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Sample records for amoxicillin

  1. Amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, and other ... feel better. Stopping amoxicillin too soon may cause bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics.

  2. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

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    Radi Shahien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of aseptic meningitis due to amoxicillin, and then review the literature on this rare idiosyncratic event which may occur after local or systemic drug administration. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Seven days before admission he had a dental and gingival inflammation. He was treated with two oral doses of 500 mg daily of amoxicillin for one week. The seventh day he awoke with the complaints that prompted hospital admittance. Amoxicillin was stopped 1 day before his admission. From his history we knew of two similar episodes: The first episode was after a dental procedure 3 months before this incident. He had received a 1-week course of postprocedure amoxicillin of 500 mg daily and had similar headache, fever, and chills during the entire course of treatment. He wasn’t admitted to the hospital, because he stopped taking amoxicillin and he felt spontaneous pain relief after taking symptomatic pain treatment. The second episodes was 6 months after his first admission, he had been admitted to our hospital with the same symptoms. Amoxicillin was stopped and changed with intravenous (IV ceftriaxone (CTRX for 10 days due to suspected partial untreated meningitis. The patient improved rapidly within 2 days and was discharged from the hospital. On the basis of these three confirmed episodes of meningitis after recurrent exposure to amoxicillin, with repetitive negative testing for viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial

  3. Dental enamel, fluorosis and amoxicillin

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    I. Ciarrocchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most used antibiotics among pediatric patients for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and specially for acute otitis media (AOM, a common diseases of infants and childhood. It has been speculated that the use of amoxicillin during early childhood could be associated with dental enamel fluorosis, also described in literature with the term Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH, because they are generally situated in one or more 1st permanent molars and less frequently in the incisors. The effect of Amoxicillin seems to be independent of other risk factors such as fluoride intake, prematurity, hypoxia, hypocalcaemia, exposure to dioxins, chikenpox, otitis media, high fever and could have a significant impact on oral health for the wide use of this drug in that period of life. Objective: The aim of this work was to review the current literature about the association between amoxicillin and fluorosis. Methods and Results: A literature survey was done by applying the Medline database (Entrez PubMed; the Cochrane Library database of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL. The databases were searched using the following strategy and keywords: amoxicillin* AND (dental fluorosis* OR dental enamel* AND MIH*. After selecting the studies, only three relevant articles published between 1966 and 2011 were included in the review. Conclusion: The presence of several methodological issues does not allow to draw any evidence-based conclusions. No evidence of association was detected, therefore, there is a need of further well-designed studies to assess the scientific evidence of the relationship between amoxicillin and fluorosis and to restrict the prescription of this drug for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections especially acute otitis media (AOM during the first two years of life. When it is possible can be opportune to use an alternative antibiotic treatment.

  4. Amoxicillin may cause molar incisor hypomineralization.

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    Laisi, S; Ess, A; Sahlberg, C; Arvio, P; Lukinmaa, P-L; Alaluusua, S

    2009-02-01

    The etiology of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is unclear. Our hypothesis was that certain antibiotics cause MIH. We examined 141 schoolchildren for MIH and, from their medical files, recorded the use of antibiotics under the age of 4 yrs. MIH was found in 16.3% of children. MIH was more common among those children who had taken, during the first year of life, amoxicillin (OR=2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.17) or the rarely prescribed erythromycin (OR=4.14; 95% CI, 1.05-16.4), compared with children who had not received treatment. Mouse E18 teeth were cultured for 10 days with/without amoxicillin at concentrations of 100 microg/mL-4 mg/mL. Amoxicillin increased enamel but not dentin thickness. An altered pattern of amelogenesis may have interfered with mineralization. We conclude that the early use of amoxicillin is among the causative factors of MIH.

  5. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis in biofilms to amoxicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole......Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole...

  6. Amoxicillin functionalized gold nanoparticles reverts MRSA resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalita, Sanjeeb; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Sharma, Kaustav Kalyan [Drug Discovery Lab, Life Science Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST), Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India); Kataki, Amal Chandra [Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Institute, Guwahati, Assam (India); Department of Applied Sciences, Gopinath Bordoloi Nagar, Jalukbari, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Deka, Manab [Department of Applied Sciences, Gopinath Bordoloi Nagar, Jalukbari, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Kotoky, Jibon, E-mail: jkotoky@gmail.com [Drug Discovery Lab, Life Science Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST), Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India)

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have described the biosynthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from aqueous extract of the aerial parts of a pteridophyte, “Adiantum philippense” by microwave irradiation and its surface functionalization with broad spectrum beta lactam antibiotic, amoxicillin (Amox). The functionalization of amoxicillin on GNPs (GNP-Amox) was carried out via electrostatic interaction of protonated amino group and thioether moiety mediated attractive forces. The synthesized GNPs and GNP-Amox were physicochemically characterized. UV–Vis spectroscopy, Zeta potential, XRD, FTIR and SERS (surface enhanced raman spectra) results confirmed the loading of Amox into GNPs. Loading of Amox to GNPs reduce amoxicillin cytotoxicity, whereas GNPs were found to be nontoxic to mouse fibroblast cell line (L929) as evident from MTT and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) live/dead cell assays. The GNP-Amox conjugates demonstrated enhanced broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, in-vitro and in-vivo assays of GNP-Amox revealed potent anti-MRSA activity and improved the survival rate. This indicates the subversion of antibiotic resistance mechanism by overcoming the effect of high levels of β-lactamase produced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Taken together, this study demonstrates the positive attributes from GNP-Amox conjugates as a promising antibacterial therapeutic agent against MRSA as well as other pathogens. - Highlights: • Aqueous extract of A. phillippens was used as a reducing and capping agent for synthesis of microwave irradiated gold nanoparticles. • GNPs were loaded with amoxicillin for restoration in antibacterial activity of amoxicillin against MRSA strains. • Gold nanoparticles and GNP-Amox were found biocompitable as tested on L929 cell line. • The nanoparticle antibiotic conjugates exhibited restoration of amoxicillin activity against MRSA in

  7. [Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid versus amoxicillin plus gentamicin in the empirical initial treatment of urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients].

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    Verzasconi, R; Rodoni, P; Monotti, R; Marone, C; Mombelli, G

    1995-08-19

    We compared the fixed combination amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid with that of amoxicillin plus gentamicin in the empirical initial treatment of severe urinary tract infections. The study included 87 hospitalized patients (51 women and 36 men, mean age 58 +/- 22 years) with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (n = 48) or with complicated urinary tract infections (n = 39). 80 patients (92%) had fever and 31 patients (36%) positive blood cultures. 45 patients were randomly assigned to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and 42 to amoxicillin plus gentamicin. Overall, 18 patients (21%) were infected with organisms resistant in vitro to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, whereas no pathogen was isolated with resistance to amoxicillin plus gentamicin (p amoxicillin plus gentamicin (p amoxicillin plus gentamicin group. Although the in-vitro resistance did not result in a lower clinical efficacy of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid compared to amoxicillin plus gentamicin in our relatively small sample of patients, the data indicate that the antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid is inadequate to cover the spectrum of causative agents in hospitalized patients with pyelonephritis or complicated urinary tract infections. Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid should therefore not be used in the initial empirical treatment of these infections.

  8. Synergistic effect between amoxicillin and TLR ligands on dendritic cells from amoxicillin-delayed allergic patients.

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    Maria J Sanchez-Quintero

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin, a low-molecular-weight compound, is able to interact with dendritic cells inducing semi-maturation in vitro. Specific antigens and TLR ligands can synergistically interact with dendritic cells (DC, leading to complete maturation and more efficient T-cell stimulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of amoxicillin and the TLR2, 4 and 7/8 agonists (PAM, LPS and R848, respectively in TLR expression, DC maturation and specific T-cell response in patients with delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reactions to amoxicillin. Monocyte-derived DC from 15 patients with DTH to amoxicillin and 15 controls were cultured with amoxicillin in the presence or absence of TLR2, 4 and 7/8 agonists (PAM, LPS and R848, respectively. We studied TLR1-9 gene expression by RT-qPCR, and DC maturation, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production by flow cytometry. DC from both patients and controls expressed all TLRs except TLR9. The amoxicillin plus TLR2/4 or TLR7/8 ligands showed significant differences, mainly in patients: AX+PAM+LPS induced a decrease in TLR2 and AX+R848 in TLR2, 4, 7 and 8 mRNA levels. AX+PAM+LPS significantly increased the percentage of maturation in patients (75% vs. controls (40% (p=0.036 and T-cell proliferation (80.7% vs. 27.3% of cases; p=0.001. Moreover, the combinations AX+PAM+LPS and AX+R848 produced a significant increase in IL-12p70 during both DC maturation and T-cell proliferation. These results indicate that in amoxicillin-induced maculopapular exanthema, the presence of different TLR agonists could be critical for the induction of the innate and adaptive immune responses and this should be taken into account when evaluating allergic reactions to these drugs.

  9. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates during continuous intravenous infusion.

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    van Boekholt, A; Fleuren, H; Mouton, J; Kramers, C; Sprong, T; Gerrits, P; Semmekrot, B

    2016-06-01

    Amoxicillin is commonly used for the treatment of neonatal bacterial infection with intermittent dosing (ID) regimens. However, increasing bacterial resistance, in addition to a lack of new antimicrobial agents, urges the optimization of current therapeutic options. Clinical studies in adults suggest continuous infusion (CI) regimens of beta-lactam antibiotics to be superior to ID. There are as yet no guidelines concerning the CI dosing of amoxicillin. The present study was developed to describe the CI pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of amoxicillin during the first 3 days of life in search of the optimal dosing regimen. Neonates with a gestational age above 34 weeks, at risk of neonatal infection and requiring amoxicillin therapy, were included. Serum concentrations of amoxicillin were measured during CI on days 1 and 3 in the steady state. Twenty-two serum samples of 11 patients were collected. All patients reached and retained serum concentrations of amoxicillin within the therapeutic range without exceeding the toxic concentration (serum concentrations on day 1 mean 55.4 mg/l, range 30.9-69.5, SD 10.5, and on day 3 48.8 mg/l, range 25.5-92.4, SD 18.4). There was no significant decrease in concentration from day 1 to day 3 (p = 0.38). This study showed therapeutic, nontoxic concentrations of amoxicillin in neonates on CI of amoxicillin in the first 3 days of life. Randomized controlled trials should reveal whether the clinical benefits of the CI of amoxicillin exceed those of ID regimens.

  10. Microanalysis of amoxicillin, flucloxacillin, and rifampicin in neonatal plasma.

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    Pullen, J; Stolk, L M L; Neef, C; Zimmermann, L J I

    2007-12-01

    Simple and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic assays with ultraviolet detection have been developed and validated for the determination of amoxicillin, flucloxacillin and rifampicin in neonatal plasma. Plasma samples were either precipitated with perchloric acid (amoxicillin) or methanol (rifampicin) or extracted with methylene chloride (flucloxacillin). Precision coefficients of variation and inaccuracy were less than 15% for all three assays. Only small sample volumes (20-40 microL) were required, making the assays suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies in preterm and term neonates. The assays have successfully been applied to analysis of amoxicillin, flucloxacillin and rifampicin in previously published pharmacokinetic studies in neonates.

  11. Kounis syndrome associated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid

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    A Shimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kounis syndrome (KS is a life-threatening medical condition that causes severes allergic reaction and acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We describe the case of 56-year-old woman who developed ACS following an anaphylactic reaction to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Immediately after the administration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, she presented a chest pain, cutaneous allergic, hypotension, and ST depression on the electrocardiogram. After the necessary diagnostic test, the final diagnosis was variant I of KS.

  12. Relation Between Amoxicillin Concentration in Sputum of COPD Patients and Length of Hospitalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; ten Bokum, Leonore; Movig, Kris; van der Valk, Paul; Kerstjens, Huib; van der Palen, Job; Hendrix, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Amoxicillin is a widely used antibiotic in COPD. Little is known about the transfer of amoxicillin into sputum of COPD patients. The objective was to investigate the relationship between the concentration of amoxicillin in sputum in hospitalized COPD patients and length of hospitalization. To be eff

  13. Proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin-clarithromycin versus proton pump inhibitor-amoxicillin-metronidazole as first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

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    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of the first-line Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication regimen composed of proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, with those of a regimen composed of proton pump inhibitor, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. Data of patients, who were administered the first-line H. pylori eradication regimen at Tokyo Medical Center between 2008 and 2011, were reviewed. All patients had H. pylori gastritis without peptic ulcer disease. The 7-day triple regimen composed of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin was administered to 55 patients, and that composed of omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin was administered to 55 patients. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol eradication rates were 74.5 and 80.4%, respectively, for the regimen of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, whereas the corresponding rates were 96.4 and 100%, respectively, for the regimen of omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. In conclusion, first-line H. pylori eradication therapy composed of omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin was significantly more effective than that composed of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, without differences in tolerability.

  14. Kounis syndrome secondary to amoxicillin use in an asthmatic patient.

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    Viana-Tejedor, Ana; Espinosa, M Ángeles; Cuesta, J; Núñez, A; Bueno, H; Fernández-Avilés, F

    2011-08-04

    A sixty-four year old man with a past history of hypercholesterolemia, asthma, food allergy, epilepsy and myocardial infarction was admitted to the emergency department because of a generalized erythema, nausea, vomiting, and chest pain after taking an oral dose of amoxicillin. Electrocardiography showed ST segment elevation in anterior leads. After coronary angiography, type 2 variant of Kounis syndrome was diagnosed. We present the first case of oral amoxicillin induced Kounis syndrome in an asthmatic patient with severe anaphylactic shock. The present report also shows that atopic people expressing an amplified mast cell degranulation may have more serious hemodynamic decompensation during hypersensitivity reactions. Case selective mast cell surface membrane stabilization should be considered a potential therapeutic strategy for people with food induced allergy, for atopic patients and for patients who have already experienced a first Kounis syndrome.

  15. Severe delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions to amoxicillin in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, R; Roberts, J.; Warrington, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Amoxicillin, a semisynthetic aminopenicillin, has achieved widespread use in recent years for the treatment of respiratory tract and otic infections. Serious reactions have been relatively infrequent. From July 1986 to June 1987, 11 children aged 6 months to 10 years presented with delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions. In 10 the symptoms were consistent with a serum-sickness-like illness, including urticaria, angioedema, arthritis and arthralgia. Radioallergosorbent testing for IgE antibo...

  16. Acute cholestatic hepatitis caused by amoxicillin/clavulanate

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    Beraldo, Daniel Oliveira; Melo, Joanderson Fernandes; Bonfim, Alexandre Vidal; Teixeira, Andrei Alkmim; Teixeira, Ricardo Alkmim; Duarte, André Loyola

    2013-01-01

    Amoxicillin/clavulanate is a synthetic penicillin that is currently commonly used, especially for the treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In general, it is a well-tolerated oral antibiotic. However, amoxicillin/clavulanate can cause adverse effects, mainly cutaneous, gastrointestinal, hepatic and hematologic, in some cases. Presented here is a case report of a 63-year-old male patient who developed cholestatic hepatitis after recent use of amoxicillin/clavulanate. After 6 wk of prolonged use of the drug, he began to show signs of cholestatic icterus and developed severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin > 300 mg/L). Diagnostic investigation was conducted by ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, serum tests for infection history, laboratory screening of autoimmune diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the abdomen with bile duct-NMR and transcutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound. The duration of disease was approximately 4 mo, with complete resolution of symptoms and laboratory changes at the end of that time period. Specific treatment was not instituted, only a combination of anti-emetic (metoclopramide) and cholestyramine for pruritus. PMID:24379601

  17. Amoxicillin concentrations in serum, jaw cyst, and jawbone following a single oral administration.

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    Akimoto, Y; Kaneko, K; Tamura, T

    1982-05-01

    Forty-four patient who underwent enucleation of jaw cysts were administered amoxicillin preoperatively. Specimens of venous blood (44), walls and fluids from periodontal (31) and dentigerous (13) cysts, and jawbone (26) were obtained during the operation and assayed for amoxicillin content. Measurable concentrations were found in all specimens. The levels were higher in periodontal cysts than in dentigerous cysts, and higher in maxillary bone than in mandibular bone. Since amoxicillin can easily and rapidly pass through the epithelial lining according to the change in concentration, the penetration by amoxicillin of blood/cyst wall/cyst fluid probably depends on simple diffusion.

  18. Functional changes of dendritic cells in hypersensivity reactions to amoxicillin

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    C.M.F. Lima

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of dendritic cell (DC involvement in responses to haptenic drugs is needed, because it represents a possible approach to the development of an in vitro test, which could identify patients prone to drug allergies. There are two main DC subsets: plasmacytoid DC (pDC and myeloid DC (mDC. β-lactams form hapten-carrier conjugates and may provide a suitable model to study DC behavior in drug allergy reactions. It has been demonstrated that drugs interact differently with DC in drug allergic and non-allergic patients, but there are no studies regarding these subsets. Our aim was to assess the functional changes of mDC and pDC harvested from an amoxicillin-hypersensitive 32-year-old woman who experienced a severe maculopapular exanthema as reflected in interleukin-6 (IL-6 production after stimulation with this drug and penicillin. We also aim to demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of this method for dendritic cell isolation followed by in vitro stimulation for studies of drug allergy physiopathology. DC were harvested using a double Percoll density gradient, which generates a basophil-depleted cell (BDC suspension. Further, pDC were isolated by blood DC antigen 4-positive magnetic selection and gravity filtration through magnetized columns. After stimulation with amoxicillin, penicillin and positive and negative controls, IL-6 production was measured by ELISA. A positive dose-response curve for IL-6 after stimulation with amoxicillin and penicillin was observed for pDC, but not for mDC or BDC suspension. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of this methodology to expand the knowledge of the effect of dendritic cell activation by drug allergens.

  19. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pemphigus vulgaris: case report.

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    Baroni, Adone; Russo, Teresa; Faccenda, Franco; Piccolo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced pemphigus is a well-established variety of pemphigus, presenting with clinical and histopathologic features identical to idiopathic form. Medical history plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis of drug-induced pemphigus. A large variety of drugs have been implicated in its pathogenesis and they may induce acantholysis via biochemical and/or immune mechanism. We present a case of a 69-year-old woman affected by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-induced pemphigus and discuss its pathogenetic mechanism.

  20. The influence of labour on the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered amoxicillin in pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Muller (Alex); P.J. Dörr (Joep); J.W. Mouton (Johan); J. de Jongh (Joost); P.M. Oostvogel (Paul); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R.A. Voskuyl (Robert); M. Danhof (Meindert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: Many physiological changes take place during pregnancy and labour. These might change the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, necessitating adjustment of the dose for prevention of neonatal infections. We investigated the influence of labour on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. MET

  1. Oral microflora and selection of resistance after a single dose of amoxicillin.

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    Khalil, D; Hultin, M; Rashid, M U; Lund, B

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of a single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis on normal oral microflora. A single dose of 2 g amoxicillin was given to 29 healthy volunteers. Saliva was collected before antibiotic administration (day 1), and again on days 2, 5, 10, 17 and 24 and subjected to culturing and antibiotic sensitivity analysis. Twenty-one per cent (6/29) of the individuals carried penicillin-V- and amoxicillin-resistant viridans streptococci before antibiotic administration. After a single dose of amoxicillin there was a significant reduction in Streptococcus salivarius on days 2 and 5, a significant reduction in other viridans streptococci on day 2 and the proportion of viridans streptococci with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin was significantly increased on days 2 and 5. A single dose of amoxicillin can cause an ecological disturbance and induce selection of resistant strains in the oral microflora.

  2. Efficacy of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the prevention of infection and dry socket after third molar extraction. A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Arteagoitia, María-Iciar; Barbier, Luis; Santamaría, Gorka; Ramos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background Prophylactic use of amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, although controversial, is common in routine clinical practice in third molar surgery. Material and Methods Our objective was to assess the efficacy of prophylactic amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid in reducing the incidence of dry socket and/or infection after third molar extraction. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis consulting electronic databases and references in retrieved articles. We included double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials published up to June 2015 investigating the efficacy of amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid on the incidence of the aforementioned conditions after third molar extraction. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated with a generic inverse-variance approach and a random effect model using Stata/IC 13 and Review Manager Version 5.2. Stratified analysis was performed by antibiotic type. Results We included 10 papers in the qualitative review and in the quantitative synthesis (1997 extractions: 1072 in experimental groups and 925 in controls, with 27 and 74 events of dry socket and/or infection, respectively). The overall RR was 0.350 (p< 0.001; 95% CI 0.214 to 0.574). We found no evidence of heterogeneity (I2=0%, p=0.470). The number needed to treat was 18 (95% CI 13 to 29). Five studies reported adverse reactions (RR=1.188, 95% CI 0.658 to 2.146, p =0.567). The RRs were 0.563 for amoxicillin (95% CI 0.295 to 1.08, p=0.082) and 0.215 for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (95% CI 0.117 to 0.395, p<0.001). Conclusions Prophylactic use of amoxicillin does not significantly reduce the risk of infection and/or dry socket after third molar extraction. With amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, the risk decreases significantly. Nevertheless, considering the number needed to treat, low prevalence of infection, potential adverse reactions to antibiotics and lack of serious complications in placebo groups, the routine prescription of

  3. Amoxicillin Oxidative Degradation Synthesized by Nano Zero Valent Iron

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    AR Yazdanbakhsh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most important groups of pharmaceuticals that benefits humans and animals. However, antibiotics excertion in wastewaters and environment have emerged as a serious risk to the biotic environment, and their toxic effects can harm the organisms. Iron-based metallic nanoparticles have received special attention in regard with remediation of groundwater contaminants. In the typical nZVI-based bimetallic particle system, Fe acts as the reducing agent. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the synthesis and characteristics of nZVI in regard with degrading AMX. Methods: In this study, nZVI nanoparticles were synthesized using the liquid-phase reduction method by EDTA as a stabilizer material. Structure and properties of nanoparticles were characterized by BET, SEM, XRD and EDX analysis. A multi-variate analysis was applied using a response surface methodology (RSM in order to develop a quadratic model as a functional relationship between AMX removal efficiency and independent variables ( initial pH values, dosage of nZVI, contact time and amoxicillin concentration. The four independent variables of solution pH (2–10, AMX concentration (5-45mg/l, contact time (5-85 min and nanoparticles dose (0.25 – 1.25 g were transformed to the coded values. Results: The study results demonstrated that more than 69 % of AMX was removed by nZVI. The optimal AMX removal conditions using nZVI were found as 1.25 g of nZVI, pH 4, contact time of 80 min and concentration of 30 mg/l. Conclusions: The ability of nZVI in degradation of AMX revealed that these materials can serve as a potential nano material with respect to the environmental remediation.

  4. Comparison of single doses of amoxicillin or of amoxicillin-gentamicin for the prevention of endocarditis caused by Streptococcus faecalis and by viridans streptococci.

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    Francioli, P; Moreillon, P; Glauser, M P

    1985-07-01

    Recent recommendations for the prophylaxis of endocarditis in humans have advocated single doses or short courses of antibiotic combinations (beta-lactam plus aminoglycoside) for susceptible patients in whom enterococcal bacteremia might develop or for patients at especially high risk of developing endocarditis (e.g., patients with prosthetic cardiac valves). We tested the prophylactic efficacy (in rats with catheter-induced aortic vegetations) of single doses of amoxicillin plus gentamicin against challenge with various streptococcal strains (two strains of Streptococcus faecalis, one of Streptococcus bovis, and three of viridans streptococci); we then compared this efficacy with that of single doses of amoxicillin alone. Successful prophylaxis against all six strains was achieved with single doses of both amoxicillin alone and amoxicillin plus gentamicin. This protection, however, was limited, for both regimens, to the lowest bacterial-inoculum size producing endocarditis in 90% of control rats and was not extended to higher inocula by using the combination of antibiotics. We concluded that a single dose of amoxicillin alone was protective against enterococcal and nonenterococcal endocarditis in the rat, but that its efficacy was limited and could not be improved by the simultaneous administration of gentamicin.

  5. Comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous administration to sheep and goats.

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    Carceles, C M; Escudero, E; Baggot, J D

    1995-04-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination was studied after intravenous administration of single doses (20 mg/kg per kg body weight) to five sheep and six goats. The objective was to determine whether there are differences between sheep and goats in the disposition of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The plasma concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs were best described by a biexponential equation (two-compartment open model) in sheep and goats. The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin were 1.43 +/- 0.16 h in sheep and 1.13 +/- 0.19 h in goats, and of clavulanic acid were 1.16 +/- 0.01 h and 0.85 +/- 0.09 h in sheep and goats respectively. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were similar in the two species. Body clearances of amoxicillin were 0.09 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in sheep and 0.11 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in goats, and of clavulanic acid were 0.07 +/- 0.01 L/h kg and 0.12 +/- 0.01 L/h kg in sheep and goats respectively. The half-lives and body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid differed significantly between sheep and goats. It was concluded that the disposition of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid administered intravenously as an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination to sheep and goats differed between the two ruminant species. Even though the differences in disposition kinetics of both drugs were statistically significant, the same intravenous dosing rate of this antimicrobial combination can generally be used in sheep and goats.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and oral administration in goats.

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    Carceles, C M; Escudero, E; Vicente, M S; Serrano, J M; Carli, S

    1995-12-01

    The intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of an amoxicillin and clavulanic acid combination (20 mg/kg of sodium amoxicillin and 5 mg/kg of potassium clavulanate) were studied in six goats. After intravenous administration the pharmacokinetics of both drugs could be described by an open two-compartment model. Amoxicillin had a greater distribution volume (0.19 +/- 0.01 l/kg) than clavulanic acid (0.15 +/- 0.01 l/kg), whereas the distribution and elimination constants were higher for the latter, which was eliminated more quickly than amoxicillin. After oral administration of both drugs their pharmacokinetic behaviour was best described by an open one-compartment model with first-order absorption. Elimination half-lives were twice as long after oral (2.15 +/- 0.20 h and 1.94 +/- 0.16 h for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid respectively) than after intravenous administration (1.20 +/- 0.16 h and 0.86 +/- 0.09, respectively). An apparent 'flip-flop' situation was evident in this study. Bioavailability was 27% for amoxicillin and 50% for clavulanic acid.

  7. Polymer encapsulation of amoxicillin microparticles by SAS process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, A; Baldauf, E; Gordillo, M D; Pereyra, C M; Martínez de la Ossa, E J

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of amoxicillin (AMC) with ethyl cellulose (EC) by a supercritical antisolvent process (SAS) was investigated. AMC microparticles obtained previously by an SAS process were used as host particles and EC, a biodegradable polymer used for the controlled release of drugs, was chosen as the coating material. In this work, a suspension of AMC microparticles in a solution of ethyl cellulose in dichloromethane (DCM) was sprayed through a nozzle into supercritical CO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and HPLC analyses were carried out. The effects of AMC:EC ratio, the initial polymer concentration of the solution, temperature and pressure on the encapsulation process were investigated. Although all the experiments led to powder precipitation, the AMC encapsulation was achieved in only half of the cases, particularly when the lower drug:polymer ratios were assayed. In general, it was observed that the percentages of AMC present in the precipitates were higher on increasing the AMC:EC ratio. In these cases composites rather than encapsulates were obtained. The in vitro release profiles of the resulting materials were evaluated in order to ascertain whether composites can be used as encapsulated systems for drug delivery systems.

  8. Electrochemical oxidation of amoxicillin in its pharmaceutical formulation at boron doped diamond (BDD electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneil Quand-Meme Gnamba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, voltammetric andelectrolysis experiments have been carried out on a conductive boron dopeddiamond (BDD electrode in solution containing amoxicillin in itspharmaceutical formulation. The physical characterization of the BDD surface byscanning electron microscopy (SEM reveals a polycrystalline structure withgrain sizes ranging between 0.3 and 0.6 µm. With Raman spectroscopy, BDDsurface is composed of diamons (Csp3 type carbon (Csp3and graphitic type carbon (Csp2. The electrochemical characterization of the BDD electrode in sulfuric acid electrolyte showed a wide potential window worthing 2.74 V. The oxidation of Amoxicillin showed an irreversible anodic wave on the voltammogram in the domain of water stability indicating a direct oxidation of amoxicillin at BDD surface. The treatment of Amoxicillin in the synthetic wastewaters under various constant current densities 20, 50, 100, 135 mA cm-2 on BDD showed that Amoxicillin is highly reducedunder 100 mA cm-2 reaching 92% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODremoval after 5 h of electrolysis. Investigation performed in perchloric acidas supporting electrolyte led to 87% of COD removal after 5 h of electrolysis.Mineralization of amoxicillin occurs on BDD and the chemical oxygen demandremoval was higher in sulfuric acid than in perchloric acid owing to theinvolvement of the in-situ formed persulfate and perchlorate  to the degradation process mainly in the bulkof the solution. The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE presents anexponential decay indicating that the process was limited by diffusion. Thespecific energy consumed after 5h of the amoxicillin electrolysis was 0.096 kWh COD-1and 0.035 kWh COD-1 in sulfuric acid and in perchloric acidrespectively.

  9. Bone Penetration of Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid Evaluated by Population Pharmacokinetics and Monte Carlo Simulation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landersdorfer, Cornelia B.; Kinzig, Martina; Bulitta, Jürgen B.; Hennig, Friedrich F.; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sörgel, Fritz; Gusinde, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Amoxicillin (amoxicilline)-clavulanic acid has promising activity against pathogens that cause bone infections. We present the first evaluation of the bone penetration of a beta-lactam by population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic profiling via Monte Carlo simulations. Twenty uninfected patients undergoing total hip replacement received a single intravenous infusion of 2,000 mg/200 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid before surgery. Blood and bone specimens were collected. Bone samples were pulverized under liquid nitrogen with a cryogenic mill, including an internal standard. The drug concentrations in serum and total bone were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We used NONMEM and S-ADAPT for population pharmacokinetic analysis and a target time of the non-protein-bound drug concentration above the MIC for ≥50% of the dosing interval for near-maximal bactericidal activity in serum. The median of the ratio of the area under the curve (AUC) for bone/AUC for serum was 20% (10th to 90th percentile for between-subject variability [variability], 16 to 25%) in cortical bone and 18% (variability, 11 to 29%) in cancellous bone for amoxicillin and 15% (variability, 11 to 21%) in cortical bone and 10% (variability, 5.1 to 21%) in cancellous bone for clavulanic acid. Analysis in S-ADAPT yielded similar results. The equilibration half-lives between serum and bone were 12 min for amoxicillin and 14 min for clavulanic acid. For a 30-min infusion of 2,000 mg/200 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid every 4 h, amoxicillin achieved robust (≥90%) probabilities of target attainment (PTAs) for MICs of ≤12 mg/liter in serum and 2 to 3 mg/liter in bone and population PTAs above 95% against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in bone and serum. The AUC of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 5 to 10 times lower in bone than in serum, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid achieved a rapid equilibrium and favorable population PTAs against pathogens commonly

  10. Evaluation of Amoxicillin & Cephalexin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraei AH.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the most important complications after tooth extraction and oral and maxillofacial surgery is transient bacteraemia and prescription of prophylactic antibiotic is necessary to prevent postoperative infections in immunocompromised patients. Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of cephalexin and amoxicillin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets following tooth extraction. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 80 healthy patients subjected to tooth extraction were divided into two groups. Each group received 1 gr amoxicillin or cephalexin and teeth were extracted 30-60-90-120-180 minutes after antibiotic intake. Blood sampling was performed immediately after extraction and concentrations of two antibiotics were measured in microbiology laboratory. ANOVA test and Post-hoc (Duncan test were used for statistical analysis with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The maximum serum concentration was 10.1006 μg/ml for amoxicillin at 120 minutes and 41.5467 μg/ml for cephalexin at 90 minutes after drug intake. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of cephalexin and amoxicillin for Streptococcus sanguis was 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: The mean concentration for amoxicillin was 10 times and for cephalexin was 20 times higher than MIC.

  11. A combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of pyoderma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid was compared with that of amoxicillin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole in an open label, randomized trial in 50 children in each group (total 200 with mild to severe pyodermas. Majority (47% had impetigo. Fifty (25% children had mild pyoderma, 56 (28% had moderate and 94 (47% children had severe pyoderma. Pure growth of S aureus was isolated in 130 (65% children, S pyogenes in 42 (21% and both organisms in 28 (14% children. In mild to moderate pyoderma either of the drug tried was equally effective. In severe pyoderma, 24 of twenty five (96% children receiving amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 18 of twenty (90% children in amoxicillin group, 20 of twenty four (83.3% children in erythromycin group and 13 of twenty five (52% children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure of therapy. Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid was well tolerated in children and there was no significant side effect except mild diarrhoea in two cases (4% which was well controlled by taking the drug with meals.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to turkeys and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, C M; Vicente, M S; Escudero, E

    1995-12-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1) combination was studied after intravenous and intramuscular administration of single doses (25 mg/kg body weight) to 15 turkeys and 15 chickens. The objective was to determine whether there are differences between turkeys and chickens in the disposition kinetics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The plasma concentrations-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetic and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs after intravenous administration were best described by a two-compartment open model in turkeys and chickens. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were similar in the two species. The body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in turkeys were significantly slower than in chickens. The elimination half-life of amoxicillin was similar in turkeys (1.12 +/-0.09 h) and chickens (1.03 +/-0.11 h) after intravenous administration, but that of clavulanic acid differed significantly (P<0.05) between turkeys (1.12 +/-0.03 h) and chickens (0.98 +/- 0.05 h). After intramuscular administration both drugs had a significantly longer half-life (P<0.05) in turkeys and chickens than that after the intravenous treatment. The bioavailability after the intramuscular injection was high and similar with both drugs, but higher values were obtained for chickens than turkeys.

  13. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability.

  14. Clinical and in vitro efficacy of amoxicillin against bacteria associated with feline skin wounds and abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Josée; Messier, Serge; Labrecque, Olivia; Cox, William R

    2007-06-01

    A clinical trial involving 122 cats with infected skin wounds or abscesses presented to 10 veterinary clinics was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 2 oral amoxicillin drug products (a paste and a suspension). A 2nd objective of the study was to identify bacteria involved in such infections and verify their in vitro sensitivity to amoxicillin. Samples of wound exudate were harvested at the time of presentation and submitted for aerobic and anaerobic culture. The sensitivity to amoxicillin of isolates thought to be infecting agents was tested, using a standard minimum inhibitory concentration method. Pasteuralla multocida and obligate anaerobes of the genera Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Porphyromonas were the most frequently isolated pathogens. Overall, their in vitro susceptibility to amoxicillin was very good. Both drug products were clinically efficacious with a global success rate of 95.1% for cats administered oral amoxicillin at 11-22 mg/kg bodyweight (mean 13.8 mg/kg bodyweight) twice daily for 7 to 10 days.

  15. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  16. Safety and Tolerability of Nebulized Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in Patients with COPD (STONAC 1 and STONAC 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, L.C.; Assink, M.D.M.; Kuijvenhoven, J.C.; Saegher, de M.E.A.; Valk, van der P.D.L.P.M.; Palen, van der J.; Brusse-Keizer, M.G.J.; Movig, K.L.L.

    2016-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid were determined in patients with stable COPD and during severe exacerbations of COPD. Nine stable COPD patients received doses ranging from 50:10 mg up to 300:60 mg amoxicillin clavulanic acid and eight patients hospitalised for a

  17. In vitro activity of clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, and ticarcillin against Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, W R

    1986-01-01

    In vitro, growth of Chlamydia trachomatis was not entirely eliminated by 960 micrograms of ticarcillin per ml, 64 micrograms of amoxicillin per ml, 32 micrograms of clavulanic acid per ml, a combination of ticarcillin (480 micrograms/ml) and clavulanic acid (32 micrograms/ml), and a combination of amoxicillin (32 micrograms/ml) and clavulanic acid (8 micrograms/ml). However, a greater than or equal to 99% decrease in the number of inclusions was obtained at concentrations readily attainable in serum. PMID:3707116

  18. The influence of potassium clavulanate on the rate of amoxicillin sodium degradation in phosphate and acetate buffers in the liquid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdat, Laleh; Sunderland, Bruce

    2009-04-01

    The stability of aqueous admixtures of amoxicillin sodium and potassium clavulanate was studied in the liquid state at selected pH values. Potassium clavulanate was found to catalyze the rate of degradation of amoxicillin sodium under the conditions of this study. In phosphate buffer (at pH 7.0) both amoxicillin sodium and potassium clavulanate showed first-order degradation when stored separately. However, when combined the rate of amoxicillin degradation increased and t(90) values for amoxicillin decreased from 69.6 min for amoxicillin alone to 10.8 min for amoxicillin in the combination at 55 degrees C. A kinetic model was developed that explained the catalytic behavior of potassium clavulanate and phosphate buffer. In acetate buffer the rate of degradation of amoxicillin sodium followed first-order kinetics, but the catalytic effect of clavulanate caused curvature in the rate plots at higher temperatures and clavulanate concentrations. This catalytic effect was less than that occurred in phosphate buffer (where the t(90) value of amoxicillin decreased from 137.3 min for amoxicillin alone to 52.5 min for amoxicillin in combination at 55 degrees C). First-order bi-exponential decay occurred with amoxicillin degradation, which explained this change in rate.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection in hemodialysis patients: Susceptibility to amoxicillin and clarithromycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selim Aydemir; Sedat Boyacioglu; Gurden Gur; Muge Demirbilek; Fusun Kamber Can; Murat Korkmaz; Ugur Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to amoxicillin and clarithromycin in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and non-uremic controls.METHODS: The subjects with dyspeptic complaints were 33 ESRD patients and 46 age- and sex-matched nonuremic controls who exhibited H pylori on antral biopsy specimens. The two groups were age and sex matched.The H pylori strains' pattern of susceptibility to amoxicillin and clarithromycin was investigated with the agar dilution technique.RESULTS: None of the H pylori strains from either group showed resistance to amoxicillin with the agar dilution method. Twelve (36.4%) of the ESRD group strains and 7 (15.2%) of the control group strains showed resistance to clarithromycin, and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Resistance to amoxicillin does not appear to be an important problem in H pylori-infected ESRD and non-uremic patients in our region. In contrast, the rates of resistance to clarithromycin are high, particularly in the ESRD population.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of amoxicillin in healthy and Salmonella Typhimurium-inoculated pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerso, H.; Friis, C.; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    chromatography 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after IM administration. Pharmacokinetic values of amoxicillin in plasma were assessed by use of a l-compartment model with first-order absorption. Results--Inoculation caused diarrhea and increased rectal temperature and WBC count. Absorption half-life was shorter...

  1. Prophylactic antibiotics for hysterectomy and cesarean section: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid versus cefazolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Malik

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Broad spectrum amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was not superior to cefazolin in prevention of post-operative infection when given as prophylaxis in hysterectomy and elective cesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 980-983

  2. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, E; Vicente, M S; Carceles, C M

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1) combination were studied after intravenous and intramuscular administration of single doses (25 mg kg(-1) bodyweight) to 50 pigeons. The plasma concentrations-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetics and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs after intravenous administration were best described by a two-compartment open model. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 1.77 litres kg(-1) and 1.30 litres kg(-1) respectively. The body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were not significantly different. The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 1.22 (0.09) hour and 1.52 (0.09) hour respectively, and those of clavulanic acid were 1.15 (0.08) hour and 1.49 (0.08) hour. After intramuscular administration both drugs had a significantly longer half-life (P or =0.5 mg litre(-1) (minimum inhibitory concentration of most susceptible pathogens).

  3. The effect of clindamycin and amoxicillin on neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrzycka, Weronika; Moskalik, Aneta; Sieczkowska, Sandra; Manda-Handzlik, Aneta; Demkow, Urszula; Ciepiela, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are threads of nuclear DNA complexed with antimicrobial proteins released by neutrophils to extracellular matrix to bind, immobilise, and kill different pathogens. NET formation is triggered by different physiological and non-physiological stimulants. It is also suggested that antibiotics could be non-physiological compounds that influence NET release. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of clindamycin and amoxicillin on NET release and the phagocyte function of neutrophils. Neutrophils isolated from healthy donors by density centrifugation method were incubated with amoxicillin or clindamycin for two hours, and then NET release was stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). After three hours of incubation with PMA NETs were quantified as amount of extracellular DNA by fluorometry and visualised by immunofluorescent microscopy. The percent of phagocyting cells was measured by flow cytometry. We showed that amoxicillin induces NET formation (increase of extracellular DNA fluorescence, p = 0.03), while clindamycin had no influence on NET release (p > 0.05), as confirmed by quantitative measurement and fluorescent microscopy. Regarding phagocyte function, both antibiotics increased bacterial uptake (43.3% and 61.6% median increase for amoxicillin and clindamycin, respectively). We concluded that the ability of antibiotics to modulate NET release depends on the antibiotic used and is not associated with their ability to influence phagocytosis.

  4. Determinants of initiation, implementation, and discontinuation of amoxicillin by adults with acute cough in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, David; Farewell, Daniel; Brookes-Howell, Lucy; Butler, Christopher C; Coenen, Samuel; Francis, Nick A; Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Verheij, Theo; Hood, Kerenza

    2017-01-01

    Aim To investigate the determinants of adherence to amoxicillin in patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection. Materials and methods Three European data sets were used. Adherence data were collected using self-reported diaries. Candidate determinants included factors relating to patient, condition, therapy, health care system/provider, and the study in which the patient participated. Logistic and Cox regression models were used to investigate the determinants of initiation, implementation, and discontinuation of amoxicillin. Results Although initiation differed across samples, implementation and discontinuation were similar. Determinants of initiation were days waited before consulting, duration of prescription, and being in a country where a doctor-issued sick certificate is required for being off work for <7 days. Implementation was higher for older participants or those with abnormal auscultation. Implementation was lower for those prescribed longer courses of amoxicillin (≥8 days). Time from initiation to discontinuation was longer for longer prescriptions and shorter for those from countries where single-handed practices were widespread. Conclusion Nonadherence to amoxicillin was largely driven by noninitiation. Differing sets of determinants were found for initiation, implementation, and discontinuation. There is a need to further understand the reasons for these determinants, the impact of poor adherence to antibiotics on outcomes, and to develop interventions to improve antibiotic use when prescribed. PMID:28352162

  5. Safety and Tolerability of Nebulized Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in Patients with COPD (STONAC 1 and STONAC 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijdam, L C; Assink, M D M; Kuijvenhoven, J C; de Saegher, M E A; van der Valk, P D L P M; van der Palen, J; Brusse-Keizer, M G J; Movig, K L L

    2016-08-01

    The safety and tolerability of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid were determined in patients with stable COPD and during severe exacerbations of COPD. Nine stable COPD patients received doses ranging from 50:10 mg up to 300:60 mg amoxicillin clavulanic acid and eight patients hospitalised for a COPD exacerbation received fixed doses 200/40 mg twice daily. Safety was evaluated by spirometry before and after inhalation. Tolerability was evaluated by questionnaire. Plasma and expectorated sputum samples were assayed for amoxicillin content. Seventeen patients underwent in total 100 nebulizations with amoxicillin clavulanic acid. In this safety and tolerability study no clinically relevant deteriorations in FEV1 were observed. Nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid produces sputum concentrations well above the Minimal Inhibiting Concentration of 90% for potential pathogenic micro-organisms, with low concentrations in the central compartment (low systemic exposure). Based on spirometry and reported side effects, inhalation of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid seems to be safe and well tolerated, both in stable patients with COPD as in those experiencing a severe exacerbation. Levels of amoxicillin were adequate.

  6. Photodegradation of amoxicillin by catalyzed Fe3+/H2O2 process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Li; Tingting Shen; Dongbo Wang; Xiu Yue; Xian Liu; Qi Yang; Jianbin Cao; Wei Zheng; Guangming Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Three oxidation processes of UV-Fe3+(EDTA)/H2O2 (UV:ultraviolet light; EDTA:ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid),UV-Fe3+/H2O2 and Fe3+/H2O2 were simultaneously investigated for the degradation of amoxicillin at pH 7.0.The results indicated that,100% amoxicillin degradation and 81.9% chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) removal could be achieved in the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process.The treatment efficiency of amoxicillin and CODcr removal were found to decrease to 59.0% and 43.0% in the UV-Fe3+/H2O2 process;39.6% and 31.3% in the Fe3+/H2O2 process.Moreover,the results of biodegradability (biological oxygen demand (BOD5)/CODCr ratio) revealed that the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process was a promising strategy to degrade amoxicillin as the biodegradability of the effluent was improved to 0.45,compared with the cases of UV-Fe3+/H2O2 (0.25) and Fe3+/H2O2 (0.10) processes.Therefore,it could be deduced that EDTA and UV light performed synergetic catalytic effect on the Fe3+/H2O2 process,enhancing the treatment efficiency.The degradation mechanisms were also investigated via UV-Vis spectra,and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra.The degradation pathway of amoxicillin was further proposed.

  7. Comparison of cefixime and amoxicillin plus metronidazole in the treatment of chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukić Smiljka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Despite significant advances in current medicine and improvement of overall health education, chronic periodontitis is still a widespread disease. Losing teeth is the most serious complication of this particular illness. The aim of this study was to examine patients with chronic periodontitis in order to evaluate the efficacy of non-surgical therapy and combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole compared with cefixime, which has not been so far used for the treatment of this disease. Methods. Adult patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 90 underwent non-surgical periodontal treatment (zero-day and then randomly divided into three groups. The group I served as a control, the group II was additionally treated with the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole (for 7 days, while the group III was treated with cefixime (also for 7 days. To assess the condition of periodontium before and seven days after the therapy, four clinical parameters were used: gingival index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results. On the day 7 after the beginning of the therapy, we found that all the three groups of patients had statistically significant clinical improvement of three parameters: GI, BOP and PD, but not of the CAL. However, the improvement of PD was only statistically, but not clinically significant. The improvement in the control group of patients on the day 7 was 19% in BOP and 28% in GI; this improvement was statistically highly significant after the addition of amoxicillin plus metronodazole (71% in BOP and 77% in GI or cefixime (62% in BOP and 82% in GI. Compared to the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole, cefixim was statistically significantly more effective for GI (p < 0.05, while for the other three clinical parameters their effects were equal. Conclusion. The conjunction of amoxicillin plus metronidazole or cefixime to the causal treatment of patients with

  8. Cefepime combined with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid: a new choice for the KPC-producing K. pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Ji

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: In contrast to the currently recommended tigecycline-based therapy, cefepime and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination was an effective and economical option to KPC-KP infection in China.

  9. Influence of clavulanic acid on the activity of amoxicillin against an experimental Streptococcus pneumoniae-Staphylococcus aureus mixed respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G M; Boon, R J; Beale, A S

    1990-01-01

    An experimental respiratory infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae was established in weanling rats by intrabronchial instillation. Treatment of this infection with amoxicillin rapidly eliminated the pneumococci from the lung tissue. A beta-lactamase-producing strain of Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in a similar manner, did not persist adequately in the lungs long enough to permit a reasonable assessment of the therapy, but staphylococcal survival was extended in the lungs of rats infected 24 h previously with S. pneumoniae. Amoxicillin therapy was relatively ineffective against the pneumococci in this polymicrobial infection and had no effect on the growth of S. aureus. In contrast, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid eliminated the pneumococci from the lung tissue and brought about a reduction in the numbers of staphylococci. The data illustrate the utility of this model for the study of polymicrobial lung infections and demonstrate the role of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in the treatment of polymicrobial infections involving beta-lactamase-producing bacteria. PMID:2327767

  10. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination and of both drugs alone after intravenous administration to goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, E; Carceles, C M; Vicente, S

    1996-09-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination (25 mg kg-1), and both drugs alone (amoxicillin 20 mg kg-1), clavulanic acid 5 mg kg-1), was studied after intravenous (i.v.) administration of single doses of 10 goats. The objective was to determine whether there were differences in the plasma kinetics of these drugs when administered in combination or alone. The plasma concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetics and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs alone and in combination were best described by a biexponential equation (two-compartment open model). The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin were 1.05 +/- 0.09 h alone and 1.13 +/- 0.19 h in combination, and those of clavulanic acid were 0.87 +/- 0.07 h and 0.85 +/- 0.09 h, respectively. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were similar in the two treatments. Body clearances of amoxicillin were 0.12 +/- 0.01 l h-1.kg alone and 0.11 +/- 0.01 l h-1.kg in combination, and of clavulanic acid were 0.12 +/- 0.02 l h-1.kg alone and 0.12 +/- 0.01 l h-1.kg in combination with amoxicillin. The half-lives and body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid did not differ significantly when administered alone and in combination. It was concluded that the i.v. administration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid as a combination product did not alter the disposition kinetics of either drug.

  11. Augmented renal clearance implies a need for increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Pieter A J G; Standing, Joseph F; Barker, Charlotte I S; de Jaeger, Annick; Dhont, Evelyn; Carlier, Mieke; Verstraete, Alain G; Delanghe, Joris R; Robays, Hugo; De Paepe, Peter

    2015-11-01

    There is little data available to guide amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in this pediatric subpopulation. Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) in whom intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was indicated (25 to 35 mg/kg of body weight every 6 h) were enrolled. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, and the clinical outcome was documented. A total of 325 and 151 blood samples were collected from 50 patients (median age, 2.58 years; age range, 1 month to 15 years) treated with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, respectively. A three-compartment model for amoxicillin and a two-compartment model for clavulanic acid best described the data, in which allometric weight scaling and maturation functions were added a priori to scale for size and age. In addition, plasma cystatin C and concomitant treatment with vasopressors were identified to have a significant influence on amoxicillin clearance. The typical population values of clearance for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 17.97 liters/h/70 kg and 12.20 liters/h/70 kg, respectively. In 32% of the treated patients, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy was stopped prematurely due to clinical failure, and the patient was switched to broader-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that four-hourly dosing of 25 mg/kg was required to achieve the therapeutic target for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. For patients with augmented renal function, a 1-h infusion was preferable to bolus dosing. Current published dosing regimens result in subtherapeutic concentrations in the early period of sepsis due to augmented renal clearance, which risks clinical failure in critically ill children, and therefore need to be updated. (This study has been registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as an observational study [NCT02456974].).

  12. Impact of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Amoxicillin on Streptococcus suis Capsule Gene Expression and Inflammatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Haas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent worldwide causing meningitis, endocarditis, arthritis and septicemia. Among the 29 serotypes identified to date, serotype 2 is mostly isolated from diseased pigs. Although several virulence mechanisms have been characterized in S. suis, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections remains only partially understood. This study focuses on the response of S. suis P1/7 to sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin. First, capsule expression was monitored by qRT-PCR when S. suis was cultivated in the presence of amoxicillin. Then, the pro-inflammatory potential of S. suis P1/7 culture supernatants or whole cells conditioned with amoxicillin was evaluated by monitoring the activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes and quantifying pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages. It was found that amoxicillin decreased capsule expression in S. suis. Moreover, conditioning the bacterium with sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin caused an increased activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes following exposure to bacterial culture supernatants and to a lesser extent to whole bacterial cells. This was associated with an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL8, IL-6, IL-1β by macrophages. This study identified a new mechanism by which S. suis may increase its inflammatory potential in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, a cell wall-active antibiotic, thus challenging its use for preventive treatments or as growth factor.

  13. Amoxicillin is effective against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in a mouse pneumonia model simulating human pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgueguen, Pierre; Azoulay-Dupuis, Esther; Noel, Violaine; Moine, Pierre; Rieux, Veronique; Fantin, Bruno; Bedos, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    High-dose oral amoxicillin (3 g/day) is the recommended empirical outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in many European guidelines. To investigate the clinical efficacy of this treatment in CAP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with MICs of amoxicillin > or =2 microg/ml, we used a lethal bacteremic pneumonia model in leukopenic female Swiss mice with induced renal failure to replicate amoxicillin kinetics in humans given 1 g/8 h orally. Amoxicillin (15 mg/kg of body weight/8 h subcutaneously) was given for 3 days. We used four S. pneumoniae strains with differing amoxicillin susceptibility and tolerance profiles. Rapid bacterial killing occurred with an amoxicillin-susceptible nontolerant strain: after 4 h, blood cultures were negative and lung homogenate counts under the 2 log(10) CFU/ml detection threshold (6.5 log(10) CFU/ml in controls, P pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae for which MICs were 2 to 4 microg/ml. The killing rate depends not only on resistance but also on tolerance of the S. pneumoniae strains.

  14. In vitro bactericidal activity of amoxicillin, gentamicin, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone or in combination against Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisivon, A; Guiomar, C; Carbon, C

    1990-03-01

    The in vitro bactericidal activity of amoxicillin, gentamicin, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone or in combination was determined against seven strains of Listeria monocytogenes by the killing curve method. Amoxicillin plus gentamicin was the most rapidly bactericidal combination, whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was less bactericidal at 6 h but as bactericidal at 24 h. The combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole with either amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin or rifampicin did not result in antagonism, but the combinations were no more active than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole alone. The interaction of amoxicillin with rifampin was fairly antagonistic (1 log10 difference). The combination of amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin, although producing antagonism during the first 6 h, was more active at 24 h than amoxicillin alone and prevented the regrowth observed with ciprofloxacin alone. Ciprofloxacin and rifampicin interacted antagonistically during the first 6 h, and the combination was not very bactericidal (3 log10) but prevented the emergence of mutants, as observed with each drug alone, when used at concentrations greater than the MICs for the strain tested. These regimens merit evaluation in in vivo models of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis.

  15. Recurrent drug-induced liver injury (DILI) with ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luís; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Vergara, Mercedes; Casas, Meritxell; Miquel, Mireia; Dalmau, Blai

    2015-12-01

    Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic are two widely used antibiotics due to their high efficacy and few side effects. While the percentage of hepatotoxicity of these antibiotics is low, their frequent use has led to a progressive increase in the number of cases. Both antibiotics have been associated with a wide variety of hepatotoxic reactions, from a slight rise of transaminases to fulminant hepatitis. Once hepatotoxicity secondary to a drug appears, the first step is to discontinue the drug. Physicians may opt to administer an alternative treatment with a different chemical structure. It should be borne in mind, however, that different chemical structures may also cause recurrent drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). We present the case of a patient who consecutively developed DILI due to ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic.

  16. Design and evaluation of controlled release mucoadhesive microspheres of amoxicillin for anti Helicobacter pylori therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Venkateswaramurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop controlled release mucoadhesive microspheres of amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using carbopol 974P, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K4M (HPMC K4M and Eudragit RS 100. The prepared microspheres were subjected to evaluation for particle size, incorporation efficiency, in vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release characteristics. Absence of drug-polymer interaction was confirmed using differential scanning calorimetry analysis and fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. The prepared microspheres showed a strong mucoadhesive property. The polymer concentration influenced the in vitro drug release significantly in 0.1N HCl. The particle sizes of systems ranged between 123±8.35 μm and 524±11.54 μm. Percent drug entrapment and release profiles of amoxicillin trihydrate in 0.1 N HCl were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The percentage drug entrapment and percentage yield of formulations were about 56.71±1.66% to 88.32±0.65% and 39.20±1.62% to 92.40±1.32%, respectively. The stability of the drugs was assessed in 0.1 N HCl. The results further substantiated that mucoadhesive microspheres improved the gastric stability of amoxicillin trihydrate (due to entrapment within the microsphere. From the above results, it was concluded that the mucoadhesive microspheres of amoxicillin trihydrate has feasibility for eradicating H. pylori from the stomach more effectively because of the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time and controlled release of drug from the formulation.

  17. STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS DISINTEGRANTS ON AMOXICILLIN TRIHYDRATE DISPERSIBLE TABLETS

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    Jayaprakash S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a formulation of amoxicillin trihydrate dispersible tablets of 320mg in a low production value, using cheap amoxicillin trihydrate raw materials available in the market, with direct compression or wet granulation method. Amoxicillin trihydrate is a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analogue of ampicillin with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against gram +ve and gram –ve organism. Dispersible tablets are uncoated or film coated tablets intended to be dispersed in water before administration giving a homogeneous dispersion. The WHO prefers dispersible dosage form for the elderly and paediatric patients due to its ease in the administration. Amoxicillin trihydrate dispersible tablet was manufactured with the different disintegrants such as maize starch, crospovidone, croscarmellose, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose. The powder blend was evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and hausner’s ratio. After compression the tablets were subjected to weight variation, %drug content, buoyancy studies and in-vitro release studies. The wet granulation was excluded from the formulation due to its high cost if production, direct compression was selected due to its low cost and ease of production. The optimized formulation F10 had showed 99.11% of drug release in 40 min and disintegration of tablet was 25 seconds. The result of FTIR analysis of pure drug alone and drug with excipients there was not showed any physical and chemical interaction. F10 had undergone DTA, which shows the thermal stability of the formulation. The stability studies of optimized formulation F10 at 30◦C / 65%RH, 40◦C / 75%RH did not show any change in tested parameters and release.

  18. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    OpenAIRE

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue-Mei; Park, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was de...

  19. Effects of amoxicillin treatment on the salivary microbiota in children with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevic, V; Manzano, S; Gaïa, N; Girard, M; Whiteson, K; Hibbs, J; François, P; Gervaix, A; Schrenzel, J

    2013-08-01

    Amoxicillin is a first-line antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media in children and one of the most commonly used antibiotics for human bacterial infections. We investigated changes in salivary bacterial communities among children treated with amoxicillin for acute otitis media (n = 18), using a culture-independent approach based on pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The control group consisted of children with acute otitis media who were not given antibiotics (n = 15). One species-level phylotype assigned to the genus Streptococcus was identified across all (n = 99) saliva samples. Two additional species-level phylotypes from the genera Gemella and Granulicatella were shared by all (n = 45) samples of control subjects. Amoxicillin treatment resulted in reduced species richness and diversity, and a significant shift in the relative abundance of 35 taxa at different ranks from phylum to species-level phylotype. At the phylum level, prevalence of TM7 and Actinobacteria decreased at the end of treatment, whereas Proteobacteria had a higher relative abundance post-treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that samples from the same control subject taken over time intervals tended to cluster together. Among antibiotic-treated subjects, samples taken before and at the end of amoxicillin treatment formed two relatively well-separated clusters both of which greatly overlapped with samples taken about 3 weeks post-treatment. Our results point to a substantial but incomplete recovery of the salivary bacterial community from the antibiotic about 3 weeks after the end of treatment.

  20. UNUSUALLY STABLE ADDUCT BETWEEN METHANOLYZED AMOXICILLIN OR AMPICILLIN AND THEIR DIKETOPIPERAZINE DERIVATIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosińska, Katarzyna; Frański, Rafał; Frańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin and ampicillin were subjected to methanolysis. As expected, the methanolysis products were observed by HPLC-ESI-MS. Besides these products, diketopiperazine derivatives were also detected. Additionally, unusually stable adduct formed between the products of methanolysis and diketopiperazine derivatives was also identified. Analogical adducts were detected when ethanolysis was performed instead of methanolysis. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of the separated adducts confirmed that the adducts were composed of methanolysis products and diketopiperazine derivatives.

  1. Design and evaluation of controlled release mucoadhesive microspheres of amoxicillin for anti Helicobacter pylori therapy

    OpenAIRE

    N Venkateswaramurthy; Sambathkumar, R.; Perumal, P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop controlled release mucoadhesive microspheres of amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using carbopol 974P, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K4M (HPMC K4M) and Eudragit RS 100. The prepared microspheres were subjected to evaluation for particle size, incorporation efficiency, in vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release characte...

  2. RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS

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    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1% H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9% to amoxicillin and three (5.5% to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.

  3. Resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori strains to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in Isfahan, Iran

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    Farzad Khademi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori resistance to antibiotics has become a global problem and is an important factor in determining the outcome of treatment of infected patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in gastrointestinal disorders patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 260 gastric antrum biopsy specimens were collected from patients with gastrointestinal disorders who referred to Endoscopy Section of the Isfahan Hospitals. The E-test and Modified Disk Diffusion Method (MDDM were used to verify the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in 78 H. pylori isolates to the clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. Results: H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin were 15.3, 55.1, and 6.4%, respectively. In this studyΈ we had one multidrug resistance (MDR isolates from patient with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Conclusion: Information on antibiotic susceptibility profile plays an important role in empiric antibiotic treatment and management of refractive cases. According to the results obtained in this study, H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole was relatively high. MDR strains are emerging and will have an effect on the combination therapy.

  4. Moxifloxacin versus amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in outpatient acute exacerbations of COPD: MAESTRAL results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert; Anzueto, Antonio; Miravitlles, Marc; Arvis, Pierre; Alder, Jeff; Haverstock, Daniel; Trajanovic, Mila; Sethi, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    Bacterial infections causing acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) frequently require antibacterial treatment. More evidence is needed to guide antibiotic choice. The Moxifloxacin in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis TriaL (MAESTRAL) was a multiregional, randomised, double-blind non-inferiority outpatient study. Patients were aged ≥ 60 yrs, with an Anthonisen type I exacerbation, a forced expiratory volume in 1 s clavulanic acid 875/125 mg p.o. b.i.d. (7 days). The primary end-point was clinical failure 8 weeks post-therapy in the per protocol population. Moxifloxacin was noninferior to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the primary end-point (111 (20.6%) out of 538, versus 114 (22.0%) out of 518, respectively; 95% CI -5.89-3.83%). In patients with confirmed bacterial AECOPD, moxifloxacin led to significantly lower clinical failure rates than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (in the intent-to-treat with pathogens, 62 (19.0%) out of 327 versus 85 (25.4%) out of 335, respectively; p=0.016). Confirmed bacterial eradication at end of therapy was associated with higher clinical cure rates at 8 weeks post-therapy overall (p=0.0014) and for moxifloxacin (p=0.003). Patients treated with oral corticosteroids had more severe disease and higher failure rates. The MAESTRAL study showed that moxifloxacin was as effective as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of outpatients with AECOPD. Both therapies were well tolerated.

  5. Bioequiwalence of clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin(1:7) dispersible tablets in healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国新; 代宗顺; 龙利红; 韩颖; 侯淑贤; 吴立

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To study the bioequivalence of Clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin (1: 7) dispersible tablets, a randomized cross - over study was conducted in 18 healthy volunteers. A single oral dose of 1000 mg Clavulanate Potassium and Amoxicillin (1:7) dispersible tablets (Tested formulation, T) or Augmentin syrup (Reference formulation, R). Concentrations in plasma were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The main paramaters of T were: for Clavu lanate Potassium and Amoxicillin, Cmax: 2. 46±1.11 μg/ml and 18. 81±7. 26 μg/ml, Tmax 1. 12±0. 23h and 1. 30±0. 34h, AUC(0- 6h): 5. 18±2.24 μg * h/ml and 45. 09±14. 53 μg * h/ml, t1/2:1.43±0. 44 h and 1. 09±0.22 h. , respectively. The relative bioavailability of T to R were 96. 5±19. 2 % and 98. 4±26. 1 % , respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the two formulations were bioequivalent.

  6. [Dissolution testing combined with computer simulation technology to evaluate the bioequivalence of domestic amoxicillin capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rui-Xue; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Wan-Li; Li, Yu-Lan; Hu, Chang-Qin

    2014-08-01

    Re-evaluation of bioequivalence of generic drugs is one of the key research focus currently. As a means to ensure consistency of the therapeutic effectiveness of drug products, clinical bioequivalence has been widely accepted as a gold standard test. In vitro dissolution testing based on the theory of the BCS is the best alternative to in vivo bioequivalence study. In this article, the conventional dissolution method and flow-through cell method were used to investigate the dissolution profiles of domestic amoxicillin capsules in different dissolution media, and the absorption behavior of the drugs with different release rates (t85% = 15-180 min) in the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by Gastro Plus. The flow-through cell method was thought better to reflect the release characteristics in vivo, and amoxicillin capsules with regard to the release rates up to 45 min (t85% = 45 min) were having a satisfied bioequivalence with the oral solution according to the C(max) and AUC. Although two different dissolution profiles of domestic amoxicillin capsules were found by flow-through cell methods, prediction results revealed that domestic capsules were probably bioequivalent to each other.

  7. Single-Dose Oral Amoxicillin or Linezolid for Prophylaxis of Experimental Endocarditis Due to Vancomycin-Susceptible and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Moreillon, Philippe; Wilson, Walter R.; Leclercq, Roland; Entenza, José M,

    2007-01-01

    Endocarditis prophylaxis following genitourinary or gastrointestinal procedures targets Enterococcus faecalis. Prophylaxis recommendations advocate oral amoxicillin (2 g in the United States and 3 g in the United Kingdom) in moderate-risk patients and intravenous amoxicillin (2 g) or vancomycin (1 g) plus gentamicin in high-risk patients. While ampicillin-resistant (or amoxicillin-resistant) E. faecalis is still rare, there is a concern that these regimens might fail against vancomycin-resist...

  8. Antibacterial efficacy of AH Plus and AH26 sealers mixed with amoxicillin, triple antibiotic paste and nanosilver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangarlou, Ali; Neshandar, Rojin; Matini, Negin; Dianat, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Background. Elimination of bacteria from the root canal system is one of the aims of endodontic treatment; hence the incorporation of antibiotics into sealers can increase their antimicrobial efficacy. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial effects of AH26 and AH Plus sealers mixed with amoxicillin, triple antibiotic paste and nanosilver on Enterococcus faecalis. Methods. In this experiment, amoxicillin, triple antibiotic paste and nanosilver powder were added at 10% of the total sealer weight to AH26 and AH Plus sealers and then cultured freshly or after 1, 3, and 7 days with suspension of E. faecalis for 24 hours. The zones of growth inhibition for E. faecalis were evaluated in each group. Results. Incorporation of nanosilver did not increase antibacterial effects of the sealers. Sealers combined with amoxicillin exhibited the highest antibacterial efficacy in fresh condition. In the set specimens, the results demonstrated that the mixture of sealers and triple antibiotic pastes exhibited the greatest antibacterial efficacy. Conclusion. Amoxicillin and triple antibiotic paste significantly improved the antibacterial properties of AH Plus and AH26 sealers. Such properties decreased with time, but the use of sealer-amoxicillin/triple paste combination was still superior to using sealers alone or in combination with nanosilver. PMID:28096947

  9. A study of physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of amoxicillin tablets using full factorial design and PCA biplot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualoto, Kerly F M; Teófilo, Reinaldo F; Guterres, Marcos; Pereira, Flávia S; Ferreira, Márcia M C

    2007-07-09

    The variables that influence the tablets obtained by direct compression method deserve to be studied to minimize formulations costs and to improve the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of the compacts. Here, we explore the adjuvants effects on amoxicillin tablet formulations considering multiple responses, and indicate the most suitable formulation composition. A 2(3) full factorial design was built to different amoxicillin formulations, each one containing three replicate batches, and eight responses (physicochemical and biopharmaceutical parameters) were obtained. The microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) type Avicel PH-102 (low) or PH-200 (high), the absence (low) or presence (high) of spray-dried lactose (LAC), and the absence (low) or presence (high) of disintegrant (DIS) were the levels investigated. The more relevant responses to the distinct formulations from the experimental design were hardness, friability, and the amount of amoxicillin dissolved during the first hour. PCA biplot indicated high values of amount of drug dissolved in 60 min as advantageous responses for the investigated amoxicillin tablet formulations and high values of friability as not desirable. Considering the individual response evaluation, the most suitable amoxicillin tablet formulation should present in its composition the MCC type Avicel PH-102 (low level) and the superdisintegrant agent (DIS high level), croscarmellose sodium, but no LAC (low level).

  10. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancawan, Archiel Launch; Pato, Maria Noemi; Abidin, Khamiza Zainol; Asari, A S Mohd; Thong, Tran Xuan; Kochhar, Puja; Muganurmath, Chandra; Twynholm, Monique; Barker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n = 235) or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n = 237) for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required) at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7%) was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache) were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7%) in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.

  11. The influence of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid on the aerobic flora of the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaspolder, F; de Zeeuw, G; Rozenberg-Arska, M; Egyedi, P; Verhoef, J

    1987-01-01

    In a randomized study, 42 patients undergoing extensive maxillo-facial surgery (correction of the position of the mandible or maxilla by using autologous bone transplants) received prophylactically ten-day courses of either flucloxacillin or amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. Patients were comparable with regard to age and type of surgery. During the prophylactic treatment the effect of antibiotics used on the microbial flora of the alimentary tract was studied. Patients receiving flucloxacillin showed increased numbers of Klebsiella spp. isolated from the faeces (59% of the patients versus 19% of the patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid). Patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid showed higher colonization rates of oropharynx with Enterobacteriaceae than patients receiving flucloxacillin (ten patients versus five patients). 60% of those strains isolated from patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid were resistant to this combination, as compared to 20% of gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients receiving flucloxacillin. In 50% of patients receiving amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, colonization of the gut with yeast occurred, as compared to 18% of patients receiving flucloxacillin. Only one infection leading to a partial loss of the graft was seen in the group of patients receiving flucloxacillin.

  12. Influence of penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility on the activity of third-generation cephalosporins against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Giménez, M J; Robledo, O; Aguilar, L; Tarragó, D; Granizo, J J; Martín-Herrero, J E

    2008-01-01

    To study the influence of penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility on the activity of third-generation cephalosporins, 430 consecutive penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae 2007 isolates received in the Spanish Reference Pneumococcal Laboratory were tested. For comparative purposes, 625 penicillin-susceptible 2007 isolates were also tested. Susceptibility was determined by agar dilution using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood. Penicillin-susceptible strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, 99.8% to cefpodoxime and 99.5% to cefdinir, and were inhibited by 0.12 microg/ml of cefditoren and 4 microg/ml of cefixime. Penicillin-intermediate strains were susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, with Penicillin-resistant strains were resistant to cefdinir and cefpodoxime, with 74.8% and 94.1% susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone, respectively. Cefditoren MIC(50)/MIC(90) (0.5/1 microg/ml) were lower than cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. Among amoxicillin non-susceptible strains, susceptibility to cefdinir and cefpodoxime was penicillin/amoxicillin non-susceptibility, while parenteral third-generation cephalosporins exhibited higher intrinsic activity (MIC(90)=1 microg/ml for penicillin-resistant and 2 microg/ml for amoxicillin-resistant strains). Cefditoren exhibited one-dilution lower MIC(90) values for these strains, even against those of the most troublesome serotypes.

  13. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Odontogenic Infections: A Randomised Study Comparing Efficacy and Tolerability versus Clindamycin

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    Archiel Launch Tancawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of odontogenic infections includes surgical drainage and adjunctive antibiotics. This study was designed to generate efficacy and safety data to support twice daily dosing of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid compared to clindamycin in odontogenic infections. Methods. This was a phase IV, randomised, observer blind study; 472 subjects were randomised to receive amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg BID, n=235 or clindamycin (150 mg QID, n=237 for 5 or 7 days based on clinical response. The primary endpoint was percentage of subjects achieving clinical success (composite measure of pain, swelling, fever, and additional antimicrobial therapy required at the end of treatment. Results. The upper limit of two-sided 95% confidence interval for the treatment difference between the study arms (7.7% was within protocol specified noninferiority margin of 10%, thus demonstrating noninferiority of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to clindamycin. Secondary efficacy results showed a higher clinical success rate at Day 5 in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid arm. Most adverse events (raised liver enzymes, diarrhoea, and headache were similar across both arms and were of mild to moderate intensity. Conclusion. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was comparable to clindamycin in achieving clinical success (88.2% versus 89.7% in acute odontogenic infections and the safety profile was consistent with the known side effects of both drugs. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02141217.

  14. 针对阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应分析%Analysis on the adverse effect of amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于博

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨并比较阿莫西林和阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾的不良反应,为临床用药提供参考。方法检索中国期刊数据库,对2005~2013年阿莫西林和阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应的发生率、类型以及性别、年龄差异进行分析。结果阿莫西林所致不良反应共计455例,阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾所致不良反应共计16例;阿莫西林所致不良反应男女比例为1∶1.5,阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾所致不良反应男女比例无差异,两者不良反应均可发生于任何年龄段;阿莫西林所致皮肤过敏反应明显高于阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾(P<0.05);阿莫西林中有2例患者因过敏性休克死亡,而阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾中无死亡病例。结论阿莫西林所致不良反应的发生率和种类均明显高于阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾,因而后者更具安全性。%Objective We aimed to study and compare the adverse of reactions amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and provide reference for clinical medication.Methods We retrieve the Chinese periodical database, analyzed the incidence and type of adverse reactions induced by amoxicillin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and gender and age from the year 2005 to 2013.Results Adverse reactions caused by amoxicillin occurred in 455 cases and totally 16 cases of adverse reactions induced by amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium.The male to female ratio was 1:1.5 in the amoxicillin induced adverse reactions.Both types of adverse reactions can occur in any age.Incidence of allergic reactions caused by amoxicillin was significantly higher than amoxicillin clavulanic (P<0.05).2 patients died from anaphylactic shock caused by Amoxicillin.Conclusions The incidence of adverse reactions caused by amoxicillin and species were significantly higher than that caused by amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium.

  15. Disposition Kinetics of Amoxicillin in Healthy, Hepatopathic and Nephropathic Conditions in Chicken after Single Oral Administration

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    Moloy Kumar Bhar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen broiler chickens (COBB 400 of 42 days of age weighing 1.8 to 2.0 kg were equally divided into 3 groups, each consisting of 5 birds. Hepatopathy was induced by oral administration of paracetamol while nephropathy was induced by intravenous administration of uranyl nitrate. Kinetic study was investigated in healthy, hepatopathic and nephropathic birds following single oral administration of amoxicillin at 40 mg kg-1. Blood samples were collected at different time schedule. Plasma concentrations of amoxicillin in healthy, hepatopathic and nephropathic birds were 41.90 ± 5.59, 9.93 ± 0.76 and 38.75 ± 6.08 µg ml-1, respectively at 1 hr; 15.34 ± 1.99, 18.57 ± 1.66 and 67.40 ± 2.62 µg ml-1, respectively at 4 hr and 2.03 ± 0.28, 15.54 ± 0.82 and 30.63 ± 1.58 µg ml-1, respectively at 24 hr. Maximum plasma concentration was detected at 1 hr in healthy birds (41.90 ± 5.59 µg ml-1 , at 8 hr in hepatopathic birds (23.51 ± 1.64 µg ml-1 and at 4 hr in nephropathic birds (67.40 ± 2.62 µg ml-1. The drug could not be detected in plasma beyond 24 hr in healthy, 72 hr in both hepatopathic and nephropathic birds. The concentration of amoxicillin was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in most of the samples of hepatopathic and nephropathic birds compared to healthy birds. Significant higher values (P < 0.01 of t1/2 K, AUC, and MRT and lower values of K and ClB in the hepatopathic and nephropathic birds in comparison to healthy birds were observed.

  16. [Pharmacokinetic and clinical research on a new antibiotic combination (amoxicillin and flucloxacillin in equivalent-weight dose)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nola, F; Soranzo, M L; Bosio, G; Sachelariu, N; Mastroviti, S

    1977-03-24

    A controlled double-blind biometric and an open clinical trial were conducted to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of a new equal-dose w/w association of amoxicillin and flucloxacillin. The following conclusions were drawn. Both antibiotics were present in high serum levels; those of flucloxacillin were higher and more persistent. Analysis of variance on 89 patients pointed to the superiority of the association by comparison with amoxicillin alone. The clinical study made it clear that the broad and complementary spectrum of the association, its synergy, absence of toxicity and good gastric tolerance make it a valuable and effective therapeutic aid, also in presence of germs that produce beta-lactase.

  17. Different spectrophotometric methods applied for the analysis of binary mixture of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Three different spectrophotometric methods were applied for the quantitative analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixture, namely, ratio subtraction, absorbance subtraction and amplitude modulation. A comparative study was done listing the advantages and the disadvantages of each method. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines and the obtained accuracy, precision and repeatability were found to be within the acceptable limits. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in their binary mixtures.

  18. High-Dose Amoxicillin with Clavulanate for the Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Children

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    Chia-Huei Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study uses the acute otitis media clinical practice guideline proposed in 2004 as a reference to evaluate whether antibiotics doses that are in line with the recommendations lead to better prognosis. The study also attempts to clarify possible factors that influence the outcome. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects and Methods. A total of 400 children with acute otitis media were enrolled. The dosage of amoxicillin was considered to be appropriate when in accord with clinical practice guidelines, that is, 80–90 mg/kg/day. The outcome was defined according to the description of tympanic membrane on medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between antibiotic dosage and prognosis after adjusting for baseline factors. Results. The majority of prescriptions were under dosage (89.1% but it was not noticeably associated with outcome (P= 0.41. The correlation between under dosage and poor prognosis was significant in children below 20 kg with bilateral acute otitis media (odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.02–2.59, P=0.04. Conclusion. Treating acute otitis media in children, high-dose amoxicillin with clavulanate as recommended in the clinical practice guideline was superior to conventional doses only in children under 20 kg with bilateral diseases.

  19. Triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children and adolescents

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    KAWAKAMI Elisabete

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Helicobacter pylori infection presents high prevalence in developing countries, but there are few pediatric assays evaluating antimicrobial treatment. Objective - The aim of this study was to investigate Helicobacter pylori eradication rate using a short regimen (7 and 10 days of triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole. Patients and methods - Twenty-five Hp positive patients who presented severe epigastralgia, were submitted to antimicrobial treatment with amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 1g bid, clarithromycin (30 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 500 mg bid and omeprazole (0.6 mg/kg/day - maximum dose 20 mg bid during 7 or 10 days. After 2 months, clinical symptoms were evaluated and gastric biopsies were taken to test Hp eradication. Results - Overall eradication rate was achieved in 16/25 patients (64% - IC(95% = 45-83%, in 11/15 (73% - IC(95% = 51-95% patients who used 10 days therapy course and in 5/10 (50% - IC(95% = 19-81% who used 7 days therapy course. Eradication drugs were well accepted and adverse effects were reported in two patients (8%. Conclusions - This triple therapy regimen had moderate efficacy (64%. The data suggests that 10 days therapy course achieves better eradication rate (73% than 7 days course (50% to treat Hp infection in our population.

  20. Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin-clavulanate Potassium Comparative Study of Adverse Reactions%阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井静

    2013-01-01

    Objective To amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium cause adverse reactions to compare and research.Methods Select our hospital, 164 patients were divided into observation group and control group, 82 cases in the observation group patients receiving amoxicillin treatment and control group patients received amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium treatment. Treatment of two groups of patients to track and observation. Results All patients experienced varying degrees of adverse reactions, adverse reactions were compared with gender and age, no significant difference (P>0.05). Two groups of patients with various number of cases of adverse reactions, there were significant differences (P0.05)。两组患者出现的各项不良反应例数均存在显著差异(P<0.05)。经治疗,观察组中3例(3.7%)、对照组中1例(1.2%)患者的不良反应对患者疾病产生了显著影响,两组差异显著(P<0.05)。结论阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾比阿莫西林不良反应小,较为安全,值得在临床推广应用。

  1. Parenteral long-acting amoxicillin reduces intestinal bacterial community diversity in piglets even 5 weeks after the administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzcyk, P.; Pieper, R.; Souffrant, W.B.; Bimczok, D.; Rothkotter, H.J.; Smidt, H.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of a single intramuscular administration of amoxicillin (15 mg kg-1) 1 day after birth, on piglet intestinal microbiota. Animals received no creep feed before weaning on day 28 of age. For the next 11 days, the piglets received a wheat¿barley-based diet. Colon d

  2. Fast mineralization and detoxification of amoxicillin and diclofenac by photocatalytic ozonation and application to an urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Nuno F F; Orge, Carla A; Ribeiro, Ana R; Faria, Joaquim L; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, M Fernando R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-12-15

    The degradation of two organic pollutants (amoxicillin and diclofenac) in 0.1 mM aqueous solutions was studied by using advanced oxidation processes, namely ozonation, photolysis, photolytic ozonation, photocatalysis and photocatalytic ozonation. Diclofenac was degraded quickly under direct photolysis by artificial light (medium-pressure vapor arc, λ(exc) > 300 nm), while amoxicillin remained very stable. In the presence of ozone, regardless of the type of process, complete degradation of both organic pollutants was observed in less than 20 min. Photolysis or ozonation on their own led to modest values of total organic carbon (TOC) removal (ozone present) a significant fraction of nonoxidizable compounds remained in the treated water (∼15% after 180 min). In the case of photolytic ozonation, the kinetics of TOC removal was slow. In contrast, a relatively fast and complete mineralization of amoxicillin and diclofenac (30 and 120 min, respectively) was achieved when applying the photocatalytic ozonation process. The absence of toxicity of the treated waters was confirmed by growth inhibition assays using two different microorganisms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Photocatalytic ozonation was also applied to an urban wastewater spiked with both amoxicillin and diclofenac. The parent pollutants were easily oxidized, but the TOC removal was only as much as 68%, mainly due to the persistent presence of oxamic acid in the treated sample. The same treatment allowed the effective degradation of a wide group of micropollutants (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, hormones and an industrial compound) detected in non-spiked urban wastewater.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin and flucloxacillin following the simultaneous intravenous administration of 4 g and 1 g, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D; Koeppe, P; Heilmann, H D

    1983-01-01

    The combination of amoxicillin and flucloxacillin not only widens the spectrum of pathogenic organisms covered by either of the substances alone; synergy has also been observed, particularly against beta-lactamase-producing organisms. For this reason, the possible interaction of these two penicillins regarding their pharmacokinetics was investigated with respect to therapeutic application. The parameters were calculated on the basis of an open two-compartment model. The highest serum levels of amoxicillin from 551 to 1074 mg/l when 4 g were administered alone, and from 403 to 1133 mg/l when administered together with 1 g flucloxacillin. Flucloxacillin concentrations ranged from 118 to 357 mg/l when administered alone, and from 151 to 226 mg/l in the presence of amoxicillin. Thus, there is no significant difference in the peak levels of either substance when given alone or in combination. The pharmacokinetic parameters of both substances basically do not depend on the presence of the other. A slight decrease was observed in the distribution rate of amoxicillin from the central to the peripheral compartment in the presence of flucloxacillin. Its relevance is questionable, however, since the effect was only minor.

  4. Outbreak of amoxicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b: variable number of tandem repeats as novel molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); W.J. Melchers; C. IJsseldijk; L. Nohlmans; J.F. Meis; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAn outbreak caused by amoxicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b was noted among patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since infections were clustered in time and place, an ongoing outbreak was suspected. The spread of the s

  5. EFFECT OF HYDROPHILIC AND HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC MATTER ON AMOXICILLIN AND CEPHALEXIN RESIDUALS REJECTION FROM WATER BY NANOFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.Zazouli, M.Ulbricht, S. Nasseri, H. Susanto,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics such as amoxicillin and cephalexin are a group of pharmaceutical compounds in human medicine practice that have been entered in water bodies. Presence of these compounds in the environment has raised concerns regarding the toxicity to aquatic organisms and the emergence of strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Removal of these substances before entering the aquatic environment as well as water reuse plant is very important. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM on the removal efficiency of cephalexin and amoxicillin, by using two different commercially available composite NF membranes (TFC-SR2 and TFC-SR3. In addition, the effect of NOM fractions on retention mechanism and permeates flux behavior was studied. Amoxicillin and cephalexin were used as models of antibiotics; alginate and humic acid were used as models of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of NOM, respectively. It was observed that the rejection and permeate flux of amoxicillin and cephalexin were influenced by the membrane characteristics and properties of NOM. The results showed that as the alginate proportion was increased, the rejection improved. The permeate flux decreased with increasing alginate ratio. It was observed that the rejections of amoxicillin and cephalexin in TFC-SR2 were >97.3% and >95.8% in all experiments, respectively. In TFC-SR3, the rejection percentage were (95.9%-100% and (86.1%-96.3%, respectively. Alginate and humic acid had synergistic effect on flux decline. In other words, increasing alginate concentration increased the rate and extent of flux reduction.

  6. Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties, and Antimicrobial Studies of Iron (III Complexes of Ciprofloxacin, Cloxacillin, and Amoxicillin

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    Fabian I. Eze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (III complexes of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and cloxacillin were synthesized and their aqueous solubility profiles, relative stabilities, and antimicrobial properties were evaluated. The complexes showed improved aqueous solubility when compared to the corresponding ligands. Relative thermal and acid stabilities were determined spectrophotometrically and the results showed that the complexes have enhanced thermal and acid stabilities when compared to the pure ligands. Antimicrobial studies showed that the complexes have decreased activities against most of the tested microorganisms. Ciprofloxacin complex, however, showed almost the same activity as the corresponding ligand. Job’s method of continuous variation suggested 1 : 2 metals to ligand stoichiometry for ciprofloxacin complex but 1 : 1 for cloxacillin complex.

  7. The excretion and environmental effects of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline residues in layer chicken manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ping-cai; Wang, Yan; Liu, Long-yong; Zou, Yong-de; Liao, Xin-di; Liang, Juan-boo; Wu, Yin-bao

    2016-05-01

    The excretion rates and ecological risk to the environment of three commonly used veterinary antibiotics (VAs), amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline, in layer hen manure during the application and withdrawal periods were investigated in a study consisting of a control group fed with VA-free basal diet and nine treatment groups consisted of three levels (200 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg) of amoxicillin (AMX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), or doxycycline (DOC). Each treatment group was replicated seven times with three layer hens per replication. Results of the study showed that the average excretion rates of AMX in the 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg groups were 67.88, 55.82, and 66.15%, respectively, while those for CIP and DOC were 47.84, 51.85, and 44.87% and 82.67, 94.39, and 95.72%, respectively. The concentrations of the above veterinary drugs in manure decreased sharply in the withdrawal period (7, 28, and 10 d, respectively), for AMX, DOC, and CIP. Neither AMX nor DOC was detected in the manure after the withdrawal period. In contrast to AMX and DOC, the excretion rate of CIP was significantly lower and thus had a longer residence time. Ecological risk study, estimated using hazard quotient values, showed that AMX in the 100 and 50 mg/kg groups posed no risk to the environment after d 1 of withdrawal, while CIP in the 50 mg/kg group posed no risk to the environment from d 5 of withdrawal. CIP in the 200 and 100 mg/kg groups required 10 d withdrawal in order to pose no risk to the environment. In contrast, DOC residue during withdrawal in the manure posed no risk to the environment, thus making it more environmentally safe.

  8. Study of protein haptenation by amoxicillin through the use of a biotinylated antibiotic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ariza

    Full Text Available Allergic reactions towards β-lactam antibiotics pose an important clinical problem. The ability of small molecules, such as a β-lactams, to bind covalently to proteins, in a process known as haptenation, is considered necessary for induction of a specific immunological response. Identification of the proteins modified by β-lactams and elucidation of the relevance of this process in allergic reactions requires sensitive tools. Here we describe the preparation and characterization of a biotinylated amoxicillin analog (AX-B as a tool for the study of protein haptenation by amoxicillin (AX. AX-B, obtained by the inclusion of a biotin moiety at the lateral chain of AX, showed a chemical reactivity identical to AX. Covalent modification of proteins by AX-B was reduced by excess AX and vice versa, suggesting competition for binding to the same targets. From an immunological point of view, AX and AX-B behaved similarly in RAST inhibition studies with sera of patients with non-selective allergy towards β-lactams, whereas, as expected, competition by AX-B was poorer with sera of AX-selective patients, which recognize AX lateral chain. Use of AX-B followed by biotin detection allowed the observation of human serum albumin (HSA modification by concentrations 100-fold lower that when using AX followed by immunological detection. Incubation of human serum with AX-B led to the haptenation of all of the previously identified major AX targets. In addition, some new targets could be detected. Interestingly, AX-B allowed the detection of intracellular protein adducts, which showed a cell type-specific pattern. This opens the possibility of following the formation and fate of AX-B adducts in cells. Thus, AX-B may constitute a valuable tool for the identification of AX targets with high sensitivity as well as for the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in allergy towards β-lactams.

  9. Performance and model of a full-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) to treat the pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hongcheng; Chen, Zhaobo; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Shi, Yue; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-30

    A full-scale test was conducted with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pre-treating pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and amoxicillin. The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of UASB in the condition of a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate from 12.57 to 21.02 kgm(-3)d(-1) and a wide pH from 5.57 to 8.26, in order to provide a reference for treating the similar chemical synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin. The results demonstrated that the UASB average percentage reduction in COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin were 52.2%, 26.3% and 21.6%, respectively. In addition, three models, built on the back propagation neural network (BPNN) theory and linear regression techniques were developed for the simulation of the UASB system performance in the biodegradation of pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin. The average error of COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin were -0.63%, 2.19% and 5.40%, respectively. The results indicated that these models built on the BPNN theory were well-fitted to the detected data, and were able to simulate and predict the removal of COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin by UASB.

  10. Treatment with omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in captive South African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with spiral bacteria infection and gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Emily; Lobetti, Remo; Burroughs, Richard

    2004-03-01

    Six captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with severe gastritis diagnosed by gastric endoscopy and mucosal histopathology were treated with omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin for 3 wk. Endoscopic biopsies were performed before therapy, immediately after treatment, and 3, 7, and 19 mo after treatment. Macroscopic appearance of the stomach, histologic scoring of gastric inflammation, and the presence or absence of spiral bacteria were recorded. Spiral bacteria were absent histologically immediately after treatment but reappeared in endoscopic biopsies by 3 mo after treatment. Gastritis scores fluctuated widely during the trial but improved in five of six cheetahs by 3 mo after treatment. By 19 mo after treatment, scores were close to the pretreatment scores. Therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin, and metronidazole was associated with temporary improvement in the degree and distribution of gastritis in some cheetahs with gastritis, suggesting that treatment may be warranted once severe gastric inflammation has been diagnosed.

  11. Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid vs ceftazidime in the surgical extraction of impacted third molar: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisalli, U; Lalli, C; Cerone, L; Maida, S; Manzoli, L; Serra, E; Dolci, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness and the side effects of two different drugs, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid vs ceftazidime, used as antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical extraction of third molars and to demonstrate that the use of second choice antibiotic has no significant advantages in comparison with a first choice antibiotic. One hundred and seven patients with impacted third molar were selected and divided into two groups: amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were administered to group 1 and ceftazidime to group 2 for five days after surgery and we observed the postoperative period. The statistical analysis showed no differences between the two groups which lead to the conclusion that there is no indication to routinely administrate intramuscular second-choice antibiotic prophylatic therapy (ceftazidime) in case of surgical extraction of the third molar.

  12. Sensitivity of clinical isolates from German hospitals to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin) compared with other antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, J; Klietmann, W; Nösner, K; Rolinson, G N; Johnsen, J

    1988-01-01

    17,244 pathogens isolated from clinical specimens of 24 hospitals in the Moers area (North-Rhine Westphalia, FRG) were tested in regard to their susceptibility to Augmentin (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). For this purpose, minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by use of microbroth dilution technique. 80% of Gram-negative, 98% of Gram-positive and 97% of anaerobic isolates were susceptible to Augmentin (breakpoint 4 mg/l amoxicillin in the presence of 2.5 mg/l clavulanic acid). In a second part of the study the susceptibility to Augmentin of 4.137 Gram-negative and 10.958 Gram-positive pathogens was compared to their sensitivity against benzylpenicillin, flucloxacillin, mezlocillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, fusidic acid, ampicillin, cefaclor and doxycyclin.

  13. Newly designed silver coated-magnetic, monodisperse polymeric microbeads as SERS substrate for low-level detection of amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibar, Güneş; Topal, Ahmet Emin; Dana, Aykutlu; Tuncel, Ali

    2016-09-01

    We report the preparation of silver-coated magnetic polymethacrylate core-shell nanoparticles for use in surface-enhanced Raman scattering based drug detection. Monodisperse porous poly (mono-2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl succinate-co-glycerol dimethacrylate), poly (MMES-co-GDMA) microbeads of ca. 5 μm diameter were first synthesized through a multistage microsuspension polymerization technique to serve as a carboxyl-bearing core region. Microspheres were subsequently magnetized by the co-precipitation of ferric ions, aminated through the surface hydroxyl groups and decorated with Au nanoparticles via electrostatic attraction. An Ag shell was then formed on top of the Au layer through a seed-mediated growth process, resulting in micron-sized monodisperse microbeads that exhibit Raman enhancement effects due to the roughness of the Ag surface layer. The core-shell microspheres were used as a new substrate for the detection of amoxicillin at trace concentrations up to 10-8 M by SERS. The proposed SERS platform can be evaluated as a useful tool for the follow-up amoxicillin pollution and low-level detection of amoxicillin in aqueous media.

  14. Development of bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and Aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Arati N; Wankhede, Sonali S; Ranpise, Nisharani S; Mundada, Mayur S

    2012-12-01

    Usual treatment for Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer includes a 'triple therapy' consisting of two antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole). The objective of this project work was defined with a view to retain the drug in stomach for better antiulcer activity and substituting one of the synthetic drugs in this therapy with a herbal alternative. Hence, aim of the present work was to design and develop a bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and Aloe vera gel powder for the treatment of peptic ulcer. A. vera gel powder is used for its cytoprotective action. Bilayer floating tablets were prepared by applying direct compression technique. The proportion of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was adjusted to get the least possible lag time with good matrix integrity and total floating time. Polymer concentration was adjusted to get the maximum release in 8 h. The formulation was developed using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M and HPMC K100M in a ratio of 85:15 along with 1:4 ratio of effervescent agents was found to give floating lag time of less than 1 min with total floating time of more than 8 h and 97.0% drug release in 8 h. In vivo study in rats meets the requirement of antiulcer activity for bilayer tablet in comparison to single amoxicillin as standard.

  15. Levofloxacin-amoxicillin/clavulanate-rabeprazole versus a standard seven-day triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Cheh; Lei, Wei-Yi; Lin, Jen-Shung; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Hu, Chi-Tan

    2014-01-01

    The resistance rates of Helicobacter pylori to amoxicillin and metronidazole therapy are higher in eastern Taiwan as compared to national and worldwide rates. The high resistance rate in this territory justified a search for a better eradication regimen. We conducted an open-labeled, prospective, randomized, and controlled study in a tertiary referral hospital in eastern Taiwan. Between December 2007 and December 2009, a total of 153 Helicobacter pylori-positive, therapy-naïve patients with a positive rapid urease test were recruited for random assignment to two seven-day treatment groups: levofloxacin (500 mg), amoxicillin/clavulanate (875 mg/125 mg), and rabeprazole (20 mg) twice per day (LAcR) or clarithyromicin (500 mg), amoxicillin (1000 mg), and rabeprazole (20 mg) twice per day (CAR). Helicobacter pylori eradication was assessed using the (13)C-urea breath test or rapid urease test performed at least 4 weeks after the end of treatment. After exclusion, 146 patients were enrolled and allocated in the study. The Helicobacter pylori eradication rates analyzed by both intention to treat (78.1% versus 57.5%, P = 0.008) and perprotocol (80.9% versus 61.8%, P = 0.014) were significantly higher for the LAcR group. In conclusion, the seven-day LAcR regimen provided improved Helicobacter pylori eradication efficacy when compared with the standard CAR triple therapy in eastern Taiwan.

  16. Late-onset Rash in Patients with Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis Treated with Amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We observed late-onset rashes in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Of 1028 patients with GAS pharyngitis, which was principally treated with amoxicillin, we evaluated those who developed a late-onset rash and excluded those with scarlet fever alone. Twenty-one patients developed a rash (2.0%, 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.1%), 7 to 20 days (median, 8 days) after GAS pharyngitis onset. The rashes were characterized by maculopapules, which increased in size with coalescence and some developing into plaques, with a symmetrical distribution with a propensity for the extremities, including the palms and soles. The clinical courses of the patients were good, and the rashes subsided within 14 days. A non-immediate reaction to β-lactams, which usually manifests as a maculopapular rash, is a possible cause in our patients, however, repeated courses of amoxicillin in 3 patients did not induce the rash. The underlying mechanism of the late-onset rash after GAS pharyngitis with amoxicillin treatment remains unclear. PMID:26734124

  17. Late-onset rash in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis treated with amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Kimura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed late-onset rashes in patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS pharyngitis. Of 1028 patients with GAS pharyngitis, which was principally treated with amoxicillin, we evaluated those who developed a late-onset rash and excluded those with scarlet fever alone. Twenty-one patients developed a rash (2.0%, 95% confidence interval, 1.3- 3.1%, 7 to 20 days (median, 8 days after GAS pharyngitis onset. The rashes were characterized by maculopapules, which increased in size with coalescence and some developing into plaques, with a symmetrical distribution with a propensity for the extremities, including the palms and soles. The clinical courses of the patients were good, and the rashes subsided within 14 days. A non-immediate reaction to β-lactams, which usually manifests as a maculopapular rash, is a possible cause in our patients, however, repeated courses of amoxicillin in 3 patients did not induce the rash. The underlying mechanism of the late-onset rash after GAS pharyngitis with amoxicillin treatment remains unclear.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) following intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinphithakkul, P; Klangkaew, N; Sanyathitiseree, P; Giorgi, M; Kumagai, S; Poapolathep, A; Poapolathep, S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin (AMX) trihydrate in male Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, following intramuscular administration at two dosages of 5.5 and 11 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected from 0.5 up to 72 h. The concentration of AMX in elephant plasma was measured using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. AMX was measurable up to 24 h after administration at two dosages. Peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) was 1.20 ± 0.39 μg/mL after i.m. administration at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg b.w., whereas it was 3.40 ± 0.63 μg/mL at a dosage of 11 mg/kg b.w. A noncompartment model was developed to describe the disposition of AMX in Asian elephants. Based on the preliminary findings found in this research, the dosage of 5.5 and 11 mg/kg b.w. produced drug plasma concentrations higher than 0.25 mg/mL for 24 h after i.m. administration. Thereafter, i.m. administration with AMX at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg b.w. appeared a more suitable dose than 11 mg/kg b.w. However, more studies are needed to determine AMX clinical effectiveness in elephants.

  19. Simultaneous diffuse reflectance infrared determination of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin using multivariate calibration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Aline Lima Hermes; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Ferrão, Marco Flores; da Silva, Fabiana Ernestina Barcellos; Müller, Edson Irineu; Flores, Erico Marlon de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of clavulanic acid (CA) and amoxicillin (AMO) in commercial tablets was developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and multivariate calibration. Twenty-five samples (10 commercial and 15 synthetic) were used as a calibration set and 15 samples (10 commercial and 5 synthetic) were used for a prediction set. Calibration models were developed using partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS), and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms. The best algorithm for CA determination was siPLS model with spectra divided in 30 intervals and combinations of 2 intervals. This model showed a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 5.1 mg g(-1). For AMO determination, the best siPLS model was obtained with spectra divided in 10 intervals and combinations of 4 intervals. This model showed a RMSEP of 22.3 mg g(-1). The proposed method was considered as a suitable for the simultaneous determination of CA and AMO in commercial pharmaceuticals products.

  20. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Yun; Huh, Wooseong; Jung, Jin Ah; Yoo, Hye Min; Ko, Jae-Wook; Kim, Jung-Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is mainly metabolized via glucuronide, which is hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and undergoes enterohepatic circulation. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) administration leads to decreased levels of β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, suggesting that these antibiotics could interrupt enterohepatic circulation and thereby alter the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AMC on the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This was an open-label, two-treatment, one-sequence study in 16 healthy volunteers. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment VPA, in which a single dose of VPA 500 mg was administered, and treatment AMC + VPA, in which multiple doses of AMC 500/125 mg were administered three times daily for 7 days and then a single dose of VPA was administered. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Systemic exposures and peak concentrations of VPA were slightly lower with treatment AMC + VPA than with treatment VPA (AUClast, 851.0 h·mg/L vs 889.6 h·mg/L; C max, 52.1 mg/L vs 53.0 mg/L). There were no significant between-treatment effects on pharmacokinetics (95% confidence interval [CI]) of AUClast and C max (95.7 [85.9-106.5] and 98.3 [91.6-105.6], respectively). Multiple doses of AMC had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of VPA; thus, no dose adjustment is necessary.

  1. Levofloxacin/amoxicillin-based schemes vs quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in second-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Simona; Fini, Lucia; Daoud, Yayha; Grizzi, Fabio; Gasbarrini, Antonio; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Renzo, Laura; McCartney, Sara; Bloom, Stuart

    2012-10-28

    Worldwide prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is approximately 50%, with the highest being in developing countries. We compared cure rates and tolerability (SE) of second-line anti-H. pylori levofloxacin/amoxicillin (LA)-based triple regimens vs standard quadruple therapy (QT). An English language literature search was performed up to October 2010. A meta-analysis was performed including randomized clinical trials comparing 7- or 10-d LA with 7-d QT. In total, 10 articles and four abstracts were identified. Overall eradication rate in LA was 76.5% (95% CI: 64.4%-97.6%). When only 7-d regimens were included, cure rate was 70.6% (95% CI: 40.2%-99.1%), whereas for 10-d combinations, cure rate was significantly higher (88.7%; 95% CI: 56.1%-109.9%; P therapy than QT (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.85; P = 0.02). A higher rate of side effects was reported in Asian patients who received QT. Our findings support the use of 10-d LA as a simple second-line treatment for H. pylori eradication with an excellent eradication rate and tolerability. The optimal second-line alternative scheme might differ among countries depending on quinolone resistance.

  2. A simple sample preparation method for measuring amoxicillin in human plasma by hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei-Chong; Hou, Zi-Li; Jiang, Xin-Hui; Jiang, Ye

    2013-02-01

    A simple sample preparation method has been developed for the determination of amoxicillin in human plasma by hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration (HF-CF-UF). A 400-μL plasma sample was placed directly into the HF-CF-UF device, which consisited of a slim glass tube and a U-shaped hollow fiber. After centrifugation at 1.25 × 10(3) g for 10 min, the filtrate was withdrawn from the hollow fiber and 20 µL was directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analysis. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.1-20 µg/mL (r = 0.9996) and the limit of detection was as low as 0.025 µg/mL. The average recovery and absolute recovery were 99.9% and 84.5%, respectively. Both the intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were less than 3.1% for three concentrations (0.25, 2.5 and 10 µg/mL). The sample preparation process was simplified. Only after a single centrifugal ultrafiltration can the filtrate be injected directly into HPLC. The present method is simple, sensitive and accurate. It could be effective for the analysis of biological samples with high protein contents, especially for the biopharmaceutical analysis of drugs that use traditional isolation techniques for sample preparation such as the protein precipitation method.

  3. Degradation of the antibiotic amoxicillin by photo-Fenton process--chemical and toxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovó, Alam G; Nogueira, Raquel F Pupo; Agüera, Ana; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R; Malato, Sixto

    2011-01-01

    The influence of iron species on amoxicillin (AMX) degradation, intermediate products generated and toxicity during the photo-Fenton process using a solar simulator were evaluated in this work. The AMX degradation was favored in the presence of the potassium ferrioxalate complex (FeOx) when compared to FeSO(4). Total oxidation of AMX in the presence of FeOx was obtained after 5 min, while 15 min were necessary using FeSO(4). The results obtained with Daphnia magna biossays showed that the toxicity decreased from 65 to 5% after 90 min of irradiation in the presence of FeSO(4). However, it increased again to a maximum of 100% after 150 min, what indicates the generation of more toxic intermediates than AMX, reaching 45% after 240 min. However, using FeOx, the inhibition of mobility varied between 100 and 70% during treatment, probably due to the presence of oxalate, which is toxic to the neonates. After 240 min, between 73 and 81% TOC removal was observed. Different pathways of AMX degradation were suggested including the opening of the four-membered β-lactamic ring and further oxidations of the methyl group to aldehyde and/or hydroxylation of the benzoic ring, generating other intermediates after bound cleavage between different atoms and further oxidation to carboxylates such acetate, oxalate and propionate, besides the generation of nitrate and ammonium.

  4. Simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate in different commercial drugs using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejjani, A., E-mail: abejjani@cnrs.edu.lb [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Roumié, M. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Akkad, S. [Facutly of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); El-Yazbi, F. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, P.O. Box: 21521, Elmesalla, Alexandria (Egypt); Nsouli, B. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-03-15

    We have demonstrated, in previous studies that Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is one of the most rapid and accurate choices for quantification of an active ingredient, in a solid drug, from the reactions induced on its specific heteroatom using pellets made from original tablets. In this work, PIXE is used, for the first time, for simultaneous quantification of two active ingredients, amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate, in six different commercial antibiotic type of drugs. Since the quality control process of a drug covers a large number of samples, the scope of this study was also to found the most rapid and low cost sample preparation needed to analyze these drugs with a good precision. The chosen drugs were analyzed in their tablets’ “as received” form, in pellets made from the powder of the tablets and also in pellets made from the powder of the tablets after being heated up to 70 °C to avoid any molecular destruction until constant weight and removal of humidity. The quantification validity related to the aspects of each sample preparation (homogeneity of the drug components and humidity) are presented and discussed.

  5. Magnetic Fe3O4@C nanoparticles as adsorbents for removal of amoxicillin from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakavandi, Babak; Esrafili, Ali; Mohseni-Bandpi, Anoushiravan; Jonidi Jafari, Ahmad; Rezaei Kalantary, Roshanak

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, powder activated carbon (PAC) combined with Fe(3)O(4) magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were used for the preparation of magnetic composites (MNPs-PAC), which was used as an adsorbent for amoxicillin (AMX) removal. The properties of magnetic activated carbon were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunaeur, Emmett and Teller and vibrating sample magnetometer. The operational factors affecting adsorption such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial AMX concentration and temperature were studied in detail. The high surface area and saturation magnetization for the synthesized adsorbent were found to be 671.2 m(2)/g and 6.94 emu/g, respectively. The equilibrium time of the adsorption process was 90 min. Studies of adsorption equilibrium and kinetic models revealed that the adsorption of AMX onto MNPs-PAC followed Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The calculated values of the thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° demonstrated that the AMX adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. It could be concluded that MNPs-PAC have a great potential for antibiotic removal from aquatic media.

  6. Amoxicillin Separation from Pharmaceutical Wastewater by High Permeability Polysulfone Nanofiltration Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Derakhsheshpoor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high permeability flat sheet polysulfone nanofiltration membranes were prepared for amoxicillin (AMX recovery from pharmaceutical wastewater. Membrane fabrication includes two steps: raw ultrafiltration membrane synthesis by phase inversion method and nanaofiltration membrane synthesis by surface photopolymerization. Raw ultrafiltration membranes were synthesized using different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG as pore former and different coagulation bath temperatures (CBTs. The synthesized ultrafiltration membranes were modified using UV-assisted polymerization technique and their performance in the separation of AMX at different pHs, were studied. The results showed that the more irradiation time, the smaller surface pore size. Moreover, the membranes made with higher molecular weight of PEG and coagulation bath temperatures were more susceptible for UV-modification at these conditions; fabricated membranes had higher flux as well as relatively high AMX separation. Moreover, pH enhancement increased AMX rejection by 85%. The effect of irradiation on membrane surface morphology was studied by SEM surface images and the morphological effects of pore former and coagulation bath temperatures on membrane structure were confirmed by SEM cross section images. A fairly comprehensive discussion about the effects of PEG, coagulation bath temperature and irradiation time on membrane structure and AMX recovery performance was represented in this study.

  7. Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography: Mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Quantitative analysis of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in biological matrices requires sensitive and specific methods which allow determination of therapeutic concentration in μg/mL range. Analytical methods for determination of their concentrations in body fluids described in literature include high performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV detector (HPLC-UV and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS method which could be used for the spectral identification and quantification of the low concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma. Method. A sensitive and specific UPLC/MS method for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid determination was developed in this study. The samples were taken from the adult healthy volunteers receiving per os one tablet of amoxicillin (875 mg in combination with clavulanic acid (125 mg. Results. Plasma samples were pretreated by direct deproteinization with perchloric acid. Quantification limit of 0.01 μg/ml for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was achieved. The method was reproducible day by day (RSD < 7 %. Analytical recoveries for amoxicillin ranged from 98.82% to 100.9% (for concentrations of 1, 5 and 20 μg/mL, and recoveries for clavulanic acid were 99,89% to 100.1% (for concentrations of 1, 2 and 5 μg/mL. This assay was successfully applied to a pilot pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers after a single-oral administration of amoxicillin/ clavulanic combination. The determined plasma concentrations of both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were in the range of the expected values upon the literature data for HPLC-UV and LC-MS methods. Conclusion. The described method provided a few advantages comparing with LC/MS-MS method. The method is faster using running time of 5 minute, has lower limit of quantification (LOQ and it

  8. Improving Drug Loading of Mucosal Solvent Cast Films Using a Combination of Hydrophilic Polymers with Amoxicillin and Paracetamol as Model Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Boateng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent cast mucosal films with improved drug loading have been developed by combining carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, sodium alginate (SA, and carrageenan (CAR using paracetamol and amoxicillin as model drugs and glycerol (GLY as plasticizer. Films were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, folding resilience, swelling capacity, mucoadhesivity, and drug dissolution studies. SA, CMC, and GLY (5 : 3 : 6 films showed maximum amoxicillin loading of 26.3% whilst CAR, CMC, and GLY (1 : 2 : 3 films had a maximum paracetamol loading of 40%. XRPD analysis showed different physical forms of the drugs depending on the amount loaded. Films containing 29.4% paracetamol and 26.3% amoxicillin showed molecular dispersion of the drugs while excess paracetamol was observed on the film surface when the maximum 40% was loaded. Work of adhesion was similar for blank films with slightly higher cohesiveness for CAR and CMC based films, but the differences were significant between paracetamol and amoxicillin containing films. The stickiness and cohesiveness for drug loaded films were generally similar with no significant differences. The maximum percentage cumulative drug release was 84.65% and 70.59% for paracetamol and amoxicillin, respectively, with anomalous case two transport mechanism involving both drug diffusion and polymer erosion.

  9. Assessment of solar driven TiO2-assisted photocatalysis efficiency on amoxicillin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, João H O S; Reis, Ana C; Nunes, Olga C; Borges, Maria T; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a solar TiO2-assisted photocatalytic process on amoxicillin (AMX) degradation, an antibiotic widely used in human and veterinary medicine. Firstly, solar photolysis of AMX was compared with solar photocatalysis in a compound parabolic collectors pilot scale photoreactor to assess the amount of accumulated UV energy in the system (Q UV) necessary to remove 20 mg L(-1) AMX from aqueous solution and mineralize the intermediary by-products. Another experiment was also carried out to accurately follow the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli DSM 1103 and Staphylococcus aureus DSM 1104 and mineralization of AMX by tracing the contents of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), low molecular weight carboxylate anions, and inorganic anions. Finally, the influence of individual inorganic ions on AMX photocatalytic degradation efficiency and the involvement of some reactive oxygen species were also assessed. Photolysis was shown to be completely ineffective, while only 3.1 kJUV L(-1) was sufficient to fully degrade 20 mg L(-1) AMX and remove 61% of initial DOC content in the presence of the photocatalyst and sunlight. In the experiment with an initial AMX concentration of 40 mg L(-1), antibacterial activity of the solution was considerably reduced after elimination of AMX to levels below the respective detection limit. After 11.7 kJUV L(-1), DOC decreased by 71%; 30% of the AMX nitrogen was converted into ammonium and all sulfur compounds were converted into sulfate. A large percentage of the remaining DOC was in the form of low molecular weight carboxylic acids. Presence of phosphate ions promoted the removal of AMX from solution, while no sizeable effects on the kinetics were found for other inorganic ions. Although the AMX degradation was mainly attributed to hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen also plays an important role in AMX self-photosensitization under UV/visible solar light.

  10. Solar photocatalytic oxidation of recalcitrant natural metabolic by-products of amoxicillin biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, João H O S; Reis, Ana C; Homem, Vera; Silva, José A; Alves, Arminda; Borges, Maria T; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P; Nunes, Olga C

    2014-11-15

    The contamination of the aquatic environment by non-metabolized and metabolized antibiotic residues has brought the necessity of alternative treatment steps to current water decontamination technologies. This work assessed the feasibility of using a multistage treatment system for amoxicillin (AMX) spiked solutions combining: i) a biological treatment process using an enriched culture to metabolize AMX, with ii) a solar photocatalytic system to achieve the removal of the metabolized transformation products (TPs) identified via LC-MS, recalcitrant to further biological degradation. Firstly, a mixed culture (MC) was obtained through the enrichment of an activated sludge sample collected in an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Secondly, different aqueous matrices spiked with AMX were treated with the MC and the metabolic transformation products were identified. Thirdly, the efficiency of two solar assisted photocatalytic processes (TiO2/UV or Fe(3+)/Oxalate/H2O2/UV-Vis) was assessed in the degradation of the obtained TPs using a lab-scale prototype photoreactor equipped with a compound parabolic collector (CPC). Highest AMX specific biodegradation rates were obtained in buffer and urban wastewater (WW) media (0.10 ± 0.01 and 0.13 ± 0.07 g(AMX) g(biomass)(-1) h(-1), respectively). The resulting TPs, which no longer presented antibacterial activity, were identified as amoxicilloic acid (m/z = 384). The performance of the Fe(3+)/Oxalate/H2O2/UV-Vis system in the removal of the TPs from WW medium was superior to the TiO2/UV process (TPs no longer detected after 40 min (QUV = 2.6 kJ L(-1)), against incomplete TPs removal after 240 min (QUV = 14.9 kJ L(-1)), respectively).

  11. Diffuse reflectance near infrared-chemometric methods development and validation of amoxicillin capsule formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nawaz Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to establish near infrared-chemometric methods that could be effectively used for quality profiling through identification and quantification of amoxicillin (AMOX in formulated capsule which were similar to commercial products. In order to evaluate a large number of market products easily and quickly, these methods were modeled. Materials and Methods: Thermo Scientific Antaris II near infrared analyzer with TQ Analyst Chemometric Software were used for the development and validation of the identification and quantification models. Several AMOX formulations were composed with four excipients microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, croscarmellose sodium and colloidal silicon dioxide. Development includes quadratic mixture formulation design, near infrared spectrum acquisition, spectral pretreatment and outlier detection. According to prescribed guidelines by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH and European Medicine Agency (EMA developed methods were validated in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, and robustness. Results: On diffuse reflectance mode, an identification model based on discriminant analysis was successfully processed with 76 formulations; and same samples were also used for quantitative analysis using partial least square algorithm with four latent variables and 0.9937 correlation of coefficient followed by 2.17% root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC, 2.38% root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP, 2.43% root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV. Conclusion: Proposed model established a good relationship between the spectral information and AMOX identity as well as content. Resulted values show the performance of the proposed models which offers alternate choice for AMOX capsule evaluation, relative to that of well-established high-performance liquid chromatography method. Ultimately three commercial products were successfully evaluated

  12. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin-treated SPF mice as gnotobiotic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Miroslav; Gancarčíková, Soňa; Maďar, Marián; Mudroňová, Dagmar; Hrčková, Gabriela; Nemcová, Radomíra

    2016-11-01

    The experiment was carried out on 24 SPF BALB/c female mice and lasted for 15 days with a 5-day antibiotic (ATB) treatment and then 10 days without ATB treatment. The aim of our study was to acquire an animal model with reduced and controlled microflora and, at the same time, to ensure that the good health of these animals is maintained. Per oral administration of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in Amoksiklav (Sandoz, Slovenia) at a dose of 387.11 mg/kg body weight (0.2 ml of dilution per mouse) and subcutaneous administration of ciprofloxacin in Ciloxan (Alcon, Spain) at a dose of 18.87 mg/kg body weight (0.1 ml of dilution per mouse) were performed every 12 h during first 5 days of experiment. Five-day treatment with ATB led to a reduced survivability of microorganisms in faeces (28.33 ± 0.43 % on day 2) and caecum content (28.10 ± 1.56 %), where no cultivable microorganisms in faeces were present. Ten-day convalescence of decontaminated animals under gnotobiotic conditions prevented recovery of species diversity in mice gut microflora. This was reduced to two detectable cultivable species, namely Escherichia coli (GenBank KX086704) and Enterococcus sp. (GenBank KX086705) which were capable to restore its metabolic (CRL 2012) and morphological potential (Baratta et al. Histochem Cell Biol 131:713-726, 2009) within physiological range. Animals obtained under this procedure can be used in further studies. As a result, we created a mouse gnoto model with reduced and controlled microflora without alteration of the overall health status of the respective animals.

  13. [Omeprazole/amoxicillin: improved eradication of Helicobacter pylori in smokers because of N-acetylcysteine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zala, G; Flury, R; Wüst, J; Meyenberger, C; Ammann, R; Wirth, H P

    1994-08-09

    Colonization of Helicobacter pylori (HP) beneath the protective film of gastric mucus enables the organism to survive in the hostile environment of the gastric mucosa. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl compound with potent mucolytic activity, induces a reduction of gastric barrier mucus thickness of about 75% and reduces mucus viscoelasticity. We therefore tested the hypothesis whether better eradication results could be achieved by addition of NAC to omeprazole/amoxicillin (OME/AMOX). 34 HP positive outpatients with endoscopically documented recurrent duodenal ulcer were included in an ongoing, prospective, randomized trial. Exclusion criteria were: alcoholism, previous gastric surgery, or intake of antibiotics, OME, bismuth salts, corticosteroids or NSAIDs within 4 weeks before study entry. Patients currently smoking > 10 cigarettes/day were classified as smokers. HP infection was confirmed by histology (3 biopsy specimens from gastric antrum and 2 from gastric body; H&E, Giemsa) and at least positive rapid urease test or culture. All 34 patients underwent ulcer therapy with OME (20 mg per day) for 20 days (d 1-20). Group A: in 17 patients (5 females, 12 males, mean age 46 [29-74] years; 8 smokers, 9 nonsmokers) the subsequent eradication therapy, consisting of oral OME (40 mg bid) and AMOX solute (750 mg tid) for 10 days, was combined with NAC solute (2 x 600 mg bid (d 21-30). Group B: 17 patients (2 females, 15 males, mean age 39 [19-70] years; 11 smokers, 6 nonsmokers) underwent eradication therapy without NAC (d 21-30). Control endoscopy was done after a minimal interval of 30 days from the end of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The role of IgE recognition in allergic reactions to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Montañez, M I; Ariza, A; Salas, M; Fernandez, T D; Barbero, N; Mayorga, C; Blanca, M

    2016-02-01

    Betalactam (BL) antibiotics are the drugs most frequently involved in IgE-mediated reactions. The culprit BL varies according to consumption patterns, with amoxicillin (AX) more prevalent in Southern Europe and penicillin V in Scandinavian countries. Nowadays, the combination of AX and clavulanic acid (CLV) is the most highly consumed BL containing medicine worldwide. Both BLs, AX and CLV, can independently be involved in reactions, which poses a diagnostic challenge. In patients with immediate allergic reactions to AX, two patterns of responses have been described, those responding to benzylpenicillin (cross-reactors) and those selective to AX. In addition, selective reactions to CLV account for around 30% of allergic reactions to the combination AX-CLV. These patterns of IgE recognition could be related to differences in the haptenation process, in the immunological response, or in the BL involved in the first sensitization. In this regard, patients with selective responses to CLV are generally younger than those allergic to AX or benzylpenicillin. So far, no evidence of cross-reactivity between CLV and other BLs has been reported. This shows the importance of an accurate diagnosis of CLV allergy, as patients with selective reactions to CLV could take other BLs including AX. Diagnosis can be performed in vivo and in vitro, although no immunoassay currently exists. Research regarding the CLV antigenic determinants and protein conjugates is essential to improve diagnosis. BLs need to covalently bind to a carrier protein to be immunogenic. The antigenic determinant of AX is the amoxicilloyl amide, but CLV leads to unstable structures, many of which are unknown. Moreover, the nature of the BL-protein conjugates plays an important role in IgE recognition. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the immunochemistry, diagnostic approaches as well as chemical and proteomic studies for both AX and CLV.

  15. Kinetic Isotherm of Amoxicillin Antibiotic through Adsorption and its Removal by Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Chatterjee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment because they have adverse effects on the aquatic life and humans. The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine has a significant effect on the quality of surface and groundwater. The relevance of an electrocoagulation (EC process for the removal of an antibiotic was selected because of its wide application, high solubility in water, high residual toxicity and an absence of biodegradability, was examined in this study. Metal hydroxides generated during EC were used to remove Amoxicillin (AMX from aqueous solution. The knowledge regarding the removal mechanism of this substance has not yet been investigated till now. Experiments were carried out in a batch electrochemical reactor using aluminum electrodes. The removal of AMX was relatively fast and equilibrium was reached within 20 min. The effects of the main operating parameters were examined and showed that irrespective of the initial concentration and for pH ranging from 3 to 10, maximum removal efficiency remained close to 95%; while a sharp decrease was recorded at pH 2 (8 % removal. The results of this study also showed that the removal of AMX from water was strongly affected by the current intensity. The mechanism of electrocoagulation was modeled using isotherm models and showed that the Sips isotherm matched satisfactorily the experimental data, suggesting monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules and assumed a quasi-Gaussian distribution energy owing to the high correlation also found for the Toth model. In addition, adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities, as when the pH and initial antibiotic concentrations were considered.

  16. Efficacy of omeprazole and amoxicillin with either clarithromycin or metronidazole on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Chinese peptic ulcer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hao Sun; Han Su; Xi-Long Ou; Da-Zhong Cao; Qian Yu; Ting Yu; Jin-Ming Hu; Feng Zhu; Yun-Liang Sun; Xi-Ling Fu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: One-week triple therapy with proton pump inhibitors, clarithromycin and amoxicillin has recently been proposed as the first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection; however, data regarding the effects of this regimen in China are scarce. The aim of this prospective and randomized study was to compare the efficacy of clarithromycin and metronidazole when they were combined with omeprazole and amoxicillin on eradication of H pylori and ulcer healing in Chinese peptic ulcer patients.METHODS: A total of 103 subjects with H pylori-positive peptic ulcer were randomly divided into two groups, and accepted triple therapy with omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1 000 mg and either clarithromycin 500 mg (OAC group,n = 58) or metronidazole 400 mg (OAM group, n = 45).All drugs were given twice daily for 7 d. Patients with active peptic ulcer were treated with omeprazole 20 mg daily for 2-4 wk after anti-H pylori therapy. Six to eight weeks after omeprazole therapy, all patients underwent endoscopies and four biopsies (two from the antrum and two others from the corpus of stomach) were taken for rapid urease test and histological analysis (with modified Giemsa staining) to examine H pylori. Successful eradication was defined as negative results from both examination methods.RESULTS: One hundred patients completed the entire course of therapy and returned for follow-up. The eradication rate of H pylori for the per-protocol analysis was 89.3% (50/56) in OAC group and 84.1% (37/44) in OAM group. Based on the intention-to-treat analysis, the eradication rate of H pylori was 86.2% (50/58) in OAC group and 82.2% (37/45) in OAM group. There were no significant differences in eradication rates between the two groups on either analysis. The active ulcer-healing rate was 96.7% (29/30) in OAC group and 100% (21/21)in OAM group (per-protocol analysis, P>0.05). Six patients in OAC group (10.3%) and five in OAM group (11.1%)reported adverse events (P>0.05).CONCLUSION

  17. An isocratic ion exchange HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in a pharmaceutical formulation for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Hongwu; Sunderland, V Bruce

    2005-02-23

    An isocratic ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of flucloxacillin and amoxicillin in pharmaceutical formulations for injections. The separation was made by a ZORBAX 300-SCX column using 0.025 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (adjusted to pH 2.6 with phosphoric acid)-acetonitrile (95:5) as mobile phase. The validation of the method was performed, and specificity, reproducibility, precision and accuracy were confirmed. The limits of quantification were approximately 0.2 microg/ml for each drug. Due to its simplicity and accuracy the method is particularly suitable for routine pharmaceutical quality control.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin administered in drinking water to recently weaned 3- to 4-week-old pigs with diarrhea experimentally induced by Escherichia coli O149 : F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.;

    2006-01-01

    Objective-To measure effects of Escherichia coli 0149:F4-induced diarrhea on water consumption and pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after administration in drinking water. Animals-24 recently weaned 24- to 28-day-old crossbred pigs. Procedure-10 pigs were inoculated with E coli O149:F4; all 10 pigs...... of amoxicillin may be appropriate for administration in drinking water during a 4-hour period on the first day that pigs have diarrhea attributable to E coli 0149:F4....... subsequently developed diarrhea. Pigs were medicated by administration of amoxicillin in the drinking water (0.75 mg/mL) for a 4-hour period on 2 consecutive days. Fourteen age-matched noninfected healthy pigs (control group) were medicated in a similar manner. Blood samples were obtained from both groups...

  19. Hydrolytic and photochemistry degradation of the amoxicillin in {beta}-cyclodextrin; Degradacao hidrolitica e fotoquimica da amoxicilina na presenca de {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bariccatti, R.A.; Silva, C.; Souza, M.L.; Lindino, C.A.; Rosa, M.F. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharias e Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: reinaldo0207@brturbo.com.br

    2008-10-15

    This work has like purpose monitors the degradation of the drug amoxicillin in the presence and absence of {beta}-cyclodextrin, through techniques spectroscopy. For this, there was accompanied the hydrolysis of the drug protected of the light for around 400 hours. The results indicate that, initially, the cyclodextrin does not alter the hydrolysis of the amoxicillin, however, after 250 hours there is an increase of the hydrolysis of the amoxicillin when present at cyclodextrin. Another variable was the irradiation of the sample with radiation in the region of the UV, we see that the solutions containing {beta}- cyclodextrin suffer a slower phototransformation (26,8%) than the solutions without {beta}-cyclodextrin, when irradiated by UV radiation. (author)

  20. Synthesis, sustained release properties of magnetically functionalized organic-inorganic materials: Amoxicillin anions intercalated magnetic layered double hydroxides via calcined precursors at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Guangchun; Li, Zhanshuang; Yang, Piaoping; Jing, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Milin; Liu, Tianfu; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2009-09-01

    Zinc-aluminum-carbonate-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-CO 3-LDHs), loaded with magnetic substrates (Fe 3O 4), were prepared for sustained drug-targeting delivery. From the X-ray diffraction results, it was found that the magnetic substrates were successfully incorporated with LDHs and highly dispersed in the hydrotalcite structure. After intercalation with an antibiotic drug (amoxicillin) by using a calcinations-reconstruction method, the basal spacing of layered double hydroxides increased from 7.51 Å to 12.35 Å, indicating that amoxicillin was successfully intercalated into the interlay space of LDHs as a monolayer. Furthermore, in vitro drug release experiments in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) showed sustained release profiles with amoxicillin as a model drug. Magnetic measurements revealed that the composite possessed paramagnetic properties at room temperature.

  1. Randomized comparative study of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachalios, G N

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were compared with those of co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections. A total of 104 patients (mean age, 52 years) with clinical and laboratory evidence of acute urinary tract infection were enrolled in the study. Characteristics and infecting organisms were equivalent in both groups of patients. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria pathogen in both groups. Both drugs resulted in clinical improvement in 100% of the patients; bacteriological cure after the termination of therapy was 95% with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and 83% with co-trimoxazole (P less than 0.001). Side effects were not severe enough to necessitate discontinuation of the antimicrobial agents. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is effective and safe therapy for acute urinary tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria. PMID:3911880

  2. Randomized two-way cross-over bioequivalence study of two amoxicillin formulations and inter-ethnicity pharmacokinetic variation in healthy Malay volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kai Bin; Loh, Gabriel Onn Kit; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a new deproteinization method to extract amoxicillin from human plasma and evaluate the inter-ethnic variation of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in healthy Malay volunteers. A single-dose, randomized, fasting, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, open-label bioequivalence study was conducted in 18 healthy Malay adult male volunteers, with one week washout period. The drug concentration in the sample was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-vis HPLC). The mean (standard deviation) pharmacokinetic parameter results of Moxilen® were: peak concentration (Cmax ), 6.72 (1.56) µg/mL; area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-8 ), 17.79 (4.29) µg/mL h; AUC0-∞ , 18.84 (4.62) µg/mL h. Those of YSP Amoxicillin® capsule were: Cmax , 6.69 (1.44) µg/mL; AUC0-8 , 18.69 (3.78) µg/mL h; AUC00-∞ , 19.95 (3.81) µg/mL h. The 90% confidence intervals for the logarithmic transformed Cmax , AUC0-8 and AUC0-∞ of Moxilen® vs YSP Amoxicillin® capsule was between 0.80 and 1.25. Both Cmax and AUC met the predetermined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. Both formulations were well tolerated. The results showed significant inter-ethnicity variation in pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The Cmax and AUC of amoxicillin in Malay population were slightly lower compared with other populations.

  3. Cefotaxime and Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Synergism against Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in a Murine Model of Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, B; Soubirou, J F; Chau, F; Massias, L; Dion, S; Lepeule, R; Fantin, B; Lefort, A

    2015-11-02

    We investigated the efficacies of cefotaxime (CTX) and amoxicillin (AMX)-clavulanate (CLA) (AMC) against extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in vitro and in a murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI). MICs, the checkerboard dilution method, and time-kill curves were used to explore the in vitro synergism between cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate against two isogenic E. coli strains-CFT073-RR and its transconjugant, CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15)-harboring a bla(CTX-M-15) plasmid and a bla(OXA-1) plasmid. For in vivo experiments, mice were separately infected with each strain and treated with cefotaxime, amoxicillin, and clavulanate, alone or in combination, or imipenem, using therapeutic regimens reproducing time of free-drug concentrations above the MIC (fT≥MIC) values close to that obtained in humans. MICs of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and imipenem were 4/>1,024, 0.125/1,024, and 0.5/0.5 mg/liter, for CFT073-RR and CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15), respectively. The addition of 2 mg/liter of clavulanate (CLA) restored the susceptibility of CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15) to CTX (MICs of the CTX-CLA combination, 0.125 mg/liter). The checkerboard dilution method and time-kill curves confirmed an in vitro synergy between amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefotaxime against CFT073-RR Tc bla(CTX-M-15). In vivo, this antibiotic combination was similarly active against both strains and as effective as imipenem. In conclusion, the cefotaxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate combination appear to be an effective, easy, and already available alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of UTI due to CTX-M-producing E. coli strains.

  4. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Yun Lee,1 Wooseong Huh,2 Jin Ah Jung,3 Hye Min Yoo,2 Jae-Wook Ko,1,2 Jung-Ryul Kim2,4 1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, 4Department of Clinical Research and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Valproic acid (VPA is mainly metabolized via glucuronide, which is hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and undergoes enterohepatic circulation. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC administration leads to decreased levels of β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, suggesting that these antibiotics could interrupt enterohepatic circulation and thereby alter the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AMC on the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This was an open-label, two-treatment, one-sequence study in 16 healthy volunteers. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment VPA, in which a single dose of VPA 500 mg was administered, and treatment AMC + VPA, in which multiple doses of AMC 500/125 mg were administered three times daily for 7 days and then a single dose of VPA was administered. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Systemic exposures and peak concentrations of VPA were slightly lower with treatment AMC + VPA than with treatment VPA (AUClast, 851.0 h·mg/L vs 889.6 h·mg/L; Cmax, 52.1 mg/L vs 53.0 mg/L. There were no significant between-treatment effects on pharmacokinetics (95% confidence interval [CI] of AUClast and Cmax (95.7 [85.9–106.5] and 98.3 [91.6–105.6], respectively. Multiple doses of AMC had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of VPA; thus, no dose adjustment is necessary. Keywords: drug–drug interaction, pharmacokinetics

  5. Levofloxacin/amoxicillin-based schemes vs quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in second-line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simona Di Caro; Lucia Fini; Yayha Daoud; Fabio Grizzi; Antonio Gasbarrini; Antonino De Lorenzo; Laura Di Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori)infection is approximately 50%,with the highest being in developing countries.We compared cure rates and tolerability (SE) of second-line anti-H,pylori levofloxacin/amoxicillin (LA)-based triple regimens vs standard quadruple therapy (QT).An English language literature search was performed up to October 2010.A meta-analysis was performed including randomized clinical trials comparing 7-or 10-d LA with 7-d QT.In total,10 articles and four abstracts were identified.Overall eradication rate in LA was 76.5% (95%CI:64.4%-97.6%).When only 7-d regimens were included,cure rate was 70.6% (95% CI:40.2%-99.1%),whereas for 10-d combinations,cure rate was significantly higher (88.7%; 95% CI:56.1%-109.9%;P < 0.05).Main eradication rate for QT was 67.4% (95% CI:49.7%-67.9%).The 7-d LA and QT showed comparable efficacy [odds ratio (OR):1.09; 95% CI:0.63-1.87],whereas the 10-d LA regimen was significantly more effective than QT (OR:5.05; 95% CI:2.74-9.31; P < 0.001;I2 =75%).No differences were reported in QT eradication rates among Asian and European studies,whereas LA regimens were more effective in European populations (78.3% vs 67.7%; P =0.05).Incidence of SE was lower in LA therapy than QT (OR:0.39; 95% CI:0.18-0.85; P =0.02).A higher rate of side effects was reported in Asian patients who received QT.Our findings support the use of 10-d LA as a simple second-line treatment for H.pylori eradication with an excellent eradication rate and tolerability.The optimal second-line alternative scheme might differ among countries depending on quinolone resistance.

  6. HLA alleles influence the clinical signature of amoxicillin-clavulanate hepatotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Stephens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The genotype-phenotype interaction in drug-induced liver injury (DILI is a subject of growing interest. Previous studies have linked amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC hepatotoxicity susceptibility to specific HLA alleles. In this study we aimed to examine potential associations between HLA class I and II alleles and AC DILI with regards to phenotypic characteristics, severity and time to onset in Spanish AC hepatotoxicity cases. METHODS: High resolution genotyping of HLA loci A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 was performed in 75 AC DILI cases and 885 controls. RESULTS: The distributions of class I alleles A*3002 (P/Pc = 2.6E-6/5E-5, OR 6.7 and B*1801 (P/Pc = 0.008/0.22, OR 2.9 were more frequently found in hepatocellular injury cases compared to controls. In addition, the presence of the class II allele combination DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 (P/Pc = 5.1E-4/0.014, OR 3.0 was significantly increased in cholestatic/mixed cases. The A*3002 and/or B*1801 carriers were found to be younger (54 vs 65 years, P = 0.019 and were more frequently hospitalized than the DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 carriers. No additional alleles outside those associated with liver injury patterns were found to affect potential severity as measured by Hy's Law criteria. The phenotype frequencies of B*1801 (P/Pc = 0.015/0.42, OR 5.2 and DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201 (P/Pc = 0.0026/0.07, OR 15 were increased in AC DILI cases with delayed onset compared to those corresponding to patients without delayed onset, while the opposite applied to DRB1*1302-DQB1*0604 (P/Pc = 0.005/0.13, OR 0.07. CONCLUSIONS: HLA class I and II alleles influence the AC DILI signature with regards to phenotypic expression, latency presentation and severity in Spanish patients.

  7. Treatment of non-vital immature teeth with amoxicillin-containing triple antibiotic paste resulting in apexification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyon-Beom; Lee, Bin-Na; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Hwang, In-Nam; Oh, Won-Mann

    2015-01-01

    A recent treatment option for non-vital immature teeth in young patients is revascularization with triple antibiotic paste (TAP). However, tooth discoloration was reported with the use of conventional minocycline-containing TAP. In this case report, amoxicillin-containing TAP was used for revascularization of non-vital immature teeth to prevent tooth discoloration. At the 1 yr follow up, the teeth were asymptomatic on clinical examination and showed slight discoloration of the crown due to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) filling rather than amoxicillin-containing TAP. Radiographic examination revealed complete resolution of the periapical radiolucency, and closed apex with obvious periodontal ligament space. However, the root growth was limited, and the treatment outcome was more like apexification rather than revascularization. These results may be due to unstable blood clot formation which could not resist the condensation force of MTA filling, whether or not a collagen matrix was in place. These cases showed that although revascularization was not successful, apexification could be expected, resulting in the resolution of the periapical radiolucency and the closure of the apex. Therefore, it is worthwhile attempting revascularization of non-vital immature teeth in young patients. PMID:26587419

  8. The Role of Chronic Exposure to Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid on the Developmental Enamel Defects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalaş, Eugeniu; Matricala, Lavinia; Chelmuş, Alina; Gheţu, Nicolae; Petcu, Ana; Paşca, Sorin

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin used in early childhood may be associated with enamel hypomineralization. Our aim was to assess disturbances of amelogenesis in mice lower incisors induced by chronic administration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC). Twenty-eight C57BL/6 male mice, of similar age, randomly divided into a control and 3 treatment groups (n = 7) received subcutaneous injection, once per day, for 60 days: 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg BW of AMC. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis in AMC treatment groups showed higher content in F and a decrease in P and Ca. Morphology changes ranged from scratched patterns, and small isolated pits-like enamel loss, to generalized demineralized enamel surface, giving a rough, foamy, scaly, or even cracked eggshell appearance to the affected areas. Histological analysis showed disturbances of maturation ameloblasts, which were less organized, with increased amounts of clear vacuoles in the cytoplasm and slightly more elongated and less condensed nucleus. Additionally, they were often detached from the enamel matrix. Transitional ameloblasts formed underlying the cysts of varied sizes. In conclusion, AMC dose-dependently affect ameloblast functions especially in the maturation phase, causing hypomineralized enamel formation with quantitative and/or qualitative defects.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after oral administration in recently weaned piglets with experimentally induced Escherichia coli subtype O149 : F4 diarrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.

    2004-01-01

    constant, time to reach C-max, and elimination half-life were unchanged. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea may decrease systemic bioavailability of amoxicillin. Escherichia coli bacteria attach to the intestinal epithelial cells. Because it is assumed...

  10. Automated column liquid chromatographic determination of amoxicillin and cefadroxil in bovine serum and muscle tissue using on-line dialysis for sample preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, N; van de Merbel, N C; Ruiter, F P; Steijger, O M; Lingeman, H; Brinkman, U A

    1994-01-01

    A fully automated method is described for the determination of amoxicillin and cefadroxil in bovine serum and muscle tissue. The method is based on the on-line combination of dialysis and solid-phase extraction for sample preparation, and column liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. In o

  11. Efficacy of levofloxacin, amoxicillin and a proton pump inhibitor in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Brazilian patients with peptic ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marcuz Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The eradication of Helicobacter (H. pylori allows peptic ulcers in patients infected with the bacteria to be cured. Treatment with the classic triple regimen (proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin has shown decreased efficacy due to increased bacterial resistance to clarithromycin. In our country, the eradication rate by intention to treat with this regimen is 83%. In Brazil, a commercially available regimen for bacterial eradication that uses levofloxacin and amoxicillin with lansoprazole is available; however, its efficacy is not known. Considering that such a treatment may be an alternative to the classic regimen, we aimed to verify its efficacy in H. pylori eradication. METHODS: Patients with peptic ulcer disease infected with H. pylori who had not received prior treatment were treated with the following regimen: 30 mg lansoprazole bid, 1,000 mg amoxicillin bid and 500 mg levofloxacin, once a day for 7 days. RESULTS: A total of 66 patients were evaluated. The patients’ mean age was 52 years, and women comprised 55% of the sample. Duodenal ulcers were present in 50% of cases, and gastric ulcers were present in 30%. The eradication rate was 74% per protocol and 73% by intention to treat. Adverse effects were reported by 49 patients (74% and were mild to moderate, with a prevalence of diarrhea complaints. CONCLUSIONS: Triple therapy comprising lansoprazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin for 7 days for the eradication of H. pylori in Brazilian peptic ulcer patients showed a lower efficacy than that of the classic triple regimen.

  12. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Induced by Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid: Report of a Case Presenting With Generalized Lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrigou, Ekaterini; Grapsa, Dimitra; Charpidou, Andriani; Syrigos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare pustular skin reaction, most commonly triggered by antibiotics. Although its diagnosis is based primarily on the presence of specific clinical and histopathologic features, additional in vivo (patch testing) or in vitro testing may be required, especially in atypical cases, to more accurately determine the causative agent. The authors report a histologically confirmed case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis that was induced by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, as documented by subsequent patch testing, and presented with generalized painful lymphadenopathy, mimicking an acute infectious process. This is a very rare and diagnostically challenging clinical presentation of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, which has been reported, to the best of our knowledge, only once previously.

  13. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Children by Triple Therapy Regimens of Amoxicillin, Omeprazole, and Clarithromycin or Azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Esmaeili-Dooki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of classical and azithromycin-containing triple therapy eradication regimen against H. Pylori in children, and to determine the level of patients’ tolerance. Patients and Methods: This single clinical trial was performed in 2014 on 2 to 15 years old children. All children, in whom H. Pylori infection was confirmed through multiple biopsies of the stomach and required treatment, were enrolled in the study. H. Pylori-positive patients were treated alternately with two different drug regimens; Group OCA received clarithromycin 7.5 mg/kg/day every 12 hours for 10 days, amoxicillin 50 mg/kg/day every 12 hours for 10 days, and omeprazole 1 mg/kg/day every 12 hours for two weeks, and Group OAA received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day once a day (before meal for 6 days along with amoxicillin and omeprazole. Four to six weeks after completion of treatment, patients’ stool was tested for H. Pylori through the monoclonal method using the Helicobacter antigen quick kit. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding gender and age of patients. Based on ITT analysis, the therapeutic response in the OAA and OCA groups were 56.2% and 62.5%, respectively (P = 0.40. Drug adverse effects were 15.6% in the OCA and 3.1% in the OAA group (P = 0.19. Conclusions: The therapeutic response was seen in more than half of the patients treated with triple therapy of H. Pylori eradication regimen including azithromycin or clarithromycin, and there was no significant difference between the two treatment groups.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junejo, Y.; Güner, A.; Baykal, A.

    2014-10-01

    We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2-5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs are novel, rapid, and highly cost-effective for environmental safety against pollution by antibiotics in wastewater and extendable for control of other reducible contaminants as well.

  15. 酶法制备阿莫西林的工艺优化研究%Study on preparation of amoxicillin by enzymatic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱科; 王艳艳; 丁海平; 延国东; 王峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 酶法合成阿莫西林工艺优化和稳定性研究.方法 利用对羟基苯甘氨酸甲酯为侧链在青霉素酰化酶催化下,与底物6-氨基青霉烷酸(6-APA)合成阿莫西林;对温度、pH、侧链与底物投料比、投酶量等条件进行优化;取化学法和酶法阿莫西林进行6个月加速实验,对比含量变化,考察成品稳定性.结果 工艺优化后阿莫西林摩尔收率达84.3%;6个月加速实验后酶法阿莫西林含量平均下降值比化学法少0.78%.结论 酶法阿莫西林工艺流程简单,方法绿色环保,杂质少,产品稳定性优于化学法.%Objective To study the process optimization and stability of amoxicillin by enzymatic synthesis.Methods The amoxicillin was synthesized with the use of p-hydroxyphenylglycine methyl ester as a side chain and the substrate 6-APA in penicillin acylase catalyzed; temperature, pH, side chain and substrate feed ratio,investment conditions, such as the amount of enzyme was optimized; chemical and enzymatic amoxicillin was taken six months accelerated test, comparing content changes, examining the stability of products. Results The molar yield of amoxicillin was 84.3% after process optimization; after six months accelerated test, the content of enzymatic amoxicillin dropped by an average 0.78% less than the chemical method. Conclusion Enzymatic amoxicillin process was simple, methods of green environmental protection, product stability was better than chemical method.

  16. Synthesis of artificial antigens of amoxicillin and preparation of monoclonal antibody to amoxicillin%阿莫西林人工抗原的合成及其单克隆抗体的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛添; 宋凯; 薛小平

    2011-01-01

    目的:合成阿莫西林(AMX)完全抗原,获得稳定、高效分泌抗AMX单克隆抗体(mAb)的杂交瘤细胞株.方法:采用N-羟基琥珀酰亚胺活性酯(NHS)法制备AMX-OVA(免疫原)AMX-BSA(检测抗原),紫外光谱分析检测偶联物克分子比,以AMX-OVA免疫BALB/c小鼠,用细胞融合技术筛选分泌抗AMX mAb的杂交瘤细胞,体内诱生法制备腹水,辛酸-硫酸胺法从腹水中纯化mAb,ELISA法测定mAb亚类.结果:紫外光谱显示偶联物表现出小分子与蛋白载体叠加的特征,具有良好的免疫原性和反应原性.获得了5株可稳定分泌特异性抗AMX mAb的杂交瘤细胞株,亚类鉴定均为IgG1.mAb对AMX最小检测极限(limit of detection,LOD)为0.25ng/mL,但与同属β-内酰胺类抗生素的氨苄青霉素有一定程度的交叉反应.结论:该细胞株可满足建立免疫学检测方法的需要和开发应用的要求.%AIM: To synthesize two kinds of amoxicillin artificial antigen and to establish hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibody against amoxillin. METHODS:Amoxicillin were respectively coupled with ovalbumin (OVA)and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by using N-hydroxysuccinimide active ester (NHS) method to prepared the immunogen and detection antigen. Molar ratio of conjugates were detected by ultraviolet spectrum analysis. BALB/c mice was immunized with AMX-OVA. The hybridomas were obtained by fusing mouse myeloma coils Sp2/0 with splenocytes from the mico immunized with AMX-OVA. The aseites with mAb were purified by octanoic acid-saturated ammonium sulphate method. Isotype was determinated by Mouse lsotype kit ( Bio-RadLabs. ). RESULTS: UV spectra shows overlay features between a small molecular compound and carrier protein. Five hybridoma coil strains secreting specific mAb against amoxicillin were obtained and the five Amb belong to IgG1 kappa isotype. The limit of detection of AMX was 0.25 ng/mL and but there is mild degree of cross-reactions with ampicillin with same

  17. Comparative efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin in the reduction of postsurgical sequelae after third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in a Nigerian university teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizito Chioma Ndukwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common sequelae after surgical removal of mandibular third molar are pain, trismus, swelling, and dysphagia. However, these symptoms can also signal the onset of surgical site infection and alveoli osteitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin and preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the reduction of postinflammatory complications, surgical site infection, and alveolar osteitis following the third molar surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 135 patients were randomized into three equal groups: Group A (preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid with preoperative dose of 875/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid followed by 500/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 12 hourly for 5 days, Group B (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid prophylaxis with a single preoperative dose of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 875/125 mg tablets, and Group C (levofloxacin prophylaxis with a single preoperative dose of levofloxacin 1000 mg tablets. All patients had ostectomy using surgical handpiece and burs and received same analgesics (tabs ibuprofen 400 mg 8 hourly for 3 days. Results: No case of surgical site infection or alveoli osteitis was recorded in the study groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups with regard to pain, mouth opening, postoperative facial dimension, and body temperature. Conclusion: Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as a single preoperative bolus should be adequate for the prevention of postoperative wound infection and alveoli osteitis following the third molar extraction as there is no need for an extension of the antibiotic. Moreover, levofloxacin can be utilized as prophylaxis in patients undergoing mandibular third molar extraction if such patients are allergic to penicillins.

  18. Synthesis, thermal and spectroscopic behaviors of metal-drug complexes: La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) amoxicillin trihydrate antibiotic drug complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-07-01

    The metal complexes of Amoxicillin trihydrate with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) are synthesized with 1:1 (metal:Amox) molar ratio. The suggested formula structures of the complexes are based on the results of the elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, as well as the thermal analysis (TG), and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained suggested that Amoxicillin reacted with metal ions as tridentate ligands, coordinating the metal ion through its amino, imino, and β-lactamic carbonyl. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves.

  19. Synthesis, thermal and spectroscopic behaviors of metal-drug complexes: La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) amoxicillin trihydrate antibiotic drug complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S; Al-Maydama, Hussein M A; Al-Azab, Fathi M; Amin, Ragab R; Jamil, Yasmin M S

    2014-07-15

    The metal complexes of Amoxicillin trihydrate with La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) are synthesized with 1:1 (metal:Amox) molar ratio. The suggested formula structures of the complexes are based on the results of the elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, UV-visible and fluorescence) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, as well as the thermal analysis (TG), and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained suggested that Amoxicillin reacted with metal ions as tridentate ligands, coordinating the metal ion through its amino, imino, and β-lactamic carbonyl. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH(*), ΔS(*) and ΔG(*) were estimated from the DTG curves.

  20. The Comparative Efficacy of 0.12% Chlorhexidine and Amoxicillin to Reduce the Incidence and Magnitude of Bacteremia During Third Molar Extractions: A Prospective, Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    hypersensitivity or allergic reaction  Exclusion criteria: o Poorly controlled systemic disease with an ASA III or IV o Known penicillin , amoxicillin...Hall et al. (2002) report 56% of viridans group streptococci isolates were penicillin -resistant. The decreased use of short-term antibiotic...al. (1968) found 11% of patients that died from an anaphylactic allergic 10 response to penicillin were administered the antibiotic for surgical

  1. Treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in under-five children in developing country: a systematic review.

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    Rashmi Ranjan Das

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the evidence regarding efficacy of oral amoxicillin compared to standard treatment for WHO-defined severe community acquired pneumonia in under-five children in developing country. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data from published Randomized trials (RCTs. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1970- July 2012 via PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 7, July 2012, and EMBASE (1988- June 2012. METHODS: Eligible trials compared oral amoxicillin administered in ambulatory setting versus standard treatment for WHO-defined severe community acquired pneumonia in children under-five. Primary outcomes were proportion of children developing treatment failure at 48 hr, and day 6. GRADE criteria was used to rate the quality of evidence. RESULTS: Out of 281 full text articles assessed for eligibility, 5 trials including 12364 children were included in the meta-analysis. Oral amoxicillin administered either in hospital or community setting is effective in treatment of severe pneumonia and is not inferior to the standard treatment. None of the clinical predictors of treatment failure by 48 hr (very severe disease, fever and lower chest indrawing, and voluntary with-drawl and loss to follow up was significant between the two groups. The clinical predictors of treatment failure that were significant by day 6 were very severe disease, inability to drink, change of antibiotic, and fever alone. The effect was almost consistent across the studies. CONCLUSION: Though oral amoxicillin is effective in treatment of severe CAP in under-five children in developing country, the evidence generated is of low-quality. More trials with uniform comparators are needed in order to strengthen the evidence.

  2. Omeprazole-based triple therapy with low-versus high-dose of clarithromycin plus amoxicillin for H pylori eradication in Iranian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Asghar Keshavarz; Homayoon Bashiri; Mahtab Rahbar

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of Hpylori eradication in an omeprazole-based triple therapy with high- and low-dose of clarithromycin and amoxicillin.METHODS: One hundred and sixty H pylori positive patients were randomly assigned to two groups based on the following 2 wk investigation; (1) group A or low-dose regimen received omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d, clarithromycin 250 mg b.i.d and amoxicillin 500 mg b.i.d; and (2) group B or high-dose regimen received omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d, clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d and amoxicillin 1000 mg b.i.d. During the study H pylori status was assessed by histology and rapid urease test prior and by 13C-urea breath test 6 wk after the therapy. Standard questionnaires were administered to determine the compliance to treatment and possible adverse events of therapy. Data were subject to % to compare the eradication rates in the two groups. The significant level of 95% (P≤0.05) was considered statistically different.RESULTS: We found that the per-protocol eradication rate was 88% (68/77) in group A, and 89% (67/75) in group B. The intension-to-treat eradication rate was 85% (68/80) in group A and 83.75% (67/80) in group B. Overall adverse events were 26% in group A and 31% in group B. The adverse events were generally mild in nature and tolerated well in both groups with a compliance of 98% in group A vs 96% in group B.CONCLUSION: The omeprazole-based low dose regimen of clarithromycin and amoxicillin for two weeks in H pylori eradication is as effective as high dose regimen in Iranian population.

  3. The combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole in the treatment of Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma and Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

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    Najwa A Mhmoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic progressive disabling and destructive inflammatory disease which is commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. It is characterized by the formation of multiple discharging sinuses. It is usually treated by antifungal agents but it is assumed that the therapeutic efficiency of these agents is reduced by the co-existence of Staphylococcus aureus co-infection developing in these sinuses. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the safety, efficacy and clinical outcome of combined antibiotic and antifungal therapy in eumycetoma patients with superimposed Staphylococcus aureus infection. The study enrolled 337 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma and S. aureus co-infection. Patients were allocated into three groups; 142 patients received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole, 93 patients received ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole and 102 patients received ketoconazole only. The study showed that, patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment had an overall better clinical outcome compared to those who had combined ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole or to those who received ketoconazole only. In this study, 60.6% of the combined amoxicillin-clavulanic acid/ketoconazole group showed complete or partial clinical response to treatment compared to 30.1% in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 36.3% in the ketoconazole only group. The study also showed that 64.5% of the patients in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 59.8% in the ketoconazole only group had progressive disease and poor outcome. This study showed that the combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment is safe and offers good clinical outcome and it is therefore recommended to treat eumycetoma patients with Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

  4. The combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole in the treatment of Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma and Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhmoud, Najwa A; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2014-06-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic progressive disabling and destructive inflammatory disease which is commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. It is characterized by the formation of multiple discharging sinuses. It is usually treated by antifungal agents but it is assumed that the therapeutic efficiency of these agents is reduced by the co-existence of Staphylococcus aureus co-infection developing in these sinuses. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the safety, efficacy and clinical outcome of combined antibiotic and antifungal therapy in eumycetoma patients with superimposed Staphylococcus aureus infection. The study enrolled 337 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma and S. aureus co-infection. Patients were allocated into three groups; 142 patients received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole, 93 patients received ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole and 102 patients received ketoconazole only. The study showed that, patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment had an overall better clinical outcome compared to those who had combined ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole or to those who received ketoconazole only. In this study, 60.6% of the combined amoxicillin-clavulanic acid/ketoconazole group showed complete or partial clinical response to treatment compared to 30.1% in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 36.3% in the ketoconazole only group. The study also showed that 64.5% of the patients in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 59.8% in the ketoconazole only group had progressive disease and poor outcome. This study showed that the combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment is safe and offers good clinical outcome and it is therefore recommended to treat eumycetoma patients with Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

  5. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾复方制剂杂质谱的变化%Impurity Profiling Changes of Amoxicillin/Potassium Clavulanate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓溪; 顾立素; 胡昌勤

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop the impurity control strategy of amoxicillin/potassium clavulanate. METHODS The impurity profiling changes of amoxicillin plus potassium clavulanate were compared with both amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate alone by HPLC. RESULTS Not only some new impurities were found. Both the impurities produced by amoxicillin or by potassium clavulanate in the complex medicine increased more quickly than in the antibiotics alone with acceleration test.CONCLUSION The results indicated that the impurity profiling of a complex medicine composed by β-lactam antibiotics and β-lactam inhibitor was not a simple mixture of both the components alone. The research should be focused on the interaction among the components influencing upon the impurity profiling of the complex medicine.%目的 探讨阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾复方药物的杂质控制策略.方法 采用HPLC,比较阿莫西林和克拉维酸钾单独存在及复方后杂质谱的变化.结果 加速实验中,复方样品产生新的未知杂质,且无论是源于阿莫西林的杂质还是源于克拉维酸钾的杂质均较其单独存在时变化快.结论 由β-内酰胺抗生素与β-内酰胺酶抑制剂组成的复方制剂的杂质谱,并不是其单独存在时的简单加和,新药研发中应重点探讨二者的相互作用对复方中杂质谱的影响.

  6. Randomized comparative study of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Karachalios, G N

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were compared with those of co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections. A total of 104 patients (mean age, 52 years) with clinical and laboratory evidence of acute urinary tract infection were enrolled in the study. Characteristics and infecting organisms were equivalent in both groups of patients. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria pathogen in both groups. Both drugs resulted in clinical improvement in 1...

  7. Fractional Maximal Effect Method for In Vitro Synergy between Amoxicillin and Ceftriaxone and between Vancomycin and Ceftriaxone against Enterococcus faecalis and Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Desbiolles, Norbert; Piroth, Lionel; Lequeu, Catherine; Neuwirth, Catherine; Portier, Henri; Chavanet, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we assessed the use of a new in vitro testing method and graphical representation of the results to investigate the potential effectiveness of combinations of amoxicillin (AMZ) plus ceftriaxone (CRO) and of CRO plus vancomycin (VAN) against strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae highly resistant to penicillin and cephalosporins (PRP strains). We used the fractional maximal effect (FME) method of time-kill curves to calculate adequate concentrations of the drugs to be tested ...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junejo, Y. [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Güner, A., E-mail: aguner@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Biology, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were prepared by simple one-pot chemical reduction method. • Ampicillin as an antibiotic was used as both reducing and capping agents in this study. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs have proved as the remarkably efficient catalysts with enhanced rate of reduction for cefdinir, cefditoren, cefixime, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were showed excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of these antibiotics. - Abstract: We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2–5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs

  9. Response of feline eosinophilic plaques and lip ulcers to amoxicillin trihydrate-clavulanate potassium therapy: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildermuth, Brett E; Griffin, Craig E; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the treatment of feline eosinophilic plaques and lip ulcers with amoxicillin trihydrate-potassium clavulanate (Clavamox(®); Pfizer Animal Health). Nineteen cats with clinical and cytological findings consistent with eosinophilic plaques and/or lip ulcers were enrolled. Lesions were photographed and their areas measured in square centimetres before and after 21 days of therapy with either flavoured amoxicillin-clavulanate suspension or flavoured placebo suspension. Sixteen cats completed the study, with nine plaque lesions (four treatment and five placebo) and eight lip ulcer lesions (four treatment and four placebo) included in the analysis. All lesions were shown to have infection, with bacterial phagocytosis present on cytological examination. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were the most commonly isolated bacteria. The amoxicillin-clavulanate-treated eosinophilic plaque group had a statistically significant 96.2% reduction in mean lesion size (-7.60 cm(2), P = 0.0078) and an 80% reduction in mean percentage of microscopic fields demonstrating evidence of bacterial infection (P feline eosinophilic plaques.

  10. An in vivo role of Mrp2 in the rat hepatocytes by immunocytochemistry for amoxicillin using the transporter-deficient EHBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kunio; Shin, Masashi; Yoshizaki, Yohei; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Saita, Tetsuya

    2012-06-01

    An in vivo role of the multidrug resistant-associated protein (Mrp2) in rat hepatocytes was examined by immunocytochemistry (ICC) for amoxicillin (AMPC) by the use of the transporter-deficient Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR). The ICC revealed that in the liver of EHBR at 3-h post-administration, amoxicillin accumulated in the cytoplasmic pools and nuclei of the hepatocytes in a characteristic granular morphology on the bile capillaries. However, no amoxicillin was observed on the surface of the lumina ranging from the bile capillaries to the interlobular bile ducts. The drug persisted at least for 6-h after administration. In contrast, in the control rat liver at 3-h post-administration, AMPC-adsorption occurred on such luminal surface, while AMPC accumulated to a less level in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of the hepatocytes. The drug completely disappeared in the hepatocytes at 6-h post-administration. These results strongly suggest that AMPC taken up into the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes excretes via Mrp2 into the bile flow. Furthermore, electron microscopy demonstrated that the lower electron density areas in large sizes, corresponding to the cytoplasmic pools in ICC for AMPC, occurred in the cytoplasm peripheral to the nuclei of the hepatocytes in EHBR at 3-h post-administration, and then disappeared 24 h after administration.

  11. Challenges in the design of antibiotic equivalency studies: the multicenter equivalency study of oral amoxicillin versus injectable penicillin in children aged 3-59 months with severe pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Patricia L; Patel, Archana

    2004-08-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that children with severe pneumonia (characterized by cough or difficult breathing, as well as lower chest wall indrawing) be hospitalized and treated with parenteral penicillin. Oral amoxicillin, if equally effective for treating severe pneumonia, would address challenges associated with providing parenteral therapy, including risk of transmission of bloodborne pathogens from contaminated needles, exposure to nosocomial pathogens during hospitalization, inadequate access to health care facilities, and cost. The recently completed multicenter international trial of oral amoxicillin versus parenteral penicillin for treatment of severe pneumonia demonstrated the equivalency of these agents in children with severe pneumonia. This article focuses on the challenges of designing an equivalence study and the threats to the validity of the trial results, particularly the implications of the bias toward finding equivalence when subjects are unlikely to respond to either study therapy. These considerations have implications for use of the Amoxicillin Penicillin Pneumonia International Study (APPIS) results in clinical practice and for potential modification of WHO treatment guidelines.

  12. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs of β-lactamase gene (bla A or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  13. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Kumar, M; Virdi, J S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs) were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC) susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs) of β-lactamase gene (bla A) or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  14. A two pulse drug delivery system for amoxicillin: an attempt to counter the scourge of bacterial resistance against antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Habban; Saigal, Nitin; Baboota, Sanjula; Faisal, Shah; Ali, Javed

    2011-09-01

    Bearing in mind the present scenario of the increasing biological tolerance of bacteria against antibiotics, a time controlled two pulse dosage form of amoxicillin was developed. The compression coating inlay tablet approach was used to deliver the drug in two pulses to different parts of the GIT after a well defined lag time between the two releases. This was made possible by formulating a core containing one of the two drug fractions (intended to be delivered as the second pulse), which was spray coated with a suspension of ethyl cellulose and a hydrophilic but water insoluble agent as a pore former (microcrystalline cellulose). Coating of up to 5% (m/m) was applied over the core tablet, giving a corresponding lag of 3, 5, 7 and 12 h. Increasing the level of coating led to retardation of the water uptake capacity of the core, leading to prolongation of the lag time. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as a hydrophilic but water insoluble porosity modifier in the barrier layer, varying the concentration of which had a significant effect on shortening or prolongation of the lag time. This coated system was further partially compression coated with the remaining drug fraction (to be released as the first immediate release pulse) with a disintegrant, giving a final tablet. The core tablet and the final two pulse inlay tablet were further investigated for their in vitro performance.

  15. Quantification of beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary drugs: amoxicillin and ampicillin determination by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coelho Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the development and validation of an RP-HPLC-UV method for quantification of beta-lactam antibiotics in three pharmaceutical samples. Active principles analyzed were amoxicillin and ampicillin, in 3 veterinary drugs. Mobile phase comprised 5 mmol L-1 phosphoric acid solution at pH 2.00, acetonitrile with gradient elution mode and detection wavelength at 220 nm. The method was validated according to the Brazilian National Health Surveillance regulation, where linear range and linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy and ruggedness were evaluated. Inter day precision and accuracy for pharmaceutical samples 1, 2 and 3 were: 1.43 and 1.43%; 4.71 and 3.74%; 2.72 and 1.72%, respectively, while regression coefficients for analytical curves exceeded 0.99. The method had acceptable merit figure values, indicating reliable quantification. Analyzed samples had active principle concentrations varying from -12 to +21% compared to manufacturer label claims, rendering the medicine unsafe for administration to animals.

  16. Evaluation of Microcrystalline Chitosan and Fibrin Membranes as Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB Carriers with Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimiera H. Bodek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the mechanical and sorption features of homogeneous and composite membranes which consist of microcrystalline chitosan (MCCh and fibrin (Fb in various proportions as well as the in vitro kinetics of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB released from ten types of membranes in the presence or absence of amoxicillin (Am. The films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, mechanical tests: breaking strength (Bs and elongation at break (Eb, as well as SEM images, and swelling study. The influence of the form of samples (dry or wet on Young’s modulus (E was also examined. The homogeneous MCCh (M1 and composite M3 and M4 (MCCh : Fb = 2 : 1 and 1 : 1 membranes were characterized by good sorption properties and higher mechanical strength, when compared with Fb (M2 membrane. Connecting MCCh with Fb decreases release of PDGF-BB and increases release of Am. The most efficient release of PDGF-BB was observed in the case of M4 (the optimum MCCh : Fb ratio was 1 : 1 membrane. It was found that the degree of PDGF-BB release from the membrane is influenced by the physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of the films and by its affinity to growth factor PDGF-BB.

  17. Simultaneous detection and comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone in cows' milk by UPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Kui; Wang, Jianfen; Huang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Guanlin; Li, Congying; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin (AMOX), clavulanic acid (CLAV) and prednisolone (PSL) are widely used in combination for the treatment of mastitis in lactating dairy cows. However, no method has been reported to detect these three chemicals in milk in a single assay. In the present work, a reliable and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in cow's milk. The analytes were determined by a positive and negative ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring. The linear ranges of AMOX, CLAV and PSL were from 2 to 1000ng/mL, 20-1000ng/mL and 1-1000ng/mL, respectively, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2ng/mL (AMOX), 20ng/mL (CLAV) and 1ng/mL (PSL). Recoveries of the analytes of interest in milk samples were in the ranges of 84.2-101.4%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions ranged from 1.8% to 11.9%. This method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in milk from healthy and mastitic cows. The elimination times of AMOX and PSL in mastitic cows were longer than that in healthy cows, but the elimination times of CLAV did not show significant difference.

  18. Biocompatible Fe3O4 Increases the Efficacy of Amoxicillin Delivery against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

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    Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin- functionalized magnetite nanostructures (Fe3O4@AMO, revealing and discussing several biomedical applications of these nanomaterials. Our results proved that 10 nm Fe3O4@AMO nanoparticles does not alter the normal cell cycle progression of cultured diploid cells, and an in vivo murine model confirms that the nanostructures disperse through the host body and tend to localize in particular sites and organs. The nanoparticles were found clustered especially in the lungs, kidneys and spleen, next to the blood vessels at this level, while being totally absent in the brain and liver, suggesting that they are circulated through the blood flow and have low toxicity. Fe3O4@AMO has the ability to be easily circulated through the body and optimizations may be done so these nanostructures cluster to a specific target region. Functionalized magnetite nanostructures proved a great antimicrobial effect, being active against both the Gram positive pathogen S. aureus and the Gram negative pathogen E. coli. The fabricated nanostructures significantly reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the active drug. This result has a great practical relevance, since the functionalized nanostructures may be used for decreasing the therapeutic doses which usually manifest great severe side effects, when administrated in high doses. Fe3O4@AMO represents also a suitable approach for the development of new alternative strategies for improving the activity of therapeutic agents by targeted delivery and controlled release.

  19. Distribution of oral streptococci highly resistant to amoxicillin in dental plaque specimens from Japanese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Masuda, Katsuhiko; Wada, Koichiro; Ardin, Arifah Chieko; Nomura, Ryota; Ooshima, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    Oral streptococci are major pathogens of infective endocarditis. Prophylactic antibiotics are commonly given to subjects with certain kinds of heart disorders when invasive dental treatments are performed, with amoxicillin (AMPC) being widely used for this purpose. However, there is little information regarding AMPC-resistant oral streptococci. Here, a total of 344 dental plaque specimens collected from 253 healthy Japanese children, adolescents and young adults (aged 2-22 years) were diluted and streaked onto culture medium containing high-dose AMPC. The MICs for the isolated strains were evaluated using a macrodilution broth method described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Bacterial DNA was extracted from each strain and the entire sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were compared with those in GenBank to identify the species. The results showed that strains with AMPC MICs >16 µg ml(-1) were isolated from 18 specimens from 14 patients. Analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these strains identified them as major oral streptococcal species, including Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mitis. These findings indicate that oral streptococci with elevated MICs for AMPC exist in certain small populations of healthy children, and highlight the need for further studies to determine risk factors that lead to the appearance of such strains.

  20. Immunocytochemistry for amoxicillin and its use for studying uptake of the drug in the intestine, liver, and kidney of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kunio; Shin, Masashi; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Maruta, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Specific transport systems for penicillins have been recognized, but their in vivo role in the context of other transporters remains unclear. We produced a serum against amoxicillin (anti-AMPC) conjugated to albumin with glutaraldehyde. The antiserum was specific for AMPC and ampicillin (ABPC) but cross-reacted weakly with cephalexin. This enabled us to develop an immunocytochemical (ICC) method for detecting the uptake of AMPC in the rat intestine, liver, and kidney. Three hours after a single oral administration of AMPC, the ICC method revealed that AMPC distributed to a high degree in the microvilli, nuclei, and cytoplasm of the absorptive epithelial cells of the intestine. AMPC distributed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the hepatocytes in a characteristic granular morphology on the bile capillaries, and in addition, AMPC adsorption was observed on the luminal surface of the capillaries, intercalated portions, and interlobular bile ducts on the bile flow. Almost no AMPC could be detected 6 h postadministration in either the intestine or the liver. Meanwhile, in the kidney, AMPC persisted until 12 h postadministration to a high degree in the proximal tubules, especially in the S3 segment cells in the tubular lumen, in which numerous small bodies that strongly reacted with the antibody were observed. All these sites of AMPC accumulation correspond well to specific sites where certain transporter systems for penicillins occur, suggesting that AMPC is actually and actively absorbed, eliminated, or excreted at these sites, possibly through such certain penicillin transporters.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of ampicillin, dicluxacillin, flucloxacillin and amoxicillin antibiotic drugs: ion-pair formation with molybdenum and thiocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, G G

    2001-02-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method is developed for the determination of some antibiotic drugs such as ampicillin (amp), dicluxacillin (dicl), flucloxacillin (fluc) and amoxicillin (amox). The method involves the formation of ion-pairs between these drugs under investigation and inorganic complex of Mo (V) thiocyanate followed by its extraction with methylene chloride. The optimum conditions for the ion-pairs formation are established. The method permits the determination of amp, dicl, fluc and amox over a concentration range of 1.5-77.5, 3-75, 1.5-79 and 7.5-75 microg ml(-1) respectively. The sensitivity (S) is found to be 0.017, 0.061, 0.014 and 0.073 microg cm(-2) for amp, dicl, fluc and amox, respectively. The method is simple, rapid, reproducible and accurate within +/- 1%. The method is applicable for the assay of the four drugs under investigation in different dosage forms and the results are in good agreement with those obtained by the official method.

  2. Photocatalytic Decomposition of Amoxicillin Trihydrate Antibiotic in Aqueous Solutions under UV Irradiation Using Sn/TiO2 Nanoparticles

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    Robab Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 and Sn/TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, and BET analysis methods. The effects of Sn-doping on the crystal structure, surface area, adsorption properties, pore size distribution, and optical absorption properties of the catalysts were investigated. The effect of different Sn content on the amount of hydroxyl radical was discussed by using salicylic acid as probe molecule. The photocatalytic activity of samples was tested by photocatalytic mineralization of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX as a model pollutant. Sn/TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited high photocatalytic activity during the mineralization of AMOX under UV light due to increase in the generated hydroxyl radicals, band gap energy, specific surface area, and decrease in the crystallite size. The kinetic of the mineralization of AMOX can be explained in terms of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The values of the adsorption equilibrium constant (AMOX and the kinetic rate constant of surface reaction (c were 0.56 (mg L−1−1 and 1.86 mg L−1 min−1, respectively.

  3. Synergistic anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of amoxicillin in combination withEmblica officinalis and Nymphae odorataextracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha DebMandal; Nishith Kumar Pal; Krishnendu Saha

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antibacterial activity ofEmblica officinalis Gaertn (E. officinalis; Family: Euphorbiaceae) seed andNymphae odorata Aiton (N. odorata; Family: Nymphaeaceae) stamen extracts, alone and in combination, and in combination with amoxicillin (Ax) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).Methods:Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of amla,E. officinalis, seed (AMS; 500 μg) and sapla,N. odorata, stamen (SAP; 500 μg) for12 methicillin-resistantS. aureus(MRSA) isolates was determined following agar diffusion; in order to assess the combined antibacterial activity, AMS (250 μg) plusSAP (250 μg) were considered. The Ax (10μg) activity alone and in combination withAMS (250μg), andSAP(250 μg) was determined by disk diffusion. The zone diameters of inhibition (ZDIs) for the agents were recorded, and growth inhibitory indices (GIIs) were calculated.Results:TheMRSA isolates (n=12) hadAMS(500μg) andSAP (500μg)ZDIs of12-19 mm and21-24mm, respectively. The ZDIs (range24-27mm) increased by3-4mm due to combined action of AMS (250 μg) andSAP (250μg) indicating synergy between extracts forMRSA(GII 0.634-0.742). TheMRSA isolates were resistant to Ax (ZDI: 8-11 mm), which in combination withAMS andSAP had synergistic effect, both due to increasedZDI [mean±SD=(3.5±0.577) mm] andGII (0.631-0.894).Conclusions: The data suggest that the plants,E. officinalis andN. odorata alone or in combination, are promising in the development of phytomedicines, which may be used, alone or in combination with the antibiotic, Ax, against MRSA infection.

  4. The in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Florfenicol in Combination with Amoxicillin or Cefuroxime against Pathogenic Bacteria of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Jin Choia, Eun-Mi Leea, Seung-Jin Lee, Md. Ahsanur Reza, Joong-Su Lee, Elias Gebru, Man-Hee Rhee and Seung-Chun Park*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro activity of florfenicol (F in combination with amoxicillin (AM or cefuroxime (CRM against pathogenic bacteria of animal origin, including E. coli, S. aureus, S. cholerasuis and P. mirabilis. The MIC of AM ranged from 16 to 256 μg/ml. The MBC of AM (64 μg/ml was four-fold higher than its MIC value (16 μg/ml for E. coli, and similar to the MIC for the other three species. The MIC of F ranged from 8 to 16 μg/ml. The MBC values of F for E. coli, S. aureus, and S. cholerasuis were eight-fold higher than the respective MIC values, and 32-fold higher than the MIC of P. mirabilis. The MIC of CRM ranged from 8 to 128 μg/ml. The MBC of CRM was the highest ( 256 μg/ml, except for E. coli. The F/AM combination resulted in synergism (FIC index  0.5 for E. coli, S. aureus, and P. mirabilis and in-difference (FIC index >1 for S. cholerasuis. For F/CRM combination, synergism (E. coli and S. cholerasuis and in-difference (S. aureus and P. mirabilis were observed. Killing rate study showed a 1.5 - > 3 log 10 cfu/ml reduction of E. coli with F/AM compared to AM or F alone. The highest activity of the combinations was observed when F comprised at least 50% of the combination. Further studies using many bacterial isolates and various proportion of each drug would reveal the potential of a combination product containing F and AM/CRM for use in veterinary practice.

  5. Encapsulation of amoxicillin within laponite-doped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers: preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shige; Zheng, Fuyin; Huang, Yunpeng; Fang, Yuting; Shen, Mingwu; Zhu, Meifang; Shi, Xiangyang

    2012-11-01

    We report a facile approach to encapsulating amoxicillin (AMX) within laponite (LAP)-doped poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers for biomedical applications. In this study, a synthetic clay material, LAP nanodisks, was first used to encapsulate AMX. Then, the AMX-loaded LAP nanodisks with an optimized AMX loading efficiency of 9.76 ± 0.57% were incorporated within PLGA nanofibers through electrospinning to form hybrid PLGA/LAP/AMX nanofibers. The loading of AMX within LAP nanodisks and the loading of LAP/AMX within PLGA nanofibers were characterized via different techniques. In vitro drug release profile, antimicrobial activity, and cytocompatibility of the formed hybrid PLGA/LAP/AMX nanofibers were also investigated. We show that the loading of AMX within LAP nanodisks does not lead to the change of LAP morphology and crystalline structure and the incorporation of LAP/AMX nanodisks does not significantly change the morphology of the PLGA nanofibers. Importantly, the loading of AMX within LAP-doped PLGA nanofibers enables a sustained release of AMX, much slower than that within a single carrier of LAP nanodisks or PLGA nanofibers. Further antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility assays demonstrate that the antimicrobial activity of AMX toward the growth inhibition of a model bacterium of Staphylococcus aureus is not compromised after being loaded into the hybrid nanofibers, and the PLGA/LAP/AMX nanofibers display good cytocompatibility, similar to pure PLGA nanofibers. With the sustained release profile and the reserved drug activity, the organic/inorganic hybrid nanofiber-based drug delivery system may find various applications in tissue engineering and pharmaceutical science.

  6. Acquired resistance of Nocardia brasiliensis to clavulanic acid related to a change in beta-lactamase following therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrube, V A; Wallace, R J; Brown, B A; Pang, Y; Zeluff, B; Steele, L C; Zhang, Y

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Nocardia brasiliensis is susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and that its beta-lactamases are inhibited in vitro by clavulanic acid. A cardiac transplant patient with disseminated infection caused by N. brasiliensis was treated with this drug combination with good response, but relapsed while still on therapy. The relapse isolate was found to be identical to the initial isolate by using genomic DNA restriction fragment patterns obtained by pulsed field gel electrophoresis, but it was resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. On isoelectric focusing, the beta-lactamase from the relapse isolate exhibited a shift in the isoelectric point (pI) of its major band from 5.10 to 5.04 compared with the enzyme from the pretreatment isolate. As determined by using values of the amount of beta-lactamase inhibitor necessary to give 50 +/- 5% inhibition of beta-lactamase-mediated hydrolysis of 50 microM nitrocefin, the beta-lactamase of the relapse isolate was also 200-fold more resistant than the enzyme from the pretreatment isolate to clavulanic acid and was more resistant to sulbactam, tazobactam, cloxacillin, and imipenem. The beta-lactamase of the relapse isolate exhibited a 10-fold decrease in hydrolytic activity for cephaloridine and other hydrolyzable cephalosporins compared with that for nitrocefin. Acquired resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in this isolate of N. brasiliensis appears to have resulted from a mutational change affecting the inhibitor and active site(s) in the beta-lactamase. Images PMID:2039203

  7. Effect of MMX® mesalamine coadministration on the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin XR, metronidazole, and sulfamethoxazole: results from four randomized clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available David Pierce,1 Mary Corcoran,2 Patrick Martin,2 Karen Barrett,1 Susi Inglis,1 Peter Preston,2 Thomas N Thompson,3 Sandra K Willsie3 1Shire, Basingstoke, UK; 2Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 3PRA International, Lenexa, KS, USA Background: MMX® mesalamine is a once daily oral 5-aminosalicylic acid formulation, effective in induction and maintenance of ulcerative colitis remission. Patients on long-term mesalamine maintenance may occasionally require concomitant antibiotic treatment for unrelated infections. Aim: To evaluate the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions between MMX mesalamine and amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin extended release (XR, metronidazole, or sulfamethoxazole in four open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover studies. Methods: In all four studies, healthy adults received placebo once daily or MMX mesalamine 4.8 g once daily on days 1–4 in one of two treatment sequences. In studies 1 and 2, subjects also received a single dose of amoxicillin 500 mg (N=62 or ciprofloxacin XR 500 mg (N=30 on day 4. In studies 3 and 4, subjects received metronidazole 750 mg twice daily on days 1–3 and once on day 4 (N=30; or sulfamethoxazole 800 mg/trimethoprim 160 mg twice daily on days 1–3 and once on day 4 (N=44. Results: MMX mesalamine had no significant effects on systemic exposure to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, or metronidazole; the 90% confidence intervals (CIs around the geometric mean ratios (antibiotic + MMX mesalamine: antibiotic + placebo for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC fell within the predefined equivalence range (0.80–1.25. Sulfamethoxazole exposure increased by a statistically significant amount when coadministered with MMX mesalamine; however, increased exposure (by 12% in Cmax at steady state; by 15% in AUC at steady state was not considered clinically significant, as the 90% CIs for each point estimate fell entirely within the predefined

  8. Bioequivalence evaluation of two brands of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 250/125 mg combination tablets in healthy human volunteers: use of replicate design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir M; Al-Ghazawi, Ahmad; Najib, Naji M

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a replicate design approach to a bioequivalence study of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination following a 250/125 mg oral dose to 23 subjects, and to compare the analysis of individual bioequivalence with average bioequivalence. This was conducted as a 2-treatment 2-sequence 4-period crossover study. Average bioequivalence was shown, while the results from the individual bioequivalence approach had no success in showing bioequivalence. In conclusion, the individual bioequivalence approach is a strong statistical tool to test for intra-subject variances and also subject-by-formulation interaction variance compared with the average bioequivalence approach.

  9. Effect of genetic algorithm as a variable selection method on different chemometric models applied for the analysis of binary mixture of amoxicillin and flucloxacillin: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Different chemometric models were applied for the quantitative analysis of amoxicillin (AMX), and flucloxacillin (FLX) in their binary mixtures, namely, partial least squares (PLS), spectral residual augmented classical least squares (SRACLS), concentration residual augmented classical least squares (CRACLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). All methods were applied with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm GA). The methods were used for the quantitative analysis of the drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and real market sample via handling the UV spectral data. Robust and simpler models were obtained by applying GA. The proposed methods were found to be rapid, simple and required no preliminary separation steps.

  10. Quality evaluation of domestic amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets%国产阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敏文; 袁耀佐; 张玫; 钱文; 侯玉荣; 赵恂; 范青峰; 胡昌勤

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the suitability of statutory standard and the quality condition of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. Methods: Using statutory methods to test the samples. Establish or improve some methods for the exploratory research: (1) Using the gradient elution method in ChP 2010 to determine the related substances for amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. (2)LC - MS method (Agilent 1100 IX! /MSD Trap) was carried on a shim -pack CLC -ODS C18column (4.6 mm x 150 mm,5 um Shimazu)to study the impurities profile of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. According to the result of this research,we established the new impurities calculation method(calculate in different division). (3)The stability of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in solution was detected in different time and temperature. (4) Use the crossed - validation method of NIR to validate and improve the qualitative and quantitative models using in the mobile Lab vehicle,and established the quantitativemodel of water - detection. (5)The automated sampling dissolution analyzer(SOTAX AT7 Smart) and the new established UPLC method (Agilent Technologies 1920 Infinity UPLC) were used to research the difference of dissolution behavior of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets between domestic and foreign tablets. Rseults: The quality of domestic amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets met the requirement of current statutory standards. 19 impurities were detected from the tablet. The result showed the impurities from different sources had obvious division, and the impurities of amoxicillin were eluted mainly after the peak of clavulanate in the chromatogram, whereas the impurities of clavulanate mainly before this peak. The off - standard rate of samples by using the new calculation method instead of the previous was increased significantly. The stability of the solution is not very good,especially clavulanate. Validate and improve the qualitative and

  11. Long-term changes in human colonic Bifidobacterium populations induced by a 5-day oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Irène; Lévêque, Christophe; Magne, Fabien; Suau, Antonia; Pochart, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the possible modifications due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) treatment on total bacteria and on Bifidobacterium species balance in human colonic microbiota. Eighteen healthy volunteers (19 to 36 years old) were given a 875/125 mg dose of AMC twice a day for 5 days. Fecal samples were obtained before and after antibiotic exposure. After total DNA extraction, total bacteria and bifidobacteria were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Dominant species were monitored over time using bacterial and bifidobacterial Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE). At the end of AMC exposure, total bacterial concentrations as well as bifidobacteria concentrations were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure:10.7±0.1 log(10) 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 11.1±0.1 log(10) (p = 0.003) and 8.1±0.5 log(10) 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 9.4±0.3 log(10) (p = 0.003), respectively. At the same time, the mean similarity percentages of TTGE bacteria and TTGE bifidobacteria profiles were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure: 51.6%±3.5% vs 81.4%±2.1% and 55.8%±7.6% vs 84.5%±4.1%, respectively. Occurrence of B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum species significantly decreased. Occurrence of B. longum remained stable. Moreover, the number of distinct Bifidobacterium species per sample significantly decreased (1.5±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3; p = 0.01). Two months after AMC exposure, the mean similarity percentage of TTGE profiles was 55.6% for bacteria and 62.3% for bifidobacteria. These results clearly demonstrated that a common antibiotic treatment may qualitatively alter the colonic microbiota. Such modifications may have potential long-term physiological consequences.

  12. Long-term changes in human colonic Bifidobacterium populations induced by a 5-day oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irène Mangin

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the possible modifications due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC treatment on total bacteria and on Bifidobacterium species balance in human colonic microbiota. Eighteen healthy volunteers (19 to 36 years old were given a 875/125 mg dose of AMC twice a day for 5 days. Fecal samples were obtained before and after antibiotic exposure. After total DNA extraction, total bacteria and bifidobacteria were specifically quantified using real-time PCR. Dominant species were monitored over time using bacterial and bifidobacterial Temporal Temperature Gradient gel Electrophoresis (TTGE. At the end of AMC exposure, total bacterial concentrations as well as bifidobacteria concentrations were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure:10.7±0.1 log(10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 11.1±0.1 log(10 (p = 0.003 and 8.1±0.5 log(10 16S rRNA gene copies/g vs 9.4±0.3 log(10 (p = 0.003, respectively. At the same time, the mean similarity percentages of TTGE bacteria and TTGE bifidobacteria profiles were significantly reduced compared to before AMC exposure: 51.6%±3.5% vs 81.4%±2.1% and 55.8%±7.6% vs 84.5%±4.1%, respectively. Occurrence of B. adolescentis, B. bifidum and B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum species significantly decreased. Occurrence of B. longum remained stable. Moreover, the number of distinct Bifidobacterium species per sample significantly decreased (1.5±0.3 vs 2.3±0.3; p = 0.01. Two months after AMC exposure, the mean similarity percentage of TTGE profiles was 55.6% for bacteria and 62.3% for bifidobacteria. These results clearly demonstrated that a common antibiotic treatment may qualitatively alter the colonic microbiota. Such modifications may have potential long-term physiological consequences.

  13. Determination of Amoxicillin Potassium Clavulanate Effervescent Tablets by HPLC%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾泡腾片的HPLC测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月联; 王健祥; 夏岭

    2001-01-01

    采用HPLC测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾泡腾片含量。用Spherisorb C18(250×4.6 mm, 10 μm)色谱柱,甲醇-磷酸盐缓冲液(10∶90)为流动相,流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长为220 nm。阿莫西林及克拉维酸钾的回收率分别为99.60%(RSD=0.83%)和99.64%(RSD=0.99%)。%Amoxicillin potassium clavulanate effervescent tablets were determined by HPLC, using Spherisorb C18 column with the mobile phase of methanol-phosphate buffer (10∶90) at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, and the detection wavelength of 220 nm. The average recoveries of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate were 99.60% (RSD=0.83%) and 99.64% (RSD=0.99%), respectively.

  14. [Efficacy and safety of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) dry syrup in the treatment of children with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Rinya; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Motoyama, Hidekatsu; Yarita, Masao

    2015-06-01

    To demonstrate clinical value of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (CVA/AMPC) 1:14 combination dry syrup for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS), the efficacy and safety were evaluated in a multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study in 27 children with ABRS. The proportion of subjects who were 'cured' at the test of cure as the primary endpoint was 88.5%. In subjects with a major pathogenic bacteria at baseline (i.e., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) bacterial eradication was achieved in ≥ 80% of the subjects with the exception of β-lactamase non-producing ampicillin resistant H. influenzae: BLNAR and β-lactamase producing ampicillin resistant H. influenzae: BLPAR (β-lactamase producing amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistant H. influenzae: BLPACR). The MIC of CVA/AMPC (1:14) was not higher than 4 μg/mL for all pathogens except one strain each of BLNAR and BLPAR (BLPACR). Drug-related adverse events were reported in 19% of patients (5/27 patients). All of the reported drug-related adverse events were classified as gastrointestinal disorders that have been commonly reported with antibacterial drugs. These results indicate that CVA/AMPC (1:14) was clinically useful for the treatment of ABRS and is also suggested that was effective especially for the treatment of ABRS in children caused by beta-lactamase-producing bacteria including M. catarrhalis.

  15. Clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in patients with adult periodontitis : A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, EG; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Barendregt, DS; van der Weijden, GA; Timmerman, MF; van der Velden, U

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with systemic amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid in adult periodontitis patients using a double-blind, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled protocol. 21 patients wit

  16. A randomized trial of the efficacy and safety of sequential intravenous/oral moxifloxacin monotherapy versus intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate for complicated skin and skin structure infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyssens, I.C.J.; Dryden, M.; Kujath, P.; Nathwani, D.; Schaper, N.; Hampel, B.; Reimnitz, P.; Alder, J.; Arvis, P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the RELIEF study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two sequential intravenous (iv)/oral regimens: moxifloxacin iv/oral versus piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) iv followed by oral amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study had a prospective, ra

  17. Betalactámicos con inhibidores de betalactamasas: Amoxicilina-sulbactam Betalactam antibiotics combined with bectalactamases inhibitors: Amoxicillin-sulbactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barcelona

    2008-02-01

    de infecciones de piel y partes blandas e infecciones intraabdominales.Betalactamases production is one of the main bacterial resistance mechanisms to betalactam antibiotics. The use of bectalactamases inhibitors combined with betalactam antibiotics allows the inactivation of certain betalactamases produced by Gram positive, Gram negative and anaerobic organisms, and even by mycobacteria. Betalactamases inhibitors are an improved therapeutic alternative compared with the other betalactam since, in most cases, they cover a wider antimicrobial spectrum than their analogues. Betalactamases enzimatic activity is specifically directed to the betalactam ring hydrolisis, producing a compound without antibacterial activity. According to their genomic position within microorganisms, betalactamases can be either chromosomic or plasmidic. Currently there are three betalactamases inhibitors locally available: clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam. Of them, only sulbactam has an intrinsic antimicrobial activity against penicillin binding proteins. The clinical experience from over 20 years confirms that the combination of betalactam antibiotics is effective in the empirical initial treatment of respiratory, intraabdominal, urinary tract and gynecologic infections, including those of polymicrobial origin. In the specific case of amoxicillin-sulbactam, experiences have shown the effectiveness of the combination in the treatment of peritonsillar abscess, otitis media, sinusitis, community acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonar disease (COPD, urinary tract infection and obstetric/ gynecologic infections. The spectrum and pharmacologic properties of this combination makes it also an excellent option for the treatment of skin/soft tissue and intraabdominal infections.

  18. Pharmacokinetic parameters and killing rates in serum of volunteers receiving amoxicillin, cefadroxil or cefixime alone or associated with niflumic acid or paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsenti-Etesse, H; Farinotti, R; Durant, J; Roger, P M; De Salvador, F; Bernard, E; Rouveix, B; Dellamonica, P

    1998-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters and killing rates in serum of volunteers receiving amoxicillin, cefadroxil or cefixime alone or associated with niflumic acid or paracetamol were studied. Niflumic acid (250 mg) or analgesic and antipyretic drugs such as paracetamol (500 mg) are often combined with antibiotics to avoid inflammation and pain in acute ear, nose and throat diseases. Pharmacokinetic interactions between these two classes of drugs have been described in experimental models, and exceptionally in humans. The aim of the present investigation was to study the interactions of these two drugs with three antibiotics (amoxicillin 500 mg x 2, cefadroxil 500 mg x 2, cefixime 200 mg and one placebo capsule) on pharmacodynamic parameters and on rate of killing in the serum of six healthy volunteers receiving the antibiotic associated or not with the product in a randomized cross-over double-blind trial. The bacteria most often involved in sinusitis, bronchitis and otitis media (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus) three target diseases for oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin, were chosen for bacteriological study. Blood samples were obtained at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h after oral administration of antibiotics alone or associated with the drugs. There was a wash-out period of at least 1 week between the eleven sequences. Antibiotics were measured by two methods: bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All serum samples obtained at peak level, 4 and 6 h were tested for killing rate. Area under the time kill curve was calculated by the trapezoidal rule method and relative bioactivity in percent was defined as follows: (AUC control - AUC test)/AUC control x 100. No pharmacokinetic interaction was found in the AUC and T1/2 of the plasma concentrations of the antibiotics or associated with the drugs, regardless of dose, as determined by HPLC or microbiological assay. For these beta-lactam antibiotics killing

  19. Determination of Amoxicillin Chewing Tablets in Urine and Bioavailability by UV%紫外分光光度法测定羟氨苄青霉素咀嚼片的尿药浓度及生物利用度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠忠; 赵春洁

    2002-01-01

    Objective To establish an UV method for the determination of amoxicillin chewing tablets in urine andbioavailability. Methods Determination of amoxicillin chewing tablets in urine and bioavailability by UV at 325nm. ResultsA good linear relationship was obtained for 6 ~ 60μgml - 1, r = 0.9992. Intra - day and inter - day RSD were small 2.01% and2.94%.The recovery was 99.10+ 1.25%(n = 6).Conclusion A simle, highly sensitive and selective method for thcdetermination of amoxicillin chewing tablets in urine was established, which could be used for its pharmacokinetic andbioavailability studies.

  20. The effects of amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses, growth and ampicillin resistance of intestinal coliform bacteria in weaned pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively. The umbilical and inguinal areas of weaned pigs were palpated at four and nine weeks of age. At the same time, altogether 124 pigs with hernias or abscesses and 820 non-defective pigs from three pens per batch were weighed individually. Mortality and the need to treat piglets for other diseases were recorded. Piglet faecal samples were collected from three areas of the floors of each pen at four weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias or abscesses did not differ between the groups at four weeks of age, but it was higher in the CON group than in the ANT group at nine weeks of age (2.3% vs. 0.7%, P < 0.05). Numbers of inguinal hernias and abscesses did not differ between the groups at four or nine weeks of age. The ANT group, when it compared with the CON group, increased the weight gain between four and nine weeks of age (LS means ± SE; 497.5 g/d ± 5.0 vs. 475.3 g/d ± 4.9, P < 0.01), and decreased piglet mortality (19.5% ± 1.0 vs. 6.9% ± 1.0, P < 0.05) and the need to treat the piglets for leg problems (3.4% ± 0.3 vs. 1.9% ± 0.3%, P < 0.01) but not for other diseases by the age of four weeks. The proportion of ampicillin resistant intestinal coliform bacteria and the resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates were not different between the ANT and CON groups. In conclusion, our

  1. 注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠在输液中的稳定性%Study on the stability of Amoxicillin Sodium and Flucloxacillin Sodium for injection in infusion solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋旭莹; 胡燕; 方明艳; 余洪秀; 金轶俊; 陈俊武

    2011-01-01

    目的:考察注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠在10%葡萄糖注射液和0.9%氯化钠注射液中的稳定性.方法:注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠分别与10%葡萄糖注射液和0.9%氯化钠注射液配伍后常温放置,观察配伍溶液的外观、pH值和含量变化.结果:注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠在10%葡萄糖注射液2 h内稳定,在0.9%氯化钠注射液中4 h内稳定.结论:注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠可与0.9%氯化钠注射液配伍应用.%Objective: To study the stability of Amoxicillin Sodium and Flucloxacillin Sodium in 10% glucose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Methods: Amoxicillin Sodium and Flucloxacillin Sodium for injection was combined with 10% glucose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection respectively and placed at room temperature, the appearance and pH were observed and the change of content was determined. Results: Amoxicillin Sodium and Flucloxacillin Sodium for injection was stable within 2 h in 10% glucose injection and within 4 h in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.Conclusion: Amoxicillin Sodium and Flucloxacillin Sodium for injection can be combined with 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

  2. Pharmacodynamic assessment of Amoxicillin-Sulbactam against Acinetobacter baumannii: searching the optimal dose and infusion time through a human ex-vivo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bantar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin-sulbactam (AMX-SUL is an aminopenicillin/ß-lactamase inhibitor combination currently available in 29 countries and may be a suitable option for treating infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. Thus, we sought to search the optimal dosing strategy for this formulation through an ex vivo pharmacodynamic human model against Acinetobacter baumanniii. Four volunteers were randomized to receive alternatively a single dose AMX-SUL infused both either over 30 min or 3h at the following ratios (g/g: 1/0.5; 1/1, and 0/2. Time-kill studies were performed with the 0-, 0.5-, 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-h sera after dose against a clinical isolate of A. baumannii (sulbactam MIC, 4µg/mL. Bactericidal activity (i.e. a mean decrease >3 log10 CFU/mL in the viable cell counts from the initial inoculum was displayed by the 0.5- and the 2-h sera after dose for all formulations. The 4-h sera proved inhibitory with the AMX-SUL 1g/1g formulation, albeit a trend to regrowth was observed after 24-h incubation. With the AMX-SUL 0g/2g dose, the 4-h sera proved almost bactericidal activity (i.e. a mean decrease of 2.4 log10 CFU/mL in the viable cell counts from the initial inoculum, whereas the 6-h sera was inhibitory, with a trend to regrowth after 24-h incubation. When infused over 3h, AMX-SUL 1g/0.5g and 1g/1g, bactericidal activity was displayed by the 0.5-, 2- and the 4-h sera after dose and the 6-h sera proved inhibitory with the AMX-SUL 1g/1g formulation. The present study, albeit preliminary, might give a rationale for the dosing strategy to treat infections caused by A. baumannii with sulbactam, either alone or combined with amoxicillin. A 2-g sulbactam dose seems to be optimal to be infused over 30 min with a 6-h dosing interval. When infused over 3h, AMX-SUL 1g/1g given every 6h or 8h seems a suitable dosing schedule.

  3. 氟氯西林镁阿莫西林颗粒剂的HPLC法测定%Determination of Flucloxacillin Magnesium and Amoxicillin Granules by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕琦; 王欣

    2011-01-01

    An HPLC method was established for the determination of flucloxacillin magnesium and amoxicillin granules. A C18 column was used with mobile phase A of 0.02 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution (adjusted to pH 6.5 with 2 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution, containing 1.5% cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)-acetonitrile (60∶ 40) and mobile phase B of 0.02 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution (adjusted to pH 6.5 with 2 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution, containing 1.5% cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)-acetonitrile (30∶70) at the detection wavelength of 254 nm. The calibration curves offlucloxacillin and amoxicillin were linear in the range of 250 -2 500 μg/ml.Their average recoveries were 99.9% and 100.4%, with RSDs of 0.87% and 0.77%.%建立了HPLC法测定氟氯西林镁阿莫西林颗粒剂的含量.采用C_18色谱柱,流动相A为0.02 mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液(用2 mol/L氢氧化钠溶液调至pH 6.5,含1.5%溴化十六烷基三甲铵)-乙腈(60:40),流动相B为0.02 mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液(用2 mol/L氢氧化钠溶液调至pH 6.5,含1.5%溴化十六烷基三甲铵)-乙睛(30:70),线性梯度洗脱;检测波长254 mn.氟氯西林和阿莫西林在250~2 500 Rg/ml浓度范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率为99.9%和100.4%,RSD为0.87%和0.77%.

  4. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species.

  5. The influence of the carrier molecule on amoxicillin recognition by specific IgE in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Adriana; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Salas, María; Doña, Inmaculada; Martín-Serrano, Ángela; Pérez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Guzmán, Antonio E; Montañez, María I; Torres, María J

    2016-10-12

    The optimal recognition of penicillin determinants, including amoxicillin (AX), by specific IgE antibodies is widely believed to require covalent binding to a carrier molecule. The nature of the carrier and its contribution to the antigenic determinant is not well known. Here we aimed to evaluate the specific-IgE recognition of different AX-derived structures. We studied patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to AX, classified as selective or cross-reactors to penicillins. Competitive immunoassays were performed using AX itself, amoxicilloic acid, AX bound to butylamine (AXO-BA) or to human serum albumin (AXO-HSA) in the fluid phase, as inhibitors, and amoxicilloyl-poli-L-lysine (AXO-PLL) in the solid-phase. Two distinct patterns of AX recognition by IgE were found: Group A showed a higher recognition of AX itself and AX-modified components of low molecular weights, whilst Group B showed similar recognition of both unconjugated and conjugated AX. Amoxicilloic acid was poorly recognized in both groups, which reinforces the need for AX conjugation to a carrier for optimal recognition. Remarkably, IgE recognition in Group A (selective responders to AX) is influenced by the mode of binding and/or the nature of the carrier; whereas IgE in Group B (cross-responders to penicillins) recognizes AX independently of the nature of the carrier.

  6. Impact of restricted amoxicillin/clavulanic acid use on Escherichia coli resistance--antibiotic DU90% profiles with bacterial resistance rates: a visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica Matanovic, Suzana; Bergman, Ulf; Vukovic, Dubravka; Wettermark, Björn; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera

    2010-10-01

    High use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) at the University Hospital Osijek (Croatia) contributed to high rates of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, in particular Escherichia coli (50%). Thus, in order to decrease bacterial resistance, AMC use was restricted. We present results of the restriction on resistance amongst antibiotics accounting for 90% of antibiotic use [drug utilisation 90% (DU90%)]. Data were analysed on antibiotic use and microbiological susceptibility of E. coli during two 9-month periods, before and after the restriction of AMC use. Drug use was presented as numbers of defined daily doses (DDDs) and DDDs/100 bed-days. Resistance of E. coli to antibiotics was presented as percentages of isolated strains in the DU90% segment. Use of AMC was 16 DDDs/100 bed-days or 30% of all antibiotics before the intervention. Use of AMC fell to 2 DDDs/100 bed-days or 4% after the intervention, and resistance of E. coli fell from 37% to 11%. In conclusion, restricted use of AMC resulted in a significant decrease of E. coli resistance. DU90% resistance profiles are simple and useful tools in highlighting problems in antibiotic use and resistance but may also be useful in long-term follow-up of antibiotic policy.

  7. Development and validation of HPLC-DAD method for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin, metronidazole and rabeprazole sodium. Application to spiked simulated intestinal fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, S M; Abdel-Hay, M H; Belal, T S; Mahgoub, A A

    2015-09-01

    This work deals with the development, validation and application of an HPLC-DAD method for the determination of a ternary mixture containing amoxicillin (AX), metronidazole (MZ) and the proton pump inhibitor rabeprazole sodium (RB). This triple therapy is used for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Effective chromatographic separation between the three drugs was achieved using Thermo Hypersil BDS-C8 (4.6×250mm, 5μm particle size) column and a mobile phase composed of phosphate buffer pH 7 and acetonitrile (70: 30, by volume). The mobile phase was pumped isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Quantification of the analytes was based on measuring their peak areas at 230nm for both AX and RB, and at 319nm for MZ. AX, MZ and RB eluted at retention times 2.36, 3.55 and 8.72min respectively. The reliability and analytical performance of the proposed HPLC procedure were statistically validated with respect to linearity, ranges, precision, accuracy, selectivity, robustness, detection and quantification limits. The linear dynamic ranges were 25-250, 25-250 and 5-50μg/mL for AX, MZ and RB respectively with correlation coefficients>0.9998. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of several laboratory-prepared mixtures as well as simulated intestinal fluid samples spiked with the three drugs.

  8. Efficacy of ebrotidine and ranitidine combined with amoxicillin and metronidazole in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiela, T; Kulig, J; Karcz, D; Tabor, J; Torres, J; Márquez, M; Fillat, O; Herrero, E; Ortiz, J A

    1997-04-01

    This double-blind, randomized, phase III clinical trial was carried out in two parallel groups to assess the efficacy of ebrotidine (N-[(E)-[[2-[[[2-[(diaminomethylene) amino]-4-thiazolyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]amino] methylene]-4-bromo-benzenesulfonamide, CAS 100981-43-9, FI-3542) 400 mg and ranitidine 300 mg given in single evening dose, combined with amoxicillin 750 mg and metronidazole 500 mg three times daily for 14 days, in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with duodenal ulcer. Thirty patients were included, divided into two groups of 15, to whom one of the study therapies was administered based on a randomization code. Clinical and endoscopic controls were performed 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the onset of the treatment. No differences were seen between the two treatment groups with regard to demographic parameters and clinical histories. They were both perfectly homogeneous. There were no differences between the eradication of both therapies in both the antrum and gastric body samples (over 80% eradication), allowing the results to be classified as satisfactory. Moreover, perfect control was achieved through the study of clinical symptoms, which even disappeared in some cases. There were no differences in the healing rate of the duodenal ulcer after four weeks, 86.7% being achieved for both groups.

  9. Prospective randomized controlled study on the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 and amoxicillin-clavulanate or the combination on the gut microbiota of healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Toufic A.; Pallav, Kumar; Dowd, Scot E.; Villafuerte-Galvez, Javier; Vanga, Rohini R.; Castillo, Natalia E.; Hansen, Joshua; Dennis, Melinda; Leffler, Daniel A.; Kelly, Ciarán P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Probiotics are believed to be beneficial in maintaining a healthy gut microbiota whereas antibiotics are known to induce dysbiosis. This study aimed to examine the effects of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (SB), the antibiotic Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (AC) and the combination on the microbiota and symptoms of healthy humans. Healthy subjects were randomized to one of 4 study groups: SB for 14 days, AC for 7 days, SB plus AC, Control (no treatment). Participants gave stool samples and completed gastro-intestinal symptom questionnaires. Microbiota changes in stool specimens were analyzed using 16s rRNA gene pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). Only one subject withdrew prematurely due to adverse events. Subjects treated by S boulardii + AC had fewer adverse events and tolerated the study regimen better than those receiving the AC alone. Control subjects had a stable microbiota throughout the study period. Significant microbiota changes were noted in the AC alone group during antibiotic treatment. AC associated changes included reduced prevalence of the genus Roseburia and increases in Escherichia, Parabacteroides, and Enterobacter. Microbiota alterations reverted toward baseline, but were not yet completely restored 2 weeks after antibiotherapy. No significant shifts in bacterial genera were noted in the SB alone group. Adding SB to AC led to less pronounced microbiota shifts including less overgrowth of Escherichia and to a reduction in antibiotic-associated diarrhea scores. Antibiotic treatment is associated with marked microbiota changes with both reductions and increases in different genera. S. boulardii treatment can mitigate some antibiotic-induced microbiota changes (dysbiosis) and can also reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea. PMID:27973989

  10. Molecular identification of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid isolated in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Marta; Miró, Elisenda; Ortega, Adriana; Bou, Germán; González-López, Juan José; Oliver, Antonio; Pascual, Alvaro; Cercenado, Emilia; Oteo, Jesús; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Navarro, Ferran

    2015-08-01

    The activity of eight aminoglycosides (amikacin, apramycin, arbekacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin) against a collection of 257 amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates was determined by microdilution. Aminoglycoside resistance rates, the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes, the relationship between AME gene detection and resistance phenotype to aminoglycosides, and the association of AME genes with mechanisms of AMC resistance in E. coli isolates in Spain were investigated. Aminoglycoside-resistant isolates were screened for the presence of genes encoding common AMEs [aac(3)-Ia, aac(3)-IIa, aac(3)-IVa, aac(6')-Ib, ant(2″)-Ia, ant(4')-IIa and aph(3')-Ia] or 16S rRNA methylases (armA, rmtB, rmtC and npmA). In total, 105 isolates (40.9%) were resistant to at least one of the aminoglycosides tested. Amikacin, apramycin and arbekacin showed better activity, with MIC90 values of 2mg/L (arbekacin) and 8mg/L (amikacin and apramycin). Kanamycin presented the highest MIC90 (128mg/L). The most common AME gene was aac(6')-Ib (36 strains; 34.3%), followed by aph(3')-Ia (31 strains; 29.5%), ant(2″)-Ia (29 strains; 27.6%) and aac(3)-IIa (23 strains; 21.9%). aac(3)-Ia, aac(3)-IVa, ant(4')-IIa and the four methylases were not detected. The ant(2″)-Ia gene was usually associated with OXA-1 [21/30; 70%], whilst 23/25 (92%) strains producing CTX-M-15 had the aac(6')-Ib gene. The most prevalent AME gene was aac(6')-Ib (18/41; 44%) in nosocomial isolates, whilst ant(2″)-Ia and aph(3')-Ia genes (20/64; 31%) were more frequent in strains of community origin. In 64.6% isolates the phenotypic profile correlated with the presence of commonly encountered AMEs.

  11. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾脉冲胶囊的制备%Preparation of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Pulsatile Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 张涛; 黄华

    2011-01-01

    Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium pellets were prepared by extrude-spheronization method.The pH-dependent pulsatile capsules were prepared by the above pellets uncoated, Eudragit(R) L30D-55 coated pellets and Eudragit S100 coated pellets with the ratio of 1 ∶ 1∶ 1. The in vitro release of pH dependent pulsatile capsules was discussed. The effects of coating level and HPMC insulation layer on in vitro released were performed. The pulsatile capsules exhibited an excellent pH dependent release profile in pH 2.0, pH 6.0 and pH 7.8 phosphate buffer solution.%采用挤出滚圆法制备阿莫西林克拉维酸钾微丸,再分别以Eudragit(R)L30D-55和Eudragit(R)S100包衣.将上述3种在不同pH条件下释放的微丸按等比例混匀后装入囊壳,得脉冲胶囊.并进行了体外释放度研究.考察了包衣增重以及pH敏感型材料包衣后添加HPMC隔离层对体外释放度的影响.结果显示,制备的脉冲胶囊在pH 2.0、6.0和7.8的磷酸盐缓冲液中,呈pH依赖型的脉冲释药.

  12. Comparative study of 5-day cefcapene-pivoxil and 10-day amoxicillin or cefcapene-pivoxil for treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    In order to compare the bacteriological and clinical efficacy and safety of cefcapene-pivoxil (CFPN-PI) for 5 days, CFPN-PI for 10 days, and amoxicillin (AMPC) for 10 days for the treatment of pharyngitis due to group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) in children, a prospective multicenter randomized open-label comparative study was performed with 12 pediatric clinics in Asahikawa between June 2006 and February 2007. Two hundred and fifty children (age range 6 months to 12 years) with signs and symptoms of acute pharyngitis were enrolled. All had a positive throat culture for GAS and were fully evaluable. Eighty-two patients received CFPN-PI 9-10 mg/kg/day three times a day for 5 days, 88 received CFPN-PI three times a day for 10 days, and 80 received AMPC three times a day for 10 days. The CFPN-PI for 5 days regimen, the CFPN-PI for 10 days regimen, and the AMPC for 10 days regimen produced bacteriological eradication at the end of treatment in 93.8%, 96.2%, and 91.7% of the patients, respectively. The clinical cure rate observed at the end of therapy was 100% of the patients in the three groups. Relapse rates were 1.3% in CFPN-PI for 5 days, 4.0% in CFPN-PI for 10 days, and 2.9% in AMPC for 10 days. There were no significant differences in eradication rate, clinical cure rate, and relapse rate between the three treatment groups. The only adverse effects were infrequent diarrhea in all three groups, and a rash which occurred in 6 patients (8.0%) of the AMPC treatment group. Five days of treatment with CFPN-PI was as efficacious in bacteriological eradication and clinical response as 10 days of CFPN-PI or AMPC treatment.

  13. Study on Human Body Bioequivalence of Amoxicillin Dispersible Tablets%阿莫西林分散片人体生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋峰; 沙莹; 李佩琼; 王九辉; 林明琴

    2014-01-01

    目的:测定健康志愿者阿莫西林血浆药物质量浓度,评价阿莫西林分散片的人体生物等效性。方法采用双周期交叉试验设计,20名健康男性受试者随机交叉单剂量口服试验制剂与参比制剂,反相高效液相色谱(RP - HPLC)法紫外检测法测定给药前及给药后不同时间点的阿莫西林血药浓度,用 DAS 2.0软件计算药代动力学参数并进行统计学分析。结果参比制剂与试验制剂的达峰时间( tmax )、峰浓度( C max )、0~8 h 药时曲线下面积( AUC0→8)、0~∞药时曲线下面积( AUC0→∞)分别为(1.35±0.24)h 和(1.30±0.25)h,(9.83±2.11)μg / mL 和(10.031±1.928)μg / mL,(24.85±3.98)μg /(h·mL)和(25.10±4.41)μg /(h·mL),(25.56±4.24)μg /(h·mL)和(25.81±4.48)μg /(h·mL)。统计结果显示,试验制剂与参比制剂主要药代动力学参数无显著性差异。试验制剂 Cmax,AUC0→8,AUC0→∞的90%可信区间分别为99.5%~105.7%,97.4%~104.4%,96.6%~105.5%。结论试验制剂与参比制剂具有生物等效性。%Objective To determine the plasma concentration of amoxicillin in healthy volunteers and to evaluate the human body bioe-quivalence of Amoxicillin Dispersible Tablets. Methods A single oral dose of tested and reference preparations were given to 20 healthy male volunteers in a randomized two - period cross - over design. The plasma concentrations of amoxicillin before and after ad-ministration at different time points were determined by RP - HPLC with UV detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and analyzed using the DAS 2. 0 software. Results The tmax,Cmax,AUC0 - 15 and AUC0 - ∞ of the tested and reference preparations were (1. 35 ± 0. 24)h and (1. 30 ± 0. 25)h,(9. 83 ± 2. 11)μg / mL and (10. 03 ± 1. 93)μg / mL,(24. 85 ± 3. 98)μg · h / mL and (25. 10 ± 4. 41)μg·h / mL,(25. 56 ± 4. 24)μg·h / mL and(25. 81 ± 4. 48)μg·h / m

  14. 氟氯西林钠阿莫西林治疗呼吸系感染80例临床观察%Clinical Observation of 80 Cases of Flucloxacillin Sodium Amoxicillin Treatment of Respiratory Tract Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔方

    2013-01-01

      目的观察氟氯西林钠阿莫西林胶囊在治疗呼吸系感染疾病的临床疗效,评价其应用价值。方法80例临床呼吸道感染患者随机分为治疗组40例和对照组40例。对照组给予头孢克洛片,治疗组给予氟氯西林钠阿莫西林胶囊,两周一个疗程。结果治疗组的显效率和总有效率高于对照组;治疗组的细菌清除率为100%,优于对照组细菌清除率的94.7%。结论氟氯西林钠阿莫西林可安全有效地治疗呼吸道感染疾病。%  Objective Observe clinical curative effect flucloxacillin sodium amoxicillin capsule in the treatment of respiratory system infection disease , evaluate its application value. Methods 80 cases of clinical respiratory tract infection patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group forty cases and cases. Control group received cefaclor tablet, the treatment group was given flucloxacillin sodium amoxicillin capsule, two weeks a treatment. Results Treatment group’s total effective rate of significant and the efficiency are higher than those in the control group;the treatment group of bacteria clearance is 100%,better than control bacterial clearance’s 94.7%. Conclusion Respiratory tract infection can be effectively and safely treated by Ampicillin sodium amoxicillin fluorine chlorine.

  15. In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

    2014-10-01

    Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product.

  16. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans after Systemic Administration of Amoxicillin Plus Metronidazole as an Adjunct to Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakic, Aleksandar; Boillot, Adrien; Colliot, Cyrille; Carra, Maria-Clotilde; Czernichow, Sébastien; Bouchard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variations in the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and/or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans before and after systemic administration of amoxicillin plus metronidazole in association with non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Background: The adjunctive use of antibiotics has been advocated to improve the clinical outcomes of NSPT. However, no systematic review has investigated the microbiological benefit of this combination. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was conducted up to December 2015. Randomized clinical trials comparing the number of patients testing positive for P. gingivalis and/or A. actinomycetemcomitans before and after NSPT with (test group) or without (control group) amoxicillin plus metronidazole were included. The difference between groups in the variation of positive patients was calculated using the inverse variance method with a random effects model. Results: The frequency of patients positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans was decreased by 30% (p = 0.002) and by 25% (p = 0.01) in the test group compared to the control group at 3- and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Similar findings were observed when considering the frequency of patients positive for Porphyromonas gingivalis, with a reduction by 28% (p < 0.0001), 32% (p < 0.0001), and 34% (p = 0.03) in the test group compared to the control group at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, respectively. Conclusion: The systemic administration of amoxicillin plus metronidazole as an adjunct to NSPT significantly decreased the number of patients positive for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans compared with periodontal therapy alone or with a placebo. PMID:27594851

  17. 奥美拉唑、阿莫西林、甲硝唑治疗消化性溃疡的疗效观察%Curative Effect Observation of Omeprazole, Amoxicillin, Metronidazole for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红光

    2012-01-01

      Objective To summarize, amoxicillin, tinidazole omeprazole triple therapy on peptic ulcer. Methods 180cases of duodenal ulcer patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,90 cases in the treatment group, omeprazole, amoxicillin, metronidazole is composed of triple therapy;90 cases in the control group, with ranitidine, furazolidone, metronidazole is composed of triple therapy. Results By omeprazole metronidazole, amoxicillin, consisting of triple therapy for the treatment of duodenal ulcer with ranitidine, efficiency is significantly higher than that of the furazolidone, metronidazole is composed of triple therapy. Conclusion The triple drug omeprazole, amoxicillin, metronidazole for the treatment of peptic ulcer, fewer adverse reactions, good curative effect, for clinical application%  目的总结阿莫西林、替硝唑奥美拉唑、三联疗法对消化性溃疡的疗效。方法 180例十二指肠溃疡患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组90例,采用奥美拉唑、阿莫西林、甲硝唑组成的三联疗法治疗;对照组90例,采用雷尼替丁、呋喃唑酮、甲硝唑组成的三联疗法治疗。结果 由奥美拉唑、阿莫西林、甲硝唑组成的三联疗法治疗十二指肠溃疡有效率显著高于由雷尼替丁、呋喃唑酮、甲硝唑组成的三联疗法。结论 三联药物奥美拉唑、阿莫西林、甲硝唑治疗消化性溃疡,不良反应少,疗效好,适合临床推广

  18. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性%InjectedwithSodiumAmoxicillinClavulanicAcidPotassiumandSodiumChlorideInjectionCompatibilityStability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability was analyzed to explore, to provide a reference basis for the rational use of drugs in the future. Methods Select A batch of injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection for compatibility, and 3 hours after compatibility respectively under different temperature to observation of the appearance of the liquid, pH value, at the same time the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) amoxicillin clavulanic acid and sodium potassium content determination, determine the stability of compatibility of liquid. Results In the study found that sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability is affected by the factors such as temperature and sunlight. Conclusion Poor compatibility stability of liquid, should avoid direct sunlight or at high temperatures is not easy to for a long time.%  目的对注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性进行分析探讨,为今后的合理用药提供参考依据。方法选取一批注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾和氯化钠注射液进行配伍,并在配伍后的3h内分别在不同温度下对药液的外观、pH值进行观察,同时采取高效液相色谱法对阿莫西林钠与克拉维酸钾含量进行测定,判断配伍液的稳定性。结果研究中发现阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性受到温度、日光等因素的影响。结论配伍液稳定性不佳,应避免阳光直射或者是在高温条件下不易久置。

  19. Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Profiles are not Associated with risk of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Induced Liver Injury in Spanish Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Stephens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells are an integral part of the immune system and represent a large proportion of the lymphocyte population in the liver. The activity of these cells is regulated by various cell surface receptors, such as killer Ig-like receptors (KIR that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I ligands on the target cell. The composition of KIR receptors has been suggested to influence the development of specific diseases, in particularly autoimmune diseases, cancer and reproductive diseases. The role played in idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI is currently unknown. In this study we examined KIR gene profiles and HLA class I polymorphisms in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC DILI patients in search for potential risk associations. 102 AC DILI patients and 226 controls were genotyped for the presence or absence of 16 KIR loci, including the two pseudogenes 2DP1 and 3DP1. No significant differences were found in the distribution of individual KIRs between patients and controls, which were comparable to previously reported KIR data from ethnically similar cohorts. 21.6% and 21.2% of the patients and controls, respectively, were homozygous haplotype A carriers, while 78.4% and 78.8%, respectively, contained at least one B haplotype (Bx. The genotypes translated into 27 (AC DILI and 46 (controls different gene profiles, with 19 being present in both groups. The most frequent Bx gene profile containing 2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DP1, 2DL1, 3DL1, 2DS4, 3DL2, 3DL3, 2DL4 and 3PD1 was present in 16% of the DILI patients and 14% of the controls. The distribution of HLA class I epitopes did not differ significantly between AC DILI patients and controls. The most frequent receptor-ligand combinations in the DILI patients were 2DL3 + epitope C1 (67% and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (67%, while 2DL1 + epitope C2 (69% and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (69% predominated in the controls. This is to our knowledge the first analysis of KIR receptor-HLA ligand associations in DILI

  20. Multiwall carbon nanotubes decorated with FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, a new selective electrochemical sensor for amoxicillin determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensafi, Ali Asghar, E-mail: Ensafi@cc.iut.ac.ir; Allafchian, Ali Reza; Rezaei, Behzad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized and then multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were decorated with FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The new nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as vibrating sample magnetometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning surface microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results of the study confirm that the particles are pure FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs with a cubic structure. No diffraction peaks of other impurities such as FeO or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} were observed. The diffractive peaks of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs are broadened, implying that the crystalline size of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs particles is quite small. The mean particle size of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs calculated by Scherrer equation is about 25 nm, whereas the existence of particles with less than 30 nm size at FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs is clearly reflected in 2D and 3D AFM images. The TEM image confirms that the spaghetti-like FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs formed a porous structure. The synthesized FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs nanoparticles could be used as a new electrocatalysis for voltammetric determination of amoxicillin (AMC). Under the optimized conditions at pH 7.5 and in differential pulse voltammetry, the oxidation peak current of AMC at the surface of the mediator has two linear dynamic ranges including 0.1-10.0 and 10.0-70.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The detection limit of 0.05 {mu}mol L{sup -1} was achieved. The influence of potential interfering compounds on the selectivity was studied. Finally, the modified electrode showed good sensitivity, selectivity, and stability for the determination of AMC in real samples.

  1. [Antibacterial activity for clinical isolates from pediatric patients of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) -outcomes of special drug use investigation on antibacterial activity (annual changes)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Naomi; Okano, Hideyuki; Hara, Terufumi; Yoshida, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    As a special drug use investigation, we monitored and assessed trends in antibacterial activity of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1:14) (hereafter, "CVA/AMPC (1:14)") and other antimicrobial agents for clinical isolates from pediatric patients with otitis media or respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis isolated and identified from otorrhea, epipharynx and rhinorrhea of pediatric patients with otitis media, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in five years between 2006-2010 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae and 8 microg/mL for H. influenzae and 0.25-0.5microg/mL for M catarrhalis. The changes of MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) for penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) and beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae were two times, and no decrease in drug susceptibility was found in the period of the present investigation. In addition, the MIC changes of other antimicrobial agents for these three organisms were approximately two to four times as well. Against organisms isolated and identified from pus, sputum, pharynx, skin and urine of pediatric patients with respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in four years between 2008-2011 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae, AMPC (1:14) were 2-8 microg/mL for S. aureus with a fourfold change, 2 microg/mL for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus without any change, 4-8 microg/mL for H. influenzae with a twofold change. Against beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae, MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) were 1 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin susceptible (BLNAS), 8 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR), showing no change. Neither Streptococcus pyogenes or Klebsiella pneumoniae demonstrated any change and M. catarrhalis and Escherichia coli showed twofold changes of MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1: 14). In the present investigation conducted to monitor annual changes in antibacterial

  2. Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Profiles Are not Associated with Risk of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate–Induced Liver Injury in Spanish Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Camilla; Moreno-Casares, Antonia; López-Nevot, Miguel-Ángel; García-Cortés, Miren; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada; Hallal, Hacibe; Soriano, German; Roman, Eva; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Lucena, M. Isabel; Andrade, Raúl J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer cells are an integral part of the immune system and represent a large proportion of the lymphocyte population in the liver. The activity of these cells is regulated by various cell surface receptors, such as killer Ig-like receptors (KIR) that bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands on the target cell. The composition of KIR receptors has been suggested to influence the development of specific diseases, in particularly autoimmune diseases, cancer and reproductive diseases. The role played in idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is currently unknown. In this study, we examined KIR gene profiles and HLA class I polymorphisms in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC) DILI patients in search for potential risk associations. One hundred and two AC DILI patients and 226 controls were genotyped for the presence or absence of 16 KIR loci, including the two pseudogenes 2DP1 and 3DP1. No significant differences were found in the distribution of individual KIRs between patients and controls, which were comparable to previously reported KIR data from ethnically similar cohorts. The 21.6 and 21.2% of the patients and controls, respectively, were homozygous haplotype A carriers, while 78.4 and 78.8%, respectively, contained at least one B haplotype (Bx). The genotypes translated into 27 (AC DILI) and 46 (controls) different gene profiles, with 19 being present in both groups. The most frequent Bx gene profile containing KIRs 2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DP1, 2DL1, 3DL1, 2DS4, 3DL2, 3DL3, 2DL4, and 3PD1 was present in 16% of the DILI patients and 14% of the controls. The distribution of HLA class I epitopes did not differ significantly between AC DILI patients and controls. The most frequent receptor-ligand combinations in the DILI patients were 2DL3 + epitope C1 (67%) and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (67%), while 2DL1 + epitope C2 (69%) and 3DL1 + Bw4 motif (69%) predominated in the controls. This is to our knowledge the first analysis of KIR receptor-HLA ligand

  3. 气相色谱法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片中的乙醇残留量%Determination of Ethanol in Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Tablets by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔霁虹; 臧恒昌; 王彦厚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for the determination of residual ethanol in Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Tablets. Methods GC with FID detector was adopted, and nitrogen was selected as the carrier gas. Results There is an excellent linearity between the peak area and the content of ethanol in the range of 0.316-2.37 g/mL. Conclusion The method was simple, accurate and of good reproducibility, and can be used for the determination of residual ethanol in Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Tablets.%目的:建立一种测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片中乙醇残留量的方法。方法采用气相色谱法测定乙醇残留量,载气为氮气。结果0.316~2.37μg/mL范围内,峰面积与乙醇浓度间呈良好的线性关系。结论该方法操作简单、准确、重复性好、灵敏度高,可用于阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片中乙醇残留量的测定。

  4. [Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Spanish Society of Paediatric Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Spanish Association of Paediatric Primary Care, and the Spanish Society of Extra-hospital Paediatrics and Primary Health Care consensus document on antibiotic treatment in penicillin or amoxicillin allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero-Artigao, Fernando; Michavila, Antonio; Suárez-Rodriguez, Ángeles; Hernandez, Anselmo; Martínez-Campos, Leticia; Calvo, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    The suspected allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics, especially penicillin and amoxicillin, is the most frequent reason for consultation in Child Allergy Units. In this consensus document, the clinical and diagnostic criteria of allergic reactions are described, as well as alternative antibiotic treatment for the most common infections diagnosed in paediatrics for patients with known or suspected allergy.

  5. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎疗效分析%Efifcacy Analysis of Amoxicillin/clavulanic Acid in Treatment of Children With Purulent Tonsillitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽君; 李雅琪

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效。方法将化脓性扁桃体炎患儿62例随机分为两组各31例,治疗组给予阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗,对照组应用阿奇霉素治疗,对比其疗效。结果两组退热、脓点消失及白细胞恢复正常时间比较无明显差异(P>0.05),但治疗组的总有效率(96.77%)高于对照组(80.65%),比较有统计学差异(P<0.05)。两组均无明显不良反应发生。结论阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效确切,且安全可靠。%Objective To analyze the efficacy of amoxicillin / clavulanic acid therapy in children with purulent tonsillitis.Methods62 cases of suppurative tonsillitis in children were randomly divided into two groups of 31 cases, the treatment group received amoxicillin / clavulanic acid therapy, application of the reference group treated with azithromycin, compared to its efifcacy.Results There were fever, pus spots disappear and leukocyte recovery time was no significant difference (P>0.05), but the treatment group total effective rate (96.77%) was signiifcantly higher than the reference group (80.65%). There were signiifcant differences (P<0.05). There were no significant adverse events.Conclusion The efficacy of amoxicillin / clavulanate potassium treatment of children with purulent tonsillitis exact, and secure.

  6. Incompatibility with ambroxol in amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection%注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与沐舒坦的配伍禁忌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓竹; 邹利文; 蒋安定; 简祖丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾是否与沐舒坦(盐酸氨溴索注射液)存在配伍禁忌。方法观察和分析配伍试液。结果配伍试液存在沉淀物。结论注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾和沐舒坦(盐酸氨溴索)之间确实存在配伍禁忌,应当引起高度重视。为预防类似现象的发生,建议在输入阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾时禁止将盐酸氨溴索入壶或接续静点。使用时应以葡萄糖溶液或生理盐水溶液冲尽输液管内余液后再接续输入其他药物,以防药物在输液管滴壶内发生沉淀或混浊反应。%ABSTRACT:Objective To analyze the use of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium and whether Mucosolvan injection (ambroxol hydrochloride injection) are incompatibility. Methods to observe and analysis the compatibility solution. the compatibility test solution for sediment. Amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection andambroxol conclusion (ambroxol hydrochloride) exists between the incompatibility, should cause height to take seriously.For the prevention of similar phenomenon,suggest that in the input of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium banned the use ofambroxol hydrochloride into the pot or static point Connection.should be used in glucose Solution or saline solution infusion tube punching asresidual liquid after connecting the input of other drugs,to prevent the drugs in the infusion tube in the dropping pot precipitation or turbidityreaction.

  7. 2种不同规格的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片溶出度比较%Dissolution profiles of 2 specifications of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚玲; 刘艳; 杨传怀

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the dissolution of 2 specifications of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets (0.228 5 g and 0.457 g) . Methods High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid and 12 tablets from each batch were collected randomly from 3 batches. Samples were measured at 0, 5, 15 and 30 min after the dissolution, when the dissolution is beyond 90% or the dissolution platform was reached. All data were analyzed at each time point. The dissolution curve was calculated. Results At 15 min, samples of 2 specifications of the 3 batches reached the dissolution platform. Conclusion Dissolution between 0.457 g and 0.228 5 g specification of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets is highly similar with consistent quality.%目的 研究比较2种不同规格(0.457 g和0.2285 g)的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片的溶出度.方法 3个批次的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片用于实验,每批随即抽取12片,以水为溶剂,采用高效液相色谱法测定溶出度.除0时外,另选择5、15、30 min共3个时间点进行取样测定,直到药物溶出>90%或达到溶出平台,分别计算各时间点药物溶出百分比,绘制每批样品的药物溶出曲线.结果 2种规格各3批样品在15 min时溶出度均>90%,即已达到溶出平台.结论 0.457 g的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片与0.2285 g阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片的溶出度具有高度相似性,其质量具有一致性,可以开发.

  8. Determination of amoxicillin content in powdered pharmaceutical formulations using DRIFTS and PLS Determinação de amoxicilina em formulações farmacêuticas em pó empregando DRIFTS-PLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Parisotto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of amoxicillin in pharmaceutical formulations was determined using spectra of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS, in association with partial least squares (PLS regression. The spectra of 24 different samples (17 for the calibration set and 7 for the validation set, which had been registered using a Nicolet Magna 550 spectrophotometer, contained 76.7-94.3% of amoxicillin in starch. The PLS models were constructed with auto-scaled or variance-scaled data, and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC. The best model presented R²=0.9936, RMSEC=0.441 and RMSEV=0.790. The analytical method proposed is non-destructive and the cost and time of analysis are very much reduced, allowing for the fast and direct determination of amoxicillin content.Neste trabalho propõe-se a quantificação de amoxicilina em formulações farmacêuticas empregando espectroscopia por refletância difusa no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (DRIFTS e regressão por mínimos quadrados parciais (PLS. Foram coletados em um espectrômetro Nicolet Magna 550 os espectros de 24 amostras (17 para o conjunto de calibração e 7 para o conjunto de validação contendo de 76,7-94,3 % de amoxicilina em amido. Para a construção dos modelos PLS foi empregada a correção do espalhamento de luz (MSC e os dados foram autoescalados ou escalados pela variância. Foi obtido um excelente modelo para a previsão da amoxicilina o qual apresentou R²=0,9936, RMSEC=0,441 e RMSEV=0,790. O método proposto além de não destrutivo apresenta baixo tempo de análise e baixo custo podendo ser facilmente empregado no controle de qualidade das indústrias farmacêuticas.

  9. 头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童细菌感染的Meta分析%Meta analysis of cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on children with bacterial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方宝霞; 陈富超; 于琳; 林洁; 姚园林

    2011-01-01

    Objective It is to evaluate the curative effect and safety of cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on children with bacterial infections. Methods Randomized controlled trails ( RCTs ) of cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for bacterial infections in children were collected from VIP ( 1989 to 2010 ) and CBMdisc ( 1978 to 2010). The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated, and data analyses were performed with the Cochrane collaboration's software RevMan 5.0. Results A total of 672 patients involved in 7 papers were searched. As for the cure rates and effective rates in the treatment of children with bacterial infections, significant differences were noted between cefixime versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Cure rates: RRs and 95% CI were 1.66 ( 1.22 to 2.26 ), Z = 3.24, P =0.001, the difference was significant. Effective rates: RRs and 95% CIs were 3.07( 1.94 to 4.86 ), Z = 4.80 , P <0.01 , the difference was significant. Conclusion According to the domestic evidence, cefixime is effective in the treatment of bacterial infections in children versus amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. However, more high quality clinical trials are expected for further study.%目的 评价头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童细菌感染的疗效和安全性.方法 计算机检索中文科技期刊全文数据库(1989-2010)与中国生物医学文献数据库(1978-2010),纳入头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童细菌感染的随机对照试验(RCT)文献,对纳入研究进行方法学质量评价,并采用RevMan 5.0软件进行Meta分析.结果 7篇随机对照试验,共672例患者符合纳入标准,Meta分析结果显示:头孢克肟与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾比较,痊愈率OR合并值1.66(95%CI为1.22~2.26),Z=3.24(P=0.001),有显著性差异;有效率OR合并值3.07(95%CI为1.94~4.86),Z=4.80(P<0.01),有显著性差异.结论 目前国内证据表明,头孢克肟治

  10. Efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate in combination with moxifloxacin and esomeprazole in treatment of drug resistant Helicobacter pylor infection%四联疗法治疗耐药幽门螺杆菌感染的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁祥; 杨英君; 卢惠伦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined with moxifloxacin and esomeprazole in treatment of Helicobactor pylori infection failed after treatment with conventional triple therapy for the treatment of failure of drug resistance of Helicobacter pylori infection,and a control group with quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication rate difference.Methods The 85 patients with Helicobacter pylori infections and treated with conventional triple therapy for a course of over 2 weeks and confirmed treatment failure by the C14 breath test were randomly divided into therapeutic group and control group.The patients in the therapeutic group were treated with amoxicillin potassium clavulanate 914mg Bid+ moxifloxacin tablet 400mg Qd+ esomeprazole 20mg Bid.Those in the control group were treated with esomeprazole 20mg Bid+ colloidal bismuth tartrate 165mg Qid+ amoxicillin capsule 1000mg Bid + clarithromycin 500mg Bid,for a course of 1 week.Results About 83.3% of Helicobacter pylori in the patients of therapeutic group was eradicated and eradication rate in the control group was 70% showing significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusions Combined use of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,moxifloxacin and esomeprazole is superior to the quadruple therapy containing bismuth in treatment of Helicobactor pylori-infected patients failed with conventional triple therapy.The regimen could be used as the second-line therapy with mild side effects.%目的 观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾和莫西沙星与埃索美拉唑联用,治疗传统的三联疗法治疗失败的耐药幽门螺杆菌感染的根除率,并与对照组四联疗法比较是否存在差异. 方法 将85例传统的三联疗法治疗2周以上,经C14呼气试验检查证实治疗失败的耐药幽门螺杆菌感染病例,随机分为试验组及对照组,试验组治疗方案为阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片914mgBid+莫西沙星片400mgQd+埃索美拉唑片20mgBid,对

  11. In vitro combined effect of co-amoxiclav concentrations achievable in serum after a 2000/125 mg oral dose, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils against strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae exhibiting decreased susceptibility to amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Raquel; Alou, Luis; Giménez, María José; Sevillano, David; Gómez-Lus, María Luisa; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Prieto, José

    2004-07-01

    The in vitro effect that the presence of components of non-specific immunity (serum plus polymorphonuclear neutrophils) has on the bactericidal activity of co-amoxiclav was explored against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains exhibiting an amoxicillin MIC > or =4 mg/L. Eight penicillin-resistant clinical isolates non-susceptible to co-amoxiclav with MICs of 4 (two strains), 8 (four strains) and 16 mg/L (two strains) were used. Values of MBC were identical to MIC values in all cases. Time-kill curves were performed with co-amoxiclav concentrations achievable in serum after a single oral dose administration of the new 2000/125 mg sustained-release formulation. Results were expressed as percentage of reduction of initial inocula after 3 h incubation. Control curves showed growth with no reduction of initial inocula. Against strains with MIC of 4 and 8 mg/L, the results obtained with the antibiotic alone or with the presence of factors of non-specific immunity were similar, with a weak combined effect due to the intrinsic activity of co-amoxiclav (reductions of initial inocula ranging from 70 to 99.16%). Against strains with MIC of 16 mg/L, the addition of PMN in the presence of serum increased the reduction of bacterial load provided by the aminopenicillin, even at sub-inhibitory concentrations (25.8% versus 51.1% at 0.5 x MIC concentration--8/0.5 mg/L). This combined activity against strains with an amoxicillin MIC of 16 mg/L which decreased the bacterial load may be important in preventing bacterial proliferation within the host and the transmission of resistant clones to others.

  12. Bioequivalence assessment of amoxicillin by limited sampling strategy in Chinese healthy volunteers%LSS法估算中国健康志愿者口服阿莫西林的生物等效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽芳; 焦建杰; 张才丽; 娄建石

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop limited sampling strategy ( LSS) for estimating bioequivalence of amoxicillin. Methods Twenty male healthy subjects were enrolled in this bioequivalence study. All subjects were divided into two groups randomly and administered orally reference and test formulation of 500 mg amoxicillin. The blood concentrations of amoxicillin were determined by the validated HPLC method. A multiple linear regression analysis was developed for estimating Cmax and AUC0_t using the amoxicillin concentration of the reference formulation to develop LSS models. The LSS models were internally validated by the Jackknife meth od. The models were also externally validated by bioequivalence assessment of the test amoxicillin formulation based on LSS derived Cmax and AUC0-t values, The results were compared with those obtained using traditional method. Results The results indicate: several models for these parameters estimation met the predefined criteria. Validation tests indicated that most informative sampling points C1, C3 and C1 ,C2,C4 provided accurate estimations of the parameters AUC0-1, ( prediction error < 1% , absolute percentage < 10% ) ,And C1 ,C1.5 and C1.5 ,C2,C6 provided accurate estimations of the parameters Cmax ( prediction error < 2% , absolute percentage < 9%) . The combination of C1.5, C2, C6 might be chosen as sampling hours for predicting AUC0-t, and Cmax according to requirement. It is according with classical assessment. Conclusion The bioequivalence assessment results showed that LSS models provided correct assessment of bio equivalence between two amoxicillin preparations. The method is accurant and can be considered desirable for amoxicil lin bioequivalence study.%目的 用有限采样法(LSS)估算口服阿莫西林的生物等效性.方法 20名健康志愿者口服阿莫西林参比药物和受试药物500 mg后采集若干时间点血浆样品,用高效液相色谱法测定阿莫西林血药浓度,用经典方法计算药代动力学参

  13. Bioequivalence of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid tabletsin healthy volunteers%国产阿莫西林/克拉维酸片人体生物等效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵军; 李可欣; 刘蕾; 史爱欣; 李扬; 孙春华

    2001-01-01

    目的:以进口阿莫西林/克拉维酸片为对照,考察国 产制 剂的人体生物等效性。方法:10名健康受试者随机交叉单剂量口服2 种制剂(阿莫西林250 mg,克拉维酸钾125 mg)后,采用微生物法测定血浆中药物浓度。[ HT5”H 结果:血药浓度数据经3P97拟合,两者的体内过程皆符合血管外口服给 药一室模型,采用梯形法计算的阿莫西林AUC0~t分别为(12.89±1.03)和(13.54± 0.59)(mg*h)/L, 实测Cmax分别为(5.17±0.45)和(5.25±0.46)mg/L;T max分别为(1.05±0.16)和(1.08±0.23)h, t1/2分别为(1.16±0.17)和(1.37 ±0.23)h。克拉维酸钾的AUC0~t分别为(8.25±0.92)和(8.18±0.51)(mg *h)/L ,实测Cmax分别为(3.94±0.52)和(4.10±0.35)mg/L;Tmax分别 为(1.10±0.21)和(1.03±0.10)h,t1/2分别为(0.98±0.11)和(1.01±0. 14)h。阿莫西林的相对生物利用度为(95.3±7.3)%;克拉维酸钾的相对生物利 用度为(100.6±6 .0)%。结论:经统计学分析,被试制剂和参比制剂具有生物等效性 。%Objective:To study the relative bioequivalence of domest ic and imported amoxicillin and clavulanic acid tablets.Methods:The ra ndomized and crossover study was conducted in 10 healthy male volunteers.After a single dose of the drugs their plasma drug concentration was determined by micr obiological assay.Results:Both the domestic and imported tablets of am oxicillin and clavulanic acid fitted to one compartment model.The pharmacokineti cs parameters obtained were:Cmax=(5.17±0.45)mg/L,Tmax=(1.05±0. 16)h,t1/2=(1.16±0.17)h,AUC0~t=(12.89±1.03)(mg*h)/L for domestic amoxicillin;Cmax=(5.25±0.46)mg/L,Tmax=(1.08±0.23)h,t1/2=(1.3 7±0.23)h,AUC0~t=(13.54±0.59)(mg*h)/L for imported amoxicillin;Cmax =(3.94±0.52)mg/L,Tmax=(1.10±0.21)h,t1/2=(0.98±0.11)h,AUC 0~t=(8.25±0.92)(mg*h)/L for domestic clavulanic acid;Cmax=(4.10±0. 35)mg/L,Tmax=(1.03±0.10)h,t1/2=(1.01±0.14)h,AUC0

  14. Pharmacokinetics Study of Amoxicillin Sodium Clavulanate Potassium (10 : 1) Injection in Healthy Volunteers%注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10:1)临床药代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗佳; 南峰; 沈奇; 秦永平; 王颖; 余勤; 郑莉; 梁茂植

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究健康受试者接受单次和多次给予注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10∶1)后的药代动力学特征,以指导制定合理的临床给药方案.方法 采用输液泵恒速静滴30 min给药,分别于给药前和开始给药后10、20、30、45 min和1、1.25、1.5、2、2.5、3、4、6、8、10 h采集静脉血4 mL.采用液相色谱-质谱/质谱法测定人血浆中阿莫西林和克拉维酸浓度,经DAS 2.0.1软件药代动力学程序处理,得主要药代动力学参数.结果 阿莫西林和克拉维酸的体内过程均符合权重系数为1/cc的三室模型或二室模型.为避免房室模型拟合所致偏倚,本研究采用非房室模型统计矩参数,单次静滴注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10∶1)0.55、1.1、2.2g后,峰浓度、药时曲线下面积、消除半衰期和清除率等药代参数提示阿莫西林和克拉维酸均具有线性动力学特征.受试者接受单次和多次给药后,阿莫西林和克拉维酸的药代动力学参数接近,且第7~13次给药前的谷浓度均低于最低检测限,表明每次给药前,前一次给药已基本清除,多次给药后无蓄积.结论 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾(10∶1)具有线性动力学特征,1.1g,Q8 h给药能满足临床治疗需要.%Objective To study the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin sodium clavulanate potassium (10 : 1) injection with different single doses intravenous infusion and one dose repeated intravenous injection in healthy volunteers for guiding the rational clinical regimen. Methods Using infusion pump constantly intravenous dripping in 30 min, 4 mL blood samples were collected before and after the administration at 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 45 min, and 1, 1. 25, 1. 5, 2, 2. 5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 h. The plasma concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate were detected by high performance liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS2. 0. 1

  15. 大肠埃希菌对阿莫西林/克拉维酸耐药机制的研究%Mechanisms of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanate in Escherichia coil isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁娟娟; 吕晓菊; 陈筱纯; 吴疆; 高燕渝; 马晓波

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study amoxiciUin/clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from West China Hospital of Sichuan University, and analyze the resistant mechanisms of these isolates, so as to provide evidence for clinical therapy in infections caused by amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli. Methods Among 276 isolates showing resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, 52 tested strains were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate by disk diffusion method (inhibition zone diameter ≤ 13mm). The genes of TEM-type enzymes in isolates of which phenotype was consistant with inhibitor-resistant TEM β-lactamase (IRT) was cloned and expressed and blaTEM, blaSHV, blaOXA genes were detected by multiple PCR. Results Multiplex PCR detected blaTEM and blaOXA genes in 46 and 6 strains, respectively, and only one isolate had blaSHV gene. The occurrent presence of blaTEM and blaOXA genes were detected in 5 strains, and only one strain harboured blaTEM and blaSHV genes concomitantly. Conclusion In West China Hospital, overproduction of TEM-1 β-lactamases were the main mechanism in amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant Escherichia coli isolates, while SHV-1 and OXA-1 β- lactamases were important mechanisms of resistance.%目的 探讨大肠埃希菌对阿莫西林/克拉维酸的耐药特点和机制,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 收集四川大学华西医院2005年5月至12月临床分离的544株大肠埃希菌经微量肉汤稀释法确认对氨苄西林/舒巴坦耐药的大肠埃希菌,从中随机选取276株用药敏纸片检测,仅52株对阿莫西林/克拉维酸耐药.对符合耐酶抑制剂β-内酰胺酶耐药表型的2株大肠埃希菌进行TEM型β-内酰胺酶基因的克隆表达.采用多重PCR技术检测耐阿莫西林/克拉维酸大肠埃希菌的TEM、SHV、OXA型3种β-内酰胺酶.结果 52株大肠埃希菌含TEM型46株,SHV型1株,OXA型6株.其中同时含TEM型和SHV型1株以及含TEM型和OXA型5株.结论 TEM-1型广谱酶的高产是

  16. Rp-HPLC法测定阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾的含量%Determination of contents of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium by Rp-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁姗

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish content determination method of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Methods The parameters of detection was as followed: HPLC column: Hypersil BDS C18 (4.6× 200 mum, 5μm); mobile phase: sodium dodecylsulfate solution - acetonitrile (92:8); flow: 1.0ml/min;chromatographic temperature: 25C; detection wavelength: 220 nm; injection volume: 10 μ 1. ResultsThe linear range of clavulanate potassium was good at 4.05 - 40.48 μ g ( r = 0.9999 ) and the average recovery was 99.7% (RSD = 2.1%); The linear range of amoxicillin was good at 1.15 - 11.53 μ g( r = 0.9999 )and the average recovery was 99.6% (RSD = 0.7%). Conclusions This method is accurate and easy to use, with better recovery and higher separation. It can be used for quality control of the related preparations.%目的 建立阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾中两种主要成分的含量测定.方法 采用液相色谱法,大连依利特Hypersil BDS C18柱(4.6×200 mm,5 μ m)为色谱柱;十二烷基硫酸钠溶液-乙腈(92∶8)为流动相;流速:1.0ml/min;柱温:25℃;检测波长:220nm;进样体积:10 μl.结果 克拉维酸在4.05~40.48μg范围内线性良好(r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.7%(RSD=2.1%);阿莫西林在1.15~11.53μg范围内线性良好(r=0.9999),平均回收率为99.6%(RSD=0.7%).结论 该方法准确度高,回收率良好,分离度较高,操作简单,可作为该制剂质量控制方法.

  17. 服用阿莫西林母亲哺乳的婴儿出现血小板减少性紫癜%Thrombocytopenic purpura in a infant breast-fed by a mother receiving amoxicillin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈月; 谢黎崖

    2011-01-01

    1例56 d男婴因血小板减少性紫癜入院.入院前2d其母行输卵管结扎手术,术后口服阿莫西林预防感染,服药期间未停止哺乳.服药第2天晚患儿下肢皮肤出现散在针尖大小红点,第3天左下肢出现瘀斑.入院时血小板4×109/L,经骨髓细胞学检查,确诊为血小板减少性紫癜.停止哺乳,予以支持治疗,2周后患儿治愈出院.%A 56-day-old male infant was hospitalized with thrombocytopenic purpura. Two days before admission, his mother underwent tubal ligation surgery and received oral amoxicillin to prevent infections after surgery. Breast-feeding was not stopped during the period of drug use. On day 2 of drug therapy, the infant developed scattered pin-sized red spots on his lower leg skin and, on day 3, petechia appeared on his lower left leg. On admission, his PLT level was 4 x 10VL, thrombocytopenic purpura was confirmed by bone marrow cytological analysis. Breast-feeding was stopped and the infant was given supportive treatments. Two weeks later, he recovered and was discharged.

  18. 热降解辅助表面解吸常压化学电离质谱对阿莫西林的分析%Analysis of amoxicillin by surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry aided with thermal degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 邓慧宇; 石俊

    2012-01-01

    To establish a novel approach to the high throughput screening of amoxicillin by direct surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization -mass spectrometry aided with thermal degradation(TD -SDAP-CI - MS). Methods; Water in the air act as the reactive reagent responsible for the generation of ions in the positive corona discharge. The rapid screening effectiveness of the combination of TD and SDAPGI was demonstrated by application to comparing the total ion current mass spectrum of degradation ingredient ions to ion current mass spectrum of amoxicillin capsules which were observed in full scan mass spectrometry (MS) mode. Collision -induced dissociation of protonated molecules gave characteristic product - ion mass spectra and provided further identification of amoxicillin degradation ingredients. Results: The high throughput screening of amoxicillin was realized by mass spectrum without sample pretreatment and separation step. Conclusions: A single sample analysis is completed in less than 30 seconds. The data show TD - SDAPCI - MS is a convenient tool for high throughtout screening of unstable amoxicillin.%目的:建立一种阿莫西林热降解辅助表面解吸常压化学电离质谱(TD - SDAPCI - MS)快速检测新方法.方法:利用阿莫西林抗生素的易降解并产生特定降解产物的特性,以潮湿空气作为试剂,通过电晕放电产生大量试剂离子,对阿莫西林抗生素总离子流质谱图与特征降解产物离子流图进行比对.并通过串联质谱对阿莫西林抗生素产生的特征降解产物进行了确认.结果:无需样品预处理,实现一级质谱法对阿莫西林抗生素的高通量筛选.结论:单个样品检测不超过30 s,可实现不稳定抗生素阿莫西林的高通量筛选.

  19. The NOTA study: non-operative treatment for acute appendicitis: prospective study on the efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid) in patients with right sided lower abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Eleonora; Biscardi, Andrea; Villani, Silvia; Clemente, Nicola; Senatore, Gianluca; Filicori, Filippo; Antonacci, Nicola; Baldoni, Franco; De Werra, Carlo; Di Saverio, Salomone

    2011-01-01

    Background Case control studies that randomly assign patients with diagnosis of acute appendicitis to either surgical or non-surgical treatment yield a relapse rate of approximately 14% at one year. It would be useful to know the relapse rate of patients who have, instead, been selected for a given treatment based on a thorough clinical evaluation, including physical examination and laboratory results (Alvarado Score) as well as radiological exams if needed or deemed helpful. If this clinical evaluation is useful, the investigators would expect patient selection to be better than chance, and relapse rate to be lower than 14%. Once the investigators have established the utility of this evaluation, the investigators can begin to identify those components that have predictive value (such as blood analysis, or US/CT findings). This is the first step toward developing an accurate diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm which will avoid risks and costs of needless surgery. Methods/design This will be a single-cohort prospective observational study. It will not interfere with the usual pathway, consisting of clinical examination in the Emergency Department (ED) and execution of the following exams at the physician's discretion: full blood count with differential, C reactive protein, abdominal ultrasound, abdominal CT. Patients admitted to an ED with lower abdominal pain and suspicion of acute appendicitis and not needing immediate surgery, are requested by informed consent to undergo observation and non operative treatment with antibiotic therapy (Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid). The patients by protocol should not have received any previous antibiotic treatment during the same clinical episode. Patients not undergoing surgery will be physically examined 5 days later. Further follow-up will be conducted at 7, 15 days, 6 months and 12 months. The study will conform to clinical practice guidelines and will follow the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol

  20. Genetic diversity of the ftsI gene in β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from children in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulmin; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Shin, Na-Young; Byun, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jae-Wook; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eu Yoon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Sohn, Woo Yun; Kang, Jin Han

    2013-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae frequently colonizes the nasopharynx of children and adults, which can lead to a variety of infections. We investigated H. influenzae carriage in the nasopharynx of 360 children, in terms of (1) the prevalence of strains with decreased susceptibility, and (2) the presence of amino acid substitutions in PBP3. One hundred twenty-three strains were isolated (34.2%, 123/360), 122 of which were classified as nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi). Of these, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible strains accounted for 26.2%, β-lactamase-producing-ampicillin-resistant strains for 9.0%, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains for 40.2%, and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) for 24.6%, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were so diverse that they were clustered into 41 groups. The amino acid substitutions in the transpeptidase domain (292 amino acids) of ftsI in BLNAR isolates showed that group IIb accounted for 30.6%, IIc for 8.2%, IId for 16.3%, III for 32.7%, and the others for 12.2%. Moreover, groups IIb (56.7%; 17/30) and III (23.3%; 7/30) were prevalent among BLPACR strains. They were subclassified into more diverse sequence subtypes by analysis of the entire PBP3 (610 amino acids). Groups IIb, IIc, IId, and III exhibited 13, four, six, and four sequence subtypes, respectively. Such a genetic diversity is likely indicative of significant potential for decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in nasopharyngeal-colonizing NTHi strains.

  1. [Antibiotic therapy against acute tonsillopharyngitis in children due to group A beta-hemolytic streptococci: comparison of clinical efficacy, the bactericidal effects, and effects on oral flora between cefditoren pivoxil for 5 days and amoxicillin for 10 days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Naoki; Nagai, Kensuke; Hidaka, Hidenobu; Otsu, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yuhei; Ikezawa, Shigeru; Honma, Shinichi; Shindo, Shizuo; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2011-06-01

    We compared the clinical efficacy, the bactericidal effects, effect on the oral microbial flora, and adverse reactions between cefditoren pivoxil (CDTR-PI) for 5 days and amoxicillin (AMPC) for 10 days in children with acute group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GAS) tonsillopharyngitis, and simultaneously examined the emm genotype and drug susceptibility of the isolated GAS. The results showed that the clinical efficacy was 100% for CDTR-PI and 97.9% for AMPC, with no difference between the two groups, and the bacterial elimination rate was 100% in both groups. No serious adverse event was noted in either group. On the other hand, concerning changes in the oral microbial flora between before and after treatment, the amount of bacteria showed no change in the CDTR-PI group (p = 0.5761) but clearly decreased in the AMPC group (p = 0.0049). This indicates that CDTR-PI does not disturb the oral microbial flora compared with AMPC. Also, the emm types determined in the 112 GAS strains isolated in this study were similar to those that have recently been isolated frequently in Japan. Concerning the drug resistance, none of the isolates showed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, but 45% of them were resistant to macrolides. The advantages of short-term treatment are considered to include a lower cost, improvement in drug compliance, decrease in the frequency of the occurrence of adverse reactions, decrease in the frequency of the appearance of drug-resistant strains, and alleviation of the psychological burden of patients and their parents. For these reasons, we conclude that CDTR-PI for 5 days is a useful option for the treatment of acute GAS tonsillopharyngitis in children.

  2. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾亚最低杀菌浓度体外诱导细菌耐药研究%A Study on Bacteria Antibiotic Resistance Induced by sub-MBC of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣剑; 祝仲珍; 王占科; 袁小兰; 胡新华; 宁丽萍; 兰小鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of inducing by sub-MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium on the antibiotic resistance of standard strains of staphylococcus aureus. Methods The standard strain of staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium were respectively used as observational strain and antibacterials, and MBC values of different induced days were quantitatively detected u-sing microdilution method. Induction test of staphylococcus aureus in vitro was performed using 1 / 2 concentration of MBC for 35 d, and MBC changes were observed and recorded. The final antibiotic resistance to Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium of staphylococcus aureus was identified using automatic microorganisms drug sensitivity analyzer. Results The MBC value of the standard strain of staphylococcus aureus was significantly increased which was induced by Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium in vitro for 10 d, and the value induced for 35 d was increased to 32 times of original strain value. The induced drug-resistant strain of staphylococcus aureus had 100% resistance rate to Amoxicillin and Clavu-lanate Potassium. Conclusion The sub-MBC of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium can induce antibiotic resistance of the standard strains of staphylococcus aureus in vitro, and the degree of the antibiotic resistance increases with the in-creasing induction time by sub-MBC. A rational dosage of antimicrobial is important to prevent antibiotic resistance.%目的:观察亚最低杀菌浓度(minimum bactericidal concentration, MBC)阿莫西林克拉维酸钾诱导对金黄色葡萄球菌标准菌株的耐药性影响。方法以金黄色葡萄球菌标准菌株 ATCC 29213为研究对象,阿莫西林克拉维酸钾为抗菌药物,以微量稀释法定量检测不同诱导天数 MBC 值,采用1/2 MBC 浓度对金黄色葡萄球菌进行35 d 多步体外诱导试验,观察金黄色葡萄球菌标准菌株 MBC 变化并

  3. 哌拉西林他唑巴坦和阿莫西林克拉维酸在小儿支气管肺炎中的治疗效果比较%Treatment effects comparison of piperacillin tazobactam and amoxicillin clavulanic acid in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李书平

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the treatment effect of piperacillin tazobactam and amoxicillin clavulanic acid in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia.Methods:80 children patients with bronchial pneumonia were selected.They were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group.The two groups were given amoxicillin clavulanic acid and piperacillin tazobactam treatment.The treatment effects of the two groups were observed.Results:The difference of total effective rates of two groups was not statistically significant(P>0.05).The treatment cost of the observation group was lower than that of the control group.Conclusion:The curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanic acid in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia is remarkable,and the treatment cost is low.%目的:探讨哌拉西林他唑巴坦和阿莫西林克拉维酸在小儿支气管肺炎中的治疗效果。方法:收治支气管肺炎患儿80例,随机分为观察组和对照组,两组分别给予阿莫西林克拉维酸和哌拉西林他唑巴坦治疗。观察两组的治疗效果。结果:两组总有效率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。观察组的治疗成本低于对照组。结论:阿莫西林克拉维酸在小儿支气管肺炎治疗中疗效显著,且治疗成本低。

  4. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾不同给药方案治疗细菌性呼吸道感染的效果分析%Effect analysis of different dosage regimen amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for the treatment of bacterial respiratory tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱健

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical effect of different dosage regimen amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treatment of bacterial respiratory tract infections. Methods 936 patients with bacterial respiratory tract infection treated in our hospital from June 2011 to June 2013 were randomly divided into group A and group B,group A were given with injections of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 100 mg/kg,dissolved in 100 ml of sodium chloride injec-tion,intravenous injection,1 time/d.Group B were taken with the same batch of injectable amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,50 mg/kg,dissolved in 50 ml of sodium chloride injection,intravenous injection,2 times/d.According to the disease,administration time were 1 to 2 weeks.The clinical efficacy of the two groups and the administration time were compared. Results In patients with mild and moderate infection,the administration time of group A and group B had no significant difference (P>0.05);in patients with severe infection,the administration time of group A was longer than that of group B,the difference was significant (P0.05);in patients with severe infection, the effective rate of group B was higher than that of group A,the difference was significant (P0.05);重度感染患者中,A组给药时间明显长于B组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);重度感染患者中,B组的有效率显著高于A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论A给药方案在轻度和中度感染治疗效果较好,同时减少给药次数,B方案可对重度感染进行有效治疗。

  5. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶1)治疗呼吸系统细菌感染多中心随机对照研究%A multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8∶1) in the treatment of acute infection of respiratory system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 贾正平; 朱运奎

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶1)治疗急性呼吸道感染的有效性和安全性.方法:采用多中心、随机、双盲、平行对照试验设计,共入选病例136例,其中试验组[阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶ 1)] 69例;对照组[阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片(7∶1)]69例;一般疗程均为7~14d,最短疗程不少于5d.结果:试验组治疗有效病例69例,治愈59例,临床痊愈率为89.39%;对照组治疗有效病例69例,治愈61例,临床治愈率为92.42%.细菌清除率:试验组为95.45%,对照组为92.91%,药物不良反应发生率均为4.35%.结论:阿莫西林克拉维酸钾颗粒(8∶1)治疗各种敏感菌所引起的呼吸道感染,安全、有效,使用方便,耐受性好.%Objective :. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8: 1 )in the treatment of acute infection of respiratory system. Methods; A multicenter, randomized, double -blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in the treatment of 138 patients with acute infection of respiratory system. There were 69 cases in the trial group; amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8:1) , while 65 cases were in the control group; amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium gispersible tablets {7:1). The treatment duration for both groups was from 7 to 14 days ( at least 5 days). Results; The effective rate for the trial and control group was 89. 39% and 92. 42% respectively. The bacterial eradication rate was 95.45% and 92.91% respectively. The incidence of adverse reactions was 4. 35% in both groups. Conclusion; Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium granules (8: 1) is effective and safe in the treatment of acute infectin of respiratory system.

  6. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)的含量均匀度测定和有关物质检查%The study of the content uniformity and related substances of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14∶1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静玲; 李瑞明; 冯鹏; 胡建楣; 林小凤; 范佩冰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the content uniformity and related substances of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1), and the experiment were used to evaluate and determine the intrinsic quality. Methods Though the content uniformity and related substances investigated in order to determine the controllability of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium suspensions quality. Results This method was used in the paper which was good to detect Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1) content uniformity and related substances requirements. Conclusion Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1) content uniformity and related substances requirements meet the conditions of the quality of the preparations.%目的 对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14∶1)的含量均匀度和有关物质进行了研究,用来评价和确定制剂使用中的安全性及药物本身的内在质量.方法 通过对制备得到的阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂含量均匀度的测定和有关物质考察,从而确定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂质量的可控性.结果 通过本文中所用方法对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14∶1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾的含量均匀度和有关物质测定结果说明制剂质量合格,所以在制剂使用中阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂能确保其安全性.结论 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14∶1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾的含量均匀度和有关物质的测定均能符合制剂要求.

  7. 高效液相色谱法同时检测血浆中阿莫西林和克拉维酸的血药浓度%Simultaneous Determination of Plasma Concentration of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate by HPLC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晶

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立同时测定血浆中阿莫西林和克拉维酸质量浓度的高效液相色谱法.方法 分析柱为 Phenomenexluna C18柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm),柱温为室温,流动相为磷酸盐缓冲溶液(pH=3.0)-乙腈(95∶5),流速为1.2mL/min,紫外检测波长为230 nm.结果 克拉维酸和阿莫西林的保留时间分别为5 min和9 min左右,质量浓度线性范围分别为0.13~8.60 μg/mL(r=0.999 4)和0.21~13.20 μg/mL(r=0.999 8),日内和日间精密度的RSD均小于15.0%(n=5).结论 所建立的方法简便、准确,适用于阿莫西林和克拉维酸血药浓度测定.%Objective To establish a HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate in human plasma. Methods The chromatographic separation was carried out on Phenomenex Luna Cm column(250 mm x 4. 6 mm, 5 |xm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile NatbPCK buffer(pH =3. 0) (95 :5),the flow rate was 1. 2 mL/min. The detecting wavelength was at 230 nm. Results Clavulanate and amoxicillin were eluted for about 5 min and 9 min. Cavulanate and amoxicillin showed the good linear correlation in the range of 0. 13 - 8. 60 |xg/mL (r=0.999 4) and 0. 21 - 13. 20 g/mL( r =0. 999 8) respectively. The intra-day RSD and inter -day RSD were both less than 15. 0% (n = 5). Conclusion The method is simple, accurate and suitable for the determination of plasma drug concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanate.

  8. 中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎90例临床观察%The clinical observation of 90 children with tonsillitis treated by traditional Chinese medi-cine enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李民

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析和探讨中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的临床效果.方法:选取我院2012-01/2014-01收治的150例小儿化脓性扁桃体炎患者,通过随机数字表法分为对照组( n=60)和观察组( n=90).观察组患儿给予中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗,对照组患儿给予阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗,对两组患儿临床治疗效果进行分析.结果:观察组患儿临床治疗有效率较对照组更高( P<0.05).结论:在小儿化脓性扁桃体炎治疗中,中药灌肠联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾片治疗能改善临床症状,提高治疗效果,不良反应少,疗效安全可靠,可推广应用.%AIM: To analyze and explore the clinical effect of traditional Chinese medicine enema combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium tablets in the treatment of pediatric septic tonsillitis. METHODS: A total of 150 children with purulent tonsillitis patients in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were selected as research object, and were divided into control group ( n= 60 ) and observation group ( n = 90 ) according to a random number table method. The observation group were treated with TCM enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanic potassium tablets, and the control group received amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium tablets. The clinical therapeutic effect of two groups of children were analyzed. RESULTS: The clinical effective rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). CONCLU⁃SION:In the treatment of children with purulent tonsillitis, the TCM enema combined with amoxicillin and clavulanic potassium tablets could relieve the clinical symptoms, and improve the therapeutic effect, with less adverse reaction and safe and reliable curative effect. It is worthy of promoting and applying.

  9. 头孢地尼与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童急性中耳炎的临床观察%Observation of Cefdinir with Amoxicillin/Clavulanatein in Treatment of Children Acute Otitis Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 艾文彬; 罗琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy,safety,compliance difference of cefdinir and amoxicillin/clavulanate in treatment of children with acute otitis media(AOM). Methods 201 cases (232 ears) with AOM who received either cefdinir particles (daily dose of 7mg/kg/d,divided two times daily for 5 days) or amoxicillin/clavulanate(daily dose of 13. 3 mg/kg,divided two times daily for 10 days) treatment from 2011 January to 2012 December were reviewed retrospec-tively. According to the clinical symptoms and signs recovery,compare the efficacy,drug compliance and safety differences of two groups. Results At the end of treatment,104 ears were cured or improved (104/106,98. 11%) in the cefdinir group,while in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group 96 ears were cured or improved (96/106,90. 57%). Cefdinir was signifi-cantly better than amoxicillin/clavulanate in efficacy (P0. 05). Conclusion 5-day oral cefdidir treatment was significantly better than 10-day oral amoxicillin/clavulanate treatment for children acute o-titis media in efficacy、medication adherence and safety,it seems to be a better choice of short treatment.%目的:比较头孢地尼与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗儿童急性中耳炎( AOM)的疗效、用药依从性、安全性差别。方法对2011年1月~2012年12月资料完整的分别使用头孢地尼(日剂量7.0mg/kg,每日2次,连续服用5天,91例)或阿莫西林克拉维酸钾(日剂量13.3mg/kg,每日2次,连续服用10天,110例)治疗的AOM患儿进行回顾性分析。根据患儿临床症状与体征是否恢复评定疗效,比较两种药物对儿童AOM的疗效、药物依从性及安全性。结果头孢地尼组完成疗程的病例90例(106耳),治疗7~9天时有效率为98.11%(104/106耳);阿莫西林克拉维酸钾组完成疗程的病例95例(106耳),治疗12~14天时有效率为90.57%(96/106耳)。头孢地尼组疗效明显高于阿莫西林克拉维酸钾组,差异具有显著统计学意义(P0.05)。结论

  10. Therapeutic drug monitoring of amoxicillin and cloxacillin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OTRIBUT; PTATTEVIN; MVERDIER; YLETULZO; CMICELET; HALLAIN; DBENTURE-FERRER

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Beta-lactams (BL) are broad-spectrum antibiotics currently used in number of infectious diseases and some infections need high dose of antibiotics. BL studied here are eliminated rather quickly by the kidney. A renal insufficiency involves an increase in BL concentrations. Therapeutic drug monitoring could help in adapting the target concentration. METHODS: We developed a rapid (less than 20 min), sensitive, and specific HPLC method

  11. Effect of betamethasone and diclofenac sodium on serum and tissue concentration of amoxicillin: in vivo study in rats Efeito da betametasona e do diclofenaco sódico na concentração sérica e tecidual da amoxicilina: estudo in vivo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Rocha Mattos Filho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial agents in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs have been usually prescribed in both Medicine and Dentistry. However, few scientific reports support this clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of betamethasone and diclofenac sodium on serum and tissue concentration of amoxicillin in rats. METHODS: Four polyurethane sponges were implanted in the back skin of 48 rats. After seven days the animals were divided into 6 groups (n=8. Group 1: amoxicillin (25 mg/kg; G2: diclofenac sodium (2.5 mg/kg; G3: betamethasone (0.1 mg/kg; G4: diclofenac sodium and amoxicillin; G5: betamethasone and amoxicillin; and G6: 0.9% sodium chloride solution (1.0 mL - control group. All drugs were administered in a single dose. After 90 minutes, the granulomatous tissues of each animal were surgically removed and weighed. Blood was collected from cervical plexus, centrifuged and 10µL of serum was placed on paper discs. In order to estimate amoxicillin concentration, serum and granulomatous tissues were separately submitted to microbiological assay, which used 10(8cfu/mL of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (penicillin-susceptible strain. After incubation (18 hours, 37ºC the inhibition zones were measured and compared to a regression curve. RESULTS: No inhibition zones were observed for groups 2, 3 and 6. Tissue and serum concentrations of both G1 (4.14µg/g and 2.06µg/mL, respectively and G5 (3.87µg/g and 1.70µg/mL, respectively showed statistically significant differences (Kruskal-Wallis, p0.05. CONCLUSION: Considering single doses, betamethasone did not interfere with amoxicillin levels but diclofenac sodium reduced both tissue and serum levels of amoxicillin in rats.OBJETIVO: A prescrição de antimicrobianos associados a antiinflamatórios é uma prática comum em odontologia, embora na maioria das vezes não haja justificativa para tal conduta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em um estudo in vivo em

  12. Simultaneous determination of serum concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in human blood using high-performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法同时测定人血阿莫西林钠/克拉维酸钾血药浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林祖文; 李源; 宋玮娟; 胡海燕; 曾颖; 许百虹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a chromatography-based method for simultaneous analysis of the concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in human blood. Methods With paracetamol as the internal control, human plasma samples, after treatment with methanol for protein sedimentation and centrifugation, were loaded for analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analysis was carried out using a C18 column (5 urn, 4.6 mm × 150 mm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-PBS (0.05 mol/L) of 10:90 (pH 2.3), UV detection wavelength of 220 ran, flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, and column temperature of 25 t. Results The retention time of acetaminophen for potassium clavulanate, amoxicillin sodium and the internal control was 5.3, 7.2, and 8.5 min, respectively, and no interference by the endogenous impurities in the plasma samples was found. Amoxicillin sodium showed a good linearity within the concentration range of 0.52-4.16 μg/ml (r2=0.9996), and potassium clavulanate had a good linearity within the range of 0.266-2.14 μg/ml (r2=0.9998). The minimum detectable concentrations of amoxicillin sodium and potassium clavulanate were 0.065 μg/ml and 0.066 μg/ml, respectively. The relative recoveries of amoxicillin sodium were 95.9%-96.5% (n=5), and those of clavulanate potassium were 92.5%-98.8% (n=5); the intra- and inter-day RSD of amoxicillin sodium was 1.84%-6.4% and 2.1%-7.8%, as compared to that of potassium clavulanate of 3.57%-8.6% and 1.8%-9.1%, respectively. Conclusion This method is simple, accurate, sensitive, specific and reproducible for analyzing the concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium simultaneously in human plasma.%目的 建立阿莫西林钠/克拉维酸钾人血药浓度的色谱分析方法.方法 采用对乙酰氨基酚为内标,人血浆样品用甲醇沉淀蛋白后高速离心进样;色谱柱:C18色谱柱(依利特Hypersil BDS,5μm,4.6 mm×150 mm);流动相:乙腈-0.05mmol/L磷酸盐缓冲液=10∶90(V

  13. Clinical efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium combined with levofloxacin in the treatment of multi -drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis%阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星治疗耐多药肺结核的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童维佳; 王永庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the clinical effect of amoxicillin/ clavulanate potassium com-bined with levofloxacin in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods 80 re-treated smear positive patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were randomly divided into the control group and the treatment group, 40 cases in each group. The control group was treated with levofloxacin combined with pasiniazid, ethambutol hydrochloride, rifapentine and pyrazinamide, and the treatment group was treated with amoxi-cillin/ clavulanate potassium and levofloxacin, combined with pasiniazid, ethambutol hydrochloride, rifapentine and pyrazinamide. All patients were treated for 12 months. Results At the end of the treatment, the sputum negative conversion rate was 52. 50% in the control group, and 75% in the treatment group (P 0. 05). Conclusion Amoxicillin/ clavulanate potassium combined with levofloxacin regimen can improve the sputum negative conversion and lesions absorption,with low adverse drug reaction in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis.%目的::观察并评价阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星在治疗耐多药肺结核(MDR-TB)的疗效。方法将80例复治涂阳耐多药肺结核患者随机分为对照组40例和治疗组40例;治疗方案:对照组以左氧氟沙星为主,联合对氨基水杨酸异烟肼、盐酸乙胺丁醇、利福喷丁、吡嗪酰胺,治疗组以阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾、左氧氟沙星为主,联合用药同对照组,所有病例疗程均为12个月。结果至疗程结束,对照组痰菌阴转率为52.50%,治疗组痰菌阴转率为75.00%,治疗组痰菌阴转率明显高于对照组(P 0.05)。结论对于耐多药肺结核,用阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星治疗利于痰菌阴转和病变吸收好转,药品不良反应低,具有推广价值。

  14. The clinical effect observation of levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in MDR-TB%左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗耐多药肺结核的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春; 李俊; 周晓俊; 刘云妹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in MDR-TB.Methods 212 cases patients with MDR-TB were randomly divided into observation group and control group ,each of 106 cases.Observation group was treated by levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium .Control group was treated by levofloxacin .After treatment ,compared the clinical effect ,lesion extent of absorption ,cavity closure case of 2 groups .Results The total efficacy of observation group (95.28%)was higher than that of control group (83.02%),the difference was statisti-cally significant(P<0.05).The focus absorption rate and cavity closure rate of observation group was higher than that of con -trol group,the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05).Conclusion Levofloxacin and amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in MDR-TB has an good effect ,worthy of clinical application .%目的:探讨左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗耐多药肺结核的临床疗效。方法将212例耐多药肺结核患者随机分为观察组和对照组各106例。所有患者均严格给予抗结核化疗,支持治疗和密切护理,观察组给予左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗,对照组仅给予左氧氟沙星治疗。治疗后观察2组临床疗效、病灶吸收程度、空洞闭合情况。结果观察组总有效率为95.28%高于对照组的83.02%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组病灶吸收率、空洞闭合率均高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论左氧氟沙星联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗耐多药肺结核具有良好的治疗效果,且不增加不良反应事件发生率,值得临床推广应用。

  15. 胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾在耐多药肺结核中的疗效观察%Effect of thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚超; 李孳; 林文红; 刘盛盛; 杨娟; 梅琳; 李霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the curative effect of thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium ( AMC) in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis ( MDR-PTB) . Methods 69 cases of MDR-PTB patients were randomly divided into the treatment group ( n=35 ) and the control group ( n=34 ) . The control group received the standard treatment, and the treatment group was given thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potas-sium on the basis of the control group. All patients were treated for 24 months. Results The curative rate was 82. 9% and 58. 8% respectively in the treatment group and the control group (P<0. 05). There was no obvious difference in adverse reaction between the two groups. Conclusion Thymosin and amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium have better curative effect than the standard therapy does in the treatment of MDR-PTB patients, which have good safety and tolerance.%目的:观察胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾在耐多药肺结核患者治疗中的疗效。方法将我院收集到的69例耐多药的肺结核病人,随机的分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组35例,对照组34例。对照组采取耐多药肺结核标准治疗方案,治疗组在对照组基础上加用胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾。所有患者疗程为24个月。结果治疗组和对照组治愈率分别为82.9%及58.8%,两组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);两组不良反应无明显统计学差异。结论胸腺肽+阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合标准抗结核药治疗耐多药肺结核临床疗效明显。

  16. Effect observation of hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine in the treatment of chronic stubborn gastritis and gastric ulcer in 60 cases%铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡60例效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱桂扣

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine in the treatment of chronic stubborn gastritis,gastric ulcer.Methods:60 patients with chronic stubborn gastritis,gastric ulcer were selected. They were randomly divided into the study group and the control group with 30 cases in each.The control group were given hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid treatment.The study group were given hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine treatment.We compared the treatment efficiency,helicobacter pylori clearance rate, recurrence rate and the rate of adverse reactions of the two groups.Results:In the study group,the effective rate was 86.67% ;helicobacter pylori eradication rate was 73.33%;the recurrence rate was 10.00%.They were all significantly better than the control group(P0.05).Conclusion:Hydrotalcite combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid and berberine in the treatment of chronic stubborn gastritis,gastric ulcer can significantly improve the clinical efficacy,and reduce the recurrence rate.%目的:探讨铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡的疗效。方法:收治慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡患者60例,随机平均分成研究组和对照组,对照组给予铝碳酸镁联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗,研究组应用铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗,比较两组患者治疗有效率、幽门螺杆菌清除率、复发率及不良反应率。结果:研究组治疗有效率86.67%,幽门螺杆菌清除率73.33%,复发率10.00%,均显著优于对照组(P<0.05),不良反应率组间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:铝碳酸镁联用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾及黄连素治疗慢性顽固性胃炎、胃溃疡能显著提高临床疗效、降低复发率。

  17. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾近红外定量分析通用性模型的建立%Establishment of Universal Quantitative Models for Determination of Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium for Injection Using Near-infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗英; 莫卫民; 陈悦; 洪利娅

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用近红外漫反射光谱分析技术和化学计量学的方法对注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾进行无损、快速定量分析.方法 采集26批实验室自制样品和40批不同企业市售样品的近红外漫反射光谱,通过聚类分析确定校正集和验证集,采用偏最小二乘法(PLS)建立定量分析模型.结果 3个定量模型中阿莫西林浓度范围为21.28%~75.57%,克拉维酸浓度范围为2.67%~15.85%,水分范围为0.46 %~15.7%.阿莫西林定量模型的交叉验证均方根误差(RMSECV)和预测均方根误差(RMSEP)分别为1.42%和1.54%;克拉维酸定量模型的RMSECV和RMSEP分别为0.56%和0.71%;水分定量模型的RMSECV和RMSEP分别为0.11%和0.14%.结论 建立的3个非破坏性快速定量分析模型用于不同厂家生产的注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾样品测定是可行的.%OBJECTIVE To develop a near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopic quantitative method for rapid and non-destructive determination of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection. METHODS Using cluster analysis method, diffuse reflectance spectra of 26 batches of simulated samples and 40 batches of commercial samples from different manufactures were divided into calibration and validation set. The calibration model was developed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. RESULTS Three quantitative methods were explored at the concentration ranges of 21.28%-75.57% for amoxicillin, 2.67%—15.85% for clavulanate potassium, 0.46%-15.7% for water. The root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) and the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 1.42% and 1.54% for amoxicillin, 0.56% and 0.71% for clavulanate, 0.11% and 0.14% for water, respectively. CONCLUSION Three nondestructive quantitative NIR methods used in this study are applicable for rapid analysis of amoxicillin sodium and clavulanate potassium for injection from different manufactures.

  18. Effects of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin on children with acute suppurative tonsillitis%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔勇; 余霞辉; 邓骥; 邱有波; 罗扬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin on children with acute suppurative tonsillitis .Methods One hundred and twenty-two children with acute suppurative tonsillitis were randomly di-vided into treatment group ( n =62 ) and control group ( n =60 ) .The treatment group was administrated with amoxicillin and clavu-lanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin while the control group was administrated with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on -ly.Two groups were treated for 7 to 10 days.The improvement time of main symptom and the clinical effect were compared between the two groups.Results The times of temperature returning to normal ,angina relieve,pharyngeal hyperaemia fading ,swollen tonsils relieve and discharge extinction in the treatment group were significantly shorter than that in the control group ( P<0.05 ) .The total efficiency in the treatment group(96.77%)was significantly higher than that in the control group (85.0%)(P<0.05).There was no significant difference in incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups .Conclusion Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium combined chy-motrypsin can shorten the duration of symptoms and improve the treatment efficiency in the treatment of children with acute suppurative tonsillitis.%目的:探讨阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效。方法采用随机数字表法将122例化脓性扁桃体炎患儿分为治疗组(62例)和对照组(60例),对照组单用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾,治疗组在此基础上加用糜蛋白酶治疗,疗程均为7~10 d。比较两组治疗后主要症状体征改善时间、总有效率和不良反应。结果治疗组体温恢复正常、咽痛缓解、咽部充血消退、扁桃体肿大减轻、分泌物消退等时间均明显优于对照组,总有效率(96.77%)高于对照组(85.0%),差异均有统计学意义( P<0

  19. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎疗效观察%Clinical Curative Effect of Amoxicillin/Clavulanate Potassium in the Treatment of Children with Suppura-tive Tonsillitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国珍; 寿淑平

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical efficacy and safety of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treatment of chil-dren with suppurative tonsillitis. Methods:Totally 263 children with suppurative tonsillitis from March 2011 to September 2013 in pe-diatrics were randomly divided into two groups, the control group had 130 cases and the treatment group had 133 cases. All the patients were given conventional treatment, meanwhile, the control group was with intravenous infusion of azithromycin, and the treatment group was orally given amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium dispersible tablets. The clinical efficacy, clinical symptom disappearance time and the incidence of adverse reactions of the two groups were observed. Results:After the treatment, the control group were cured with the total effective rate of 83. 8%, and the treatment group were healed with the total effective rate of 90. 2%. The difference wasn't sig-nificant (P>0. 05). Orally used amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium was more economic and convenient, which could reduce the drug-resistance as well. There was no significant difference in the effects on fever, purulent and the white blood cell between the two groups, and no significant adverse reactions showed in both groups. Conclusion:Orally used amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium ex-hibits obvious therapeutic effect on infantile suppurative tonsillitis, which can effectively improve the clinical symptoms without obvious adverse reactions, and it is worthy of clinical use.%目的:探讨阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾治疗小儿化脓性扁桃体炎的临床疗效及安全性。方法:化脓性扁桃体炎患儿263例随机分为对照组130例和观察组133例。对照组给予阿奇霉素10 mg·kg-1·d-1,ivd;观察组给予口服阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾分散片。两组均连续治疗3~9d。观察并比较两组临床疗效、临床症状消失时间及不良反应发生情况。结果:治疗后,对照组总有效率为83.8%,

  20. Efficacy of triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin as first-line treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori Eficacia de una triple terapia con un inhibidor de la bomba de protones, levofloxacino y amoxicilina, como primer tratamiento, en la erradicación de Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castro-Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: triple therapy including a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (PPI-CA is the first-choice treatment used for H. pylori eradication. The efficacy of this treatment is declining of late, and alternative therapies are currently under evaluation. Objectives: to evaluate the efficacy, safety and compliance of a triple therapy with a PPI, amoxicillin and levofloxacin (PPI-LA - replacing clarithromycin - for the eradication of H. pylori. Methods: the study included 135 patients (65% women, mean age 53 years, with dyspeptic symptoms and H. pylori infection proven by a positive urease rapid test, histological analysis, or C13-urea breath test. Diagnosis: non-investigated dyspepsia 48.9%, functional dyspepsia 36.3%, and ulcerative dyspepsia 14.8%. Treatment was indicated with a proton pump inhibitor at usual doses, amoxicillin 1 g, and levofloxacin 500 mg, administered jointly during breakfast and dinner for 10 days. We studied the performance of this triple therapy and its effects using a questionnaire, and effectiveness by the negativity of the C13-urea breath test after 6-8 weeks after treatment discontinuation. Per protocol, we compared the effectiveness of PPI-LA with a control group of 270 patients treated with PPI-CA for 10 days. Results: 130 patients (96.2% could complete the treatment and follow-up protocol. Effectiveness (intention to treat was 71.8% (97/135 and 74.6% (per protocol (97/130. Sixteen patients (11.8% had well-tolerated adverse effects, except for 5 subjects (3.7% who dropped out. PPI-CA was effective (per protocol in 204 patients out of 270 (75.5% in the control group. Conclusions: triple therapy with a PPI, amoxicillin and levofloxacin for 10 days is a well-tolerated treatment that is easy to comply with; however it has low efficiency - less than 80% - and is not recommended as a first-choice treatment for H. pylori eradication. Similar results were obtained with the classic triple therapy using a

  1. Observation of clinical efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium injection combined with compound danshen injection in treatment of community acquired pneumonia%注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方丹参注射液治疗社区获得性肺炎临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁殿明

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合丹参注射液治疗社区获得性肺炎的临床疗效。方法选取我院2013年1月~2014年5月期间收治的社区获得性肺炎患者80例,随机分成治疗组和对照组各40例,治疗组采用注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方丹参注射液静滴,对照组单独应用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾静滴,两组患者均连续静脉用药7d。于疗程结束后1周评价疗效,分别比较两组患者的临床表现,包括体温改变、咳嗽的变化及肺部体征的变化,并进行胸片及血常规检查,同时记录不良反应发生情况及症状消退的时间,对比分析两组的临床效果和用药安全性。结果治疗组总有效率92.50%,明显高于对照组的72.50%,两组患者退热时间方面无显著差异,但治疗组咳嗽消失时间、X线改变恢复正常平均时间及白细胞恢复正常时间均明显短于对照组,差异有统计学意义。结论使用注射用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方丹参注射液治疗社区获得性肺炎较单独应用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾可以明显缩短疗程,提高疗效,有一定的临床借鉴意义。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium injection combined with compound danshen injection in treatment of community acquired pneumonia. Methods Eighty patients with community acquired pneumonia treated in our hospital from January 2013 to May 2014 were selected and randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group, with 40 patients in each group. The treatment group received amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium injection combined with compound danshen injection and the control group received the intra-venous infusion of single amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium. Both groups received intravenous medication for 7 continuous days. The efficacy was evaluated one week after the end of treatment. Clinical

  2. Utilização do óleo de alho e da amoxilina, metronidazol e omeprazol no controle de Helicobacter spp. em cães Use of garlic oil and amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazol in the control of Helicobacter spp. in dogs

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    M.C. Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a eficácia do óleo de alho e da terapia tripla (amoxicilina, metronidazol e omeprazol no tratamento de 21 cães infectados por Helicobacter spp., que apresentavam alterações histológicas nas biopsias endoscópicas da mucosa gástrica e reação positiva ao teste de urease. Os animais foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em três grupos de sete cães, os quais receberam os seguintes tratamentos: grupo 1 - cápsulas vazias; grupo 2 - 500mg de óleo de alho em cápsulas, diariamente, por um período de 30 dias; grupo 3 - amoxicilina, metronidazol e omeprazol, respectivamente, nas doses de 20mg/kg a cada 12 horas, 25mg/kg e 20mg/kg a cada 24 horas, durante 15 dias. Ao final dos tratamentos, os cães foram submetidos à endoscopia com realização de biopsias da mucosa gástrica. O tratamento com amoxicilina, metronidazol e omeprazol resultou em erradicação de Helicobacter spp. tanto na região fúndica quanto na pilórica. No grupo 2, houve redução da degeneração glandular na região fúndica em dois animais e em outros dois na pilórica. O tratamento com óleo de alho não foi eficaz em erradicar Helicobacter spp., apenas reduziu a sua colonização em quatro dos animais tratados.The efficacy of garlic oil and triple therapy (amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazol were evaluated in the treatment of 21 dogs infected by Helicobacter spp., which presented histological alterations of the gastric mucosa according to endoscopic biopsies and positive reaction to urease test. The animals were randomly distributed into three groups of seven dogs each, and received the following treatment, group 1 - empty capsules; group 2 - 500mg of garlic oil capsules daily for a period of 30 days; and group 3 - amoxicillin, metronidazole, and omeprazol, in doses of 20mg/kg every 12 hours, 25mg/kg and 20mg/kg every 24 hours, respectively, for 15 days. By the end of the treatment, the dogs were subjected to new endoscopic procedure with gastric

  3. Acute kidney injury due to single time overdosage intravenous infusion of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium:report of 2 cases%单次超剂量静脉滴注阿莫西林克拉维酸钾致急性肾损伤2例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李心蕾; 唐红波; 冯欣

    2016-01-01

    Two female patients who aged 42 and 33 years with adenomyosis and hysteromyoma, respectively were hospitalized for surgical treatment. They had not history of kidney disease. They developed the symptoms of nausea,vomit,hematuresis,hypourocrinia,and slight puffy swelling after the second and fourth times of IV infusion of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium 2. 4 g,respectively. Laboratory examination showed the increase of serum creatinine( Scr)and urea nitrogen( BUN)( case 1:Scr 423μmol/ L,BUN 7. 2 mmol/ L;case 2:Scr 443 μmol/ L,BUN 6. 8 mmol/ L). Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium were stopped to use in both patients immediately and symptomatic treatments which included those for relieving vomiting,hemostasis,diuresis,and fluid infusion were given to them. The two patients were transferred to another hospital' s nephrology department for hemodialysis on day 5 and 3 of receiving amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,respectively. The two patients' urine volume,levels of Scr and BUN were returned to normal on day 18 and 20 after transferring,respectively(case 1:Scr 49 μmol/ L,BUN 4. 1 mmol/ L;case 2:Scr 55 μmol/ L,BUN 5. 1mmol/ L).%2例女性患者(年龄分别为42和33岁)分别因子宫腺肌症和子宫肌瘤入院手术治疗,均无肾病史,分别于第2和第4次静脉滴注阿莫西林克拉维酸钾2.4 g 后出现恶心、呕吐、血尿、尿量减少、轻度水肿等症状,实验室检查示 Scr 和 BUN 异常(例1:Scr 423μmol/ L,BUN 7.2 mmol/ L;例2:Scr 443μmol/ L,BUN 6.8 mmol/ L)。2例患者均立即停用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾,接受止吐、止血、利尿和补液等对症治疗,并分别于用药后第5和第3天转外院肾内科进行血液透析。2例患者的尿量、Scr和 BUN 分别于转院后第18和第20天恢复正常(例1:Scr 49μmol/ L,BUN 4.1 mmol/ L;例2:Scr 55μmol/ L,BUN 5.1 mmol/ L)。

  4. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星治疗耐多药肺结核临床疗效分析%Clinical Efficacy Analysis of Amoxicillin/clavulanic Potassium Combined Levofloxacin in the treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 刘幸; 王璐

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the clinical effect of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium combined lev- ofloxacin in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB). Methods 101 cases of retreatment smear-positive MDR-TB patients were randomly divided into treatment group (52 patients) and control group (49 patients); chemotherapy: the treatment group based on amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium and levofloxacin, associated with pyrazinamide, ethambutol, aminosalicylic acid isoniazid and rifampicin spray bite; The control group based on levofloxacin, combination therapy is same with the treatment group; The treatment course of all cases is 12 months. Results 5 patients were terminated because of adverse drug reactions In the course of treatment, the treatment group actually completed 50 patients, the control group actually completed 46 patients. To the end of treatment, sputum conversion rate of treatment group and control group Separately was 78.0% and 56.5%, sputum conversion rate in the treated group was significantly higher than the control group(P <0.05); foci effective rate of treatment group was 78.0%, cavity closure rate was 82.0%, foci effective rate and cavity closure rate in treatment group were significantly higher than the control group(P <0.05). Conclusion amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium combined levofloxacin in the treatment of MDR-TB was contribute to sputum conversion and Absorption of the lesion, adverse drug reactions was low, worthy of clinical application.%目的 观察并评价阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾联合左氧氟沙星在耐多药肺结核(MDR-TB)治疗中的效果.方法 将101例复治涂阳耐多药肺结核患者随机分为治疗组52例和对照组49例;化疗方案:治疗组以阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾、左氧氟沙星为主,联合吡嗪酰胺、盐酸乙胺丁醇、对氨基水杨酸异烟肼、利福喷叮;对照组以左氧氟沙星为主,联合用药同治疗组;所有病例疗程均为12个月.结果 治疗中途因

  5. Eficácia e segurança de Sultamicilina (Ampicilina/Sulbactam e Amoxacilina/Clavulanato no tratamento das infecções de via aéreas superiores em adultos: um estudo multicêntrico, aberto e randomizado Efficacy and safety of Sultamicillin (Ampicillin/Sulbactan and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in adults: an open-label, multicentric, randomized trial

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    João Batista Ferreira

    2006-02-01

    pro-drug of Ampicillin/Sulbactan, is a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor which can face this challenge. AIM: evaluate efficacy, safety and tolerability of Ampicillin/Sulbactan compared to Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in upper respiratory tract infections in adults. METHODS: 102 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive Ampicillin/Sulbactan or Amoxicillin/Clavulanate during 10 days. They were evaluated 10 and 30 days after treatment to learn about the therapeutic response. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two groups respecting cure at the end of treatment (visit 2 or at the end of the study (visit 3. Cure ratio was 61.7% and 93.2% (visits 2 and 3 in the Amoxicillin/Clavulanate group compared to 64.4% and 97.4%, respectively, in Ampicillin/Sulbactan group. The adverse events ratio for the two groups was the same (p=0.940. The number of patients with diarrhea was greater in the group of patients receiving Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (70.6% than in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan (29.4% (p=0.0164. CONCLUSIONS: Ampicillin/Sulbactan is as safe and efficient as Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in the empiric treatment of upper respiratory infections in adults. The low occurrence of diarrhea in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan needs confirmation in other studies.

  6. Role of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium in Treatment of Community-acquired Pneumonia%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾复方制剂在社区获得性肺炎治疗中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓燕

    2012-01-01

    Community - acquired pneumonia ( CAP) is a common infectious disease. Its resistance has become increasingly prominent in long—term clinical course of medication. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium has been recognized gradually due to its significant effect on CAP. Different matching dosage regimen has different antimicrobial efficacy. This paper gives 2 best matching dosage regimens by clinical trials.%社区获得性肺炎(CAP)是临床常见的感染性疾病,在长期临床用药过程中,CAP的耐药性问题日益突出,阿莫西林克拉维酸钾复方制剂在CAP中的治疗地位由于其疗效显著而逐渐被肯定.阿莫西林克拉维酸钾复方制剂不同配比的给药方案抗菌疗效也不尽相同,本研究通过临床实验也给出了两者最佳配比.

  7. 热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗小儿支气管肺炎的临床观察%Clinical observation of Re Du Ning injection combined with amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范勇; 杨永莲; 宋雷

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析并探讨热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗小儿支气管肺炎的临床观察。方法:2011年5月-2014年5月收治小儿支气管肺炎患者100例,将其随机分为观察组与对照组,每组50例。观察组给予热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾进行治疗,对照组仅给予阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗,观察两组临床效果及症状消失时间。结果:观察组显效27例,有效21例,无效2例,有效率96.00%;对照组显效21例,有效22例,无效7例,有效率86.00%,观察组治疗有效率明显高于对照组,经统计学处理,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组体温恢复正常时间(2.32±0.45)d,咳嗽消失时间(3.21±1.32)d,啰音消失时间(3.58±1.66)d;对照组体温恢复正常时间(4.23±0.78) d,咳嗽消失时间(5.23±1.65)d,啰音消失时间(6.03±1.67)d,观察组临床症状消失时间明显短于对照组,经统计学处理,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:热毒宁注射液联合阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾治疗小儿支气管肺炎临床效果显著,值得推广。%Objective:To analyze and explore the clinical observation of Re Du Ning injection combined with amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium in the treatment of children bronchial pneumonia.Methods:100 cases with children bronchial pneumonia were selected from May 2011 to May 2014.They were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 50 cases in each.The observation group were given Re Du Ning injection combined with amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium treatment.The control group were only given amoxicillin-clavulanate potassium treatment.The clinical effect and the symptoms disappear time were observed.Results:In the observation group,27 cases were significantly effective;21 cases were effective;2 cases were invalid;the treatment effective rate was 96.00%.In the control group,21 cases were significantly

  8. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效随机对照分析%The comparative analysis on the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound pholcodine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection

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    王冰; 徐洁; 唐新业; 姚红兵

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染的临床疗效。方法选择急性细菌性上呼吸道感染患儿160例,分为治疗组(80例)和对照组(80例),治疗组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+复方福尔可定口服溶液,对照组选用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(7∶1)+肺力咳糖浆。治疗疗程均为7 d,比较治疗前后两组细菌清除率、口腔分泌性 SIgA 和总有效率。结果细菌清除率两组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗后实验组患儿口腔分泌性 SIgA 较治疗前有升高(P <0.05),而对照组差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),治疗组总有效率93.75%。显著高于对照组86.25%(P <0.05),两组患儿均无严重的不良反应发生。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂联合复方福尔可定治疗小儿急性细菌性上呼吸道感染疗效显著。%Objective To observe the curative effect of amoxicillin clavulanate combined with compound phol-codine syrup for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection.Methods One hundred and sixty chil-dren with acute bacterial upper respiratory tract infection were chosen,and divided into treatment group(80 cases) and control group(80 cases)randomly.Amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with compound pholcodine syrup were enrolled in the treatment group,while amoxicillin clavulanic(7∶1)combined with lung cough syrup were in the con-trol group.The bacterial clearance rate,oral secretory SIgA and total effective rate were compared before and after the treatment for 7 days.Results There was no significant difference in the bacterial clearance rate in the two groups (P >0.05).The oral secretory SigA increased after treatment comparing with that before treatment(P 0.05)in the control one.The total effective rate in the treatment group was higher than that

  9. Helicobacter pylori eradication using tetracycline and furazolidone versus amoxicillin and azithromycin in lansoprazole based triple therapy: an open randomized clinical trial Erradicação de Helicobacter pylori com o uso de tetraciclina e furazolidona versus amoxicilina e azitromicina em terapia tríplice com lansoprazol

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    Laura Cidrão Frota

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment has not yet been established. AIM: To evaluate H. pylori eradication using tetracycline and furazolidone versus amoxicillin and azithromycin in lansoprazole based triple therapy in northeastern of Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and four patients with H. pylori infection, as determined by rapid urease testing and histology, were randomly assigned to receive either: lansoprazole (30 mg q.d., tetracycline (500 mg q.i.d., and furazolidone (200 mg t.i.d. for 7 days (LTF; n = 52; or lansoprazole (30 mg b.i.d. and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d. for 1 week, plus azithromycin (500 mg q.d. for the first 3 days (LAAz; n = 52. H. pylori eradication was assessed 3 months following completion of therapy by means of rapid urease testing, histology and a 14C-urea breath test. RESULTS: H. pylori eradication was achieved in 46 of 52 (88.4%, 95% CI: 77.5%-95.1% patients in LTF group and in 14 of 52 (26.9%, 95% CI: 16.2%-40,1% patients in LAAz group. On a per-protocol analysis, eradication rates were 91.8% (95% CI: 81.4%-97.3% and 28.5% (95% CI: 17.2%-42.3%, respectively in LTF and LAAz groups. CONCLUSION: The LAAz regimen yielded unacceptably low eradication rates. On the other hand, the LTF scheme represents a suitable alternative for H. pylori eradication.RACIONAL: Ainda não está estabelecida a melhor terapêutica anti-H. pylori. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a erradicação de H.pylori usando tetraciclina e furazolidona versus amoxicilina e azitromicina em terapia tríplice com lansoprazol no nordeste do Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Cento e quatro pacientes infectados por H. pylori, diagnosticado através do teste rápido da urease e histologia, foram selecionados aleatoriamente para receber: lansoprazol (30 mg q.d., tetraciclina (500 mg q.i.d., furazolidona (200 mg t.i.d. por 7 dias (LTF; n = 52; ou lansoprazol (30 mg b.i.d. e amoxicilina (1 g b.i.d. por 1 semana, mais azitromicina (500 mg q.d. nos primeiros 3

  10. Study on Establishment of High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analytical Method for Determination of Compound Amoxicillin and Levofloxacin Hydrochloride Nanoemulsion and Its Expiration Date%复方阿莫西林纳米乳的高效液相色谱分析及有效期研究

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    杨雪峰; 宁红梅; 孙红武; 欧阳五庆

    2012-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established for the determination of Amoxicillin (AMX) and Levofloxacin hydrochloride (LH) in the compound Amoxicillin and Levofloxacin hydrochloride nanoemulsion (AMX-LH-NE), and its expiration date by the high performance liquid chromatograph was detected. The results showed that two good linearity were respectively obtained by AMX in the range of 0.5-50 μg/mL and by LH in the range of 5-60 μg/ mL, and the average recovery, relative standard deviation (RSD), average retention time, RSD of the with-in-day precision, RSD of the day-to-day precision of AMX and LH were (99.27±1.26)% and (99.65±1.51)%, 1.27% and 1.52%, (10.22± 0.13) min and (7.15±0.13) min, 1.56% and 1.75%, 2.46% and 2.62%, respectively. The expiration date was 20 months. The two analytical methods of HPLC possessed good specificity, high recovery rate, repetitiveness and precision, it could be used to determine and control the principal agents in the preparation of AMX-LH-NE.%利用高效液相色谱仪建立测定复方阿莫西林纳米乳(AMX-LH-NE)中阿莫西林(AMX)和盐酸左氧氟沙星(LH)两种主药含量的高效液相色谱(HPLC)分析方法,并确定该药物的有效期.结果表明,AMX和LH分别在0.5~50.μg/mL和5~60 μg/mL浓度范围内线性关系良好;平均回收率为(99.27±1.26)%和(99.65±1.51)%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为1.27%和1.52%;平均保留时间为(10.22±0.13)min和(7.15±0.13)min;日内精密度RSD为1.56%和1.75%,日间精密度RSD为2.46%和2.62%.AMX-LH-NE的有效期为20个月.建立的HPLC分析方法专属性好,回收率、重复性和精密度高,可用于AMX-LH-NE制剂的主药含量测定及其质量控制.

  11. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾序贯疗法和静脉滴注治疗老年慢性支气管炎急性发作的药物经济学评价%Pharmacoeconomic evaluation on the sequential therapy with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium on chronic brochitis acute in the elderly

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    姜杰; 邵志伟; 李小东

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the economic effects of amoxicillin clavulanic potassium of different dosing for the same disease. Methods 77 patients with acute chronic brochitis were randomly divided into 2 groups with gmoxicillin clavulanic potassium of different dosing and evaluated with the pharmacoeconomic cost effectiveness analysis. Results The effective rates of the two groups( A,B )were 87.2% and 89.5%, respectively( P > 0.05 ). Costs were 460.88 yuan and 719.18 yuan, respectively( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion From pharmacoeco nomics perspective,the group A scheme was better.%目的 探讨阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的不同给药方案治疗相同疾病的经济效果.方法 选择77例老年慢性支气管炎急性发作患者,随机分为两组,分别用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的不同给药方案治疗,运用药物经济学的最小成本分析进行评价.结果 A、B组有效率分别为87.2%、89.5%(P>0.05),成本分别为460.88元、719.18元(P<0.05).结论 从药物经济学角度分析,A组方案较佳.

  12. RP-HPLC法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸的含量%Determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium suspension(14∶ 1) by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚洲; 樊兰兰; 屈啸声; 冯洁; 魏涌标

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of the content of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Suspension( 14:1 ). Methods YILITE C18 column( 4. 6 mm × 150 mm,5μm ) and Shimadzu LC-10A high performance liquid chromatography were adopted using octadecylsilane bonded silica as a filler;phosphate buffe( NaH2PO4 7. 8 g added with water 900 mL, pH value adjusted to 4. 4 ±0.1 with phosphate or 10 mol · L-1 NaOH solution before diluted with water to 1 000 mL ) -methano(95: 5 ) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL · min~' and detection wavelength was 220 nm. Results Amoxicillin was lineat in the range of 0. 332 1 ~ 1.162 3 g · L-1 with a correlation coefficient 0. 999 6 , average recoveries( n = 9 )99. 45% and RSD 0. 34% . Clavulanic acid was liaear in the range of 0. 028 1-0. 098 4 g · L ~' with a the correlation coefficient 0. 999 8 , average recoveries(n = 9 ) 100. 47% , and RSD 0. 99% . There was a good linear relationship between concentration and peak area. Conclusion The method is simple, accurate, reliable, and highly sensible, which can be used as a quality control method for Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium(14 : 1) suspension.%目的 建立高效液相色谱法同时测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)中阿莫西林和克拉维酸钾的含量.方法 采用依利特C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm),岛津L-10A 高效液相色谱仪,用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂;以磷酸盐缓冲液(取磷酸二氢钠7.8 g,加水900 mL溶解,用磷酸或10 mol?L-1氢氧化钠溶液调节pH值至4.4±0.1,加水稀释至1 000 mL)-甲醇(95:5)为流动相;流速:1.0 mL?min-1;检测波长为220 nm.结果 阿莫西林在0.332 1~1.162 3 g?L-1的浓度范围内,相关系数为0.999 6,平均回收率(n=9) 为99.45%,RSD 为0.34%.克拉维酸在0.028 1~0.098 4 g?L-1的浓度范围内,相关系数为0.999 8,平均回收率(n=9) 为100.47%,RSD 为0.99%.两者的浓度和峰面积之间线

  13. Effect observation of Shufeng Jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treamtent of mild pediatric pneumonia%疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗轻度小儿肺炎的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹美英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of Shufeng Jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin and clavu-lanate potassium in the treatment of mild pediatric pneumonia. Methods From February 2013 to December 2014,120 cases with mild pediatric pneumonia were randomly divided into control group and treatment group according to medi-cal order.Control group was orally given amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium,at the same time,treatment group was al-so orally given Shufeng Jiedu capsule,the course of treatment lasted for 7 days.According to patients’disease condition, symptomatic therapy such as abatement of fever,relieving a cough and so on were performed.Treatment effect,time of a-batement of fever and recovery time of cough was observed in two groups respectively. Results The total effective rate in treatment group was 96.7%,and the total effective rate in control group was 86.7%,and there was a statistical differ-ence compared between two groups (P<0.05);time of abatement of fever in treatment group was (2.7±1.2) d,and the time was (3.9±1.7) d in control group;diapperaing time of cough was (4.2±1.5) d,and the time was (5.9±1.3) d;diapperaing time of lung rale was (5.7±1.8)d in treatment group and (7.3±2.1) d in control group,and there was a statistical differ-ence of above-mentioned indexes between two groups (P<0.05).No significant adverse reaction was detected during treatment in both groups. Conclusion Shufeng Jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium in the treatment of mild pediatric pneumonia is able to shorten the course of disease,accelerate children patients’recovery and improve the treatment effect.%目的:观察疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗轻度小儿肺炎的临床效果。方法2013年2月~2014年12月,将120例轻度小儿肺炎患儿按就诊时间随机分为对照组、治疗组,对照组予以阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服,治疗组同时予以疏风解毒胶囊口服,疗程为7d。

  14. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合化学药物治疗初治涂阳肺结核的临床观察%Clinical observation of Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium combined with chemotherapy in treating new pulmonary tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋琳琳; 甄秀霞; 王宗华; 杜亚文; 钱波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy and adverse reaction of Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium in treating new smear positive tuberculosis (TB).Methods One hundred and nine new smear positive pulmonary TB patients were randomly divided into treatment group,who received Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium + 2HRZE/4HR (58 cases ) and control group,who received 2HRZE/4HR(51 cases).Results The sputum negative conversion rate at the third week,the first and second month were 44.8%,62.0%,89.7% in the treatment group and 25.5%,41.2%,76% in the control group respectively,at the second month chest radiography showed the resolution of pulmonary lesions in the treatment group and control group were 37.9% and 19.6% respectively,with cavity closure rate of 65.5% in the treatment group and 38.7% in the control group,at third week,the clinical symptoms such as cough,fever,fatigue disappeared at the levels of 48.3%,71.4%,59.3% in the treatment group and 25.5%,50.0%,40.0% in the control group (P <0.05),there was no drug adverse reaction in the treatment group,there was no significant difference in the sputum positive conversion rate at the 6,12 month after treatment between the treatment group and the control group (P > 0.05 ).Conclusions Amoxicillin Sodium and Clavulanate Potassium combined with chemotherapy shortens the time of sputum negative conversion,the resolution of pulmonary lesions and the improvement of clinical symptoms.The drug adverse reaction is little.It is a fairly good immune drug for TB treatment and is worth to be recommended.%目的 观察阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合抗结核药物治疗初治涂阳肺结核患者的临床疗效和不良反应.方法 将109例初治涂阳肺结核患者随机分为治疗组与对照组两组,治疗组58例采用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾+2HREZ/4HR,对照组51例采用2HREZ/4HR.结果 治疗3周、1个月、2个月痰菌阴转率治疗组分别为44.8%、62.0%、89.7

  15. 疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾混悬液治疗小儿急性细菌性支气管炎的临床疗效观察%Clinical Effect of Shufeng-jiedu Capsule Combined with Amoxicillin Clavulanic Acid Potassium Mixed Suspension on Acute Bacterial Bronchitis in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of shufeng-jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium mixed suspension on acute bacterial bronchitis in children. Methods From September 2013 to November 2014, a total of 87 children with acute bacterial bronchitis were selected in the Department of Outpatient,Traditional Chinses Medicine Hospital of Xingyang,and they were divided into control group(n=44)and treatment group(n=43)according to admission date. Children of control group were given amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium mixed suspension,while children of treatment group was given extra shufeng-jiedu capsule on the basis of control group,both groups treated for 5 days. Clinical effect,cure time and recovery time of fever and cough,and incidence of adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. Results All of the 87 children were enrolled into full analysis set( FAS) and safety analysis set( SS),and 40 cases of each group were enrolled into per protocol set( PPS) at last. The clinical effect of treatment group were statistically significantly better than that of control group(P<0. 05),and no difference was found between FAS result and PPS result. The cure time and recovery time of fever and cough of treatment group were statistically significantly shorter than those of control group,the antipyretic using times of treatment group was statistically significantly less than that of control group(P<0. 05),and no difference was found between FAS result and PPS result. No one of the two groups occurred obvious nausea,emesis,hepatic or renal function abnormity. Conclusion Shufeng -jiedu capsule combined with amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium mixed suspension can improve the clinical effect of acute bacterial bronchitis in children,shorten the course of disease,promote the recovery,has better antifebrile effect and higher safety.%目的:观察疏风解毒胶囊联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾混悬液治疗小儿急性细菌性支气

  16. Clinical Effect Verification of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium combined Ceftazidime for Treatment of Acute Stage of COPD%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾并头孢他啶联合治疗急性期慢性阻塞性肺疾病疗效验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹行闻

    2014-01-01

    目的验证阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服并头孢他啶静脉滴注治疗急性期慢性阻塞性肺疾病疗效。方法将460例急性期慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者依照入我院治疗前后次序加入研究组或对照组,均230例。分别予阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服并头孢他啶静脉滴注及单独使用头孢他啶静滴,疗程结束后比较两组有效率及不良反应出现情况。结果实验性结束治疗后,研究组及对照组总有效率分别为94.8%、81.3%,经比较<0.05,有差异。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服并头孢他啶静脉滴注治疗AECOPD效果较佳,适于普遍推广使用。%Objective To verify the clinical ef ect of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium po.combined ceftazidime ivgtt.for treatment of acute stage of COPD.Methods 460 patients with acute stage of COPD were divided into study group and control group both with 230 cases according to precedence order.And they were given amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium po.combined ceftazidime ivgt .And single ceftazidime ivgt .respectively.Effective rate and adverse ef ect rate of the 2 groups were compared after treatment course.Results After treatment,total ef ective rate of study group and control group were respectively 94.8% and 81.3%, <0.05.Conclusion Amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium po.combined ceftazidime ivgt .for treatment of acute stage of COPD has good clinical ef ect and is worth of being popularized.

  17. Meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid formulations for acute respiratory infections in children%小儿急性呼吸道感染阿莫西林-克拉维酸制剂临床疗效Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆权; 罗剑锋; 车大钿; 董晓艳; 张嵬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid(Amo/Clav)preparations for treatment of children with acute respiratory tract infections. Methods We performed computer-based retrieval of Medline (on OvidSP) , EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Bio-medicine Database(CBM) , Wan-fang Database System and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI).Data of randomized controlled studies of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid preparations for treatment of respiratory tract infections from January 1985 to December 2011 was collected. RevMan5.1.4 Meta-analysis of count data and odds ratio(OR)with 95% confidence interval(95% Cl)were applied. Funnel plot was used to assess published deviation. Results We retrieved 219 literatures, of which 164 were in English and 55 in Chinese . Twenty-seven articles that met the inclusion criteria were chosen by final screening, including azithromycin contrast 20 and cefaclor 7 for control. The total cases were 2971 and in control group there were 3057 cases. Comparing Amo/Clav with azithromycin in upper respiratory tract infections literature Meta analysis, OR(95% CI)= 1.34(1.02 ~ 1.76), Z = 2.08(P=0.04), while in lower respiratory infections literature Meta analysis, OR(95 % CI)= 1.31(0.56 ~ 3.09) ,Z = 0.62(P = 0.53). Comparing Amo/Clav preparation with cefaclor,OR(95% CI) = 0.88(0.32 ~ 2.45) ,Z = 0.24(P = 0.81). Conclusion Literatures Meta-analysis indicates Amo/Clav treatment for children with acute bacterial upper respiratory infections is superior to azithromycin clinically, but in the treatment of chil- dren with acute bacterial lower respiratory tract infections , the clinical efficacy of both is similar. The Amo/ Clav and cefaclor have similar clinical efficacy in the treatment of. children with acute bacterial respiratory infections.%目的 评估阿莫西林-克拉维酸(Amo/Clav)制剂治疗小儿急性呼吸道感染的临床有效性.方法 计算机检索Medline (Ovid

  18. [The antibacterial action of the amoxicillin-flucloxacillin combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, N A; Savoia, D; Martinetto, P

    1975-01-01

    A mixture of amoxycillin, semisynthetic penicillin beta-lactamase susceptible, and flucloxacillin, an isoxazolylpenicillin, in combination 1:1 was tested. This mixture shows real synergic effect "in vitro" on beta-lactamase producing Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria and an additive effect on the other microrganisms. Good results have been obtained "in vivo" and a protective effect of flucloxacillin on enzymatic degradation of amoxycillin by beta-lactamase was found.

  19. 21 CFR 526.88 - Amoxicillin trihydrate for intramammary infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of subclinical infectious bovine mastitis due to Streptococcus agalactiae and Straphylococcus aureus (penicillin sensitive). (3) Limitations. Administer after...

  20. Eficácia do regime terapêutico empregando a associação de pantoprazol, claritromicina e amoxicilina, durante uma semana, na erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em pacientes com úlcera péptica Efficacy of the dosing regimen of pantoprazole 40 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg, twice daily for 7 days, in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudo multicêntrico, aberto, delineado para determinar a eficácia da associação de pantoprazol, claritromicina e amoxicilina, na erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em pacientes portadores de úlcera péptica. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Setenta e um pacientes (36 mulheres, 35 homens, idade média 41,9 anos provenientes de três centros universitários brasileiros (Belo Horizonte e Porto Alegre com úlcera péptica confirmada à endoscopia e infecção por H. pylori comprovada por, no mínimo, dois testes diagnósticos. Os pacientes foram tratados com a associação de pantoprazol 40 mg, claritromicina 500 mg e amoxicilina 1,0 g, administrada duas vezes ao dia, durante 7 dias. RESULTADOS: Ao final do tratamento, os pacientes foram reexaminados para avaliação dos sintomas gastrointestinais, presença de eventos adversos e aderência ao tratamento. Nova endoscopia com biopsias e teste respiratório com 13C-uréia foram repetidos 60 dias após o término do tratamento para determinação das taxas de erradicação do microrganismo. Foram considerados H. pylori negativos os pacientes com, pelo menos, o teste respiratório com 13C-uréia e mais um teste (teste da urease ou histologia negativos. Ao final do estudo 60/69 (87%, 95% = 78,9-94,8 pacientes erradicaram o H. pylori na análise por protocolo e 60/71 (84,5%, 95% = 76-92,9 na análise por intenção de tratamento. Um paciente interrompeu o tratamento devido à diarréia. Doze pacientes (16,9% apresentaram sintomas adversos e considerados de leve intensidade. CONCLUSÃO: A associação de pantoprazol, amoxicilina e claritromicina por 7 dias constitui alternativa eficaz e bem tolerada para a erradicação do H. pylori em portadores de úlcera péptica no Brasil.AIM: This is an open label, multicenter trial to determine the efficacy of the association of pantoprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin to eradicate Helicobacter pylory in patients with peptic ulcer. MATERIAL AND METHODS

  1. 阿奇霉素对比阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗儿童部分急性呼吸道感染临床疗效与安全性的系统评价%Clinical efficacy and safety of azithromycin versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in the treatment of some acute respiratory infections in children:systematic evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培香; 印亚双; 陈月; 李文静; 张啸; 冯婉玉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of azithromycin(Az)versus amoxicillin-cla⁃vulanic acid(A-Cva)in the treatment of some acute respiratory infections in children. Methods Pubmed,EMBase,Medline,Co⁃chrane Library and CJFD were retrieved to collect the randomized controlled trial(RCT)of their clinical efficacy and safety in the treat⁃ment of acute respiratory infections in children. The methodological quality of included studies was evaluated.The RevMan 5.2 software was chosen for data analysis. Results Twenty RCTs involving 4980 pediatric patients were included for assessment of the clinical effi⁃cacy. Meta-analysis showed that Az had more significant effect on the treatment of some bacterial repiratory infections in children〔OR=0.78,95%CI(0.65,0.93),P=0.007〕than A-Cva. In the treatment of upper respiratory infections,acute otitis media and so on,Az had more significant effect〔OR=0.75,95%CI(0.62,0.91),P=0.003〕;in the treatment of lower respiratory infections,such as community acquired pneumonia and so on,Az and A-Cva acid had the similar effect〔OR=1.20,95%CI(0.62,2.33),P=0.58〕. Thirteen RCT in⁃volving 3474 pediatric patients were included for assessment of the clinical safety. Meta-analysis shows that the difference between Az and A-Cva is statistic significant in the treatment of some bacterial repiratory infections in children〔OR=0.49,95%CI(0.40,0.60),P<0.000 01〕. Conclusion Overall,Meta-analysis shows that Az is more effective and safer in the treatment of some bacterial repiratory infections in children than A-Cva.%目的:系统评价阿奇霉素对比阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗儿童部分急性呼吸道感染临床疗效与安全性。方法计算机检索PubMed、EMBase、Medline、Cochrane图书馆、中国期刊全文数据库,检索起止时间均从建库至2016年2月,收集阿奇霉素与阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗儿童急性呼吸道感染临床疗效与安全性的随机对照

  2. Multivariate curve resolution applied to sequential injection data. Analysis of amoxicillin anda clavulanic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Pasamontes Fúnez, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis ha sido estudiar y desarrollar metodologias analíticasusando un sistema de inyección secuencial (SIA) con un espectrofotómetro de diodos enfila para obtener datos de segundo orden. Para tratar estos datos, las herramientasquimiométricas usadas han sido; resolución de curvas multivariante mediante mínimoscuadrados alternados (MCR-ALS) y otras técnicas relacionadas a ésta como el análisisde componentes principales (PCA) y SIMPLISMA. Además se han aplicado estrategiasde...

  3. Necessity of amoxicillin clavulanic acid in addition to prednisolone in mild-to-moderate COPD exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Valk, van der Paul; Hendrix, Ron; Kerstjens, Huib A.M.; Palen, van der Job

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of antibiotics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations is still a matter of debate, especially in outpatients with an intermediate probability of bacterial infection. Methods: In this study, 35 COPD outpatients diagnosed by their chest physician w

  4. Influence of pulmonary surfactant on in vitro bactericidal activities of amoxicillin, ceftazidime, and tobramycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van 't Veen (Annemarie); J.W. Mouton (Johan); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); P. Dekkers; B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of a natural pulmonary surfactant on antibiotic activity was investigated to assess the possible use of exogenous surfactant as a vehicle for antibiotic delivery to the lung. The influence of surfactant on the bactericidal activity of amoxicill

  5. A clinical evaluation of Suprapen (amoxicillin plus flucloxacillin) in the management of childhood thoracic empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, C H

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-one children, all suffering from thoracic empyema, were treated with a combination of antibiotic therapy (Suprapen) and tube thoracostomy. A satisfactory clinical response with radiological and laboratory confirmation was seen in all but one patient, thus obviating the need for major surgery. Suprapen may be considered as a first line antibiotic in such cases of pleural sepsis in the absence of bacteriological confirmation of infection.

  6. 21 CFR 520.88g - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium film-coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and soft tissue infections such as wounds, abscesses, cellulitis, superficial/juvenile and deep... infections, such as wounds, abscesses and cellulitis/dermatitis due to susceptible strains of beta-lactamase... susceptible strains of E. coli. (iii) Limitations. Skin and soft tissue infections: abscesses,...

  7. 21 CFR 520.88h - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... daily. (ii) Indications for use. Treatment of feline skin and soft tissue infections, such as wounds... for oral suspension. 520.88h Section 520.88h Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE...

  8. 阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服干混悬剂含量测定方法研究%Determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate acid in amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖云林; 杨嘉宗

    1998-01-01

    目的:对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾口服干混悬剂含量测定方法研究.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,在3×3CRC18柱(4 mm× 3.5 cm)上,以pH 4.4磷酸二氢钠溶液-甲醇(95:5)为流动相,流速 1.0 ml·min-1,检测波长为220 nm.结果:阿莫西林和克拉维酸浓度分别在25~500 μg·ml-1及10~200 μg·ml-1范围内有良好的线性关系,平均方法回收率分别为 99.4%± 1.9%和 99.5%± 2.0%,日内精密度分别在 1.1%~2.3%和1.7%~2.6%之间,日间精密度分别<3.1%和<2.5%.结论:本法实用简便,结果可靠.

  9. 阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾的不良反应比较%Comparative Study on Adverse Reaction of Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家满; 韩琼

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨阿莫西林与阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾的不良反应。方法对收集的235例阿莫西林与146例阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾不良反应报告进行回顾性分析,前者纳入单用组,后者纳入复方组,比较两组患者一般资料、不良反应发生类型以及不良反应发生时间。结果两组患者性别、年龄分布、应用、体质量等临床资料比较,差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05);单用组患者皮肤及附件、全身系统、呼吸系统、肝胆系统以及其他不良反应发生率明显高于复方组,单用组患者的胃肠反应、循环系统、中枢神经系统不良反应发生率明显低于复方组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);单用组患者3 d后不良反应发生率为13.6%,明显高于复方组的1.4%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论阿莫西林-克拉维酸钾相较于阿莫西林,不良反应发生时间较早、症状轻,不良反应集中在皮肤及附件、胃肠道、全身,但可增加循环系统、中枢神经系统不良反应发生风险,针对伴有以上系统合并症的患者,需谨慎应用。%Objective To adverse reaction of amoxicilin and amoxicilin clavulanate potassium.Methods 235 cases with poor to colect 146 cases of amoxicilin and amoxicilin clavulanate potassium reaction reports were retrospectively analyzed,the former into the single group,the latter into compound group,compared two groups of patients with general information,adverse reaction and the type of adverse reaction time.Results Comparison of the clinical data of two groups in sex,age distribution,application direction,body quality,no significant difference(P>0.05); single group of patients with skin and accessories,general system,respiratory system,hepatobiliary system and other adverse reaction rate was significantly higher than that of compound group,with the single group of patients with gastrointestinal reaction,circulation system and central nervous system adverse reaction incidence was significantly lower than the compound group,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05);single group of patients after 3 D, the incidence rate of adverse reaction was 13.6%,significantly higher than the group of compound 1.4%,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Amoxicilin and clavulanate potassium compared with amoxicilin, adverse reaction time is earlier,lighter adverse reaction symptoms,concentrated in the skin and appendages, gastrointestinal tract,systemic,but can increase the circulation system,the adverse reaction of central nervous system adverse reactions occurred in patients with more risk,system complications,should be used with caution.

  10. Determination of penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin and cephapirin by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, R F; Voyksner, R D

    1993-09-10

    This report contributes to a preliminary investigation of high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-mass spectrometric (MS) methods for confirming beta-lactam antibiotic residues in bovine milk. Initial work for each antibiotic evaluated the collisional activated dissociation (CAD) spectra that could be generated between the capillary and skimmer in the electrospray (ESP) interface. The drugs show various characteristic fragmentation, mostly within the beta-lactam ring and the amide group. Response for a particular compound in a given solvent can vary drastically. Usually, the more organic component in the solvent, the higher the ESP response. In many cases use of acetonitrile also results in slightly better ion currents than for methanol when comparing equal percentages of either organic solvent in water. The ESP response of most of the tested antibiotics can be enhanced by the addition of formic acid or acetic acid to the mobile phase methanol-water (1:1). In general, the negative ion spectra are lower in intensity, exhibiting an [M-H]- ion and producing less fragmentation at higher CAD voltages as compared to positive ion spectra. An isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method for the separation of a mixture of five common beta-lactam antibiotics was developed using acetic acid as a mobile phase additive and optimized for detection with a new ESP HPLC-MS interface. A post-column split ratio of 70:1 for the eluent from a 150 x 2 mm I.D. column was chosen to provide the required lower flow-rate (approximately 4 microliters/min). The limit of detection for the simultaneous determination of these antibiotics was estimated to be 100 ppb. Electrospray HPLC-MS could be used to confirm these antibiotics for quantities down to about 100 pg entering the mass spectrometer. Multiresidue analysis with microbore HPLC-ESP-MS has the advantage that no post-column splitting of the eluent is required and all of the analyte (on-column injected) will be transferred into the ESP interface. Preliminary work showed good mass spectrometric sensitivity down to the level of regulatory interest, but chromatographic separation efficiency must be improved.

  11. Betalactámicos con inhibidores de betalactamasas: Amoxicilina-sulbactam Betalactam antibiotics combined with bectalactamases inhibitors: Amoxicillin-sulbactam

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Barcelona; Marcelo Marin; Daniel Stamboulian

    2008-01-01

    La producción de betalactamasas constituye uno de los principales mecanismos de resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos betalactámicos. La utilización de inhibidores de betalactamasas en combinación con antibióticos betalactámicos permite la inactivación de determinadas betalactamasas producidas por gérmenes Gram positivos, Gram negativos, anaerobios, y aun por micobacterias. Los inhibidores de betalactamasas representan una alternativa terapéutica mejorada respecto del resto de los betalac...

  12. Amoxicillin concentrations in relation to beta-lactamase activity in sputum during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; VanderValk, Paul; van der Zanden, Rogier W.; Nijdam, Lars; van der Palen, Job; Hendrix, Ron; Movig, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often treated with antibiotics. Theoretically, to be maximally effective, the antibiotic concentration at sites of infection should exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration at which 90% of the growth of potential

  13. Drug: D10246 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10246 Mixture, Drug Omeprazole - clarithromycin - amoxicillin mixt; Omeclamox-pak ...cter pylori A02BD05 Omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin D10246 Omeprazole - clarithromycin - amoxicillin mixt PubChem: 163312277 ...

  14. Drug: D10520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10520 Mixture, Drug Rabeprazole - amoxicillin - metronidazole mixt; Rabefine (TN) ...1 Antibiotics 619 Miscellaneous 6199 Miscellaneous D10520 Rabeprazole - amoxicillin - metronidazole mixt ...

  15. Drug: D10519 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10519 Mixture, Drug Rabeprazole - amoxicillin - clarithromycin mixt; Rabecure (TN)...tibiotics 619 Miscellaneous 6199 Miscellaneous D10519 Rabeprazole - amoxicillin - clarithromycin mixt ...

  16. Safety experiment of the compound amoxicillin-tylosin%阿莫西林——泰乐菌素复方药物的安全性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明雁; 王敏; 崔琳; 崔阳; 边栋; 李艳华

    2010-01-01

    @@ 传统的观点认为,快速抑菌剂能迅速阻断细菌蛋白质的合成,导致细菌合成细胞壁的过程停止,而快速杀菌剂能影响细菌细胞壁的合成而起杀菌作用的,故两者合用可能降低快速杀菌剂的疗效.

  17. Selection and persistence of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of pigs treated with amoxicillin, ceftiofur, or cefquinome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Abatih, E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), mainly of the CTX-M family, have been associated with Escherichia coli strains of animal origin in Europe. An in vivo experiment was performed to study the effects of veterinary beta-lactam drugs on the selection and persistence of ESBL-producing E. coli...

  18. Cost effectiveness of amoxicillin for lower respiratory tract infections in primary care : An economic evaluation accounting for the cost of antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppong, Raymond; Smith, Richard D.; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Butler, Christopher C.; Goossens, Herman; Coenen, Samuel; Moore, Michael; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major disease burden and are often treated with antibiotics. Typically, studies evaluating the use of antibiotics focus on immediate costs of care, and do not account for the wider implications of antimicrobial resistance. Aim This study so

  19. The Combination of Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid and Ketoconazole in the Treatment of Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma and Staphylococcus aureus Co-infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Mhmoud (Najwa A.); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); E.S. Mahgoub (El Sheikh); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractEumycetoma is a chronic progressive disabling and destructive inflammatory disease which is commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. It is characterized by the formation of multiple discharging sinuses. It is usually treated by antifungal agents but it is assumed that the the

  20. Primary care based randomised, double blind trial of amoxicillin versus placebo for acute otitis media in children aged under 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damoiseaux, RAMJ; van Balen, FAM; Hoes, AW; Verheij, TJM; de Melker, RA

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of antibiotic treatment for acute otitis media in children between 6 months and 2 years of age. Design Practice based, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. Setting 53 general practices in the Netherlands. Subjects 240 children aged 6 months to 2 years

  1. Drug: D00230 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00230 Mixture, Drug Amoxicillin - potassium clavulanate combination; Amoxicillin - clavulanate... potassium mixt C16H19N3O5S. C8H8NO5. K 602.1085 602.6553 D00230.gif Amoxicillin [DR:D07452], Potassium clavulanate...cl. beta-lactamase inhibitors J01CR02 Amoxicillin and enzyme inhibitor D00230 Amoxicillin - potassium clavulanate...acterials J01RA01 Penicillins, combinations with other antibacterials D00230 Amoxicillin - potassium clavulanate...d Clavulanate Potassium D00230 Amoxicillin - potassium clavulanate combination CA

  2. Determineation of the Content of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate in Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Dispersible Tablets by HPLC%HPLC法测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾分散片中2组分的标示量的百分含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志嘉; 董佰龙

    2010-01-01

    目的:测定阿莫西林克拉维酸钾分散片中阿莫西林、克拉维酸的含量.方法:采用十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂,以磷酸盐缓冲液(取磷酸二氢钠7.8g,加水900ml溶解,用磷酸或氢氧化钠调节pH值至4.4+0.1,加水稀释至1000ml)-甲醇(95:5)为流动相的高效液相色谱法.结果:阿莫西林、克拉维酸分别在132-308μg/ml,48-112μg/ml,范围内线形良好(r分别为,0.9997,0.9996);平均回收率分别为99.8%,99.3;RSD分别为0.62%,0.72%.结论:该方法简便,重现性好,专属性强,为评价该制剂的质量提供了可靠的方法.

  3. Domestic vs imported amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in treating pneumonia of children%国产和进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗小儿肺炎的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 王晓红; 俞蕙; 陆婷婷

    2002-01-01

    目的:比较国产和进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸治疗小儿细菌性肺炎的临床疗效.方法:随机选择住院的肺炎病儿40例,分为治疗组(男性11例,女性9例,年龄27 mo± s 12 mo)和对照组(男性12例,女性8例,年龄29 mo±16 mo).分别选用国产及进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸,剂量均为30 mgkg-1,iv,gtt, bid,疗程10~14 d.结果:治疗组总有效率为80%,对照组总有效率为90%,2组的疗效比较经Ridit分析差异无显著意义(P>0.05),2组均未见不良反应.结论:国产阿莫西林-克拉维酸与进口阿莫西林-克拉维酸临床疗效相似.

  4. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸与头孢唑林在子宫切除中抗生素预防作用%Antibiotic prophylaxis for hysterectomy and cesarean section: Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid versus cefazolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较子宫切除中阿莫西林/克拉维酸与头孢唑林短期抗生素预防作用.方法 120 例行子宫切除患者随机分为静脉注射阿莫西林/克拉维酸组(AMX/CL组)与头孢唑林组(CE组).每天评估患者有无手术部位感染或尿道感染.结果 各组感染发生率在AMX/CL组和CE组分别是11%和12.5%.结论 广谱抗生素阿莫西林/克拉维酸较头孢唑林在子宫切除和剖腹产中无优势.

  5. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾分散片小鼠体内抗菌作用研究%The antibiotic effect in vivo research of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dispersible tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林霄; 刘元; 李星宇; 刘布鸣

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾的新剂型-分散片对产β-内酰胺酶的金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌感染小鼠的保护效果.方法 以Bliss法计算各感染小鼠的药物半数有效量(ED50)值和95%可信限.结果 分散片对金黄色葡萄球菌感染小鼠的ED50值和95%可信限为3.748 6(3.396 7~4.205)mg/kg;对大肠杆菌感染小鼠的ED50值和95%可信限为4.662 9(4.037 3~5.385 5)mg/kg.结论 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾分散片口服给药对产β-内酰胺酶的金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌感染小鼠具有明显疗效.

  6. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾溶液的稳定性研究%Stability Explore Injection Amoxicillin Clavulanate Potassium Sodium Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩兰; 张涛; 郭杨庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the injection of sodium amoxicilin and clavulanate potassium solution stability compatibility when using different solvents.Methods Determination of the dosing by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)amoxicilin clavulanate potassium sodium content changes in different time periods,and observe the color changes after dosing.Results For injection amoxicilin sodium clavulanate potassium is preferably stable in 0.9%sodium chloride solvent,in a pharmaceuticaly effective 3h decreased less than 10%;in glucose-containing solvent stability than difference,in a pharmaceuticaly effective drug 3 h decreased about 10%~30%.Conclusion Amoxicilin sodium injection stability of potassium clavulanate in 0.9%sodium chloride solution is preferably,but in the glucose-containing solution is relatively poor stability,and the rate of decline in an amount proportional to the glucose content,immediately after dilution with 0.9%sodium chloride injection solution,and should be complete within 3 h infusion process (25℃ below).%目的 探讨注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾溶液在不同溶剂配伍使用时的稳定性.方法 用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定配液后阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在不同时段的含量变化情况,并观察配液后颜色变化情况.结果 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在0.9%氯化钠注射液中的稳定性较好,在3 h内药物有效含量下降小于10%;但在葡萄糖注射液中的稳定性较差,在用药3 h内药物有效含量下降在10%~30%.结论注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾在0.9%氯化钠注射液中的稳定性较好,但在含葡萄糖溶液中的稳定性相对较差,且其含量下降速度与葡萄糖含量呈正比,用0.9%氯化钠注射液溶解后应立即稀释,并应在3 h内(25℃以下)完成整个输液过程.

  7. Study on preparation of the film-coated tablets of amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾薄膜衣片的制备工艺研究※

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钰琦; 李瑞明; 李世良; 陈孝; 梁耀荣

    2013-01-01

      目的本研究主要对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的薄膜衣片进行了制备工艺的研究。方法通过对制剂处方的筛选和考察生产工艺的条件,确定最佳阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的薄膜衣片制备工艺。结果与结论本制剂工艺的实验可行,工艺稳定可靠,所制备的薄膜衣片符合相关要求。%Objective To study the preparation process of the film-coated tablets of amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium, and screen the conditions of the preparation process. Methods By screening pharmaceutical formulations and investigating the conditions of the preparation process,the best technology of pharmaceutical preparations was determined. Results and Conclusion The results of the experiment is feasible and reliable process,and the preparation of the film-coated tablets comply with the relevant requirements.

  8. Studied on the PAE of Apramycin and It's Combined with Amoxicillin or Ampicillin on E.coli%安普霉素及其联合用药对大肠杆菌的PAE研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宝明; 王新; 崔一喆

    2009-01-01

    采用菌落计数法和中性粒细胞减少的小鼠股部感染模型,分别测定了安普霉素及其与阿莫西林或氨苄西林联用对大肠杆菌的体内、外PAE.当药物以2xMIC、4×MIC和8×MIC浓度作用于大肠杆菌时,安普霉素体外PAE分别为1.15、2.04、3.27 h,体内PAE分别为3.46、4.49、5.77 h;安普霉素与阿莫西林联用的体外PAE分别为1.53、3.06、4.75 h,体内PAE分别为4.95、6.50、8.47 h;安普霉素与和氨苄西林联用的体外PAE分别为1.95、3.57、5.58 h,体内PAE分别为5.24、6.95、9.28 h.结果表明:安普霉素在体内外对大肠杆菌均有较长的PAE,且随药物浓度的升高其PAE也相应的延长,呈明显的剂量依赖性.安普霉素与阿莫西林、氨苄西林联用对大肠杆菌体内、外PAE呈现相加或协同作用.

  9. Efficacy and safety of IV/PO moxifloxacin and IV piperacillin/tazobactam followed by PO amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the treatment of diabetic foot infections: results of the RELIEF study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, N.C.; Dryden, M.; Kujath, P.; Nathwani, D.; Arvis, P.; Reimnitz, P.; Alder, J.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of two antibiotic regimens in patients with diabetic foot infections (DFIs). METHODS: Data of a subset of patients enrolled in the RELIEF trial with DFIs requiring surgery and antibiotics were evaluated retrospectively. DFI was diagnosed on t

  10. Post-antibiotic effect of Amoxicillin nanoparticles against main pathogenic bacteria of Bovine mastitis in vitro%阿莫西林纳米粒对奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌的体外PAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 欧阳五庆; 孙江才; 李向辉

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究阿莫西林纳米粒(AMX-NP)对奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌金黄色葡萄球菌标准株ATCC25923及其临床分离株、无乳链球菌、大肠杆菌标准株ATCC25922及其临床分离株的体外抗菌后效应(PAE).[方法]制备AMX-NP,试管二倍稀释法测定其对乳房炎主要病原菌的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBC).采用细菌显微镜直接计数法,于AMX-NP PAE期的不同时间点分别测定其在0.5×MIC、1×MIC、2×MIC和4×MIC时的体外PAE.[结果]当AMX-NP质量浓度分别为0.5×MIC、1×MIC、2×MIC和4×MIC时,其对乳房炎主要病原菌均产生一定的PAE,PAE值与AMX-NP质量浓度(0.5×MIC~4×MIC)呈剂量依赖性,且该药物对金黄色葡萄球菌和无乳链球菌产生的PAE值均较大肠杆菌长.[结论]临床应用AMX-NP防治奶牛乳房炎时,对于金黄色葡萄球菌性和无乳链球菌性乳房炎,可适当延长给药间隔时间,对于大肠杆菌性乳房炎,宜缩短给药间隔或持续给药.

  11. Comparison of Cefdinir with Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in treatment of acute otitis media%头孢地尼与阿莫西林克拉维酸钾治疗急性中耳炎的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉瑞飞; 励彬

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索口服头孢地尼5 d与口服阿莫西林克拉维酸钾10 d治疗急性中耳炎的疗效,并比较此两种方案的安全性.方法采用多中心、随机、对照的方法进行临床观察,头孢地尼组按头孢地尼100 mg/次,3次/d,饭前1 h或饭后2 h服用,连续使用5 d;阿莫西林克拉维酸钾组按阿莫西林克拉维酸钾250/125 mg/次,3次/d,连续使用10 d.用药前后观察症状、体征,进行耳镜检查、白细胞计数和分类以及听力检测等,评价疗效和安全性.通过对比头孢地尼和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾的治愈率、两组患者用药后症状特征改善情况和不良反应的发生率来判定两者治疗急性中耳炎的疗效.结果头孢地尼组108例患者中显效以上共105例(97.22%),阿莫西林克拉维酸钾组112例患者中显效以上共102例(91.07%),两者比较差异有显著性(χ2=4.013,P < 0.05),两组患者治疗结束后临床表现均显著缓解;不良反应表现为丘疹样皮疹、荨麻疹、腹泻,共4例,每组2例,差异无显著性.结论口服头孢地尼5 d治疗AOM的疗效优于口服阿莫西林克拉维酸钾10 d的疗效,两者安全性相当,是治疗AOM时一个很好的选择.

  12. Pembuatan Sediaan Floating Amoksisilin Menggunakan Cangkang Kapsul Alginat dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakterinya

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Ade Yohana

    2016-01-01

    Background:Conventional dosage form of amoxicillin has short residence time in stomach, this matter became a major problem in the treatment of peptic ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylorithat cause not optimal treatment. Thus, drug delivery systems need to be developed which can last longer in the stomach with controlled release system, such as floating dosage form of amoxicillin using alginate capsule shell. Purpose:To evaluate the release and antibacterial effect of amoxicillin floating d...

  13. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy-a new strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antsupova, Valeria; Nørgaard, Nis; Bisbjerg, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    with pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid before and for 2 days after TRUBP. RESULTS: One hundred and ten out of 148 (74.3%) post-TRUBP infections were caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterococcus faecalis. Group 3 with the extended prophylaxis with pivmecillinam and amoxicillin...

  14. Detection of point mutation in an in vitro-selected amoxicillin-resistant strain of Helicobacter pylori%幽门螺杆菌阿莫西林耐药株缺乏青霉素结合蛋白基因外突变特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈靖; 邓大君; 柯杨; 张建中

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究实验室诱导的耐阿莫西林(AMO)幽门螺杆菌(H.pylori)的青霉素结合蛋白基因(pbp)突变情况,探讨pbp基因突变与耐药性形成的关系,比较AMO耐药菌株和敏感菌株的蛋白表达谱,为筛选与H.pylori耐药相关的蛋白提供线索.方法 体外诱导敏感菌株H.pylori 26695产生AMO耐药,测定耐药菌株5个PBP的全基因的点突变情况;同时运用蛋白质组学技术,比较AMO耐药菌株和敏感菌株的蛋白表达谱.结果 (1)体外诱导获得MIC为8 μg/ml的耐药菌1株(AMOr),其耐药表型经-80℃冻存或在不含AMO的培养基上多次传代后会丧失;(2)AMOr全部待测序列和出发菌株26695相应的靶序列完全相同,未检出基因点突变等结构变异;(3)对26695和AMOr的蛋白表达图谱进行比较发现:11个蛋白斑点在表达量上有显著变化.结论 H.pylori AMO耐药性的形成主要是一种不稳定的表型变化,可能不是由pbp基因结构变异所致.实验中耐药株和敏感株差异表达的蛋白在H.pylori的耐药形成过程中发挥着怎样的作用还有待进一步研究.

  15. Study on Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model of Amoxicillin Against Staphylococcus aureus in Serum and Tissue Fluid of Pigs ex vivo%阿莫西林在猪血清和组织液中对金黄色葡萄球菌的半体内药动-药效同步模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雨辉; 李笑春; 韩新畴; 王学梅; 吴科榜; 胡日查

    2010-01-01

    [目的]为合理应用阿莫西林治疗猪金黄色葡萄球菌感染.[方法]采用了体内药动和体外药效联合的方法研究了阿莫西林在血清和组织笼液中抗金黄色葡萄球菌的活性.[结果]体外测定,阿莫西林在血清和组织笼液中对猪金黄色葡萄球菌的MIC均在0.2 μg·mL~(-1)

  16. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Amoxicillin Combination with Colistin Sulfate against Escherichia coil and Salmonella from Pig and Chicken%阿莫西林和硫酸粘菌素对猪鸡大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌的体外联合抗菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红伟; 吴涛; 肖飞; 高海鹏; 邱银生

    2009-01-01

    探讨了阿莫西林与硫酸粘菌素对猪鸡的大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌的联合抗菌效果.采用微量稀释法分别测定阿莫西林与硫酸粘菌素单药对大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC),采用棋盘稀释法测定阿莫西林与硫酸粘菌素联用对大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌的MIC并计算联合指数(FIC).试验结果显示,对14株试验菌株体外联合抗菌呈协同与相加作用的占78.6%,呈无关作用的占21.4%,无拮抗作用,表明阿莫西林和硫酸粘菌素可联合应用于治疗猪鸡大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌感染.

  17. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid Combined with Potassium Tablets in Treating Acute Cystitis: A Clinical Observation%阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗急性膀胱炎临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文莉

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗急性膀胱炎的临床治疗效果.方法 选取2008年9月-2010年6月的急性膀胱炎住院患者84例,随机分为观察组和治疗组,各42例;观察组采用阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗,对照组单纯采用阿莫西林/克拉维酸治疗,观察比较两组的临床治疗效果.结果 观察组的总有效率为95.24%,对照组的总有效率为78.57%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组尿频、尿急、尿痛改善时间均短于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗中两组均无严重不良反应.结论 阿莫西林/克拉维酸联合肾舒颗粒治疗急性膀胱炎效果较好,且不良反应小,值得临床推广应用.

  18. INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECTS OF TREATING NEWBORN INFANTS WITH INFECTIOUS PNEUMONIA WITH AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULANIC ACID%阿莫西林钠克拉酸维钾治疗新生儿感染性肺炎的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨阿莫西林钠克拉酸维钾治疗新生儿感染性肺炎的疗效.方法总结40例新生儿细菌性肺炎治疗前后的临床及实验室特点,观察其转归.结果有28例患儿2 w后痊愈(占70%)显效8例(占20%)总有效率95%.结论新生儿感染性肺炎病情变化快,病原多,以细菌为主,阿莫西林钠克拉酸维钾治疗有效.

  19. 克拉维酸强化的阿莫西林对致病性大肠埃希氏菌体外抑菌试验%In vitro trail on clavulanic acid-enhancing amoxicillin against pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜仕金; 蒋志伟; 郑月华

    2001-01-01

    克拉维酸是一种β-内酰胺酶抑制剂,与阿莫西林同时应用时使得通过产生β-内酰胺酶对阿莫西林耐药的大多数细菌重新成为敏感菌.对来源于鸡、猪的共31株致病性大肠埃希氏菌最小抑菌浓度(MIC)测定表明,70%以上菌株对阿莫西林耐药;克拉维酸与阿莫西林联合使用使MIC显著下降;与单一使用阿莫西林相比,头孢氨苄青霉素对大多数分离菌的MIC较低.

  20. Efficacy of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Potassium Combined With Chymotrypsin for Pediatric Acute Suppurative Tonsillitis%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚选云

    2016-01-01

    Objective The research aims to explore the clinical effect of amoxicilin-clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin on pediatric acute suppurative tonsilitis.Methods The research chose 100 cases of children patients with suppurative tonsilitis from the hospital,and distributed them into the observation group and the control group randomly of which each had 50 cases. The control group received the treatment of amoxicilin-clavulanate potassium alone,while the observation group received the additional treatment of chymotrypsin on the basis. After the treatment,the research compared the two groups in terms of the improvement time of main symptoms and signs,total effective rate and untoward effect. Results The symptoms improve time of in the observation group were significantly better than that in the control group,the total efficiency in the observation group were significantly higher than that in the coTntrol group(P<0.05).Conclusion Treating pediatric acute suppurative tonsilitis with amoxicilin-clavulanate potassium combined with chymotrypsin can reduce the duration of symptoms and improve the effective rate of treatment,thus should be spread and applied clinicaly.%目的:探讨阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎的疗效。方法选取我院100例化脓性扁桃体炎患儿,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组患者均为50例,对照组单用阿莫西林克拉维酸钾,观察组在此基础上加用糜蛋白酶治疗,比较两组治疗后主要症状体征改善时间、总有效率和不良反应。结果观察组症状改善时间优于对照组,总有效率高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾联合糜蛋白酶治疗儿童急性化脓性扁桃体炎,能缩短症状持续时间,提高治疗有效率。

  1. The study of quality standards on Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium for Suspension(14:1)%阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)的质量标准研究※

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳亦华; 李瑞明

    2013-01-01

      目的对阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)的质量标准内容进行了研究。方法通过对质量标准的研究,对质量控制的各个方面进行完整的考察,从而确定制剂的保存方法和质量控制指标。结果与结论阿莫西林克拉维酸钾干混悬剂(14:1)中阿莫西林、克拉维酸钾湿度较高时较不稳定,影响其质量问题,保存时应当注意,其它要求均能合格制剂条件。%Objective To study the quality standards of amoxicil in and clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1). Methods Quality standards, quality control of al aspects of a complete investigation to determine the save method of preparation and quality control indicators. Results and Conclusion Amoxicil in and clavulanate Potassium for Suspension (14:1) when with a high relative humidity wil be less stability, affecting its quality problems, should be saved in proper material.

  2. Effects of combination of amoxicillin, metronidazole and colloidal bismuth subcitrate on gastric ulcer in rats%阿莫西林、甲硝唑和胶体次枸橼酸铋三种药物联用对大鼠胃溃疡模型的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章杰兵; 古卓良; 周国华

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察阿莫西林、甲硝唑和胶体次枸橼酸铋联合使用对3种大鼠胃溃疡模型的影响,为临床合理选用药物治疗消化道溃疡提供参考.方法:用大鼠做成水浸应激性胃溃疡、幽门结扎型胃溃疡及乙酸烧灼型胃溃疡3种模型,试验组给予阿莫西林(225 mg·kg-1)、甲硝唑(112 mg·kg-1)和胶体次枸橼酸铋(56 mg·kh-1)混合物;阳性对照组给予西咪替丁(112 mg·kg-1);阴性对照组给予2%羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC-Na).结果:试验组呈剂量依赖性保护大鼠水浸应激性胃溃疡形成,有效剂量为112 mg·kg-1;呈剂量依赖性保护大鼠幽门结扎型溃疡形成,有效剂量为56 mg·kg-1;呈剂量依赖性促进大鼠乙酸烧灼溃疡的愈合,有效剂量为112 mg·kg-1.结论:试验组呈剂量依赖性对大鼠水浸应激性胃溃疡显示保护作用;呈剂量依赖性减少大鼠幽门结扎型胃溃疡的程度;呈剂量依赖性促进乙酸烧灼渍疡的愈合,但作用均弱于西咪替丁.

  3. Dissolution testing combined with computer simulation technology to evaluate the bioequivalence of domestic amoxicillin capsule%溶出度实验结合计算机模拟技术评价国产阿莫西林胶囊的生物等效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘瑞雪; 高源; 陈万里; 李玉兰; 胡昌勤

    2014-01-01

    对上市仿制药品生物等效性的再评价是当前的研究热点.生物等效性实验是评价仿制药物治疗效果一致性的理想方法,而基于BCS (biopharmaceutical classification system)理论的体外溶出度实验是最能替代药物体内生物等效性研究的体外试验方法.本文采用常规的溶出度测定方法和开放式流通池法考察国产阿莫西林胶囊在不同介质中的溶出行为,开放式流通池法更能体现其体内的释放特征.流通池法结果显示,国产阿莫西林胶囊存在两种不同的溶出特性.采用Gastro PlusTM软件模拟药物在体内具有不同释放速率(t85%-15~180 min)时的体内吸收(Cmax和AUC)情况,发现释放速率在延长至t85%=45 min时,口服阿莫西林胶囊同口服阿莫西林溶液仍具有生物等效性.具有不同溶出特性的国产阿莫西林胶囊45 min内的累积溶出度均可达到85%以上,模拟计算也提示其在体内具有生物等效性,提示国产阿莫西林胶囊具有生物等效性.

  4. Narrowing mutant selection window of Streptococcus suis by combination use of tylosin tartrate and amoxicillin sodium in vitro%酒石酸泰乐菌素联合阿莫西林钠缩小猪链球菌耐药突变选择窗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 徐刚; 王敏; 李洪涛; 李艳华

    2010-01-01

    为了使临床合理使用抗菌药物,防止细菌耐药性的产生提供理论依据.本研究探讨了在体外初步联合用药缩小猪链球菌(S.suis)的耐药突变选择窗(MSW).应用肉汤法富集10~(10)CFU/mL细菌,琼脂平板二倍稀释法分别测定酒石酸泰乐菌素(TLST)、阿莫西林(Amoxil)钠及两药联用后对S.suis分离株D_(10)的防突变浓度(MPC)和MSW.TLST、Amoxil钠单药和两药联用对S.suis分离株D_(10)的MSW分别为9.71、5.16和2.81.TLST和Amoxil钠联合用药使TLST对D_(10)的MSW缩小3.5倍;TLST和Amoxil钠联合用药使Amoxil钠对D_(10)的MSW缩小1.8倍.TLST和Amoxil钠联合用药可缩小各自单药对S.suis分离株D_(10)的MSW.

  5. Clinical analysis of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid consecutive therapy in treating acute community-acquired low respiratory tract infections%阿莫西林-克拉维酸序贯治疗社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志雄; 孙书明

    2005-01-01

    目的评价阿莫西林-克拉维酸序贯治疗社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染的临床疗效和安全性.方法68例社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染患者被随机分成2组,各34例.A组予阿莫西林-克拉维酸注射液1.2 g,iv gtt,bid×10 d;B组先用阿莫西林-克拉维酸注射液1.2 g,iv gtt,bid×3 d后,改为阿莫西林-克拉维酸0.5 g,po,bid×7 d,总疗程10 d.结果A组与B组的治疗有效率分别为85%和82%,细菌清除率分别为84%和83%,P均>0.05,2组的不良反应率相似.结论阿莫西林-克拉维酸序贯治疗社区获得性急性下呼吸道感染的临床疗效确切,安全.

  6. Assay of amoxicillin sodium and flucloxacillin sodium for injection and their related substances by ion-pairs along with gradient elution HPLC method%HPLC离子对梯度洗脱法同时测定注射用阿莫西林钠/氟氯西林钠的含量和有关物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈悦

    2004-01-01

    目的建立同时测定阿莫西林钠、氟氯西林钠含量与有关物质的 HPLC法,使复方制剂中极性差异较大的两种主药以及它们引入的有关物质同时得以洗脱和测定,提高分析效率和结果的可靠性.方法 RP- HPLC离子对梯度洗脱法.色谱柱选用 HP Zorbax Elicpse XDB- C8柱;流动相 A为 1.4%十六烷基三甲基溴化铵的 0.01mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液( pH6.5)-乙腈( 70∶30);流动相 B为 1.4%十六烷基三甲基溴化铵的 0.01 mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液( pH6.5)-乙腈( 30∶ 70);检测波长为 254nm;梯度洗脱.结果阿莫西林钠和氟氯西林钠在上述色谱条件下均有合适的保留,含量测定可在 15min内完成,有关物质测定可在 30min内完成;制剂中的主要杂质或降解产物均与两个主峰实现了良好分离;当进样体积为 10μ l时,阿莫西林在 0.0088~ 2.210mg/ml浓度范围内与峰面积有良好的线性关系,氟氯西林在 0.0097~ 2.430 mg/ml浓度范围内与峰面积有良好的线性关系;方法的准确性、重复性和专属性令人满意.结论本法可用于注射用阿莫西林钠和氟氯西林钠的含量和有关物质测定.

  7. 复方阿莫西林纳米乳对奶牛乳房炎3种主要病原菌的体外联合抗菌效应%Combination antibacterial effect of compound amoxicillin and levofloxacin hydrochloride nanoemulsion against three main pathogenic bacteria of cow mastitis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 欧阳五庆; 李向辉; 张文娟; 刘玉梅

    2009-01-01

    通过单药纸片搭桥试验、复合药物纸片试验、单药最小抑菌浓度(MIC)测定、联合药敏试验、Kirby-Baueer试验,研究复方阿莫西林纳米乳(AMX-LH-NE)对奶牛乳房炎3种主要病原菌的体外联合抗菌效应.结果表明:阿莫西林(AMX)和盐酸左氧氟沙星(LH)联用时表现为协同抗菌作用;二者联用时对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)的MIC分别是单用时的1/4倍和1/8倍,对无乳链球菌(Streptococcus agalactiae)的MIC均是单用时的1/4倍,对大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)的MIC 均是单用时的1/8倍;二者联用对3种病原菌的部分抑菌浓度(FIC)指数均不大于0.5;AMX-LH-NE对3种病原菌的抑菌圈直径与其他各组相比,差异均极显著(P<0.01).结果提示,AMX-LH-NE对奶牛乳房炎主要病原菌的联合抗菌活性强.

  8. 用高效液相色谱-飞行时间质谱法研究β-内酰胺酶对阿莫西林降解反应的规律%HPLC-TOF-MS Study on the Regularity of Degradation of Amoxicillin by Its Reaction withβ-Lactamase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽欣; 郭春海; 艾连峰; 窦彩云; 王贵珍; 孙汉文

    2014-01-01

    应用高效液相色谱-飞行时间质谱法研究了β-内酰胺酶对阿莫西林降解反应的规律。采用 SB-C18色谱柱分离,以不同比例的0.1%(φ)甲酸溶液和乙腈作为流动相进行梯度洗脱。质谱分析采用电喷雾正离子扫描方式。结果表明:①7 U 的β-内酰胺酶可降解10μg 阿莫西林;②温度为15℃~30℃时,降解反应时间为2.5 h,阿莫西林的降解产物主要为阿莫西林噻唑酸(Ⅰ),超过40℃时,降解产物为脱羧阿莫西林噻唑酸(Ⅱ);③在牛奶样品中,pH 为2~3时,主要为Ⅱ;pH为3~4时,Ⅰ的量逐渐增加,Ⅱ的量无大变化;当 pH 7时,阿莫西林全部降解,主要为Ⅰ。%The regularity of degradation of amoxillin (AMXL)by its reaction withβ-lactamase (β-LTM)was studied by HPLC-TOF-MS.SB-C18 column was used as stationary phase in the chromatographic separation,and mixtures of 0.1% (φ)HCOOH solution and acetonitrile in various ratios were used as mobile phase in gradient elution.Mode of scanning under ESI+ was adopted in MS analysis.It was found that:① for degradation of 10 μg of AMXL,7 U ofβ-LTM was necessary in the reaction;② the optimum temperature for the degradation was found in the range of 15 ℃-30 ℃,giving reaction time of 2.5 h,the main degradation product is amoxilloic acid (abbr.asⅠ),and when the temperature is higher than 40 ℃,another product,the decarboxylated amoxilloic acid (abbr.asⅡ)is produced;③ and it was shown that in a milk sample when acidity was adjusted to pH 2-3,Ⅱ was the main product;when at pH 3-4,amount of Ⅰ was increased gradually while amount of Ⅱ was kept nearly unchanged;and AMXL was completely degraded at pH 7 giving mainly Ⅰ.

  9. Cefaclor in Children with Acute Otitis Media and Amoxicillin and Clavulanate Potassium Contrast Analysis%头孢克洛和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾用于儿童急性中耳炎治疗的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢寒冰

    2014-01-01

    Objective Comparison of acute otitis media in children with application of cefaclor and amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium two kinds of the clinical ef icacy of drug treatment. Methods From March 2011 to February 2013 treated 120 cases of children with acute otitis media in this study, random grouping. Children with the control group given amoxicil in and clavulanate potassium therapy, cefaclor treatment group. compared with two groups of children always show the dif erences of ef iciency and adverse reactions. Results After treatment, we found that the experimental group after treatment with total total ef iciency was 93.33%, control group the total ef iciency of 88.33%, dif erences between groups have no statistical significance ( >0.05). Experimental group the incidence of adverse reactions was 0%, the control group, the incidence of adverse reactions was 10.0%between groups was statistical y significant dif erence ( 0.05)。实验组不良反应发生率为0%,对照组不良反应发生率为10.0%,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用头孢克洛和阿莫西林克拉维酸钾两种药物治疗儿童急性中耳炎,可将其在临床进行推广应用。

  10. 头孢曲松与阿莫西林治疗儿童急性中耳炎的疗效比较研究%Efficacy and safety of one dose ceftriaxone vs. ten-day oral amoxicillin for treatment of acute otitis media in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚梅; 董频; 陆培

    2003-01-01

    目的探索头孢曲松单剂注射与口服阿莫西林10 d治疗儿童急性中耳炎是否具有相同的疗效,并比较此两种方案的安全性.方法本研究为多中心、随机、对照、开放Ⅳ期临床实验.头孢曲松组: 头孢曲松50 mg/kg(总剂量不超过1 g)单次肌肉注射或静脉点滴.阿莫西林组:阿莫西林40 mg/(kg·d),每日3次,口服,连续10 d.年龄在1~12岁共212例儿童.用药后两次复诊,观察症状、体征,耳镜检查,白细胞计数和分类,听力检测等.结果给药后10~14 d,头孢曲松组106例中显效以上的为103例,占97.17%,有效率高于阿莫西林组106例中的96例,占90.57%,(P<0.05).不良反应为丘疹样皮疹、荨麻疹、口角皮肤色素沉着,两组中各2例, 差异无显著意义.结论对于急性中耳炎的儿童,单剂头孢曲松肌注或静脉滴注优于口服阿莫西林10 d,两者安全性相同.头孢曲松在治疗儿童急性中耳炎、特别是在婴幼儿用药顺应性差时是一个很好的选择.

  11. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin vs.amoxicillin/clavulanic in the treatment of children with acute otitis media: a meta-analysis%阿奇霉素对比阿莫西林/克拉维酸治疗儿童急性中耳炎疗效和安全性的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守凯; 何健; 梁丹茹; 卫旭东; 陈彤; 杨蒙生; 李丽

    2013-01-01

    目的 采用Meta分析方法比较阿奇霉素与阿莫西林/克拉维酸治疗儿童急性中耳炎疗效和安全性.方法 电子检索中国生物医学文献数据库、中文科技期刊数据库、中国知网、万方数据库、中国医学会数字化期刊、PubMed、Cochrane Library和EMBASE数据库,检索起止时间均从建库至2013年8月.纳入阿奇霉素对比阿莫西林/克拉维酸治疗儿童急性中耳炎的RCT文献,对文献进行质量评价.评估临床治愈率、治疗失败率和不良反应.采用RevMan见5.0软件进行数据分析,二分类变量采用OR及其95%CI表示.结果 共纳入13篇RCT文献(5 081例患儿).Meta分析结果显示,阿奇霉素组与阿莫西林/克拉维酸组在<10 d临床治愈率(OR =0.69,95%CI:0.46~1.02)、~19 d临床治愈率(OR=0.88,95%CI:0.68~1.13)、~29 d临床治愈率( OR=0.99,95%CI:0.83~1.19)、≥30 d临床治愈率(OR=1.00,95%CI:0.72~1.39)和治疗失败率(OR=0.87,95%CI:0.65~1.17)差异均无统计学意义.阿奇霉素组恶心(OR=0.44,95%CI:0.20~0.97)、皮疹(OR=0.48,95%CI:0.31~0.75)、腹泻(OR=0.38,95%CI:0.25~0.57)和稀便(OR=0.41,95%CI:0.20~0.81)的发生率显著低于阿莫西林/克拉维酸组.结论 阿奇霉素与阿莫西林/克拉维酸治疗儿童中耳炎疗效相当且不良反应少.

  12. Synergistic antibacterial effects of β-lactam antibiotic combined with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Juan; Wu, Changzhu; Wu, Qingsheng; Li, Jian

    2005-09-01

    The bactericidal action of silver (0) nanoparticles and amoxicillin on Escherichia coli is studied, respectively. Increasing concentration of both amoxicillin (0-0.525 mg ml-1) and silver nanoparticles (0-40 µg ml-1) showed a higher antibacterial effect in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Escherichia coli cells have different bactericidal sensitivity to them. When amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles are combined, it results in greater bactericidal efficiency on Escherichia coli cells than when they were applied separately. Dynamic tests on bacterial growth indicated that exponential and stationary phases are greatly decreased and delayed in the synergistic effect of amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles. In addition, the effect induced by a preincubation with silver nanoparticles is examined. The results show that solutions with more silver nanoparticles have better antimicrobial effects. One hypothesized mechanism is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  13. Drug: D06485 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TIONS OF ANTIBACTERIALS J01RA Combinations of antibacterials J01RA01 Penicillins,... combinations with other antibacterials D06485 Amoxicillin hydrate - potassium clavulanate mixt PubChem: 47208141 ...

  14. Drug: D09742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LS J01RA Combinations of antibacterials J01RA01 Penicillins, combinations with other antibacterials D09742 Lansoprazole - amoxicillin hydrate - metronidazole mixt PubChem: 124490482 ...

  15. A Domain Independent Framework for Extracting Linked Semantic Data from Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Gasbarrini, G., Roda, E., Bazzoli, F.: Comparison of 1 and 2 weeks of omeprazole , amoxicillin and clarithromycin treat- ment for helicobacter pylori eradication: the hyper study. Gut 56(4), 475 (2007)

  16. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI in Yasuj city during 1391-1392.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: It is recommended to treat urinary tract infections by using fewer antibiotics such as Amoxicillin / Clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole, and administration of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin should be used with caution.

  17. Fluoroquinolones in the treatment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans associated periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinfelder, JW; Mueller, RF; Lange, DE

    2000-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis patients harboring Actinobacillus actinmycetemcomitans (Aa) are prime candidates for systemic antibiotic therapy. Besides tetracycline and the combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin the fluoroquinolones are also believed to have antibacterial activity against Aa. The

  18. Strep throat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rare but more serious health problems, such as rheumatic fever. Penicillin or amoxicillin are most often the first ... psoriasis Abscess in the area around the tonsils Rheumatic fever Scarlet fever When to Contact a Medical Professional ...

  19. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aztreonam is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... such as penicillin or amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), carbapenem antibiotics such as doripenem (Doribax), ertapenem (Invanz), or ...

  20. Spiramycin resistance in human periodontitis microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Dujardin, Sebastien; Sautter, Jacqueline D; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The occurrence of in vitro resistance to therapeutic concentrations of spiramycin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole was determined for putative periodontal pathogens isolated in the United States. Materials and methods: Subgingival plaque specimens from 37 consecutive adults with untreated se

  1. Efecto del probiótico Saccharomyces boulardii en la prevención de la diarrea asociada con antibióticos en adultos ambulatorios en tratamiento con amoxicilina

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo,María Verónica; Bunout,Daniel; Leiva,Laura; de la Maza,María Pía; Barrera, Gladys; de la Maza,Javier; Hirsch,Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is one of the most common adverse effects of antimicrobials. Any antimicrobial can potentially produce diarrhea but beta-lactamics have a higher risk. Among these, amoxicillin is widely indicated in ambulatory practice. One ofthe alternatives suggested to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea, is the use of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii. Aim: To evalúate whether the concomitant use of Saccharomyces boulardii and amoxicillin can prevent antib...

  2. Ofloxacin intravenous. Compatibility with other antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janknegt, R; Stratermans, T; Cilissen, J; Lohman, J J; Hooymans, P M

    1991-10-18

    The physical and chemical compatibility of ofloxacin (infusion solution 100 ml = 200 mg) with amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, flucloxacillin, tobramycin, gentamicin, clindamycin, vancomycin, ceftazidime and piperacillin was investigated. Upon admixture with flucloxacillin a precipitate formed between 7 and 24 hours. No other physical or chemical incompatibilities were observed with any of the other combinations. Ofloxacin may be safely combined with the tested antimicrobial drugs, except for flucloxacillin.

  3. Molecular Analysis of and Identification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Clinical Isolates of Salmonella typhi from India

    OpenAIRE

    Shanahan, Philippa M. A.; Jesudason, Mary V.; Thomson, Christopher J.; Amyes, Sebastian G. B.

    1998-01-01

    A representative sample of 21 Salmonella typhi strains isolated from cultures of blood from patients at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India, were tested for their susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents. Eleven of the S. typhi strains possessed resistance to chloramphenicol (256 mg/liter), trimethoprim (64 mg/liter), and amoxicillin (>128 mg/liter), while four of the isolates were resistant to each of these agents except for amoxicillin. Six of the isolates wer...

  4. Pharmacokinetics study of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid (8:1)--a new combination in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers using the LC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanhong; Wang, Yinfu; Xie, Hua; Wang, Rong; Jia, Zhengping; Men, Xiandong; Xu, Liting; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-04-01

    New oral granules of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 ratio have recently been developed and approved to conduct clinical trial in China. To date, there has been no report studying the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in man. Therefore, it is urgent to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in man. The aim of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 with different dosage in healthy volunteers and provide support for this drug to obtain marketing authorization in China. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determining the concentration of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in human plasma was developed and applied to this open-label, single- and multiple-dose Pharmacokinetics study. Subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of 1, 2, and 4 pouches of the test granulation of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in 8:1 ratio (amoxicillin is 250 mg and clavulanic acid is 31.25 mg per pouch). In the single-dose phase, blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, and 24 h after drug administration. In the multiple-dose phase, samples were obtained before drug administration on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 to determine the Cmin of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. In the 4th day, samples were collected from 0.25 to 24 h after drug administration. Profiles of the concentration-time curves of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were best fitted to two-compartment model. In this group of healthy Chinese subjects, the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin fitted the linear dynamic feature at doses of 250,500 and 1,000 mg, and not obviously about clavulanic acid at doses of 31.25, 62.5, and 125 mg. The t 1/2 of single dose and multidoses were (1.45 ± 0.12) and (1.44 ± 0.26) h of amoxicillin and (1.24 ± 0.23) and (1.24 ± 0.17) of clavulanic acid, respectively; The AUC0-24 of single dose

  5. Compared to placebo, long-term antibiotics resolve otitis media with effusion (OME and prevent acute otitis media with perforation (AOMwiP in a high-risk population: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Peter S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For children at high risk of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM, strategies to prevent acute otitis media with perforation (AOMwiP may reduce progression to CSOM. Methods In a double blind study in northern Australia, 103 Aboriginal infants with first detection of OME were randomised to receive either amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/d BD or placebo for 24 weeks, or until bilateral aerated middle ears were diagnosed at two successive monthly examinations (success. Standardised clinical assessments and international standards for microbiology were used. Results Five of 52 infants in the amoxicillin group and none of 51 infants in the placebo group achieved success at the end of therapy (Risk Difference = 9.6% [95% confidence interval 1.6,17.6]. Amoxicillin significantly reduced the proportion of children with i perforation at the end of therapy (27% to 12% RD = -16% [-31,-1], ii recurrent perforation during therapy (18% to 4% RD = -14% [-25,-2], and iii reduced the proportion of examinations with a diagnosis of perforation during therapy (20% to 8% adjusted risk ratio 0.36 [0.15,0.83] p = 0.017. During therapy, the proportion of examinations with penicillin non-susceptible (MIC > 0.1 microg/ml pneumococci was not significantly different between the amoxicillin group (34% and the placebo group (40%. Beta-lactamase positive non-capsular H. influenzae (NCHi were uncommon during therapy but more frequent in the amoxicillin group (10% than placebo (5%. Conclusion Aboriginal infants receiving continuous amoxicillin had more normal ears, fewer perforations, and less pneumococcal carriage. There was no statistically significant increase in resistant pneumococci or NCHi in amoxicillin children compared to placebo children who received regular paediatric care and antibiotic treatment for symptomatic illnesses.

  6. Diagnosis of clavulanic acid allergy using basophil activation and leukotriene release by basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, N; Gamboa, P M; Gastaminza, G; Audícana, M T; Antepara, I; Jaúregui, I; Sanz, M L

    2008-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a potent inhibitor of B-lactamase that is increasingly prescribed in association with amoxicillin. We report 2 cases of patients who experienced pruritus, wheals, and angioedema after oral intake of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Routine skin tests for B-lactam antibiotics and specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E were negative in both patients. Analysis of CD63 expression by the basophil activation test (BAT) using flow cytometry and of sulphidoleukotriene (sLT) release by basophils using the cellular allergen stimulation test (CAST) revealed significant positive responses with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and with clavulanic acid, and negative responses with amoxicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics. In addition, cultured CD3+CD4+ cells showed a significant increase in the expression of CD69, CD25, and HLA-DR in the presence of clavulanic acid. Both patients tolerated therapeutic doses of amoxicillin. BAT and CAST are useful ex vivo procedures for the detection of specific IgE-mediated allergy to clavulanic acid, especially for patients with negative skin test results.

  7. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized gold nanoparticles--design, characterization and antimicrobial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, V; Dhandapani, P; Gurusamy Neelavannan, M; Maruthamuthu, S; Berchmans, S; Palaniappan, A

    2015-04-01

    A facile one-step approach is developed to synthesize highly stable (up to 6months) gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Clavam, pharmaceutical form of amoxicillin which contains a mixture of amoxicillin and potassium salt of clavulanic acid, at room temperature (25-30°C). The clavam stabilized GNPs are characterized using various techniques including UV-Visible, FT-IR spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using intracellular concentrations of glutathione (GSH). The process is monitored using an UV-Vis spectroscopy and the amount of clavam released in terms of amoxicillin concentration is quantitatively estimated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) technique. In vitro study reveals that the clavam released from GNPs' surface was found to show a significant enhancement in antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the cause of enhancement is addressed.

  8. Achromobacter Xylosoxidans Bloodstream Infection in Elderly Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuraman, Kausalya; Ahmed, Nishat H; Baruah, Frincy K; Grover, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidansis a nonfermentative Gram-negative organism, known to cause opportunistic infection in humans. We report a case of septicemia in a 76-year-old male patient with underlying hepatocellular carcinoma due to A. xylosoxidans, which showed a different antimicrobial susceptibility pattern from what is usually reported. From aerobic blood culture of the patient, A. xylosoxidans was isolated which was found to be sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefoperazone-sulbactam, meropenem, minocycline, tigecycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The patient recovered with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment, which was given empirically to the patient. The present case highlights the possible role of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for treatment of bloodstream infection with A. xylosoxidans.

  9. Achromobacter Xylosoxidans bloodstream infection in elderly patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausalya Raghuraman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Achromobacter xylosoxidansis a nonfermentative Gram-negative organism, known to cause opportunistic infection in humans. We report a case of septicemia in a 76-year-old male patient with underlying hepatocellular carcinoma due to A. xylosoxidans, which showed a different antimicrobial susceptibility pattern from what is usually reported. From aerobic blood culture of the patient, A. xylosoxidanswas isolated which was found to be sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefoperazone-sulbactam, meropenem, minocycline, tigecycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The patient recovered with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment, which was given empirically to the patient. The present case highlights the possible role of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for treatment of bloodstream infection with A. xylosoxidans.

  10. Uptake of antibiotics from irrigation water by plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azanu, David; Mortey, Christiana; Darko, Godfred;

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through...... consumption of uncooked vegetables. Antibiotics in potted plants that had been irrigated with known concentrations of the antibiotics were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed on a liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer. The plants absorbed the antibiotics from water in all...... samples. The mean concentration of amoxicillin (27.1 ng g(-1)) in all the samples was significantly higher (p = 0.04) than that of tetracycline (20.2 ng g(-1)) indicating higher uptake of amoxicillin than tetracycline. This suggests that the low antibiotic concentrations found in plants could be important...

  11. Design and evaluation of novel pH-sensitive ureido-conjugated chitosan/TPP nanoparticles targeted to Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zi-Wei; Jia, Yi-Yang; Wan, Ning; Luo, Min; Huan, Meng-Lei; Kang, Tai-Bin; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Bang-Le

    2016-04-01

    The covalently modified ureido-conjugated chitosan/TPP multifunctional nanoparticles have been developed as targeted nanomedicine delivery system for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori can specifically express the urea transport protein on its membrane to transport urea into cytoplasm for urease to produce ammonia, which protects the bacterium in the acid milieu of stomach. The clinical applicability of topical antimicrobial agent is needed to eradicate H. pylori in the infected fundal area. In this study, we designed and synthesized two ureido-conjugated chitosan derivatives UCCs-1 and UCCs-2 for preparation of multifunctional nanoparticles. The process was optimized in order to prepare UCCs/TPP nanoparticles for encapsulation of amoxicillin. The results showed that the amoxicillin-UCCs/TPP nanoparticles exhibited favorable pH-sensitive characteristics, which could procrastinate the release of amoxicillin at gastric acids and enable the drug to deliver and target to H. pylori at its survival region effectively. Compared with unmodified amoxicillin-chitosan/TPP nanoparticles, a more specific and effective H. pylori growth inhibition was observed for amoxicillin-UCCs/TPP nanoparticles. Drug uptake analysis tested by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy verified that the uptake of FITC-UCCs-2/TPP nanoparticles was associated with urea transport protein on the membrane of H. pylori and reduced with the addition of urea as competitive transport substrate. These findings suggest that the multifunctional amoxicillin-loaded nanoparticles have great potential for effective therapy of H. pylori infection. They may also serve as pharmacologically effective nanocarriers for oral targeted delivery of other therapeutic drugs to treat H. pylori.

  12. Azithromycin in a triple therapy for H. pylori eradication in active duodenal ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir T. Ivashkin; Tatiana L. Lapina; Oksana Yu. Bondarenko; Olga A. Sklanskaya; Petr Ya. Grigoriev; Yuri V. Vasiliev; Emilia P. Yakovenko; Pavel V. Gulyaev; Valeri I. Fedchenko

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess and compare the efficacy and safety of twotriple regimes: A) metronidazole, amoxicillin and omeprazole,which is still widely used in Russia, and B) azithromycin,amoxicillin and omeprazole in healing active duodenal ulcerand H.pylori eradication. METHODS: 100 patients with active duodenal ulcer wereincluded in the open, multicentre, randomized study withcomparative groups. Patients were randomly assigned toone of the following one-week triple regimes: A)metronidazole 500 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 g bid and omeprazole20 mg bid (OAM, n=50) and B) azithromycin 1 g od for thefirst 3 days (total dose 3 g), amoxicillin 1 g bid andomeprazole 20 mg bid (OAA, n=50). Omeprazole 20 mg odwas given after the eradication course as a monotherapyfor three weeks. The control endoscopy was performed 8weeks after the entry. H. pylori infection was determined inthe entry of the study and four weeks after the cessation oftreatment by means of histology and CLO-test.RESULTS: 97 patients completed the study according tothe protocol (1 patient of the OAM group did not come tothe control endoscopy, 2 patients of the OAA group stoppedthe treatment because of mild allergic urticaria). Duodenalulcers were healed in 48 patients of the OAM group (96 %;CI 90.5-100 %) and in 46 patients of the OAA group (92 %;CI 89.5-94.5 %) (p=ns). H. pylori infection was eradicatedin 15 out of 50 patients with OAM (30 %; CI 17-43 %) andin 36 out of 50 patients treated with OAA (72 %; CI 59-85 %)(P<0.001)-ITT analysis.CONCLUSION: The triple therapy with omeprazole,amoxicillin and metronidazole failed to eradicate H. pylori inthe majority of patients, which is an essential argument towithdraw this regimen out of the national recommendations.Macrolide with amoxicillin are preferable to achieve highereradication rates. Azithromycin (1 g od for the first 3 days)can be considered as a successful component of the triplePPI-based regimen.

  13. Paradoxical Hypersusceptibility of Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis to β-lactam Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keira A. Cohen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis is considered innately resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. However, there is evidence that susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics in combination with β–lactamase inhibitors is variable among clinical isolates, and these may present therapeutic options for drug-resistant cases. Here we report our investigation of susceptibility to β-lactam/β–lactamase inhibitor combinations among clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis, and the use of comparative genomics to understand the observed heterogeneity in susceptibility. Eighty-nine South African clinical isolates of varying first and second-line drug susceptibility patterns and two reference strains of M. tuberculosis underwent minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC determination to two β-lactams: amoxicillin and meropenem, both alone and in combination with clavulanate, a β–lactamase inhibitor. 41/91 (45% of tested isolates were found to be hypersusceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate relative to reference strains, including 14/24 (58% of multiple drug-resistant (MDR and 22/38 (58% of extensively drug-resistant (XDR isolates. Genome-wide polymorphisms identified using whole-genome sequencing were used in a phylogenetically-aware linear mixed model to identify polymorphisms associated with amoxicillin/clavulanate susceptibility. Susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanate was over-represented among isolates within a specific clade (LAM4, in particular among XDR strains. Twelve sets of polymorphisms were identified as putative markers of amoxicillin/clavulanate susceptibility, five of which were confined solely to LAM4. Within the LAM4 clade, ‘paradoxical hypersusceptibility’ to amoxicillin/clavulanate has evolved in parallel to first and second-line drug resistance. Given the high prevalence of LAM4 among XDR TB in South Africa, our data support an expanded role for β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations for treatment of drug-resistant M

  14. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilienne Verkaeren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  15. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaeren, Emilienne; Epelboin, Loïc; Epelboin, Sylvie; Boddaert, Nathalie; Brossier, Florence; Caumes, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  16. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhika Devi, A.; Murty, B. S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Chelvane, J. A. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabhakar, P. K.; Padma Priya, P. V.; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-03-28

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells.

  17. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica L.; Carvalho, Juliana F.; Pontes, Thales R. F.; Oliveira, Elquio E.; Francelino, Bárbara L.; Medeiros, Aldo C.; do Egito, E. Sócrates T.; Araujo, José H.; Carriço, Artur S.

    2009-05-01

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit ®S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 μm, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  18. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Erica L.; Carvalho, Juliana F.; Pontes, Thales R.F.; Oliveira, Elquio E. [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Francelino, Barbara L.; Medeiros, Aldo C. [Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Egito, E. Socrates T. do [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Araujo, Jose H. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Carrico, Artur S. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)], E-mail: ascarrico@dfte.ufrn.br

    2009-05-15

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 {mu}m, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  19. Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijnders, Dorien; Goossens, Gijs H; Hermes, Gerben D A

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men....

  20. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera

    2015-01-01

    potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (n=12 per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin...

  1. Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

    1996-01-01

    of Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC...

  2. Augmentin treatment during pregnancy and the prevalence of congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik T;

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the human teratogenic potential of augmentin (amoxicillin+clavulanic acid) treatment during pregnancy. Materials and methods: Pair analysis of cases with different congenital abnormalities and their matched controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case...

  3. Uptake of antibiotics from irrigation water by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanu, David; Mortey, Christiana; Darko, Godfred; Weisser, Johan Juhl; Styrishave, Bjarne; Abaidoo, Robert Clement

    2016-08-01

    The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through consumption of uncooked vegetables. Antibiotics in potted plants that had been irrigated with known concentrations of the antibiotics were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed on a liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer. The plants absorbed the antibiotics from water in all tested concentrations of 0.1-15 mg L(-1). Tetracycline was detected in all plant samples, at concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 28.3 ng/g in lettuce and 12.0-36.8 ng g(-1) fresh weight in carrots. Amoxicillin showed absorption with concentrations ranging from 13.7 ng g(-1) to 45.2 ng g(-1) for the plant samples. The mean concentration of amoxicillin (27.1 ng g(-1)) in all the samples was significantly higher (p = 0.04) than that of tetracycline (20.2 ng g(-1)) indicating higher uptake of amoxicillin than tetracycline. This suggests that the low antibiotic concentrations found in plants could be important for causing antibiotics resistance when these levels are consumed.

  4. A Combination Of Amoxicillian And Clavulanic Acid In The Treatment Of Impetigo In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Kar Col

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (ACA a combination of potentially effective antibiotic against beta-lactamase producing bacteria was compared with that of amoxicillin, erythomycin and co-trimoxazole in an open label, randomized trial in 100 children with mild to severe impetigo. 22% children had mild, 25% had moderate and 53% children had severe impetigo. Pure growth of S. aureus was isolated in 68% children, S.pyogenes in 26% and both staphyto and streptococci in 6% children. In mild to moderate infection 100% children receiving ACA were cured clinically after first week, whereas 7 out of 15(46.6% children in amoxicillin group, 7 out of 13(53.1% children in erythromycin group and 4 out 12 (33.3% children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure after first week. In severe impetigo 46.1% children receiving ACA, 20% children in amoxicillin group, 16.6% children inerythromycin group and 7.6% in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure on therapy after one week. ACA was well tolerated in children.

  5. Disease: H01050 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available la spp. are resistant to cefoxitin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. PMID:18810513 (description, env_factor) Bouza E, Per...ez-Parra A, Rosal M, Martin-Rabadan P, Rodriguez-Creixems M, Marin M Tsukamurella:

  6. Evaluation of the mandibular third molar pericoronitis flora and its susceptibility to different antibiotics prescribed in france.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixou, Jean-Louis; Magaud, Christophe; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Cormier, Michel; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2003-12-01

    This work assessed the polymicrobial flora of mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Obligate anaerobes were found in almost all cases (32 of 35). Amoxicillin and pristinamycin were the most effective against the flora, particularly aerobic organisms. Metronidazole alone or combined with spiramycin was the most effective drug against obligate anaerobes.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Among Uropathogens That Cause Childhood Community-acquired Urinary Tract Infections in Central Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, Renata; van den Akker, Machiel; Machamad, Kaba; Hochberg, Amit; Nadir, Erez; Klein, Adi

    2017-01-01

    In this retrospective study 829 positive urine cultures were analyzed. Escherichia coli bacterium was the leading uropathogen (86%). Almost 60% were resistant to ampicillin and first generation cephalosporins, and about 30% of them resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Almost none of them were resistant to second and third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin or nitrofurantoin.

  8. Bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, P M; Kutscher, A E

    1987-06-01

    We report two cases of bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea. One was a 2.5-yr-old boy with otitis media and pneumonia, who responded to treatment with amoxicillin. The other was a 47-yr-old man with underlying ethanol abuse who developed severe polymicrobial sepsis due to apparent intraabdominal disease. This man died despite extensive antimicrobial therapy.

  9. New mutation points in 23S rRNA gene associated with Helicobacter Pylori resistance to clarithromycin in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Hao; Yan Li; Zhi-Jie Zhang; Yong Liu; Hong Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori (Hpylori) to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and tetracycline to guide clinical practice, and to study the mechanism of H pyloriresistant to clarithromycin.METHODS: Thirty H pyloristrains were isolated from the mucosa of peptic ulcer, gastric tumor and chronic gastritis patients, then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and tetracycline was evaluated by E-test method. The sequence analysis of PCR fragments was conducted in 23S rRNA gene of H pylori resistant to clarithromycin to get the resistance mechanism of the bacteria.RESULTS: Among 30 H pyloristrains, 7 cases were resistant to clarithromycin, 12 to metronidazole, 2 to tetracycline and no strain was found to be resistant to amoxicillin. The resistance rates were 23.3%, 40%, 6.7% and 0%,respectively. Three new mutation points were found to be related to the clarithromycin resistance in H pyloriisolates,which were G2224A, C2245T and T2289C.CONCLUSION: In northeast China, H pylorishows high resistance to metronidazole, while sensitive to amoxicillin.The mechanism of resistance to clarithromycin may be related to the mutation of G2224A, C2245T and T2289C in the 23S rRNA gene.

  10. Bacteriology in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted to hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette V; Janner, Julie H; Nielsen, Susanne D;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the bacterial flora and antimicrobial sensitivity in sputum from patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in order to recommend the best empirical treatment for these patients. The survey was a retrospective study of a...... for AECOPD we recommend either cefuroxime for intravenous treatment or amoxicillin-clavulanate for oral treatment....

  11. Urinary Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their relationship with community antibiotic use in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meumann, Ella M; Mitchell, Brett G; McGregor, Alistair; McBryde, Emma; Cooley, Louise

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed urinary Escherichia coli antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Tasmania, Australia, and examined their association with community antibiotic use. The susceptibility profiles of all urinary E. coli isolates collected in Tasmania between January 2010 and December 2012 were included. The amount of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS)-subsidised use of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), cefalexin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was retrieved (at the Tasmanian population level) and the number of defined daily doses per 1000 population per day in Tasmania for these antibiotics was calculated for each month during the study period. Antimicrobial susceptibility data were assessed for changes over time in the 3-year study period. Antimicrobial use and susceptibility data were assessed for seasonal differences and lag in resistance following antibiotic use. Excluding duplicates, 28145 E. coli isolates were included. Resistance levels were low; 35% of isolates were non-susceptible to amoxicillin, 14% were non-susceptible to trimethoprim and Tasmania's isolated geographical location. Significant seasonal variation in amoxicillin and AMC use is likely to be due to increased use of these antibiotics for treatment of respiratory tract infections in winter. Quinolone use is restricted by the PBS in Australia, which is the likely explanation for the low levels of quinolone use and resistance identified.

  12. Oligoarthritis caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Ladstatter, Stefan; Schotta, Anna M; Reiter, Michael; Pomberger, Gerhard; Stanek, Gerold

    2015-06-01

    A case of Lyme oligoarthritis occurred in an 11-year-old boy in Vienna, Austria. DNA of Borrelia bavariensis was detected by PCR in 2 aspirates obtained from different joints. Complete recovery was achieved after a 4-week course with amoxicillin. Lyme arthritis must be considered in patients from Europe who have persisting joint effusions.

  13. Potential of berberine to enhance antimicrobial activity of commonly used antibiotics for dairy cow mastitis caused by multiple drug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Yang, C; Li, Y; Liu, X; Wang, Y

    2015-08-19

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of berberine against multi-drug resistant field isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were investigated using berberine alone or in combination with a commonly used antibiotics in veterinary clinics, including penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin. The results indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of berberine, penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin against field S. epidermidis isolates were 2-512, 0.8-213, 0.4-1024, and 0.4-256 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial activity against these multi-drug resistant isolates were observed when the berberine was combined with penicillin, lincomycin, or amoxicillin; no antagonistic effect of the combination was detected in any of the clinical isolates. These observations were further confirmed using a time-killing assay, in which a combination of 2 agents yielded a greater than 2.03-2.44 log10 decrease in colony-forming unit/mL compared with each agent alone. These findings suggest that berberine is a promising compound for preventing and treating multi-drug resistant S. epidermidis infected mastitis in dairy cows either alone or in combination with other commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin.

  14. Development of Novel Antibiotics for the Treatment of Acinetobacter and Related Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-07

    ATCC 19115 8 Methicillin-resistant NRS382(USA100) 4 Streptococcus pneumonia NRS383 (USA200) 16 ATCC BAA-255 8 NRS384 (USA300) 4 NRS22 (USA600) 4...azithromycin, penicillin to amoxicillin, etc). To demonstrate this scaffold diversification approach, we have selected three readily available natural

  15. Recurrent peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by Microbacterium resistens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, Emmanuelle; Lamy, Thomas; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Lobbedez, Thierry; Cattoir, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a recurrent peritonitis due to Microbacterium resistens in a 71-year-old male patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Importantly, this Gram-positive rod was intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins and vancomycin, classically used in PD-related peritonitis treatment. His infection resolved after several weeks of appropriate therapy (amoxicillin plus gentamicin) and PD catheter removal.

  16. [THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A 10-DAY DRUG THERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC GASTRODUODENAL PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH CAGA-POSITIVE STRAINS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnyk, V M; Rudenko, G M

    2015-01-01

    The results of triple Helicobacter-therapy (omeprazole, amoxicillin, nifuratel) in the treatment of chronic gastroduodenal pathology in children depending on the duration of it's use. The effectiveness of drug therapy was evaluated in terms of eradication of Helicobacter pylori and dynamics of pain, dyspeptic syndrome and astenovegetative syndrome.

  17. Evaluation of the Mandibular Third Molar Pericoronitis Flora and Its Susceptibility to Different Antibiotics Prescribed in France

    OpenAIRE

    Sixou, Jean-Louis; Magaud, Christophe; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Cormier, Michel; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2003-01-01

    This work assessed the polymicrobial flora of mandibular third molar pericoronitis. Obligate anaerobes were found in almost all cases (32 of 35). Amoxicillin and pristinamycin were the most effective against the flora, particularly aerobic organisms. Metronidazole alone or combined with spiramycin was the most effective drug against obligate anaerobes.

  18. Perturbation of Neonatal Microbial Gut Community by Peripartum Antibiotics in Wistar Rats Lead to Decreased Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask

    , potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by peripartum antibiotics affects intestinal microbial composition and general health of the offspring. To address this, 33 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin...

  19. Helicobacter pylori and gastric or duodenal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, treatment of the infection improves healing and prevents complications and recurrences. The drug regimen generally consists of a high-dose proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) such as omeprazole plus antibiotics. Using the standard Prescrire methodology, we conducted a review of the literature in order to determine the standard empirical antibiotic regimen for H. pylori infection in adults with gastric or duodenal ulcer in France. In 2015, due to an increase in H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, a 7-day course of the PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin combination is effective in only about 70% of cases. A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of trials involving thousands of patients suggests that prolonging treatment with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin or a PPI + amoxicillin + metronidazole to 10 or 14 days improves the rate of H. pylori eradication by 5% to 10%. A metanalysis of seven trials including a total of about 1000 patients showed that combination therapy with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days eradicates H. pylori in about 90% of cases, compared to about 80% of cases with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin given for 7 days. Sequential treatment with amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days, has also been tested in thousands of patients. Efficacy and adverse effects were similar to those observed when the same antibiotics were taken simultaneously for 5 days. In randomised trials, replacing clarithromycin or amoxicillin with a fluoroquinolone yielded conflicting results. In 2009, nearly 20% of H. pylori isolates were resistant to levofloxacin in France. Tetracycline has only been evaluated in combination with bismuth. The few available data on doxycycline suggest that its efficacy is similar to that of tetracycline. A fixed-dose combination of bismuth subcitrate potassium + metronidazole

  20. Comparative efficacies of antibiotics in a rat model of meningoencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, C; Leib, S L; Bentue-Ferrer, D; Täuber, M G

    1999-07-01

    The antibacterial activities of amoxicillin-gentamicin, trovafloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and the combination of trovafloxacin with TMP-SMX were compared in a model of meningoencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes in infant rats. At 22 h after intracisternal infection, the cerebrospinal fluid was cultured to document meningitis, and the treatment was started. Treatment was instituted for 48 h, and efficacy was evaluated 24 h after administration of the last dose. All tested treatment regimens exhibited significant activities in brain, liver, and blood compared to infected rats receiving saline (P amoxicillin plus gentamicin was more active than all of the other regimens, and trovafloxacin was more active than TMP-SMX (bacterial titers of 4.1 +/- 0.5 log10 CFU/ml for amoxicillin-gentamicin, 5.0 +/- 0.4 log10 CFU/ml for trovafloxacin, and 5.8 +/- 0.5 log10 CFU/ml for TMP-SMX; P < 0.05). In liver, amoxicillin-gentamicin and trovafloxacin were similarly active (2.8 +/- 0.8 and 2.7 +/- 0.8 log10 CFU/ml, respectively) but more active than TMP-SMX (4.4 +/- 0. 6 log10 CFU/ml; P < 0.05). The combination of trovafloxacin with TMP-SMX did not alter the antibacterial effect in the brain, but it did reduce the effect of trovafloxacin in the liver. Amoxicillin-gentamicin was the most active therapy in this study, but the activity of trovafloxacin suggests that further studies with this drug for the treatment of Listeria infections may be warranted.

  1. Gambaran Bakteri Ulkus Diabetikum di Rumah Sakit Zainal Abidin dan Meuraxa Tahun 2015

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    Abidah Nur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ulcer is a complication of Diabetes Mellitus (DM that begins with a superficial infection of the patient’s skin. High blood glucose levels become a strategic development of bacteria. The study aimed to get a description of diabetic ulcer bacteria among diabetic patients at RSUD Zainal Abidin and Meuraxa in 2015. This study was a descriptive study with cross-sectional design. Subjects were DM patients with ulcers of 57 patients at the two hospitals in the period November to December 2015. Most respondents were females (31, elderly (53, suffering from diabetes more than one year (52, blood sugar levels were not controlled (35 and accompanied comorbidities (33. Consecutively, most of bacteria found were Staphylococcus sp. (92.9%, Klebsiella sp. (75.4%, Proteus sp. (73.7%, Shigella sp. (68.4%, E. coli sp. (42.1%, and Pseudomonas sp. (10.5%. Amoxicillin had the highest level of resistance to bacterial (32, except for Staphylococcus sp. The majority of respondents (42% which resistant to amoxicillin were females, adult ages, patients suffering from diabetes for over a year with poorly controlled blood sugar levels without complication illness. Amoxicillin antibiotic used for the treatment of ulcers should be reviewed because there were some bacteria that were resistant to these antibiotics. Key word : antibiotic, bacteria, diabetic ulcer AbstrakUlkus merupakan komplikasi dari Diabetes Mellitus (DM yang diawali dengan infeksi superficial pada kulit penderita. Kadar glukosa darah yang tinggi menjadi tempat strategis perkembangan bakteri. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran bakteri ulkus diabetikum di Rumah Sakit Umum Zainal Abidin dan Meuraxa tahun 2015. Penelitian ini bersifat deskriptif dengan desain potong lintang. Subjek penelitian adalah pasien DM dengan ulkus berjumlah 57 pasien yang berobat di RSUD Zainal Abidin dan Meuraxa Banda Aceh periode November-Desember 2015. Gambaran subjek penelitian dengan jenis kelamin perempuan

  2. In situ degradation of antibiotic residues in medical intravenous infusion bottles using high energy electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Lele; Zhang, Guilong; Pang, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2017-01-01

    This study reported an immediate approach for the degradation of three antibiotic (amoxicillin, ofloxacin, and cefradine) residues in medical intravenous infusion bottles (MIIBs) using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The effects of irradiation doses, initial concentrations, initial pH, and scavengers of active radicals on the degradation of three antibiotic residues (ARs) were investigated, and the results displayed that 97.02%, 97.61% and 96.87% of amoxicillin, ofloxacin, and cefradine residues could be degraded in situ through HEEB irradiation respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis demonstrated that ARs were mainly decomposed into inorganic ions and alkanes. Typically, the detailed degradation mechanism of ARs was also investigated, and the dominant active particle inducing the degradation of antibiotics during the HEEB irradiation process was demonstrated to be hydroxyl radical.

  3. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern Of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated From Poultry Manure Used To Fertilize Fish Ponds In New Bussa, Nigeria

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    Funso Omojowo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to isolate and identify antibiotic resistant bacteria from poultry manure usually used for pond fertilization. Poultry manure from 120 Chickens in National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (NIFFR integrated fish farms, New-Bussa, Nigeria was collected. Five bacterial pathogens; Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing carried out using the disk diffusion technique. Antibiotics used were; ofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. All the isolated organisms were 100% sensitive to ofloxacin. The multiple resistance pattern revealed that 100% were resistant to tetracycline, 84.34% resistant to ampicillin, 76.68% resistant to amoxicillin, 66% resistant to chloramphenicol, 66% resistant to gentamicin, 29% resistant to erythromycin, 28.34% resistant to nalidixic acid. The risk posed by untreated poultry manure used in fish pond fertilization and the public health implications of these results were discussed.

  4. Hepatotoxicity by Drugs: The Most Common Implicated Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsson, Einar S

    2016-02-06

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an underreported and underestimated adverse drug reaction. Information on the documented hepatotoxicity of drugs has recently been made available by a website that can be accessed in the public domain: LiverTox (http://livertox.nlm.nih.gov). According to critical analysis of the hepatotoxicity of drugs in LiverTox, 53% of drugs had at least one case report of convincing reports of liver injury. Only 48 drugs had more than 50 case reports of DILI. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most commonly implicated agent leading to DILI in the prospective series. In a recent prospective study, liver injury due to amoxicillin-clavulanate was found to occur in approximately one out of 2300 users. Drugs with the highest risk of DILI in this study were azathioprine and infliximab.

  5. Synthesis of polystyrene core/SiO2 shell composite particles and fabrication of SiO2 capsules out of them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhin, V.

    2017-01-01

    Systemic studies on the dependence of the morphology of polystyrene core/SiO2 shell composite particles on the conditions of their fabrication have been performed. Spherical polystyrene particles synthesized in the presence of a cationic initiator of polymerization were used as cores. SiO2 shells were formed by modified Stober’s method. Exposure of the synthesized composite particles to high temperatures has been shown to cause destruction of their polystyrene core, thereby allowing the formation of mesoporous SiO2 capsules with a mean pore diameter of ~3 nm and specific surface area of ~270 m2/g. Model experiments on loading the SiO2 capsules with amoxicillin have been carried out. Spectrophotometry in the UV and visible spectral regions has been used to estimate the kinetics of amoxicillin release from the SiO2 capsules.

  6. Hepatotoxicity by Drugs: The Most Common Implicated Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar S. Björnsson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI is an underreported and underestimated adverse drug reaction. Information on the documented hepatotoxicity of drugs has recently been made available by a website that can be accessed in the public domain: LiverTox (http://livertox.nlm.nih.gov. According to critical analysis of the hepatotoxicity of drugs in LiverTox, 53% of drugs had at least one case report of convincing reports of liver injury. Only 48 drugs had more than 50 case reports of DILI. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most commonly implicated agent leading to DILI in the prospective series. In a recent prospective study, liver injury due to amoxicillin-clavulanate was found to occur in approximately one out of 2300 users. Drugs with the highest risk of DILI in this study were azathioprine and infliximab.

  7. •OH and e-aq are yet good candidates for demolishing the β-lactam system of a penicillin eliminating the antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Rácz, Gergely; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2016-07-01

    Tracking the pharmacophore of a drug subjected to advanced oxidation is essential for evaluating the efficiency of the process in terms of wastewater treatment. From this standpoint, the •OH and eaq- induced deactivation mechanism of amoxicillin, a penicillin derivative was investigated in dilute aqueous solution using pulse- and gamma-radiolysis techniques. Based on IR measurements, •OH and eaq- destroys the β-lactam system of amoxicillin with ~55% and ~84% efficiency, respectively. In aerated solution the elimination of the pharmacophore was slightly impaired since the reaction pathway of the ring-opening was disturbed owing to the reactivity of O2 and O2• - toward the intermediates of sulfur oxidation. The high potency of eaq- for β-lactam deactivation is attributed to the enhanced electron deficiency of the carbonyl carbon inside the lactam ring.

  8. Antibacterial potency screening of Capparis zeylanica Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rezaul Haque; Wahedul Islam; Selina Parween

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To conduct the antibacterial potency and minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts (n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol) obtained from the root, leaf and stem of Capparis zeylanica. Methods: The powdered leaf, root and stem samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially in n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol. Antibacterial potency was evaluated by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a control. Results: In vitro antibacterial activity against 12 bacteria was performed with crude extracts. Among them, all the bacteria showed the moderate activity but chloroform and methanolic extracts showed promising antibacterial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae (leaf > root > stem). This activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method with a standard antibiotic, 30 µg/disc of amoxicillin. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial potency of chloroform and methanolic extracts provides new antibacterial compounds.

  9. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  10. Mycophenolate mofetil for drug-induced vanishing bile duct syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Amoxicillin/clavulanate is associated with liver injury,mostly of a cholestatic pattern. While outcomes are usually benign, progression to cirrhosis and death has been reported. The role of immunosuppressive therapy for patients with a protracted course is unclear. We report the case of an elderly patient who developed prolonged cholestasis secondary to amoxicillin/clavulanate. Vanishing bile duct syndrome was confirmed by sequential liver biopsies. The patient responded to prednisone treatment,but could not be weaned off corticosteroids, even when azathioprine was added. Complete withdrawal of both prednisone and azathioprine was possible by using mycophenolate mofetil, an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor. Sustained remission has been maintained for more than 3 years with low-dose mycophenolate mofetil.

  11. Impact of Age, Gender, and Addition of Probiotics on Treatment Success for Helicobacter pylori in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Weiner MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, gender, and the use of probiotics with standard treatment regimen on Helicobacter pylori eradication. Based on endoscopic findings and clinical presentation, selected patients were treated with standard triple therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin. Those who failed were offered a repeat treatment with omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. After the publications of the possible advantages of probiotic treatment on H pylori eradication, the probiotic agent “Probiotica Forte” was routinely added to the treatment. Eradication was noted for 94/130 patients (72% and for 128/197 patients (65% with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .23. For second-line treatment eradication was noted in 33/46 (72% and in 9/20 (45% with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .053. The addition of probiotics may improve eradication success especially in addition to second-line treatment.

  12. Novel Steroidal (6R)-Spiro-1,3,4-thiadiazoline Derivatives as Anti-bacterial Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khan Salman A.; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2012-01-01

    Novel steroidal (6R)-spiro-1,3,4-thiadiazoline derivatives have been synthesized by the cyclization of steroidal thiosemiearbazones. Thiosemicarbazones have been synthesized by the reaction of steroidal ketones with thiosemi- carbazide. All the compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H NMR, mass and elemental analyses. The antibacterial activities of these compounds have been first tested in vitro by the disk diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values have been determined with the reference of standard drug amoxicillin. The results showed that steroidal thiadiazoline de- rivatives exhibited better antibacterial activity than the steroidal thiosemicarbazone derivatives. Chloro and acetoxy substituents on the 3β-position of the steroidal thiadiazoline ring increased the anti-bacterial activity. Among all the compounds, compounds 7 and 8 were found better inhibitors as compared to the respective drug amoxicillin.

  13. Endogenous ethanol production in a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinucci, Giulio; Guidetti, Mariacristina; Lanzoni, Elisabetta; Pironi, Loris

    2006-07-01

    The case of the gastrointestinal production of ethanol from Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a Caucasian man with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is reported. The patient, who declared to have always abstained from alcohol, was hospitalized for abdominal pain, belching and mental confusion. The laboratory findings showed the presence of ethanol in the blood. Gastric juice and faecal microbiological cultures were positive for C. albicans and S. cerevisiae. At home, he was on oral antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid for a small bowel bacterial overgrowth, associated with a simple sugar-rich diet. Twenty-four hours after stopping both the antibiotic therapy and the simple sugar-rich diet, the blood ethanol disappeared. A provocative test, performed by giving amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid associated with the simple sugar-rich diet was followed by the reappearance of ethanol in the blood. A review of the literature is reported.

  14. Monitoring and Analysis on Multi Drug Resistance of Escherichia coli from Captive Population Amur Tiger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue; Yuan; Li; Fengyong; Sun; Jing; Cai; Longhui; Wu; Qingming; Zhou; Ming; Huang; Xianguang; Hua; Yuping

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the multi drug resistance to Escherichia coli from captive population Amur tiger,E. coli strains were isolated from the fecal samples of tiger in Heilongjiang Amur Tiger Park in Harbin. The sensitivity of E. coli isolates to 14 antibiotics was determined by scrip diffusion method. The results indicated that all the isolates varied in drug resistance to different antibiotics; the isolates gave high resistance to ampicillin,with a drug fast rate of 100%; over80% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and Paediatric Compound Sulfamethoxazole Tablets(SMZ- TMP),and over 70% of the isolates were sensitive to aztreonam,amoxicillin /potassium clavulanate. Most of the isolates had high sensitive to aztreonam and amoxicillin / clavulanate acid.

  15. Regional features of gastroduodenal disease, associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, in the North Ossetia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kornienko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of gastroduodenal disorders, virulent feathers of Helicobacter pylori (HP strains and efficacy of eradication therapy in children of the North Ossetia (Alania. 1265 children from 4 till 18 years old were examined, НР was found in 84%. 53% of HP(+ atients had erosions and ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. Strains, resistant to clarithromycin, were revealed in 13% of the patients. We have estimated efficacy of 4 regimes of eradication therapy. Regimes, that included clarithromycin and metronidazole, had the lowest efficacy the worst compliance. The best results were observed in triple therapy, including PPI, amoxicillin and bismuth, and quadrotherapy with PPI amoxicillin, bismuth and nifuratel. The duration of therapy should not be shorter than 10 days.

  16. Short-term triple therapy with azithromycin for Helicobacter pylori eradication: Low cost, high compliance, but low efficacy

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    Mattar Rejane

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian consensus recommends a short-term treatment course with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and proton-pump inhibitor for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. This treatment course has good efficacy, but cannot be afforded by a large part of the population. Azithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole are subsidized, for several aims, by the Brazilian federal government. Therefore, a short-term treatment course that uses these drugs is a low-cost one, but its efficacy regarding the bacterium eradication is yet to be demonstrated. The study's purpose was to verify the efficacy of H. pylori eradication in infected patients who presented peptic ulcer disease, using the association of azithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole. Methods Sixty patients with peptic ulcer diagnosed by upper digestive endoscopy and H. pylori infection documented by rapid urease test, histological analysis and urea breath test were treated for six days with a combination of azithromycin 500 mg and omeprazole 20 mg, in a single daily dose, associated with amoxicillin 500 mg 3 times a day. The eradication control was carried out 12 weeks after the treatment by means of the same diagnostic tests. The eradication rates were calculated with 95% confidence interval. Results The eradication rate was 38% per intention to treat and 41% per protocol. Few adverse effects were observed and treatment compliance was high. Conclusion Despite its low cost and high compliance, the low eradication rate does not allow the recommendation of the triple therapy with azithromycin as an adequate treatment for H. pylori infection.

  17. SÍNTESIS Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE REACTIVOS PARA EL DIAGNÓSTICO DE ALERGIA A AMOXICILINA

    OpenAIRE

    MARSAVELA, ANDA GABRIELA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The amoxicillin is one of the most beta-lactam antibiotics frequently involved in allergic reactions to pharmaceutical drugs. The current diagnostic techniques are based on in vivo tests, which are invasive and aggressive for the patients. Hence, the need arises to develop new diagnostic techniques more subtle that allow to quickly and easily detect the drug responsible for the allergic reaction. The intention of this project is to contribute to the development of a minimally intrusi...

  18. Serum sickness in children after antibiotic exposure: estimates of occurrence and morbidity in a health maintenance organization population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckbert, S R; Stryker, W S; Coltin, K L; Manson, J E; Platt, R

    1990-08-01

    The computerized outpatient records of the Harvard Community Health Plan, a 230,000-member health maintenance organization, were used to determine the frequency with which serum sickness is recognized in the practice setting after exposure to antibiotics. The medical records of 3,487 children who had been prescribed cefaclor or amoxicillin were searched in December 1986 for coded diagnoses of serum sickness and related conditions. Diagnoses were validated by blinded review of dictated and written office notes. There were 12 cases of serum sickness in 11,523 child-years. During this time, these children were prescribed 13,487 courses of amoxicillin, 5,597 courses of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ), 3,553 courses of cefaclor, and 2,325 courses of penicillin V. Serum sickness was considered to be antibiotic-related if it occurred within 20 days of initiation of antibiotic therapy. Five cases were temporally associated with cefaclor, one with both amoxicillin and TMP-SMZ, four with TMP-SMZ alone, and one with penicillin V alone. One case was not associated with any antibiotic exposure. All antibiotic-related cases occurred in children under age 6 years who were treated for otitis media or streptococcal pharyngitis, and most cases began 7-11 days after initiation of antibiotic. All but one of the antibiotic-related cases occurred in children who had relatively heavy lifetime antibiotic exposure. The risk of serum sickness was significantly elevated after cefaclor compared with amoxicillin, even among the most heavily exposed children (relative risk = 14.8, p = 0.01, 95% confidence interval 2.0-352.0). Most cases prompted several physician visits, but none required hospitalization.

  19. Structural Variabilities in β-Lactamase (blaA of Different Biovars of Yersinia enterocolitica: Implications for β-Lactam Antibiotic and β-Lactamase Inhibitor Susceptibilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelja Singhal

    Full Text Available Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been reported from all continents. The bacterial species is divided into more than fifty serovars and six biovars viz. 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which differ in geographical distribution, ecological niches and pathogenicity. Most Y.enterocolitica strains harbor chromosomal genes for two β-lactamases, blaA an Ambler class A penicillinase and blaB an Ambler class C inducible cephalosporinase. In the present study, susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitor was studied for Y. enterocolitica strains of biovars 1A, 1B, 2 and 4. We observed that β-lactamases were expressed differentially among strains of different biovars. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential expression, the sequences of genes and promoters of blaA were compared. Also, the variants of blaA present in different biovars were modeled and docked with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The mRNA secondary structures of blaA variants were also predicted in-silico. Our findings indicated that neither variations in the promoter regions, nor the secondary structures of mRNA contributed to higher/lower expression of blaA in different biovars. Analysis of H-bonding residues of blaA variants with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid revealed that if amino acid residues of a β-lactamase interacting with amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid were similar, clavulanic acid was effective in engaging the enzyme, accounting for a significant reduction in MIC of amoxicillin-clavulanate. This finding might aid in designing better β-lactamase inhibitors with improved efficiencies in future.

  20. Structural Variabilities in β-Lactamase (blaA) of Different Biovars of Yersinia enterocolitica: Implications for β-Lactam Antibiotic and β-Lactamase Inhibitor Susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Neelja; Srivastava, Abhishikha; Kumar, Manish; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been reported from all continents. The bacterial species is divided into more than fifty serovars and six biovars viz. 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which differ in geographical distribution, ecological niches and pathogenicity. Most Y.enterocolitica strains harbor chromosomal genes for two β-lactamases, blaA an Ambler class A penicillinase and blaB an Ambler class C inducible cephalosporinase. In the present study, susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitor was studied for Y. enterocolitica strains of biovars 1A, 1B, 2 and 4. We observed that β-lactamases were expressed differentially among strains of different biovars. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential expression, the sequences of genes and promoters of blaA were compared. Also, the variants of blaA present in different biovars were modeled and docked with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The mRNA secondary structures of blaA variants were also predicted in-silico. Our findings indicated that neither variations in the promoter regions, nor the secondary structures of mRNA contributed to higher/lower expression of blaA in different biovars. Analysis of H-bonding residues of blaA variants with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid revealed that if amino acid residues of a β-lactamase interacting with amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid were similar, clavulanic acid was effective in engaging the enzyme, accounting for a significant reduction in MIC of amoxicillin-clavulanate. This finding might aid in designing better β-lactamase inhibitors with improved efficiencies in future.

  1. Prescribing pattern of antibiotics in pedodontics OPD of tertiary care dental hospital in Dhule district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Balkrishna Kaikade

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Most reports on antibiotic use in dentistry show amoxicillin or other penicillin-based drugs to be the most commonly used. This trend is based on the established efficacy of penicillin based drugs on bacteria involved in odontogenic infections. Increasingly resistant strains are being reported in odontogenic infections, hence the need for constant antibiotic pharmacovigilance. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1462-1465

  2. Penicillin degradation catalysed by Zn(II) ions in methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar Gutiérrez; Blázquez, Iluminada Hernández; Osso, Bartolomé Quintero; Martínez de las Parras, Pedro J; Puentedura, María I Martínez; García, Ana A Márquez

    2003-12-01

    The rates of degradation, catalysed by Zn(2+), of four classical penicillins-amoxicillin, ampicillin and penicillins G and V-were followed at 20 degrees C in methanol by spectrophotometric assays. Kinetic schemes of the reactions of degradation catalysed by Zn(2+) ions were analogous to those given previously for the reaction catalysed by Cd(2+) ions. The methanolysis of penicillin V occurs with the formation of a single intermediate substrate-metal complex (SM), whereas the degradations of amoxicillin, ampicillin and penicillin G occur with the initial formation of two complexes with different stoichiometry, SM and S(2)M, both in equilibrium. In all cases, the degradation reaction is of the first order with respect to SM, with velocity constants at 20 degrees C of 0.0093, 0.0288, 0.0304 and 0.0349 min(-1), for amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin V and penicillin G, respectively. The compound S(2)M degraded at a much lower rate than SM and constitutes a zero-order process. The catalytic effect of the ion Zn(2+) in the degradation of the penicillins was much weaker than that of the ion Cd(2+), owing to the lesser ionic radius of the former and the fact that in the case of the reaction catalysed by Zn(2+), the compound S(2)M occurred in a much greater amount than the SM. At the end of the degradation reaction, the corresponding penamaldic derivative of the antibiotic was produced, established by the coordination of the Zn(2+) ion, forming a single complex 2:1 (derivative penamaldic-metal) in the case of amoxicillin and ampicillin; and two complexes, 1:1 and 2:1, for the other antibiotics. Finally, the molar absorption coefficients of the products of reaction at the wavelength of maximum absorption at 20 degrees C were calculated.

  3. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized gold nanoparticles — Design, characterization and antimicrobial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manju, V. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Dhandapani, P. [Corrosion Materials and Protection Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, 630006 (India); Gurusamy Neelavannan, M. [Characterization and Measurement lab, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Maruthamuthu, S. [Corrosion Materials and Protection Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, 630006 (India); Berchmans, S. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Palaniappan, A., E-mail: palani112@gmail.com [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India)

    2015-04-01

    A facile one-step approach is developed to synthesize highly stable (up to 6 months) gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Clavam, pharmaceutical form of amoxicillin which contains a mixture of amoxicillin and potassium salt of clavulanic acid, at room temperature (25–30 °C). The clavam stabilized GNPs are characterized using various techniques including UV–Visible, FT-IR spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using intracellular concentrations of glutathione (GSH). The process is monitored using an UV–Vis spectroscopy and the amount of clavam released in terms of amoxicillin concentration is quantitatively estimated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) technique. In vitro study reveals that the clavam released from GNPs' surface was found to show a significant enhancement in antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the cause of enhancement is addressed. - Graphical abstract: Stable and nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared at room temperature (~ 25–30 °C) using clavam; commercial form of amoxicillin antibiotic. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated by the addition of varying concentrations of glutathione. Interactions between clavam and gold core are investigated in detail. The mechanism of enhanced antimicrobial activity of clavam released from clavam stabilized GNPs is probed. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared without reducing agent using antibiotic clavam{sup TR}. • Our work shed lights on the nature of interaction between the clavam and GNPs. • Sustained release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using glutathione. • Antimicrobial activity of the released clavam is confirmed using various techniques. • Our study suggests that the clavam released from GNPs shows better inhibition of E. coli.

  4. Chorioamnionitis due to Lactococcus lactis cremoris: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis cremoris is rarely involved in human pathology. A thirty two-year old pregnant woman with premature rupture of membrane history presented with chorioamnionitis due to L. lactis cremoris. She underwent an emergency caesarian section and was treated with antibiotics including the association of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. She was completely recovered. This is the first case to our knowledge of chorioamnionitis due to this organism.

  5. Chorioamnionitis due to Lactococcus lactis cremoris: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    F. Azouzi; C. Chahed; Marzouk, M.; A. Ferjani; N. Hannechi; M. Fekih; Y. Ben Salem; J. Boukadida

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis cremoris is rarely involved in human pathology. A thirty two-year old pregnant woman with premature rupture of membrane history presented with chorioamnionitis due to L. lactis cremoris. She underwent an emergency caesarian section and was treated with antibiotics including the association of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. She was completely recovered. This is the first case to our knowledge of chorioamnionitis due to this organism.

  6. Systematic review of evidence-based guidelines on medication therapy for upper respiratory tract infection in children with AGREE instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linan Zeng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To summarize recommendations of existing guidelines on the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs in children, and to assess the methodological quality of these guidelines. METHODS: We searched seven databases and web sites of relevant academic agencies. Evidence-based guidelines on pediatric URTIs were included. AGREE II was used to assess the quality of these guidelines. Two researchers selected guidelines independently and extracted information on publication years, institutions, target populations, recommendations, quality of evidence, and strength of recommendations. We compared the similarities and differences of recommendations and their strength. We also analyzed the reasons for variation. RESULTS: Thirteen guidelines meeting our inclusion criteria were included. Huge differences existed among these 13 guidelines concerning the categorization of evidence and recommendations. Nearly all of these guidelines lacked the sufficient involvement of stake holders. Further, the applicability of these guidelines still needs to be improved. In terms of recommendations, penicillin and amoxicillin were suggested for group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were recommended for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS. An observation of 2-3 days prior to antibiotic therapy initiation for mild acute otitis media (AOM was recommended with amoxicillin as the suggested first choice agent. Direct evidence to support strong recommendations on the therapy for influenza is still lacking. In addition, the antimicrobial durations for pharyngitis and ABRS were still controversial. No consensus was reached for the onset of antibiotics for ABRS in children. CONCLUSIONS: Future guidelines should use a consistent grading system for the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. More effort needs to be paid to seek the preference of stake holders and to improve the applicability of guidelines

  7. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads isolated from the dental prostheses biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanrrangers Sales Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspiration of oral bacteria leads to cardiac and respiratory infectious diseases and dentures can act as a reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms. Objective: To determine the occurrence and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads from the denture biofilm of 52 subjects at the Center for Dental Specialties of Sobral/ Ceara, Brazil. Material and Methods: Denture biofilm was collected and samples plated on MacConkey agar. The isolated bacterial colonies were identified using the BBL Crystal enteric/non-fermenter system. Antibiotic bacterial susceptibility was assessed by the disc diffusion method of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, doxycycline, tetracycline, tobramycin, imipenem, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of cefotaxime, tobramycin, doxycycline, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin was determined for 40 species by E-test. Results: 34 subjects (65.4% harbored enteric rods in their prostheses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.5%, Escherichia coli (23.5%, and Enterobacter aerogenes (23.5% were the most prevalent species. All organisms were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and most species were resistant to amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, demonstrating variable sensitivity patterns to other antimicrobials. However, the MIC showed the emergence of strains with reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (MIC90≥3 μg/ mL and cefotaxime (MIC90≥2 μg/mL. Conclusion: The findings show high prevalence of nosocomial diseases-related bacterial species and low susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, these results imply caution against the indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics in dental practice.

  8. Susceptibility to penicillin derivatives among third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered on hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischnik, Alexander; Baumert, Philipp; Hamprecht, Axel; Rohde, Anna; Peter, Silke; Feihl, Susanne; Knobloch, Johannes; Gölz, Hanna; Kola, Axel; Obermann, Birgit; Querbach, Christiane; Willmann, Matthias; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Tacconelli, Evelina; Gastmeier, Petra; Seifert, Harald; Kern, Winfried V

    2017-01-01

    As part of the multicenter Antibiotic Therapy Optimisation Study-the largest study on the prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae carriage upon hospital admission-minimum inhibitory concentration values were generated for ampicillin/sulbactam, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, mecillinam, mecillinam/clavulanic acid, and temocillin against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Enterobacter species.

  9. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF IMIDAZOLE DERIVED CHALCONES AND IT’S PYRIMIDINES

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Microbial contribution increasing rapidly due to invasion by the pathogenic organisms like bacteria, fungi and virus in the present disease burden of human health. To treat these diseases many potent and broad spectrum antibiotics were discovered e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, ofloxacin and tetracycline etc., Even though antibiotics are life saving drugs in therapeutics but they are potentially harmful. These harmful effects include allergic and anaphylactic reaction, developme...

  10. Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode Use in Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Escherichia coli and pathogen surrogates phage T4 and T7 more effectively than a low or medium pressure mercury lamp at equivalent fluence levels. Wang...widely researched for a number of different contaminants. Jung et al. (2012:160) degraded the β-lactam antibiotic amoxicillin with UV and hydrogen...pathogen surrogates phage T4 and T7 more effectively than a low or medium pressure mercury lamp at equivalent fluence levels. Wang et al. (2005:2921

  11. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from patients in Córdoba (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causse, M; Franco-Alvarez de Luna, F; García-Mayorgas, A D; Rodríguez, F C; Casal, M

    2006-06-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a pathogenic microorganism. The aim of this investigation was to study the antibiotic susceptibility of the strains isolated in Cordoba in a 20-month period (January 2004 to August 2005). Susceptibility rates to betalactamics were 98% to ampicillin and 99% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; high-dose aminoglycosides (streptomycin 1000 microg and gentamycin 500 microg) obtained 56% and 76%, respectively. We found no strains resistant to glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) or to linezolid.

  12. Odontogenic bacteria in periodontal disease and resistance patterns to common antibiotics used as treatment and prophylaxis in odontology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, J R; Bascones, A; Sánchez, P; Matesanz, P; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, M J; Pérez-Balcabao, I; Granizo, J J; Prieto, J

    2007-03-01

    Resistance in streptococci or Gram-negative bacteria is associated with antibiotic consumption. Scarce information exists on the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates from patients with periodontitis in countries with high antibiotic consumption, as this is an area in which microbiological testing is not performed in daily practice. The present study was undertaken to explore the susceptibility of bacterial isolates in periodontitis to antibiotics prescribed in odontology in Spain as treatment for local infections or prophylaxis for distant focal infections. Periodontal samples were prospectively collected in 48 patients classified by pocket depth of or=4 mm. Species were identified by culture, selecting the five most frequent morphotypes per sample, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Susceptibility was determined by E-test. A total of 261 isolates were identified: 72.9% patients had Streptococcus oralis; 70.8% Streptococcus mitis; 60.4% Prevotella buccae; 39.6% Prevotella denticola; 37.5% Fusobacterium nucleatum; 35.4% Prevotella intermedia; 25% Capnocytophaga spp.; 23% Veillonella spp.; 22.9% Prevotella melaninogenica and Streptococcus sanguis; and resistance rates were 0% for amoxicillin, approximately 10% for clindamycin, 9-22% for tetracycline, and for azithromycin ranged from 18.2% for S. sanguis to 47.7% for S. mitis. Prevotella isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, with amoxicillin resistance ranging from 17.1% in P. buccae to 26.3% in P. denticola. Metronidazole resistance was resistance ranged from 0 to 21.1%. beta-Lactamase production was positive in 54.1% Prevotella spp., 38.9% F. nucleatum, 30% Capnocytophaga spp., and 10% Veillonella spp. In this study, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was the most active antibiotic against all species tested, followed by metronidazole in the case of anaerobes.

  13. Efektifitas Minyak Atsiri Lengkuas Putih (Alpinia galangal) terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus Aureus 302 yang Resisten Multiantibiotik

    OpenAIRE

    Rozie Puji Lestari; Regina TC. Tandelilin; Juni Handajani

    2015-01-01

    The rhizome of white galangal (Alpinia galanga) is one of the cultivated remedies traditionally administered for skin disease, asthma and anabolism troubles such as colic, food poisoning, and convulsions. A part of the chemical composition of white galangal rhizome is essential oil. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of the esential oil of white galangal rhizome against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus 302 resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin G, kan...

  14. Variable Absorption of Clavulanic Acid After an Oral Dose of 25 mg/kg of Clavubactin® and Synulox® in Healthy Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom B. Vree

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this investigation were to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters and to identify parameters, based on individual plasma concentration-time curves of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in cats, that may govern the observed differences in absorption of both drugs. The evaluation was based on the data from plasma concentration-time curves obtained following a single-dose, open, randomised, two-way crossover phase-I study, each involving 24 female cats treated with two Amoxi-Clav formulations (formulation A was Clavubactin® and formulation was B Synulox® ; 80/20 mg, 24 animals, 48 drug administrations. Plasma amoxicillin and clavulanic acid concentrations were determined using validated bioassay methods. The half-life of elimination of amoxicillin is 1.2 h (t1/2 = 1.24 ± 0.28 h, Cmax = 12.8 ± 2.12 μg/ml, and that of clavulanic acid 0.6 h (t1/2 = 0.63 ± 0.16 h, Cmax = 4.60 ± 1.68 μg/ml. There is a ninefold variation in the AUCt of clavulanic acid for both formulations, while the AUCt of amoxicillin varies by a factor of two. The highest clavulanic acid AUCt values indicate the best absorption; all other data indicate less absorption. Taking into account that the amoxicillin–to–clavulanic acid dose ratio in the two products tested was 4:1, the blood concentration ratios may actually vary much more, apparently without compromising the products’ high efficacy against susceptible microorganisms.

  15. Effect of clavulanic acid on the activities of ten beta-lactam agents against members of the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, F; Auger, F; Lacroix, J M

    1984-01-01

    Clavulanic acid reduced the MICs of amoxicillin, carbencillin , cefamandole, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cephalothin, and penicillin G, but not of cefoxitin or moxalactam, against 77 isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group, all rapidly beta-lactamase positive by the nitrocefin slide test. It had no effect on the susceptibilities of eight Bacteroides distasonis strains that were slowly beta-lactamase positive (18 h of incubation). PMID:6732233

  16. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility. PMID:3619428

  17. Effect of clavulanic acid on susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam antibiotics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreau, C L; Lariviere, L A; Lauzer, J C; Turgeon, F F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of clavulanic acid on the susceptibility of 32 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to eight beta-lactam agents was studied. Almost all strains tested became susceptible to amoxicillin and ticarcillin with 1 microgram of clavulanic acid per ml. This compound had little or no effect on susceptibility to penicillin G, cephalothin, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Clavulanic acid had a marginal effect on cefotaxime and moxalactam susceptibility.

  18. Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Neisseria elongata subsp. elongata in a patient with Klinefelter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Morgan; Yazdani, Farah; Malnick, Henry; Shah, Jayesh J; Turner, David P J

    2007-06-01

    A case is reported of prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Neisseria elongata subsp. elongata in a patient with Klinefelter's syndrome. This is believed to be only the third case of endocarditis reported due to this subspecies. N. elongata is difficult to identify, and is morphologically and biochemically similar to Kingella spp. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is useful for identification. The patient was successfully treated with amoxicillin and gentamicin, followed by ceftriaxone.

  19. Probiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John Frederick; Bonci, Enea; Romaggioli, Sara; Baldini, Rossella; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication ...

  20. Standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) eradication in a randomized, double-blinded, comparative clinical trial in China. METHODS: A total of 215 H. pylori -positive patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated into three groups: group A (n = 72) received a 10-d bismuth pectin quadruple therapy (20 mg rabeprazole bid , 1000 mg amoxicillin bid , 100 mg bismuth pectin qid , and 500 mg levofloxaci...

  1. 1O-Minute Consultation Otorrhoea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miran Pankhania; Owen Judd; Andy Ward

    2011-01-01

    A 49 year old woman presents to her general practitioner with discharge from her left ear and otalgia.She had used olive oil drops for ear wax and completed a course of amoxicillin for presumed otitis media.Her symptoms have persisted despite treatment.What you should cover Ask about:Otorrhoea;Otalgia;Tinnitus;Vertigo;Hearing loss.Most ear disorders will present with one or more of these five symptoms.

  2. Влияние ронколейкина на морфологию слизистой оболочки желудка у больных язвенной болезнью, ассоциированной с H. pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Смирнова, Т.; Пономарева, Е.; Ханферян, Р.; Боровиков, О.; Авакимян, В.; Авакимян, А.

    2007-01-01

    The microscopic picture of a stomach ulcer is characterized by an atrophy of a mucous membrane in edges of a ulcer, growth of a connecting fabric and metaplasia of epitelium. 108 patients suffering from HP-associated gastric ulcer disease were randomly divided into two groups. The I group of patients was cured with standard three or four component methods of therapy included of two antibiotics (usually Klaritromycin and Amoxicillin), proton pomp inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists. Patient...

  3. The management of skin and skin structure infections in children, adolescents and adults: a review of empiric antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S E

    1998-09-01

    This article reviews the diagnosis and management of mild-to-moderate skin and skin structure infections in children, adolescents and adults in a general practice setting. Therapies reviewed are those in current use: penicillins; beta-lactamase stable penicillins, including flucloxacillin, oxacillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate; oral quinolones; macrolides; and oral cephalosporins. Consideration is given to duration of therapy, side-effect profile and compliance.

  4. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Assessment of Faropenem in a Lethal Murine Bacillus anthracis Inhalation Postexposure Prophylaxis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Craig, W. A., and D. R. Andes. 2001. In vivo pharmacodynamic activity of faropenem against Streptococcus pneumoniae , abstr. A-2094. Abstr. 41st In...approved by the United States Food and Drug Ad- ministration (FDA) for treatment after exposure to this bac- terial agent. Of these, only penicillin is...tested for their susceptibilities to faropenem, amoxicillin-clavulanate, penicillin , mero- penem, azithromycin, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and

  5. Assessment of antibiotic prescribing in Latvian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumpis Uga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though general antibiotic consumption data is available, information on the actual patterns of prescribing antibiotics locally is difficult to obtain. An easy to use methodology was designed to assess ambulatory management of infections by Latvian general practitioners (GPs. Methods GPs were asked to record data in a patient data collection form for every patient that received antibiotics. Study period – (7 days one week in November, 2008. Data recorded included the following details: an antibiotic, the prescribed dose, dosing interval, route of administration combined with the demographic factors of the patient and clinical diagnosis based on a pre-defined list. Results Two hundred forty eight forms out of the 600 (41% were returned by post. Antibiotics were prescribed in 6.4% (1711/26803 of outpatient consultations. In total, 1763 antibiotics were prescribed during the study period. Ninety seven percent of the patients received monotherapy and only 47 (2.7% patients were prescribed two antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (33.9% of prescribed, amoxicillin/clavulanate (18,7% and clarithromycin (7.6%. The most commonly treated indications were pharyngitis (29.8%, acute bronchitis (25.3% and rhinosinusitis (10.2%. Pneumonia was mostly treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate (25,7%, amoxicillin (15.7% and clarithromycin (19.3%. Conclusions Methodology employed provided useful additional information on ambulatory practice of prescribing antibiotics and could be used in further assessment studies. Educational interventions should be focused on treatment of acute pharyngitis and bronchitis in children and unnecessary use of quinolones in adults for uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

  6. A novel combination approach of human polyclonal IVIG and antibiotics against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallam MM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Madkour Sallam, Khaled Abou-Aisha, Mohamed El-Azizi Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, German University in Cairo, New Cairo City, Cairo, Egypt Background: Gram-positive bacteria, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and enterococci, have shown a remarkable ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Objective: We aimed to assess possible enhancement of the antimicrobial activity of vancomycin, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin by human polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG against 34 multidrug-resistant (MDR bacterial isolates, including MRSA, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods: Double combinations of the antibiotics with the IVIG were assessed by checkerboard assay, where the interaction was evaluated with respect to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the antibiotics. The results of the checkerboard assay were verified in vitro using time-kill assay and in vivo using an invasive sepsis murine model. Results: The checkerboard assay showed that IVIG enhanced the antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin and clarithromycin against isolates from the three groups of bacteria, which were resistant to the same antibiotics when tested in the absence of IVIG. The efficacy of vancomycin against 15% of the tested isolates was enhanced when it was combined with the antibodies. Antagonism was demonstrated in 47% of the E. faecalis isolates when clarithromycin was combined with the IVIG. Synergism was proved in the time-kill assay when amoxicillin was combined with the antibodies; meanwhile, antagonism was not demonstrated in all tested combinations, even in combinations that showed such response in checkerboard assay. Conclusion: The suggested approach is promising and could be helpful to enhance the antimicrobial activity of not only effective antibiotics but also antibiotics that have

  7. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads isolated from the dental prostheses biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sanrrangers Sales; Ribeiro, Maximilo de Oliveira; Gomes, Francisco Isaac Fernandes; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos; Silva, Antonio Alfredo Rodrigues e; Zanin, Iriana Carla Junqueira; Barbosa, Francisco Cesar Barroso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aspiration of oral bacteria leads to cardiac and respiratory infectious diseases and dentures can act as a reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms. Objective: To determine the occurrence and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads from the denture biofilm of 52 subjects at the Center for Dental Specialties of Sobral/ Ceara, Brazil. Material and Methods: Denture biofilm was collected and samples plated on MacConkey agar. The isolated bacterial colonies were identified using the BBL Crystal enteric/non-fermenter system. Antibiotic bacterial susceptibility was assessed by the disc diffusion method of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, doxycycline, tetracycline, tobramycin, imipenem, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of cefotaxime, tobramycin, doxycycline, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin was determined for 40 species by E-test. Results: 34 subjects (65.4%) harbored enteric rods in their prostheses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.5%), Escherichia coli (23.5%), and Enterobacter aerogenes (23.5%) were the most prevalent species. All organisms were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and most species were resistant to amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, demonstrating variable sensitivity patterns to other antimicrobials. However, the MIC showed the emergence of strains with reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (MIC90≥3 μg/ mL) and cefotaxime (MIC90≥2 μg/mL). Conclusion: The findings show high prevalence of nosocomial diseases-related bacterial species and low susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, these results imply caution against the indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics in dental practice. PMID:27812616

  8. Using an eye tracker during medication administration to identify gaps in nursing students' contextual knowledge: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amster, Brian; Marquard, Jenna; Henneman, Elizabeth; Fisher, Donald

    2015-01-01

    In this clinical simulation study using an eye-tracking device, 40% of senior nursing students administered a contraindicated medication to a patient. Our findings suggest that the participants who did not identify the error did not know that amoxicillin is a type of penicillin. Eye-tracking devices may be valuable for determining whether nursing students are making rule- or knowledge-based errors, a distinction not easily captured via observations and interviews.

  9. Antibiograms from community-acquired uropathogens in Gulu, northern Uganda - a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Odongo, Charles O; Anywar, Denis A; Luryamamoi, Kenneth; Odongo, Pancras

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in clinical practice and empirical treatment is largely employed due to predictability of pathogens. However, variations in antibiotic sensitivity patterns do occur, and documentation is needed to inform local empirical therapy. The current edition of the Uganda Clinical Guidelines recommends amoxicillin or cotrimoxazole as choice drugs for empirical treatment of community-acquired UTI. From our clinical observations, we suspected that this...

  10. Comparative Efficacies of Antibiotics in a Rat Model of Meningoencephalitis Due to Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Michelet, Christian; Leib, Stephen L.; Bentue-Ferrer, Daniele; Täuber, Martin G.

    1999-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of amoxicillin-gentamicin, trovafloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and the combination of trovafloxacin with TMP-SMX were compared in a model of meningoencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes in infant rats. At 22 h after intracisternal infection, the cerebrospinal fluid was cultured to document meningitis, and the treatment was started. Treatment was instituted for 48 h, and efficacy was evaluated 24 h after administration of the last dose. All ...

  11. Acute otitis media in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherpillod J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jacques CherpillodEar, Nose and Throat Department, Childrens’ University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandDate of preparation: 6th March 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: What is the best treatment for acute otitis media in children?Results: Watchful waiting, followed by amoxicillin treatment, if necessary, is the best first-line treatment for acute otitis media in children aged six months or older.Keywords: acute otitis media, antibiotics, watchful waitin

  12. Accelerated growth rate induced by neonatal high-protein milk formula is not supported by increased tissue protein synthesis in low-birth-weight piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Agnès Jamin; Bernard Sève; Jean-Noël Thibault; Nathalie Floc’h

    2012-01-01

    Low-birth-weight neonates are routinely fed a high-protein formula to promote catch-up growth and antibiotics are usually associated to prevent infection. Yet the effects of such practices on tissue protein metabolism are unknown. Baby pigs were fed from age 2 to 7 or 28 d with high protein formula with or without amoxicillin supplementation, in parallel with normal protein formula, to determine tissue protein metabolism modifications. Feeding high protein formula increased growth rate betwee...

  13. Structural Variabilities in β-Lactamase (blaA) of Different Biovars of Yersinia enterocolitica: Implications for β-Lactam Antibiotic and β-Lactamase Inhibitor Susceptibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Neelja; Srivastava, Abhishikha; Kumar, Manish; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been reported from all continents. The bacterial species is divided into more than fifty serovars and six biovars viz. 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which differ in geographical distribution, ecological niches and pathogenicity. Most Y.enterocolitica strains harbor chromosomal genes for two β-lactamases, blaA an Ambler class A penicillinase and blaB an Ambler class C inducible cephalosporinase. In the present study, susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitor was studied for Y. enterocolitica strains of biovars 1A, 1B, 2 and 4. We observed that β-lactamases were expressed differentially among strains of different biovars. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential expression, the sequences of genes and promoters of blaA were compared. Also, the variants of blaA present in different biovars were modeled and docked with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The mRNA secondary structures of blaA variants were also predicted in-silico. Our findings indicated that neither variations in the promoter regions, nor the secondary structures of mRNA contributed to higher/lower expression of blaA in different biovars. Analysis of H-bonding residues of blaA variants with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid revealed that if amino acid residues of a β-lactamase interacting with amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid were similar, clavulanic acid was effective in engaging the enzyme, accounting for a significant reduction in MIC of amoxicillin-clavulanate. This finding might aid in designing better β-lactamase inhibitors with improved efficiencies in future. PMID:25919756

  14. Experimental study of the impact of antimicrobial treatments on Campylobacter, Enterococcus and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles of the gut microbiota of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Jouy, Eric; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Dheilly, Alexandra; Kérouanton, Annaëlle; Zeitouni, Salman; Kempf, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the impact of antimicrobial treatments on the susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, and on the diversity of broiler microbiota. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were first orally inoculated with strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus faecium. Birds were then orally treated with recommended doses of oxytetracycline, sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim, amoxicillin or enrofloxacin. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after antimicrobial treatment. The susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated on supplemented or non-supplemented media was studied and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) profiles of the gut microbiota were analysed. Enrofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter were selected in the enrofloxacin-treated group and showed the Thr86Ile mutation in the gyrA gene. Acquisition of the tetO gene in Campylobacter coli isolates was significantly more frequent in birds given oxytetracycline. No impact of amoxicillin treatment on the susceptibility of Campylobacter could be detected. Ampicillin- and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim-resistant Enterococcus faecium were selected in amoxicillin-treated broilers, but no selection of the inoculated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium could be detected, although it was also resistant to tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim. PCR-CE-SSCP revealed significant variations in a few peaks in treated birds as compared with non-treated chickens. In conclusion, antimicrobial treatments perturbed chicken gut microbiota, and certain antimicrobial treatments selected or co-selected resistant strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus.

  15. Generation of NiO nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in deionised water and their antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, Khawla S.; Sulaiman, Ghassan M.; Hamad, Abubaker H.; Abdulameer, Farah A.; Hadi, Assel

    2017-03-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles were synthesised by nanosecond laser ablation in deionised water. Spherical NiO nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 2 to 21 nm were produced. The optical absorption spectra of the nanoparticles were measured using UV-VIS spectroscopy, and their size distribution was characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystalline material structures were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to obtain infrared spectra of the samples. The results show that crystalline NiO nanoparticles were produced. The antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then examined. It was found that the NiO nanoparticles have a synergistic effect on inhibiting E. coli and S. aureus growth; this effect was also tested using the well-diffusion method. In this method, NiO nanoparticles at a concentration of 1000 µg ml-1 along with amoxicillin yielded an inhibition zone against E. coli of 14.3 ± 1.15 mm; this zone was 12.6 ± 0.57 mm against S. aureus. Therefore, from the present findings, it can be concluded that the efficiency of inhibiting bacterial growth could be improved by the addition of metal-oxide nanoparticles to amoxicillin in comparison with either pure amoxicillin or pure metal-oxide nanoparticles.

  16. Enhancement of wettability and antibiotic loading/release of hydroxyapatite thin film modified by 100 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elayaraja, K. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Rajesh, P. [Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India); Ahymah Joshy, M.I.; Sarath Chandra, V.; Suganthi, R.V. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Kennedy, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Kulriya, P.K.; Sulania, I.; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Avasthi, D.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Varma, H.K. [Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India); Narayana Kalkura, S., E-mail: kalkurasn@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction in particle size on irradiation leading to nanosized HAp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of surface roughness and bioactivity on irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation at lower fluence transforms the surface hydrophobic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface turned hydrophilic at higher fluence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved drug (amoxicillin) loading on irradiated samples. - Abstract: The effect of swift heavy 100 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ions irradiation was studied on hydroxyapatite (HAp) thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD). The GIXRD analysis confirmed the absence of any phase in the HAp phase due to irradiation. In addition, there was a considerable decrease in crystallinity and crystallite size on irradiation. There was no significant variation in the stoichiometry of the irradiated films. Irradiation seemed to decrease the optical band gap energy of HAp thin films. The surface roughness, wettability and bioactivity were improved on irradiation of the samples. Amount of amoxicillin loading/release increased (10%) in ion beam irradiated (1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup -2}) sample. Irradiated sample showed fast rate of amoxicillin (AMX) release than the pristine. Bactericidal effect was found to increase on irradiation. Surface modified and antibiotics incorporated HAp coated titanium implants may be used to prevent post-surgical infections and to promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

  17. Quadruple therapy with furazolidone for retreatment in patients with peptic ulcer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guilherme Eduardo Goncalves Felga; Fernando Marcuz Silva; Ricardo Correa Barbuti; Tomás Navarro-Rodriguez; Schlioma Zaterka; Jaime Natan Eisig

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To establish the efficacy and safety of a 7-d therapeutic regimen using omeprazole, bismuth subcitrate, furazolidone and amoxicillin in patients with peptic ulcer disease who had been previously treated with other therapeutic regimens without success.METHODS: Open cohort study which included patients with peptic ulcer who had previously been treated unsuccessfully with one or more eradication regimens. The therapeutic regimen consisted of 20 mg omeprazole, 240 mg colloidal bismuth subcitrate, 1000 mg amoxicillin, and 200 mg furazolidone, taken twice a day for 7 d. Patients were considered as eradicated when samples taken from the gastric antrum and corpus 12 wk after the end of treatment were negative for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) (rapidurease test and histology). Safety was determined by the presence of adverse effects. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients were enrolled. The eradication rate was 68.8% (31145). Adverse effects were reported by 31.4% of the patients, and these were usually considered to be slight or moderate in the majority of the cases. Three patients had to withdraw from the treatment due to the presence of severe adverse effects. CONCLUSION: The association of bismuth, furazolidone, amoxicillin and a proton-pump inhibitor is a valuable alternative for patients who failed to respond to other eradication regimens. It is an effective, cheap and safe option for salvage therapy of positive patients.

  18. Antibiotic resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamases in isolated bacteria from seawater of Algiers beaches (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouache, Souhila; Kada, Mohamed; Messai, Yamina; Estepa, Vanesa; Torres, Carmen; Bakour, Rabah

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate bacterial antibiotic resistance in seawater from four beaches in Algiers. The most significant resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin and ticarcillin, whereas they were relatively low for ceftazidime, cefotaxime and imipenem. According to sampling sites, the highest resistance rates were recorded for 2 sites subjected to chemical and microbiological inputs (amoxicillin, 43% and 52%; ticarcillin, 19.6% and 47.7%), and for 2 sites relatively preserved from anthropogenic influence, resistance rates were lowest (amoxicillin, 1.5% and 16%; ticarcillin, 0.8% and 2.6%). Thirty-four bacteria resistant to imipenem (n=14) or cefotaxime (n=20) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=15), Pseudomonas fluorescens (7), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4), Burkholderia cepacia (2), Bordetella sp. (1), Pantoea sp. (1), Acinetobacter baumannii (1), Chryseomonas luteola (1), Ochrobactrum anthropi (1) and Escherichia coli (1). Screening for extended spectrum β-lactamase showed the presence of CTX-M-15 β-lactamase in the E. coli isolate, and the encoding gene was transferable in association with the IncI1 plasmid of about 50 kbp. Insertion sequence ISEcp1B was located upstream of the CTX-M-15 gene. This work showed a significant level of resistance to antibiotics, mainly among environmental saprophytic bacteria. Transmissible CTX-M-15 was detected in E. coli; this may mean that contamination of the environment by resistant bacteria may cause the spread of resistance genes.

  19. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  20. Comparison of Ciprofloxacin-Based Triple Therapy with Conventional Triple Regimen for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Tayebeh; Najafi, Mehri; Fallahi, Gholamhosein; Khodadad, Ahmad; Motamed, Farzaneh; Mahdi Marashi, Sayed; Shoaran, Maryam; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Raheleh

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a prevalent disease among Iranian children. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ciprofloxacin and furazolidone on eradicating helicobacter pylori in Iranian children in combination with amoxicillin and omeprazole. In this cohort study, helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by gastroscopy, rapid urease test or pathologic assessments. A total of 66 children were randomly enrolled; based on the random number table, and were divided into two groups; first, a combination regimen consisting of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and omeprazole; second, a three-medication regimen consisting of amoxicillin, furazolidone, and omeprazole. The effect of both medical regimens on the successful eradication of helicobacter pylori infection was assessed and compared. Chi-square test was used for evaluating the association between quantitative variables. All comparisons were made at the significance of Phelicobacter pylori infection was reported 87.9% (29/33) in the first group (CAO) and 60.6% (20.33) in the second group (FAO) (P=0.011). It appears that a major advantage of our proposed regimen over others is a lack of wide use of fluoroquinolones for treating children's diseases. Given FDA's recommendation about the possibility of prescribing ciprofloxacin for infected patients with multidrug resistance, we can use the regimen proposed in this study in patients with resistance to standard treatments.

  1. [Activity of cefpodoxime and other oral beta-lactams against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to penicillin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, A; Robledo, O; Lerma, M; Giménez, M J; Cebrián, L; Casal, J; Aguilar, L; Gómez-Lus, M L

    2006-03-01

    This study explores the influence on the intrinsic activity of different oral beta-lactams of beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus influenzae and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three substudies were performed: a) a general susceptibility study, analyzing 550 strains received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout February and March 2005; b) a study on the influence of penicillin resistance on the activity of beta-lactams, analyzing 251 penicillin-susceptible strains (MICor=2 mg/l) randomly chosen among those received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout 2005; and c) an H. influenzae susceptibility study analyzing 150 strains received by Instituto Valenciano de Microbiologia throughout 2005. A total of 71% of S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to penicillin, 21% exhibited intermediate resistance and 8% strains presented full resistance. H. influenzae beta-lactamase production rate was 18.6%. Of the non-beta-lactamase-producing strains, 3% were not susceptible to ampicillin. Cefpodoxime and cefixime exhibited the highest intrinsic activity against H. influenzae, while amoxicillin and cefpodoxime were the most active compounds against S. pneumoniae. All H. influenzae strains were susceptible to oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The increase in penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae influenced cefixime, cefaclor and cefuroxime to a higher degree than amoxicillin and cefpodoxime.

  2. Genipin-cross-linked fucose-chitosan/heparin nanoparticles for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lee, Che-Hsin; He, Zih Sian; Tseng, Guan-Chin

    2013-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that recognizes specific carbohydrate receptors, such as the fucose receptor, and produces the vacuolating cytotoxin, which induces inflammatory responses and modulates the cell-cell junction integrity of the gastric epithelium. The clinical applicability of topical antimicrobial agents was needed to complete the eradication of H. pylori in the infected fundal area. In the present study, we combined fucose-conjugated chitosan and genipin-cross-linking technologies in preparing multifunctional genipin-cross-linked fucose-chitosan/heparin nanoparticles to encapsulate amoxicillin of targeting and directly make contact with the region of microorganism on the gastric epithelium. The results show that the nanoparticles effectively reduced drug release at gastric acids and then released amoxicillin in an H. pylori survival situation to inhibit H. pylori growth and reduce disruption of the cell-cell junction protein in areas of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, with amoxicillin-loaded nanoparticles, a more complete H. pylori clearance effect was observed, and H. pylori-associated gastric inflammation in an infected animal model was effectively reduced.

  3. BACTERIAL SPECTRUM AND PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY AMONG OUTPATIENTS WITH PNEUMONIA IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To outline the spectrum of bacteria causing pneumonia and the pattern of antimicrobial sensitivity in outpatients with pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in Himachal Pradesh. METHODS: Sputum of 108 immuno competent pneumonia patients attending outpatient departments of Medicine and Pulmonary medicine of Dr. R. P. Government Medical College , Kangra at Tanda was sent for Gram staining and culture and sensitivity testing. RESULTS: Commensals were detected in most of the cases (32 , 29.6% followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 17(15.7% and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 16(14.8%. This was followed by three Gram negative organisms namely E Coli (11 , 10.2% , Pseudomonas (10 , 9.2% and Klebsiella (8 , 7.2%. No growth was obtained in 7(6.5% and other organisms were isolated in 7(6.5% specimens. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to vancomycin , clindamycin , cefoxitin , azithromycin and cotrimoxazole. Streptococcus pneumoniae was found to be sensitive to vancomycin , clindamycin , gentamicin , azithromycin , penicillin , cotrimoxazole , amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. Klebsiella was found to be sensitive to imipenem , azithromycin , ciprofloxacin , gentamicin and amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. E coli was sensitive to imipenem , gentamicin and amoxicillin +clavulanic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be sensitive to gentamicin , cefta zidime , imipenem , ticarcillin and piperacillin. CONCLUSION: Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the commonest organism causing pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae is resistant to many antibiotics. Azithromycin can be the first line therapy for pneumonia.

  4. Occurrence of multidrug resistance to oral antibiotics among Escherichia coli urine isolates from outpatient departments in Germany: extended-spectrum β-lactamases and the role of fosfomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresken, Michael; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Hafner, Dieter; Wresch, Rebecca; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    The in vitro activities of fosfomycin and seven other antibiotics commonly used for oral treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) were evaluated for 499 Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples during a nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study in 2010. Overall, the highest resistance rates were found for amoxicillin (42.9%), followed by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (32.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (30.9%), ciprofloxacin (19.8%), cefuroxime (10.0%), cefpodoxime (8.6%) and cefixime (8.2%). One-half of the isolates (n=252; 50.5%) were fully susceptible to the eight drugs, whilst only 6 strains (1.2%) were resistant to fosfomycin. Combined resistance to amoxicillin, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and SXT was detected in 29 isolates (5.8%). Moreover, 40 isolates (8.0%) produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), including CTX-M-type ESBLs detected in 39/40 isolates (97.5%) and a TEM-52 ESBL in 1 strain (2.5%). The predominant CTX-M-type ESBL was CTX-M-15 (27/39; 69.2%). Of the 27 CTX-M-15 producers, 19 (70.4%) belonged to the clonal lineage E. coli O25b-ST131. All but one ESBL-producing strains were fosfomycin-susceptible. In view of the emergence of multidrug resistance to standard oral antibiotics, these data support that oral fosfomycin (trometamol salt) may represent a valuable option in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs.

  5. Improvement in symptoms after H2-receptor antagonist-based therapy for eradication of H pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of triple therapy combining lafutidine with clarithromycin and amoxicillin on H pylori infection and the resolution of gastroesophageal symptoms after eradication.METHODS: We conducted a randomized, multicenter,open-label controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of a triple therapy of lafutidine, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (lafutidine group) with that of a triple therapy of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (lansoprazole group) in patients with H pylori infection. The study group comprised 22 patients with gastric ulcers and 18 patients with duodenal ulcers who had H pylori infection.RESULTS: H pylori eradication rates were similar in the lafutidine group (14/20, 70%) and the lansoprazole group (14/20, 70%). Gastroesophageal reflux and abdominal symptoms improved after eradication therapy in both groups, whereas abdominal discomfort, diarrhea,and constipation were unchanged. H pylori status had no apparent effect on improvement of gastroesophageal reflux or abdominal symptoms after treatment. Adverse events were similar in both groups.CONCLUSION: The triple therapy including lafutidine is equivalent to triple therapy including lansoprazole in terms of H pylori eradication rates and improvement in gastroesophageal reflux and abdominal symptoms.These results are attributed to the fact that lafutidine has strong, continuous antisecretory activity, unaffected by CYP2C19 polymorphisms.

  6. Acute otitis media: a simple diagnosis, a simple treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, S S

    2014-09-01

    To assess the symptoms and signs of acute otitis media and efficiency of simple antibiotics like amoxicillin in its treatment in the primary health care setup. This is a prospective longitudinal study including 204 patients from different institutions. Patients were diagnosed as suffering from acute otitis media when presented with earache, fever, fullness and or otorrhea. Patients were divided into two equal groups on basis of the treatment they received, Group A received only symptomatic treatment while Group B were given Amoxicillin (40 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Acute otitis media was common in children under 15 years (64.7%). Patients presented with earache (100%), aural fullness (90.68%), fever (76.47%) associated with recent onset of upper respiratory tract infections (88.23%). In group A, improvement was noticed in 28.43% in 3 days while 35.29% in 7 days. In group B, improvement was noticed in 48.03% in day 3 while 86.27% in day 7. In countries where medical care is scarce, patients lost to follow up, it is wise to treat with simple antibiotics like amoxicillin in adequate dose than to treat only symptomatically. It prevents chronicity, early hearing impairments and reduces antibiotic resistance.

  7. Clinical implications of antibiotic resistance for management of acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J O

    1998-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance to available antimicrobial agents has been constant since the introduction of the sulfonamides in the 1930s. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae are a concern now because of the importance of these pathogens in infections of the respiratory tract in infants and children. Amoxicillin remains the drug of choice for initial episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) although increase of the dosage schedule to 80 mg/kg/day has been recommended by some investigators. There are 15 additional antimicrobial agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the indication of AOM. All approved drugs are clinically effective but some have been suggested to have priority for patients who fail amoxicillin: amoxicillin-clavulanate; an oral cephalosporin such as cefuroxime axetil; and intramuscular ceftriaxone. Management of the child with severe and recurrent disease should include antibiotic prophylaxis but the increased incidence of resistance requires selective use. Prevention of infection may be achieved by innovative techniques for interference with attachment of bacteria to the nasal mucosa such as administration of oligosaccharides in a nasal spray. The currently available polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines have limited immunogenicity in infants, but the vaccine is useful in children 2 years of age and older who still have recurrent AOM. Children with frequent AOM during the prior respiratory season are candidates also for influenza virus vaccine. If medical management fails to prevent new episodes of AOM in children with severe and recurrent disease, placement of tympanostomy tubes and possible adenoidectomy should be considered.

  8. Antibiotic treatment of exacerbations of COPD in general practice: long-term impact on healthrelated quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Miravitlles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marc Miravitlles1, Carles Llor2, Jesús Molina3, Karlos Naberan4, Josep M Cots5, Fernando Ros6 on behalf of the EVOCA Study Group1Fundació Clínic. Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 2Primary Health Care Center ‘Jaume I’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 3Primary Health Care Center ‘Francia’, Grupo de Respiratorio de la Sociedad Madrileña de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Madrid, Spain; 4Primary Health Care Center ‘Fuentes de Ebro’, Grupo de Investigación del Instituto Aragonés Ciencias de la Salud (IACS, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Primary Health Care Center ‘La Marina’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona, Spain; 6Medical Department, Bayer Healthcare, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To investigate the impact of exacerbations in health-related quality of life (HRQL of patients with COPD and to compare the effect of treatment of COPD exacerbations with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 5 days and amoxicillin/clavulanate (500/125 mg 3 times a day for 10 days on HRQL.Methods: 229 outpatients with stable COPD (mean age 68.2 years; mean FEV1 % predicted 49.3% participated in a prospective, observational study of 2 years’ duration. The St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ was completed at baseline and every 6 months thereafter.Results: COPD exacerbations (mean 2.7 episodes/patient occurred in 136 patients (124 patients received the study medications [amoxicillin/clavulanate 54, moxifloxacin 70]. Differences between baseline and the final visit were higher for moxifloxacin compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate for total SGRQ score (-2.60 [13.1] vs 4.21 [16.2], P = 0.05 and “Symptoms” subscale (-5.64 [16.7] vs 8.27 [21], P = 0.02. The same findings were observed in patients with two or more

  9. Antibiotic residues in broiler and layer meat in Chittagong district of Bangladesh

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    Sarmina Sattar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was described thin layer chromatography (TLC and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC method for the detection of antibacterial substances in poultry muscle (breast and thigh, kidney, and liver. Materials and Methods: TLC method was used for screening detection of tetracycline, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin residues in poultry tissues. The samples were extracted with trichloroacetic acid (30%, diethyl ether, followed by detection in pre-coated TLC paper on ultraviolet detector. The UHPLC method was used for the quantification of antimicrobial residues in poultry tissues. Results: The residues of tetracycline were 48% in livers, 24% in kidneys, 20% in thigh muscles, and 24% in breast muscles. Ciprofloxacin residues were found 44% in liver, 42% in kidneys, 34% in thigh muscles and 30% in breast muscles. Enrofloxacin residues were found 40% in liver, 34% in kidneys, 22% in thigh muscles, and 18% in breast muscles. Amoxicillin residues were found 42% in liver, 30% in kidneys, 26% in thigh muscles and 22% in breast muscles. Most of the cases highest residues were found in liver such as tetracycline (48%, ciprofloxacin (44%, enrofloxacin (40% and amoxicillin (42% and almost lowest in breast muscles. In addition, nine positive samples from broiler were selected for amoxicillin residue quantification by UHPLC. It was observed that the concentration of amoxicillin residue in liver was ranging from 16.92 μg/kg to 152.62 μg/kg and in breast muscle was 45.38 μg/kg to 60.55 μg/kg, respectively. The maximum and minimum peak time was 4.7-5.2 min. Among the poultry tissues, liver had the highest level of antibiotic residues in comparison to other samples but the variation was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusions: Evidence suggests that more judicious use of antimicrobials in food animals will reduce the selection of resistant bacteria and help to preserve these valuable drugs for both human and veterinary

  10. Efficacy of a therapeutic strategy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuliana Sereni; Francesco Azzolini; Lorenzo Camellini; Debora Formisano; Francesco Decembrino; Veronica Iori; Cristiana Tioli

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the efficacy of our therapeutic strategy for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) eradication and to identify predictive factors for successful eradication.METHODS:From April 2006 to June 2010,we retrospectively assessed 2428 consecutive patients (1025 men,1403 women; mean age 55 years,age range 18-92 years) with gastric histology positive for H.pylori infection referred to our unit for 13-C urea breath test (UBT),after first-line therapy with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) b.i.d.+ amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d.+ clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.for 7 d.Patients who were still positive to UBT were recommended a second-line therapy (PPI b.i.d.+amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d.+ tinidazole 500 mg b.i.d.for 14 d).Third choice treatment was empirical with PPI b.i.d.+amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d.+ levofloxacin 250 mg b.i.d.for 14 d.RESULTS:Out of 614 patients,still H.pylori-positive after first-line therapy,only 326 and 19 patients respectively rechecked their H.pylori status by UBT after the suggested second and third-line regimens."Per protocol" eradication rates for first,second and thirdline therapy were 74.7% (95% CI:72.7%-76.4%),85.3% (95% CI:81.1%-89.1%) and 89.5% (95% CI:74.9%-103%) respectively.The overall percentage of patients with H.pylori eradicated after two treatments was 97.8% (95% CI:97.1%-98.4%),vs 99.9% (95%CI:99.8%-100%) after three treatments.The study found that eradication therapy was most effective in patients with ulcer disease (P < 0.05,P =0.028),especially in those with duodenal ulcer.Smoking habits did not significantly affect the eradication rate.CONCLUSION:First-line therapy with amoxicillin and clarithromycin produces an H.pylori eradication rate comparable or superior to other studies and secondline treatment can still be triple therapy with amoxicillin and tinidazole.

  11. Antibiotics for bronchiectasis exacerbations in children: rationale and study protocol for a randomised placebo-controlled trial

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    Chang Anne B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite bronchiectasis being increasingly recognised as an important cause of chronic respiratory morbidity in both indigenous and non-indigenous settings globally, high quality evidence to inform management is scarce. It is assumed that antibiotics are efficacious for all bronchiectasis exacerbations, but not all practitioners agree. Inadequately treated exacerbations may risk lung function deterioration. Our study tests the hypothesis that both oral azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid are superior to placebo at improving resolution rates of respiratory exacerbations by day 14 in children with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. Methods We are conducting a bronchiectasis exacerbation study (BEST, which is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial, in five centres (Brisbane, Perth, Darwin, Melbourne, Auckland. In the component of BEST presented here, 189 children fulfilling inclusion criteria are randomised (allocation-concealed to receive amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (22.5 mg/kg twice daily with placebo-azithromycin; azithromycin (5 mg/kg daily with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; or placebo-azithromycin with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for 14 days. Clinical data and a paediatric cough-specific quality of life score are obtained at baseline, at the start and resolution of exacerbations, and at day 14. In most children, blood and deep nasal swabs are also collected at the same time points. The primary outcome is the proportion of children whose exacerbations have resolved at day 14. The main secondary outcome is the paediatric cough-specific quality of life score. Other outcomes are time to next exacerbation; requirement for hospitalisation; duration of exacerbation; and spirometry data. Descriptive viral and bacteriological data from nasal samples and blood markers will also be reported. Discussion Effective, evidence-based management

  12. Confirmatory determination of six penicillins in honey by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian

    2004-01-01

    A confirmatory method for 6 penicillin antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, oxacillin, cloxacillin, and dicloxacillin) in honey is presented that allows determination and confirmation of identity of the antibiotics at trace levels. The method includes the use of a stable isotope-labeled internal standard benzyl (d7-phenyl) penicillate and removal of sugar and other substances by solvent and solid-phase extraction. The honey extracts are then analyzed for penicillin residues by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Mass spectral acquisition was achieved in an electrospray positive ion mode by applying multiple reaction monitoring of 2 or 3 fragment ion transitions to provide a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Typical recoveries of 6 penicillins at fortification levels of 6, 16, 40, and 80 microg/kg ranged from 51.4 to 132.9%. The recoveries varied with the individual penicillins and were affected by different honey matrixes. The ion ratios were consistent and could be used for confirmation of identity of the penicillins. The method limits of detection (microg/kg) were 0.25 for amoxicillin, 0.19 for ampicillin, 0.068 for penicillin G, 0.028 for oxacillin, 0.052 for cloxacillin, and 0.085 for dicloxacillin. The method limits of confirmation (microg/kg) were 0.44 for amoxicillin, 0.52 for ampicillin, 0.23 for penicillin G, 0.14 for oxacillin, 0.14 for cloxacillin, and 0.15 for dicloxacillin when a sample size of 5 g honey was used.

  13. Antibiotic-responsive histiocytic ulcerative colitis in 9 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostutler, Roger A; Luria, Brian J; Johnson, Susan E; Weisbrode, Steven E; Sherding, Robert G; Jaeger, Jordan Q; Guilford, W Grant

    2004-01-01

    Canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis (HUC) is characterized by colonic inflammation with predominantly periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive macrophages. The inflammation results in colonic thickening, ulcerations, and distortion of normal glandular architecture. Resultant clinical signs consist of chronic large bowel diarrhea, tenesmus, and marked weight loss, and the disease frequently results in euthanasia. Conventional therapy consists of some combination of prednisone, azathioprine, sulfasalazine, and metronidazole. Nine dogs (8 Boxers and 1 English Bulldog) with histologic confirmation of HUC were treated with antibiotic therapy (either with enrofloxacin alone or in combination with metronidazole and amoxicillin). Clinical signs, physical examination findings, laboratory abnormalities, and the histologic severity of the disease were evaluated. Four of the 9 dogs had been treated previously with conventional therapy and had failed to respond favorably; then, these dogs were placed on antibiotic therapy (enrofloxacin, n = 1; enrofloxacin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin, n = 3) and had resolution of clinical signs within 3-12 days. Five dogs were treated solely with antibiotic therapy (enrofloxacin, n = 1; enrofloxacin and metronidazole, n = 1; enrofloxacin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin, n = 3), and clinical signs resolved in 2-7 days. Repeated biopsy specimens were obtained from 5 dogs after treatment, and all showed marked histologic improvement. The increase in body weight after treatment was statistically significant (P = .01). Three dogs currently are not on any treatment and have had resolution of clinical signs for up to 14 months. These observations suggest that an infectious agent responsive to antibiotics plays an integral role in the clinical manifestation of canine HUC, and they support the use of antibiotics in its treatment.

  14. Evaluation of Clinical Curative Effect on 142 Patients With Gastric Ulcer%142例胃溃疡病例的临床疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:对比分析不同治疗方案治疗胃溃疡的临床疗效。方法选择胃溃疡病例142例,随机分入奥美拉唑联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾组和奥美拉唑组,每组各72例,选择总有效率为观察指标。结果奥美拉唑联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾组总有效率95.13%和奥美拉唑组总有效率73.41%,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论对于胃溃疡的治疗,奥美拉唑联合阿莫西林克拉维酸钾具有更好的临床疗效。%Objective Compare with the curative effect on different treatment protocols of gastric ulcer. Methods Selected 142 patients with gastric ulcer were randomized to the omeprazole combined with amoxicillin group and the omeprazole group, each group had 72 cases. Observation index of total efifciency rate. Results The total efifciency rate was 95.13%in the omeprazole combined with amoxicillin group and 73.41% in the omeprazole group, P<0.05, had difference statistically significance. Conclusion Omeprazole combine with amoxicillin has better clinical curative effect on gastric ulcers.

  15. Clinical effects of erdosteine in the treatment of acute respiratory tract diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balli, F; Bergamini, B; Calistru, P; Ciofu, E P; Domenici, R; Doros, G; Dragomir, D; Gherghina, I; Iordachescu, F; Murgoci, G; Orasanu, D; Plesca, D; Vaccaro, A; Assereto, R

    2007-01-01

    Erdosteine has positive effects on mucus rheology and transport due to the active metabolite (Metabolite I) which contains a free thiol group. Erdosteine inhibits bacterial adhesiveness and has antioxidant properties. A synergistic effect of erdosteine with various antibiotics has been demonstrated in pharmacological and clinical studies. The present study was multicenter, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled. The aims of the study were to compare a combination of erdosteine with amoxicillin against an amoxicillin-placebo combination in pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract disease. A total of 158 patients (78 in the erdosteine group and 80 in the placebo group) were treated for 7 +/- 2 days. The efficacy parameters were cough (primary), polypnea, rhonchi, rales and body temperature (all measured at baseline, on Day 3 and at the end of treatment). Safety was assessed by strictly monitoring the occurrence of adverse events and using standard laboratory parameters. The results of the intention-to-treat analysis showed that the severity of cough was decreased by 47% at Day 3 in the erdosteine group with a statistically significant difference compared to placebo, the difference was still significant at the final visit. The decrease in the severity of rales was significantly greater at Day 3 in the erdosteine group than in the placebo group. The incidence of polypnea and rhonchi in the two groups showed similar decreases, an improvement mainly due to the antibiotic. No adverse events occurred and no adverse changes in laboratory parameters were observed. It is concluded that the combination of erdosteine and amoxicillin is a safe medication which is clinically superior to that of the antibiotic combined with placebo, especially in regard to the effects on cough.

  16. Bases farmacomicrobiológicas del tratamiento antibiótico de las enfermedades periodontales y periimplatarias Farmacobiological concepts in the antibiotic treatment of the periodontal diseases

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    J. Liñares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad periodontal debe considerarse un proceso infeccioso bacteriano crónico. En su etiología, no hay una única especie bacteriana implicada, sino que podríamos considerarla como una infección polimicrobiana en la que estarían implicados diversos microorganismos. Las bacterias que se han asociado más directamente con la enfermedad periodontal son Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus y Treponema denticola. Los parámetros farmacodinámicos de los antibióticos son muy útiles a la hora de seleccionar pautas posológicas. El aumento de resistencias producido en muchos periodontopatógenos en los últimos años ha relegado a algunos antibióticos a un segundo plano. Entre la gran variedad de antibióticos utilizados, se han obtenido buenas respuestas terapéuticas con amoxicilina/ácido clavulánico, metronidazol, clindamicina, doxiciclina y las combinaciones de metronidazol más amoxicilina y metronidazol más amoxicili-na/ácido clavulánico.Periodontal disease must be considered a chronic bacterial infection. It does not appear to one single bacterial species that is uniquely involved. Rather, periodontal disease seems to be a polymicrobial infection involving several organisms. The bacteria most often associated with periodontal disease are Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Bacteroides forsythus y Treponema denticola. Pharmacodynamics parameters are very useful to select dosing regimens. The increase in prevalence of resistance occurred in some periodontopathogens in the last years has pushed some antibiotics into the background. Positive responses have been reported with amoxicillin/clavulanate, metronidazole, clindamycin, doxycycline and the combination therapy metronidazole plus amoxicillin and metronidazole plus amoxicillin/clavulanate.

  17. 不同种类抗生素对厌氧发酵抑制作用的研究%Effect of Different Antibiotics on Anaerobic Digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建平; 郑平; 胡宝兰; 黄武

    2009-01-01

    本试验以养猪场最常用的两种抗生素,阿莫西林和金霉素作为抑制剂.通过Monod方程进行回归,分别就抑制剂对厌氧消化的抑制类型和抑制程度进行了分析和研究.试验结果表明,阿莫西林的存在使厌氧发酵的最大反应速率和半速率常数分别降低了70%和65%,属于反竞争抑制类型:金霉素的存在没有降低最大反应速率,却使半速率常数增加了63%,属于竞争性抑制类型.%Amoxicillin and Aureomycin are the most common antibiotics used for the prevention and treatment of pig diseases. The inhibition style and inhibition level of these two antibiotics to anaerobic digestion were investigated by Monod equation regression. The results reported that the presence of amoxicillin reduced the maximum specific methane production rate and half rate constant by 70% and 65% respectively;the presence of Aureomycin didn't affect the maximum specific methane production rate but increased the half rate constant by 63%. The effect of amoxicillin on anaerobic digestion was belonged to uneompetitive inhibition and the effect of aureomycin to competitive inhibition.

  18. Incidence and impact on clinical outcome of infections with piperacillin/tazobactam resistant Escherichia coli in ICU: A retrospective study

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    Mounier Roman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli infections are frequent in ICU patients. The increased resistance to fluoroquinolones and amoxicillin/clavulanate of this pathogen mandates the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP-TAZ or third generation cephalosporins (3GC. Methods To assess incidence and impact on clinical outcome of infections with PIP-TAZ resistant E. coli in ICU patients, we conducted a retrospective cohort study with infections due to PIP-TAZ resistant (PIP-TAZ R or to PIP-TAZ susceptible strains (PIP-TAZ S between 1 January 2002 and 30 June 2004. Results Of 83 strains, 13 were PIP-TAZ R: 2 strains produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (2%, 11 produced a high level penicillinase (13%. Prior amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate prescription was reported in 7 cases (54% of infections with PIP-TAZ R isolates and in 15 cases (21% of infections with PIP-TAZ S isolates (p = 0.03. Time of onset of the infection from hospital admission was longer in case of infections with PIP-TAZ R than with PIP-TAZ S isolates (22 ± 32 vs 10 ± 21 days, p = 0.01. The overall ICU mortality rate was 38%. Mortality and length of stay in ICU were similar in case of infections with PIP-TAZ R isolates and with PIP-TAZ S isolates. Conclusion Infections with PIP-TAZ R E. coli are frequent in ICU patients. No prognostic impact of this pattern of resistance was found. Prescription of PIP-TAZ for empirical treatment of E. coli infections in ICU however exposes to inappropriate therapy.

  19. Helicobacter pylori: From Bench to Bedside

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    N Chiba

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential increase in research in the field of Helicobacter pylori a paradigm shift has occurred. It is now recognized that H pylori is a chronic infection of the stomach causing inflammation. Some patients remain asymptomatic, while others may develop dyspepsia, duodenal or gastric ulcer, gastric cancer or a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, the role of H pylori in contributing to nonulcer dyspepsia or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy remains controversial. An effective vaccine against H pylori is years away. Major interest has focused on the questions "who should be investigated and therefore treated" and "what is the latest gold standard for eradication of H pylori"? In Europe, guidelines have been developed to help the practitioner answer these important questions. Canadian guidelines will soon be available. For persons with known peptic ulcer disease there should be unequivocal acceptance that the good clinical practice of eradicating H pylori will result in substantial savings in health care expenses. The original 'classical triple therapy' (bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline [BMT] has now been surpassed by the combination of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI plus two antibiotics (metronidazole plus clarithromycin; amoxicillin plus clarithromycin; or amoxicillin plus metronidazole, each given twice a day for one week. In Canada, the regimen of omeprazole plus one antibiotic (amoxicillin or clarithromycin was approved recently but gives an eradication rate that is lower than the current target of 90%. According to the European (Mäastricht recommendations, if a single treatment attempt with PPI plus two antibiotics fails, PPI plus BMT is recommended.

  20. Efficacy of 1st-line bismuth-containing quadruple therapies with levofloxacin or clarithromycin for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoying; Chen, Han; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Weifeng; Zhang, Guoxin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of the present open-label, randomized control trial was to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of two 1-week bismuth-containing quadruple regimens and 1 levofloxacin-based triple regimen for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in treatment-naive patients. The influence of susceptibility and host CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the efficacy was also evaluated. Methods: Eligible patients were randomly to receive esomeprazole and colloidal bismuth pectin along with clarithromycin and amoxicillin (EBCA), esomeprazole and colloidal bismuth pectin along with levofloxacin and amoxicillin (EBLA), or esomeprazole along levofloxacin and amoxicillin (ELA) for 1 week. The primary outcome was the eradication rate in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. Results: Overall, 270 patients were randomized. The eradication rates in the above 3 groups were 80.25%, 89.66%, and 81.93% in PP analysis and 72.22%, 86.66%, and 75.56% in ITT analysis, respectively. The eradication rate of EBLA was significantly higher than that of EBCA (P = 0.016) in ITT analysis. No significant differences were found among these groups in terms of adverse effects and compliance. The efficacy was significantly affected by levofloxacin resistance for EBLA (P = 0.01) and ELA (P = 0.04), but not by polymorphisms of CYP2C19 gene for any of the 3 groups. Conclusion: All 1-week bismuth-containing quadruple therapies and levofloxacin-based triple therapy can obtain an acceptable eradication rate, and levofloxacin-based quadruple regimen exhibits the highest eradication rate. The antibiotic resistant rate of levofloxacin was associated with the eradication rate. PMID:28207505

  1. High Frequency of Class 1 Integrons in Escherichia coli Isolated From Patients With Urinary Tract Infections in Yasuj, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Sharifi, Asghar; Yazdanpanah, Mahboubeh; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali Asghar; Emaneini, Mohammad; Gharibpour, Farzaneh; Parhizgari, Najmeh; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Zoladl, Mohammad; Khosravani, Seyed Abdolmajid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused by Escherichia coli. Integrons have an important role in distributing antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons and their association with antibiotic resistance in E. coli isolated from patient with UTI in Yasuj, Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 200 E. coli were collected from 1820 patients diagnosed with UTI that had been referred to two clinical laboratories between February 2013 and November 2014 in Yasuj city, southwest of Iran. Susceptibility of isolates to 11 different antibiotics was determined by the disk agar diffusion method. multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16) and the chi-square test. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The highest rate of resistance was observed toward cephalothin (99%) and amoxicillin (76%) while only two (1%) isolates showed resistance to imipenem. Overall, 79% of isolates were multi drug resistant (MDR). Class 1 and 2 integrons were detected in 104 (52%) and 5 (2.5%) isolates respectively, while none of the isolates were positive for class 3 integrons. A significant association was observed between the presence of integrons and resistance to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ceftazidime and tetracycline (P < 0.05). Conclusions: High MDR isolates of E. coli were observed in this study. The significant association between class 1 integrons and resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin, ceftazidime and tetracycline showed that class 1 integrons have an important role in resistance to these antibiotics in this region. PMID:26889395

  2. Evaluation of the antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Aloysia Citriodora (Lemon verbena) on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Faranak; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Shahandeh, Zahra; Sadighian, Farhnaz; Khodadadi, Effat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Aloysia citriodora plant from the family of Verbenaceae has many uses in traditional medicine. The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. citriodora on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which cause tooth decay. Methods This 2016 study was performed on standardized strains of S. mutans PTCC1683 and S. sobrinus PTCC1601 and clinical isolates. Twenty clinical samples were obtained from the dental caries of children admitted to the pediatric ward at the Faculty of Dentistry of Babol University of Medical Sciences (Babol, Iran). The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. citriodora leaves were prepared in several concentrations ranging from 625–20,000 μg/ml. These concentrations of the extracts were applied to the bacteria by disk diffusion, agar well diffusion, and macrotube dilution. The antibacterial effects of amoxicillin and chlorhexidine digluconate 0.2% (CHX) were also carried out. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18 software using independent-samples t-test. Results Streptococcus spp. was successfully isolated from nine out of 20 (45%) specimens. Of the 9 positive samples cultured, 8 (88.8%) were S. mutans and 1 was S. sobrinus (11.2%). No inhibitory zone was observed around the disks and wells containing all concentrations of A. citriodora extracts. The minimum concentrations for inhibition of growth (MIC) resulted in turbidity in all tubes and were negative except for the control tubes. Inhibition zones were observed for amoxicillin and CHX disks (p < 0.001). Conclusion This study found that all studied bacteria were resistant to both types of the extracts; therefore, they are not a suggested replacement for chemical agents in mouthwash. It also shown that CHX is less effective than amoxicillin. PMID:28163849

  3. 洛赛克联合阿莫西林治疗124例消化性溃疡的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩彬; 冯丹; 刘福; 崔传宝

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨阿莫西林联合洛赛克治疗消化性溃疡的效果。方法:选取124例患者作为研究组,给予阿莫西林联合洛赛克治疗;选取110例患者作为对照组,单纯采用洛赛克进行治疗;比较两组的治疗效果。结果:研究组病症改善、总疗效及HP根除率均优于对照组,两组差异显著(P<0.05),但不良反应发生率对比差异不显著。结论:对消化性溃疡患者采用洛赛克联合阿莫西林治疗,能起到良好的杀菌作用,治疗效果比较满意。%Objective:To explore the amoxicillin combined with omeprazole treatment peptic ulcer disease treatment. Methods:according to the different ways to choose 124 patients as study group, given the joint omeprazole amoxicillin drug treatment; 110 patients were selected as control group, were treated by Losec drugs alone; two research team compared the treatment effect. Results:show that the study group, the total curative effect of symptom improvement and HP eradication rate was better than the control group, the two groups had significant difference (P<0.05), but the incidence of adverse reaction after treatment compared with no significant difference. Conclusion:the peptic ulcer disease with Losec drugs combined with amoxicillin treatment, can play a good bactericidal effect, obtain satisfactory treatment effect.

  4. Evaluation on antibiotic resistance of helicobacter pylori isolated from patients admitted to tooba medical center, Sari

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    Amin Talebi BezminAbadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 17 March, 2009; Accepted 8 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Helicobacter pylori, which infect approximately one half of the world’s population, are an important risk factor in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is now widely recommended as the most effective treatment of peptic ulcer disease. One of the most important reasons for treatment failure is H. pylori resistance to the antimicrobials usage in therapy. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility patterns of H. pylori isolates in 6 routine anti-microbial agents in Northern Iran.Materials and methods: 125 patients from Tooba Medical Center in Sari with endoscopic evidence of dyspepsia complaints were used for obtaining gastric biopsies specimens. Biopsies were sent to the laboratory in thioglycolate broth (transport medium. Bacteria were primarily cultured on Columbia agar supplemented with 7% horse blood, 7% fetal calf serum. Urease, Catalase and Oxidase activities were used for H. pylori identification. Bacterial suspensions equivalent to 3 Mc. Farlands were spread on plates, along with antibiotic disks and placed in the diameter zone. Inhibition was measured after 3 days of incubation in micro-aerophilic condition.Results: H. pylori were isolated from 116(92.8% subjects, a total of 125 biopsy specimens. Resistance to metronidazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, tetracycline, furazolidone and ciprofloxacin were 71%, 35%, 25%, 9%, 24% and 25%, respectively. Multiple resistance (amoxicillin-clarithromycin-metronidazole were found in (65% of the isolates.Conclusion: Comparison of our data with previous results showed that prevalence of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, furazolidone and metronidazole has increased in Iran considerably. Resistance to amoxicillin in our study was too high in comparison with foreign studies. The present study demonstrates the need for continuous monitoring of the antimicrobial

  5. Antibiotics in third molar extraction; are they really necessary: A non-inferiority randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Ankit; Roychoudhury, Ajoy; Bhutia, Ongkila; Pandey, Sandeep; Singh, Surender; Das, Bimal K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotic resistance is now a serious problem, although it was not so only a few years ago. The need of the hour is to give clear evidence of the efficacy of antibiotic use, or lack thereof, to the surgeon for a procedure as common as mandibular third molar surgery. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate whether postoperative combined amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in mandibular third molar extraction is effective in preventing inflammatory complications. Study and Design: The study was structured as a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Materials and Methods: A study was designed wherein the 96 units (two bilaterally similar impacted mandibular third molars per head in 48 patients) were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (Group I and Group II). Each patient served as his/her own control. Each patient received 625 mg of combined amoxicillin and clavulanic acid 1 h before surgery. In the case of third molars belonging to Group I, 625 mg of combined amoxicillin and clavulanic acid TDS was continued for 3 days; in Group II, placebo in similar-looking packs was continued for 3 days. The patients were evaluated on the third and seventh postoperative days for signs of clinical infection and for microbial load evaluation. Statistical Analysis: The data between the two groups were statistically analyzed by the two-tailed Fisher's exact test, with a 95% confidence interval. Results: The difference was not statistically significant between the test group and the control group with regard to erythema, dehiscence, swelling, pain, trismus, and infection based on microbial load. The data were statistically significant for alveolar osteitis, with the occurrence of alveolar osteitis (14.58%) in the placebo group. Conclusion: Postoperative antibiotics are recommended only for patients undergoing contaminated, long-duration surgery. PMID:25937728

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans JP2 in a biofilm

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    Orit Oettinger-Barak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP is an inflammatory disease associated with specific bacteria, particularly Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, which can result in early tooth loss. The bacteria grow as a biofilm known as subgingival plaque. Treatment includes mechanical debridement of the biofilm, often associated with empirical antibiotic treatment. Objective: The aims of this study were to test in vitro the sensitivity of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 during planktonic and biofilm growth to doxycycline and to the combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin, which are two antibiotic protocols commonly used in clinical practice. Design: Two in vitro biofilm models were used to test the effects of the antibiotics: a static 96-well plate assay was used to investigate the effect of these antibiotics on biofilm formation whilst a flow chamber model was used to examine the effect on established biofilms. Results: Of the antibiotics tested in this model system, doxycycline was most efficacious with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC against planktonic cells of 0.21 mg/L and minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC of 2.10 mg/L. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic regimen, amoxicillin + metronidazole, was much less effective against both planktonic and biofilm cells with an MIC and MBIC of 12.0 mg/L and 20.2 mg/L, respectively. A single treatment of the clinically achievable concentration of 10 mg/L doxycycline to sparse A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilms in the flow chamber model resulted in significant decreases in biofilm thickness, biovolume, and cell viability. Dense A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilms were significantly more resistant to doxycycline treatment. Low concentrations of antibiotics enhanced biofilm formation. Conclusion: A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 homotypic biofilms were more susceptible in vitro to doxycycline than amoxicillin + metronidazole.

  7. Flavonoid Glycosides of Polygonum capitatum Protect against Inflammation Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection.

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    Shu Zhang

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, and protective effects of extracts (flavonoid glycosides of Polygonum capitatum were investigated to detect the evidence for the utilization of the herb in the clinical therapy of gastritis caused by H. pylori. A mouse gastritis model was established using H. pylori. According to treating methods, model mice were random assigned into a model group (MG group, a triple antibiotics group (TG group, clarithromycin, omeprazole and amoxicillin, low/middle/high concentrations of flavonoid glycosides groups (LF, MF and HF groups and low/middle/high concentrations of flavonoid glycosides and amoxicillin groups (LFA, MFA and HFA groups. A group with pathogen-free mice was regarded as a control group (CG group. The eradicate rates of H. pylori were 100%, 93%, 89% in TG, MFA and HF groups. The serum levels of IFN-gamma and gastrin were higher in a MG group than those from all other groups (P < 0.05. The serum levels of IFN-gamma and gastrin were reduced significantly in LF, MF and HF groups (P < 0.05 while little changes were observed in LFA, MFA and HFA groups. In contrast, the serum levels of IL-4 were lower and higher in MG and CG groups compared with other groups (P<0.05. The serum levels of IL-4 were increased significantly in LF, MF and HF groups (P < 0.05 while little changes were found in LFA, MFA and HFA groups. According to pathological scores, flavonoid glycosides therapy showed better protection for gastric injuries than the combination of flavonoid glycoside and amoxicillin (P < 0.05. The results suggested that flavonoid glycoside has repairing functions for gastric injuries. The results suggest that the plant can treat gastritis and protect against gastric injuries. The flavonoid glycosides from Polygonum capitatum should be developed as a potential drug for the therapy of gastritis caused by H. pylori.

  8. Aggregatibacter aphrophilus in a patient with recurrent empyema: a case report

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    Olver William J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (formerly Haemophilus aphrophilus and H. paraphrophilus is classically associated with infective endocarditis. Other infections reported in the literature include brain abscess, bone and joint infections and endophthalmitis. There are only two cases of empyema ever reported due to this organism. We report the isolation of A. aphrophilus from pleural fluid on three separate hospital admissions in a patient with recurrent empyema. Case presentation A 65-year-old female patient of Caucasian origin presented with a three-week history of fever, shortness of breath and dry cough. She was found to have a pleural empyema so a chest drain was inserted and a sample of pus was sent to the microbiology laboratory. After overnight incubation, a chocolate blood agar plate incubated in 5% carbon dioxide showed a profuse growth of small, round, glistening colonies which were identified as Gram-negative coccobacilli. They were oxidase- and catalase-negative. Biochemical testing using RapID NH confirmed the identity of the organism as A. aphrophilus. It was susceptible to amoxicillin, levofloxacin and doxycycline. Our patient was treated with intravenous amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and clarithromycin followed by oral doxycycline, but was re-admitted twice over the next three months with recurrent empyema and the same organism was isolated. Each episode was managed with chest drainage and a six-week course of antibiotic--doxycycline for the second episode and amoxicillin for the third episode, after which she has remained well. Conclusion This is the first case report of recurrent empyema due to A. aphrophilus. Our patient had no underlying condition to explain the recurrence. Although our isolate was doxycycline susceptible, our patient had recurrent infection after treatment with this antibiotic, suggesting that this antibiotic is ineffective in treatment of deep-seated A. aphrophilus infection. This

  9. Interpolymer complexes of poly(acrylic acid) and chitosan: influence of the ionic hydrogel-forming medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Paloma M; Torrado, Susana; Torrado, Santiago

    2003-04-01

    Non-covalent polyionic complexes were developed for localized antibiotic delivery in the stomach. Freeze-dried interpolymer complexes based on polyacrylic acid (PAA) and chitosan (CS) were prepared in a wide range of copolymer compositions by dissolving both polymers in acidic conditions. The influence of hydrogel-forming medium on the swelling and drug release was evaluated. The properties of these complexes were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, dynamic swelling/eroding and release experiments in enzyme-free simulated gastric fluid (SGF). The electrostatic polymer/polymer interactions generate polyionic complexes with different porous structures. In a low pH environment, the separation of both polymer chains augmented as the amount of cationic and carboxilic groups increased within the network. However, the presence of higher amount of ions in the hydrogel-forming medium produced a network collapse, decreasing the maximum swelling ratio in SGF. PAA:CS:A (1:2.5:2)-1.75 M complexes released around 54% and 71% of the amoxicillin in 1 and 2 h, respectively, in acidic conditions. A faster drug release from this interpolymer complex was observed when the ionic strength of the hydrogel-forming medium increased. Complexes with a high amount of both polymer chains within the network, PAA:CS:A(2.5:5:2), showed a suitable amoxicillin release without being affected by an increased amount of ions in the hydrogel-forming medium. These freeze-dried interpolymer complexes could serve as potential candidates for amoxicillin delivery in an acidic enviroment.

  10. Combinations of β-lactam or aminoglycoside antibiotics with plectasin are synergistic against methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanmin; Liu, Alexander; Vaudrey, James; Vaiciunaite, Brigita; Moigboi, Christiana; McTavish, Sharla M; Kearns, Angela; Coates, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections remain the leading killer worldwide which is worsened by the continuous emergence of antibiotic resistance. In particular, methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are prevalent and the latter can be difficult to treat. The traditional strategy of novel therapeutic drug development inevitably leads to emergence of resistant strains, rendering the new drugs ineffective. Therefore, rejuvenating the therapeutic potentials of existing antibiotics offers an attractive novel strategy. Plectasin, a defensin antimicrobial peptide, potentiates the activities of other antibiotics such as β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides against MSSA and MRSA. We performed in vitro and in vivo investigations to test against genetically diverse clinical isolates of MSSA (n = 101) and MRSA (n = 115). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by the broth microdilution method. The effects of combining plectasin with β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides were examined using the chequerboard method and time kill curves. A murine neutropenic thigh model and a murine peritoneal infection model were used to test the effect of combination in vivo. Determined by factional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), plectasin in combination with aminoglycosides (gentamicin, neomycin or amikacin) displayed synergistic effects in 76-78% of MSSA and MRSA. A similar synergistic response was observed when plectasin was combined with β-lactams (penicillin, amoxicillin or flucloxacillin) in 87-89% of MSSA and MRSA. Interestingly, no such interaction was observed when plectasin was paired with vancomycin. Time kill analysis also demonstrated significant synergistic activities when plectasin was combined with amoxicillin, gentamicin or neomycin. In the murine models, plectasin at doses as low as 8 mg/kg augmented the activities of amoxicillin and gentamicin in successful treatment of MSSA and MRSA infections. We

  11. Combinations of β-lactam or aminoglycoside antibiotics with plectasin are synergistic against methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmin Hu

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections remain the leading killer worldwide which is worsened by the continuous emergence of antibiotic resistance. In particular, methicillin-sensitive (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are prevalent and the latter can be difficult to treat. The traditional strategy of novel therapeutic drug development inevitably leads to emergence of resistant strains, rendering the new drugs ineffective. Therefore, rejuvenating the therapeutic potentials of existing antibiotics offers an attractive novel strategy. Plectasin, a defensin antimicrobial peptide, potentiates the activities of other antibiotics such as β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides against MSSA and MRSA. We performed in vitro and in vivo investigations to test against genetically diverse clinical isolates of MSSA (n = 101 and MRSA (n = 115. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by the broth microdilution method. The effects of combining plectasin with β-lactams, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides were examined using the chequerboard method and time kill curves. A murine neutropenic thigh model and a murine peritoneal infection model were used to test the effect of combination in vivo. Determined by factional inhibitory concentration index (FICI, plectasin in combination with aminoglycosides (gentamicin, neomycin or amikacin displayed synergistic effects in 76-78% of MSSA and MRSA. A similar synergistic response was observed when plectasin was combined with β-lactams (penicillin, amoxicillin or flucloxacillin in 87-89% of MSSA and MRSA. Interestingly, no such interaction was observed when plectasin was paired with vancomycin. Time kill analysis also demonstrated significant synergistic activities when plectasin was combined with amoxicillin, gentamicin or neomycin. In the murine models, plectasin at doses as low as 8 mg/kg augmented the activities of amoxicillin and gentamicin in successful treatment of MSSA and MRSA

  12. Ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolates in Geneva: serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, and β-lactam resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, A; Diene, S M; Emonet, S; Renzi, G; Francois, P; Schrenzel, J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms of ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolated in Geneva, Switzerland. We investigated the association between specific patterns of amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (with or without β-lactamase production) and β-lactam susceptibility. Another main focus for this study was to compare the accuracy of disk diffusion and Etest methods to detect resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The antibiotic susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics of 124 H. influenzae isolates was determined by disk diffusion and Etest methods, and interpreted by European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints. Alterations in PBP3 were investigated by sequencing the ftsI gene. Of the 124 clinical isolates analyzed, ampicillin resistance was found in 36% (45 out of 124). The rate of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was 9% and 0.8%, using EUCAST and CLSI breakpoints respectively. For the 78 β-lactamase negative ampicillin-susceptible (BLNAS) isolates for which the Etest method indicated a high degree of susceptibility (MIC ≤ 1 mg/L), the disk diffusion method revealed resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in 33 cases (42%). Most common amino acid substitutions were Asn526Lys and Val547Ile, followed by Asp569Ser, Ala502Val, Asp350Asn, Met377Ile, Ile449Val, and Arg517His. The patterns observed were classified into six groups (IIa, IIb, IIc, IId, III-like, and miscellaneous). Continued characterization of both invasive and respiratory H. influenzae isolates is necessary in order to observe changes in the microbiology and epidemiology of this pathogen that could lead to clinical failure when treated by empirical antibiotic therapy.

  13. A novel combination approach of human polyclonal IVIG and antibiotics against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Mariam Madkour; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; El-Azizi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background Gram-positive bacteria, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and enterococci, have shown a remarkable ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Objective We aimed to assess possible enhancement of the antimicrobial activity of vancomycin, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin by human polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) against 34 multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates, including MRSA, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods Double combinations of the antibiotics with the IVIG were assessed by checkerboard assay, where the interaction was evaluated with respect to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antibiotics. The results of the checkerboard assay were verified in vitro using time-kill assay and in vivo using an invasive sepsis murine model. Results The checkerboard assay showed that IVIG enhanced the antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin and clarithromycin against isolates from the three groups of bacteria, which were resistant to the same antibiotics when tested in the absence of IVIG. The efficacy of vancomycin against 15% of the tested isolates was enhanced when it was combined with the antibodies. Antagonism was demonstrated in 47% of the E. faecalis isolates when clarithromycin was combined with the IVIG. Synergism was proved in the time-kill assay when amoxicillin was combined with the antibodies; meanwhile, antagonism was not demonstrated in all tested combinations, even in combinations that showed such response in checkerboard assay. Conclusion The suggested approach is promising and could be helpful to enhance the antimicrobial activity of not only effective antibiotics but also antibiotics that have been proven to be ineffective against MDR bacteria. To our knowledge, this combinatorial approach against MDR bacteria, such as MRSA and enterococci, has not been investigated before. PMID:27994476

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains to five antibiotics, including levofloxacin, in Northwestern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Caliskan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is the main factor that affects the efficacy of current therapeutic regimens against Helicobacter pylori. This study aimed to determine the rates of resistance to efficacy clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and metronidazole among H. pylori strains isolated from Turkish patients with dyspepsia. METHODS: H. pylori was cultured from corpus and antrum biopsies that were collected from patients with dyspeptic symptoms, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of H. pylori was determined using the E-test (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole and levofloxacin according to the EUCAST breakpoints. Point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin-resistant strains were investigated using real-time PCR. RESULTS: A total of 98 H. pylori strains were isolated, all of which were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. Of these strains, 36.7% (36/98 were resistant to clarithromycin, 35.5% (34/98 were resistant to metronidazole, and 29.5% (29/98 were resistant to levofloxacin. Multiple resistance was detected in 19.3% of the isolates. The A2143G and A2144G point mutations in the 23S rRNA-encoding gene were found in all 36 (100% of the clarithromycin-resistant strains. Additionally, the levofloxacin MIC values increased to 32 mg/L in our H. pylori strains. Finally, among the clarithromycin-resistant strains, 27.2% were resistant to levofloxacin, and 45.4% were resistant to metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that treatment failure after clarithromycin- or levofloxacin-based triple therapy is not surprising and that metronidazole is not a reliable agent for the eradication of H. pylori infection in Turkey.

  15. Efficacy of Natural and Allopathic Antimicrobial Agents Incorporated onto Guided Tissue Regeneration Membrane Against Periodontal Pathogens: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Palle, Ajay; Kumar Gedela, Rajani; Vasudevan, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent afflictions worldwide. It is an infection of the periodontium as a result of subgingival colonization of the specific microbiota, leading to loss of attachment, which requires optimal care for regeneration to its pre-disease state. Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) is one of the successful treatment modalities in Periodontal Regenerative Therapy, but is vulnerable to bacterial colonization. The conflict between usage of classical antibiotics and plant origin antimicrobial agents has recently been in the limelight. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin, metronidazole and green coffee extract loaded onto GTR membrane against periodonto-pathogens. Materials and Methods Pure form of amoxicillin, metronidazole and green coffee extract were obtained. One percent concentration of each antimicrobial agent was prepared by appropriate dilution with distilled water. GTR membrane was cut into a size of 1x0.5 cm under sterile conditions and was coated with the antimicrobial agents respectively and with distilled water as the negative control. Antimicrobial activity was checked against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) using agar disc diffusion method. The statistical analysis was done using Kruskal Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test. Results One percent amoxicillin showed level of significance (p>0.05) against both A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. Green coffee extract showed no zone of inhibition against both the bacterial species. Conclusion Loading of commercially available antimicrobial agents onto GTR membrane can prevent its bacterial colonization leading to better treatment outcomes for periodontal regeneration. PMID:28274052

  16. RESISTANCE PATTERN OF FECAL ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SELECTED BROILER FARMS OF EASTERN HARARGHE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

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    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Cloacal swab of broiler chickens in selected farms of Eastern Harrarge zone of Ethiopia. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests.65 selected isolates were subjected to 9 antimicrobial agents to determine their resistance by the disk diffusion method. Accordingly, the resistance of E.coli was tetracycline (90%, streptomycin (78%, ampicillin (60%, amoxicillin (56%, erythromycin (45%, ciprofloxacin (38%, and chloramphenicol (15%. None of the isolates showed resistance to gentamicin. Sensitivity was observed in case of 80%, 77%, 44%, 32%, 26%, 20%, 20%, 15%, and 10% of the isolates for chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate resistance/susceptibility was recorded for 5-35% of the isolates. 92.3% of the isolates tested showed multidrug resistance for 2 or more antimicrobials and the highest levels (18.5% of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for 3 antimicrobials accounting 7.7% for tetracycline-ampicillin-streptomycin and 10.8% for tetracycline-ampicillin-amoxicillin. This study showed resistance against the antibiotics that are commonly used in poultry. Furthermore, it was concluded that gentamicin, chloramphenicole and ciproflaxin will be the first drugs of choice to resist infections caused by E. coli in chicken in Ethiopia. These findings confirm significant increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in the E. coli isolates which is most probably due to increased use of antibiotics asfeed additives for growth promotion and prevention of diseases and use of inappropriate antibiotics for treatment of diseases. Hence, excess or abusive use of antimicrobials should be guarded through judicious application of antimicrobials.

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANT PATTERN OF FECAL ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SELECTED BROILER FARMS OF EASTERN HARARGE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Cloacal swab of broiler chickens in selected farms of Eastern Harrarge zone of Ethiopia. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. 65 selected isolates were subjected to 9 antimicrobial agents to determine their resistance by the disk diffusion method. Accordingly, the resistance of E.coli was tetracycline (90%, streptomycin (78%, ampicillin (60%, amoxicillin (56%, erythromycin (45%, ciprofloxacin (38%, and chloramphenicol (15%. None of the isolates showed resistance to gentamicin. Sensitivity was observed in case of 80%, 77%, 44%, 32%, 26%, 20%, 20%, 15%, and 10% of the isolates for chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate resistance/susceptibility was recorded for 5-35% of the isolates. 92.3% of the isolates tested showed multidrug resistance for 2 or more antimicrobials and the highest levels (18.5% of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for 3 antimicrobials accounting 7.7% for tetracycline-ampicillin-streptomycin and 10.8% for tetracycline-ampicillin-amoxicillin. This study showed resistance against the antibiotics that are commonly used in poultry. Furthermore, it was concluded that gentamicin, chloramphenicole and ciproflaxin will be the first drugs of choice to resist infections caused by E. coli in chicken in Ethiopia. These findings confirm significant increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in the E. coli isolates which is most probably due to increased use of antibiotics as feed additives for growth promotion and prevention of diseases and use of inappropriate antibiotics for treatment of diseases. Hence, excess or abusive use of antimicrobials should be guarded through judicious application of antimicrobials

  18. Survey of antimicrobial resistance in clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates over two decades in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Saiprom, Natnaree; Chantratita, Narisara; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Koh, Gavin C K W; Chaowagul, Wipada; Day, Nicholas P J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J

    2011-11-01

    A 21-year survey conducted in northeast Thailand of antimicrobial resistance to parenteral antimicrobial drugs used to treat melioidosis identified 24/4,021 (0.6%) patients with one or more isolates resistant to ceftazidime (n = 8), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (n = 4), or both drugs (n = 12). Two cases were identified at admission, and the remainder were detected a median of 15 days after starting antimicrobial therapy. Resistance to carbapenem drugs was not detected. These findings support the current prescribing recommendations for melioidosis.

  19. Impact of oral vancomycin on gut microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieze, Anne; Out, Carolien; Fuentes, Susana

    2014-01-01

    in humans would affect fecal microbiota composition and subsequently bile acid and glucose metabolism. METHODS: In this single blinded randomized controlled trial, 20 male obese subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 7 days of amoxicillin 500 mg t.i.d. or 7 days of vancomycin 500 mg t.i.d....... At baseline and after 1 week of therapy, fecal microbiota composition (Human Intestinal Tract Chip phylogenetic microarray), fecal and plasma bile acid concentrations as well as insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp using [6,6-(2)H2]-glucose tracer) were measured. RESULTS: Vancomycin reduced...

  20. Killing curve activity of ciprofloxacin is comparable to synergistic effect of beta-lactam-tobramycin combinations against Haemophilus species endocarditis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H; Frimodt-Møller, N; Gutschik, E

    1992-01-01

    Nine Haemophilus species strains, all beta-lactamase negative, isolated from patients with endocarditis were tested in killing curve experiments. Antibiotics used were penicillin, amoxicillin, aztreonam alone and in combination with tobramycin, as well as ciprofloxacin alone. Synergism between beta......-lactams and tobramycin with reduction of colony counts to zero was seen after 24 h for H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and H. segnis strains. Ciprofloxacin was as effective as beta-lactam-tobramycin combinations. The H. aphrophilus strain was not killed as effectively as other strains by any of the antibiotics....

  1. Heridas por Mordedura / Bites Injuries

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    Coturel A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanus vaccine should be indicated when the patient has not full vaccination scheme and rabies vaccine in cases of suspected or confirmed infected animals.

  2. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: an update for outpatients management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Noémie; Gehri, Mario; Gervaix, Alain; Guinan, Stéphane; Barazzone-Argiroffo, Constance

    2016-02-17

    Pneumonia should be considered in febrile children with tachypnea and/or chest recession. Virus are the most common cause of pneumonia in children under 5 years old. Streptococcus pneumonia can be found at any age. Mycoplasma pneumonia is more frequent in older children. Systematic chest radiograph is not necessary but must be obtained in patients with hypoventilation and in those with failed initial antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma pneumonia should be tested according to patient age and response to initial antibiotic. First line antibiotherapy is amoxicilline. Antibiotic treatment is frequently not necessary in children under 5 but should be considered depending on clinical presentation and C reactive protein value.

  3. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  4. [Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with functional dyspepsia, eradication rates in the Donetsk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeev, A É; Rudenko, N N; Agibalov, A N; Kugler, T E; Sibilev, A V; Tomash, O V

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated 175 patients with Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia. 104 (59%) patients were infected with Helicobacter pylori. Three-component (PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin) 7-day therapy with the addition of the probiotic was effective in 92 patients (88.4%). Dyspeptic symptoms were resolved in 37 patients with successful eradication (40%). Persistent effect for 6 months was maintained in 24 patients (26%). Eradication efficacy in eliminating of the dyspepsia symptoms was higher in epigastric pain syndrome than postprandial distress syndrome.

  5. [Piracetam in combined pathogenetic therapy of recurrent duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimmerman, Ia S; Shchetkin, D I

    2002-01-01

    Duodenal ulcer cure, as a systemic gastroenterologic disease, can be achieved in some patients by the addition of the nootropic drug piracetam to current antisecretory and antihelicobacter therapy. Piracetam corrects vegetative and psychoemotional disorders in duodenal ulcer, normalizes gastric motility, has an antioxidant effect and improves cerebral circulation. An optimal effect on clinico-endoscopic manifestations of recurrent duodenal ulcer was achieved in combination of piracetam with current antisecretory (omeprazole) and antihelicobacter (de-nol, amoxicillin, metronidazole) medicines. Such combination improves both short- and long-term outcomes of duodenal ulcer treatment.

  6. Acute otitis media in adults: many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    (1) Acute otitis media is likely in adults with recent-onset otalgia, fever, and a bulging eardrum on otoscopy. Management is similar to that in children: no antibiotics in the first instance, then amoxicillin later if antibiotic therapy is needed. (2) Otitis media with a perforated eardrum, and evidence of pus must be distinguished from external otitis. In patients with otitis media and a perforated eardrum, the commonest bacterial isolates are staphylococci, pseudomonas and pneumococci. (3) If antibiotics are prescribed the choice of agent is based on individual clinical findings and underlying health status.

  7. [Update on Current Care Guideline: Sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Maija; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Huovinen, Pentti; Ilkko, Eero; Jousimaa, Jukkapekka; Kivistö, Juho; Korppi, Matti; Liira, Helena; Malmivaara, Antti; Numminen, Jura; Pirilä, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Patients with common cold have often symptoms similar to sinusitis. These symptoms often resolve in time, but symptomatic treatment (e.g. analgesics, decongestants) may be used. If symptoms continue for over 10 days, or severe symptoms continue for over 3 days, or symptoms turn worse in the course of the disease, bacterial sinusitis should be suspected. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, and can be confirmed with ultrasound examination. Amoxicillin, penicillin or doxicyclin are recommended for bacterial sinusitis. Patients with chronic or recurrent sinusitis should be referred to specialist care.

  8. Cellulitis in a Liver Transplant Patient as an Initial Manifestation of Disseminated Cryptococcal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Davi Gomes de Sousa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old male underwent liver transplantation due to cryptogenic cirrhosis and was admitted with severe pain in the left leg as well as phlogosis. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was prescribed, assuming bullous erysipelas. Among the tests performed, the latex agglutination test for the Cryptococcus sp. antigen was positive, and in both the blood culture and blister culture Cryptococcus sp. was isolated. Daily fluconazole was started. Even though liposomal amphotericin B has been started on the fifth day of hospitalization, the patient progressed to death.

  9. Antibiotic treatment in patients with low-back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, HB; Manniche, C; Sørensen, JS;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment in a cohort of patients with low-back pain (LBP) and Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema) following a lumbar herniated disc. DESIGN: This was a prospective uncontrolled trial of 32 LBP patients who had Modic...... changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n = 166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes...

  10. Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food in Italy to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Paolo; Ferrini, Anna Maria; Mannoni, Veruscka; Hodzic, Snjezana; Wedell-Weergaard, Christina; Oliva, Brunello

    2003-06-25

    The susceptibility of 148 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food to antibiotics currently used in veterinary and human therapy was determined by standard agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. The antibiotics included amikacin, amoxicillin, cefazolin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, flumequine, fosfomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline, rifampicin, spiramycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tobramycin and vancomycin. Soussy's breakpoints and MIC(50)-MIC(90) values were used to classify the strains into sensitive, moderately sensitive and resistant groups. This work is part of a wider surveillance program on listeriosis started in Italy in 1995.

  11. In vitro studies of Dermatophilus congolensis antimicrobial susceptibility by determining minimal inhibitory and bacteriocidal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso de Mendoza, J; Arenas, A; Rey, J; Alonso, J M; Gil, M C; Naranjo, G; Hermoso de Mendoza, M

    1994-01-01

    The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bacteriocidal Concentration (MBC) of 19 antimicrobials on 16 isolates of D. congolensis were determined. The potential field efficacy of the agents was evaluated by comparing the results with serum levels of drug unbound to proteins and the in vitro and in vivo findings of other authors. A modified standard microtechnique was used for serial dilution-antimicrobial sensitivity and found to be easy and reproducible. Erythromycin, spiramycin, penicillin G, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, the streptomycin, amoxicillin, the tetracyclines and novobiocin had high serum concentrations in comparison with their MBCs and were shown to have potential use for the treatment of dermatophilosis.

  12. Cellulitis in a Liver Transplant Patient as an Initial Manifestation of Disseminated Cryptococcal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes de Sousa, Marcos Davi; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Barros Costa Fernandes, Luís Eduardo; Guedes Leal, Cássia Regina; Rocha Magalhães, Cristiane; Custódio Neto da Silva, Marcos Antonio; Silva Barcaui, Halime

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old male underwent liver transplantation due to cryptogenic cirrhosis and was admitted with severe pain in the left leg as well as phlogosis. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was prescribed, assuming bullous erysipelas. Among the tests performed, the latex agglutination test for the Cryptococcus sp. antigen was positive, and in both the blood culture and blister culture Cryptococcus sp. was isolated. Daily fluconazole was started. Even though liposomal amphotericin B has been started on the fifth day of hospitalization, the patient progressed to death. PMID:28101016

  13. Prescription for antibiotics at drug shops and strategies to improve quality of care and patient safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2016-01-01

    in the private health sector in Uganda. METHODS: A survey was conducted within 57 parishes from August to October 2014 in Mukono District, Uganda. Data was captured on the following variables: drug shop characteristics, training of staff in management of pneumonia, availability of guidelines and basic equipment.......5% were prescribing antibiotics, especially amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (septrin). The professional qualification of a provider was significantly associated with this practice, p=0.04; where lower cadre staff (nursing assistants and enrolled nurses) overprescribed antibiotics. A third...

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility and phylotyping profile of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from calves and pigs in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Monalisa S M; Coura, Fernanda M; Dorneles, Elaine M S; Stynen, Ana Paula R; Alves, Telma M; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Pauletti, Rebeca B; Guedes, Roberto M C; Viott, Aline M; Heinemann, Marcos B; Lage, Andrey P

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine (i) the profiles of phylogroup and (ii) the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from calves, and of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from calves and pigs in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Sixty-one pathogenic E. coli strains and Salmonella spp. (n = 24) strains isolated from fecal samples of calves and Salmonella spp. (n = 39) strains previously isolated from fecal samples of growing/finishing pigs were tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the agar dilution method was determined for nalidixic acid, amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amikacin. Tetracycline was the antimicrobial that presented the higher frequency of resistance among E. coli strains, followed by ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, gentamicin, and cefoxitin. E. coli (n = 61) strains isolated from calves belonged to different phylogroup namely, phylogroup A (n = 26), phylogroup B1 (n = 31), phylogroup E (n = 3), and phylogroup F (n = 1). Phylogroups B2, C, and D were not identified among the E. coli in the present study. All Salmonella spp. (n = 24) strains isolated from fecal samples of calves were susceptible to amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to nalidixic acid and cefoxitin was detected in 16.66 and 8.33 % of the Salmonella spp. strains, respectively. Among the Salmonella spp. (n = 39) strains isolated from fecal samples of pigs, the higher frequency of resistance was observed to tetracycline, followed by amoxicillin, gentamicin, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, cefoxitin, and norfloxacin. All strains were susceptible to amikacin. Forty-eight (78.68 %) of the E. coli strains

  15. Triple therapy with ilaprazole,levofloxacin and clarithromycin for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of triple therapy with ilaprazole,levofloxacin and clarithromycin and standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori(Hp)eradication.Methods One hundred and twenty Hp(+)patients were randomized to two groups:the treatment group:60 patients received ilaprazole 5 mg,bid,levofloxacin 0.5 g,qd,and clarithromycin 500 mg,bid,for7 days;60 patients received omeprazole 20 mg,bid,amoxicillin 1 g,and clarithromycin 500 mg,bid,for 7days.Follow-up Hp test was performed at four weeks after the treatment.Results Intention-treatment analysis

  16. First-line eradication of H pylori infection in Europe: A meta-analysis based on congress abstracts, 1997-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gy(o)rgy M Buzás; Jolán Józan

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To meta-analyse the European abstracts presented between 1997-2004 at the European H pylori Study Group, United European Gastroenterology Week meetings and World Congresses of Gastroenterology.METHODS: The abstracts of randomized/controlled prospective studies were classified into groups based on first-line eradication schedules. The quality of the abstracts was checked by a validated score system. The pooled eradication rates (PER) and combined odds ratios (OR) were calculated and compared with the published meta-analyses.RESULTS: The PER of proton pump inhibitor-based (PPI) one week triple therapies was 81.4% (confidence interval, 95% CI: 78.5-84.5). Ranitidine bismuth citratebased (RBC) triple regimens have an efficiency rate of 78.5% (95% CI: 70.5%-84.3%) (P = 0.28 vs PPI).The OR for PPI effect vs RBC regimens was 1.1 (95%CI: 0.92-1.30). H2 receptor antagonist-based triple therapies achieved 64.1% (95% CI: 52.6-75.6) (P =0.02 < 0.05 vs PPI), the OR vs PPI regimens was 1.55(95% CI: 0.72-3.78). PPI-based double combinations were less efficient than triple regimens (PER: 55.0%,OR: 4.90, 95% CI: 2.36-9.70). Quadruple regimens were successful in 82.6% (95% CI: 76.0-89.7), the OR vs triple therapies was 0.80 (0.62-1.03). Clarithromycin +amoxicillin or nitroimidazole combinations were efficient in 80.5% (95% CI: 77.2-84.2) and 83.8% (95% CI:81.7-85.9), respectively. Amoxicillin + nitromidazole therapies eradicated the infection in 73.5% (66.6-78.5) (P = 0.01 < 0.05 vs clarithromycin-based regimens).CONCL JSION: PPI/RBC-based triple therapies achieved comparable results with the meta-analyses. H2-receptor antagonists and PPI-based double combinations were less efficient. Triple and quadruple regimens were equally effective. Clarithromycin + either amoxicillin or nitroimidazole containing regimens were more effective than amoxicillin + nitroimidazole combinations. High quality congress abstracts constitutes a valuable pool of data which is suitable for meta

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis strains from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga Mária; Makrai, László; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Fodor, László; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-06-01

    The susceptibility of 29 Bacillus anthracis strains, collected in Hungary between 1933 and 2014, was tested to 10 antibiotics with commercially available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test strips. All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, penicillin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin and cefotaxime was detected in 17.2% (5/29) and 58.6% (17/29) of the strains, respectively. Correlations were not observed between the isolation date, location, host species, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility profile of strains.

  18. Modified Sequential Therapy Regimen versus Conventional Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Duodenal Ulcer Patients in China: A Multicenter Clinical Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Qun Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Antimicrobial resistance has decreased eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori infection worldwide. To observe the effect of eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and the treatment of duodenal ulcer by 2 kinds of modified sequential therapy through comparing with that of 10-day standard triple therapy. Methods. A total of 210 patients who were confirmed in duodenal ulcer active or heal period by gastroscopy and H. pylori positive confirmed by rapid urease test, serum anti-H. pylori antibody (ELASE, or histological examination enrolled in the study. All the patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A (70 cases and group B (70 cases were provided 10-day modified sequential therapy; group C (70 cases was provided 10-day standard triple therapy. Patients of group A received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group B received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group C received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for standard 10-day therapy. All drugs were given twice daily. H. pylori eradication rate was checked four to eight weeks after taking the medicine by using a 13C urea breath test. In the first, second, third, seventh, twenty-first, thirty-fifth days respectively, the symptoms of patients such as epigastric gnawing, burning pain, and acidity were evaluated simultaneously. Results. Overall, 210 patients accomplished all therapy schemes, 9 case patients were excluded. The examination result indicated that the H. pylori eradication rate of each group was as follows: group A 92.5% (62/67, group B 86.8% (59/68, and group C 78.8% (52/66. The H. pylori

  19. Haemophilus influenzae infections in adults: a pathogen in search of respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, L J

    1997-02-01

    Despite the success of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in preventing bacterial disease in children, H influenzae remains a common pathogen in adult patients in the United States and Europe. At least half of invasive H influenzae infections are caused by nontypable strains. The spectrum of diseases includes sinusitis, pneumonia, otitis media, epiglotitis, and meningitis. An etiologic diagnosis is most reliably established by positive cultures from a normally sterile site. Although resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin has steadily increased in clinical H influenzae isolates during the past two decades, a variety of other antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment of infections caused by this bacterium.

  20. A Case of Liver Abscess with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saho Koyano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Desulfovibrio spp. are gram-negative, sulfate-reducing, and anaerobic bacteria found in the digestive tract of humans. Because Desulfovibrio spp. are infrequent causative agents of infectious diseases and are difficult to isolate and to identify from clinical specimens, the appropriate antibiotic therapy to infection with Desulfovibrio spp. has not been determined. We report the first case of liver abscess with bacteremia due to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans to show the clinical presentation and treatment. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam and oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

  1. Quantum chemical studies on the inhibition potentials of some Penicillin compounds for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.1 M HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Nnabuk Okon; Ebenso, Eno E

    2010-07-01

    Inhibitive and adsorption properties of Penicillin G, Amoxicillin and Penicillin V potassium were studied using gravimetric, gasometric and quantum chemical methods. The results obtained indicate that these compounds are good adsorption inhibitors for the corrosion of mild steel in HCl solution. The adsorption of the inhibitors on mild steel surface is spontaneous, exothermic and supports the mechanism of physical adsorption. From DFT results, the sites for nucleophilic attacks in the inhibitors are the carboxylic acid functional group while the sites for electrophilic attacks are in the phenyl ring. There was a strong correlation between theoretical and experimental inhibition efficiencies.

  2. Single case study of brain FDG PET imaging in a patient with catatonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breker, Dane; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

    2013-07-01

    We report a case of bilateral occipitotemporal and thalamic hypometabolism on FDG PET in a 19-year-old male patient who presented with altered mental status. He had a history of static encephalopathy and presented with visual hallucinations and decreased verbal output, sleep, and appetite 7 days after starting amoxicillin for otitis media. Extensive evaluation failed to demonstrate any infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune-mediated (including negative testing for NMDA receptor antibody), paraneoplastic, or toxic-metabolic etiology. Ultimately, he responded well to a benzodiazepine challenge and electroconvulsive therapy and was diagnosed with catatonia.

  3. Detection of AmpC Beta-Lactamase in Escherichia coli: Comparison of Three Phenotypic Confirmation Assays and Genetic Analysis▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Peter-Getzlaff, S; Polsfuss, S; Poledica, M.; Hombach, M.; Giger, J.; Böttger, E C; Zbinden, R.; Bloemberg, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    Two mechanisms account for AmpC activity in Escherichia coli, namely, mutations in the ampC promoter and attenuator regions resulting in ampC overexpression and acquisition of plasmid-carried ampC genes. In this study, we analyzed 51 clinical E. coli isolates with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, or extended-spectrum cephalosporins for the presence of AmpC production. Three phenotypic AmpC confirmation assays (cefoxitin-cloxacillin disk diffusion...

  4. Catalase-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a diabetic foot ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Zali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a catalase-negative Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a 56-year-old male diabetic patient with foot ulcer who attended our surgery ward. Species identification was confirmed by Gram staining, standard biochemical tests and PCR amplification of the nuc and fem genes. Antibiotic susceptibility showed that the strain was sensitive to imepenem, chloramphenicol, amoxicillin, vancomycin and resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, clindamycin, and amikacin. Clinicians and microbiologists must be encouraged to identify and report these atypical strains and the infections associated with them in order to establish their role in pathogenesis.

  5. Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics from 2000 to 2009 in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) to 6 commonly used antibiotics from 2000 to 2009 in Shanghai. METHODS: A total of 293 H. pylori strains were collected from 2000 to 2009 in Shanghai and tested for their susceptibility to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, furazolidone, levofloxacin and tetracycline using agar dilution. RESULTS: The resistant rates of H. pylori to clarithromycin (8.6%, 9.0% and 20.7%) and levofloxacin (10.3%, 24.0% and 32.5%) increased from 2000...

  6. Determinants of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from faeces and urine of women with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper D J den Heijer

    Full Text Available For women with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI, the contribution of antibiotic use versus patient-related factors in determining the presence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal and urinary Escherichia coli, obtained from the same patient population, has not been assessed yet. Within the context of the 'Non-antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections' (NAPRUTI study, the present study assessed determinants of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from urinary and faecal samples of women with rUTIs collected at baseline. Potential determinants of resistance were retrieved from self-administered questionnaires. From 434 asymptomatic women, 433 urinary and 424 faecal samples were obtained. E. coli was isolated from 146 (34% urinary samples and from 336 (79% faecal samples, and subsequently tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Multivariable analysis showed trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT use three months prior to inclusion to be associated with urine E. coli resistance to amoxicillin (OR 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-9.9, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (OR 4.4, 1.5-13.3, trimethoprim (OR 3.9, 1.4-10.5 and SXT (OR 3.2, 1.2-8.5, and with faecal E. coli resistance to trimethoprim (OR 2.0, 1.0-3.7. The number of UTIs in the preceding year was correlated with urine E. coli resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (OR 1.11, 1.01-1.22, trimethoprim (OR 1.13, 1.03-1.23 and SXT (OR 1.10, 1.01-1.19. Age was predictive for faecal E. coli resistance to amoxicillin (OR 1.02, 1.00-1.03, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (both OR 1.03, 1.01-1.06. In conclusion, in women with rUTI different determinants were found for urinary and faecal E. coli resistance. Previous antibiotic use and UTI history were associated with urine E. coli resistance and age was a predictor of faecal E. coli resistance. These associations could best be explained by cumulative antibiotic use.

  7. Synthesis of new bioactive aminophosphonates and study of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well the assessment of their toxicological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiche, Rebiha; Chafaa, Salah

    2017-02-01

    Two new categories of α-aminophosphonates molecules were synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis, IR, and NMR. Their spectral properties show a perfect convergence. Their biological activities were evaluated. Molecules 1a, 2a, and 1d present a greater antioxidant potential than BHT and vitamin C. The best anti-inflammatory activity is shown by the 2b molecule and that of 1a, 2a, and 2c molecules are closely comparable to that of diclofenac. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds is significantly higher than the antibiotic amoxicillin. The hemolysis rate HR of compounds 1b, 1c, 2b, and 2c was lower than 5%.

  8. Multiresistant bacterial infections in liver cirrhosis: Clinical impact and new empirical antibiotic treatment policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, important changes have been reported regarding the epidemiology of bacterial infections in liver cirrhosis. There is an emergence of multiresistant bacteria in many European countries and also worldwide, including the United States and South Korea. The classic empirical antibiotic treatment (third-generation cephalosporins, e.g., ceftriaxone, cefotaxime or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) is still effective in infections acquired in the community, but its failure rate in hospital acquired infections and in some health-care associated infections is high enough to ban its use in these settings. The current editorial focuses on the different epidemiology of bacterial infections in cirrhosis across countries and on its therapeutic implications. PMID:25954474

  9. Susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas de otite externa em cães Antimicrobial sensitivity of bacteria from otitis externa in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of canine externa otitis in Fortaleza-Ceará is reported. About 91.5% of the animals with clinical signs were positive to bacterial culture. Among all infections, 49.5% were mixed infections and the most common pathogens were Staphylococcus spp coagulase negative or positive and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most effective antimicrobials for Staphylococcus coagulase negative were: the quinolones, the aminoglicoside netilmycin and the beta-lactams, excepted ampicillin, penicillin and oxacilin; for Staphylococcus coagulase positive were: cefotoxin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, imipenem, netilmycin and cephatoxin; for Pseudomonas aeruginosa were: ciprofloxacin, tobramycin and imipenem.

  10. Failure of standard antimicrobial therapy in children aged 3-59 months with mild or asymptomatic HIV infection and severe pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeena, Prakash; Donald M Thea; MacLeod, William B.; Chisaka, Noel; Matthew P Fox; H M Coovadia; Qazi, Shamim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children aged 3-59 months with mild or non-symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and WHO-defined severe pneumonia have a higher failure rate than do HIV-uninfected children when treated with the standard WHO treatment of parenteral penicillin or oral amoxicillin. METHODS: This study was a planned sub-analysis of a randomized trial of 3-59-month-old children presenting with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (the APPIS study). We included two sites ...

  11. Age-dependent eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Japanese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoshi; Mamori; Akihiro; Higashida; Fumiaki; Kawara; Katsuhiro; Ohnishi; Akihiko; Takeda; Eri; Senda; Cho; Ashida; Hajime; Yamada

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the general risk factors affecting the failure rate of first-line eradication therapy in Japanese patients with Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori)infection.METHODS:The present study enrolled 253 patients who had an H.pylori infection,underwent gastroendoscopy,and were treated with H.pylori eradication therapy.Eradication therapy consisted of 30 mg lansoprazole plus 750 mg amoxicillin and 400 mg clarithromycin twice daily for 7 d.All of the patients underwent a 13 C urea breath test at least 1 mo...

  12. Invitro Comparitive Study of the Efficacy of Licorice Decoctant and Choice Antibiotics on Helicobacter Pylori Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Botorabi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice root, a member of the pea family has been used since ancient times as both food and medicine. Licorice has been used as an antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti inflammatory in researches .Extraction of this medical plant is used as the basis of anti-ulcer medicine for treatment of peptic ulcer. Patients and Methods: In the present study, licorice decoction (20gr/dl,33gr/dl was prepared and anti microbial activity on helicobacter pylori growth was studied by disk diffusion method and cup plate method. Results: The results showed that licorice decoction 33gr/dl by disk diffusion method inhibited growth of helicobacter pylori in vitro the same as metronidazole.(P value=0.709 However, it does not have anti bacterial activity against helicobacter pylori like amoxicillin and clarythromycin (Pvalue~0.000. Conclusion: Decoction licorice (20gr/dl, 33gr/dl can not be used as an alternative to choice antibiotics (amoxicillin, clarythromycin in vitro.

  13. Sample stacking for the analysis of penicillins by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsi-Ya; Hsieh, Shih-Huan

    2008-09-01

    In this study, on-line sample concentration methods, which coupled field-amplified sample injection and sweeping technology with MEEKC, were used to detect and analyze eight common penicillin antibiotics (nafcillin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, penicillin V, cloxacillin, penicillin G, and amoxicillin). During the optimization of field-amplified sample injection-sweeping MEEKC, the composition of sample matrix and the length of acidic plug were found to be the predominant influences for penicillin stacking. Both zwitterionic ampicillin and amoxicillin could only be stacked through cation-selective-exhaustive-injection sweeping, whereas the other six penicillin compounds were found to be concentrated by anion-selective-exhaustive-injection sweeping. Hence, in order to simultaneously concentrate the eight penicillins in a single-run sweeping step, a combination of successive anion- and cation-selective injections was used. When compared with previous CE-UV methods, the proposed on-line concentration MEEKC method provided better detection sensitivity and faster separation for these penicillins either in single ion-selective injection or in successive anion-/cation-selective injection where the LODs were in the range of 0.2-2.8 microg/L and 0.5-5.8 microg/L, respectively.

  14. Addition of cranberry to proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedmajidi, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi, Anahita; Hajiebrahimi, Shahin; Seyedmajidi, Seyedali; Rajabikashani, Majid; Firoozabadi, Mona; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy with two antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori eradication is widely accepted, but this combination fails in a considerable number of cases. Some studies have shown that cranberry inhibits the adhesion of a wide range of microbial pathogens, including H. pylori. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cranberry on H. pylori eradication with a standard therapy including lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (LCA) in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Methods: In this study, H. pylori-positive patients with PUD were randomized into two groups: Group A: A 14-day LCA triple therapy with 30 mg lansoprazole bid, 1000 mg amoxicillin bid, and 500 mg clarithromycin bid; Group B: A 14-day 500 mg cranberry capsules bid plus LCA triple therapy. A 13C-urea breath test was performed for eradication assessment 6 weeks after the completion of the treatment. Findings: Two hundred patients (53.5% males, between 23 and 77 years, mean age ± standard deviation: 50.29 ± 17.79 years) continued treatment protocols and underwent 13C-urea breath testing. H. pylori eradication was achieved in 74% in Group A (LCA without cranberry) and 89% in Group B (LCA with cranberry) (P = 0.042). Conclusion: The addition of cranberry to LCA triple therapy for H. pylori has a higher rate of eradication than the standard regimen alone (up to 89% and significant). PMID:27843960

  15. Comparison of Triple Therapy plus Probiotic Yogurt vs. Standard Triple Therapy on Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mirzaee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori as a major cause of gastric diseases is of utmost concern. We aimed to assess efficacy of triple therapy (amoxicillin, clarithromycin and pantoprazole plus probiotic yogurt (PY on eradication of H. pylori. Materials and Methods: Total 102 H. pylori positive patients were divided to 3 groups equally and randomly. For treatment of each group amoxicillin, clarithromycin and pantoprazole were used. Group A had additional PY and Group B ordinary low fat yogurt in their regimen as well. These groups were compared regarding treatment success.Results: Total number of 88 patients finished the treatment course. The most common experienced side effects were dysgeusia in groups A and B (25.8% and 32.3%, respectively, and dysgeusia with diarrhea and abdominal pain (30.8% in group C. Eradication rate was, respectively, 61.3%, 64.5% and 71.3% in group A, B and C of which difference was not statistically significant. However, the difference between 3 groups in regard to education level was statistically significant (p=0.005.Conclusion: PY enriched triple therapy has decreased side effects of antibiotics consumption; however, this has no impact on eradication of H. pylori. PY and triple therapy can be used concomitantly to increase the patient tolerance.

  16. Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Famouri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Childrenwith Helicobacter infection need treatment. The aim of treatment is elimination of H.Pylori. Most patients with this infection are asymptomatic and without peptic disease. Treatment and management of these patients are controversy. Conventional Treatment: The best treatment for H. pylori eradication regimens should have cure rates of at least 80%, be without major side effects, and induce minimal bacterial resistance. Antibiotics alone have not achieved this. Luminal acidity influences both the effectiveness of some antimicrobial agents and the survival of the bacteri; thus antibiotics have been combined with acid suppression such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, bismuth, or H2 antagonists. The “classic” regimen is treatment twice daily for 7 days with a PPI and clarithromycin plus either amoxicillin or metronidazole Bismuth has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and 1 part o quadruple therapy for H.Pylori but compliance of children for it is low.   Sequential Therapy  Sequential therapyinvolves dual therapy with a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed sequentially by clarithromycin, Tinidazole and omeperazole for 5 days or other triple therapy for 7 days. This treatment has had 97% efficacy.   Adjunctive Therapies A number of studies have showed the potential benefits of probiotic therapy in H. pylori treatment regimens.Consumption of these drugs accompanied with other medications increase H.Pylori eradication.    

  17. Awareness of Iranian’s General Dentists Regarding the Latest Prophylaxis Guideline for Prevention of Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaderi F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental procedures leading to oral tissue injuries may provoke bacterial release to the blood stream causing infective endocarditis (IE in vulnerable patients. The guideline which was proposed by AHA has been updated 9 times having the last update published in 2007. This study was endeavored to uncover the level of knowledge of general dental practitioners in Shiraz, concerning the 2007 AHA guidelines for endocarditis prophylaxis in patients with cardiac problems receiving dental treatments.Materials and Method: This cross- sectional and descriptive analytical study included 150 dentists as participants. All practitioners were given a self –report questionnaire which consisted of three sections. Questions were designed to assess their knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cardiac disease. Results: Almost all participants (93% were aware of antibiotic prophylaxis to be essential for tooth extraction. Most participants did not believe in prophylaxis for noninvasive procedures (such as shedding of primary teeth, impression, intraoral radiography. From all of the respondents, 75% considered Amoxicillin to be the anti-biotic of choice and 57% were acquainted with the correct dose of Amoxicillin for high risk patients.Conclusion: The study identified a potential for under/over prescription of antibiotic prophylaxis under the current guideline. Burden of IE necessitates more accurate knowledge of antibiotic prophylaxis in the undergraduate curriculum and continuing education programs of dentistry.

  18. Pseudomembranous colitis associated with a triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifan, Anca; Girleanu, Irina; Cojocariu, Camelia; Sfarti, Catalin; Singeap, Ana Maria; Dorobat, Carmen; Grigore, Lucia; Stanciu, Carol

    2013-11-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common chronic bacterial infections in humans, affecting half of world's population. Therapy for H. pylori infection has proven to be both effective and safe. The one-week triple therapy including proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and