/2=(1.01±0.14)h,AUC0

  13. Pharmacokinetics Study of Amoxicillin Sodium Clavulanate Potassium (10 : 1) Injection in Healthy Volunteers%注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10:1)临床药代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗佳; 南峰; 沈奇; 秦永平; 王颖; 余勤; 郑莉; 梁茂植

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究健康受试者接受单次和多次给予注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10∶1)后的药代动力学特征,以指导制定合理的临床给药方案.方法 采用输液泵恒速静滴30 min给药,分别于给药前和开始给药后10、20、30、45 min和1、1.25、1.5、2、2.5、3、4、6、8、10 h采集静脉血4 mL.采用液相色谱-质谱/质谱法测定人血浆中阿莫西林和克拉维酸浓度,经DAS 2.0.1软件药代动力学程序处理,得主要药代动力学参数.结果 阿莫西林和克拉维酸的体内过程均符合权重系数为1/cc的三室模型或二室模型.为避免房室模型拟合所致偏倚,本研究采用非房室模型统计矩参数,单次静滴注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10∶1)0.55、1.1、2.2g后,峰浓度、药时曲线下面积、消除半衰期和清除率等药代参数提示阿莫西林和克拉维酸均具有线性动力学特征.受试者接受单次和多次给药后,阿莫西林和克拉维酸的药代动力学参数接近,且第7~13次给药前的谷浓度均低于最低检测限,表明每次给药前,前一次给药已基本清除,多次给药后无蓄积.结论 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10∶1)具有线性动力学特征,1.1g,Q8 h给药能满足临床治疗需要.%Objective To study the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin sodium clavulanate potassium (10 : 1) injection with different single doses intravenous infusion and one dose repeated intravenous injection in healthy volunteers for guiding the rational clinical regimen. Methods Using infusion pump constantly intravenous dripping in 30 min, 4 mL blood samples were collected before and after the administration at 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 45 min, and 1, 1. 25, 1. 5, 2, 2. 5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 h. The plasma concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate were detected by high performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS2. 0. 1

  14. Bioequivalence of Amoxicillin Suspension Injection in Pigs%阿莫西林混悬注射液在猪体内的生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘娟; 严凤; 顾欣

    2015-01-01

    为了研究阿莫西林混悬注射液在猪体内的药代动力学和生物等效性,采用双处理、双周期随机交叉试验设计,将24头健康猪随机分成2组,按15 mg/kg体重肌肉分别单剂量注射受试制剂和参比制剂,采用高效液相色谱法测定血浆中阿莫西林的浓度,利用WinNonlin6.4软件计算主要药动学参数,并评价两种制剂的生物等效性。结果显示,受试制剂和参比制剂的 Tmax分别为(3.45±2.49) h,(1.34±1.74) h;Cmax分别为(6.94±4.73) mg/L,(4.39±2.87) mg/L;AUC0-t分别为(37.00±11.48) mg·h·L-1,(30.02±8.93) mg·h·L-1;AUC0-∞分别为(40.26±13.36) mg·h·L-1,(38.46±15.38) mg·h·L-1。阿莫西林混悬注射液受试制剂和参比制剂的AUC0-t、AUC0-∞、Cmax、Tmax均有显著性差异,双单侧t检验结果显示两种制剂生物不等效,试验为兽医临床给药方案的制定以及合理用药提供参考。%To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of amoxicillin suspension injection in pigs. In a randomized two-way self-crossover study, 24 healthy pigs were randomly divided into two groups, and were given respectively a single dose of test or reference preparations by intramuscular injection ( 15 mg/kg ) . Plasma concentrations of amoxicillin were measured by HPLC. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by WinNonlin6.4 software, and the bioequivalence were evaluated. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of the test and reference preparations were as follows: Tmax were ( 3. 45 ± 2. 49 ) h, ( 1. 34 ± 1. 74 ) h; Cmax were (6.94±4.73) mg/L, (4.39±2.87) mg/L; AUC0-t were (37.00±11.48) mg·h·L-1, (30.02±8.93) mg·h·L-1;AUC0-∞ were (40.26±13.36) mg·h·L-1, (38.46±15.38) mg·h·L-1. The pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0-t、AUC0-∞, Cmax、Tmax) showed significant difference between test and reference preparations of

  15. 大肠埃希菌对阿莫西林/克拉维酸耐药机制的研究%Mechanisms of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate in Escherichia coil isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁娟娟; 吕晓菊; 陈筱纯; 吴疆; 高燕渝; 马晓波

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study amoxiciUin/clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from West China Hospital of Sichuan University, and analyze the resistant mechanisms of these isolates, so as to provide evidence for clinical therapy in infections caused by amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli. Methods Among 276 isolates showing resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, 52 tested strains were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate by disk diffusion method (inhibition zone diameter ≤ 13mm). The genes of TEM-type enzymes in isolates of which phenotype was consistant with inhibitor-resistant TEM β-lactamase (IRT) was cloned and expressed and blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA genes were detected by multiple PCR. Results Multiplex PCR detected blaTEM and blaOXA genes in 46 and 6 strains, respectively, and only one isolate had blaSHV gene. The occurrent presence of blaTEM and blaOXA genes were detected in 5 strains, and only one strain harboured blaTEM and blaSHV genes concomitantly. Conclusion In West China Hospital, overproduction of TEM-1 β-lactamases were the main mechanism in amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli isolates, while SHV-1 and OXA-1 β- lactamases were important mechanisms of resistance.%目的 探讨大肠埃希菌对阿莫西林/克拉维酸的耐药特点和机制,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 收集四川大学华西医院2005年5月至12月临床分离的544株大肠埃希菌经微量肉汤稀释法确认对氨苄西林/舒巴坦耐药的大肠埃希菌,从中随机选取276株用药敏纸片检测,仅52株对阿莫西林/克拉维酸耐药.对符合耐酶抑制剂β-内酰胺酶耐药表型的2株大肠埃希菌进行TEM型β-内酰胺酶基因的克隆表达.采用多重PCR技术检测耐阿莫西林/克拉维酸大肠埃希菌的TEM、SHV、OXA型3种β-内酰胺酶.结果 52株大肠埃希菌含TEM型46株,SHV型1株,OXA型6株.其中同时含TEM型和SHV型1株以及含TEM型和OXA型5株.结论 TEM-1型广谱酶的高产是

  16. Triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children and adolescents Terapia tríplice com claritromicina, amoxicilina e omeprazol para erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em crianças e adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAKAMI Elisabete; Ogata, Silvio Kazuo; Áurea C. M. PORTORREAL; Ana Maria MAGNI; PARDO Mário Luís E.; PATRÍCIO Francy R. S.

    2001-01-01

    Background — Helicobacter pylori infection presents high prevalence in developing countries, but there are few pediatric assays evaluating antimicrobial treatment. Objective - The aim of this study was to investigate Helicobacter pylori eradication rate using a short regimen (7 and 10 days) of triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole. Patients and methods - Twenty-five Hp positive patients who presented severe epigastralgia, were submitted to antimicrobial treatment...

  17. Rp-HPLC法测定阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾的含量%Determination of contents of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium by Rp-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁姗

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish content determination method of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Methods The parameters of detection was as followed: HPLC column: Hypersil BDS C18 (4.6× 200 mum, 5μm); mobile phase: sodium dodecylsulfate solution - acetonitrile (92:8); flow: 1.0ml/min;chromatographic temperature: 25C; detection wavelength: 220 nm; injection volume: 10 μ 1. ResultsThe linear range of clavulanate potassium was good at 4.05 - 40.48 μ g ( r = 0.9999 ) and the average recovery was 99.7% (RSD = 2.1%); The linear range of amoxicillin was good at 1.15 - 11.53 μ g( r = 0.9999 )and the average recovery was 99.6% (RSD = 0.7%). Conclusions This method is accurate and easy to use, with better recovery and higher separation. It can be used for quality control of the related preparations.%目的 建立阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾中两种主要成分的含量测定.方法 采用液相色谱法,大连依利特Hypersil BDS C18柱(4.6×200 mm,5 μ m)为色谱柱;十二烷基硫酸钠溶液-乙腈(92∶8)为流动相;流速:1.0ml/min;柱温:25℃;检测波长:220nm;进样体积:10 μl.结果 克拉维酸在4.05~40.48μg范围内线性良好(r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.7%(RSD=2.1%);阿莫西林在1.15~11.53μg范围内线性良好(r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.6%(RSD=0.7%).结论 该方法准确度高,回收率良好,分离度较高,操作简单,可作为该制剂质量控制方法.

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Eight β-Lactam Antibiotics, Amoxicillin, Cefazolin, Cefepime, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Cloxacillin, Oxacillin, and Piperacillin, in Human Plasma by Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Tiphaine; Vodovar, Dominique; Tournier, Nicolas; Khoudour, Nihel; Hulin, Anne

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method using UV detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight β-lactam antibiotics in human plasma, including four penicillins, amoxicillin (AMX), cloxacillin (CLX), oxacillin (OXA), and piperacillin (PIP), and four cephalosporins, cefazolin (CFZ), cefepime (FEP), cefotaxime (CTX), and ceftazidime (CAZ). One hundred-microliter samples were spiked with thiopental as an internal standard, and proteins were precipitated by acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. Separation was achieved on a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column with a mobile phase composed of phosphoric acid (10 mM) and acetonitrile in gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 500 μl/min. Detection was performed at 230 nm for AMX, CLX, OXA, and PIP and 260 nm for CFZ, FEP, CTX, and CAZ. The total analysis time did not exceed 13 min. The method was found to be linear at concentrations ranging from 2 to 100 mg/liter for each compound, and all validation parameters fulfilled international requirements. Between- and within-run accuracy errors ranged from -5.2% to 11.4%, and precision was lower than 14.2%. This simple method requires small-volume samples and can easily be implemented in most clinical laboratories to promote the therapeutic drug monitoring of β-lactam antibiotics. The simultaneous determination of several antibiotics considerably reduces the time to results for clinicians, which may improve treatment efficiency, especially in critically ill patients. PMID:27216076

  19. 传统中药与阿莫西林联合治疗压疮的临床研究%Clinical Study of a Traditional Chinese Drug Combined with Amoxicillin in Treating Bedsore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玉梅; 刘如月

    2015-01-01

    To Study a traditional Chinese drug Combined with Amoxicillin in treating I - IV Bedsore ,the paper used the combined therapy in treating 60 cases of Bedsore in different stages during 2011 - 2015 .Effective rate in the treatment group was 97 .1% and ulceration healing time was shorter .T he conclusion is that the combined therapy has significant effect and low cost in treating bedsore in different stages and it’s worth popularizing in clinic .%文章主要研究传统中药去腐生肌的原理,探索联合阿莫西林制成中、西药配方治疗各期压疮疗的疗效.对商丘医学高等专科学校附院2011年~2015年收治的60例130处不同分期的压疮,随机分成对照组30例60处压疮和治疗组各30例70处压疮,对照组采用常规方法治疗和护理,治疗组按压疮的分期分别采用自制中、西药联合配方进行治疗.结果显示,治疗组30例患者70处Ⅰ~Ⅳ期压疮有效率高达97.1%以上,并且能显著缩短溃疡愈合时间.结论:中、西药联合配方对各期压疮均有显著效果且费用低,值得在临床推广.

  20. The NOTA study: non-operative treatment for acute appendicitis: prospective study on the efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid) in patients with right sided lower abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Eleonora; Biscardi, Andrea; Villani, Silvia; Clemente, Nicola; Senatore, Gianluca; Filicori, Filippo; Antonacci, Nicola; Baldoni, Franco; De Werra, Carlo; Di Saverio, Salomone

    2011-01-01

    Background Case control studies that randomly assign patients with diagnosis of acute appendicitis to either surgical or non-surgical treatment yield a relapse rate of approximately 14% at one year. It would be useful to know the relapse rate of patients who have, instead, been selected for a given treatment based on a thorough clinical evaluation, including physical examination and laboratory results (Alvarado Score) as well as radiological exams if needed or deemed helpful. If this clinical evaluation is useful, the investigators would expect patient selection to be better than chance, and relapse rate to be lower than 14%. Once the investigators have established the utility of this evaluation, the investigators can begin to identify those components that have predictive value (such as blood analysis, or US/CT findings). This is the first step toward developing an accurate diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm which will avoid risks and costs of needless surgery. Methods/design This will be a single-cohort prospective observational study. It will not interfere with the usual pathway, consisting of clinical examination in the Emergency Department (ED) and execution of the following exams at the physician's discretion: full blood count with differential, C reactive protein, abdominal ultrasound, abdominal CT. Patients admitted to an ED with lower abdominal pain and suspicion of acute appendicitis and not needing immediate surgery, are requested by informed consent to undergo observation and non operative treatment with antibiotic therapy (Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid). The patients by protocol should not have received any previous antibiotic treatment during the same clinical episode. Patients not undergoing surgery will be physically examined 5 days later. Further follow-up will be conducted at 7, 15 days, 6 months and 12 months. The study will conform to clinical practice guidelines and will follow the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol

  1. Genetic diversity of the ftsI gene in β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulmin; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Shin, Na-Young; Byun, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jae-Wook; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eu Yoon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Sohn, Woo Yun; Kang, Jin Han

    2013-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae frequently colonizes the nasopharynx of children and adults, which can lead to a variety of infections. We investigated H. influenzae carriage in the nasopharynx of 360 children, in terms of (1) the prevalence of strains with decreased susceptibility, and (2) the presence of amino acid substitutions in PBP3. One hundred twenty-three strains were isolated (34.2%, 123/360), 122 of which were classified as nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi). Of these, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible strains accounted for 26.2%, β-lactamase-producing-ampicillin-resistant strains for 9.0%, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains for 40.2%, and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) for 24.6%, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were so diverse that they were clustered into 41 groups. The amino acid substitutions in the transpeptidase domain (292 amino acids) of ftsI in BLNAR isolates showed that group IIb accounted for 30.6%, IIc for 8.2%, IId for 16.3%, III for 32.7%, and the others for 12.2%. Moreover, groups IIb (56.7%; 17/30) and III (23.3%; 7/30) were prevalent among BLPACR strains. They were subclassified into more diverse sequence subtypes by analysis of the entire PBP3 (610 amino acids). Groups IIb, IIc, IId, and III exhibited 13, four, six, and four sequence subtypes, respectively. Such a genetic diversity is likely indicative of significant potential for decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in nasopharyngeal-colonizing NTHi strains.

  2. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾亚最低杀菌浓度体外诱导细菌耐药研究%A Study on Bacteria Antibiotic Resistance Induced by sub-MBC of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣剑; 祝仲珍; 王占科; 袁小兰; 胡新华; 宁丽萍; 兰小鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of inducing by sub-MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium on the antibiotic resistance of standard strains of staphylococcus aureus. Methods The standard strain of staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium were respectively used as observational strain and antibacterials, and MBC values of different induced days were quantitatively detected u-sing microdilution method. Induction test of staphylococcus aureus in vitro was performed using 1 / 2 concentration of MBC for 35 d, and MBC changes were observed and recorded. The final antibiotic resistance to Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium of staphylococcus aureus was identified using automatic microorganisms drug sensitivity analyzer. Results The MBC value of the standard strain of staphylococcus aureus was significantly increased which was induced by Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium in vitro for 10 d, and the value induced for 35 d was increased to 32 times of original strain value. The induced drug-resistant strain of staphylococcus aureus had 100% resistance rate to Amoxicillin and Clavu-lanate Potassium. Conclusion The sub-MBC of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium can induce antibiotic resistance of the standard strains of staphylococcus aureus in vitro, and the degree of the antibiotic resistance increases with the in-creasing induction time by sub-MBC. A rational dosage of antimicrobial is important to prevent antibiotic resistance.%目的:观察亚最低杀菌浓度(minimum bactericidal concentration, MBC)阿莫西林克拉维酸钾诱导对金黄色葡萄球菌标准菌株的耐药性影响。方法以金黄色葡萄球菌标准菌株 ATCC 29213为研究对象,阿莫西林克拉维酸钾为抗菌药物,以微量稀释法定量检测不同诱导天数 MBC 值,采用1/2 MBC 浓度对金黄色葡萄球菌进行35 d 多步体外诱导试验,观察金黄色葡萄球菌标准菌株 MBC 变化并

  3. Determination of Amoxicillin and Polymyxin E Residues in Animal-derived Food by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography- Tandem Mass Spectrometry%超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定动物组织中阿莫西林与多占菌素E的残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕言锋; 汪霞; 何家康; 李兰; 徐士新; 肖希龙

    2011-01-01

    建立了动物源性食品中阿莫西林和多粘菌素E残留检测的超高效液相色谱-串联质谱( UPLC - MS/MS)分析方法.组织样品经三氯乙酸溶液提取,同时用乙酸铅沉淀蛋白,经正己烷除脂后,再用HLB固相萃取柱净化,浓缩后用超高效液相色谱-串联质谱仪检测,以基质匹配标准溶液定量.结果表明,阿莫西林和多粘菌素E的检出限( LOD,S/N>3)分别为6、15 μg/kg,定量下限(LOQ,S/N> 10)分别为20、50μg/kg.以猪肉、猪肝、猪肾和脂肪空白样品进行加标回收实验,阿莫西林、多粘菌素E的回收率分别为76% ~ 96%和74% ~92%,批内和批间相对标准偏差均小于10%.方法应用于阿莫西林和多粘菌素E复方制剂的残留消 除实验,并根据实验结果计算了药物的休药期.结果证明,该法前处理简单易行,稳定性好,适用于大量样品中阿莫西林和多粘菌素E残留的同时检测.%An ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometric method( UPLC -MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and polymyxin E residues in animal-derived food. Mass spectrometric study on amoxicillin and polymyxin E was performed, and UPLC - MS/MS conditions were optimized. Samples were extracted with trichloroacetic acid solu tion. The protein was precipitated with lead acetate and the fat was removed with hexane. The other impurities were removed with HLB solid phase, extraction cartridge. After concentration, the analytes were detected by UPLC - MS/MS and quantified with the matrix-matched standard. The limits of de tection (LOD, S/N>3) for amoxicillin and polymyxin E were 6 (xg/kg and 15 μg/kg, and the limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N>10) were 20 μg/kg and 50 μg/kg, respectively. The average recover ies at three spiked concentrations in muscle, liver, kidney and fat were 76% -96% for amoxicillin and 74% -92% for polymyxin E with RSDs less than 10% . Furthermore, this method was

  4. 哌拉西林他唑巴坦和阿莫西林克拉维酸在小儿支气管肺炎中的治疗效果比较%Treatment effects comparison of piperacillin tazobactam and amoxicillin clavulanic acid in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书平

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the treatment effect of piperacillin tazobactam and amoxicillin clavulanic acid in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia.Methods:80 children patients with bronchial pneumonia were selected.They were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group.The two groups were given amoxicillin clavulanic acid and piperacillin tazobactam treatment.The treatment effects of the two groups were observed.Results:The difference of total effective rates of two groups was not statistically significant(P>0.05).The treatment cost of the observation group was lower than that of the control group.Conclusion:The curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanic acid in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia is remarkable,and the treatment cost is low.%目的:探讨哌拉西林他唑巴坦和阿莫西林克拉维酸在小儿支气管肺炎中的治疗效果。方法:收治支气管肺炎患儿80例,随机分为观察组和对照组,两组分别给予阿莫西林克拉维酸和哌拉西林他唑巴坦治疗。观察两组的治疗效果。结果:两组总有效率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。观察组的治疗成本低于对照组。结论:阿莫西林克拉维酸在小儿支气管肺炎治疗中疗效显著,且治疗成本低。

  5. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾不同给药方案治疗细菌性呼吸道感染的效果分析%Effect analysis of different dosage regimen amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for the treatment of bacterial respiratory tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱健

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical effect of different dosage regimen amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treatment of bacterial respiratory tract infections. Methods 936 patients with bacterial respiratory tract infection treated in our hospital from June 2011 to June 2013 were randomly divided into group A and group B,group A were given with injections of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 100 mg/kg,dissolved in 100 ml of sodium chloride injec-tion,intravenous injection,1 time/d.Group B were taken with the same batch of injectable amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,50 mg/kg,dissolved in 50 ml of sodium chloride injection,intravenous injection,2 times/d.According to the disease,administration time were 1 to 2 weeks.The clinical efficacy of the two groups and the administration time were compared. Results In patients with mild and moderate infection,the administration time of group A and group B had no significant difference (P>0.05);in patients with severe infection,the administration time of group A was longer than that of group B,the difference was significant (P0.05);in patients with severe infection, the effective rate of group B was higher than that of group A,the difference was significant (P0.05);重度感染患者中,A组给药时间明显长于B组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);重度感染患者中,B组的有效率显著高于A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论A给药方案在轻度和中度感染治疗效果较好,同时减少给药次数,B方案可对重度感染进行有效治疗。

  6. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶1)治疗呼吸系统细菌感染多中心随机对照研究%A multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8∶1) in the treatment of acute infection of respiratory system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 贾正平; 朱运奎

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶1)治疗急性呼吸道感染的有效性和安全性.方法:采用多中心、随机、双盲、平行对照试验设计,共入选病例136例,其中试验组[阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶ 1)] 69例;对照组[阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片(7∶1)]69例;一般疗程均为7~14d,最短疗程不少于5d.结果:试验组治疗有效病例69例,治愈59例,临床痊愈率为89.39%;对照组治疗有效病例69例,治愈61例,临床治愈率为92.42%.细菌清除率:试验组为95.45%,对照组为92.91%,药物不良反应发生率均为4.35%.结论:阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶1)治疗各种敏感菌所引起的呼吸道感染,安全、有效,使用方便,耐受性好.%Objective :. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8: 1 )in the treatment of acute infection of respiratory system. Methods; A multicenter, randomized, double -blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in the treatment of 138 patients with acute infection of respiratory system. There were 69 cases in the trial group; amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8:1) , while 65 cases were in the control group; amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium gispersible tablets {7:1). The treatment duration for both groups was from 7 to 14 days ( at least 5 days). Results; The effective rate for the trial and control group was 89. 39% and 92. 42% respectively. The bacterial eradication rate was 95.45% and 92.91% respectively. The incidence of adverse reactions was 4. 35% in both groups. Conclusion; Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8: 1) is effective and safe in the treatment of acute infectin of respiratory system.

  7. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)的含量均匀度测定和有关物质检查%The study of the content uniformity and related substances of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14∶1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静玲; 李瑞明; 冯鹏; 胡建楣; 林小凤; 范佩冰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the content uniformity and related substances of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1), and the experiment were used to evaluate and determine the intrinsic quality. Methods Though the content uniformity and related substances investigated in order to determine the controllability of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium suspensions quality. Results This method was used in the paper which was good to detect Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1) content uniformity and related substances requirements. Conclusion Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1) content uniformity and related substances requirements meet the conditions of the quality of the preparations.%目的 对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14∶1)的含量均匀度和有关物质进行了研究,用来评价和确定制剂使用中的安全性及药物本身的内在质量.方法 通过对制备得到的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂含量均匀度的测定和有关物质考察,从而确定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂质量的可控性.结果 通过本文中所用方法对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14∶1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾的含量均匀度和有关物质测定结果说明制剂质量合格,所以在制剂使用中阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂能确保其安全性.结论 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14∶1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾的含量均匀度和有关物质的测定均能符合制剂要求.

  8. 高效液相色谱法同时检测血浆中阿莫西林和克拉维酸的血药浓度%Simultaneous Determination of Plasma Concentration of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate by HPLC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晶

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立同时测定血浆中阿莫西林和克拉维酸质量浓度的高效液相色谱法.方法 分析柱为 Phenomenexluna C18柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm),柱温为室温,流动相为磷酸盐缓冲溶液(pH=3.0)-乙腈(95∶5),流速为1.2mL/min,紫外检测波长为230 nm.结果 克拉维酸和阿莫西林的保留时间分别为5 min和9 min左右,质量浓度线性范围分别为0.13~8.60 μg/mL(r=0.999 4)和0.21~13.20 μg/mL(r=0.999 8),日内和日间精密度的RSD均小于15.0%(n=5).结论 所建立的方法简便、准确,适用于阿莫西林和克拉维酸血药浓度测定.%Objective To establish a HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate in human plasma. Methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on Phenomenex Luna Cm column(250 mm x 4. 6 mm, 5 |xm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile NatbPCK buffer(pH =3. 0) (95 :5),the flow rate was 1. 2 mL/min. The detecting wavelength was at 230 nm. Results Clavulanate and amoxicillin were eluted for about 5 min and 9 min. Cavulanate and amoxicillin showed the good linear correlation in the range of 0. 13 - 8. 60 |xg/mL (r=0.999 4) and 0. 21 - 13. 20 g/mL( r =0. 999 8) respectively. The intra-day RSD and inter -day RSD were both less than 15. 0% (n = 5). Conclusion The method is simple, accurate and suitable for the determination of plasma drug concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanate.

  9. 中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎90例临床观察%The clinical observation of 90 children with tonsillitis treated by traditional Chinese medi-cine enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李民

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析和探讨中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的临床效果.方法:选取我院2012-01/2014-01收治的150例小儿化脓性扁桃体炎患者,通过随机数字表法分为对照组( n=60)和观察组( n=90).观察组患儿给予中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗,对照组患儿给予阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗,对两组患儿临床治疗效果进行分析.结果:观察组患儿临床治疗有效率较对照组更高( P<0.05).结论:在小儿化脓性扁桃体炎治疗中,中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗能改善临床症状,提高治疗效果,不良反应少,疗效安全可靠,可推广应用.%AIM: To analyze and explore the clinical effect of traditional Chinese medicine enema combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium tablets in the treatment of pediatric septic tonsillitis. METHODS: A total of 150 children with purulent tonsillitis patients in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were selected as research object, and were divided into control group ( n= 60 ) and observation group ( n = 90 ) according to a random number table method. The observation group were treated with TCM enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanic potassium tablets, and the control group received amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. The clinical therapeutic effect of two groups of children were analyzed. RESULTS: The clinical effective rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). CONCLU⁃SION:In the treatment of children with purulent tonsillitis, the TCM enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanic potassium tablets could relieve the clinical symptoms, and improve the therapeutic effect, with less adverse reaction and safe and reliable curative effect. It is worthy of promoting and applying.

  10. Inhibitor-resistant TEM- and OXA-1-producing Escherichia coli isolates resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate are more clonal and possess lower virulence gene content than susceptible clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, Jesús; González-López, Juan José; Ortega, Adriana; Quintero-Zárate, J Natalia; Bou, Germán; Cercenado, Emilia; Conejo, María Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Bartolomé, Rosa M; Campos, José

    2014-07-01

    In a previous prospective multicenter study in Spain, we found that OXA-1 and inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) β-lactamases constitute the most common plasmid-borne mechanisms of genuine amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) resistance in Escherichia coli. In the present study, we investigated the population structure and virulence traits of clinical AMC-resistant E. coli strains expressing OXA-1 or IRT and compared these traits to those in a control group of clinical AMC-susceptible E. coli isolates. All OXA-1-producing (n = 67) and IRT-producing (n = 45) isolates were matched by geographical and temporal origin to the AMC-susceptible control set (n = 56). We performed multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic group characterization for each isolate and then studied the isolates for the presence of 49 virulence factors (VFs) by PCR and sequencing. The most prevalent clone detected was distinct for each group: group C isolates of sequence type (ST) 88 (C/ST88) were the most common in OXA-1 producers, B2/ST131 isolates were the most common in IRT producers, and B2/ST73 isolates were the most common in AMC-susceptible isolates. The median numbers of isolates per ST were 3.72 in OXA-1 producers, 2.04 in IRT producers, and 1.69 in AMC-susceptible isolates; the proportions of STs represented by one unique isolate in each group were 19.4%, 31.1%, and 48.2%, respectively. The sum of all VFs detected, calculated as a virulence score, was significantly higher in AMC-susceptible isolates than OXA-1 and IRT producers (means, 12.5 versus 8.3 and 8.2, respectively). Our findings suggest that IRT- and OXA-1-producing E. coli isolates resistant to AMC have a different and less diverse population structure than AMC-susceptible clinical E. coli isolates. The AMC-susceptible population also contains more VFs than AMC-resistant isolates. PMID:24777096

  11. 碳二亚胺法制备阿莫西林人工抗原及其鉴定%Preparation and Identification of Amoxicillin Artificial Antigen by EDC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆堂; 王磊; 职爱民; 滕蔓; 胡骁飞; 孙亚宁; 宋春美; 王寅彪; 张改平

    2012-01-01

    合成、鉴定了阿莫西林(amoxicillin,AMO)人工抗原,并通过动物免疫法生产了亲和力高、特异性好的鼠源AMO多克隆抗血清.采用碳二亚胺(EDC)法将AMO分别与载体蛋白BSA和OVA偶联,合成完全免疫抗原AMO - BSA和检测抗原AMO - OVA,经紫外分光光度法和SDS -PAGE以及动物免疫进行鉴定.结果表明,偶联后的紫外吸收峰与BSA和AMO相比都发生了一定的位移,AMO - BSA在276 nm处出现最大吸收峰,BSA的泳动速度大于AMO - BSA.免疫后获得的3只小鼠多抗血清,通过间接竞争ELISA测定,效价可达1×10-4以上,1号小鼠半数抑制浓度(IC50)为573.75 ng/mL,敏感性较好.AMO完全人工抗原的合成以及鼠源多克隆抗体血清的制备,为AMO单克隆抗体的制备奠定了基础.%To synthesize the artificial antigen of AMO and obtain its mouse polyclonal antiserum, the immunogen AMO-BSA and coating antigen AMO-OVA were synthesized using EDC method and identified by ultraviolet scanning and SDS-PAGE. BALB/c mice were immunized with the synthesized antigens and the polyclonal antiserum was determined by indirect and blocking ELISA. The results showed that after conjugation, the ultraviolet absorption peak of AMO-BSA appeared at 276 nm, indicating that certain displacement occurred comparing with the ultraviolet absorption peaks of both AMO and BSA. The electropharetic mobility of BSA was observed bigger than that of AMO-BSA. Indirect ELISA showed that the antiserum titres of all the three immunized BALB/c mice were above 1 X 10~4. With the IC50 of 573. 75 ng/mL,No, 1 mouse polyclonal antiserum showed the best sensitivity. In this study, AMO-BSA and AMO-OVA were successfully synthesized and high sensitive polyclonal antiserums against AMO were prepared,which provides a basis for the preparation of monoclonal antibodies against AMO.

  12. 头孢地尼与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童急性中耳炎的临床观察%Observation of Cefdinir with Amoxicillin/Clavulanatein in Treatment of Children Acute Otitis Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 艾文彬; 罗琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy,safety,compliance difference of cefdinir and amoxicillin/clavulanate in treatment of children with acute otitis media(AOM). Methods 201 cases (232 ears) with AOM who received either cefdinir particles (daily dose of 7mg/kg/d,divided two times daily for 5 days) or amoxicillin/clavulanate(daily dose of 13. 3 mg/kg,divided two times daily for 10 days) treatment from 2011 January to 2012 December were reviewed retrospec-tively. According to the clinical symptoms and signs recovery,compare the efficacy,drug compliance and safety differences of two groups. Results At the end of treatment,104 ears were cured or improved (104/106,98. 11%) in the cefdinir group,while in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group 96 ears were cured or improved (96/106,90. 57%). Cefdinir was signifi-cantly better than amoxicillin/clavulanate in efficacy (P0. 05). Conclusion 5-day oral cefdidir treatment was significantly better than 10-day oral amoxicillin/clavulanate treatment for children acute o-titis media in efficacy、medication adherence and safety,it seems to be a better choice of short treatment.%目的:比较头孢地尼与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童急性中耳炎( AOM)的疗效、用药依从性、安全性差别。方法对2011年1月~2012年12月资料完整的分别使用头孢地尼(日剂量7.0mg/kg,每日2次,连续服用5天,91例)或阿莫西林克拉维酸钾(日剂量13.3mg/kg,每日2次,连续服用10天,110例)治疗的AOM患儿进行回顾性分析。根据患儿临床症状与体征是否恢复评定疗效,比较两种药物对儿童AOM的疗效、药物依从性及安全性。结果头孢地尼组完成疗程的病例90例(106耳),治疗7~9天时有效率为98.11%(104/106耳);阿莫西林克拉维酸钾组完成疗程的病例95例(106耳),治疗12~14天时有效率为90.57%(96/106耳)。头孢地尼组疗效明显高于阿莫西林克拉维酸钾组,差异具有显著统计学意义(P0.05)。结论

  13. Therapeutic drug monitoring of amoxicillin and cloxacillin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OTRIBUT; PTATTEVIN; MVERDIER; YLETULZO; CMICELET; HALLAIN; DBENTURE-FERRER

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Beta-lactams (BL) are broad-spectrum antibiotics currently used in number of infectious diseases and some infections need high dose of antibiotics. BL studied here are eliminated rather quickly by the kidney. A renal insufficiency involves an increase in BL concentrations. Therapeutic drug monitoring could help in adapting the target concentration. METHODS: We developed a rapid (less than 20 min), sensitive, and specific HPLC method

  14. Effect of betamethasone and diclofenac sodium on serum and tissue concentration of amoxicillin: in vivo study in rats Efeito da betametasona e do diclofenaco sódico na concentração sérica e tecidual da amoxicilina: estudo in vivo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Rocha Mattos Filho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial agents in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs have been usually prescribed in both Medicine and Dentistry. However, few scientific reports support this clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of betamethasone and diclofenac sodium on serum and tissue concentration of amoxicillin in rats. METHODS: Four polyurethane sponges were implanted in the back skin of 48 rats. After seven days the animals were divided into 6 groups (n=8. Group 1: amoxicillin (25 mg/kg; G2: diclofenac sodium (2.5 mg/kg; G3: betamethasone (0.1 mg/kg; G4: diclofenac sodium and amoxicillin; G5: betamethasone and amoxicillin; and G6: 0.9% sodium chloride solution (1.0 mL - control group. All drugs were administered in a single dose. After 90 minutes, the granulomatous tissues of each animal were surgically removed and weighed. Blood was collected from cervical plexus, centrifuged and 10µL of serum was placed on paper discs. In order to estimate amoxicillin concentration, serum and granulomatous tissues were separately submitted to microbiological assay, which used 10(8cfu/mL of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (penicillin-susceptible strain. After incubation (18 hours, 37ºC the inhibition zones were measured and compared to a regression curve. RESULTS: No inhibition zones were observed for groups 2, 3 and 6. Tissue and serum concentrations of both G1 (4.14µg/g and 2.06µg/mL, respectively and G5 (3.87µg/g and 1.70µg/mL, respectively showed statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis, p0.05. CONCLUSION: Considering single doses, betamethasone did not interfere with amoxicillin levels but diclofenac sodium reduced both tissue and serum levels of amoxicillin in rats.OBJETIVO: A prescrição de antimicrobianos associados a antiinflamatórios é uma prática comum em odontologia, embora na maioria das vezes não haja justificativa para tal conduta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em um estudo in vivo em

  15. Simultaneous determination of serum concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in human blood using high-performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法同时测定人血阿莫西林钠/克拉维酸钾血药浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林祖文; 李源; 宋玮娟; 胡海燕; 曾颖; 许百虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a chromatography-based method for simultaneous analysis of the concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in human blood. Methods With paracetamol as the internal control, human plasma samples, after treatment with methanol for protein sedimentation and centrifugation, were loaded for analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analysis was carried out using a C18 column (5 urn, 4.6 mm × 150 mm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-PBS (0.05 mol/L) of 10:90 (pH 2.3), UV detection wavelength of 220 ran, flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, and column temperature of 25 t. Results The retention time of acetaminophen for potassium clavulanate, amoxicillin sodium and the internal control was 5.3, 7.2, and 8.5 min, respectively, and no interference by the endogenous impurities in the plasma samples was found. Amoxicillin sodium showed a good linearity within the concentration range of 0.52-4.16 μg/ml (r2=0.9996), and potassium clavulanate had a good linearity within the range of 0.266-2.14 μg/ml (r2=0.9998). The minimum detectable concentrations of amoxicillin sodium and potassium clavulanate were 0.065 μg/ml and 0.066 μg/ml, respectively. The relative recoveries of amoxicillin sodium were 95.9%-96.5% (n=5), and those of clavulanate potassium were 92.5%-98.8% (n=5); the intra- and inter-day RSD of amoxicillin sodium was 1.84%-6.4% and 2.1%-7.8%, as compared to that of potassium clavulanate of 3.57%-8.6% and 1.8%-9.1%, respectively. Conclusion This method is simple, accurate, sensitive, specific and reproducible for analyzing the concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium simultaneously in human plasma.%目的 建立阿莫西林钠/克拉维酸钾人血药浓度的色谱分析方法.方法 采用对乙酰氨基酚为内标,人血浆样品用甲醇沉淀蛋白后高速离心进样;色谱柱:C18色谱柱(依利特Hypersil BDS,5μm,4.6 mm×150 mm);流动相:乙腈-0.05mmol/L磷酸盐缓冲液=10∶90(V

  16. Clinical efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium combined with levofloxacin in the treatment of multi -drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis%阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星治疗耐多药肺结核的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童维佳; 王永庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the clinical effect of amoxicillin/ clavulanate potassium com-bined with levofloxacin in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods 80 re-treated smear positive patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were randomly divided into the control group and the treatment group, 40 cases in each group. The control group was treated with levofloxacin combined with pasiniazid, ethambutol hydrochloride, rifapentine and pyrazinamide, and the treatment group was treated with amoxi-cillin/ clavulanate potassium and levofloxacin, combined with pasiniazid, ethambutol hydrochloride, rifapentine and pyrazinamide. All patients were treated for 12 months. Results At the end of the treatment, the sputum negative conversion rate was 52. 50% in the control group, and 75% in the treatment group (P 0. 05). Conclusion Amoxicillin/ clavulanate potassium combined with levofloxacin regimen can improve the sputum negative conversion and lesions absorption,with low adverse drug reaction in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis.%目的::观察并评价阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星在治疗耐多药肺结核(MDR-TB)的疗效。方法将80例复治涂阳耐多药肺结核患者随机分为对照组40例和治疗组40例;治疗方案:对照组以左氧氟沙星为主,联合对氨基水杨酸异烟肼、盐酸乙胺丁醇、利福喷丁、吡嗪酰胺,治疗组以阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾、左氧氟沙星为主,联合用药同对照组,所有病例疗程均为12个月。结果至疗程结束,对照组痰菌阴转率为52.50%,治疗组痰菌阴转率为75.00%,治疗组痰菌阴转率明显高于对照组(P 0.05)。结论对于耐多药肺结核,用阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星治疗利于痰菌阴转和病变吸收好转,药品不良反应低,具有推广价值。

  17. The clinical effect observation of levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in MDR-TB%左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗耐多药肺结核的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春; 李俊; 周晓俊; 刘云妹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in MDR-TB.Methods 212 cases patients with MDR-TB were randomly divided into observation group and control group ,each of 106 cases.Observation group was treated by levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium .Control group was treated by levofloxacin .After treatment ,compared the clinical effect ,lesion extent of absorption ,cavity closure case of 2 groups .Results The total efficacy of observation group (95.28%)was higher than that of control group (83.02%),the difference was statisti-cally significant(P<0.05).The focus absorption rate and cavity closure rate of observation group was higher than that of con -trol group,the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05).Conclusion Levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in MDR-TB has an good effect ,worthy of clinical application .%目的:探讨左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗耐多药肺结核的临床疗效。方法将212例耐多药肺结核患者随机分为观察组和对照组各106例。所有患者均严格给予抗结核化疗,支持治疗和密切护理,观察组给予左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗,对照组仅给予左氧氟沙星治疗。治疗后观察2组临床疗效、病灶吸收程度、空洞闭合情况。结果观察组总有效率为95.28%高于对照组的83.02%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组病灶吸收率、空洞闭合率均高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗耐多药肺结核具有良好的治疗效果,且不增加不良反应事件发生率,值得临床推广应用。

  18. 胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾在耐多药肺结核中的疗效观察%Effect of thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚超; 李孳; 林文红; 刘盛盛; 杨娟; 梅琳; 李霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the curative effect of thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium ( AMC) in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis ( MDR-PTB) . Methods 69 cases of MDR-PTB patients were randomly divided into the treatment group ( n=35 ) and the control group ( n=34 ) . The control group received the standard treatment, and the treatment group was given thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potas-sium on the basis of the control group. All patients were treated for 24 months. Results The curative rate was 82. 9% and 58. 8% respectively in the treatment group and the control group (P<0. 05). There was no obvious difference in adverse reaction between the two groups. Conclusion Thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium have better curative effect than the standard therapy does in the treatment of MDR-PTB patients, which have good safety and tolerance.%目的:观察胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾在耐多药肺结核患者治疗中的疗效。方法将我院收集到的69例耐多药的肺结核病人,随机的分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组35例,对照组34例。对照组采取耐多药肺结核标准治疗方案,治疗组在对照组基础上加用胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾。所有患者疗程为24个月。结果治疗组和对照组治愈率分别为82.9%及58.8%,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);两组不良反应无明显统计学差异。结论胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合标准抗结核药治疗耐多药肺结核临床疗效明显。

  19. Validação de método para determinação de resíduos de amoxicilina aplicado à validação de limpeza em indústria farmacêutica de penicilânicos Validation of a method for determination of amoxicillin residues applied to cleaning validation process in penicillins pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Pinheiro Costa Gomes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the single-laboratory validation of a quantitative method for the determination of amoxicillin residues in support of cleaning control and validation. Linearity was demonstrated between 2.5 and 17.5 μg/mL, without matrix effects. Mean recoveries ranged from 84.00 to 103.74% and the relative standard deviation under repetitivity and within-reproducibility conditions were from 0.58 to 4.20% and from 0.79 to 4.39%, respectively. The theoretical limits of detection and quantification were 0.133 and 0.442 μg/mL, respectively. The studied method was suitable for cleaning control purpose within good manufacturing practices.

  20. Effect analysis of amoxicillin and dicloxacillin etc triple therapy for eradicating helicobacter pylori infection%阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊等三联疗法治疗幽门螺杆菌阳性的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦锦兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of standard triple therapy amoxicillin and dicloxacillin,esomeprazole,clar-ithromycin and amoxicillin,esomeprazole,clarithromycin therapy for eradication of helicobacter pylori 10 days. Methods By 14C - urea breath test were analyzed and the gastric mucosa pathologic examination ( Warthin - Stary dyeing positive) confirmed that Hp infection in 198 cases of material were randomly divided into two groups; experiment group of 115 patients were treated with amoxicillin and dicloxacillin,1. 125 ,bid,esomeprazole,20 mg,bid,clarithromyc ,500 mg,bid for 10 days,the compare group of 83 patients were treated with amoxicillin,1000mg,bid,esomeprazole,20mg,Bid,clarithromyci - n,500 mg,Bid for 10 days. All of the patients stop drug above 14C - urea breath test and gastroscope gastric mucosa pathology were used to examine whether HP was eradicated 4 weeks after treatment. Results Totally 198 cases were all 10 days to complete treatment duration and one mounth review the HP. Two groups of Hp eradicate rate were 94. 78% and 73. 49% ,respectively ( P 0. 05 ) ,not found serious adverse effects,all of the patients tolerated. Experiment group and compare group Hp eradication rates have significant difference (P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusions The curative effect of experiment group for eradication of HP is significantly better than that of the control group ( P < 0. 05 ).%目的 比较三联疗法阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊、埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片、克拉霉素片和阿莫西林钠胶囊、埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片、克拉霉素片根除幽门螺杆菌10d疗效.方法 分析经14C尿素呼气实验及胃黏膜病理检查(Warthin - Stary染色阳性)证实有Hp感染患者198例资料.随机分两组,试验组115例患者口服阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊1.125,埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片20mg,克拉霉素片500mg,对照组83例患者口服阿莫西林1.0,埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片20mg,克拉霉素片500mg,三联药

  1. Effect observation of hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine in the treatment of chronic stubborn gastritis and gastric ulcer in 60 cases%铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡60例效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱桂扣

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine in the treatment of chronic stubborn gastritis,gastric ulcer.Methods:60 patients with chronic stubborn gastritis,gastric ulcer were selected. They were randomly divided into the study group and the control group with 30 cases in each.The control group were given hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid treatment.The study group were given hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine treatment.We compared the treatment efficiency,helicobacter pylori clearance rate, recurrence rate and the rate of adverse reactions of the two groups.Results:In the study group,the effective rate was 86.67% ;helicobacter pylori eradication rate was 73.33%;the recurrence rate was 10.00%.They were all significantly better than the control group(P0.05).Conclusion:Hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine in the treatment of chronic stubborn gastritis,gastric ulcer can significantly improve the clinical efficacy,and reduce the recurrence rate.%目的:探讨铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡的疗效。方法:收治慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡患者60例,随机平均分成研究组和对照组,对照组给予铝碳酸镁联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗,研究组应用铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗,比较两组患者治疗有效率、幽门螺杆菌清除率、复发率及不良反应率。结果:研究组治疗有效率86.67%,幽门螺杆菌清除率73.33%,复发率10.00%,均显著优于对照组(P<0.05),不良反应率组间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡能显著提高临床疗效、降低复发率。

  2. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾近红外定量分析通用性模型的建立%Establishment of Universal Quantitative Models for Determination of Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium for Injection Using Near-infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗英; 莫卫民; 陈悦; 洪利娅

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用近红外漫反射光谱分析技术和化学计量学的方法对注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾进行无损、快速定量分析.方法 采集26批实验室自制样品和40批不同企业市售样品的近红外漫反射光谱,通过聚类分析确定校正集和验证集,采用偏最小二乘法(PLS)建立定量分析模型.结果 3个定量模型中阿莫西林浓度范围为21.28%~75.57%,克拉维酸浓度范围为2.67%~15.85%,水分范围为0.46 %~15.7%.阿莫西林定量模型的交叉验证均方根误差(RMSECV)和预测均方根误差(RMSEP)分别为1.42%和1.54%;克拉维酸定量模型的RMSECV和RMSEP分别为0.56%和0.71%;水分定量模型的RMSECV和RMSEP分别为0.11%和0.14%.结论 建立的3个非破坏性快速定量分析模型用于不同厂家生产的注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾样品测定是可行的.%OBJECTIVE To develop a near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopic quantitative method for rapid and non-destructive determination of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection. METHODS Using cluster analysis method, diffuse reflectance spectra of 26 batches of simulated samples and 40 batches of commercial samples from different manufactures were divided into calibration and validation set. The calibration model was developed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. RESULTS Three quantitative methods were explored at the concentration ranges of 21.28%-75.57% for amoxicillin, 2.67%—15.85% for clavulanate potassium, 0.46%-15.7% for water. The root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) and the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 1.42% and 1.54% for amoxicillin, 0.56% and 0.71% for clavulanate, 0.11% and 0.14% for water, respectively. CONCLUSION Three nondestructive quantitative NIR methods used in this study are applicable for rapid analysis of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection from different manufactures.

  3. Effects of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin on children with acute suppurative tonsillitis%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔勇; 余霞辉; 邓骥; 邱有波; 罗扬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin on children with acute suppurative tonsillitis .Methods One hundred and twenty-two children with acute suppurative tonsillitis were randomly di-vided into treatment group ( n =62 ) and control group ( n =60 ) .The treatment group was administrated with amoxicillin and clavu-lanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin while the control group was administrated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on -ly.Two groups were treated for 7 to 10 days.The improvement time of main symptom and the clinical effect were compared between the two groups.Results The times of temperature returning to normal ,angina relieve,pharyngeal hyperaemia fading ,swollen tonsils relieve and discharge extinction in the treatment group were significantly shorter than that in the control group ( P<0.05 ) .The total efficiency in the treatment group(96.77%)was significantly higher than that in the control group (85.0%)(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups .Conclusion Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined chy-motrypsin can shorten the duration of symptoms and improve the treatment efficiency in the treatment of children with acute suppurative tonsillitis.%目的:探讨阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效。方法采用随机数字表法将122例化脓性扁桃体炎患儿分为治疗组(62例)和对照组(60例),对照组单用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾,治疗组在此基础上加用糜蛋白酶治疗,疗程均为7~10 d。比较两组治疗后主要症状体征改善时间、总有效率和不良反应。结果治疗组体温恢复正常、咽痛缓解、咽部充血消退、扁桃体肿大减轻、分泌物消退等时间均明显优于对照组,总有效率(96.77%)高于对照组(85.0%),差异均有统计学意义( P<0

  4. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎疗效观察%Clinical Curative Effect of Amoxicillin/Clavulanate Potassium in the Treatment of Children with Suppura-tive Tonsillitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国珍; 寿淑平

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical efficacy and safety of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treatment of chil-dren with suppurative tonsillitis. Methods:Totally 263 children with suppurative tonsillitis from March 2011 to September 2013 in pe-diatrics were randomly divided into two groups, the control group had 130 cases and the treatment group had 133 cases. All the patients were given conventional treatment, meanwhile, the control group was with intravenous infusion of azithromycin, and the treatment group was orally given amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium dispersible tablets. The clinical efficacy, clinical symptom disappearance time and the incidence of adverse reactions of the two groups were observed. Results:After the treatment, the control group were cured with the total effective rate of 83. 8%, and the treatment group were healed with the total effective rate of 90. 2%. The difference wasn't sig-nificant (P>0. 05). Orally used amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium was more economic and convenient, which could reduce the drug-resistance as well. There was no significant difference in the effects on fever, purulent and the white blood cell between the two groups, and no significant adverse reactions showed in both groups. Conclusion:Orally used amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium ex-hibits obvious therapeutic effect on infantile suppurative tonsillitis, which can effectively improve the clinical symptoms without obvious adverse reactions, and it is worthy of clinical use.%目的:探讨阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的临床疗效及安全性。方法:化脓性扁桃体炎患儿263例随机分为对照组130例和观察组133例。对照组给予阿奇霉素10 mg·kg-1·d-1,ivd;观察组给予口服阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾分散片。两组均连续治疗3~9d。观察并比较两组临床疗效、临床症状消失时间及不良反应发生情况。结果:治疗后,对照组总有效率为83.8%,

  5. Efficacy of triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin as first-line treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori Eficacia de una triple terapia con un inhibidor de la bomba de protones, levofloxacino y amoxicilina, como primer tratamiento, en la erradicación de Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castro-Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: triple therapy including a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (PPI-CA is the first-choice treatment used for H. pylori eradication. The efficacy of this treatment is declining of late, and alternative therapies are currently under evaluation. Objectives: to evaluate the efficacy, safety and compliance of a triple therapy with a PPI, amoxicillin and levofloxacin (PPI-LA - replacing clarithromycin - for the eradication of H. pylori. Methods: the study included 135 patients (65% women, mean age 53 years, with dyspeptic symptoms and H. pylori infection proven by a positive urease rapid test, histological analysis, or C13-urea breath test. Diagnosis: non-investigated dyspepsia 48.9%, functional dyspepsia 36.3%, and ulcerative dyspepsia 14.8%. Treatment was indicated with a proton pump inhibitor at usual doses, amoxicillin 1 g, and levofloxacin 500 mg, administered jointly during breakfast and dinner for 10 days. We studied the performance of this triple therapy and its effects using a questionnaire, and effectiveness by the negativity of the C13-urea breath test after 6-8 weeks after treatment discontinuation. Per protocol, we compared the effectiveness of PPI-LA with a control group of 270 patients treated with PPI-CA for 10 days. Results: 130 patients (96.2% could complete the treatment and follow-up protocol. Effectiveness (intention to treat was 71.8% (97/135 and 74.6% (per protocol (97/130. Sixteen patients (11.8% had well-tolerated adverse effects, except for 5 subjects (3.7% who dropped out. PPI-CA was effective (per protocol in 204 patients out of 270 (75.5% in the control group. Conclusions: triple therapy with a PPI, amoxicillin and levofloxacin for 10 days is a well-tolerated treatment that is easy to comply with; however it has low efficiency - less than 80% - and is not recommended as a first-choice treatment for H. pylori eradication. Similar results were obtained with the classic triple therapy using a

  6. Observation of clinical efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium injection combined with compound danshen injection in treatment of community acquired pneumonia%注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方丹参注射液治疗社区获得性肺炎临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁殿明

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合丹参注射液治疗社区获得性肺炎的临床疗效。方法选取我院2013年1月~2014年5月期间收治的社区获得性肺炎患者80例,随机分成治疗组和对照组各40例,治疗组采用注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方丹参注射液静滴,对照组单独应用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾静滴,两组患者均连续静脉用药7d。于疗程结束后1周评价疗效,分别比较两组患者的临床表现,包括体温改变、咳嗽的变化及肺部体征的变化,并进行胸片及血常规检查,同时记录不良反应发生情况及症状消退的时间,对比分析两组的临床效果和用药安全性。结果治疗组总有效率92.50%,明显高于对照组的72.50%,两组患者退热时间方面无显著差异,但治疗组咳嗽消失时间、X线改变恢复正常平均时间及白细胞恢复正常时间均明显短于对照组,差异有统计学意义。结论使用注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方丹参注射液治疗社区获得性肺炎较单独应用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾可以明显缩短疗程,提高疗效,有一定的临床借鉴意义。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium injection combined with compound danshen injection in treatment of community acquired pneumonia. Methods Eighty patients with community acquired pneumonia treated in our hospital from January 2013 to May 2014 were selected and randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group, with 40 patients in each group. The treatment group received amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium injection combined with compound danshen injection and the control group received the intra-venous infusion of single amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Both groups received intravenous medication for 7 continuous days. The efficacy was evaluated one week after the end of treatment. Clinical

  7. Utilização do óleo de alho e da amoxilina, metronidazol e omeprazol no controle de Helicobacter spp. em cães Use of garlic oil and amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazol in the control of Helicobacter spp. in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a eficácia do óleo de alho e da terapia tripla (amoxicilina, metronidazol e omeprazol no tratamento de 21 cães infectados por Helicobacter spp., que apresentavam alterações histológicas nas biopsias endoscópicas da mucosa gástrica e reação positiva ao teste de urease. Os animais foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em três grupos de sete cães, os quais receberam os seguintes tratamentos: grupo 1 - cápsulas vazias; grupo 2 - 500mg de óleo de alho em cápsulas, diariamente, por um período de 30 dias; grupo 3 - amoxicilina, metronidazol e omeprazol, respectivamente, nas doses de 20mg/kg a cada 12 horas, 25mg/kg e 20mg/kg a cada 24 horas, durante 15 dias. Ao final dos tratamentos, os cães foram submetidos à endoscopia com realização de biopsias da mucosa gástrica. O tratamento com amoxicilina, metronidazol e omeprazol resultou em erradicação de Helicobacter spp. tanto na região fúndica quanto na pilórica. No grupo 2, houve redução da degeneração glandular na região fúndica em dois animais e em outros dois na pilórica. O tratamento com óleo de alho não foi eficaz em erradicar Helicobacter spp., apenas reduziu a sua colonização em quatro dos animais tratados.The efficacy of garlic oil and triple therapy (amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazol were evaluated in the treatment of 21 dogs infected by Helicobacter spp., which presented histological alterations of the gastric mucosa according to endoscopic biopsies and positive reaction to urease test. The animals were randomly distributed into three groups of seven dogs each, and received the following treatment, group 1 - empty capsules; group 2 - 500mg of garlic oil capsules daily for a period of 30 days; and group 3 - amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazol, in doses of 20mg/kg every 12 hours, 25mg/kg and 20mg/kg every 24 hours, respectively, for 15 days. By the end of the treatment, the dogs were subjected to new endoscopic procedure with gastric

  8. Acute kidney injury due to single time overdosage intravenous infusion of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium:report of 2 cases%单次超剂量静脉滴注阿莫西林克拉维酸钾致急性肾损伤2例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李心蕾; 唐红波; 冯欣

    2016-01-01

    Two female patients who aged 42 and 33 years with adenomyosis and hysteromyoma, respectively were hospitalized for surgical treatment. They had not history of kidney disease. They developed the symptoms of nausea,vomit,hematuresis,hypourocrinia,and slight puffy swelling after the second and fourth times of IV infusion of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 2. 4 g,respectively. Laboratory examination showed the increase of serum creatinine( Scr)and urea nitrogen( BUN)( case 1:Scr 423μmol/ L,BUN 7. 2 mmol/ L;case 2:Scr 443 μmol/ L,BUN 6. 8 mmol/ L). Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium were stopped to use in both patients immediately and symptomatic treatments which included those for relieving vomiting,hemostasis,diuresis,and fluid infusion were given to them. The two patients were transferred to another hospital' s nephrology department for hemodialysis on day 5 and 3 of receiving amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,respectively. The two patients' urine volume,levels of Scr and BUN were returned to normal on day 18 and 20 after transferring,respectively(case 1:Scr 49 μmol/ L,BUN 4. 1 mmol/ L;case 2:Scr 55 μmol/ L,BUN 5. 1mmol/ L).%2例女性患者(年龄分别为42和33岁)分别因子宫腺肌症和子宫肌瘤入院手术治疗,均无肾病史,分别于第2和第4次静脉滴注阿莫西林克拉维酸钾2.4 g 后出现恶心、呕吐、血尿、尿量减少、轻度水肿等症状,实验室检查示 Scr 和 BUN 异常(例1:Scr 423μmol/ L,BUN 7.2 mmol/ L;例2:Scr 443μmol/ L,BUN 6.8 mmol/ L)。2例患者均立即停用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾,接受止吐、止血、利尿和补液等对症治疗,并分别于用药后第5和第3天转外院肾内科进行血液透析。2例患者的尿量、Scr和 BUN 分别于转院后第18和第20天恢复正常(例1:Scr 49μmol/ L,BUN 4.1 mmol/ L;例2:Scr 55μmol/ L,BUN 5.1 mmol/ L)。

  9. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星治疗耐多药肺结核临床疗效分析%Clinical Efficacy Analysis of Amoxicillin/clavulanic Potassium Combined Levofloxacin in the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 刘幸; 王璐

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the clinical effect of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium combined lev- ofloxacin in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB). Methods 101 cases of retreatment smear-positive MDR-TB patients were randomly divided into treatment group (52 patients) and control group (49 patients); chemotherapy: the treatment group based on amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium and levofloxacin, associated with pyrazinamide, ethambutol, aminosalicylic acid isoniazid and rifampicin spray bite; The control group based on levofloxacin, combination therapy is same with the treatment group; The treatment course of all cases is 12 months. Results 5 patients were terminated because of adverse drug reactions In the course of treatment, the treatment group actually completed 50 patients, the control group actually completed 46 patients. To the end of treatment, sputum conversion rate of treatment group and control group Separately was 78.0% and 56.5%, sputum conversion rate in the treated group was significantly higher than the control group(P <0.05); foci effective rate of treatment group was 78.0%, cavity closure rate was 82.0%, foci effective rate and cavity closure rate in treatment group were significantly higher than the control group(P <0.05). Conclusion amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium combined levofloxacin in the treatment of MDR-TB was contribute to sputum conversion and Absorption of the lesion, adverse drug reactions was low, worthy of clinical application.%目的 观察并评价阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星在耐多药肺结核(MDR-TB)治疗中的效果.方法 将101例复治涂阳耐多药肺结核患者随机分为治疗组52例和对照组49例;化疗方案:治疗组以阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾、左氧氟沙星为主,联合吡嗪酰胺、盐酸乙胺丁醇、对氨基水杨酸异烟肼、利福喷叮;对照组以左氧氟沙星为主,联合用药同治疗组;所有病例疗程均为12个月.结果 治疗中途因

  10. Eficácia e segurança de Sultamicilina (Ampicilina/Sulbactam e Amoxacilina/Clavulanato no tratamento das infecções de via aéreas superiores em adultos: um estudo multicêntrico, aberto e randomizado Efficacy and safety of Sultamicillin (Ampicillin/Sulbactan and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in adults: an open-label, multicentric, randomized trial

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    João Batista Ferreira

    2006-02-01

    pro-drug of Ampicillin/Sulbactan, is a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor which can face this challenge. AIM: evaluate efficacy, safety and tolerability of Ampicillin/Sulbactan compared to Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in upper respiratory tract infections in adults. METHODS: 102 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive Ampicillin/Sulbactan or Amoxicillin/Clavulanate during 10 days. They were evaluated 10 and 30 days after treatment to learn about the therapeutic response. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two groups respecting cure at the end of treatment (visit 2 or at the end of the study (visit 3. Cure ratio was 61.7% and 93.2% (visits 2 and 3 in the Amoxicillin/Clavulanate group compared to 64.4% and 97.4%, respectively, in Ampicillin/Sulbactan group. The adverse events ratio for the two groups was the same (p=0.940. The number of patients with diarrhea was greater in the group of patients receiving Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (70.6% than in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan (29.4% (p=0.0164. CONCLUSIONS: Ampicillin/Sulbactan is as safe and efficient as Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in the empiric treatment of upper respiratory infections in adults. The low occurrence of diarrhea in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan needs confirmation in other studies.

  11. Comparação entre a azitromicina e a amoxicilina no tratamento da exacerbação infecciosa da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Comparison between azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Mara Rúbia Andre-Alves

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a eficácia, segurança e tolerabilidade da azitromicina e da amoxicilina no tratamento de pacientes com quadro clínico de exacerbação infecciosa da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. MÉTODOS: Seis centros brasileiros incluíram 109 pacientes com idades entre 33 e 82 anos. Desses pacientes, 102 foram randomizados para receber azitromicina (500 mg por dia por três dias, n = 49 ou amoxicilina (500 mg a cada oito horas por dez dias, n = 53. Os pacientes foram avaliados no início do estudo, após dez dias e depois de um mês. A avaliação clínica, de acordo com os sinais e sintomas presentes após dez dias e após um mês, consistiu na classificação dos casos nas categorias cura, melhora ou falha terapêutica. A avaliação microbiológica foi feita pela cultura de amostras de escarro consideradas adequadas após contagem de leucócitos e coloração de Gram. Avaliações secundárias de eficácia foram feitas com relação aos sintomas (tosse, dispnéia e expectoração e à função pulmonar. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças entre as proporções de casos classificados como cura ou melhora entre os grupos tratados com a azitromicina ou a amoxicilina. Essas proporções foram, respectivamente, de 85% vs. 78% (p = 0,368 após dez dias, e de 83% vs. 78% (p = 0,571 após um mês. Também não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos quando comparadas as variáveis secundárias de eficácia e a incidência de eventos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: A azitromicina tem eficácia e tolerabilidade semelhantes às da amoxicilina para o tratamento da exacerbação aguda da Doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica.OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of patients with infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: This study was conducted at six medical centers across Brazil and included 109 patients from 33 to 82

  12. Role of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium in Treatment of Community-acquired Pneumonia%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾复方制剂在社区获得性肺炎治疗中的作用

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    唐晓燕

    2012-01-01

    Community - acquired pneumonia ( CAP) is a common infectious disease. Its resistance has become increasingly prominent in long—term clinical course of medication. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium has been recognized gradually due to its significant effect on CAP. Different matching dosage regimen has different antimicrobial efficacy. This paper gives 2 best matching dosage regimens by clinical trials.%社区获得性肺炎(CAP)是临床常见的感染性疾病,在长期临床用药过程中,CAP的耐药性问题日益突出,阿莫西林克拉维酸钾复方制剂在CAP中的治疗地位由于其疗效显著而逐渐被肯定.阿莫西林克拉维酸钾复方制剂不同配比的给药方案抗菌疗效也不尽相同,本研究通过临床实验也给出了两者最佳配比.

  13. 热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗小儿支气管肺炎的临床观察%Clinical observation of Re Du Ning injection combined with amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia

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    范勇; 杨永莲; 宋雷

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析并探讨热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗小儿支气管肺炎的临床观察。方法:2011年5月-2014年5月收治小儿支气管肺炎患者100例,将其随机分为观察组与对照组,每组50例。观察组给予热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾进行治疗,对照组仅给予阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗,观察两组临床效果及症状消失时间。结果:观察组显效27例,有效21例,无效2例,有效率96.00%;对照组显效21例,有效22例,无效7例,有效率86.00%,观察组治疗有效率明显高于对照组,经统计学处理,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组体温恢复正常时间(2.32±0.45)d,咳嗽消失时间(3.21±1.32)d,啰音消失时间(3.58±1.66)d;对照组体温恢复正常时间(4.23±0.78) d,咳嗽消失时间(5.23±1.65)d,啰音消失时间(6.03±1.67)d,观察组临床症状消失时间明显短于对照组,经统计学处理,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗小儿支气管肺炎临床效果显著,值得推广。%Objective:To analyze and explore the clinical observation of Re Du Ning injection combined with amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia.Methods:100 cases with children bronchial pneumonia were selected from May 2011 to May 2014.They were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 50 cases in each.The observation group were given Re Du Ning injection combined with amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium treatment.The control group were only given amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium treatment.The clinical effect and the symptoms disappear time were observed.Results:In the observation group,27 cases were significantly effective;21 cases were effective;2 cases were invalid;the treatment effective rate was 96.00%.In the control group,21 cases were significantly

  14. The comparative analysis on the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound pholcodine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效随机对照分析

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    王冰; 徐洁; 唐新业; 姚红兵

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound phol-codine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection.Methods One hundred and sixty chil-dren with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection were chosen,and divided into treatment group(80 cases) and control group(80 cases)randomly.Amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with compound pholcodine syrup were enrolled in the treatment group,while amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with lung cough syrup were in the con-trol group.The bacterial clearance rate,oral secretory SIgA and total effective rate were compared before and after the treatment for 7 days.Results There was no significant difference in the bacterial clearance rate in the two groups (P >0.05).The oral secretory SigA increased after treatment comparing with that before treatment(P 0.05)in the control one.The total effective rate in the treatment group was higher than that in the control one(93.75% vs.86.25%)(P <0.05).No serious side effect occurred in the two groups.Conclusion It has significant effect using amoxicillin clavulanic combined with compound pholcodine syrup in treatment of pediatric acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection.%目的:观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效。方法选择急性细菌性上呼吸道感染患儿160例,分为治疗组(80例)和对照组(80例),治疗组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+复方福尔可定口服溶液,对照组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+肺力咳糖浆。治疗疗程均为7 d,比较治疗前后两组细菌清除率、口腔分泌性 SIgA 和总有效率。结果细菌清除率两组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗后实验组患儿口腔分泌性 SIgA 较治疗前有升高(P <0.05),而对照组

  15. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效随机对照分析%The comparative analysis on the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound pholcodine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection

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    王冰; 徐洁; 唐新业; 姚红兵

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效。方法选择急性细菌性上呼吸道感染患儿160例,分为治疗组(80例)和对照组(80例),治疗组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+复方福尔可定口服溶液,对照组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+肺力咳糖浆。治疗疗程均为7 d,比较治疗前后两组细菌清除率、口腔分泌性 SIgA 和总有效率。结果细菌清除率两组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗后实验组患儿口腔分泌性 SIgA 较治疗前有升高(P <0.05),而对照组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗组总有效率93.75%。显著高于对照组86.25%(P <0.05),两组患儿均无严重的不良反应发生。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染疗效显著。%Objective To observe the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound phol-codine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection.Methods One hundred and sixty chil-dren with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection were chosen,and divided into treatment group(80 cases) and control group(80 cases)randomly.Amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with compound pholcodine syrup were enrolled in the treatment group,while amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with lung cough syrup were in the con-trol group.The bacterial clearance rate,oral secretory SIgA and total effective rate were compared before and after the treatment for 7 days.Results There was no significant difference in the bacterial clearance rate in the two groups (P >0.05).The oral secretory SigA increased after treatment comparing with that before treatment(P 0.05)in the control one.The total effective rate in the treatment group was higher than that

  16. Helicobacter pylori eradication using tetracycline and furazolidone versus amoxicillin and azithromycin in lansoprazole based triple therapy: an open randomized clinical trial Erradicação de Helicobacter pylori com o uso de tetraciclina e furazolidona versus amoxicilina e azitromicina em terapia tríplice com lansoprazol

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    Laura Cidrão Frota

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment has not yet been established. AIM: To evaluate H. pylori eradication using tetracycline and furazolidone versus amoxicillin and azithromycin in lansoprazole based triple therapy in northeastern of Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and four patients with H. pylori infection, as determined by rapid urease testing and histology, were randomly assigned to receive either: lansoprazole (30 mg q.d., tetracycline (500 mg q.i.d., and furazolidone (200 mg t.i.d. for 7 days (LTF; n = 52; or lansoprazole (30 mg b.i.d. and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d. for 1 week, plus azithromycin (500 mg q.d. for the first 3 days (LAAz; n = 52. H. pylori eradication was assessed 3 months following completion of therapy by means of rapid urease testing, histology and a 14C-urea breath test. RESULTS: H. pylori eradication was achieved in 46 of 52 (88.4%, 95% CI: 77.5%-95.1% patients in LTF group and in 14 of 52 (26.9%, 95% CI: 16.2%-40,1% patients in LAAz group. On a per-protocol analysis, eradication rates were 91.8% (95% CI: 81.4%-97.3% and 28.5% (95% CI: 17.2%-42.3%, respectively in LTF and LAAz groups. CONCLUSION: The LAAz regimen yielded unacceptably low eradication rates. On the other hand, the LTF scheme represents a suitable alternative for H. pylori eradication.RACIONAL: Ainda não está estabelecida a melhor terapêutica anti-H. pylori. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a erradicação de H.pylori usando tetraciclina e furazolidona versus amoxicilina e azitromicina em terapia tríplice com lansoprazol no nordeste do Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Cento e quatro pacientes infectados por H. pylori, diagnosticado através do teste rápido da urease e histologia, foram selecionados aleatoriamente para receber: lansoprazol (30 mg q.d., tetraciclina (500 mg q.i.d., furazolidona (200 mg t.i.d. por 7 dias (LTF; n = 52; ou lansoprazol (30 mg b.i.d. e amoxicilina (1 g b.i.d. por 1 semana, mais azitromicina (500 mg q.d. nos primeiros 3

  17. Study on Establishment of High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analytical Method for Determination of Compound Amoxicillin and Levofloxacin Hydrochloride Nanoemulsion and Its Expiration Date%复方阿莫西林纳米乳的高效液相色谱分析及有效期研究

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    杨雪峰; 宁红梅; 孙红武; 欧阳五庆

    2012-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established for the determination of Amoxicillin (AMX) and Levofloxacin hydrochloride (LH) in the compound Amoxicillin and Levofloxacin hydrochloride nanoemulsion (AMX-LH-NE), and its expiration date by the high performance liquid chromatograph was detected. The results showed that two good linearity were respectively obtained by AMX in the range of 0.5-50 μg/mL and by LH in the range of 5-60 μg/ mL, and the average recovery, relative standard deviation (RSD), average retention time, RSD of the with-in-day precision, RSD of the day-to-day precision of AMX and LH were (99.27±1.26)% and (99.65±1.51)%, 1.27% and 1.52%, (10.22± 0.13) min and (7.15±0.13) min, 1.56% and 1.75%, 2.46% and 2.62%, respectively. The expiration date was 20 months. The two analytical methods of HPLC possessed good specificity, high recovery rate, repetitiveness and precision, it could be used to determine and control the principal agents in the preparation of AMX-LH-NE.%利用高效液相色谱仪建立测定复方阿莫西林纳米乳(AMX-LH-NE)中阿莫西林(AMX)和盐酸左氧氟沙星(LH)两种主药含量的高效液相色谱(HPLC)分析方法,并确定该药物的有效期.结果表明,AMX和LH分别在0.5~50.μg/mL和5~60 μg/mL浓度范围内线性关系良好;平均回收率为(99.27±1.26)%和(99.65±1.51)%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为1.27%和1.52%;平均保留时间为(10.22±0.13)min和(7.15±0.13)min;日内精密度RSD为1.56%和1.75%,日间精密度RSD为2.46%和2.62%.AMX-LH-NE的有效期为20个月.建立的HPLC分析方法专属性好,回收率、重复性和精密度高,可用于AMX-LH-NE制剂的主药含量测定及其质量控制.

  18. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾序贯疗法和静脉滴注治疗老年慢性支气管炎急性发作的药物经济学评价%Pharmacoeconomic evaluation on the sequential therapy with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on chronic brochitis acute in the elderly

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    姜杰; 邵志伟; 李小东

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the economic effects of amoxicillin clavulanic potassium of different dosing for the same disease. Methods 77 patients with acute chronic brochitis were randomly divided into 2 groups with gmoxicillin clavulanic potassium of different dosing and evaluated with the pharmacoeconomic cost effectiveness analysis. Results The effective rates of the two groups( A,B )were 87.2% and 89.5%, respectively( P > 0.05 ). Costs were 460.88 yuan and 719.18 yuan, respectively( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion From pharmacoeco nomics perspective,the group A scheme was better.%目的 探讨阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的不同给药方案治疗相同疾病的经济效果.方法 选择77例老年慢性支气管炎急性发作患者,随机分为两组,分别用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的不同给药方案治疗,运用药物经济学的最小成本分析进行评价.结果 A、B组有效率分别为87.2%、89.5%(P>0.05),成本分别为460.88元、719.18元(P<0.05).结论 从药物经济学角度分析,A组方案较佳.

  19. 疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾混悬液治疗小儿急性细菌性支气管炎的临床疗效观察%Clinical Effect of Shufeng-jiedu Capsule Combined with Amoxicillin Clavulanic Acid Potassium Mixed Suspension on Acute Bacterial Bronchitis in Children

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    陈玉琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of shufeng-jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium mixed suspension on acute bacterial bronchitis in children. Methods From September 2013 to November 2014, a total of 87 children with acute bacterial bronchitis were selected in the Department of Outpatient,Traditional Chinses Medicine Hospital of Xingyang,and they were divided into control group(n=44)and treatment group(n=43)according to admission date. Children of control group were given amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium mixed suspension,while children of treatment group was given extra shufeng-jiedu capsule on the basis of control group,both groups treated for 5 days. Clinical effect,cure time and recovery time of fever and cough,and incidence of adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. Results All of the 87 children were enrolled into full analysis set( FAS) and safety analysis set( SS),and 40 cases of each group were enrolled into per protocol set( PPS) at last. The clinical effect of treatment group were statistically significantly better than that of control group(P<0. 05),and no difference was found between FAS result and PPS result. The cure time and recovery time of fever and cough of treatment group were statistically significantly shorter than those of control group,the antipyretic using times of treatment group was statistically significantly less than that of control group(P<0. 05),and no difference was found between FAS result and PPS result. No one of the two groups occurred obvious nausea,emesis,hepatic or renal function abnormity. Conclusion Shufeng -jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium mixed suspension can improve the clinical effect of acute bacterial bronchitis in children,shorten the course of disease,promote the recovery,has better antifebrile effect and higher safety.%目的:观察疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾混悬液治疗小儿急性细菌性支气

  20. RP-HPLC法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸的含量%Determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium suspension(14∶ 1) by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚洲; 樊兰兰; 屈啸声; 冯洁; 魏涌标

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of the content of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Suspension( 14:1 ). Methods YILITE C18 column( 4. 6 mm × 150 mm,5μm ) and Shimadzu LC-10A high performance liquid chromatography were adopted using octadecylsilane bonded silica as a filler;phosphate buffe( NaH2PO4 7. 8 g added with water 900 mL, pH value adjusted to 4. 4 ±0.1 with phosphate or 10 mol · L-1 NaOH solution before diluted with water to 1 000 mL ) -methano(95: 5 ) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL · min~' and detection wavelength was 220 nm. Results Amoxicillin was lineat in the range of 0. 332 1 ~ 1.162 3 g · L-1 with a correlation coefficient 0. 999 6 , average recoveries( n = 9 )99. 45% and RSD 0. 34% . Clavulanic acid was liaear in the range of 0. 028 1-0. 098 4 g · L ~' with a the correlation coefficient 0. 999 8 , average recoveries(n = 9 ) 100. 47% , and RSD 0. 99% . There was a good linear relationship between concentration and peak area. Conclusion The method is simple, accurate, reliable, and highly sensible, which can be used as a quality control method for Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium(14 : 1) suspension.%目的 建立高效液相色谱法同时测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)中阿莫西林和克拉维酸钾的含量.方法 采用依利特C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm),岛津L-10A 高效液相色谱仪,用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂;以磷酸盐缓冲液(取磷酸二氢钠7.8 g,加水900 mL溶解,用磷酸或10 mol?L-1氢氧化钠溶液调节pH值至4.4±0.1,加水稀释至1 000 mL)-甲醇(95:5)为流动相;流速:1.0 mL?min-1;检测波长为220 nm.结果 阿莫西林在0.332 1~1.162 3 g?L-1的浓度范围内,相关系数为0.999 6,平均回收率(n=9) 为99.45%,RSD 为0.34%.克拉维酸在0.028 1~0.098 4 g?L-1的浓度范围内,相关系数为0.999 8,平均回收率(n=9) 为100.47%,RSD 为0.99%.两者的浓度和峰面积之间线

  1. Effect observation of Shufeng Jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treamtent of mild pediatric pneumonia%疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗轻度小儿肺炎的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹美英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of Shufeng Jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin and clavu-lanate potassium in the treatment of mild pediatric pneumonia. Methods From February 2013 to December 2014,120 cases with mild pediatric pneumonia were randomly divided into control group and treatment group according to medi-cal order.Control group was orally given amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,at the same time,treatment group was al-so orally given Shufeng Jiedu capsule,the course of treatment lasted for 7 days.According to patients’disease condition, symptomatic therapy such as abatement of fever,relieving a cough and so on were performed.Treatment effect,time of a-batement of fever and recovery time of cough was observed in two groups respectively. Results The total effective rate in treatment group was 96.7%,and the total effective rate in control group was 86.7%,and there was a statistical differ-ence compared between two groups (P<0.05);time of abatement of fever in treatment group was (2.7±1.2) d,and the time was (3.9±1.7) d in control group;diapperaing time of cough was (4.2±1.5) d,and the time was (5.9±1.3) d;diapperaing time of lung rale was (5.7±1.8)d in treatment group and (7.3±2.1) d in control group,and there was a statistical differ-ence of above-mentioned indexes between two groups (P<0.05).No significant adverse reaction was detected during treatment in both groups. Conclusion Shufeng Jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treatment of mild pediatric pneumonia is able to shorten the course of disease,accelerate children patients’recovery and improve the treatment effect.%目的:观察疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗轻度小儿肺炎的临床效果。方法2013年2月~2014年12月,将120例轻度小儿肺炎患儿按就诊时间随机分为对照组、治疗组,对照组予以阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服,治疗组同时予以疏风解毒胶囊口服,疗程为7d。

  2. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合化学药物治疗初治涂阳肺结核的临床观察%Clinical observation of Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium combined with chemotherapy in treating new pulmonary tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋琳琳; 甄秀霞; 王宗华; 杜亚文; 钱波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy and adverse reaction of Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium in treating new smear positive tuberculosis (TB).Methods One hundred and nine new smear positive pulmonary TB patients were randomly divided into treatment group,who received Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium + 2HRZE/4HR (58 cases ) and control group,who received 2HRZE/4HR(51 cases).Results The sputum negative conversion rate at the third week,the first and second month were 44.8%,62.0%,89.7% in the treatment group and 25.5%,41.2%,76% in the control group respectively,at the second month chest radiography showed the resolution of pulmonary lesions in the treatment group and control group were 37.9% and 19.6% respectively,with cavity closure rate of 65.5% in the treatment group and 38.7% in the control group,at third week,the clinical symptoms such as cough,fever,fatigue disappeared at the levels of 48.3%,71.4%,59.3% in the treatment group and 25.5%,50.0%,40.0% in the control group (P <0.05),there was no drug adverse reaction in the treatment group,there was no significant difference in the sputum positive conversion rate at the 6,12 month after treatment between the treatment group and the control group (P > 0.05 ).Conclusions Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium combined with chemotherapy shortens the time of sputum negative conversion,the resolution of pulmonary lesions and the improvement of clinical symptoms.The drug adverse reaction is little.It is a fairly good immune drug for TB treatment and is worth to be recommended.%目的 观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合抗结核药物治疗初治涂阳肺结核患者的临床疗效和不良反应.方法 将109例初治涂阳肺结核患者随机分为治疗组与对照组两组,治疗组58例采用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾+2HREZ/4HR,对照组51例采用2HREZ/4HR.结果 治疗3周、1个月、2个月痰菌阴转率治疗组分别为44.8%、62.0%、89.7

  3. Clinical Effect Verification of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium combined Ceftazidime for Treatment of Acute Stage of COPD%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾并头孢他啶联合治疗急性期慢性阻塞性肺疾病疗效验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹行闻

    2014-01-01

    目的验证阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服并头孢他啶静脉滴注治疗急性期慢性阻塞性肺疾病疗效。方法将460例急性期慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者依照入我院治疗前后次序加入研究组或对照组,均230例。分别予阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服并头孢他啶静脉滴注及单独使用头孢他啶静滴,疗程结束后比较两组有效率及不良反应出现情况。结果实验性结束治疗后,研究组及对照组总有效率分别为94.8%、81.3%,经比较<0.05,有差异。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服并头孢他啶静脉滴注治疗AECOPD效果较佳,适于普遍推广使用。%Objective To verify the clinical ef ect of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium po.combined ceftazidime ivgtt.for treatment of acute stage of COPD.Methods 460 patients with acute stage of COPD were divided into study group and control group both with 230 cases according to precedence order.And they were given amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium po.combined ceftazidime ivgt .And single ceftazidime ivgt .respectively.Effective rate and adverse ef ect rate of the 2 groups were compared after treatment course.Results After treatment,total ef ective rate of study group and control group were respectively 94.8% and 81.3%, <0.05.Conclusion Amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium po.combined ceftazidime ivgt .for treatment of acute stage of COPD has good clinical ef ect and is worth of being popularized.

  4. Clinical Observation of Children Resuqing Oral Liquid Combined with Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium for Injection in the Treatment of Acute Suppurative Tonsillitis%小儿热速清口服液联合注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾治疗急性化脓性扁桃体炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺辰; 张红新

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察小儿热速清口服液治疗急性化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效和安全性。方法:112例急性化脓性扁桃体炎患儿随机均分为对照组和观察组。对照组患儿给予注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾30 mg/kg,每日2次;观察组患儿在对照组治疗的基础上给予小儿热速清口服液<1岁,1/4~1/2袋;1~3岁,1/2~1袋;3~7岁,1~1.5袋;7~12岁,1.5~2袋;每日均为3~4次。两组患儿疗程均为5 d。观察两组患儿的临床疗效,平均退热时间和咽痛消失时间、白细胞计数(WBC)、C反应蛋白(CRP)水平,治疗前后CD4+/CD3+、CD4+/CD8+、CD8+/CD3+比值及不良反应发生情况。结果:观察组患儿总有效率显著高于对照组,平均退热时间、咽痛消失时间均显著短于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗后,两组患儿WBC、CRP水平均显著低于同组治疗前,且观察组低于对照组,CD4+/CD3+显著高于同组治疗前,且观察组高于对照组,观察组CD4+/CD8+显著高于同组治疗前及对照组,对照组CD8+/CD3+显著高于同组治疗前,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);但观察组治疗前后CD8+/CD3+比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。两组患儿不良反应发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:在阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾的基础上加用小儿热速清口服液治疗急性化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效和安全性均较好。%OBJECTIVE:To observe the efficacy and safety of Children resuqing oral lipid in the treatment of acute suppurative tonsillitis. METHODS:112 children with acute suppurative tonsillitis were randomly divided into control group and observation group. Control group was treated with Amoxicillin clavulanate potassium for injection 30 mg/kg,twice a day;based on the treat-ment of control group,observation group was treated with Children resuqing oral lipid,1/4-1/2 bag for 0

  5. Meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid formulations for acute respiratory infections in children%小儿急性呼吸道感染阿莫西林-克拉维酸制剂临床疗效Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆权; 罗剑锋; 车大钿; 董晓艳; 张嵬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid(Amo/Clav)preparations for treatment of children with acute respiratory tract infections. Methods We performed computer-based retrieval of Medline (on OvidSP) , EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Bio-medicine Database(CBM) , Wan-fang Database System and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI).Data of randomized controlled studies of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid preparations for treatment of respiratory tract infections from January 1985 to December 2011 was collected. RevMan5.1.4 Meta-analysis of count data and odds ratio(OR)with 95% confidence interval(95% Cl)were applied. Funnel plot was used to assess published deviation. Results We retrieved 219 literatures, of which 164 were in English and 55 in Chinese . Twenty-seven articles that met the inclusion criteria were chosen by final screening, including azithromycin contrast 20 and cefaclor 7 for control. The total cases were 2971 and in control group there were 3057 cases. Comparing Amo/Clav with azithromycin in upper respiratory tract infections literature Meta analysis, OR(95% CI)= 1.34(1.02 ~ 1.76), Z = 2.08(P=0.04), while in lower respiratory infections literature Meta analysis, OR(95 % CI)= 1.31(0.56 ~ 3.09) ,Z = 0.62(P = 0.53). Comparing Amo/Clav preparation with cefaclor,OR(95% CI) = 0.88(0.32 ~ 2.45) ,Z = 0.24(P = 0.81). Conclusion Literatures Meta-analysis indicates Amo/Clav treatment for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory infections is superior to azithromycin clinically, but in the treatment of chil- dren with acute bacterial lower respiratory tract infections , the clinical efficacy of both is similar. The Amo/ Clav and cefaclor have similar clinical efficacy in the treatment of. children with acute bacterial respiratory infections.%目的 评估阿莫西林-克拉维酸(Amo/Clav)制剂治疗小儿急性呼吸道感染的临床有效性.方法 计算机检索Medline (Ovid

  6. [The antibacterial action of the amoxicillin-flucloxacillin combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, N A; Savoia, D; Martinetto, P

    1975-01-01

    A mixture of amoxycillin, semisynthetic penicillin beta-lactamase susceptible, and flucloxacillin, an isoxazolylpenicillin, in combination 1:1 was tested. This mixture shows real synergic effect "in vitro" on beta-lactamase producing Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria and an additive effect on the other microrganisms. Good results have been obtained "in vivo" and a protective effect of flucloxacillin on enzymatic degradation of amoxycillin by beta-lactamase was found.

  7. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weight daily. (2) Indications for use—(i) Dogs. Treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of organisms as follows: Respiratory infections (tonsillitis, tracheobronchitis) due to Staphylococcus aureus...), due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis. (ii) Cats. Treatment of...

  8. 21 CFR 520.88e - Amoxicillin trihydrate boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which are raised for food production. Treatment should be continued for 48 hours after all symptoms have subsided but not to exceed 5 days. Do not slaughter animals during treatment or for 20 days after the... milligrams per 100 pounds of body weight twice daily. (2) Indications for use. Treatment of...

  9. 21 CFR 520.88d - Amoxicillin trihydrate soluble powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not slaughter animals during treatment or for 20 days after the latest treatment. Federal law.... Treatment of bacterial enteritis when due to susceptible Escherichia coli in preruminating calves including veal calves. (3) Limitations. Administer by drench or by mixing in milk. Treatment should be...

  10. 21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Treat animals for 48 hours after all symptoms have subsided but not beyond 5 days. Do not slaughter during treatment or for 15 days after latest treatment. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on... orally, twice a day using a dosing pump. (2) Indications for use. Treatment of baby pigs under 10...

  11. Eficácia do regime terapêutico empregando a associação de pantoprazol, claritromicina e amoxicilina, durante uma semana, na erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em pacientes com úlcera péptica Efficacy of the dosing regimen of pantoprazole 40 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg, twice daily for 7 days, in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudo multicêntrico, aberto, delineado para determinar a eficácia da associação de pantoprazol, claritromicina e amoxicilina, na erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em pacientes portadores de úlcera péptica. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Setenta e um pacientes (36 mulheres, 35 homens, idade média 41,9 anos provenientes de três centros universitários brasileiros (Belo Horizonte e Porto Alegre com úlcera péptica confirmada à endoscopia e infecção por H. pylori comprovada por, no mínimo, dois testes diagnósticos. Os pacientes foram tratados com a associação de pantoprazol 40 mg, claritromicina 500 mg e amoxicilina 1,0 g, administrada duas vezes ao dia, durante 7 dias. RESULTADOS: Ao final do tratamento, os pacientes foram reexaminados para avaliação dos sintomas gastrointestinais, presença de eventos adversos e aderência ao tratamento. Nova endoscopia com biopsias e teste respiratório com 13C-uréia foram repetidos 60 dias após o término do tratamento para determinação das taxas de erradicação do microrganismo. Foram considerados H. pylori negativos os pacientes com, pelo menos, o teste respiratório com 13C-uréia e mais um teste (teste da urease ou histologia negativos. Ao final do estudo 60/69 (87%, 95% = 78,9-94,8 pacientes erradicaram o H. pylori na análise por protocolo e 60/71 (84,5%, 95% = 76-92,9 na análise por intenção de tratamento. Um paciente interrompeu o tratamento devido à diarréia. Doze pacientes (16,9% apresentaram sintomas adversos e considerados de leve intensidade. CONCLUSÃO: A associação de pantoprazol, amoxicilina e claritromicina por 7 dias constitui alternativa eficaz e bem tolerada para a erradicação do H. pylori em portadores de úlcera péptica no Brasil.AIM: This is an open label, multicenter trial to determine the efficacy of the association of pantoprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin to eradicate Helicobacter pylory in patients with peptic ulcer. MATERIAL AND METHODS

  12. Clinical Observation of Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium Combined with Cranial Mild-mod-erate Hypothermia in the Treatment of Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy Complicating with Pul-monary Infection%阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾联合头部亚低温治疗新生儿缺血缺氧性脑病伴肺部感染的临床观察Δ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔彦存; 李洋; 姚丽丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾联合头部亚低温治疗新生儿缺血缺氧性脑病(HIE)伴肺部感染的临床疗效及安全性。方法:将80例HIE伴肺部感染的患儿按随机数字表法分为观察组(42例)和对照组(38例)。对照组患儿在正常体温下采取降颅压、纠正酸碱平衡、营养支持、抗惊厥等常规治疗措施,并在此基础上应用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾30 mg/kg静脉滴注,tid,每次滴注时间不短于30 min,持续用药3 d。观察组患儿在对照组治疗基础上加以实施头部亚低温治疗:在患儿头部放置降温帽,温度设置为10℃,将鼻咽部的温度控制在34℃、肛温控制在33~37℃;体温降幅1℃/h;当体温降至34.5℃后持续治疗3 d,然后取走降温帽,让体温自然恢复。观察两组患儿的HIE和肺部感染治疗效果,记录两组患儿出生后1、2、4周的新生儿神经行为测定(NB-NA)评分,并观察不良反应发生情况。结果:观察组患儿的HIE治疗总有效率(95.24%vs.78.95%)及肺部感染治愈率(52.38%vs.26.32%)、总有效率(85.71%vs.65.79%)均显著高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组患儿出生后1周的NBNA评分比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);出生后2、4周的NBNA评分均较出生后1周明显提高,且观察组显著高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组患儿的不良反应发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾联合头部亚低温治疗HIE伴肺部感染的疗效较好,能明显改善患儿预后,且安全性较好。%OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium com-bined with cranial mild-moderate hypothermia in the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) complicating with pulmonary infection. METHODS:80

  13. 乳房炎牛奶中复方阿莫西林纳米乳的残留检测及消除试验%Residue detection and elimination trail of compound amoxicillin and levofloxacin hydrochloride nanoemulsion in milk from mastitis cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 姜金庆; 孙红武; 欧阳五庆

    2012-01-01

    利用高效液相色谱仪建立复方阿莫西林纳米乳(AMX-LH-NE)在牛奶中的残留监控高效液相色谱法(HPLC),并通过残留消除试验,研究AMX-LH-NE在乳房炎牛奶中的残留消除规律,确定其弃奶期。结果显示,阿莫西林(AMX)和盐酸左氧氟沙星(LH)分别在7.5~400μg/L和40~600μg/L线性关系良好;平均回收率为(99.72±1.46)%和(99.65±1.53)%;相对标准偏差(relative standard deviation,RSD)为1.46%和1.54%;平均保留时间为(11.59±0.21)min和(6.87±0.02)min;日内精密度RSD为1.59%和1.39%,日间精密度RSD为3.17%和3.29%。在乳房炎牛奶中,AMX和LH的残留量均随着休药时间的延长而迅速降低;AMX的弃奶期为停药后35.96h,LH的弃奶期为停药后32.94h。结果表明,所建立的HPLC方法专属性好,回收率、重复性和精密度高,可为牛奶中AMX-LH-NE的残留监控提供检测方法;利用此检测方法确定的AMX-LH-NE的弃奶期为停药后36h。%The experiment was conducted to establish the residual detection methods, research the residue elimination rule and decide the withdrawal time of compound amoxicillin and levofloxacin hydrochloride nanoemulsion (AMX- LH-NE) in milk from cows with mastitis disease. Two different high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical methods for residual concentration monitoring of amoxicillin(AMX) and levofloxacin hydrochloride (LH) were established, respectively. Then the withdrawal time was decided by the residue elimination trial. The results showed that two good linearity were obtained by AMX in the range of 7.5-400 μg/L and by LH in the range of 40- 600 μg/L, respectively, and the average recovery, RSD (relative standard deviation), the average retention time, RSD of the with-in-day precision,RSD of the day-to-day precision of AMX and LH were (99.72±1.46)% and (99.65±1.53) %,1.46% and 1.54% ,(11.59±0.21) rain and (6.87±0.02) min,1

  14. 阿奇霉素对比阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗儿童部分急性呼吸道感染临床疗效与安全性的系统评价%Clinical efficacy and safety of azithromycin versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in the treatment of some acute respiratory infections in children:systematic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培香; 印亚双; 陈月; 李文静; 张啸; 冯婉玉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of azithromycin(Az)versus amoxicillin-cla⁃vulanic acid(A-Cva)in the treatment of some acute respiratory infections in children. Methods Pubmed,EMBase,Medline,Co⁃chrane Library and CJFD were retrieved to collect the randomized controlled trial(RCT)of their clinical efficacy and safety in the treat⁃ment of acute respiratory infections in children. The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated.The RevMan 5.2 software was chosen for data analysis. Results Twenty RCTs involving 4980 pediatric patients were included for assessment of the clinical effi⁃cacy. Meta-analysis showed that Az had more significant effect on the treatment of some bacterial repiratory infections in children〔OR=0.78,95%CI(0.65,0.93),P=0.007〕than A-Cva. In the treatment of upper respiratory infections,acute otitis media and so on,Az had more significant effect〔OR=0.75,95%CI(0.62,0.91),P=0.003〕;in the treatment of lower respiratory infections,such as community acquired pneumonia and so on,Az and A-Cva acid had the similar effect〔OR=1.20,95%CI(0.62,2.33),P=0.58〕. Thirteen RCT in⁃volving 3474 pediatric patients were included for assessment of the clinical safety. Meta-analysis shows that the difference between Az and A-Cva is statistic significant in the treatment of some bacterial repiratory infections in children〔OR=0.49,95%CI(0.40,0.60),P<0.000 01〕. Conclusion Overall,Meta-analysis shows that Az is more effective and safer in the treatment of some bacterial repiratory infections in children than A-Cva.%目的:系统评价阿奇霉素对比阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗儿童部分急性呼吸道感染临床疗效与安全性。方法计算机检索PubMed、EMBase、Medline、Cochrane图书馆、中国期刊全文数据库,检索起止时间均从建库至2016年2月,收集阿奇霉素与阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗儿童急性呼吸道感染临床疗效与安全性的随机对照

  15. A clinical evaluation of Suprapen (amoxicillin plus flucloxacillin) in the management of childhood thoracic empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, C H

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-one children, all suffering from thoracic empyema, were treated with a combination of antibiotic therapy (Suprapen) and tube thoracostomy. A satisfactory clinical response with radiological and laboratory confirmation was seen in all but one patient, thus obviating the need for major surgery. Suprapen may be considered as a first line antibiotic in such cases of pleural sepsis in the absence of bacteriological confirmation of infection.

  16. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... twice daily. (B) Indications for use. Treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of organisms as follows: respiratory tract (tonsillitis, tracheobronchitis) caused by Staphylococcus aureus... for use. Treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of organisms as follows:...

  17. Moxifloxacin Compared With Ciprofloxacin/Amoxicillin in Treating Fever and Neutropenia in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Fever, Sweats, and Hot Flashes; Infection; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Neutropenia; Precancerous Condition; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  18. Laboratory efficacy of oxytetracyline and amoxicillin for the control of Streptococcus iniae infection in tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae infection of tilapia is common in different parts of the world including the United States. The infection has caused devastating economic losses and the closure of many tilapia operations. Proper husbandry and health management practices are essential but when a virulent outbre...

  19. Influence of pulmonary surfactant on in vitro bactericidal activities of amoxicillin, ceftazidime, and tobramycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van 't Veen (Annemarie); J.W. Mouton (Johan); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); P. Dekkers; B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of a natural pulmonary surfactant on antibiotic activity was investigated to assess the possible use of exogenous surfactant as a vehicle for antibiotic delivery to the lung. The influence of surfactant on the bactericidal activity of amoxicill

  20. Comparison of the In Vitro Efficacies of Moxifloxacin and Amoxicillin against Listeria monocytogenes▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Grayo, S.; Join-Lambert, O.; Desroches, M. C.; Le Monnier, A.

    2008-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes severe infections associated with a high mortality rate. Moxifloxacin presents extended activity against gram-positive bacteria and has recently been suggested to be a potential alternative in the treatment of listeriosis. We evaluated the in vitro efficacy of moxifloxacin against L. monocytogenes using a combination of epidemiological and experimental approaches. The median MIC of moxifloxacin for a large collection ...

  1. Necessity of amoxicillin clavulanic acid in addition to prednisolone in mild-to-moderate COPD exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Valk, van der Paul; Hendrix, Ron; Kerstjens, Huib A.M.; Palen, van der Job

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of antibiotics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations is still a matter of debate, especially in outpatients with an intermediate probability of bacterial infection. Methods: In this study, 35 COPD outpatients diagnosed by their chest physician w

  2. RP-HPLC Determination of Amoxicillin and Dicloxacillin in Amoxicillin/Dicloxacillin Sodium Tablets%RP-HPLC法测定阿双西林片中阿莫西林和双氯西林的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 张丹

    2003-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定阿双西林片中阿莫西林和双氯西林含量的反相高效液相色谱法.方法:采用Hypersil C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,10 μm),甲醇-20 mmol*L-1磷酸盐缓冲液(52∶48,磷酸调pH 5.0±0.1)为流动相,检测波长为230 nm.结果:阿莫西林在50~500 μg*mL-1范围内,峰面积与其浓度线性关系良好(r=0.999 9),平均回收率为99.92%,重复性试验RSD为0.82%(n=6);双氯西林在25~250 μg*mL-1范围内,峰面积与其浓度线性关系良好(r=0.999 9),平均回收率为100.2%,重复性试验RSD为0.86%(n=6).结论:本法准确、简便、快速,适用于阿双西林片剂的质量控制.

  3. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服干混悬剂含量测定方法研究%Determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate acid in amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖云林; 杨嘉宗

    1998-01-01

    目的:对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服干混悬剂含量测定方法研究.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,在3×3CRC18柱(4 mm× 3.5 cm)上,以pH 4.4磷酸二氢钠溶液-甲醇(95:5)为流动相,流速 1.0 ml·min-1,检测波长为220 nm.结果:阿莫西林和克拉维酸浓度分别在25~500 μg·ml-1及10~200 μg·ml-1范围内有良好的线性关系,平均方法回收率分别为 99.4%± 1.9%和 99.5%± 2.0%,日内精密度分别在 1.1%~2.3%和1.7%~2.6%之间,日间精密度分别<3.1%和<2.5%.结论:本法实用简便,结果可靠.

  4. 阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾的不良反应比较%Comparative Study on Adverse Reaction of Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家满; 韩琼

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾的不良反应。方法对收集的235例阿莫西林与146例阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应报告进行回顾性分析,前者纳入单用组,后者纳入复方组,比较两组患者一般资料、不良反应发生类型以及不良反应发生时间。结果两组患者性别、年龄分布、应用、体质量等临床资料比较,差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05);单用组患者皮肤及附件、全身系统、呼吸系统、肝胆系统以及其他不良反应发生率明显高于复方组,单用组患者的胃肠反应、循环系统、中枢神经系统不良反应发生率明显低于复方组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);单用组患者3 d后不良反应发生率为13.6%,明显高于复方组的1.4%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾相较于阿莫西林,不良反应发生时间较早、症状轻,不良反应集中在皮肤及附件、胃肠道、全身,但可增加循环系统、中枢神经系统不良反应发生风险,针对伴有以上系统合并症的患者,需谨慎应用。%Objective To adverse reaction of amoxicilin and amoxicilin clavulanate potassium.Methods 235 cases with poor to colect 146 cases of amoxicilin and amoxicilin clavulanate potassium reaction reports were retrospectively analyzed,the former into the single group,the latter into compound group,compared two groups of patients with general information,adverse reaction and the type of adverse reaction time.Results Comparison of the clinical data of two groups in sex,age distribution,application direction,body quality,no significant difference(P>0.05); single group of patients with skin and accessories,general system,respiratory system,hepatobiliary system and other adverse reaction rate was significantly higher than that of compound group,with the single group of patients with gastrointestinal reaction,circulation system and central nervous system adverse reaction incidence was significantly lower than the compound group,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05);single group of patients after 3 D, the incidence rate of adverse reaction was 13.6%,significantly higher than the group of compound 1.4%,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Amoxicilin and clavulanate potassium compared with amoxicilin, adverse reaction time is earlier,lighter adverse reaction symptoms,concentrated in the skin and appendages, gastrointestinal tract,systemic,but can increase the circulation system,the adverse reaction of central nervous system adverse reactions occurred in patients with more risk,system complications,should be used with caution.

  5. Comparative therapeutic activities of Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin, Ceftriaxone and Cotrimoxazole in a new model of experimental infection with Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Hof, H.; Christen, A; Hacker, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    A new mouse model for systemic infection with Escherichia coli is presented. Whereas in other models 107_108 bacteria have to be injected into an animal to induce toxic effects resulting in death within 24 hours, now, only 103_104 bacteria of an appropriate strain are required to produce a genuine infection characterized by an increase in the bacterial load over several days. The quantitative determination of bacterial counts per liver allows a more sensitive measurement than recording death ...

  6. Amoxicillin concentrations in relation to beta-lactamase activity in sputum during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; VanderValk, Paul; van der Zanden, Rogier W.; Nijdam, Lars; van der Palen, Job; Hendrix, Ron; Movig, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often treated with antibiotics. Theoretically, to be maximally effective, the antibiotic concentration at sites of infection should exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration at which 90% of the growth of potential

  7. Drug: D10246 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10246 Mixture, Drug Omeprazole - clarithromycin - amoxicillin mixt; Omeclamox-pak ...cter pylori A02BD05 Omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin D10246 Omeprazole - clarithromycin - amoxicillin mixt PubChem: 163312277 ...

  8. Drug: D10519 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10519 Mixture, Drug Rabeprazole - amoxicillin - clarithromycin mixt; Rabecure (TN)...tibiotics 619 Miscellaneous 6199 Miscellaneous D10519 Rabeprazole - amoxicillin - clarithromycin mixt ...

  9. Drug: D10520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10520 Mixture, Drug Rabeprazole - amoxicillin - metronidazole mixt; Rabefine (TN) ...1 Antibiotics 619 Miscellaneous 6199 Miscellaneous D10520 Rabeprazole - amoxicillin - metronidazole mixt ...

  10. Delayed Anaphylaxis with Methimazole: Nicolau Syndrome After Oxytocin Intramuscular Administration Anastrazole-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis Amoxicillin- and Cephalexin-Induced Eosinophilic Colitis Docetaxel-Induced Supravenous Erythematous Eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancano, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA's MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:27559184

  11. Wirksamkeit der modifizierten Dualtherapie mit Omeprazol und Amoxicillin bei Helicobacter pylori -Infektionen mit Metronidazol- und Clarithromycin-resistenten Stämmen : eine Pilotstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Holger

    2002-01-01

    Die Bedeutung einer HP-Gastritis ist bekannt. Therapiestudien haben gezeigt, dass eine prätherapeutische Resistenz von HP gegenüber Metronidazol und/oder Clarithromycin zu einer Minderung der Eradikationsrate von 20-30% bis hin zum Versagen führt. Die Zahl der Patienten mit doppelresistentem HP-Stamm nimmt rasch zu. Dies macht die Suche nach einer alternativen bzw. Reservetherapie erforderlich. 49 Patienten mit kulturell nachgewiesener Doppelresistenz von HP gegen Metronidazol und...

  12. Selection and persistence of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of pigs treated with amoxicillin, ceftiofur, or cefquinome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Abatih, E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2008-01-01

    , ceftiofur, or cefquinome according to the instructions on the product label was initiated immediately after bacterial inoculation. Feces were collected from the rectum before inoculation and on days 4, 8, 15, 22, and 25 after the start of treatment. The total and resistant coliforms were counted on Mac......Conkey agar with and without cefotaxime (CTX). Furthermore, MacConkey agar with CTX and NAL was used to count the number of CFU of the inoculated strain. Significantly higher counts of CTX-resistant coliforms were observed in the three treatment groups than in the control group for up to 22 days after......-resistant coliforms was mainly due to the proliferation of indigenous CTX-M-producing strains and the possible emergence of strains that acquired CTX-M genes by horizontal transfer. The study provides evidence that the cephalosporins used in pig production select for CTX-M-producing E. coli strains. Their use...

  13. Amoxicillin residue depletion in chicken excreta%阿莫西林在鸡排泄物中的残留消除规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏庆荣; 刘建宇; 崔璐璐; 谢恺舟; 郭辉生; 高强; 刘亚楠; 王波; 张杨杨

    2015-01-01

    为研究阿莫西林(AMO)在鸡排泄物中的残留消除规律,将鸡排泄物先经乙腈提取、饱和二氯甲烷萃取,上清液在酸性条件下经水杨醛沸水浴衍生化后,于激发波长354 nm、发射波长445 nm处用高效液相色谱荧光检测器检测.结果表明:该方法测定鸡排泄物中AMO的检测限为3.0ng· g-1(S/N=3)、定量限为6.0 ng· g-1(S/N=10).AMO在鸡排泄物样品中平均回收率为71.52%~81.23%,相对标准偏差均低于8.61%.将京海黄鸡分成2组,以25.0、50.0 mg· (kg·d)-1剂量内服AMO,每天给药1次,连续5d.投药第1天AMO在鸡排泄物中残留量即可检测到,投药第5天达峰值.休药后AMO在鸡排泄物中残留量迅速降低.低剂量组,休药第5天鸡排泄物中AMO残留量低于检测限;高剂量组,休药第7天鸡排泄物中AMO残留量低于检测限.鸡排泄物中AMO残留量与给药剂量呈正相关,鸡排泄物中高含量AMO残留存在较大的环境风险.

  14. Molecular modelling of four penicillins: bencylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin Modelación molecular de cuatro penicilinas: bencilpenicilina, fenoximetilpenicilina, ampicilina y amoxicilina

    OpenAIRE

    Eslhey María Sánchez Domínguez; Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2009-01-01

    Background:Penicillins differ structurally among themselves by the lateral chains. At the same time, they have differences in their pharmacological action that can be associated to modifications included in the betalactamic ring and/or effects localized in the same chains. Making it clear would be a contribution to the search of the most adequate structural and electronic characteristics to design better penicillins. Objective:

  15. HPLC法测定阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊含量%Analysis of amoxicillin and dicloxacillin by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪建文; 魏雪芳; 余彩娣

    2006-01-01

    目的 建立阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊中阿莫西林和双氯西林钠的含量测定方法.方法 采用Shimadzu VP-ODS色谱柱,流动相为0.008 mol/L十二烷基硫酸钠(用磷酸调节至pH4.5)-甲醇(体积比68:32),检测波长225 nm. 结果阿莫西林和双氯西林在该色谱条件下均有合适的保留,测定可在10 min内完成.阿莫西林在0.0050~1.0000 mg/mL,双氯西林在0.0025~0.5036 mg/mL质量浓度范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系.阿莫西林和双氯西林钠平均回收率(n=9)分别为99.4%(RSD=1.0%)和99.1%(RSD=0.97%). 结论该方法准确、重复性好、灵敏度高,可用于该产品的质量控制.

  16. The Combination of Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid and Ketoconazole in the Treatment of Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma and Staphylococcus aureus Co-infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Mhmoud (Najwa A.); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); E.S. Mahgoub (El Sheikh); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractEumycetoma is a chronic progressive disabling and destructive inflammatory disease which is commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. It is characterized by the formation of multiple discharging sinuses. It is usually treated by antifungal agents but it is assumed that the the

  17. Primary care based randomised, double blind trial of amoxicillin versus placebo for acute otitis media in children aged under 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoiseaux, RAMJ; van Balen, FAM; Hoes, AW; Verheij, TJM; de Melker, RA

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media in children between 6 months and 2 years of age. Design Practice based, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. Setting 53 general practices in the Netherlands. Subjects 240 children aged 6 months to 2 years

  18. Drug: D00230 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00230 Mixture, Drug Amoxicillin - potassium clavulanate combination; Amoxicillin - clavulanate... potassium mixt C16H19N3O5S. C8H8NO5. K 602.1085 602.6553 D00230.gif Amoxicillin [DR:D07452], Potassium clavulanate...cl. beta-lactamase inhibitors J01CR02 Amoxicillin and enzyme inhibitor D00230 Amoxicillin - potassium clavulanate...acterials J01RA01 Penicillins, combinations with other antibacterials D00230 Amoxicillin - potassium clavulanate...d Clavulanate Potassium D00230 Amoxicillin - potassium clavulanate combination CA

  19. Determineation of the Content of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate in Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Dispersible Tablets by HPLC%HPLC法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾分散片中2组分的标示量的百分含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志嘉; 董佰龙

    2010-01-01

    目的:测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾分散片中阿莫西林、克拉维酸的含量.方法:采用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂,以磷酸盐缓冲液(取磷酸二氢钠7.8g,加水900ml溶解,用磷酸或氢氧化钠调节pH值至4.4+0.1,加水稀释至1000ml)-甲醇(95:5)为流动相的高效液相色谱法.结果:阿莫西林、克拉维酸分别在132-308μg/ml,48-112μg/ml,范围内线形良好(r分别为,0.9997,0.9996);平均回收率分别为99.8%,99.3;RSD分别为0.62%,0.72%.结论:该方法简便,重现性好,专属性强,为评价该制剂的质量提供了可靠的方法.

  20. Drug: D06485 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06485 Mixture, Drug Amoxicillin hydrate - potassium clavulanate mixt; Augmentin (T...N) (Amoxicillin hydrate [DR:D00229] | Amoxicillin sodium [DR:D02925]), (Clavulanic acid [DR:D07711] | Potassium clavulanate...moxicillin hydrate - potassium clavulanate mixt Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br0...01CR02 Amoxicillin and enzyme inhibitor D06485 Amoxicillin hydrate - potassium clavulanate mixt J01R COMBINA... combinations with other antibacterials D06485 Amoxicillin hydrate - potassium clavulanate mixt PubChem: 47208141 ...

  1. Drug: D08774 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08774 Mixture, Drug Amoxicillin hydrate - clarithromycin - lansoprazole mixt; Lansap (TN) Amoxicillin hydr...erapeutic category: 6199 ATC code: A02BD07 J01RA01 Enzyme: CYP2C19 [HSA:1557], CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] Therapeutic category of dr...d parasites 61 Antibiotics 619 Miscellaneous 6199 Miscellaneous D08774 Amoxicillin hydrate - clarithromycin ...ansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin D08774 Amoxicillin hydrate - clarithromycin - lansoprazole mixt ...ntibacterials D08774 Amoxicillin hydrate - clarithromycin - lansoprazole mixt PubChem: 96025457 ...

  2. Oral antibiotics for infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Jessie S; Markelz, Ana E; Zera, Wendy C; Beckius, Miriam L; Mende, Katrin; Murray, Clinton K

    2011-08-01

    We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations of rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefdinir, plus a combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefdinir by broth microdilution for mainly wound isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. E. coli and K. pneumoniae susceptibilities increased by combining amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefdinir. PMID:21466257

  3. Effect of Amoxicillin Combined With Bismuth Pectin in the Treatment of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis%阿莫西林配合果胶铋治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏同森; 刘文翠; 王均成

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze the clinical effect of amoxicilin and bismuth pectin bismuth in treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis. Methods According to the principle of voluntary patients,94 cases of chronic atrophic gastritis patients composition study group(47 cases)and control group(47 cases),the former treated with amoxicilin and bismuth pectin,the latter to be clarithromycin and coloidal bismuth pectin treatment,and compared between the two groups of patients with clinical curative effect observation.ResultsThe effective rate of the study group(93.6%)was significantly higher than that in the control group(76.6%),the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05,χ2=8.115),recurrence rate of the study group(6.4%) was lower than that of the control group(12.8%),the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05,χ2=7.361).Conclusion The effect of amoxicilin combined with bismuth pectin bismuth on chronic atrophic gastritis is significant,and the recurrence rate is low.%目的:观察与分析阿莫西林联合果胶铋在慢性萎缩性胃炎疾病治疗中的临床运用效果。方法依据患者自愿原则,将94例慢性萎缩性胃炎患者成分研究组(47例)与对照组(47例),前者予以阿莫西林+果胶铋治疗,后者予以克拉霉素+果胶铋治疗;观察与比较两组患者的临床疗效。结果研究组患者治疗后的有效率(93.6%)比对照组患者(76.6%)高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,χ2=8.115);研究组患者复发率(6.4%)低于对照组(12.8%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,χ2=7.361)。结论采取阿莫西林联合果胶铋治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎,效果显著,且复发率低。

  4. Process Monitoring Dissolution Rate of Amoxicillin Dispersible Tablets by Fiber-Chemical Sensor%阿莫西林分散片溶出度光纤化学传感在线过程检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚军; 沈静; 王岩; 李新霞; 陈坚

    2010-01-01

    采用双波长法消除赋形剂的干扰,利用六通道光纤化学传感原位过程分析仪(FOCSDT)在线监测阿莫西林分散片溶出度.FOCSDT的平均校准曲线方程为y=188.38x+0.7607,回归系数r为0.9998.阿莫西林分散片的溶出数据与中国药典(Ch.P)方法对照无显著性差异.FOCSDT法无需取液、稀释等手工操作,能实时监测药物溶出全过程,为速释制剂内在质量的检测提供良好的手段.

  5. Study on mucoadhesiveness and stability of mucoadhesive microspheres loading amoxicillin%阿莫西林黏膜黏附微球稳定性及黏附性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘哲鹏; 潘俊; 陆伟跃

    2004-01-01

    目的比较pH 1盐酸溶液条件下阿莫西林原料药与黏膜黏附微球中阿莫西林稳定性,考察阿莫西林黏膜黏附微球(Amo-Cb-Ec)与阿莫西林乙基纤维素微球(Amo-Ec)体内外黏膜黏附效果.方法用乳化-溶媒蒸发法制备Amo-Cb-Ec和AmoEc;以高效液相色谱法测定Amo-Cb-Ec中阿莫西林及阿莫西林原料药在pH 1条件下稳定性;分别以拉力法和冲洗法考察AmoCb-Ec与离体大鼠肠黏膜和胃黏膜表面的黏附效果;以灌胃法考察微球在大鼠胃肠道黏附滞留程度.结果 pH 1条件下,37℃振荡放置6 h,阿莫西林原料药降解大于50%,含0.5%卡波普有助于减少其降解程度,而Amo-Cb-Ec中阿莫西林相对含量均在85%左右.Amo-Cb-Ec与大鼠离体肠黏膜间黏附力显著高于不含黏附材料的Amo-Ec(P<0.05);Amo-Cb-Ec在大鼠离体胃黏膜表面滞留率显著高于Amo-Ec(P<0.05);Amo-Cb-Ec在大鼠胃肠道内的滞留率也显著高于Amo-Ec.结论在pH 1条件下游离阿莫西林不稳定,而卡波普对阿莫西林具有一定保护作用,Amo-Cb-Ec中所含阿莫西林稳定程度显著提高.体内外黏附试验结果显示,Amo-Cb-Ec对离体和活体胃黏膜具有良好的黏附作用.

  6. 阿莫西林配合果胶铋治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的效果探讨%Effect of Amoxicillin Combined With Bismuth Pectin in the Treatment of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏同森; 刘文翠; 王均成

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察与分析阿莫西林联合果胶铋在慢性萎缩性胃炎疾病治疗中的临床运用效果。方法依据患者自愿原则,将94例慢性萎缩性胃炎患者成分研究组(47例)与对照组(47例),前者予以阿莫西林+果胶铋治疗,后者予以克拉霉素+果胶铋治疗;观察与比较两组患者的临床疗效。结果研究组患者治疗后的有效率(93.6%)比对照组患者(76.6%)高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,χ2=8.115);研究组患者复发率(6.4%)低于对照组(12.8%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,χ2=7.361)。结论采取阿莫西林联合果胶铋治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎,效果显著,且复发率低。%Objective To observe and analyze the clinical effect of amoxicilin and bismuth pectin bismuth in treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis. Methods According to the principle of voluntary patients,94 cases of chronic atrophic gastritis patients composition study group(47 cases)and control group(47 cases),the former treated with amoxicilin and bismuth pectin,the latter to be clarithromycin and coloidal bismuth pectin treatment,and compared between the two groups of patients with clinical curative effect observation.ResultsThe effective rate of the study group(93.6%)was significantly higher than that in the control group(76.6%),the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05,χ2=8.115),recurrence rate of the study group(6.4%) was lower than that of the control group(12.8%),the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05,χ2=7.361).Conclusion The effect of amoxicilin combined with bismuth pectin bismuth on chronic atrophic gastritis is significant,and the recurrence rate is low.

  7. 阿莫西林、硫酸黏菌素混悬注射液无菌检查方法研究%Confirmatory Experiment of Sterility Test Method for Amoxicillin and Colistin Sulfate Injectable Suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晖; 刘轶秋; 王小慈; 杨秀玉

    2011-01-01

    目的建立阿莫西林、硫酸黏菌素混悬注射液的无菌检查方法.方法按2005年版一部附录进行试验.结果采用薄膜过滤法,每管培养基中加入不少于100万单位的青霉素酶,以1%聚山梨酯80的0.1%蛋白胨水溶液冲洗液,选择冲洗量为300 mL,可消除样品对各菌株的抗菌活性.结论阿莫西林、硫酸黏菌素混悬注射液可用该方法进行无菌检查.

  8. Efficacy and safety of IV/PO moxifloxacin and IV piperacillin/tazobactam followed by PO amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of diabetic foot infections: results of the RELIEF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, N.C.; Dryden, M.; Kujath, P.; Nathwani, D.; Arvis, P.; Reimnitz, P.; Alder, J.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of two antibiotic regimens in patients with diabetic foot infections (DFIs). METHODS: Data of a subset of patients enrolled in the RELIEF trial with DFIs requiring surgery and antibiotics were evaluated retrospectively. DFI was diagnosed on t

  9. 阿莫西林/双氯西林钠分散片的人体生物等效性研究%Study on Bioequivalence of Amoxicillin and Dicloxacillin Sodium Dispersible Tablets in Human Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王川平; 任进民; 崔爱荣; 蒋晔

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究阿莫西林/双氯西林钠分散片的人体生物等效性.方法:采用双周期交叉设计试验,20名健康男性受试者随机交叉单剂量口服阿莫西林/双氯西林钠分散片(受试制剂)和阿莫西林/双氯西林钠胶囊(参比制剂)750mg,以高效液相色谱法测定人血浆中阿莫西林、双氯西林经-时血药浓度,用DAS软件拟合计算药动学参数.结果:受试制剂与参比制剂阿莫西林的tmax分别为(1.16±0.26)、(1.24±0.27)h,Cmax分别为(6.32±2.56)、(6.59±2.33)μg·mL-1,AUC0-7分别为(12.27±2.25)、(12.66±2.68)μg·h·mL-1,AUC0~∞分别为(15.48±2.38)、(15.47±3.71)μg·h·mL-1;双氯西林的tmax分别为(0.94±0.23)、(0.93±0.18)h,Cmax分别为(12.12±5.71)、(12.12±4.15)μg·mL-1,AUC0~7分别为(23.49±4.20)、(23.25±3.64)μg·h·mL-1,AUC0~∞分别为(24.93±3.96)、(24.50±3.66)μg·h·mL-1.受试制剂阿莫西林与双氯西林的相对生物利用度分别为(97.7±8.2)%、(102.0±16.8)%.结论:阿莫西林/双氯西林钠分散片与阿莫西林/双氯西林钠胶囊具有生物等效性.

  10. 高效液相色谱法测定人血浆中双氯西林和阿莫西林的含量%HPLC determination of dicloxacillin and amoxicillin in human plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦军; 张惠静; 管潇; 肖正华

    2006-01-01

    目的:建立人血浆中双氯西林和阿莫西林的测定方法.方法:高效液相色谱法,血浆样品以甲醇除蛋白,色谱柱为岛津Shim-pack VP-ODS C18(150 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm),双氯西林的测定以0.05 mol·L-1磷酸盐缓冲液(pH4.5)-乙腈(68:32),加0.3%三乙胺为流动相,检测波长为225 nm,柱温为25℃;阿莫西林的测定以0.033 mol·L-1磷酸盐缓冲液(pH 7.2)-甲醇(88:12)为流动相,检测波长为229 nm,柱温为20℃,流速均为1.0 mL·min-1,进样量均为20 μL.结果:在不同的色谱条件下,血浆样品中双氯西林和阿莫西林无干扰,双氯西林的线性范围为0.2~102.4μg·mL-1,r=0.9999,最低检测浓度为0.2μg·mL-1;阿莫西林的线性范围为0.25~128.0μg·mL-1,r=0.9998,最低检测浓度为0.25μg·mL-1.双氯西林和阿莫西林的平均回收率分别为104.2%,101.6%.结论:这种以相同的样品预处理方法,不同的色谱分离条件分析双氯西林和阿莫西林的方法简便、准确、可靠,结果稳定,可用于阿双西林胶囊或片剂的药代动力学研究和生物利用度研究.

  11. Evaluate the effect and adverse effect of amoxicillin-dicloxacillin in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during ambulatory treatment%阿莫西林-双氯西林治疗慢性阻塞性肺病疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察阿莫西林-双氯西林在门诊治疗慢性阻塞性肺病患者的疗效及不良反应.方法:将119例门诊治疗的患者随机分成治疗组和对照组,治疗组62例,对照组57例.治疗组用阿莫西林-双氯西林0.75g po tid,对照组用阿莫西林0.5g po qid.结果:观察治疗组和对照组的临床有效率分别为93.54%和49.12%,细菌清除率为83.33%和50.00%.结论:阿莫西林-双氯西林用于治疗门诊慢性阻塞性肺病患者安全性高且有可靠确切的疗效,值得推广应用.

  12. Improved method for determination of amoxicillin and dicloxacillin in compound capsules%阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊含量测定方法的改进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦峰; 刘浩; 潘颖

    2009-01-01

    目的:改进现有阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊含量测定色谱系统中色谱峰易变形及裂分的缺陷,并建立一个新的高效液相色谱方法.方法:采用YWG C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,10 μm),流动相为含0.015 mol·L-1十二烷基硫酸钠和0.03 mol·L-1醋酸钠的溶液(用醋酸调节pH至4.2)-甲醇(80:20),流速1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为225 nm.结果:在考察了不同离子对试剂和离子强度等冈素对色谱系统中系统峰的形状和保留值的影响及系统峰对被分析物色谱峰形的影响后,对原先的方法进行改进.改进后阿莫西林浓度在0.87~34.9 μg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,r=1.000;双氯丙林浓度在0.57~22.7μg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,r=1.000.阿莫西林、双氯西林的平均回收率(n=3)分别为99.2%和100.2%;RSD分别为1.1%和2.1%.结论:本法准确,专属性好,可用作控制阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊质量的方法.

  13. HPLC法测定阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊中阿莫西林和双氯西林的含量%HPLC Determination of Amoxicillin and Dicloxacillin in Compound Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹利辉; 乐健; 洪战英; 胡昌勤

    2005-01-01

    目的:采用高效液相色谱法同时测定阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊中阿莫西林和双氯西林的含量.方法:采用YWG C18柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm);流动相为0.01 mol·L-1SDS溶液(用磷酸调pH至4.2)-甲醇(60:40);柱温35℃,流速1.0 mL·min-1,紫外检测波长225 nm.结果:阿莫西林在25~5000 ng范围内线性关系良好,r=1.0000;双氯西林在12.5~2500 ng范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9999.阿莫西林、双氯西林的平均回收率(n=6)分别为99.6%,99.4%;RSD分别为1.8%,1.6%.结论:此法可作为控制阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊质量的方法.

  14. 阿莫西林-双氯西林的体外抗菌作用研究%In vitro antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin-dicloxacillin against clinical isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德妹; 张婴元; 周乐; 吴湜; 叶信予

    2005-01-01

    目的评价阿莫西林-双氯西林对常见感染临床分离菌的体外抗菌作用.方法收集临床分离菌按CLSI/NCCLS推荐的琼脂对倍稀释法测定阿莫西林-双氯西林的最低抑菌浓度(MIC),并与相关抗菌药物进行比较.结果收集临床分离菌共513株,其中需氧革兰阳性菌248株,需氧革兰阴性菌265株.阿莫西林-双氯西林对受试的需氧革兰阳性球菌,包括肺炎链球菌、化脓性链球菌等链球菌属、甲氧西林敏感葡萄球菌、粪肠球菌具有高度抗菌活性,大多与阿莫西林-克拉维酸相仿,亦优于其他受试药,该药对卡他莫拉菌、流感嗜血杆菌抗菌作用强,其中对流感嗜血杆菌的产酶株作用略差;对伤寒沙门菌具有良好抗菌作用,对大肠埃希菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、奇异变形杆菌和志贺菌的抗菌作用较差.结论阿莫西林-双氯西林对社区获得的上、下呼吸道感染和单纯性皮肤软组织感染的常见病原菌具有良好抗菌作用,对伤寒沙门菌作用亦强,提示该药为治疗上述感染的适宜选用药物之一.

  15. Domestic vs imported amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in treating pneumonia of children%国产和进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗小儿肺炎的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 王晓红; 俞蕙; 陆婷婷

    2002-01-01

    目的:比较国产和进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗小儿细菌性肺炎的临床疗效.方法:随机选择住院的肺炎病儿40例,分为治疗组(男性11例,女性9例,年龄27 mo± s 12 mo)和对照组(男性12例,女性8例,年龄29 mo±16 mo).分别选用国产及进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸,剂量均为30 mgkg-1,iv,gtt, bid,疗程10~14 d.结果:治疗组总有效率为80%,对照组总有效率为90%,2组的疗效比较经Ridit分析差异无显著意义(P>0.05),2组均未见不良反应.结论:国产阿莫西林-克拉维酸与进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸临床疗效相似.

  16. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸与头孢唑林在子宫切除中抗生素预防作用%Antibiotic prophylaxis for hysterectomy and cesarean section: Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid versus cefazolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较子宫切除中阿莫西林/克拉维酸与头孢唑林短期抗生素预防作用.方法 120 例行子宫切除患者随机分为静脉注射阿莫西林/克拉维酸组(AMX/CL组)与头孢唑林组(CE组).每天评估患者有无手术部位感染或尿道感染.结果 各组感染发生率在AMX/CL组和CE组分别是11%和12.5%.结论 广谱抗生素阿莫西林/克拉维酸较头孢唑林在子宫切除和剖腹产中无优势.

  17. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾分散片小鼠体内抗菌作用研究%The antibiotic effect in vivo research of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dispersible tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林霄; 刘元; 李星宇; 刘布鸣

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾的新剂型-分散片对产β-内酰胺酶的金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌感染小鼠的保护效果.方法 以Bliss法计算各感染小鼠的药物半数有效量(ED50)值和95%可信限.结果 分散片对金黄色葡萄球菌感染小鼠的ED50值和95%可信限为3.748 6(3.396 7~4.205)mg/kg;对大肠杆菌感染小鼠的ED50值和95%可信限为4.662 9(4.037 3~5.385 5)mg/kg.结论 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾分散片口服给药对产β-内酰胺酶的金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌感染小鼠具有明显疗效.

  18. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾溶液的稳定性研究%Stability Explore Injection Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium Sodium Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩兰; 张涛; 郭杨庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the injection of sodium amoxicilin and clavulanate potassium solution stability compatibility when using different solvents.Methods Determination of the dosing by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)amoxicilin clavulanate potassium sodium content changes in different time periods,and observe the color changes after dosing.Results For injection amoxicilin sodium clavulanate potassium is preferably stable in 0.9%sodium chloride solvent,in a pharmaceuticaly effective 3h decreased less than 10%;in glucose-containing solvent stability than difference,in a pharmaceuticaly effective drug 3 h decreased about 10%~30%.Conclusion Amoxicilin sodium injection stability of potassium clavulanate in 0.9%sodium chloride solution is preferably,but in the glucose-containing solution is relatively poor stability,and the rate of decline in an amount proportional to the glucose content,immediately after dilution with 0.9%sodium chloride injection solution,and should be complete within 3 h infusion process (25℃ below).%目的 探讨注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾溶液在不同溶剂配伍使用时的稳定性.方法 用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定配液后阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在不同时段的含量变化情况,并观察配液后颜色变化情况.结果 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在0.9%氯化钠注射液中的稳定性较好,在3 h内药物有效含量下降小于10%;但在葡萄糖注射液中的稳定性较差,在用药3 h内药物有效含量下降在10%~30%.结论注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在0.9%氯化钠注射液中的稳定性较好,但在含葡萄糖溶液中的稳定性相对较差,且其含量下降速度与葡萄糖含量呈正比,用0.9%氯化钠注射液溶解后应立即稀释,并应在3 h内(25℃以下)完成整个输液过程.

  19. Study on preparation of the film-coated tablets of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾薄膜衣片的制备工艺研究※

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钰琦; 李瑞明; 李世良; 陈孝; 梁耀荣

    2013-01-01

      目的本研究主要对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的薄膜衣片进行了制备工艺的研究。方法通过对制剂处方的筛选和考察生产工艺的条件,确定最佳阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的薄膜衣片制备工艺。结果与结论本制剂工艺的实验可行,工艺稳定可靠,所制备的薄膜衣片符合相关要求。%Objective To study the preparation process of the film-coated tablets of amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium, and screen the conditions of the preparation process. Methods By screening pharmaceutical formulations and investigating the conditions of the preparation process,the best technology of pharmaceutical preparations was determined. Results and Conclusion The results of the experiment is feasible and reliable process,and the preparation of the film-coated tablets comply with the relevant requirements.

  20. Comparison of Cefdinir with Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in treatment of acute otitis media%头孢地尼与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗急性中耳炎的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉瑞飞; 励彬

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索口服头孢地尼5 d与口服阿莫西林克拉维酸钾10 d治疗急性中耳炎的疗效,并比较此两种方案的安全性.方法采用多中心、随机、对照的方法进行临床观察,头孢地尼组按头孢地尼100 mg/次,3次/d,饭前1 h或饭后2 h服用,连续使用5 d;阿莫西林克拉维酸钾组按阿莫西林克拉维酸钾250/125 mg/次,3次/d,连续使用10 d.用药前后观察症状、体征,进行耳镜检查、白细胞计数和分类以及听力检测等,评价疗效和安全性.通过对比头孢地尼和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的治愈率、两组患者用药后症状特征改善情况和不良反应的发生率来判定两者治疗急性中耳炎的疗效.结果头孢地尼组108例患者中显效以上共105例(97.22%),阿莫西林克拉维酸钾组112例患者中显效以上共102例(91.07%),两者比较差异有显著性(χ2=4.013,P < 0.05),两组患者治疗结束后临床表现均显著缓解;不良反应表现为丘疹样皮疹、荨麻疹、腹泻,共4例,每组2例,差异无显著性.结论口服头孢地尼5 d治疗AOM的疗效优于口服阿莫西林克拉维酸钾10 d的疗效,两者安全性相当,是治疗AOM时一个很好的选择.

  1. Determination of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Disperible Tablet by HPLC%HPLC法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾分散片的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玲; 王功霞; 张广洲

    2004-01-01

    采用HPLC法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾分散片的含量.用Phenomenex C18(4.6×150mm 5μm)色谱柱;甲醇-0.057mol*L-1磷酸二氢钠缓冲液(用磷酸或10N的氢氧化钠调pH值至4.4±0.1)(5∶95)为流动相;检测波长为220nm.阿莫西林在40.48~202.40μg*ml-1浓度范围内呈良好线性(r=0.9999),最低检出限0.04ng;克拉维酸在40.08~200.40μg*ml-1浓度范围内呈良好线性(r=0.9999),最低检出限0.08ng.阿莫西林及克拉维酸钾的回收率分别为100.1%(RSD=0.68%)和99.8%(RSD=1.26%).

  2. Drug: D09742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09742 Mixture, Drug Lansoprazole - amoxicillin hydrate - metronidazole mixt; Lampi...biotics 619 Miscellaneous 6199 Miscellaneous D09742 Lansoprazole - amoxicillin hydrate - metronidazole mixt ...EFLUX DISEASE (GORD) A02BD Combinations for eradication of Helicobacter pylori A02BD03 Lansoprazole, amoxicillin... and metronidazole D09742 Lansoprazole - amoxicillin hydrate - metronidazole mixt J ANTIINFECTIVES FOR S...LS J01RA Combinations of antibacterials J01RA01 Penicillins, combinations with other antibacterials D09742 Lansoprazole - amoxicillin hydrate - metronidazole mixt PubChem: 124490482 ...

  3. Bacteremia during quinsy and elective tonsillectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Henriksen, Jens-Jacob; Rusan, Maria;

    2012-01-01

    . Ninety-three percent of the isolated strains were sensitive to amoxicillin, and all were sensitive to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. Discussion: Our results challenge the distinction made by the European Society of Cardiology between elective and quinsy tonsillectomy, with regard to antibiotic...... prophylaxis recommendation only to patients undergoing procedures to treat an established infection. To provide full empiric coverage, including coverage for Staphylococcus aureus, we advocate the use of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid in patients at high risk of infective endocarditis....

  4. De novo acquisition of resistance to three antibiotics by Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. van der Horst; J.M. Schuurmans; M.C. Smid; B.B. Koenders; B.H. ter Kuile

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of resistance to amoxicillin, tetracycline, and enrofloxacin by Escherichia coli MG 1655 was examined by exposing growing cells to constant or stepwise increasing concentrations of these compounds. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of E. coli for amoxicillin increased from 4

  5. The non-enzymatic inactivation of thirteen β-lactam antibiotics in human faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Weissing, F; de Vries Hospers, H; Tonk, R; van der Waaij, D

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain a method that could predict the in vitro inactivation of an antibiotic in the digestive tract, the non-enzymatic inactivation of 13 beta-lactam antibiotics by human faeces was investigated. Benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cloxacillin, piperacillin, temocill

  6. The non-enzymatic inactivation of thirteen beta-lactam antibiotics in human faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Weissing, F; de Vries-Hospers, H; Tonk, R; van der Waaij, D

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain a method that could predict the in vitro inactivation of an antibiotic in the digestive tract, the non-enzymatic inactivation of 13 beta-lactam antibiotics by human faeces was investigated. Benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cloxacillin, piperacillin, temocill

  7. Prescripción antibiótica en infecciones respiratorias agudas en atención primaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malo, S; Bjerrum, L; Feja, C;

    2015-01-01

    respiratory infection was the most frequent diagnosis. An antibiotic was prescribed in 75% of pharyngotonsillitis episodes, 72% of otitis, 27% of bronchitis, and 16% of non-specific upper respiratory infections. Broad spectrum antibiotics, mainly amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic, were predominantly...

  8. Multi-analytical approach for profiling some essential medical drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counterfeit and substandard pharmaceutical drugs are chiefly rampant in developing countries due to inadequate analytical facilities and lack of regulatory oversight. The production of counterfeit or substandard drugs is broadly problematic. Underestimating it therefore leads to morbidity, mortality, drug resistance, introduction of toxic substances into the body and loss of confidence in health care systems. Medical drugs that are often counterfeited range from antimalarial drugs to antiretroviral drugs with antibiotics being counterfeited the most. This research work, therefore, aims at contributing towards the establishment of measures/processes for distinguishing between fake and genuine amoxicillin drugs. This was achieved by the identification and quantification of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and the excipients in the drug formulation. The major analytical techniques employed for this research work were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro Dissolution Test. The amoxicillin samples analyzed were the foreign generic amoxicillin purchased from Ernest Chemists pharmacy at East Legon, Accra, the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) amoxicillin purchased at Fair Mile pharmacy at West Legon, Accra and the Suspected Fake amoxicillin purchased at Okaishi market. For the establishment of fingerprint for identification of substandard amoxicillin, INAA was used to qualitatively determine the short lived radionuclides (excipients) which then facilitated the correct identification of the API and the excipient phases in each of the amoxicillin groups. The phases identified were Amoxicillin Trihydrate as the excipient, Magnesium Stearate (hydrated) and Magnesium Stearate (anhydrous) as the excipients. For Quality control purposes, High Performance Liquid Chromatography approach and also, the in vitro Dissolution test were conducted on each of the groups of

  9. Assay of amoxicillin sodium and flucloxacillin sodium for injection and their related substances by ion-pairs along with gradient elution HPLC method%HPLC离子对梯度洗脱法同时测定注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠的含量和有关物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈悦

    2004-01-01

    目的建立同时测定阿莫西林钠、氟氯西林钠含量与有关物质的 HPLC法,使复方制剂中极性差异较大的两种主药以及它们引入的有关物质同时得以洗脱和测定,提高分析效率和结果的可靠性.方法 RP- HPLC离子对梯度洗脱法.色谱柱选用 HP Zorbax Elicpse XDB- C8柱;流动相 A为 1.4%十六烷基三甲基溴化铵的 0.01mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液( pH6.5)-乙腈( 70∶30);流动相 B为 1.4%十六烷基三甲基溴化铵的 0.01 mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液( pH6.5)-乙腈( 30∶ 70);检测波长为 254nm;梯度洗脱.结果阿莫西林钠和氟氯西林钠在上述色谱条件下均有合适的保留,含量测定可在 15min内完成,有关物质测定可在 30min内完成;制剂中的主要杂质或降解产物均与两个主峰实现了良好分离;当进样体积为 10μ l时,阿莫西林在 0.0088~ 2.210mg/ml浓度范围内与峰面积有良好的线性关系,氟氯西林在 0.0097~ 2.430 mg/ml浓度范围内与峰面积有良好的线性关系;方法的准确性、重复性和专属性令人满意.结论本法可用于注射用阿莫西林钠和氟氯西林钠的含量和有关物质测定.

  10. Utilização do óleo de alho e da amoxilina, metronidazol e omeprazol no controle de Helicobacter spp. em cães Use of garlic oil and amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazol in the control of Helicobacter spp. in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Costa; P.R.S. Costa; J.C.P. Silva; R.E.N. Maia; J.C.L. Moreira; Carvalho, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Avaliaram-se a eficácia do óleo de alho e da terapia tripla (amoxicilina, metronidazol e omeprazol) no tratamento de 21 cães infectados por Helicobacter spp., que apresentavam alterações histológicas nas biopsias endoscópicas da mucosa gástrica e reação positiva ao teste de urease. Os animais foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em três grupos de sete cães, os quais receberam os seguintes tratamentos: grupo 1 - cápsulas vazias; grupo 2 - 500mg de óleo de alho em cápsulas, diariamente, por um p...

  11. 复方阿莫西林纳米乳对奶牛乳房炎3种主要病原菌的体外联合抗菌效应%Combination antibacterial effect of compound amoxicillin and levofloxacin hydrochloride nanoemulsion against three main pathogenic bacteria of cow mastitis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 欧阳五庆; 李向辉; 张文娟; 刘玉梅

    2009-01-01

    通过单药纸片搭桥试验、复合药物纸片试验、单药最小抑菌浓度(MIC)测定、联合药敏试验、Kirby-Baueer试验,研究复方阿莫西林纳米乳(AMX-LH-NE)对奶牛乳房炎3种主要病原菌的体外联合抗菌效应.结果表明:阿莫西林(AMX)和盐酸左氧氟沙星(LH)联用时表现为协同抗菌作用;二者联用时对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)的MIC分别是单用时的1/4倍和1/8倍,对无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)的MIC均是单用时的1/4倍,对大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)的MIC 均是单用时的1/8倍;二者联用对3种病原菌的部分抑菌浓度(FIC)指数均不大于0.5;AMX-LH-NE对3种病原菌的抑菌圈直径与其他各组相比,差异均极显著(P<0.01).结果提示,AMX-LH-NE对奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌的联合抗菌活性强.

  12. 对阿莫西林硫酸黏菌素可溶性粉含量测定中热破坏前处理法的探讨%Discussion on Thermal Destruction Method in the Determination of Amoxicillin and Colistin Sulfate Soluble Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晖; 刘轶秋; 韩宁宁; 张秀英

    2013-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法和管碟法对阿莫西林硫酸黏菌素可溶性粉中黏菌素含量方法的前处理条件(95℃水浴加热1h)进行了研究.结果表明,95℃加热破坏阿莫西林的同时,硫酸黏菌素也产生降解,效价下降约12%,提示该前处理条件有待进一步改进.本实验可为完善该质量标准提供参考.

  13. 阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊等三联疗法治疗幽门螺杆菌阳性的疗效分析%Analyse Effect of Amoxicillin and Dicloxacillin etc By Triple Therapy for Eradicating Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓衍部; 刘有理; 王义文; 贺道兴

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较三联疗法阿莫西林双氯西林钠胶囊、埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片、克拉霉素片( 试验组) 和阿莫西林钠胶囊、埃索美拉唑镁肠溶片、克拉霉素片(对照组)根除幽门螺杆菌10 天疗效.方法 分析经14C 尿素呼气实验及胃黏膜病理检查(Warthin-Stary 染色阳性)证实有HP 感染患者198 例资料.随机分两组,试验组115 例患者和对照组83 例患者口服三联药物均为每日2 次,总疗程10d,所有患者停药4 周以上复查HP.结果 198 例患者均完成10d 治疗疗程及1 月复查HP.两组HP 根除率分别为94.78% 和73.49%(P<0.05),试验组与对照组HP 根除率有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 试验组根除HP 疗效显著优于对照组 (P<0.05).

  14. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid Combined with Potassium Tablets in Treating Acute Cystitis: A Clinical Observation%阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗急性膀胱炎临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文莉

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗急性膀胱炎的临床治疗效果.方法 选取2008年9月-2010年6月的急性膀胱炎住院患者84例,随机分为观察组和治疗组,各42例;观察组采用阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗,对照组单纯采用阿莫西林/克拉维酸治疗,观察比较两组的临床治疗效果.结果 观察组的总有效率为95.24%,对照组的总有效率为78.57%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组尿频、尿急、尿痛改善时间均短于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗中两组均无严重不良反应.结论 阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗急性膀胱炎效果较好,且不良反应小,值得临床推广应用.

  15. INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECTS OF TREATING NEWBORN INFANTS WITH INFECTIOUS PNEUMONIA WITH AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULANIC ACID%阿莫西林钠克拉酸维钾治疗新生儿感染性肺炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨阿莫西林钠克拉酸维钾治疗新生儿感染性肺炎的疗效.方法总结40例新生儿细菌性肺炎治疗前后的临床及实验室特点,观察其转归.结果有28例患儿2 w后痊愈(占70%)显效8例(占20%)总有效率95%.结论新生儿感染性肺炎病情变化快,病原多,以细菌为主,阿莫西林钠克拉酸维钾治疗有效.

  16. 克拉维酸强化的阿莫西林对致病性大肠埃希氏菌体外抑菌试验%In vitro trail on clavulanic acid-enhancing amoxicillin against pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜仕金; 蒋志伟; 郑月华

    2001-01-01

    克拉维酸是一种β-内酰胺酶抑制剂,与阿莫西林同时应用时使得通过产生β-内酰胺酶对阿莫西林耐药的大多数细菌重新成为敏感菌.对来源于鸡、猪的共31株致病性大肠埃希氏菌最小抑菌浓度(MIC)测定表明,70%以上菌株对阿莫西林耐药;克拉维酸与阿莫西林联合使用使MIC显著下降;与单一使用阿莫西林相比,头孢氨苄青霉素对大多数分离菌的MIC较低.

  17. Clinical analysis of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid consecutive therapy in treating acute community-acquired low respiratory tract infections%阿莫西林-克拉维酸序贯治疗社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志雄; 孙书明

    2005-01-01

    目的评价阿莫西林-克拉维酸序贯治疗社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染的临床疗效和安全性.方法68例社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染患者被随机分成2组,各34例.A组予阿莫西林-克拉维酸注射液1.2 g,iv gtt,bid×10 d;B组先用阿莫西林-克拉维酸注射液1.2 g,iv gtt,bid×3 d后,改为阿莫西林-克拉维酸0.5 g,po,bid×7 d,总疗程10 d.结果A组与B组的治疗有效率分别为85%和82%,细菌清除率分别为84%和83%,P均>0.05,2组的不良反应率相似.结论阿莫西林-克拉维酸序贯治疗社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染的临床疗效确切,安全.

  18. Efficacy of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Potassium Combined With Chymotrypsin for Pediatric Acute Suppurative Tonsillitis%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚选云

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research aims to explore the clinical effect of amoxicilin-clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin on pediatric acute suppurative tonsilitis.Methods The research chose 100 cases of children patients with suppurative tonsilitis from the hospital,and distributed them into the observation group and the control group randomly of which each had 50 cases. The control group received the treatment of amoxicilin-clavulanate potassium alone,while the observation group received the additional treatment of chymotrypsin on the basis. After the treatment,the research compared the two groups in terms of the improvement time of main symptoms and signs,total effective rate and untoward effect. Results The symptoms improve time of in the observation group were significantly better than that in the control group,the total efficiency in the observation group were significantly higher than that in the coTntrol group(P<0.05).Conclusion Treating pediatric acute suppurative tonsilitis with amoxicilin-clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin can reduce the duration of symptoms and improve the effective rate of treatment,thus should be spread and applied clinicaly.%目的:探讨阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效。方法选取我院100例化脓性扁桃体炎患儿,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组患者均为50例,对照组单用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾,观察组在此基础上加用糜蛋白酶治疗,比较两组治疗后主要症状体征改善时间、总有效率和不良反应。结果观察组症状改善时间优于对照组,总有效率高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎,能缩短症状持续时间,提高治疗有效率。

  19. The study of quality standards on Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension(14:1)%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)的质量标准研究※

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳亦华; 李瑞明

    2013-01-01

      目的对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)的质量标准内容进行了研究。方法通过对质量标准的研究,对质量控制的各个方面进行完整的考察,从而确定制剂的保存方法和质量控制指标。结果与结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾湿度较高时较不稳定,影响其质量问题,保存时应当注意,其它要求均能合格制剂条件。%Objective To study the quality standards of amoxicil in and clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1). Methods Quality standards, quality control of al aspects of a complete investigation to determine the save method of preparation and quality control indicators. Results and Conclusion Amoxicil in and clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1) when with a high relative humidity wil be less stability, affecting its quality problems, should be saved in proper material.

  20. Effects of combination of amoxicillin, metronidazole and colloidal bismuth subcitrate on gastric ulcer in rats%阿莫西林、甲硝唑和胶体次枸橼酸铋三种药物联用对大鼠胃溃疡模型的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章杰兵; 古卓良; 周国华

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察阿莫西林、甲硝唑和胶体次枸橼酸铋联合使用对3种大鼠胃溃疡模型的影响,为临床合理选用药物治疗消化道溃疡提供参考.方法:用大鼠做成水浸应激性胃溃疡、幽门结扎型胃溃疡及乙酸烧灼型胃溃疡3种模型,试验组给予阿莫西林(225 mg·kg-1)、甲硝唑(112 mg·kg-1)和胶体次枸橼酸铋(56 mg·kh-1)混合物;阳性对照组给予西咪替丁(112 mg·kg-1);阴性对照组给予2%羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC-Na).结果:试验组呈剂量依赖性保护大鼠水浸应激性胃溃疡形成,有效剂量为112 mg·kg-1;呈剂量依赖性保护大鼠幽门结扎型溃疡形成,有效剂量为56 mg·kg-1;呈剂量依赖性促进大鼠乙酸烧灼溃疡的愈合,有效剂量为112 mg·kg-1.结论:试验组呈剂量依赖性对大鼠水浸应激性胃溃疡显示保护作用;呈剂量依赖性减少大鼠幽门结扎型胃溃疡的程度;呈剂量依赖性促进乙酸烧灼渍疡的愈合,但作用均弱于西咪替丁.

  1. Dissolution testing combined with computer simulation technology to evaluate the bioequivalence of domestic amoxicillin capsule%溶出度实验结合计算机模拟技术评价国产阿莫西林胶囊的生物等效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑞雪; 高源; 陈万里; 李玉兰; 胡昌勤

    2014-01-01

    对上市仿制药品生物等效性的再评价是当前的研究热点.生物等效性实验是评价仿制药物治疗效果一致性的理想方法,而基于BCS (biopharmaceutical classification system)理论的体外溶出度实验是最能替代药物体内生物等效性研究的体外试验方法.本文采用常规的溶出度测定方法和开放式流通池法考察国产阿莫西林胶囊在不同介质中的溶出行为,开放式流通池法更能体现其体内的释放特征.流通池法结果显示,国产阿莫西林胶囊存在两种不同的溶出特性.采用Gastro PlusTM软件模拟药物在体内具有不同释放速率(t85%-15~180 min)时的体内吸收(Cmax和AUC)情况,发现释放速率在延长至t85%=45 min时,口服阿莫西林胶囊同口服阿莫西林溶液仍具有生物等效性.具有不同溶出特性的国产阿莫西林胶囊45 min内的累积溶出度均可达到85%以上,模拟计算也提示其在体内具有生物等效性,提示国产阿莫西林胶囊具有生物等效性.

  2. Cefaclor in Children with Acute Otitis Media and Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Contrast Analysis%头孢克洛和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾用于儿童急性中耳炎治疗的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢寒冰

    2014-01-01

    Objective Comparison of acute otitis media in children with application of cefaclor and amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium two kinds of the clinical ef icacy of drug treatment. Methods From March 2011 to February 2013 treated 120 cases of children with acute otitis media in this study, random grouping. Children with the control group given amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium therapy, cefaclor treatment group. compared with two groups of children always show the dif erences of ef iciency and adverse reactions. Results After treatment, we found that the experimental group after treatment with total total ef iciency was 93.33%, control group the total ef iciency of 88.33%, dif erences between groups have no statistical significance ( >0.05). Experimental group the incidence of adverse reactions was 0%, the control group, the incidence of adverse reactions was 10.0%between groups was statistical y significant dif erence ( 0.05)。实验组不良反应发生率为0%,对照组不良反应发生率为10.0%,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用头孢克洛和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾两种药物治疗儿童急性中耳炎,可将其在临床进行推广应用。

  3. 头孢曲松与阿莫西林治疗儿童急性中耳炎的疗效比较研究%Efficacy and safety of one dose ceftriaxone vs. ten-day oral amoxicillin for treatment of acute otitis media in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚梅; 董频; 陆培

    2003-01-01

    目的探索头孢曲松单剂注射与口服阿莫西林10 d治疗儿童急性中耳炎是否具有相同的疗效,并比较此两种方案的安全性.方法本研究为多中心、随机、对照、开放Ⅳ期临床实验.头孢曲松组: 头孢曲松50 mg/kg(总剂量不超过1 g)单次肌肉注射或静脉点滴.阿莫西林组:阿莫西林40 mg/(kg·d),每日3次,口服,连续10 d.年龄在1~12岁共212例儿童.用药后两次复诊,观察症状、体征,耳镜检查,白细胞计数和分类,听力检测等.结果给药后10~14 d,头孢曲松组106例中显效以上的为103例,占97.17%,有效率高于阿莫西林组106例中的96例,占90.57%,(P<0.05).不良反应为丘疹样皮疹、荨麻疹、口角皮肤色素沉着,两组中各2例, 差异无显著意义.结论对于急性中耳炎的儿童,单剂头孢曲松肌注或静脉滴注优于口服阿莫西林10 d,两者安全性相同.头孢曲松在治疗儿童急性中耳炎、特别是在婴幼儿用药顺应性差时是一个很好的选择.

  4. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin vs.amoxicillin/clavulanic in the treatment of children with acute otitis media: a meta-analysis%阿奇霉素对比阿莫西林/克拉维酸治疗儿童急性中耳炎疗效和安全性的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守凯; 何健; 梁丹茹; 卫旭东; 陈彤; 杨蒙生; 李丽

    2013-01-01

    目的 采用Meta分析方法比较阿奇霉素与阿莫西林/克拉维酸治疗儿童急性中耳炎疗效和安全性.方法 电子检索中国生物医学文献数据库、中文科技期刊数据库、中国知网、万方数据库、中国医学会数字化期刊、PubMed、Cochrane Library和EMBASE数据库,检索起止时间均从建库至2013年8月.纳入阿奇霉素对比阿莫西林/克拉维酸治疗儿童急性中耳炎的RCT文献,对文献进行质量评价.评估临床治愈率、治疗失败率和不良反应.采用RevMan见5.0软件进行数据分析,二分类变量采用OR及其95%CI表示.结果 共纳入13篇RCT文献(5 081例患儿).Meta分析结果显示,阿奇霉素组与阿莫西林/克拉维酸组在<10 d临床治愈率(OR =0.69,95%CI:0.46~1.02)、~19 d临床治愈率(OR=0.88,95%CI:0.68~1.13)、~29 d临床治愈率( OR=0.99,95%CI:0.83~1.19)、≥30 d临床治愈率(OR=1.00,95%CI:0.72~1.39)和治疗失败率(OR=0.87,95%CI:0.65~1.17)差异均无统计学意义.阿奇霉素组恶心(OR=0.44,95%CI:0.20~0.97)、皮疹(OR=0.48,95%CI:0.31~0.75)、腹泻(OR=0.38,95%CI:0.25~0.57)和稀便(OR=0.41,95%CI:0.20~0.81)的发生率显著低于阿莫西林/克拉维酸组.结论 阿奇霉素与阿莫西林/克拉维酸治疗儿童中耳炎疗效相当且不良反应少.

  5. Bactericidal activity of moxifloxacin against multidrug-resistant Streptoccocus pneumoniae at clinically achievable serum and epithelial lining fluid concentrations compared with three other antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafini, Fabio; Alou, Luis; Sevillano, David; Valero, Eva; Prieto, José

    2004-10-01

    Time-kill studies compared the activities of moxifloxacin with those of levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 10 pneumococcal strains with various drug susceptibilities. Three Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were resistant to moxifloxacin: 6, 7 and 2 strains were resistant to levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. Of these, 1 strain was resistant to all antimicrobial agents studied. Moxifloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were bactericidal after 24h at serum Cmax levels against 9 and 8 strains, respectively, while levofloxacin and azithromycin were bactericidal against 3 and 2 strains, respectively. A higher activity was only observed for amoxicillin-clavulanate for logarithmic phase cultures at 1, 4 and 8h compared with stationary phase organisms. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and moxifloxacin were bactericidal at free serum levels (protein unbound) after 24h against 8 and 3 strains, respectively. Moxifloxacin was bactericidal at epithelial lining fluid levels against all strains at 24h, including one moxifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and azithromycin-resistant strain; lower levels of bactericidal activity was observed for levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 7, 2 and 4 strains, respectively. This demonstrated the importance of moxifloxacin tissue levels. PMID:15380257

  6. Is concomitant quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication really needed for Japanese patients?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincenzo; De; Francesco; Angelo; Zullo; Cesare; Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The study found that the 7 d of concomitant therapy (lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole) achieved significantly higher eradication rates compared to 7 d of triple therapy (lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin), the intention to treat (ITT) cure rates being 94.9% and 68.3%, respectively. According to our opinion, this study is clinically relevant for Japanese physicians for at least 2 reasons: (1) the standard triple therapy (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin) achieved disappointing cure rates in Japan-in agreement with what was observed in several countries; and (2) the concomitant quadruple therapy is an effective therapeutic alternative.

  7. Antibiotica-resistentie bij in Nederland geisoleerde Shigellae in 1987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd CE; van Klingeren B; Valkenburg JJ; Schot CS

    1988-01-01

    In het kader van de surveillance van antibiotica resistentie bij Shigellae werd van de isolaten die in 1987 voor typering naar het RIVM werden gezonden, kwantitatief de gevoeligheid bepaald voor amoxicilline chlooramfenicol, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazol, trimetroprim, gentamicine, kanamycine, strep

  8. Fluoroquinolones in the treatment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans associated periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinfelder, JW; Mueller, RF; Lange, DE

    2000-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis patients harboring Actinobacillus actinmycetemcomitans (Aa) are prime candidates for systemic antibiotic therapy. Besides tetracycline and the combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin the fluoroquinolones are also believed to have antibacterial activity against Aa. The

  9. Synergistic antibacterial effects of β-lactam antibiotic combined with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Juan; Wu, Changzhu; Wu, Qingsheng; Li, Jian

    2005-09-01

    The bactericidal action of silver (0) nanoparticles and amoxicillin on Escherichia coli is studied, respectively. Increasing concentration of both amoxicillin (0-0.525 mg ml-1) and silver nanoparticles (0-40 µg ml-1) showed a higher antibacterial effect in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Escherichia coli cells have different bactericidal sensitivity to them. When amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles are combined, it results in greater bactericidal efficiency on Escherichia coli cells than when they were applied separately. Dynamic tests on bacterial growth indicated that exponential and stationary phases are greatly decreased and delayed in the synergistic effect of amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles. In addition, the effect induced by a preincubation with silver nanoparticles is examined. The results show that solutions with more silver nanoparticles have better antimicrobial effects. One hypothesized mechanism is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy-a new strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antsupova, Valeria; Nørgaard, Nis; Bisbjerg, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are extensively used as prophylaxis for transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUBP). Emerging fluoroquinolone resistance and selection of multiresistant organisms warrant new prophylactic strategies. Pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid have ...

  11. Results of Use of WHO Global Salm-Surv External Quality Assurance System for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella Isolates from 2000 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Jensen, Arne Bent;

    2009-01-01

    to 3% in 2007. Consistent difficulties were observed in susceptibility testing of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. Regional variations in performance were observed, with laboratories in central Asia, Africa, and the Middle East...

  12. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI in Yasuj city during 1391-1392.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: It is recommended to treat urinary tract infections by using fewer antibiotics such as Amoxicillin / Clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole, and administration of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin should be used with caution.

  13. Killing curve activity of ciprofloxacin is comparable to synergistic effect of beta-lactam-tobramycin combinations against Haemophilus species endocarditis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H; Frimodt-Møller, N; Gutschik, E;

    1992-01-01

    Nine Haemophilus species strains, all beta-lactamase negative, isolated from patients with endocarditis were tested in killing curve experiments. Antibiotics used were penicillin, amoxicillin, aztreonam alone and in combination with tobramycin, as well as ciprofloxacin alone. Synergism between beta...

  14. Simultaneous removal and evaluation of organic substrates and NH{sub 3}-N by a novel combined process in treating chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhaobo [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wang, Hongcheng [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Ren, Nanqi, E-mail: rnq@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Cui, Minhua; Nie, Shukai; Hu, Dongxue [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We research a novel combined process to treat chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of amoxicillin verifies that the biodegradation, adsorption, hydrolysis and unknown mechanism were able to remove amoxicillin from wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study demonstrates that biodegradation is the major factor for removal mechanism at work for amoxicillin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mathematical statistic methods were employed to evaluate the performance of the WWTP. - Abstract: A full-scale novel combined anaerobic/micro-aerobic and two-stage aerobic biological process is used for the treatment of an actual chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater containing amoxicillin. The anaerobic system is an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), the micro-aerobic system is a novel micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification reactor (NHAR) and the two-stage aerobic process comprised cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and biological contact oxidation tank (BCOT). The influent wastewater was high in COD, NH{sub 3}-N varying daily 4016-13,093 mg-COD L{sup -1} and 156.4-650.2 mg-NH{sub 3}-N L{sup -1}, amoxicillin varying weekly between 69.1 and 105.4 mg-amoxicillin L{sup -1}, respectively; Almost all the COD, NH{sub 3}-N, amoxicillin were removed by the biological combined system, with removal percentages 97%, 93.4% and 97.2%, respectively, leaving around 104 mg-COD L{sup -1}, 9.4 mg-NH{sub 3}-N L{sup -1} and 2.6 {+-} 0.8 mg-amoxicillin L{sup -1} in the final clarifier effluent. The performance evaluation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by mathematical statistic methods shown that at most of time effluent can meet the higher treatment discharge standard. In addition, the fate of amoxicillin in the full-scale WWTP and the amoxicillin removal rate of each different removal routes in UASB, NHAR, CASS, BCOT and final clarifier processes are investigated

  15. Simultaneous removal and evaluation of organic substrates and NH3-N by a novel combined process in treating chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We research a novel combined process to treat chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater. ► The mechanism of amoxicillin verifies that the biodegradation, adsorption, hydrolysis and unknown mechanism were able to remove amoxicillin from wastewater. ► In this study demonstrates that biodegradation is the major factor for removal mechanism at work for amoxicillin. ► Mathematical statistic methods were employed to evaluate the performance of the WWTP. - Abstract: A full-scale novel combined anaerobic/micro-aerobic and two-stage aerobic biological process is used for the treatment of an actual chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater containing amoxicillin. The anaerobic system is an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), the micro-aerobic system is a novel micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification reactor (NHAR) and the two-stage aerobic process comprised cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and biological contact oxidation tank (BCOT). The influent wastewater was high in COD, NH3-N varying daily 4016–13,093 mg-COD L−1 and 156.4–650.2 mg-NH3-N L−1, amoxicillin varying weekly between 69.1 and 105.4 mg-amoxicillin L−1, respectively; Almost all the COD, NH3-N, amoxicillin were removed by the biological combined system, with removal percentages 97%, 93.4% and 97.2%, respectively, leaving around 104 mg-COD L−1, 9.4 mg-NH3-N L−1 and 2.6 ± 0.8 mg-amoxicillin L−1 in the final clarifier effluent. The performance evaluation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by mathematical statistic methods shown that at most of time effluent can meet the higher treatment discharge standard. In addition, the fate of amoxicillin in the full-scale WWTP and the amoxicillin removal rate of each different removal routes in UASB, NHAR, CASS, BCOT and final clarifier processes are investigated in this paper. The results show that biodegradation, adsorption and hydrolysis are the major mechanisms for amoxicillin removal.

  16. Ofloxacin intravenous. Compatibility with other antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janknegt, R; Stratermans, T; Cilissen, J; Lohman, J J; Hooymans, P M

    1991-10-18

    The physical and chemical compatibility of ofloxacin (infusion solution 100 ml = 200 mg) with amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, flucloxacillin, tobramycin, gentamicin, clindamycin, vancomycin, ceftazidime and piperacillin was investigated. Upon admixture with flucloxacillin a precipitate formed between 7 and 24 hours. No other physical or chemical incompatibilities were observed with any of the other combinations. Ofloxacin may be safely combined with the tested antimicrobial drugs, except for flucloxacillin.

  17. Detection of Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigenemia To Determine Biological and Clinical Implications of Beta-Lactam Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bart-Delabesse, Emmanuelle; Basile, Maria; Al Jijakli, Ahmad; Souville, Didier; Gay, Frédérick; Philippe, Bruno; Bossi, Philippe; Danis, Martin; Vernant, Jean-Paul; Datry, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) in serum with the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is useful for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. From May 2003 to November 2004, 65 patients who did not develop aspergillosis had at least two positive sera while receiving a beta-lactam treatment (GM index [GMI], ≥0.5). Of the 69 treatment episodes scored, 41 consisted of a beta-lactam other than piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 29), namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate (n = 25), amoxicillin (...

  18. Pharmacokinetics study of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (8:1)--a new combination in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers using the LC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanhong; Wang, Yinfu; Xie, Hua; Wang, Rong; Jia, Zhengping; Men, Xiandong; Xu, Liting; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-04-01

    New oral granules of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 ratio have recently been developed and approved to conduct clinical trial in China. To date, there has been no report studying the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in man. Therefore, it is urgent to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in man. The aim of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 with different dosage in healthy volunteers and provide support for this drug to obtain marketing authorization in China. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determining the concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in human plasma was developed and applied to this open-label, single- and multiple-dose Pharmacokinetics study. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of 1, 2, and 4 pouches of the test granulation of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 ratio (amoxicillin is 250 mg and clavulanic acid is 31.25 mg per pouch). In the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, and 24 h after drug administration. In the multiple-dose phase, samples were obtained before drug administration on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 to determine the Cmin of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. In the 4th day, samples were collected from 0.25 to 24 h after drug administration. Profiles of the concentration-time curves of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were best fitted to two-compartment model. In this group of healthy Chinese subjects, the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin fitted the linear dynamic feature at doses of 250,500 and 1,000 mg, and not obviously about clavulanic acid at doses of 31.25, 62.5, and 125 mg. The t 1/2 of single dose and multidoses were (1.45 ± 0.12) and (1.44 ± 0.26) h of amoxicillin and (1.24 ± 0.23) and (1.24 ± 0.17) of clavulanic acid, respectively; The AUC0-24 of single dose

  19. Compared to placebo, long-term antibiotics resolve otitis media with effusion (OME and prevent acute otitis media with perforation (AOMwiP in a high-risk population: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Peter S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For children at high risk of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM, strategies to prevent acute otitis media with perforation (AOMwiP may reduce progression to CSOM. Methods In a double blind study in northern Australia, 103 Aboriginal infants with first detection of OME were randomised to receive either amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/d BD or placebo for 24 weeks, or until bilateral aerated middle ears were diagnosed at two successive monthly examinations (success. Standardised clinical assessments and international standards for microbiology were used. Results Five of 52 infants in the amoxicillin group and none of 51 infants in the placebo group achieved success at the end of therapy (Risk Difference = 9.6% [95% confidence interval 1.6,17.6]. Amoxicillin significantly reduced the proportion of children with i perforation at the end of therapy (27% to 12% RD = -16% [-31,-1], ii recurrent perforation during therapy (18% to 4% RD = -14% [-25,-2], and iii reduced the proportion of examinations with a diagnosis of perforation during therapy (20% to 8% adjusted risk ratio 0.36 [0.15,0.83] p = 0.017. During therapy, the proportion of examinations with penicillin non-susceptible (MIC > 0.1 microg/ml pneumococci was not significantly different between the amoxicillin group (34% and the placebo group (40%. Beta-lactamase positive non-capsular H. influenzae (NCHi were uncommon during therapy but more frequent in the amoxicillin group (10% than placebo (5%. Conclusion Aboriginal infants receiving continuous amoxicillin had more normal ears, fewer perforations, and less pneumococcal carriage. There was no statistically significant increase in resistant pneumococci or NCHi in amoxicillin children compared to placebo children who received regular paediatric care and antibiotic treatment for symptomatic illnesses.

  20. Empirical antimicrobial therapy of acute dentoalveolar abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijević Stevo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common cause of acute dental infections are oral streptococci and anaerobe bacteria. Acute dentoalveolar infections are usually treated surgically in combination with antibiotics. Empirical therapy in such infections usually requires the use of penicillin-based antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficiency of amoxicillin and cefalexin in the empirical treatment of acute odontogenic abscess and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in early phases of its development. Methods. This study included 90 patients with acute odontogenic abscess who received surgical treatment (extraction of a teeth and/or abscess incision and were divided into three groups: two surgicalantibiotic groups (amoxicillin, cefalexin and the surgical group. In order to evaluate the effects of the applied therapy following clinical symptoms were monitored: inflammatory swelling, trismus, regional lymphadentytis and febrility. In all the patients before the beginning of antibiotic treatment suppuration was suched out of the abscess and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was tested by using the disk diffusion method. Results. The infection signs and symptoms lasted on the average 4.47 days, 4.67 days, and 6.17 days in the amoxicillin, cefalexin, and surgically only treated group, respectively. A total of 111 bacterial strains were isolated from 90 patients. Mostly, the bacteria were Gram-positive facultative anaerobs (81.1%. The most common bacteria isolated were Viridans streptococci (68/111. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria to amoxicillin was 76.6% and cefalexin 89.2%. Conclusion. Empirical, peroral use of amoxicillin or cefalexin after surgical treatment in early phase of development of dentoalveolar abscess significantly reduced the time of clinical symptoms duration in the acute odontogenic infections in comparison to surgical treatment only. Bacterial strains

  1. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhika Devi, A.; Murty, B. S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Chelvane, J. A. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabhakar, P. K.; Padma Priya, P. V.; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-03-28

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in veal calves is associated with antimicrobial drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, A B; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A; Vernooij, J C M; Mevius, D J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between farm management factors, including antimicrobial drug usage, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the faeces of white veal calves. Ninety E. coli isolates from one pooled sample per farm (n = 48) were tested for their phenotypical resistance against amoxicillin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). Logistic regression analysis revealed the following risk factors (P 40 ADD/pc, tetracyclines (tetracycline, OR 13·1; amoxicillin, OR 6·5). In this study antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli was mainly associated with antimicrobial drug use. PMID:24152540

  3. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactam...

  4. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaeren, Emilienne; Epelboin, Loïc; Epelboin, Sylvie; Boddaert, Nathalie; Brossier, Florence; Caumes, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner. PMID:25449232

  5. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilienne Verkaeren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  6. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica L.; Carvalho, Juliana F.; Pontes, Thales R. F.; Oliveira, Elquio E.; Francelino, Bárbara L.; Medeiros, Aldo C.; do Egito, E. Sócrates T.; Araujo, José H.; Carriço, Artur S.

    2009-05-01

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit ®S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 μm, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  7. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Erica L.; Carvalho, Juliana F.; Pontes, Thales R.F.; Oliveira, Elquio E. [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Francelino, Barbara L.; Medeiros, Aldo C. [Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Egito, E. Socrates T. do [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Araujo, Jose H. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Carrico, Artur S. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)], E-mail: ascarrico@dfte.ufrn.br

    2009-05-15

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 {mu}m, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  8. First Trimester Listeria monocytogenes Septicemia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariëtte Goddijn; Schipper, Hans G.; Lodewijk Spanjaard; Hans Wolf

    1997-01-01

    Background: Little is known about fetal outcome after Listeria monocytogenes septicemia in the first trimester of pregnancy. Case: A primigravida with L. monocytogenes septicemia at 9 weeks gestation was treated with amoxicillin. At 40 weeks gestation a healthy female infant was born. Conclusion: This case shows that fetal outcome can be normal after appropriate treatment of maternal L. monocytogenes septicemia during embryogenesis.

  9. Uptake of antibiotics from irrigation water by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanu, David; Mortey, Christiana; Darko, Godfred; Weisser, Johan Juhl; Styrishave, Bjarne; Abaidoo, Robert Clement

    2016-08-01

    The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through consumption of uncooked vegetables. Antibiotics in potted plants that had been irrigated with known concentrations of the antibiotics were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed on a liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer. The plants absorbed the antibiotics from water in all tested concentrations of 0.1-15 mg L(-1). Tetracycline was detected in all plant samples, at concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 28.3 ng/g in lettuce and 12.0-36.8 ng g(-1) fresh weight in carrots. Amoxicillin showed absorption with concentrations ranging from 13.7 ng g(-1) to 45.2 ng g(-1) for the plant samples. The mean concentration of amoxicillin (27.1 ng g(-1)) in all the samples was significantly higher (p = 0.04) than that of tetracycline (20.2 ng g(-1)) indicating higher uptake of amoxicillin than tetracycline. This suggests that the low antibiotic concentrations found in plants could be important for causing antibiotics resistance when these levels are consumed. PMID:27213239

  10. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Four Antibiotics against Borrelia burgdorferi: a Comparison of Results for the Three Genospecies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Sicklinger, Martin; Wienecke, Ralf; Neubert, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were evaluated for the four antibiotics azithromycin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline against the three main genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In MBC testing, statistically significant differences between the genospecies could be found in 7 out of 12 comparative evaluations (P < 0.05).

  11. In-vitro-Sensibilität von Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato gegenüber vier Antibiotika: ein Vergleich der Genospezies Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii und Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto

    OpenAIRE

    Sicklinger, Martin

    2006-01-01

    MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were evaluated for the four antibiotics azithromycin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline against the three main genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In MBC testing, statistically significant differences between the genospecies could be found in 7 out of 12 comparative evaluations (P < 0.05).

  12. Combined Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals and Antibiotics on a Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain ZY2 Isolated from Swine Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ZY2, isolated from swine wastewater, was used to investigate the synergistic effects of five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr(VI and Hg on bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Results indicate that the combined effects of antibiotic type, heavy metal type and concentration were significant (p < 0.01. Cross-resistance to Hg and antibiotics was the most noticeable. Moreover, the resistance to Hg and cefradine or amoxicillin, and Cr and amoxicillin were synergistic for low heavy metal concentrations, and turned antagonistic with increasing concentrations, while the resistances to Cr or Cu and cefradine, Pb or Cu and amoxicillin, Cu and norfloxacin showed reverse effects. In addition, resistance to Zn and amoxicillin were always synergetic, while resistance to Pb and cefradine or norfloxacin, Cr or Hg and norfloxacin as well as all the heavy metals and tetracycline were antagonistic. These results indicate that bacterial resistance to antibiotics can be affected by the type and concentration of co-exposed heavy metals and may further threaten people’s health and ecological security severely via horizontal gene transfer.

  13. New mutation points in 23S rRNA gene associated with Helicobacter Pylori resistance to clarithromycin in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Hao; Yan Li; Zhi-Jie Zhang; Yong Liu; Hong Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori (Hpylori) to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and tetracycline to guide clinical practice, and to study the mechanism of H pyloriresistant to clarithromycin.METHODS: Thirty H pyloristrains were isolated from the mucosa of peptic ulcer, gastric tumor and chronic gastritis patients, then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and tetracycline was evaluated by E-test method. The sequence analysis of PCR fragments was conducted in 23S rRNA gene of H pylori resistant to clarithromycin to get the resistance mechanism of the bacteria.RESULTS: Among 30 H pyloristrains, 7 cases were resistant to clarithromycin, 12 to metronidazole, 2 to tetracycline and no strain was found to be resistant to amoxicillin. The resistance rates were 23.3%, 40%, 6.7% and 0%,respectively. Three new mutation points were found to be related to the clarithromycin resistance in H pyloriisolates,which were G2224A, C2245T and T2289C.CONCLUSION: In northeast China, H pylorishows high resistance to metronidazole, while sensitive to amoxicillin.The mechanism of resistance to clarithromycin may be related to the mutation of G2224A, C2245T and T2289C in the 23S rRNA gene.

  14. Augmentin treatment during pregnancy and the prevalence of congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik T;

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the human teratogenic potential of augmentin (amoxicillin+clavulanic acid) treatment during pregnancy. Materials and methods: Pair analysis of cases with different congenital abnormalities and their matched controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control...

  15. Oligoarthritis caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Ladstatter, Stefan; Schotta, Anna M; Reiter, Michael; Pomberger, Gerhard; Stanek, Gerold

    2015-06-01

    A case of Lyme oligoarthritis occurred in an 11-year-old boy in Vienna, Austria. DNA of Borrelia bavariensis was detected by PCR in 2 aspirates obtained from different joints. Complete recovery was achieved after a 4-week course with amoxicillin. Lyme arthritis must be considered in patients from Europe who have persisting joint effusions.

  16. Evaluation of the mandibular third molar pericoronitis flora and its susceptibility to different antibiotics prescribed in france.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixou, Jean-Louis; Magaud, Christophe; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Cormier, Michel; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2003-12-01

    This work assessed the polymicrobial flora of mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Obligate anaerobes were found in almost all cases (32 of 35). Amoxicillin and pristinamycin were the most effective against the flora, particularly aerobic organisms. Metronidazole alone or combined with spiramycin was the most effective drug against obligate anaerobes.

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Clinical Sources of Dolosigranulum pigrum Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    LaClaire, L.; Facklam, R

    2000-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibilities of 27 clinical isolates of Dolosigranulum pigrum were determined. All were susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, clindamycin, levofloxacin, meropenem, penicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Fifteen of the isolates were intermediate to chloramphenicol. One isolate was resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Two isolates were susceptible, 10 were intermediate, and 15 were resistant to erythromycin.

  18. Evaluation of nasopharyngeal microbial flora and antibiogram and its relation to otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourizadeh, Navid; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Gharavi, Vahideh; Nourizadeh, Niloufar; Movahed, Rahman

    2016-04-01

    Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion (OME) are the main causes of hearing impairment in children which require proper treatment, mainly antibiotic therapy. Patients whom were appropriate candidates for adenoidectomy were divided into two groups regarding the presence of middle ear effusion. Adenoid tissue specimens were cultured in both groups and the bacterial flora and anti-microbial resistance pattern were determined. 72 patients were studied, 42 % had OME while 58 % did not. The following bacteria were isolated and cultured from both groups with no meaningful difference in prevalence: Streptococcus viridans (p = 0.265), Staphylococcus aureus (p = 0.72), H. influenza (p = 0.806), Entrococcus. spp (0.391), Streptococcus pneumonia (p = 0.391), nonhemolytic Streptococcus (p = 0.230). Bacterial sensitivity was similar for Amoxicillin-clavulanate (p = 0.935), Amoxicillin (p = 0.935), Cephalexin (p = 0.806), Cefixime (p = 0.391) and Azithromycin in both groups. The two groups showed no meaningful difference considering the bacterial flora of nasopharynx and their sensitivity. Bacteria in both groups were sensitive to Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin-clavulanate and resistant to Azithromycin, Cefixime and Cephalexin. PMID:25929414

  19. Multicenter Survey of Routine Determinations of Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to Antimicrobials over the Last 20 Years (1990 to 2009) in Belgium▿

    OpenAIRE

    Deyi, V. Y. Miendje; Bontems, P.; Vanderpas, J.; De Koster, E.; Ntounda, R.; Van den Borre, C; Cadranel, S; Burette, A

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the rates of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients from 1990 to 2009 and identified risk factors associated with resistance. Gastric biopsy specimens were collected from several digestive disease centers in Brussels, Belgium. We routinely performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing for clarithromycin (CLR), metronidazole, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. Evaluable susceptibility testing was obtained for 9,430 strains isolate...

  20. Safe and feasible outpatient treatment following induction and consolidation chemotherapy for patients with acute leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Nielsen, Ove Juul; Welinder, Pernille;

    2010-01-01

    incorporating comprehensive patient education for self-care management at home during pancytopenia and involvement of patients in care of their tunnelled central venous catheter (CVC). During neutropenia, patients are treated with prophylactic ciprofloxacine, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and fluconazole. Herein...

  1. A Combination Of Amoxicillian And Clavulanic Acid In The Treatment Of Impetigo In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Kar Col

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (ACA a combination of potentially effective antibiotic against beta-lactamase producing bacteria was compared with that of amoxicillin, erythomycin and co-trimoxazole in an open label, randomized trial in 100 children with mild to severe impetigo. 22% children had mild, 25% had moderate and 53% children had severe impetigo. Pure growth of S. aureus was isolated in 68% children, S.pyogenes in 26% and both staphyto and streptococci in 6% children. In mild to moderate infection 100% children receiving ACA were cured clinically after first week, whereas 7 out of 15(46.6% children in amoxicillin group, 7 out of 13(53.1% children in erythromycin group and 4 out 12 (33.3% children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure after first week. In severe impetigo 46.1% children receiving ACA, 20% children in amoxicillin group, 16.6% children inerythromycin group and 7.6% in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure on therapy after one week. ACA was well tolerated in children.

  2. Antibiotic treatment in patients with low-back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, HB; Manniche, C; Sørensen, JS;

    2008-01-01

    changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n = 166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes...

  3. Bacteriology in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted to hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette V; Janner, Julie H; Nielsen, Susanne D;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial flora and antimicrobial sensitivity in sputum from patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in order to recommend the best empirical treatment for these patients. The survey was a retrospective study of a...... for AECOPD we recommend either cefuroxime for intravenous treatment or amoxicillin-clavulanate for oral treatment....

  4. Antibiotic treatment in patients with low back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Hanne B.; Manniche, Claus; Sørensen, Joan S.;

    2008-01-01

    changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n=166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes...

  5. [THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A 10-DAY DRUG THERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC GASTRODUODENAL PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH CAGA-POSITIVE STRAINS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnyk, V M; Rudenko, G M

    2015-01-01

    The results of triple Helicobacter-therapy (omeprazole, amoxicillin, nifuratel) in the treatment of chronic gastroduodenal pathology in children depending on the duration of it's use. The effectiveness of drug therapy was evaluated in terms of eradication of Helicobacter pylori and dynamics of pain, dyspeptic syndrome and astenovegetative syndrome.

  6. Evaluation of the Mandibular Third Molar Pericoronitis Flora and Its Susceptibility to Different Antibiotics Prescribed in France

    OpenAIRE

    Sixou, Jean-Louis; Magaud, Christophe; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Cormier, Michel; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2003-01-01

    This work assessed the polymicrobial flora of mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Obligate anaerobes were found in almost all cases (32 of 35). Amoxicillin and pristinamycin were the most effective against the flora, particularly aerobic organisms. Metronidazole alone or combined with spiramycin was the most effective drug against obligate anaerobes.

  7. Synergistic Interactions of Methanolic Extract of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. with Antibiotics against Bacteria of Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Afolayan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms, combining medicinal plants with synthetic or orthodox medicines against resistant bacteria becomes necessary. In this study, interactions between methanolic extract of Acacia mearnsii and eight antibiotics were investigated by agar diffusion and checkerboard assays. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all the antibiotics ranged between 0.020 and 500 µg/mL while that of the crude extract varied between 0.156 and 1.25 mg/mL. The agar diffusion assay showed that extract-kanamycin combination had zones of inhibition ≥20 ± 1.0 mm in all the bacteria tested (100%, followed by extract-chloramphenicol (90% > extract-ciprofloxacin = extract-tetracycline (70% > extract-amoxicillin (60% > extract-nalidixic acid (50% > extract-erythromycin (40% > extract-metronidazole (20%. The checkerboard showed synergistic interaction (61.25%, additivity/indifference (23.75% and antagonistic (15% effects. The synergistic interaction was most expressed by combining the extract with tetracycline, metronidazole, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid against E. coli (ATCC 25922, erythromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin against S. aureus (ATCC 6538, erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol against B. subtilis KZN, erythromycin, metronidazole and amoxicillin against E. faecalis KZN, erythromycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol against K. pneumoniae (ATCC 10031, erythromycin, tetracycline, metronidazole and chloramphenicol against P. vulgaris (ATCC 6830, erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol against S. sonnei (ATCC 29930, metronidazole, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol against E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 and ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol

  8. Helicobacter pylori and gastric or duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, treatment of the infection improves healing and prevents complications and recurrences. The drug regimen generally consists of a high-dose proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) such as omeprazole plus antibiotics. Using the standard Prescrire methodology, we conducted a review of the literature in order to determine the standard empirical antibiotic regimen for H. pylori infection in adults with gastric or duodenal ulcer in France. In 2015, due to an increase in H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, a 7-day course of the PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin combination is effective in only about 70% of cases. A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of trials involving thousands of patients suggests that prolonging treatment with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin or a PPI + amoxicillin + metronidazole to 10 or 14 days improves the rate of H. pylori eradication by 5% to 10%. A metanalysis of seven trials including a total of about 1000 patients showed that combination therapy with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days eradicates H. pylori in about 90% of cases, compared to about 80% of cases with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin given for 7 days. Sequential treatment with amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days, has also been tested in thousands of patients. Efficacy and adverse effects were similar to those observed when the same antibiotics were taken simultaneously for 5 days. In randomised trials, replacing clarithromycin or amoxicillin with a fluoroquinolone yielded conflicting results. In 2009, nearly 20% of H. pylori isolates were resistant to levofloxacin in France. Tetracycline has only been evaluated in combination with bismuth. The few available data on doxycycline suggest that its efficacy is similar to that of tetracycline. A fixed-dose combination of bismuth subcitrate potassium + metronidazole

  9. Urinary Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their relationship with community antibiotic use in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meumann, Ella M; Mitchell, Brett G; McGregor, Alistair; McBryde, Emma; Cooley, Louise

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed urinary Escherichia coli antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Tasmania, Australia, and examined their association with community antibiotic use. The susceptibility profiles of all urinary E. coli isolates collected in Tasmania between January 2010 and December 2012 were included. The amount of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS)-subsidised use of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), cefalexin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was retrieved (at the Tasmanian population level) and the number of defined daily doses per 1000 population per day in Tasmania for these antibiotics was calculated for each month during the study period. Antimicrobial susceptibility data were assessed for changes over time in the 3-year study period. Antimicrobial use and susceptibility data were assessed for seasonal differences and lag in resistance following antibiotic use. Excluding duplicates, 28145 E. coli isolates were included. Resistance levels were low; 35% of isolates were non-susceptible to amoxicillin, 14% were non-susceptible to trimethoprim and <5% were non-susceptible to AMC, cefalexin, gentamicin and norfloxacin. Amoxicillin use increased by 35% during winter/spring compared with summer/autumn, and AMC use increased by 21%. No seasonal variation in quinolone use or resistance was detected. The low levels of antimicrobial resistance identified may relate to Tasmania's isolated geographical location. Significant seasonal variation in amoxicillin and AMC use is likely to be due to increased use of these antibiotics for treatment of respiratory tract infections in winter. Quinolone use is restricted by the PBS in Australia, which is the likely explanation for the low levels of quinolone use and resistance identified. PMID:26187365

  10. Optimizing antibiotic therapy of group IV community-acquired pneumonia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziublyk Ya.O.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and economical effectiveness of differentiated antibacterial therapy of group IV patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Materials and methods. 42 patients, admitted to the hospital with severe CAP without risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection were randomized in three groups in 1:1:1 ratio. All patients received sequential antibacterial therapy with i.v. amoxicillin/clavulanate or ceftriaxone, or ertapenem in combination with azithromycin switched to oral amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil in combination with oral azithromycin or levofloxacin, respectively, after initial improvement in 3–4 days. A comparative effectiveness analysis was performed based on clinical, laboratory and economic data. Results. Treatment outcomes in all subgroups of patients were similar: in 1st subgroup the cure rate was (28,6  12,1 %, improvement – in (49,4  13,2 % of patients; in 2nd and 3rd subgroups the cure/improvement rates were (35,7  12,8 and (42,9 13,2 %, respectively (р  0,05. Conclusion. Antibacterial therapy, always empiric and differentiated depending on severity of disease, con¬comitant conditions and previous use of antibiotics within 3 months of the onset of the disease, is a milestone of treatmet of CAP patients. A sequential antibiotic therapy with either aminopenicillin (amoxicillin/clavulanate of 3rd generation cephalosporin (ceftriaxone/cefuroxime axetil in combination with macrolide (azithromycin or carbapenem (ertapenem, followed by levofloxacin is recommended in hospitalized clinical group IV CAP patients without risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection. In current group of patients pharmacoeconomic analysis confirmed the expediency of administration a sequential antibiotic therapy with parenteral amoxicillin/clavulanat or ceftriaxone in combination with azithromycin, followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanat or cefuroxime axetil in combination with

  11. •OH and e-aq are yet good candidates for demolishing the β-lactam system of a penicillin eliminating the antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Rácz, Gergely; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2016-07-01

    Tracking the pharmacophore of a drug subjected to advanced oxidation is essential for evaluating the efficiency of the process in terms of wastewater treatment. From this standpoint, the •OH and eaq- induced deactivation mechanism of amoxicillin, a penicillin derivative was investigated in dilute aqueous solution using pulse- and gamma-radiolysis techniques. Based on IR measurements, •OH and eaq- destroys the β-lactam system of amoxicillin with ~55% and ~84% efficiency, respectively. In aerated solution the elimination of the pharmacophore was slightly impaired since the reaction pathway of the ring-opening was disturbed owing to the reactivity of O2 and O2• - toward the intermediates of sulfur oxidation. The high potency of eaq- for β-lactam deactivation is attributed to the enhanced electron deficiency of the carbonyl carbon inside the lactam ring.

  12. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated From Poultry Manure Used To Fertilize Fish Ponds In New Bussa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funso Omojowo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to isolate and identify antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry manure usually used for pond fertilization. Poultry manure from 120 Chickens in National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR integrated fish farms, New-Bussa, Nigeria was collected. Five bacterial pathogens; Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing carried out using the disk diffusion technique. Antibiotics used were; ofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. All the isolated organisms were 100% sensitive to ofloxacin. The multiple resistance pattern revealed that 100% were resistant to tetracycline, 84.34% resistant to ampicillin, 76.68% resistant to amoxicillin, 66% resistant to chloramphenicol, 66% resistant to gentamicin, 29% resistant to erythromycin, 28.34% resistant to nalidixic acid. The risk posed by untreated poultry manure used in fish pond fertilization and the public health implications of these results were discussed.

  14. Impact of Age, Gender, and Addition of Probiotics on Treatment Success for Helicobacter pylori in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Weiner MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, gender, and the use of probiotics with standard treatment regimen on Helicobacter pylori eradication. Based on endoscopic findings and clinical presentation, selected patients were treated with standard triple therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin. Those who failed were offered a repeat treatment with omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. After the publications of the possible advantages of probiotic treatment on H pylori eradication, the probiotic agent “Probiotica Forte” was routinely added to the treatment. Eradication was noted for 94/130 patients (72% and for 128/197 patients (65% with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .23. For second-line treatment eradication was noted in 33/46 (72% and in 9/20 (45% with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .053. The addition of probiotics may improve eradication success especially in addition to second-line treatment.

  15. Novel Steroidal (6R)-Spiro-1,3,4-thiadiazoline Derivatives as Anti-bacterial Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khan Salman A.; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Novel steroidal (6R)-spiro-1,3,4-thiadiazoline derivatives have been synthesized by the cyclization of steroidal thiosemiearbazones. Thiosemicarbazones have been synthesized by the reaction of steroidal ketones with thiosemi- carbazide. All the compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H NMR, mass and elemental analyses. The antibacterial activities of these compounds have been first tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been determined with the reference of standard drug amoxicillin. The results showed that steroidal thiadiazoline de- rivatives exhibited better antibacterial activity than the steroidal thiosemicarbazone derivatives. Chloro and acetoxy substituents on the 3β-position of the steroidal thiadiazoline ring increased the anti-bacterial activity. Among all the compounds, compounds 7 and 8 were found better inhibitors as compared to the respective drug amoxicillin.

  16. Preliminary investigations of the colonisation of upper respiratory tract tissues of infants using a paediatric formulation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, D A; Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Dawes, P J; Tagg, J R

    2008-12-01

    A powder preparation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been given to 19 young otitis media-prone children following a 3-day course of amoxicillin administered as a preliminary to ventilation tube placement. In two subjects, the use of strain K12 appeared to effect the expansion of an indigenous population of inhibitory S. salivarius. In other children, strain K12 colonisation extended beyond the oral cavity to also include the nasopharynx or adenoid tissue. The relatively low proportion (33%) of subjects that colonised was attributed to failure of the amoxicillin pre-treatment to sufficiently reduce the indigenous S. salivarius populations prior to dosing with strain K12 powder. PMID:18560907

  17. Monitoring and Analysis on Multi Drug Resistance of Escherichia coli from Captive Population Amur Tiger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue; Yuan; Li; Fengyong; Sun; Jing; Cai; Longhui; Wu; Qingming; Zhou; Ming; Huang; Xianguang; Hua; Yuping

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the multi drug resistance to Escherichia coli from captive population Amur tiger,E. coli strains were isolated from the fecal samples of tiger in Heilongjiang Amur Tiger Park in Harbin. The sensitivity of E. coli isolates to 14 antibiotics was determined by scrip diffusion method. The results indicated that all the isolates varied in drug resistance to different antibiotics; the isolates gave high resistance to ampicillin,with a drug fast rate of 100%; over80% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and Paediatric Compound Sulfamethoxazole Tablets(SMZ- TMP),and over 70% of the isolates were sensitive to aztreonam,amoxicillin /potassium clavulanate. Most of the isolates had high sensitive to aztreonam and amoxicillin / clavulanate acid.

  18. Antibacterial potency screening of Capparis zeylanica Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rezaul Haque; Wahedul Islam; Selina Parween

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To conduct the antibacterial potency and minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts (n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol) obtained from the root, leaf and stem of Capparis zeylanica. Methods: The powdered leaf, root and stem samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially in n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol. Antibacterial potency was evaluated by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a control. Results: In vitro antibacterial activity against 12 bacteria was performed with crude extracts. Among them, all the bacteria showed the moderate activity but chloroform and methanolic extracts showed promising antibacterial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae (leaf > root > stem). This activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method with a standard antibiotic, 30 µg/disc of amoxicillin. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial potency of chloroform and methanolic extracts provides new antibacterial compounds.

  19. Mycophenolate mofetil for drug-induced vanishing bile duct syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Amoxicillin/clavulanate is associated with liver injury,mostly of a cholestatic pattern. While outcomes are usually benign, progression to cirrhosis and death has been reported. The role of immunosuppressive therapy for patients with a protracted course is unclear. We report the case of an elderly patient who developed prolonged cholestasis secondary to amoxicillin/clavulanate. Vanishing bile duct syndrome was confirmed by sequential liver biopsies. The patient responded to prednisone treatment,but could not be weaned off corticosteroids, even when azathioprine was added. Complete withdrawal of both prednisone and azathioprine was possible by using mycophenolate mofetil, an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor. Sustained remission has been maintained for more than 3 years with low-dose mycophenolate mofetil.

  20. Regional features of gastroduodenal disease, associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, in the North Ossetia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kornienko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of gastroduodenal disorders, virulent feathers of Helicobacter pylori (HP strains and efficacy of eradication therapy in children of the North Ossetia (Alania. 1265 children from 4 till 18 years old were examined, НР was found in 84%. 53% of HP(+ atients had erosions and ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. Strains, resistant to clarithromycin, were revealed in 13% of the patients. We have estimated efficacy of 4 regimes of eradication therapy. Regimes, that included clarithromycin and metronidazole, had the lowest efficacy the worst compliance. The best results were observed in triple therapy, including PPI, amoxicillin and bismuth, and quadrotherapy with PPI amoxicillin, bismuth and nifuratel. The duration of therapy should not be shorter than 10 days.

  1. Endogenous ethanol production in a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinucci, Giulio; Guidetti, Mariacristina; Lanzoni, Elisabetta; Pironi, Loris

    2006-07-01

    The case of the gastrointestinal production of ethanol from Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a Caucasian man with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is reported. The patient, who declared to have always abstained from alcohol, was hospitalized for abdominal pain, belching and mental confusion. The laboratory findings showed the presence of ethanol in the blood. Gastric juice and faecal microbiological cultures were positive for C. albicans and S. cerevisiae. At home, he was on oral antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid for a small bowel bacterial overgrowth, associated with a simple sugar-rich diet. Twenty-four hours after stopping both the antibiotic therapy and the simple sugar-rich diet, the blood ethanol disappeared. A provocative test, performed by giving amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid associated with the simple sugar-rich diet was followed by the reappearance of ethanol in the blood. A review of the literature is reported.

  2. Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijnders, Dorien; Goossens, Gijs H; Hermes, Gerben D A;

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men....... Vancomycin, but not amoxicillin, decreased bacterial diversity and reduced Firmicutes involved in short-chain fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, concomitant with altered plasma and/or fecal metabolite concentrations. Adipose tissue gene expression of oxidative pathways was upregulated by antibiotics......, whereas immune-related pathways were downregulated by vancomycin. Antibiotics did not affect tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, energy/substrate metabolism, postprandial hormones and metabolites, systemic inflammation, gut permeability, and adipocyte size. Importantly, energy harvest, adipocyte size...

  3. The management of skin and skin structure infections in children, adolescents and adults: a review of empiric antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S E

    1998-09-01

    This article reviews the diagnosis and management of mild-to-moderate skin and skin structure infections in children, adolescents and adults in a general practice setting. Therapies reviewed are those in current use: penicillins; beta-lactamase stable penicillins, including flucloxacillin, oxacillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate; oral quinolones; macrolides; and oral cephalosporins. Consideration is given to duration of therapy, side-effect profile and compliance.

  4. Pseudomembranous colitis associated with a triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Trifan, Anca; Girleanu, Irina; Cojocariu, Camelia; Sfarti, Catalin; Singeap, Ana Maria; Dorobat, Carmen; Grigore, Lucia; Stanciu, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common chronic bacterial infections in humans, affecting half of world’s population. Therapy for H. pylori infection has proven to be both effective and safe. The one-week triple therapy including proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin or metronidazole is still recommended as a first-line treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection in countries with low clarithromycin resistance. Generally, this therapy is well-tolerated, with ...

  5. 1O-Minute Consultation Otorrhoea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miran Pankhania; Owen Judd; Andy Ward

    2011-01-01

    A 49 year old woman presents to her general practitioner with discharge from her left ear and otalgia.She had used olive oil drops for ear wax and completed a course of amoxicillin for presumed otitis media.Her symptoms have persisted despite treatment.What you should cover Ask about:Otorrhoea;Otalgia;Tinnitus;Vertigo;Hearing loss.Most ear disorders will present with one or more of these five symptoms.

  6. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Jane A. Morton; Kasten, Rickie W.; Chao-chin Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans) bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) may have prolonged the typ...

  7. [Association of chronic urticaria with Helicobacter pylori-induced antrum gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmeyer, J; Heller, A; Hartig, C; Wetenberger-Treumann, M; Huchzermeyer, H; Otte, H G; Stadler, R

    1996-02-01

    In spite of its high incidence, not much is known about the etiology of chronic urticaria. We performed gastroscopic evaluation of 10 patients in whom no cause for chronic urticaria had been found. In 8 of these 10 patients, Helicobacter pylori was identified in the gastric mucosa. The chronic urticarial lesions disappeared within a few days after starting therapy with amoxicillin and omeprazol. PMID:8868453

  8. Odontogenic bacteria in periodontal disease and resistance patterns to common antibiotics used as treatment and prophylaxis in odontology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, J R; Bascones, A; Sánchez, P; Matesanz, P; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, M J; Pérez-Balcabao, I; Granizo, J J; Prieto, J

    2007-03-01

    Resistance in streptococci or Gram-negative bacteria is associated with antibiotic consumption. Scarce information exists on the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates from patients with periodontitis in countries with high antibiotic consumption, as this is an area in which microbiological testing is not performed in daily practice. The present study was undertaken to explore the susceptibility of bacterial isolates in periodontitis to antibiotics prescribed in odontology in Spain as treatment for local infections or prophylaxis for distant focal infections. Periodontal samples were prospectively collected in 48 patients classified by pocket depth of or=4 mm. Species were identified by culture, selecting the five most frequent morphotypes per sample, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Susceptibility was determined by E-test. A total of 261 isolates were identified: 72.9% patients had Streptococcus oralis; 70.8% Streptococcus mitis; 60.4% Prevotella buccae; 39.6% Prevotella denticola; 37.5% Fusobacterium nucleatum; 35.4% Prevotella intermedia; 25% Capnocytophaga spp.; 23% Veillonella spp.; 22.9% Prevotella melaninogenica and Streptococcus sanguis; and resistance rates were 0% for amoxicillin, approximately 10% for clindamycin, 9-22% for tetracycline, and for azithromycin ranged from 18.2% for S. sanguis to 47.7% for S. mitis. Prevotella isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, with amoxicillin resistance ranging from 17.1% in P. buccae to 26.3% in P. denticola. Metronidazole resistance was resistance ranged from 0 to 21.1%. beta-Lactamase production was positive in 54.1% Prevotella spp., 38.9% F. nucleatum, 30% Capnocytophaga spp., and 10% Veillonella spp. In this study, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was the most active antibiotic against all species tested, followed by metronidazole in the case of anaerobes.

  9. Exogenous pulmonary surfactant as a drug delivering agent: influence of antibiotics on surfactant activity.

    OpenAIRE

    van 't Veen, A; Gommers, D.; Mouton, J. W.; Kluytmans, J.A.; Krijt, E. J.; Lachmann, B.

    1996-01-01

    1. It has been proposed to use exogenous pulmonary surfactant as a drug delivery system for antibiotics to the alveolar compartment of the lung. Little, however, is known about interactions between pulmonary surfactant and antimicrobial agents. This study investigated the activity of a bovine pulmonary surfactant after mixture with amphotericin B, amoxicillin, ceftazidime, pentamidine or tobramycin. 2. Surfactant (1 mg ml-1 in vitro and 40 mg ml-1 in vivo) was mixed with 0.375 mg ml-1 amphote...

  10. Comparative evaluation of a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, YTR 830, combined with different beta-lactam antibiotics against bacteria harboring known beta-lactamases.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutmann, L; Kitzis, M D; Yamabe, S; Acar, J F

    1986-01-01

    YTR 830, a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, combined with amoxicillin or carbenicillin, showed a synergistic effect similar to that observed with clavulanic acid, and generally better than that with sulbactam, against strains harboring chromosome-encoded penicillinases and broad-spectrum beta-lactamases or plasmid-determined beta-lactamases. With ampicillin, YTR 830 showed the best synergistic activity of the inhibitors against Proteus morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Enterobacter cloacae and...

  11. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance pattern for neonatal sepsis in Klebsiella and Pseudomonas isolated pathogens in neonatal intensive care unit at tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Mallikarjunappa Dharapur

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The results obtained from this study done to evaluate the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity and resistance for neonatal sepsis in klebsiella and pseudomonas isolated pathogens showed that Meropenem as highly sensitive antibiotic and Amoxicillin as highly resistant antibiotic, hence they must be judiciously used to minimize the morbidity and mortality and also to reduce the emergence of multidrug resistant organisms in NICU. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 2110-2113

  12. Simultaneous pyometra and viable puppies’ gestation in a bitch

    OpenAIRE

    A. Risso; F.J. Pellegrino; Y. Corrada

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a case of pyometra coexisting with gestation in a 4.5 year-old miniature short-haired Dachshund. The dog exhibited depression, vaginal discharge, polydipsia and dehydration. Ultrasound examination revealed the presence of low to moderate anechoic fluid collection in the left uterine horn. Blood analysis revealed mild neutrophilia with a left shift. Based on these findings a presumptive diagnosis of pyometra was made and the bitch was treated using amoxicillin-clavulanate with...

  13. Emergence of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli producing TEM-1 derivatives or an OXA-1 beta-lactamase conferring resistance to beta-lactamase inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, X. Y.; Bordon, F; Sirot, D; Kitzis, M D; Gutmann, L

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen Escherichia coli clinical isolates which were resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate but susceptible to cephalothin were studied. Eight strains showed the presence of a beta-lactamase which comigrates with reference OXA-1 enzyme. The eight other strains produced different TEM-1 derivatives which had in common a higher Km for penicillins and a higher 50% inhibitory concentration for the beta-lactamase inhibitors. By oligotyping and sequencing of PCR products, it was shown ...

  14. Synergistic effect of propolis and antibiotics on the Salmonella Typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Orsi Ricardo de Oliveira; Sforcin José Maurício; Funari Silvia Regina Cunha; Fernandes Junior Ary; Bankova Vassya

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate a possible synergistic effect between ethanolic extracts of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria and some antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin) against Salmonella Typhi. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action, but the sample from Bulgaria was shown to be more efficient. Both samples showed a similar synergistic effect with these antibiotics. One may conclude that the propolis samples show an important antibacterial a...

  15. Empirical antimicrobial therapy of acute dentoalveolar abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Matijević Stevo; Lazić Zoran; Kuljić-Kapulica Nada; Nonković Zorka

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim. The most common cause of acute dental infections are oral streptococci and anaerobe bacteria. Acute dentoalveolar infections are usually treated surgically in combination with antibiotics. Empirical therapy in such infections usually requires the use of penicillin-based antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficiency of amoxicillin and cefalexin in the empirical treatment of acute odontogenic abscess and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility ...

  16. Ciprofloxacin, a quinolone carboxylic acid compound active against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, N X; Neu, H C

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of norfloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, ceftazidime, moxalactam, amoxicillin, and methicillin and other agents, as appropriate. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for 90% of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria spp., and Bacteroides fragilis were between 0.005 and 0.8 micrograms/ml, whereas streptococci and staphylococci were all inhibited by less than o...

  17. Recommendations for the empirical treatment of complicated urinary tract infections using surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Koningstein

    Full Text Available Complicated urinary tract infections (c-UTIs are among the most common nosocomial infections and a substantial part of the antimicrobial agents used in hospitals is for the treatment of c-UTIs. Data from surveillance can be used to guide the empirical treatment choices of clinicians when treating c-UTIs. We therefore used nation-wide surveillance data to evaluate antimicrobial coverage of agents for the treatment of c-UTI in the Netherlands.We included the first isolate per patient of urine samples of hospitalised patients collected by the Infectious Disease Surveillance Information System for Antibiotic Resistance (ISIS-AR in 2012, and determined the probability of inadequate coverage for antimicrobial agents based on species distribution and susceptibility. Analyses were repeated for various patient groups and hospital settings.The most prevalent bacteria in 27,922 isolates of 23,357 patients were Escherichia coli (47%, Enterococcus spp. (14%, Proteus mirabilis (8%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7%. For all species combined, the probability of inadequate coverage was <5% for amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combined with gentamicin and the carbapenems. When including gram-negative bacteria only, the probability of inadequate coverage was 4.0%, 2.7%, 2.3% and 1.7%, respectively, for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, a second or a third generation cephalosporin in combination with gentamicin, and the carbapenems (0.4%. There were only small variations in results among different patient groups and hospital settings.When excluding Enterococcus spp., considered as less virulent, and the carbapenems, considered as last-resort drugs, empirical treatment for c-UTI with the best chance of adequate coverage are one of the studied beta-lactam-gentamicin combinations. This study demonstrates the applicability of routine surveillance data for up-to-date clinical practice guidelines on empirical antimicrobial therapy, essential in patient

  18. [Differential diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of Q-fever in a male prisoner. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Zámolyi, Szilvia; Magyar, Hajnalka; Kőrösi, Gábor; Benkő, Árpád; Hornyák, Anna; Hegedűs, Zsolt; György, Lajos

    2015-05-01

    The authors describe the case of a 46-year-old man, who developed atypical pneumonia caused by Coxiella burnetii. Chest X-ray revealed interstitial pneumonia. Western blot and ELISA test were positive for Coxiella burnetii antibody. After treatment with doxycyclin and amoxicillin supplemented with vitamin B6 for 10 days, the patient displayed a clinical improvement. The authors conclude that in cases with atypical pneumonia, Coxiella burnetii antibody as well as other bacterial or viral antibodies should be determined. PMID:26042781

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Wareham David W.; Krahe Daniel; Bean David C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI). Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, ...

  20. Penicillin G acylase encapsulation studies in polyvinyl alcohol based matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Maduro, Filipa Cristiana Duarte Fangueiro

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação mest., Biotecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2009 Penicillin G acylase (EC 3.5.1.11) (PGA) hydrolyses penicillin G (PG) producing 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), an important building block in the synthesis of semi-synthetic antibiotics such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. The synthesis of these antibiotics by PGA is already successfully used in lab and pilot scales and more recently in the synthesis of cefalexin (CEX) at industrial scale. This work characterizes the stabili...

  1. Synergistic effect of propolis and antibiotics on the Salmonella Typhi Efeito sinérgico da própolis e antibióticos sobre Salmonella Typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi; José Maurício Sforcin; Silvia Regina Cunha Funari; Ary Fernandes Junior; Vassya Bankova

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate a possible synergistic effect between ethanolic extracts of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria and some antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin) against Salmonella Typhi. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action, but the sample from Bulgaria was shown to be more efficient. Both samples showed a similar synergistic effect with these antibiotics. One may conclude that the propolis samples show an important antibacterial a...

  2. 阿莫西林的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜廷旭; 王宇; 杨玲

    2010-01-01

    @@ 阿莫西林(Amoxicillin,AMO)是一种带有氨基侧链的青霉素,其化学结构在AMP的侧链苯环上多一个羟基,两者性质类似.AMO为白色或类白色结晶性粉末,味微苦,微溶于水,不溶于乙醇,比旋度为(+2900)~(+3100).

  3. Comparative analysis of the prices of essential medicines among Bulgaria and Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra; Bukilica, M; Todorov, Todor; Petrova, Guenka

    2005-01-01

    The prices of medicines differ because of many reasons as the sector that is purchasing medicines, distribution channel, patent status, trade mark and methodology of pricing. The current study aims at comparing the manufactoring, wholesale and retail prices of 30 30 INN essential medicines in Bulgaria and Macedonia as well their affordability to the population. There are presented the results for amoxicillin and glibenclamid. The collection, verification and data analysis are following the ne...

  4. Systematic review of evidence-based guidelines on medication therapy for upper respiratory tract infection in children with AGREE instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linan Zeng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To summarize recommendations of existing guidelines on the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs in children, and to assess the methodological quality of these guidelines. METHODS: We searched seven databases and web sites of relevant academic agencies. Evidence-based guidelines on pediatric URTIs were included. AGREE II was used to assess the quality of these guidelines. Two researchers selected guidelines independently and extracted information on publication years, institutions, target populations, recommendations, quality of evidence, and strength of recommendations. We compared the similarities and differences of recommendations and their strength. We also analyzed the reasons for variation. RESULTS: Thirteen guidelines meeting our inclusion criteria were included. Huge differences existed among these 13 guidelines concerning the categorization of evidence and recommendations. Nearly all of these guidelines lacked the sufficient involvement of stake holders. Further, the applicability of these guidelines still needs to be improved. In terms of recommendations, penicillin and amoxicillin were suggested for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were recommended for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS. An observation of 2-3 days prior to antibiotic therapy initiation for mild acute otitis media (AOM was recommended with amoxicillin as the suggested first choice agent. Direct evidence to support strong recommendations on the therapy for influenza is still lacking. In addition, the antimicrobial durations for pharyngitis and ABRS were still controversial. No consensus was reached for the onset of antibiotics for ABRS in children. CONCLUSIONS: Future guidelines should use a consistent grading system for the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. More effort needs to be paid to seek the preference of stake holders and to improve the applicability of guidelines

  5. In vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and six other antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, H; Tenovuo, J; Huovinen, P

    1993-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and to six commonly used, systemic antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, cefuroxime, penicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline, and erythromycin) was studied for 424 clinical isolates from 116 children and students. The MIC of chlorhexidine for all isolates was < or = 1 micrograms/ml. No resistance to the other antimicrobial agents was detected. Although widely exposed to various antimicrobial agents, S. mutans has remaine...

  6. Experience developing national evidence-based clinical guidelines for childhood pneumonia in a low-income setting - making the GRADE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agweyu Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines has gained wide acceptance in high-income countries and reputable international organizations. Whereas this approach may be a desirable standard, challenges remain in low-income settings with limited capacity and resources for evidence synthesis and guideline development. We present our experience using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach for the recent revision of the Kenyan pediatric clinical guidelines focusing on antibiotic treatment of pneumonia. Methods A team of health professionals, many with minimal prior experience conducting systematic reviews, carried out evidence synthesis for structured clinical questions. Summaries were compiled and distributed to a panel of clinicians, academicians and policy-makers to generate recommendations based on best available research evidence and locally-relevant contextual factors. Results We reviewed six eligible articles on non-severe and 13 on severe/very severe pneumonia. Moderate quality evidence suggesting similar clinical outcomes comparing amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole for non-severe pneumonia received a strong recommendation against adopting amoxicillin. The panel voted strongly against amoxicillin for severe pneumonia over benzyl penicillin despite moderate quality evidence suggesting clinical equivalence between the two and additional factors favoring amoxicillin. Very low quality evidence suggesting ceftriaxone was as effective as the standard benzyl penicillin plus gentamicin for very severe pneumonia received a strong recommendation supporting the standard treatment. Conclusions Although this exercise may have fallen short of the rigorous requirements recommended by the developers of GRADE, it was arguably an improvement on previous attempts at guideline development in low-income countries and offers valuable lessons for future similar exercises where

  7. Prescribing pattern of antibiotics in pedodontics OPD of tertiary care dental hospital in Dhule district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Balkrishna Kaikade

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Most reports on antibiotic use in dentistry show amoxicillin or other penicillin-based drugs to be the most commonly used. This trend is based on the established efficacy of penicillin based drugs on bacteria involved in odontogenic infections. Increasingly resistant strains are being reported in odontogenic infections, hence the need for constant antibiotic pharmacovigilance. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1462-1465

  8. Assessment of antibiotic prescribing in Latvian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumpis Uga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though general antibiotic consumption data is available, information on the actual patterns of prescribing antibiotics locally is difficult to obtain. An easy to use methodology was designed to assess ambulatory management of infections by Latvian general practitioners (GPs. Methods GPs were asked to record data in a patient data collection form for every patient that received antibiotics. Study period – (7 days one week in November, 2008. Data recorded included the following details: an antibiotic, the prescribed dose, dosing interval, route of administration combined with the demographic factors of the patient and clinical diagnosis based on a pre-defined list. Results Two hundred forty eight forms out of the 600 (41% were returned by post. Antibiotics were prescribed in 6.4% (1711/26803 of outpatient consultations. In total, 1763 antibiotics were prescribed during the study period. Ninety seven percent of the patients received monotherapy and only 47 (2.7% patients were prescribed two antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (33.9% of prescribed, amoxicillin/clavulanate (18,7% and clarithromycin (7.6%. The most commonly treated indications were pharyngitis (29.8%, acute bronchitis (25.3% and rhinosinusitis (10.2%. Pneumonia was mostly treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate (25,7%, amoxicillin (15.7% and clarithromycin (19.3%. Conclusions Methodology employed provided useful additional information on ambulatory practice of prescribing antibiotics and could be used in further assessment studies. Educational interventions should be focused on treatment of acute pharyngitis and bronchitis in children and unnecessary use of quinolones in adults for uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

  9. Activity of OPT-80, a Novel Macrocycle, Compared with Those of Eight Other Agents against Selected Anaerobic Species

    OpenAIRE

    Credito, Kim L.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    Agar dilution MIC was used to compare activities of OPT-80, linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 350 gram-positive and -negative anaerobes. OPT-80 was active against gram-positive strains only, especially Clostridium spp. (85 strains tested, including 21 strains of C. difficile), with MICs ranging between ≤0.016 and 0.25 μg/ml.

  10. Use of PCR and culture to detect Helicobacter pylori in naturally infected cats following triple antimicrobial therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, S E; Yan, L L; Shen, Z.; Hayward, A; Murphy, J C; Fox, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is linked to gastric cancer. Domestic cats from a commercial source were found to be naturally infected with H. pylori, and studies were undertaken to eradicate H. pylori from infected cats by using triple antimicrobial therapy. Eight cats infected with H. pylori were used in the study. Six cats received a 21-day course of oral amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazole, and two cats served as controls. Two weeks and 4 weeks posttreat...

  11. Electron spin resonance studies of some irradiated pharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibella, M.; Crucq, A-S.; Tilquin, B. E-mail: tilquin@cham.ucl.ac.bc; Stocker, P.; Lesgards, G.; Raffi, J

    2000-03-01

    Five antibiotics belonging to the cephalosporins and penicillins groups have been irradiated: anhydrous ampicilline acid, amoxicilline acid trihydrate, cefuroxime sodium salt, cloxacilline sodium salt monohydrate and ceftazidime pentahydrate. ESR studies have been carried out, showing the influence of irradiation and storage parameters on the nature and concentration of the free radicals trapped. These results may be used to detect an irradiation treatment on such pharmaceuticals. (author)

  12. Rapid Eradication of Listeria monocytogenes by Moxifloxacin in a Murine Model of Central Nervous System Listeriosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Grayo, Solène; Lott-Desroches, Marie-Catherine; Dussurget, Olivier; Respaud, Renaud; Fontanet, Arnaud; Join-Lambert, Olivier; Singlas, Eric; Le Monnier, Alban

    2008-01-01

    Listeriosis is a rare but life-threatening infection. A favorable outcome is greatly aided by early administration of antibiotics with rapid bactericidal activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Moxifloxacin, a new-generation fluoroquinolone with extended activity against gram-positive bacteria, has proved its effectiveness in vitro against intracellular reservoirs of bacteria. The efficacies of moxifloxacin and amoxicillin were compared in vivo by survival curve assays and by studying the ki...

  13. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized gold nanoparticles — Design, characterization and antimicrobial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manju, V. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Dhandapani, P. [Corrosion Materials and Protection Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, 630006 (India); Gurusamy Neelavannan, M. [Characterization and Measurement lab, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Maruthamuthu, S. [Corrosion Materials and Protection Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, 630006 (India); Berchmans, S. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Palaniappan, A., E-mail: palani112@gmail.com [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India)

    2015-04-01

    A facile one-step approach is developed to synthesize highly stable (up to 6 months) gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Clavam, pharmaceutical form of amoxicillin which contains a mixture of amoxicillin and potassium salt of clavulanic acid, at room temperature (25–30 °C). The clavam stabilized GNPs are characterized using various techniques including UV–Visible, FT-IR spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using intracellular concentrations of glutathione (GSH). The process is monitored using an UV–Vis spectroscopy and the amount of clavam released in terms of amoxicillin concentration is quantitatively estimated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) technique. In vitro study reveals that the clavam released from GNPs' surface was found to show a significant enhancement in antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the cause of enhancement is addressed. - Graphical abstract: Stable and nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared at room temperature (~ 25–30 °C) using clavam; commercial form of amoxicillin antibiotic. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated by the addition of varying concentrations of glutathione. Interactions between clavam and gold core are investigated in detail. The mechanism of enhanced antimicrobial activity of clavam released from clavam stabilized GNPs is probed. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared without reducing agent using antibiotic clavam{sup TR}. • Our work shed lights on the nature of interaction between the clavam and GNPs. • Sustained release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using glutathione. • Antimicrobial activity of the released clavam is confirmed using various techniques. • Our study suggests that the clavam released from GNPs shows better inhibition of E. coli.

  14. In vivo evaluation of tigemonam, a novel oral monobactam.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, J M; Olsen, S. J.; Weinberg, D S; Dalvi, M.; Whitney, R R; Bonner, D P; Sykes, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Tigemonam, a new monobactam with excellent activity against gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated for in vivo efficacy and absorption after oral administration to laboratory animals. Tigemonam is absorbed when administered orally to mice and dogs. In a variety of gram-negative systemic infections in mice, orally administered tigemonam was efficacious in all infections studied. Comparison drugs such as amoxicillin, cephalexin, and cefaclor were less efficacious, especially in infections caused...

  15. Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (CMY-2) gene in Salmonella typhimurium isolated from diarrheic pigs in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ki-Eun; Lim, Seong-In; Choi, Hwan-Won; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Song, Jae-Young; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Background Salmonella resistant to third-generation cephalosporin has been isolated from an increasing number of animals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine ESBL (extended-spectrum β-lactamases)-producing and PABL (plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases)-producing Salmonella isolates from pigs in South Korea. Results Salmonella Typhimurium KVCC-BA1300259 was resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, cefoxithin, genta...

  16. Variable Absorption of Clavulanic Acid After an Oral Dose of 25 mg/kg of Clavubactin® and Synulox® in Healthy Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom B. Vree

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this investigation were to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters and to identify parameters, based on individual plasma concentration-time curves of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in cats, that may govern the observed differences in absorption of both drugs. The evaluation was based on the data from plasma concentration-time curves obtained following a single-dose, open, randomised, two-way crossover phase-I study, each involving 24 female cats treated with two Amoxi-Clav formulations (formulation A was Clavubactin® and formulation was B Synulox® ; 80/20 mg, 24 animals, 48 drug administrations. Plasma amoxicillin and clavulanic acid concentrations were determined using validated bioassay methods. The half-life of elimination of amoxicillin is 1.2 h (t1/2 = 1.24 ± 0.28 h, Cmax = 12.8 ± 2.12 μg/ml, and that of clavulanic acid 0.6 h (t1/2 = 0.63 ± 0.16 h, Cmax = 4.60 ± 1.68 μg/ml. There is a ninefold variation in the AUCt of clavulanic acid for both formulations, while the AUCt of amoxicillin varies by a factor of two. The highest clavulanic acid AUCt values indicate the best absorption; all other data indicate less absorption. Taking into account that the amoxicillin–to–clavulanic acid dose ratio in the two products tested was 4:1, the blood concentration ratios may actually vary much more, apparently without compromising the products’ high efficacy against susceptible microorganisms.

  17. Effect of clavulanic acid on the activities of ten beta-lactam agents against members of the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, F; Auger, F; Lacroix, J M

    1984-01-01

    Clavulanic acid reduced the MICs of amoxicillin, carbencillin , cefamandole, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cephalothin, and penicillin G, but not of cefoxitin or moxalactam, against 77 isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group, all rapidly beta-lactamase positive by the nitrocefin slide test. It had no effect on the susceptibilities of eight Bacteroides distasonis strains that were slowly beta-lactamase positive (18 h of incubation). PMID:6732233

  18. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  19. Factors influencing antibiotic resistance burden in municipal wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Novo, Ana; Manaia, Célia M.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants are recognized reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Three municipal wastewater treatment plants differing on the dimensions and bio-treatment processes were compared for the loads of amoxicillin-, tetracycline-, and ciprofloxacinresistant heterotrophic bacteria, enterobacteria, and enterococci in the raw inflow and in the treated effluents. The sewage received by each plant, in average, corresponded to 85,000 inhabitant equ...

  20. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal colonization in nonhospitalized HIV-infected patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhawan, V K; Nachum, R; Bhat, N.; Tolbert, L; Agrawal, M

    1998-01-01

    We studied fecal colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in 89 HIV-infected nonhospitalized patients ages 24 to 62 years, including 70 (79%) men (including 41 homosexual and 5 bisexual men) and 19 (21%) women. Of the 89 patients, 61 (69%) were black, 25 (28%) Hispanic, and 3 (3%) white; 53 (60%) had history of ongoing or recent antibacterial therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (29), clarithromycin (18), amoxicillin (7), ofloxacin (3), and metronidazole, doxycycline, di...

  1. Lack of in vitro efficacy of oral forms of certain cephalosporins, erythromycin, and oxacillin against Pasteurella multocida.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Richwald, G A

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of human isolates of Pasteurella multocida to oral antimicrobial agents from our current study and from a review of the literature suggests that dicloxacillin (oxacillin), erythromycin, clindamycin, cephalexin, cefaclor, and cefadroxil should not be used for empiric therapy of animal bite wounds. Agents that were consistently active against P. multocida were penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, trimethopri...

  2. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  3. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized gold nanoparticles — Design, characterization and antimicrobial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facile one-step approach is developed to synthesize highly stable (up to 6 months) gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Clavam, pharmaceutical form of amoxicillin which contains a mixture of amoxicillin and potassium salt of clavulanic acid, at room temperature (25–30 °C). The clavam stabilized GNPs are characterized using various techniques including UV–Visible, FT-IR spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using intracellular concentrations of glutathione (GSH). The process is monitored using an UV–Vis spectroscopy and the amount of clavam released in terms of amoxicillin concentration is quantitatively estimated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) technique. In vitro study reveals that the clavam released from GNPs' surface was found to show a significant enhancement in antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the cause of enhancement is addressed. - Graphical abstract: Stable and nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared at room temperature (~ 25–30 °C) using clavam; commercial form of amoxicillin antibiotic. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated by the addition of varying concentrations of glutathione. Interactions between clavam and gold core are investigated in detail. The mechanism of enhanced antimicrobial activity of clavam released from clavam stabilized GNPs is probed. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared without reducing agent using antibiotic clavamTR. • Our work shed lights on the nature of interaction between the clavam and GNPs. • Sustained release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using glutathione. • Antimicrobial activity of the released clavam is confirmed using various techniques. • Our study suggests that the clavam released from GNPs shows better inhibition of E. coli

  4. Transformation of Sexually Transmitted Infection-Causing Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis Using Blasticidin for Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Honglei Ding; Siqi Gong; Yingxin Tian; Zhangsheng Yang; Robert Brunham; Guangming Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI)-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, ...

  5. Acute otitis media in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherpillod J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jacques CherpillodEar, Nose and Throat Department, Childrens’ University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandDate of preparation: 6th March 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: What is the best treatment for acute otitis media in children?Results: Watchful waiting, followed by amoxicillin treatment, if necessary, is the best first-line treatment for acute otitis media in children aged six months or older.Keywords: acute otitis media, antibiotics, watchful waitin

  6. Shigella flexneri-induced vaginitis in a prepubertal children: description of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Restelli; Manuela Colosimo; Anna Maraschini; Anna Grancini; Rosaria Colombo; Romualdo Grande; Maria Rosa Araldi; Erminio Torresani

    2011-01-01

    In prepuberal girls vulvo-vaginitis are caused by germs of intestinal origin,mycetes, Gardnerella vaginalis, protozoa. Shigella is an uncommon agent able to induce valvovaginitis in children. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with chronic vulvo-vaginitis caused by S. flexneri. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing revealed that S. flexnery was sensible to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, but resistant to amikacin, cefazolin, gentamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. A treatm...

  7. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    OpenAIRE

    Emilienne Verkaeren; Loïc Epelboin; Sylvie Epelboin; Nathalie Boddaert; Florence Brossier; Eric Caumes

    2014-01-01

    International audience Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was...

  8. Evaluation of the functional state of the small intestine of patients using antibiotics for treatment of out-hospital pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Y. M. Vahrushev; N. N. Shulyateva

    2015-01-01

    Processes of hydrolysis and absorbtion in small intestine were assessed with 60 of patients using amoxicillin/ clavulanate for treatment of out-hospital pneumonia. It is established that when carrying out an antibiotikoterapiya band digestion and absorption at the kept parietal digestion is broken. Further analysis of the factors presented will allow to work out practical recommendations on prevention of side effects of antibiotics usage in small intestine.

  9. Standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) eradication in a randomized, double-blinded, comparative clinical trial in China. METHODS: A total of 215 H. pylori -positive patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated into three groups: group A (n = 72) received a 10-d bismuth pectin quadruple therapy (20 mg rabeprazole bid , 1000 mg amoxicillin bid , 100 mg bismuth pectin qid , and 500 mg levofloxaci...

  10. Use of Animal Models To Support Revising Meningococcal Breakpoints of β-Lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacem, Nouria; Hong, Eva; Antunes, Ana; Terrade, Aude; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) in Neisseria meningitidis is an important part of the management of invasive meningococcal disease. It defines MICs of antibiotics that are used in treatment and/or prophylaxis and that mainly belong to the beta-lactams. The interpretation of the AST results requires breakpoints to classify the isolates into susceptible, intermediate, or resistant. The resistance to penicillin G is defined by a MIC of >0.25 mg/liter, and that of amoxicillin is defined by a MIC of >1 mg/liter. We provide data that may support revision of resistance breakpoints for beta-lactams in meningococci. We used experimental intraperitoneal infection in 8-week-old transgenic female mice expressing human transferrin and human factor H. Dynamic bioluminescence imaging was performed to follow the infection by bioluminescent meningococcus strains with different MICs. Three hours later, infected mice were treated intramuscularly using several doses of amoxicillin or penicillin G. Signal decreased during infection with a meningococcus strain showing a penicillin G MIC of 0.064 mg/liter at all doses. Signals decreased for the strain with a penicillin G MIC of 0.5 mg/liter only after treatment with the highest doses, corresponding to 250,000 units/kg of penicillin G or 200 mg/kg of amoxicillin, although this decrease was at a lower rate than that of the strain with a MIC of 0.064 mg/liter. The decrease in bioluminescent signals was associated with a decrease in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Our data suggest that a high dose of amoxicillin or penicillin G can reduce growth during infection by isolates showing penicillin G MICs of >0.25 mg/liter and ≤1 mg/liter. PMID:27090179

  11. Cost Effectiveness in Canada of a Multidrug Prepackaged Regimen (Hp-PAC(R)) Use of tradenames is for product identification only and does not imply endorsement. for Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Agro; Gordon Blackhouse; Ron Goeree; Willan, Andrew R; Jia-Qing Huang; Hunt, Richard H; Bernie J. O'Brien

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the cost effectiveness of a multidrug prepackaged regimen for Helicobacter pylori, the Hp-PAC(R) (lansoprazole 30mg, clarithromycin 500mg, amoxicillin 1g, all twice daily), relative to alternative pharmacological strategies in the management of confirmed duodenal ulcer over a 1-year period from 2 perspectives: (i) a strict healthcare payer perspective (Ontario Ministry of Health) excluding the patient copayment; and (ii) a healthcare payer perspective including the patien...

  12. Experimental study of the impact of antimicrobial treatments on Campylobacter, Enterococcus and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles of the gut microbiota of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Jouy, Eric; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Dheilly, Alexandra; Kérouanton, Annaëlle; Zeitouni, Salman; Kempf, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the impact of antimicrobial treatments on the susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, and on the diversity of broiler microbiota. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were first orally inoculated with strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus faecium. Birds were then orally treated with recommended doses of oxytetracycline, sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim, amoxicillin or enrofloxacin. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after antimicrobial treatment. The susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated on supplemented or non-supplemented media was studied and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) profiles of the gut microbiota were analysed. Enrofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter were selected in the enrofloxacin-treated group and showed the Thr86Ile mutation in the gyrA gene. Acquisition of the tetO gene in Campylobacter coli isolates was significantly more frequent in birds given oxytetracycline. No impact of amoxicillin treatment on the susceptibility of Campylobacter could be detected. Ampicillin- and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim-resistant Enterococcus faecium were selected in amoxicillin-treated broilers, but no selection of the inoculated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium could be detected, although it was also resistant to tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim. PCR-CE-SSCP revealed significant variations in a few peaks in treated birds as compared with non-treated chickens. In conclusion, antimicrobial treatments perturbed chicken gut microbiota, and certain antimicrobial treatments selected or co-selected resistant strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus.

  13. Investigation of In Vitro Drug Release from Porous Hollow Silica Nanospheres Prepared of ZnS@SiO2 Core-Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Vafayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, porous hollow silica nanoparticles using inorganic nanosized ZnS as a template were prepared. The hydrothermal method was used to synthesize pure ZnS nanospheres material. The ZnS@SiO2 core-shell nanocomposites were prepared using a simple sol-gel method successfully. The hollow silica nanostructures were achieved by selective removal of the ZnS core. The morphology, structure, and composition of the product were determined using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The results demonstrated clearly that the pure ZnS nanoparticles are in a spherical form with the average size of 40 nm and correspond with zinc blend structure. The porous hollow silica nanoparticles obtained were exploited as drug carriers to investigate in vitro release behavior of amoxicillin in simulated body fluid (SBF. UV-visible spectrometry was carried out to determine the amount of amoxicillin entrapped in the carrier. Amoxicillin release profile from porous hollow silica nanoparticles followed a three-stage pattern and indicated a delayed release effect.

  14. Sensitivitas Salmonella Sp. Penyebab Demam Tifoid Terhadap Beberapa Antibiotik di Rumah Sakit Immanuel Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Mulyana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is an enteric fever caused by Salmonella sp. especially Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Various antibiotics used for therapy beside chloramphenicol as drug of choice. Non rational use of antibiotics may result increasing of resistence in bacteria. The aim of the research is to know the sensitivity of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi to some antibiotics. The purpose is to gather information about antibiotics which are still effective for typhoid fever and enteric therapy. Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi strain from positive cultures diagnose typhoid fever patients at Immanuel Hospital Bandung during 2004-2007. The method of resistance is Kirby Bauer's disk diffusion assay with NCCLS standard. The disk antibiotics used are amoxicillin, amoxicillinclavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The result showed penicillin group, amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid had 96.3–99.68% sensitive against Salmonella sp. Sensitivity of chloramphenicol as drug of choice of typhoid fever still 99.05%. Since the sensitivity less than 100%, it means there was about 8% resistence. Thats why eventhough this data can be used as empiric therapy, the writer suggest to do sensitivity test to Salmonella sp. that caused typhoid to get rationally dan effective treatment. From the result, it's concluded that Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi are still sensitive to all that antibiotics.

  15. PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRIT IN-HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Chernikova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacoeconomical analysis of endometrit drug therapy at special treatment-and-prophylactic institutions of the city of Tomsk. Estimate the intensity of the appointment of antibacterial drugs endometrit therapy using the methodology of the WHO ATC/DDD, calculated indicators of the intensity of the consumption of drugs in the course of treatment per patient. It was shown that 70% of the established daily dose had to beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolide. For the most common options for antibiotic therapy established nosology of the indicators of clinical efficacy. The calculation of the cost of the schemes of antibiotic therapy, which showed that the cost of treatment is maximal during therapy with ceftriaxone + clarithromycin (4902 RUR; further descending follow: amoxicillin / clavulanic acid + roxithromycin (4658 RUR; benzylpenicillin and gentamicin (4231 RUR. Economic efficiency of antibacterial treatments endometritis a “cost – effectiveness”. The cost of the patient, achieved remission, made during therapy with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and roxithromycin (5416 RUR, During therapy with ceftriaxone and clarithromycin (6052 RUR, the treatment of benzylpenicillin and gentamicin (14420 RUR. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation results showed that the least acceptable scheme of antibacterial therapy of endometrit in the hospital is the combination of benzyl penicillin and gentamicin. Тhe antibiotic therapy for endometrit may be recommended by a combination of amoxicillin / clavulanic acid and roxithromycin and clarithromycin and ceftriaxone, for which there was no statistically significant differences in clinical efficacy and cost of antibiotic therapy.

  16. Enhancement of wettability and antibiotic loading/release of hydroxyapatite thin film modified by 100 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elayaraja, K. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Rajesh, P. [Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India); Ahymah Joshy, M.I.; Sarath Chandra, V.; Suganthi, R.V. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Kennedy, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Kulriya, P.K.; Sulania, I.; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Avasthi, D.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Varma, H.K. [Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India); Narayana Kalkura, S., E-mail: kalkurasn@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction in particle size on irradiation leading to nanosized HAp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of surface roughness and bioactivity on irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation at lower fluence transforms the surface hydrophobic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface turned hydrophilic at higher fluence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved drug (amoxicillin) loading on irradiated samples. - Abstract: The effect of swift heavy 100 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ions irradiation was studied on hydroxyapatite (HAp) thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD). The GIXRD analysis confirmed the absence of any phase in the HAp phase due to irradiation. In addition, there was a considerable decrease in crystallinity and crystallite size on irradiation. There was no significant variation in the stoichiometry of the irradiated films. Irradiation seemed to decrease the optical band gap energy of HAp thin films. The surface roughness, wettability and bioactivity were improved on irradiation of the samples. Amount of amoxicillin loading/release increased (10%) in ion beam irradiated (1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup -2}) sample. Irradiated sample showed fast rate of amoxicillin (AMX) release than the pristine. Bactericidal effect was found to increase on irradiation. Surface modified and antibiotics incorporated HAp coated titanium implants may be used to prevent post-surgical infections and to promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

  17. [Acute toxicity of antibiotics and anaerobic digestion intermediates in pharmaceutical wastewaters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jun-Yuan; Xing, Ya-Juan; Zheng, Ping

    2012-12-01

    In order to determine the toxicity of antibiotics and anaerobic digestion intermediates on anaerobic treatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters containing antibiotics, the single and joint toxicities of some antibiotics and intermediates to Photobacterium phosphoreum were tested by using the 15-min half inhibitory concentration (15 min-IC50) at pH = 7.00 +/- 0.05. The results showed that the 15 min-IC50 of ethanol, acetate, propionate and butyrate were 19.40, 20.71, 10.47 and 12.17 g x L(-1), respectively, which indicated that the toxicity descended in the order of propionate, butyrate, ethanol and acetate. The 15 min-IC50 of Amoxicillin, Kanamycin, Lincomycin and Ciprofloxacin were 3.99, 5.11, 4.32 and 5.63 g x L(-1), respectively, so the toxicity descended in the order of Amoxicillin, Lincomycin, Kanamycin and Ciprofloxacin. Using equal effect mixing method, the joint toxicity of four anaerobic digestion intermediates, the four intermediates together with Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin, Kanamycin, Lincomycin individually and all together were investigated, which demonstrated that the first three interactions were additive and the last three were synergistic. The observations have laid a foundation for control and optimization of anaerobic biotechnology for pharmaceutical wastewater containing antibiotics. PMID:23379166

  18. Monitoring the Use of Antibiotics by the ATC/DDD Method and DU 90%: Observational Studies in Community Health Service Centers in North Gorontalo District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarini Pani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrational use of antibiotics may lead to increase morbidity and mortality. Monitoring of antibiotics was required to support government programs, especially The Department of Health stating the use of antibiotics for non-respiratory diseases pneumonia was less than 20%. The evaluation of antibiotics use in this research applied ATC / DDD methods and DU 90%. The antibiotic used for non-pneumonia ARI were 9 types and the antibiotics contained DU 90% were three types namely amoxicillin 500 mg (2,723 DDD/1000 patients-year, ciprofloxacin (0,378 DDD/1000 patients-day and cefadroxil (0,202 DDD/1000 patients-day. Quantitative data analysis using the ATC / DDD indicated that the most used antibiotic was amoxicillin (500 mg 2723 DDD / 1000 patients-day and the least was amoxicillin (125 mg / 5 ml 1.5 DDD / 1000 patients-day. The effects of short-term use of antibiotic prescribing in primary medical care could increase the resistance. Qualitative studies were needed to determine the pattern of irrational antibiotic use in community health service center and to develop the intervention model.

  19. [Activity of cefpodoxime and other oral beta-lactams against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to penicillin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Robledo, O; Lerma, M; Giménez, M J; Cebrián, L; Casal, J; Aguilar, L; Gómez-Lus, M L

    2006-03-01

    This study explores the influence on the intrinsic activity of different oral beta-lactams of beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus influenzae and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three substudies were performed: a) a general susceptibility study, analyzing 550 strains received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout February and March 2005; b) a study on the influence of penicillin resistance on the activity of beta-lactams, analyzing 251 penicillin-susceptible strains (MICor=2 mg/l) randomly chosen among those received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout 2005; and c) an H. influenzae susceptibility study analyzing 150 strains received by Instituto Valenciano de Microbiologia throughout 2005. A total of 71% of S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to penicillin, 21% exhibited intermediate resistance and 8% strains presented full resistance. H. influenzae beta-lactamase production rate was 18.6%. Of the non-beta-lactamase-producing strains, 3% were not susceptible to ampicillin. Cefpodoxime and cefixime exhibited the highest intrinsic activity against H. influenzae, while amoxicillin and cefpodoxime were the most active compounds against S. pneumoniae. All H. influenzae strains were susceptible to oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The increase in penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae influenced cefixime, cefaclor and cefuroxime to a higher degree than amoxicillin and cefpodoxime.

  20. Occurrence of multidrug resistance to oral antibiotics among Escherichia coli urine isolates from outpatient departments in Germany: extended-spectrum β-lactamases and the role of fosfomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresken, Michael; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Hafner, Dieter; Wresch, Rebecca; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    The in vitro activities of fosfomycin and seven other antibiotics commonly used for oral treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) were evaluated for 499 Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples during a nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study in 2010. Overall, the highest resistance rates were found for amoxicillin (42.9%), followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (32.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (30.9%), ciprofloxacin (19.8%), cefuroxime (10.0%), cefpodoxime (8.6%) and cefixime (8.2%). One-half of the isolates (n=252; 50.5%) were fully susceptible to the eight drugs, whilst only 6 strains (1.2%) were resistant to fosfomycin. Combined resistance to amoxicillin, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and SXT was detected in 29 isolates (5.8%). Moreover, 40 isolates (8.0%) produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), including CTX-M-type ESBLs detected in 39/40 isolates (97.5%) and a TEM-52 ESBL in 1 strain (2.5%). The predominant CTX-M-type ESBL was CTX-M-15 (27/39; 69.2%). Of the 27 CTX-M-15 producers, 19 (70.4%) belonged to the clonal lineage E. coli O25b-ST131. All but one ESBL-producing strains were fosfomycin-susceptible. In view of the emergence of multidrug resistance to standard oral antibiotics, these data support that oral fosfomycin (trometamol salt) may represent a valuable option in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinical Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats in the United States: January 2008 through January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thungrat, Kamoltip; Price, Stuart B; Carpenter, D Mark; Boothe, Dawn Merton

    2015-09-30

    Escherichia coli is among the most common bacterial pathogens in dogs and cats. The lack of a national monitoring program limits evidence-based empirical antimicrobial choices in the United States. This study describes antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for presumed clinical E. coli isolates from dogs (n=2392) or cats (n=780) collected from six geographic regions in the United States between May 2008 and January 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for 17 drugs representing 6 drug classes. Urinary tract isolates were most common (71%). Population MIC distributions were generally bimodal with the second mode above the resistant breakpoint for all drugs except gentamicin, amikacin, and meropenem. The MIC90 exceeded the susceptible breakpoint for ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin (surrogate drug for cephalexin), and doxycycline but was below the susceptible breakpoint for all others. None of isolates was susceptible or resistant to all drug tested; 46% were resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobial categories, and 52% to more than three categories. The resistance percentages were as follows: doxycycline (100%), cephalothin (98%)>ampicillin (48%)>amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (40%)>ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (18%)>cefpodoxime (13%), cefotaxime (12%), cefoxitin (11%), cefazolin (11%), enrofloxacin (10%), chloramphenicol (9.6%)>ciprofloxacin (9.2%), ceftazidime (8.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.9%), gentamicin (7.9%)>meropenem (1.5%), amikacin (0.7%) (Pcephalexin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Based on susceptibility patterns, trimethoprim-sulfonamides may be the preferred empirical oral treatment. PMID:26165272

  2. Genipin-cross-linked fucose-chitosan/heparin nanoparticles for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lee, Che-Hsin; He, Zih Sian; Tseng, Guan-Chin

    2013-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that recognizes specific carbohydrate receptors, such as the fucose receptor, and produces the vacuolating cytotoxin, which induces inflammatory responses and modulates the cell-cell junction integrity of the gastric epithelium. The clinical applicability of topical antimicrobial agents was needed to complete the eradication of H. pylori in the infected fundal area. In the present study, we combined fucose-conjugated chitosan and genipin-cross-linking technologies in preparing multifunctional genipin-cross-linked fucose-chitosan/heparin nanoparticles to encapsulate amoxicillin of targeting and directly make contact with the region of microorganism on the gastric epithelium. The results show that the nanoparticles effectively reduced drug release at gastric acids and then released amoxicillin in an H. pylori survival situation to inhibit H. pylori growth and reduce disruption of the cell-cell junction protein in areas of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, with amoxicillin-loaded nanoparticles, a more complete H. pylori clearance effect was observed, and H. pylori-associated gastric inflammation in an infected animal model was effectively reduced.

  3. BACTERIAL SPECTRUM AND PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY AMONG OUTPATIENTS WITH PNEUMONIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To outline the spectrum of bacteria causing pneumonia and the pattern of antimicrobial sensitivity in outpatients with pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in Himachal Pradesh. METHODS: Sputum of 108 immuno competent pneumonia patients attending outpatient departments of Medicine and Pulmonary medicine of Dr. R. P. Government Medical College , Kangra at Tanda was sent for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity testing. RESULTS: Commensals were detected in most of the cases (32 , 29.6% followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 17(15.7% and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 16(14.8%. This was followed by three Gram negative organisms namely E Coli (11 , 10.2% , Pseudomonas (10 , 9.2% and Klebsiella (8 , 7.2%. No growth was obtained in 7(6.5% and other organisms were isolated in 7(6.5% specimens. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to vancomycin , clindamycin , cefoxitin , azithromycin and cotrimoxazole. Streptococcus pneumoniae was found to be sensitive to vancomycin , clindamycin , gentamicin , azithromycin , penicillin , cotrimoxazole , amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. Klebsiella was found to be sensitive to imipenem , azithromycin , ciprofloxacin , gentamicin and amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. E coli was sensitive to imipenem , gentamicin and amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be sensitive to gentamicin , cefta zidime , imipenem , ticarcillin and piperacillin. CONCLUSION: Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the commonest organism causing pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae is resistant to many antibiotics. Azithromycin can be the first line therapy for pneumonia.

  4. Acute otitis media: a simple diagnosis, a simple treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, S S

    2014-09-01

    To assess the symptoms and signs of acute otitis media and efficiency of simple antibiotics like amoxicillin in its treatment in the primary health care setup. This is a prospective longitudinal study including 204 patients from different institutions. Patients were diagnosed as suffering from acute otitis media when presented with earache, fever, fullness and or otorrhea. Patients were divided into two equal groups on basis of the treatment they received, Group A received only symptomatic treatment while Group B were given Amoxicillin (40 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Acute otitis media was common in children under 15 years (64.7%). Patients presented with earache (100%), aural fullness (90.68%), fever (76.47%) associated with recent onset of upper respiratory tract infections (88.23%). In group A, improvement was noticed in 28.43% in 3 days while 35.29% in 7 days. In group B, improvement was noticed in 48.03% in day 3 while 86.27% in day 7. In countries where medical care is scarce, patients lost to follow up, it is wise to treat with simple antibiotics like amoxicillin in adequate dose than to treat only symptomatically. It prevents chronicity, early hearing impairments and reduces antibiotic resistance.

  5. Clinical implications of antibiotic resistance for management of acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J O

    1998-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance to available antimicrobial agents has been constant since the introduction of the sulfonamides in the 1930s. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae are a concern now because of the importance of these pathogens in infections of the respiratory tract in infants and children. Amoxicillin remains the drug of choice for initial episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) although increase of the dosage schedule to 80 mg/kg/day has been recommended by some investigators. There are 15 additional antimicrobial agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the indication of AOM. All approved drugs are clinically effective but some have been suggested to have priority for patients who fail amoxicillin: amoxicillin-clavulanate; an oral cephalosporin such as cefuroxime axetil; and intramuscular ceftriaxone. Management of the child with severe and recurrent disease should include antibiotic prophylaxis but the increased incidence of resistance requires selective use. Prevention of infection may be achieved by innovative techniques for interference with attachment of bacteria to the nasal mucosa such as administration of oligosaccharides in a nasal spray. The currently available polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines have limited immunogenicity in infants, but the vaccine is useful in children 2 years of age and older who still have recurrent AOM. Children with frequent AOM during the prior respiratory season are candidates also for influenza virus vaccine. If medical management fails to prevent new episodes of AOM in children with severe and recurrent disease, placement of tympanostomy tubes and possible adenoidectomy should be considered.

  6. Comparison of Ciprofloxacin-Based Triple Therapy with Conventional Triple Regimen for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Tayebeh; Najafi, Mehri; Fallahi, Gholamhosein; Khodadad, Ahmad; Motamed, Farzaneh; Mahdi Marashi, Sayed; Shoaran, Maryam; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Raheleh

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a prevalent disease among Iranian children. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ciprofloxacin and furazolidone on eradicating helicobacter pylori in Iranian children in combination with amoxicillin and omeprazole. In this cohort study, helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by gastroscopy, rapid urease test or pathologic assessments. A total of 66 children were randomly enrolled; based on the random number table, and were divided into two groups; first, a combination regimen consisting of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and omeprazole; second, a three-medication regimen consisting of amoxicillin, furazolidone, and omeprazole. The effect of both medical regimens on the successful eradication of helicobacter pylori infection was assessed and compared. Chi-square test was used for evaluating the association between quantitative variables. All comparisons were made at the significance of Peradication of the helicobacter pylori infection was reported 87.9% (29/33) in the first group (CAO) and 60.6% (20.33) in the second group (FAO) (P=0.011). It appears that a major advantage of our proposed regimen over others is a lack of wide use of fluoroquinolones for treating children's diseases. Given FDA's recommendation about the possibility of prescribing ciprofloxacin for infected patients with multidrug resistance, we can use the regimen proposed in this study in patients with resistance to standard treatments. PMID:27306347

  7. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

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    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  8. Efficacy of a therapeutic strategy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Giuliana Sereni; Francesco Azzolini; Lorenzo Camellini; Debora Formisano; Francesco Decembrino; Veronica Iori; Cristiana Tioli

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the efficacy of our therapeutic strategy for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) eradication and to identify predictive factors for successful eradication.METHODS:From April 2006 to June 2010,we retrospectively assessed 2428 consecutive patients (1025 men,1403 women; mean age 55 years,age range 18-92 years) with gastric histology positive for H.pylori infection referred to our unit for 13-C urea breath test (UBT),after first-line therapy with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) b.i.d.+ amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d.+ clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.for 7 d.Patients who were still positive to UBT were recommended a second-line therapy (PPI b.i.d.+amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d.+ tinidazole 500 mg b.i.d.for 14 d).Third choice treatment was empirical with PPI b.i.d.+amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d.+ levofloxacin 250 mg b.i.d.for 14 d.RESULTS:Out of 614 patients,still H.pylori-positive after first-line therapy,only 326 and 19 patients respectively rechecked their H.pylori status by UBT after the suggested second and third-line regimens."Per protocol" eradication rates for first,second and thirdline therapy were 74.7% (95% CI:72.7%-76.4%),85.3% (95% CI:81.1%-89.1%) and 89.5% (95% CI:74.9%-103%) respectively.The overall percentage of patients with H.pylori eradicated after two treatments was 97.8% (95% CI:97.1%-98.4%),vs 99.9% (95%CI:99.8%-100%) after three treatments.The study found that eradication therapy was most effective in patients with ulcer disease (P < 0.05,P =0.028),especially in those with duodenal ulcer.Smoking habits did not significantly affect the eradication rate.CONCLUSION:First-line therapy with amoxicillin and clarithromycin produces an H.pylori eradication rate comparable or superior to other studies and secondline treatment can still be triple therapy with amoxicillin and tinidazole.

  9. Triple, standard quadruple and ampicillin-sulbactam-based quadruple therapies for H pylori eradication: A comparative three-armed randomized clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Amir Mirbagheri; Mehrdad Hasibi; Mehdi Abouzari; Armin Rashidi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of triple, standard quadruple and ampicillin-sulbactam-based quadruple therapies for H pylori eradication in a comparative threearmed randomized clinical trial. METHODS: A total of 360 H pylori-positive patients suffering from dyspepsia and aging 24-79 years with a median age of 42 years were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated into the following three groups: group A (n = 120) received a standard 1-wk triple therapy (20mg omeprazole b.I.d., 1000 mg amoxicillin b.I.d., 500 mg clarithromycin b.I.d.); group B (n = 120) received a 10-d standard quadruple therapy (20 mg omeprazole b.I.d., 1000 mg amoxicillin b.I.d., 240 mg colloidal bismuth subcitrate b.I.d., and 500 mg metronidazole b.I.d.); group C (n = 120) received the new protocol, I.e. 375 mg sultamicillin (225 mg ampicillin plus 150 mg sulbactam) b.I.d. (before breakfast and dinner), instead of amoxicillin in the standard quadruple therapy for the same duration. Chi-square test with the consideration of P < 0.05 as significant was used to compare the eradication rates by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses in the three groups. RESULTS: The per-protocol eradication rate was 91.81% (101 patients from a total of 110) in group A, 85.84% (97patients from a total of 113) in group B, and 92.85% (104 patients from a total of 112) in group C. The intentionto-treat eradication rate was 84.17% in group A, 80.83% in group B, and 86.67% in group C. The new protocol yielded the highest eradication rates by both per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses followed by the standard triple and quadruple regimens, respectively. However, the differences were not statistically significant between the three groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide further support for the equivalence of triple and quadruple therapies in terms of effectiveness, compliance and sideeffect profile when administered as first-line treatmentfor Hpylori infection. Moreover, the new protocol

  10. Antibiotics for bronchiectasis exacerbations in children: rationale and study protocol for a randomised placebo-controlled trial

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    Chang Anne B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite bronchiectasis being increasingly recognised as an important cause of chronic respiratory morbidity in both indigenous and non-indigenous settings globally, high quality evidence to inform management is scarce. It is assumed that antibiotics are efficacious for all bronchiectasis exacerbations, but not all practitioners agree. Inadequately treated exacerbations may risk lung function deterioration. Our study tests the hypothesis that both oral azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid are superior to placebo at improving resolution rates of respiratory exacerbations by day 14 in children with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. Methods We are conducting a bronchiectasis exacerbation study (BEST, which is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial, in five centres (Brisbane, Perth, Darwin, Melbourne, Auckland. In the component of BEST presented here, 189 children fulfilling inclusion criteria are randomised (allocation-concealed to receive amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (22.5 mg/kg twice daily with placebo-azithromycin; azithromycin (5 mg/kg daily with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; or placebo-azithromycin with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for 14 days. Clinical data and a paediatric cough-specific quality of life score are obtained at baseline, at the start and resolution of exacerbations, and at day 14. In most children, blood and deep nasal swabs are also collected at the same time points. The primary outcome is the proportion of children whose exacerbations have resolved at day 14. The main secondary outcome is the paediatric cough-specific quality of life score. Other outcomes are time to next exacerbation; requirement for hospitalisation; duration of exacerbation; and spirometry data. Descriptive viral and bacteriological data from nasal samples and blood markers will also be reported. Discussion Effective, evidence-based management

  11. Antibiotic treatment of exacerbations of COPD in general practice: long-term impact on healthrelated quality of life

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    Marc Miravitlles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marc Miravitlles1, Carles Llor2, Jesús Molina3, Karlos Naberan4, Josep M Cots5, Fernando Ros6 on behalf of the EVOCA Study Group1Fundació Clínic. Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 2Primary Health Care Center ‘Jaume I’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 3Primary Health Care Center ‘Francia’, Grupo de Respiratorio de la Sociedad Madrileña de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Madrid, Spain; 4Primary Health Care Center ‘Fuentes de Ebro’, Grupo de Investigación del Instituto Aragonés Ciencias de la Salud (IACS, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Primary Health Care Center ‘La Marina’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona, Spain; 6Medical Department, Bayer Healthcare, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To investigate the impact of exacerbations in health-related quality of life (HRQL of patients with COPD and to compare the effect of treatment of COPD exacerbations with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 5 days and amoxicillin/clavulanate (500/125 mg 3 times a day for 10 days on HRQL.Methods: 229 outpatients with stable COPD (mean age 68.2 years; mean FEV1 % predicted 49.3% participated in a prospective, observational study of 2 years’ duration. The St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ was completed at baseline and every 6 months thereafter.Results: COPD exacerbations (mean 2.7 episodes/patient occurred in 136 patients (124 patients received the study medications [amoxicillin/clavulanate 54, moxifloxacin 70]. Differences between baseline and the final visit were higher for moxifloxacin compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate for total SGRQ score (-2.60 [13.1] vs 4.21 [16.2], P = 0.05 and “Symptoms” subscale (-5.64 [16.7] vs 8.27 [21], P = 0.02. The same findings were observed in patients with two or more

  12. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of commonly prescribed oral antibiotics against respiratory bacterial pathogens

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    Pignatari Antonio CC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs account for a substantial portion of outpatient antibiotic utilization. However, the pharmacodynamic activity of commonly used oral antibiotic regimens has not been studied against clinically relevant pathogens. The objective of this study was to assess the probability of achieving the requisite pharmacodynamic exposure for oral antibacterial regimens commonly prescribed for RTIs in adults against bacterial isolates frequently involved in these processes (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catharralis. Methods Using a 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulation, the cumulative fractions of response (CFR, (i.e., probabilities of achieving requisite pharmacodynamic targets for the most commonly prescribed oral antibiotic regimens, as determined by a structured survey of medical prescription patterns, were assessed against local respiratory bacterial isolates from adults in São Paulo collected during the same time period. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 230 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (103, Haemophilus influenzae (98, and Moraxella catharralis (29 from a previous local surveillance were used. Results The most commonly prescribed antibiotic regimens were azithromycin 500 mg QD, amoxicillin 500 mg TID, and levofloxacin 500 mg QD, accounting for 58% of the prescriptions. Varied doses of these agents, plus gatifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, moxifloxacin, and cefaclor made up the remaining regimens. Utilizing aggressive pharmacodynamic exposure targets, the only regimens to achieve greater than 90% CFR against all three pathogens were amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanate 500 mg TID (> 91%, gatifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%, and moxifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%. Considering S. pneumoniae isolates alone, azithromycin 1000 mg QD also achieved greater than 90% CFR (91.3%. Conclusions The only regimens to achieve high CFR against all three pathogen populations in both scenarios

  13. Combinations of β-lactam or aminoglycoside antibiotics with plectasin are synergistic against methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanmin; Liu, Alexander; Vaudrey, James; Vaiciunaite, Brigita; Moigboi, Christiana; McTavish, Sharla M; Kearns, Angela; Coates, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections remain the leading killer worldwide which is worsened by the continuous emergence of antibiotic resistance. In particular, methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are prevalent and the latter can be difficult to treat. The traditional strategy of novel therapeutic drug development inevitably leads to emergence of resistant strains, rendering the new drugs ineffective. Therefore, rejuvenating the therapeutic potentials of existing antibiotics offers an attractive novel strategy. Plectasin, a defensin antimicrobial peptide, potentiates the activities of other antibiotics such as β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides against MSSA and MRSA. We performed in vitro and in vivo investigations to test against genetically diverse clinical isolates of MSSA (n = 101) and MRSA (n = 115). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by the broth microdilution method. The effects of combining plectasin with β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides were examined using the chequerboard method and time kill curves. A murine neutropenic thigh model and a murine peritoneal infection model were used to test the effect of combination in vivo. Determined by factional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), plectasin in combination with aminoglycosides (gentamicin, neomycin or amikacin) displayed synergistic effects in 76-78% of MSSA and MRSA. A similar synergistic response was observed when plectasin was combined with β-lactams (penicillin, amoxicillin or flucloxacillin) in 87-89% of MSSA and MRSA. Interestingly, no such interaction was observed when plectasin was paired with vancomycin. Time kill analysis also demonstrated significant synergistic activities when plectasin was combined with amoxicillin, gentamicin or neomycin. In the murine models, plectasin at doses as low as 8 mg/kg augmented the activities of amoxicillin and gentamicin in successful treatment of MSSA and MRSA infections. We

  14. Combinations of β-lactam or aminoglycoside antibiotics with plectasin are synergistic against methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Yanmin Hu

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections remain the leading killer worldwide which is worsened by the continuous emergence of antibiotic resistance. In particular, methicillin-sensitive (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are prevalent and the latter can be difficult to treat. The traditional strategy of novel therapeutic drug development inevitably leads to emergence of resistant strains, rendering the new drugs ineffective. Therefore, rejuvenating the therapeutic potentials of existing antibiotics offers an attractive novel strategy. Plectasin, a defensin antimicrobial peptide, potentiates the activities of other antibiotics such as β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides against MSSA and MRSA. We performed in vitro and in vivo investigations to test against genetically diverse clinical isolates of MSSA (n = 101 and MRSA (n = 115. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by the broth microdilution method. The effects of combining plectasin with β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides were examined using the chequerboard method and time kill curves. A murine neutropenic thigh model and a murine peritoneal infection model were used to test the effect of combination in vivo. Determined by factional inhibitory concentration index (FICI, plectasin in combination with aminoglycosides (gentamicin, neomycin or amikacin displayed synergistic effects in 76-78% of MSSA and MRSA. A similar synergistic response was observed when plectasin was combined with β-lactams (penicillin, amoxicillin or flucloxacillin in 87-89% of MSSA and MRSA. Interestingly, no such interaction was observed when plectasin was paired with vancomycin. Time kill analysis also demonstrated significant synergistic activities when plectasin was combined with amoxicillin, gentamicin or neomycin. In the murine models, plectasin at doses as low as 8 mg/kg augmented the activities of amoxicillin and gentamicin in successful treatment of MSSA and MRSA

  15. Bases farmacomicrobiológicas del tratamiento antibiótico de las enfermedades periodontales y periimplatarias Farmacobiological concepts in the antibiotic treatment of the periodontal diseases

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    J. Liñares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad periodontal debe considerarse un proceso infeccioso bacteriano crónico. En su etiología, no hay una única especie bacteriana implicada, sino que podríamos considerarla como una infección polimicrobiana en la que estarían implicados diversos microorganismos. Las bacterias que se han asociado más directamente con la enfermedad periodontal son Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus y Treponema denticola. Los parámetros farmacodinámicos de los antibióticos son muy útiles a la hora de seleccionar pautas posológicas. El aumento de resistencias producido en muchos periodontopatógenos en los últimos años ha relegado a algunos antibióticos a un segundo plano. Entre la gran variedad de antibióticos utilizados, se han obtenido buenas respuestas terapéuticas con amoxicilina/ácido clavulánico, metronidazol, clindamicina, doxiciclina y las combinaciones de metronidazol más amoxicilina y metronidazol más amoxicili-na/ácido clavulánico.Periodontal disease must be considered a chronic bacterial infection. It does not appear to one single bacterial species that is uniquely involved. Rather, periodontal disease seems to be a polymicrobial infection involving several organisms. The bacteria most often associated with periodontal disease are Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus y Treponema denticola. Pharmacodynamics parameters are very useful to select dosing regimens. The increase in prevalence of resistance occurred in some periodontopathogens in the last years has pushed some antibiotics into the background. Positive responses have been reported with amoxicillin/clavulanate, metronidazole, clindamycin, doxycycline and the combination therapy metronidazole plus amoxicillin and metronidazole plus amoxicillin/clavulanate.

  16. 不同种类抗生素对厌氧发酵抑制作用的研究%Effect of Different Antibiotics on Anaerobic Digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建平; 郑平; 胡宝兰; 黄武

    2009-01-01

    本试验以养猪场最常用的两种抗生素,阿莫西林和金霉素作为抑制剂.通过Monod方程进行回归,分别就抑制剂对厌氧消化的抑制类型和抑制程度进行了分析和研究.试验结果表明,阿莫西林的存在使厌氧发酵的最大反应速率和半速率常数分别降低了70%和65%,属于反竞争抑制类型:金霉素的存在没有降低最大反应速率,却使半速率常数增加了63%,属于竞争性抑制类型.%Amoxicillin and Aureomycin are the most common antibiotics used for the prevention and treatment of pig diseases. The inhibition style and inhibition level of these two antibiotics to anaerobic digestion were investigated by Monod equation regression. The results reported that the presence of amoxicillin reduced the maximum specific methane production rate and half rate constant by 70% and 65% respectively;the presence of Aureomycin didn't affect the maximum specific methane production rate but increased the half rate constant by 63%. The effect of amoxicillin on anaerobic digestion was belonged to uneompetitive inhibition and the effect of aureomycin to competitive inhibition.

  17. Incidence and impact on clinical outcome of infections with piperacillin/tazobactam resistant Escherichia coli in ICU: A retrospective study

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    Mounier Roman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli infections are frequent in ICU patients. The increased resistance to fluoroquinolones and amoxicillin/clavulanate of this pathogen mandates the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP-TAZ or third generation cephalosporins (3GC. Methods To assess incidence and impact on clinical outcome of infections with PIP-TAZ resistant E. coli in ICU patients, we conducted a retrospective cohort study with infections due to PIP-TAZ resistant (PIP-TAZ R or to PIP-TAZ susceptible strains (PIP-TAZ S between 1 January 2002 and 30 June 2004. Results Of 83 strains, 13 were PIP-TAZ R: 2 strains produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (2%, 11 produced a high level penicillinase (13%. Prior amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate prescription was reported in 7 cases (54% of infections with PIP-TAZ R isolates and in 15 cases (21% of infections with PIP-TAZ S isolates (p = 0.03. Time of onset of the infection from hospital admission was longer in case of infections with PIP-TAZ R than with PIP-TAZ S isolates (22 ± 32 vs 10 ± 21 days, p = 0.01. The overall ICU mortality rate was 38%. Mortality and length of stay in ICU were similar in case of infections with PIP-TAZ R isolates and with PIP-TAZ S isolates. Conclusion Infections with PIP-TAZ R E. coli are frequent in ICU patients. No prognostic impact of this pattern of resistance was found. Prescription of PIP-TAZ for empirical treatment of E. coli infections in ICU however exposes to inappropriate therapy.

  18. Fluoride toxicity and new-onset diabetes in Finland: a hypothesis

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    M. Kemal Irmak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D has increased substantially in Finland, but the exact trigger for the onset of T1D is still unknown. We know that use of amoxicillin and anti-cariogenic fluoride tablets is a common practice for children in Finland. It seems that beta-cell destruction is initiated by modification of the proinsulin by combined effects of fluoride (F2 and amoxicillin. Amoxicillin especially when used together with clavulanic acid results in an acid environment around the beta-cells that promotes the conversion of F2 to hydrogen fluoride (HF. Unlike F2, HF can diffuse easily into the beta-cell cytosol. Because the cytosol has a neutral pH, virtually all HF reverts to F2 in the cytosol and F2 cannot easily diffuse out of the cell. Exposure to excess F2 promotes proinsulin covalent dimerization and simultaneously hyperexpression of MHC Class I molecules. Proinsulin dimers then migrate to the cell membrane with MHC class I molecules, accumulate at the beta-cell membrane and produces a powerful immunogenic stimulus for the cytotoxic T-cells. Production of cytotoxic cytokines from the infiltrating T-cells initiates the destruction of beta-cells. In Finnish children, this might be helped along by a higher beta-cell activity and by a reactive thymus-dependent immune system induced by higher levels of thyroid hormones and calcitonin respectively. After repeated similar attacks, more and more effector T-cells are raised and more and more beta-cells are destroyed, and clinical diabetes occurs. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(1.000: 3-8

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans JP2 in a biofilm

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    Orit Oettinger-Barak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP is an inflammatory disease associated with specific bacteria, particularly Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, which can result in early tooth loss. The bacteria grow as a biofilm known as subgingival plaque. Treatment includes mechanical debridement of the biofilm, often associated with empirical antibiotic treatment. Objective: The aims of this study were to test in vitro the sensitivity of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 during planktonic and biofilm growth to doxycycline and to the combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin, which are two antibiotic protocols commonly used in clinical practice. Design: Two in vitro biofilm models were used to test the effects of the antibiotics: a static 96-well plate assay was used to investigate the effect of these antibiotics on biofilm formation whilst a flow chamber model was used to examine the effect on established biofilms. Results: Of the antibiotics tested in this model system, doxycycline was most efficacious with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC against planktonic cells of 0.21 mg/L and minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC of 2.10 mg/L. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic regimen, amoxicillin + metronidazole, was much less effective against both planktonic and biofilm cells with an MIC and MBIC of 12.0 mg/L and 20.2 mg/L, respectively. A single treatment of the clinically achievable concentration of 10 mg/L doxycycline to sparse A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilms in the flow chamber model resulted in significant decreases in biofilm thickness, biovolume, and cell viability. Dense A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilms were significantly more resistant to doxycycline treatment. Low concentrations of antibiotics enhanced biofilm formation. Conclusion: A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 homotypic biofilms were more susceptible in vitro to doxycycline than amoxicillin + metronidazole.

  20. Prospective trial in Saudi Arabia comparing the 14-day standard triple therapy with the 10-day sequential therapy for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Fahad Alsohaibani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Treatment success for Helicobacter pylori infection in Saudi Arabia is relatively unexplored. This prospective study compared the efficacy of sequential versus standard triple therapy in curing H. pylori infections. Patients and Methods: Eligible patients underwent upper endoscopy at a single center in Saudi Arabia from October 2011 to February 2014. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to sequential therapy or standard triple therapy. Sequential treatment: Esomeprazole (20 mg bid for 10 days, amoxicillin (1000 mg for 5 days, then clarithromycin 500 mg and tinidazole 500 mg; both bid for 5 days. Standard triple treatment: Esomeprazole 20 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and amoxicillin 1000 mg each bid for 14 days. After 6 weeks of treatment, patients were tested for cure using a validated urea breath test. Application of the E-test determined susceptibility of H. pylori to different antibiotics. Results: Of the 115 patients who received sequential therapy, 93 completed treatment. In the triple-therapy arm, 103 of 117 patients completed treatment. The eradication rate was 58/93 (62.3% with sequential therapy and 69/102 (67.6% with standard triple therapy, P = 0.44. Risk ratio was 0.92 (95% CI; 0.75–1.13, and number needed to treat was 19. Overall primary resistance: Metronidazole (48.5%, clarithromycin (23.3%, amoxicillin (14.8%, levofloxacin (11.1%, and tetracycline (2.3%. Mild adverse events occurred in 35 and 17 patients in the sequential and standard therapy groups, respectively. Conclusion: Sequential and standard triple therapies were similarly effective at eradicating H. pylori in two-thirds of Saudi patients. Metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance to H. pylori strains was common.

  1. Antibiotic-responsive histiocytic ulcerative colitis in 9 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostutler, Roger A; Luria, Brian J; Johnson, Susan E; Weisbrode, Steven E; Sherding, Robert G; Jaeger, Jordan Q; Guilford, W Grant

    2004-01-01

    Canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis (HUC) is characterized by colonic inflammation with predominantly periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive macrophages. The inflammation results in colonic thickening, ulcerations, and distortion of normal glandular architecture. Resultant clinical signs consist of chronic large bowel diarrhea, tenesmus, and marked weight loss, and the disease frequently results in euthanasia. Conventional therapy consists of some combination of prednisone, azathioprine, sulfasalazine, and metronidazole. Nine dogs (8 Boxers and 1 English Bulldog) with histologic confirmation of HUC were treated with antibiotic therapy (either with enrofloxacin alone or in combination with metronidazole and amoxicillin). Clinical signs, physical examination findings, laboratory abnormalities, and the histologic severity of the disease were evaluated. Four of the 9 dogs had been treated previously with conventional therapy and had failed to respond favorably; then, these dogs were placed on antibiotic therapy (enrofloxacin, n = 1; enrofloxacin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin, n = 3) and had resolution of clinical signs within 3-12 days. Five dogs were treated solely with antibiotic therapy (enrofloxacin, n = 1; enrofloxacin and metronidazole, n = 1; enrofloxacin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin, n = 3), and clinical signs resolved in 2-7 days. Repeated biopsy specimens were obtained from 5 dogs after treatment, and all showed marked histologic improvement. The increase in body weight after treatment was statistically significant (P = .01). Three dogs currently are not on any treatment and have had resolution of clinical signs for up to 14 months. These observations suggest that an infectious agent responsive to antibiotics plays an integral role in the clinical manifestation of canine HUC, and they support the use of antibiotics in its treatment.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains to five antibiotics, including levofloxacin, in Northwestern Turkey

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    Reyhan Caliskan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is the main factor that affects the efficacy of current therapeutic regimens against Helicobacter pylori. This study aimed to determine the rates of resistance to efficacy clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and metronidazole among H. pylori strains isolated from Turkish patients with dyspepsia. METHODS: H. pylori was cultured from corpus and antrum biopsies that were collected from patients with dyspeptic symptoms, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of H. pylori was determined using the E-test (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole and levofloxacin according to the EUCAST breakpoints. Point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin-resistant strains were investigated using real-time PCR. RESULTS: A total of 98 H. pylori strains were isolated, all of which were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. Of these strains, 36.7% (36/98 were resistant to clarithromycin, 35.5% (34/98 were resistant to metronidazole, and 29.5% (29/98 were resistant to levofloxacin. Multiple resistance was detected in 19.3% of the isolates. The A2143G and A2144G point mutations in the 23S rRNA-encoding gene were found in all 36 (100% of the clarithromycin-resistant strains. Additionally, the levofloxacin MIC values increased to 32 mg/L in our H. pylori strains. Finally, among the clarithromycin-resistant strains, 27.2% were resistant to levofloxacin, and 45.4% were resistant to metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that treatment failure after clarithromycin- or levofloxacin-based triple therapy is not surprising and that metronidazole is not a reliable agent for the eradication of H. pylori infection in Turkey.

  3. Evaluation on antibiotic resistance of helicobacter pylori isolated from patients admitted to tooba medical center, Sari

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    Amin Talebi BezminAbadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 17 March, 2009; Accepted 8 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Helicobacter pylori, which infect approximately one half of the world’s population, are an important risk factor in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is now widely recommended as the most effective treatment of peptic ulcer disease. One of the most important reasons for treatment failure is H. pylori resistance to the antimicrobials usage in therapy. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility patterns of H. pylori isolates in 6 routine anti-microbial agents in Northern Iran.Materials and methods: 125 patients from Tooba Medical Center in Sari with endoscopic evidence of dyspepsia complaints were used for obtaining gastric biopsies specimens. Biopsies were sent to the laboratory in thioglycolate broth (transport medium. Bacteria were primarily cultured on Columbia agar supplemented with 7% horse blood, 7% fetal calf serum. Urease, Catalase and Oxidase activities were used for H. pylori identification. Bacterial suspensions equivalent to 3 Mc. Farlands were spread on plates, along with antibiotic disks and placed in the diameter zone. Inhibition was measured after 3 days of incubation in micro-aerophilic condition.Results: H. pylori were isolated from 116(92.8% subjects, a total of 125 biopsy specimens. Resistance to metronidazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, tetracycline, furazolidone and ciprofloxacin were 71%, 35%, 25%, 9%, 24% and 25%, respectively. Multiple resistance (amoxicillin-clarithromycin-metronidazole were found in (65% of the isolates.Conclusion: Comparison of our data with previous results showed that prevalence of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, furazolidone and metronidazole has increased in Iran considerably. Resistance to amoxicillin in our study was too high in comparison with foreign studies. The present study demonstrates the need for continuous monitoring of the antimicrobial

  4. RESISTANCE PATTERN OF FECAL ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SELECTED BROILER FARMS OF EASTERN HARARGHE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

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    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Cloacal swab of broiler chickens in selected farms of Eastern Harrarge zone of Ethiopia. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests.65 selected isolates were subjected to 9 antimicrobial agents to determine their resistance by the disk diffusion method. Accordingly, the resistance of E.coli was tetracycline (90%, streptomycin (78%, ampicillin (60%, amoxicillin (56%, erythromycin (45%, ciprofloxacin (38%, and chloramphenicol (15%. None of the isolates showed resistance to gentamicin. Sensitivity was observed in case of 80%, 77%, 44%, 32%, 26%, 20%, 20%, 15%, and 10% of the isolates for chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate resistance/susceptibility was recorded for 5-35% of the isolates. 92.3% of the isolates tested showed multidrug resistance for 2 or more antimicrobials and the highest levels (18.5% of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for 3 antimicrobials accounting 7.7% for tetracycline-ampicillin-streptomycin and 10.8% for tetracycline-ampicillin-amoxicillin. This study showed resistance against the antibiotics that are commonly used in poultry. Furthermore, it was concluded that gentamicin, chloramphenicole and ciproflaxin will be the first drugs of choice to resist infections caused by E. coli in chicken in Ethiopia. These findings confirm significant increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in the E. coli isolates which is most probably due to increased use of antibiotics asfeed additives for growth promotion and prevention of diseases and use of inappropriate antibiotics for treatment of diseases. Hence, excess or abusive use of antimicrobials should be guarded through judicious application of antimicrobials.

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANT PATTERN OF FECAL ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SELECTED BROILER FARMS OF EASTERN HARARGE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Cloacal swab of broiler chickens in selected farms of Eastern Harrarge zone of Ethiopia. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. 65 selected isolates were subjected to 9 antimicrobial agents to determine their resistance by the disk diffusion method. Accordingly, the resistance of E.coli was tetracycline (90%, streptomycin (78%, ampicillin (60%, amoxicillin (56%, erythromycin (45%, ciprofloxacin (38%, and chloramphenicol (15%. None of the isolates showed resistance to gentamicin. Sensitivity was observed in case of 80%, 77%, 44%, 32%, 26%, 20%, 20%, 15%, and 10% of the isolates for chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate resistance/susceptibility was recorded for 5-35% of the isolates. 92.3% of the isolates tested showed multidrug resistance for 2 or more antimicrobials and the highest levels (18.5% of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for 3 antimicrobials accounting 7.7% for tetracycline-ampicillin-streptomycin and 10.8% for tetracycline-ampicillin-amoxicillin. This study showed resistance against the antibiotics that are commonly used in poultry. Furthermore, it was concluded that gentamicin, chloramphenicole and ciproflaxin will be the first drugs of choice to resist infections caused by E. coli in chicken in Ethiopia. These findings confirm significant increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in the E. coli isolates which is most probably due to increased use of antibiotics as feed additives for growth promotion and prevention of diseases and use of inappropriate antibiotics for treatment of diseases. Hence, excess or abusive use of antimicrobials should be guarded through judicious application of antimicrobials

  6. [Piracetam in combined pathogenetic therapy of recurrent duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimmerman, Ia S; Shchetkin, D I

    2002-01-01

    Duodenal ulcer cure, as a systemic gastroenterologic disease, can be achieved in some patients by the addition of the nootropic drug piracetam to current antisecretory and antihelicobacter therapy. Piracetam corrects vegetative and psychoemotional disorders in duodenal ulcer, normalizes gastric motility, has an antioxidant effect and improves cerebral circulation. An optimal effect on clinico-endoscopic manifestations of recurrent duodenal ulcer was achieved in combination of piracetam with current antisecretory (omeprazole) and antihelicobacter (de-nol, amoxicillin, metronidazole) medicines. Such combination improves both short- and long-term outcomes of duodenal ulcer treatment.

  7. Intrinsic carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinases from members of the genus Pandoraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ines; Bauernfeind, Adolf

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the oxacillinases of isolates of six different species of Pandoraea, a genus that colonizes the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients. The isolates produced carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes causing elevated MICs for amoxicillin, piperacillin, meropenem, and imipenem when expressed in an Escherichia coli host strain. Sequencing revealed nine new oxacillinases (OXA-151 to OXA-159) with a high degree of identity among isolates of the same species; however, they had much lower interspecies similarities. The intrinsic oxacillinase genes might therefore be helpful for correct identification of Pandoraea isolates.

  8. Heridas por Mordedura / Bites Injuries

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    Coturel A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanus vaccine should be indicated when the patient has not full vaccination scheme and rabies vaccine in cases of suspected or confirmed infected animals.

  9. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  10. Emerging antimicrobial resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori in central Gujarat

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    H B Pandya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem in H. pylori treatment. The study was intended to evaluate the prevalence of resistance amongst 80 H.pylori isolates cultured from biopsy taken during routine endoscopies in 2008-2011. Materials and Methods: 855 gastro duodenal biopsies were collected and cultured on H.pylori selective medium (containing Brucella agar and Columbia agar (Hi media, with Skirrow′s supplement (antibiotic supplement and 7% human blood cells. H.pylori was isolated from 80 specimens. The antimicrobial susceptibility of H.pylori isolates was carried out by the Kirby Bauer technique against metronidazole (5 µg, clarithromycin (15 µg, ciprofloxacin (5 µg, amoxicillin (10 µg, tetracycline (30 µg, erythromycin (15 µg, levofloxacin (5 µg, and furazolidone (50 µg (Sigma- Aldrich, MO. Results: 83.8% isolates were resistant to metronidazole, 58.8% were resistant to Clarithromycin 72.5% were resistant to Amoxicillin, 50% to Ciprofloxacin and 53.8% to tetracycline. furazolidone, erythromycin and Levofloxacin showed only 13.8% resistance to H.pylori. Multi drug resistance with metronidazole+ clarithromycin+ tetracycline was 85%. For all the drugs Antimicrobial resistance rate was found higher in males compare to females. Metronidazole and amoxicillin resistance was found noteworthy in patients with duodenal ulcer (p = 0.018, gastritis (P = 0.00, and in reflux esophagitis (P = 0.00. clarithromycin and tetracycline resistance was suggestively linked with duodenitis (P = 0.018, while furazolidone, erythromycin and levofloxacin showed excellent sensitivity in patients with duodenitis (P value- 0.018, gastritis (P= 0.00 and reflux esophagitis (P = 0.00. Resistance with metronidazole (P = 0.481, clarithromycin (P= 0.261, amoxicillin (P = 0.276, tetracycline (P = 0.356, ciprofloxacin (P = 0.164 was not correlated well with Age-group and Gender of the patients. Conclusion: A very high percentage of patients were infected

  11. TEM-109 (CMT-5), a Natural Complex Mutant of TEM-1 β-Lactamase Combining the Amino Acid Substitutions of TEM-6 and TEM-33 (IRT-5)†

    OpenAIRE

    Robin, F.; Delmas, J.; Chanal, C; Sirot, D.; Sirot, J; Bonnet, R.

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli CF349 exhibited a complex β-lactam resistance phenotype, including resistance to amoxicillin and ticarcillin alone and in combination with clavulanate and to some extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The double-disk synergy test was positive. CF349 harbored an 85-kb conjugative plasmid which encoded a β-lactamase of pI 5.9. The corresponding bla gene was identified by PCR and sequencing as a blaTEM gene. The deduced protein sequence revealed a new complex mutant of TEM-1 β-lacta...

  12. Susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas de otite externa em cães Antimicrobial sensitivity of bacteria from otitis externa in dogs

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    L.C. Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of canine externa otitis in Fortaleza-Ceará is reported. About 91.5% of the animals with clinical signs were positive to bacterial culture. Among all infections, 49.5% were mixed infections and the most common pathogens were Staphylococcus spp coagulase negative or positive and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most effective antimicrobials for Staphylococcus coagulase negative were: the quinolones, the aminoglicoside netilmycin and the beta-lactams, excepted ampicillin, penicillin and oxacilin; for Staphylococcus coagulase positive were: cefotoxin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, imipenem, netilmycin and cephatoxin; for Pseudomonas aeruginosa were: ciprofloxacin, tobramycin and imipenem.

  13. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: an update for outpatients management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Noémie; Gehri, Mario; Gervaix, Alain; Guinan, Stéphane; Barazzone-Argiroffo, Constance

    2016-02-17

    Pneumonia should be considered in febrile children with tachypnea and/or chest recession. Virus are the most common cause of pneumonia in children under 5 years old. Streptococcus pneumonia can be found at any age. Mycoplasma pneumonia is more frequent in older children. Systematic chest radiograph is not necessary but must be obtained in patients with hypoventilation and in those with failed initial antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma pneumonia should be tested according to patient age and response to initial antibiotic. First line antibiotherapy is amoxicilline. Antibiotic treatment is frequently not necessary in children under 5 but should be considered depending on clinical presentation and C reactive protein value.

  14. Development and Evaluation of Sustained Release Gastroretentive Minimatrices for Effective Treatment of H. pylori Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Badhan, Atul C.; Rajashree C. Mashru; Shah, Punit P.; Thakkar, Arti R.; Dobaria, Nitin B.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, sustained release gastroretentive minimatrices of amoxicillin have been designed and optimized using central composite design. Effect of amount of xanthan gum, rate controlling polymers (HPMC K100M CR/PEO coagulant (1:1)), carbopol 974P, and gas generating couple (sodium bicarbonate/citric acid (3:1)) was studied on dependent (response) variables, i.e., buoyancy lag time, drug release at 1 h, time required for 95% drug release, swelling index, and bioadhesive strength. Mi...

  15. Microbial based assay for specific detection of β-lactam group of antibiotics in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sougata; Kumar, Naresh; Vishweswaraiah, Raghu Hirikyathanahalli; Haldar, Lopamudra; Gaare, Manju; Singh, Vinai Kumar; Puniya, Anil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The spore forming Bacillus cereus (66) was screened for the induction of β-lactamase in presence of an inducer using iodometric assay. A significant induction in marker enzyme was observed in B. cereus 66 at maximum residual limit (MRL) of penicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, amoxicillin, cefalexin, and cephazolin belonging to β-lactam group of antibiotics. A microbial based assay, where enzyme induction was optimized at pH 7.0, temperature 30°C, and whey powder (0.25%) after 4 h of incubatio...

  16. Acute otitis media in adults: many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    (1) Acute otitis media is likely in adults with recent-onset otalgia, fever, and a bulging eardrum on otoscopy. Management is similar to that in children: no antibiotics in the first instance, then amoxicillin later if antibiotic therapy is needed. (2) Otitis media with a perforated eardrum, and evidence of pus must be distinguished from external otitis. In patients with otitis media and a perforated eardrum, the commonest bacterial isolates are staphylococci, pseudomonas and pneumococci. (3) If antibiotics are prescribed the choice of agent is based on individual clinical findings and underlying health status.

  17. Catalase-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a diabetic foot ulcer

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    MR Zali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a catalase-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a 56-year-old male diabetic patient with foot ulcer who attended our surgery ward. Species identification was confirmed by Gram staining, standard biochemical tests and PCR amplification of the nuc and fem genes. Antibiotic susceptibility showed that the strain was sensitive to imepenem, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, vancomycin and resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, clindamycin, and amikacin. Clinicians and microbiologists must be encouraged to identify and report these atypical strains and the infections associated with them in order to establish their role in pathogenesis.

  18. Antianaerobe Activity of RBX 7644 (Ranbezolid), a New Oxazolidinone, Compared with Those of Eight Other Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ednie, Lois M.; Rattan, Ashok; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, P C

    2003-01-01

    The activity of ranbezolid (RBX 7644), a new oxazolidinone, against 306 anaerobes was compared with those of 11 other agents. The MICs at which 50% of the isolates tested are inhibited and those at which 90% of the isolates tested are inhibited (in micrograms per milliliter) were as follows: ranbezolid, 0.03 and 0.5; linezolid, 2 and 4; vancomycin, >16 and >16; teicoplanin, 1 and >16; quinupristin-dalfopristin, 1 and >8; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 0.5 and 2; imipenem, 0.125 and 1; clindamycin, ...

  19. A case of wound infection caused by Shewanella algae in the south of Iran

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    M. Taherzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae was isolated from the purulent discharge in the navel area of a young male with a history of swimming in the Persian Gulf. A routine laboratory diagnosis procedure, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, was used to avoid misidentification with other species of Shewanella. The bacterium was suscetible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, nitrophorantion, amikacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole but was resistant to amoxicillin, vancomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin, ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalothin and ceftizoxime. The patient successfully recovered after treatment with antibiotics.

  20. Antibiotic Treatment Affects Intestinal Permeability and Gut Microbial Composition in Wistar Rats Dependent on Antibiotic Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    2015-01-01

    with either amoxicillin (AMX), cefotaxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10–11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and caecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general...... in expression of host tight junction genes were found in any treatment group. A strong correlation between the level of caecal succinate, the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 family in the caecum, and the level of acute phase protein haptoglobin in blood plasma was observed. In conclusion, antibiotic...