WorldWideScience

Sample records for amoxicillin

  1. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying amoxicillin. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

  2. Lansoprazole, Clarithromycin, and Amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amoxicillin are in a class of medications called antibiotics. Lansoprazole works by decreasing the amount of acid made in ... growth of the bacteria that may cause ulcers. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

  3. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi Shahien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of aseptic meningitis due to amoxicillin, and then review the literature on this rare idiosyncratic event which may occur after local or systemic drug administration. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Seven days before admission he had a dental and gingival inflammation. He was treated with two oral doses of 500 mg daily of amoxicillin for one week. The seventh day he awoke with the complaints that prompted hospital admittance. Amoxicillin was stopped 1 day before his admission. From his history we knew of two similar episodes: The first episode was after a dental procedure 3 months before this incident. He had received a 1-week course of postprocedure amoxicillin of 500 mg daily and had similar headache, fever, and chills during the entire course of treatment. He wasn’t admitted to the hospital, because he stopped taking amoxicillin and he felt spontaneous pain relief after taking symptomatic pain treatment. The second episodes was 6 months after his first admission, he had been admitted to our hospital with the same symptoms. Amoxicillin was stopped and changed with intravenous (IV ceftriaxone (CTRX for 10 days due to suspected partial untreated meningitis. The patient improved rapidly within 2 days and was discharged from the hospital. On the basis of these three confirmed episodes of meningitis after recurrent exposure to amoxicillin, with repetitive negative testing for viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial

  4. Dental enamel, fluorosis and amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ciarrocchi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most used antibiotics among pediatric patients for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections and specially for acute otitis media (AOM, a common diseases of infants and childhood. It has been speculated that the use of amoxicillin during early childhood could be associated with dental enamel fluorosis, also described in literature with the term Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH, because they are generally situated in one or more 1st permanent molars and less frequently in the incisors. The effect of Amoxicillin seems to be independent of other risk factors such as fluoride intake, prematurity, hypoxia, hypocalcaemia, exposure to dioxins, chikenpox, otitis media, high fever and could have a significant impact on oral health for the wide use of this drug in that period of life. Objective: The aim of this work was to review the current literature about the association between amoxicillin and fluorosis. Methods and Results: A literature survey was done by applying the Medline database (Entrez PubMed; the Cochrane Library database of the Cochrane Collaboration (CENTRAL. The databases were searched using the following strategy and keywords: amoxicillin* AND (dental fluorosis* OR dental enamel* AND MIH*. After selecting the studies, only three relevant articles published between 1966 and 2011 were included in the review. Conclusion: The presence of several methodological issues does not allow to draw any evidence-based conclusions. No evidence of association was detected, therefore, there is a need of further well-designed studies to assess the scientific evidence of the relationship between amoxicillin and fluorosis and to restrict the prescription of this drug for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections especially acute otitis media (AOM during the first two years of life. When it is possible can be opportune to use an alternative antibiotic treatment.

  5. Amoxicillin functionalized gold nanoparticles reverts MRSA resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, Sanjeeb; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Sharma, Kaustav Kalyan; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Deka, Manab; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have described the biosynthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from aqueous extract of the aerial parts of a pteridophyte, “Adiantum philippense” by microwave irradiation and its surface functionalization with broad spectrum beta lactam antibiotic, amoxicillin (Amox). The functionalization of amoxicillin on GNPs (GNP-Amox) was carried out via electrostatic interaction of protonated amino group and thioether moiety mediated attractive forces. The synthesized GNPs and GNP-Amox were physicochemically characterized. UV–Vis spectroscopy, Zeta potential, XRD, FTIR and SERS (surface enhanced raman spectra) results confirmed the loading of Amox into GNPs. Loading of Amox to GNPs reduce amoxicillin cytotoxicity, whereas GNPs were found to be nontoxic to mouse fibroblast cell line (L929) as evident from MTT and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) live/dead cell assays. The GNP-Amox conjugates demonstrated enhanced broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, in-vitro and in-vivo assays of GNP-Amox revealed potent anti-MRSA activity and improved the survival rate. This indicates the subversion of antibiotic resistance mechanism by overcoming the effect of high levels of β-lactamase produced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Taken together, this study demonstrates the positive attributes from GNP-Amox conjugates as a promising antibacterial therapeutic agent against MRSA as well as other pathogens. - Highlights: • Aqueous extract of A. phillippens was used as a reducing and capping agent for synthesis of microwave irradiated gold nanoparticles. • GNPs were loaded with amoxicillin for restoration in antibacterial activity of amoxicillin against MRSA strains. • Gold nanoparticles and GNP-Amox were found biocompitable as tested on L929 cell line. • The nanoparticle antibiotic conjugates exhibited restoration of amoxicillin activity against MRSA in

  6. Amoxicillin functionalized gold nanoparticles reverts MRSA resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalita, Sanjeeb; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Sharma, Kaustav Kalyan [Drug Discovery Lab, Life Science Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST), Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India); Kataki, Amal Chandra [Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Institute, Guwahati, Assam (India); Department of Applied Sciences, Gopinath Bordoloi Nagar, Jalukbari, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Deka, Manab [Department of Applied Sciences, Gopinath Bordoloi Nagar, Jalukbari, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Kotoky, Jibon, E-mail: jkotoky@gmail.com [Drug Discovery Lab, Life Science Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST), Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati 781035, Assam (India)

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have described the biosynthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from aqueous extract of the aerial parts of a pteridophyte, “Adiantum philippense” by microwave irradiation and its surface functionalization with broad spectrum beta lactam antibiotic, amoxicillin (Amox). The functionalization of amoxicillin on GNPs (GNP-Amox) was carried out via electrostatic interaction of protonated amino group and thioether moiety mediated attractive forces. The synthesized GNPs and GNP-Amox were physicochemically characterized. UV–Vis spectroscopy, Zeta potential, XRD, FTIR and SERS (surface enhanced raman spectra) results confirmed the loading of Amox into GNPs. Loading of Amox to GNPs reduce amoxicillin cytotoxicity, whereas GNPs were found to be nontoxic to mouse fibroblast cell line (L929) as evident from MTT and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) live/dead cell assays. The GNP-Amox conjugates demonstrated enhanced broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, in-vitro and in-vivo assays of GNP-Amox revealed potent anti-MRSA activity and improved the survival rate. This indicates the subversion of antibiotic resistance mechanism by overcoming the effect of high levels of β-lactamase produced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Taken together, this study demonstrates the positive attributes from GNP-Amox conjugates as a promising antibacterial therapeutic agent against MRSA as well as other pathogens. - Highlights: • Aqueous extract of A. phillippens was used as a reducing and capping agent for synthesis of microwave irradiated gold nanoparticles. • GNPs were loaded with amoxicillin for restoration in antibacterial activity of amoxicillin against MRSA strains. • Gold nanoparticles and GNP-Amox were found biocompitable as tested on L929 cell line. • The nanoparticle antibiotic conjugates exhibited restoration of amoxicillin activity against MRSA in

  7. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis in biofilms to amoxicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole......Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole...

  8. [Obstructive renal insufficiency caused by amoxicillin crystalluria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursas, M; Benhassine, L; Kempf, J; Petit, B; Vuillemin, F

    1997-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman was admitted to the ICU for a meningitis with rhombencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes. The treatment included amoxicillin (250 mg.kg-1.day-1) and gentamicin (3 mg.kg-1.day-1 over 6 days). Neurological outcome was favourable. However at the 14th day, an acute renal failure occurred, following macroscopic haematuria and milkiness urine. CT scan and sonography confirmed the diagnosis of obstructive renal failure with bilateral ureteral obstruction. Crystalluria caused by amoxicillin was suspected. Endoscopic ureteral insertion of double-J catheters permitted the recovery of a normal renal function.

  9. Decomposition and mineralization of amoxicillin by high ionizing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Kyu; Yu, Seung Ho; Lee, Myun Joo; Jeong, Seung Woo

    2007-01-01

    The presence of antibiotics in aquatic environment has been concerning as a new environment pollutant problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of antibiotics by gamma irradiation. Amoxicillin as one of β-lactam antibiotics is widely used for both human and animals. To compare the removal efficiencies of amoxicillin, amoxicillin solutions were saturated or purged with three difference gases; N 2 O, O 2 and N 2 separately. The amoxicillin solutions were irradiated at up to 100 kGy. Amoxicillin was completely degraded between 20 and 40 kGy. Especially, amoxicillin saturated with N2O showed the highest degradation rate, and 90% TOC removal efficiency. The enhanced radiolytic decomposition of amoxicillin can be explained by the reactions with oxidizing radicals such as ∙OH and O 2 ∙ - /HO 2 ∙ radicals

  10. Amoxicillin in a biological water recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, A.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K.; Pickering, K.

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are new contaminants of concern in the aquatic environment, having been identified in groundwater, surface water, and residential tap water. Possible sources of pharmaceuticals include household wastewaters, runoff from feedlots, or waste discharges from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants. When surface water or groundwater supplies impacted by pharmaceuticals are used in drinking water production, the contaminants may reduce drinking water quality. Many pharmaceuticals, such as amoxicillin, pass through the body largely unmetabolized and directly enter wastewater collection systems. Pharmaceuticals are designed to persist in the body long enough to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, they may also have the ability to persist in the environment (Seiler et al, 1999). The purpose of this work is to determine the overall transformation potential of a candidate pharmaceutical in wastewater treatment with specific emphasis on recycle systems. Amoxicillin is the selected pharmaceutical agent, an orally absorbed broad-spectrum antibiotic with a variety of clinical uses including ear, nose, and throat infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Experiments were conducted using an anaerobic reactor (with NO 3 - and NO 2 - as the e - acceptors) followed by a two-phase nitrifying tubular reactor. Influent composed of water, urine and surfactant was spiked with amoxicillin and fed into the wastewater recycle system. The concentration of amoxicillin in the feed and effluent was quantified using an HPLC. Results from this study include potential for long-term buildup in recycled systems, accumulation of breakdown products and possible transfer of antibiotic resistance to microorganisms in the system effluent. In addition, the results of this study may provide information on contamination potential for communities that are considering supplementing drinking water supplies with recovered wastewater or for entities considering a closed loop

  11. Analytical Control of a Starter Pig Feed Medicated with Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zemanová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin concentrations were determined by two independent laboratories for a pig starter feed medicated from a coated amoxicillin premix. The analytical method was previously transferred from one laboratory to the other one. The data between the two laboratories were consistent, showing ruggedness of the assay. Mean amoxicillin feed concentrations before and after pelletization were higher than 90% of the theoretical content, confirming satisfactory stability of this active ingredient in the coated form tested.

  12. Comparative efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin in the reduction of postsurgical sequelae after third molar surgery: A randomized, double blind, clinical trial in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital.

  13. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88f Amoxicillin... days, review diagnosis and change therapy. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of...

  14. Sensitivity of Amoxicillin-Resistant Helicobacter pylori to Other Penicillins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Maria P.; Graham, David Y.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Realdi, Giuseppe; Osato, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivities to penicillins and to a penicillin and β-lactamase inhibitor combination agent were determined for Helicobacter pylori strains that were sensitive, moderately resistant, or highly resistant to amoxicillin. All strains were resistant to nafcillin and oxacillin. Moderately resistant strains showed an intermediate zone of inhibition to ticarcillin, mezlocillin, piperacillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. High-level resistance was associated with the smallest zone size for all penicillins tested. PMID:10390249

  15. In vivo Evaluation of Amoxicillin Trihydrate and Clarithromycin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo clearance efficacy of the microspheres was evaluated in a Wistar rat model after induction of H. pylori infection. Amoxicillin and clarithromycin-loaded microspheres were administered twice daily for three days. H. Pylori clearance was evaluated by assessing colony count. Results: Treatment with plain drug solution ...

  16. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of amoxicillin encapsulated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize and characterize amoxicillin encapsulated in mucoadhesive alginate-coated chitosan microparticles for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori. Methods: Eighteen batches of various ratios of chitosan, sodium alginate and calcium chloride were prepared by ...

  17. Influence of Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin on Rat Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effect of chloramphenicol and amoxicillin on liver microsomal enzymes Ca2+-ATPase and Glucose-6-Phosphatase (G-6-P) and lipid peroxidation in rats. Male Wistar strain rats weighing 120 – 195 g were divided into four groups. Group one, the control group, received physiological saline, group ...

  18. Research of amoxicillin microcapsules preparation playing micro-jetting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huaiyuan; Gu, Qingqing; Liao, Yuehua; Sun, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    With polylactic-co-glycolic acid(PLGA) as shell material of microcapsule, amoxicillin as the model, poly(vinyl alcohol) and twain as surfactant, amoxicillin-PLGA microcapsules were manufactured using digital micro-jetting technology and a glass nozzle of 40μm diameter. The influences of the parameters of micro-jetting system on the mean grain size and size distribution of amoxicillin-PLGA microcapsules were studied with single factor analysis and orthogonal experiment method, namely, PLGA solution concentration, driving voltage, jetting frequency, stirrer speed, etc. The optimal result was obtained; the form representation of microcapsule was analyzed as well. The results show that, under certain conditions of experimental drug prescription, driving voltage was proportional to the particle size; jetting frequency and stirrer speed were inversely proportional. When the PLGA concentration for 3%, driving voltage for 80V, the jetting frequency for 10000Hz and the stirrer speed for 750rpm, the particles were in an ideal state with the mean grain size of 60.246μm, the encapsulation efficiency reached 62.39% and 2.1% for drug loading.

  19. Functional changes of dendritic cells in hypersensivity reactions to amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.F. Lima

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of dendritic cell (DC involvement in responses to haptenic drugs is needed, because it represents a possible approach to the development of an in vitro test, which could identify patients prone to drug allergies. There are two main DC subsets: plasmacytoid DC (pDC and myeloid DC (mDC. β-lactams form hapten-carrier conjugates and may provide a suitable model to study DC behavior in drug allergy reactions. It has been demonstrated that drugs interact differently with DC in drug allergic and non-allergic patients, but there are no studies regarding these subsets. Our aim was to assess the functional changes of mDC and pDC harvested from an amoxicillin-hypersensitive 32-year-old woman who experienced a severe maculopapular exanthema as reflected in interleukin-6 (IL-6 production after stimulation with this drug and penicillin. We also aim to demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of this method for dendritic cell isolation followed by in vitro stimulation for studies of drug allergy physiopathology. DC were harvested using a double Percoll density gradient, which generates a basophil-depleted cell (BDC suspension. Further, pDC were isolated by blood DC antigen 4-positive magnetic selection and gravity filtration through magnetized columns. After stimulation with amoxicillin, penicillin and positive and negative controls, IL-6 production was measured by ELISA. A positive dose-response curve for IL-6 after stimulation with amoxicillin and penicillin was observed for pDC, but not for mDC or BDC suspension. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of this methodology to expand the knowledge of the effect of dendritic cell activation by drug allergens.

  20. Interactions between Microcystis aeruginosa and coexisting amoxicillin contaminant at different phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Shi; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Baoyu

    2015-10-30

    Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured with 0.05-5 mg L(-1) of phosphorus and exposed to 200-500 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin for seven days. Amoxicillin presented no significant effect (p>0.05) on the growth of M. aeruginosa at phosphorus levels of 0.05 and 0.2 mg L(-1), but stimulated algal growth as a hormesis effect at phosphorus levels of 1 and 5 mg L(-1). Phosphorus and amoxicillin affected the contents of chlorophyll-a, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and malondialdehyde, the expression of psbA and rbcL, as well as the activities of adenosinetriphosphatase and glutathione S-transferase in similar manners, but regulated the production and release of microcystins and the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in different ways. Increased photosynthesis activity was related with the ATP consumption for the stress response to amoxicillin, and the stress response was enhanced as the phosphorus concentration increased. The biodegradation of amoxicillin by M. aeruginosa increased from 11.5% to 28.2% as the phosphorus concentration increased. Coexisting amoxicillin aggravated M. aeruginosa pollution by increasing cell density and concentration of microcystins, while M. aeruginosa alleviated amoxicillin pollution via biodegradation. The interactions between M. aeruginosa and amoxicillin were significantly regulated by phosphorus (p<0.05) and led to a complicated situation of combined pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amoxicillin and Ceftriaxone as Treatment Alternatives to Penicillin for Maternal Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanami, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Takaya, Saho; Yamamoto, Kei; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-05-01

    There is no proven alternative to penicillin for treatment of maternal syphilis. We report 2 case-patients with maternal syphilis who were successfully treated without penicillin. We used amoxicillin and probenecid for the first case-patient and amoxicillin, probenecid, and ceftriaxone for the second case-patient.

  2. Profiling of some amoxicillin drugs in Ghana using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboagye, Mary Esi

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of counterfeit drugs is seen as a problem faced in both developed and developing countries where Ghana is not an exception. Antibiotics are amongst the most counterfeit drugs in developing countries. What is less understood is that there are inadequate and ineffective quality control procedures in monitoring of drugs manufactured and imported into the country. This research work is aimed at contributing towards the development of routine analytical procedures that will facilitate distinguishing between fake and genuine amoxicillin drugs. This was accomplished by elaborating operating procedures for the analysis of specific antibiotic drug using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and establishing the NMR profile of active principal ingredient (API) of amoxicillin drug and assessing the API in samples of amoxicillin drug purchased in Accra. Three brands of amoxicillin samples consisting of imported amoxicillin, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) amoxicillin were purchased from a licensed pharmacy shop in Accra and amoxicillin purchased from Okaishie market were used for analysis. Standard amoxicillin known as amoxicillin trihydrate obtained from Ernest Chemist in Accra was also used analysed. The authenticity of the drugs was analysed using 1H and C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Upon analysis H-NMR and C-13 NMR profiles were obtained for the API (Amoxicillin Trihydrate) in amoxicillin. H NMR showed relatively higher sensitivities for the drug than C-13 NMR therefore analysis for the antibiotics was focused on H-NMR. After analysis amoxicillin trihydrate was identified as the API. A procedure suitable for NMR sample preparation of amoxicillin for NMR analysis was elaborated. Dimethyl sulfoxide was identified as a suitable solvent for the experiments. The samples were prepared by dissolving suitable quantities (10mg) of the drug in (1ml) of the chosen solvent. H-NMR technique was used to provide an NMR profile for the Active

  3. Amoxicillin Oxidative Degradation Synthesized by Nano Zero Valent Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Yazdanbakhsh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most important groups of pharmaceuticals that benefits humans and animals. However, antibiotics excertion in wastewaters and environment have emerged as a serious risk to the biotic environment, and their toxic effects can harm the organisms. Iron-based metallic nanoparticles have received special attention in regard with remediation of groundwater contaminants. In the typical nZVI-based bimetallic particle system, Fe acts as the reducing agent. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the synthesis and characteristics of nZVI in regard with degrading AMX. Methods: In this study, nZVI nanoparticles were synthesized using the liquid-phase reduction method by EDTA as a stabilizer material. Structure and properties of nanoparticles were characterized by BET, SEM, XRD and EDX analysis. A multi-variate analysis was applied using a response surface methodology (RSM in order to develop a quadratic model as a functional relationship between AMX removal efficiency and independent variables ( initial pH values, dosage of nZVI, contact time and amoxicillin concentration. The four independent variables of solution pH (2–10, AMX concentration (5-45mg/l, contact time (5-85 min and nanoparticles dose (0.25 – 1.25 g were transformed to the coded values. Results: The study results demonstrated that more than 69 % of AMX was removed by nZVI. The optimal AMX removal conditions using nZVI were found as 1.25 g of nZVI, pH 4, contact time of 80 min and concentration of 30 mg/l. Conclusions: The ability of nZVI in degradation of AMX revealed that these materials can serve as a potential nano material with respect to the environmental remediation.

  4. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Abu-Basha, Ehab A; Youssef, Salah A H; Amer, Aziza M; Murphy, Patricia A; Hauck, Catherine C; Gehring, Ronette; Hsu, Walter H

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 μg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin.

  5. Prenatal effects by exposing to amoxicillin on dental enamel in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottberg, Beatriz; Berné, Jeanily; Quiñónez, Belkis; Solórzano, Eduvigis

    2014-01-01

    Amoxicillin is an antibiotic widely prescribed; its most frequent side effects are gastrointestinal disorders and hypersensitivity reactions. Over the last 10 years studies have been published which suggest that amoxicillin may cause dental alterations similar to dental fluorosis. Never the less, the results are not conclusive, this is why it was planned the need to make controlled studies on test animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect produced by amoxicillin prenatal administration on dental enamel in Wistar rats. 12 pregnant adult rats were used distributed into five different groups: witness control (n=2) didn't get any treatment; negative control (n=2) they were prescribed with saline solution; positive control (n=3) they were prescribed with tetracycline 130 mg/kg, and two groups (n=3 and n=2) treated with amoxicillin doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively. The treatments were daily administered by mouth, from the 6th gestation day to the end of gestation. Twenty five days after they were born, the offspring were sacrificed with a sodium pentobarbital overdose, the mandible was dissected and the first lower molars were gotten. The samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution and clinically and histologically observed to determine any enamel disorders. hypomineralization was observed in every single sample of the tetracyclic and amoxicillin treated group 100 mg/kg, meanwhile only 50% from the group administered with 50 mg/kg amoxicillin showed this histological disorder. the side effect caused by amoxicillin on dental enamel was doses dependent.

  6. Adequate plasma drug concentrations suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensdorff, Lyne; Boillat-Blanco, Noémie; Decosterd, Laurent; Buclin, Thierry; de Vallière, Serge

    2017-09-01

    Elastomeric pumps can be useful for the administration of antibiotics in the outpatient setting. To determine amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps, as well as the effectiveness of amoxicillin treatment administered by elastomeric pumps. Antibiotic degradation was measured in elastomeric pumps filled with 6 g of amoxicillin in 240 mL of NaCl 0.9% by drawing samples at 12 h intervals when stored in the fridge for 48 h and when worn around the waist for 24 h. Subsequently nine patients were treated with continuous infusions of 8 or 12 g of amoxicillin per day. Plasma amoxicillin concentrations were measured on each visit to the outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy unit. Clinical outcome was verified 3 months after the end of treatment. Amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps reached 10% after 48 h in the fridge and an additional 30% when worn around the waist for 24 h. Mean plasma drug concentrations achieved with 12 g of amoxicillin per day were 18.5 mg/L (95% CI 13.5-23.5), which is largely above the MIC of amoxicillin-susceptible bacteria. Nine patients treated for various complicated infections were cured and had no unexpected adverse effects. Adequate plasma drug concentrations and favourable clinical outcomes suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps. This treatment modality does not fulfil formal requirements regarding pharmaceutical stability, but the resulting safety impact in patients is probably limited. Therapeutic drug monitoring and a close clinical follow-up are recommended if this route of administration is chosen. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Poly(Propylene Imine Dendrimers and Amoxicillin as Dual-Action Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wrońska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with poly(propylene imine (PPI dendrimers, or derivatives thereof, in which 100% of the available hydrogen atoms are substituted with maltose (PPI 100%malG3. The concentrations of dendrimers used remained in the range non-toxic to eukaryotic cells. The results indicate that PPI dendrimers significantly enhance the antibacterial effect of amoxicillin alone, allowing antibiotic doses to be reduced. It is important to reduce doses of amoxicillin because its widespread use in medicine could lead to the development of bacterial resistance and environmental pollution. This is the first report on the combined antibacterial activity of PPI surface-modified maltose dendrimers and amoxicillin.

  8. Effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin antibiotics on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Hassan Hashemi; Afshin Ebrahimi; Asghar Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to survey the antibiotics effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin on anerobic wastewater treatment process. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibitory antibiotics amoxicillin, tetracycline, and tylosin on biomass activity, specific methanogenic activity (SMA) using anerobic biomass batch; into 120 ml vials: 30 ml biomass and 70 ml substrate including volatile fatty acids, mainly acetic acid and various concentrations of antibiotics we...

  9. Concentrations of amoxicillin and clindamycin in teeth following a single dose of oral medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssl, Yvonne; Pelz, Klaus; Kempf, Jürgen; Otten, Jörg-Elard

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is the detection of amoxicillin and clindamycin concentrations in teeth. Eleven patients received 2 g of amoxicillin, and 11 patients received 600 mg of clindamycin in a single dose of oral medication at least 60 min prior to tooth extraction due to systemic diseases. The concentrations were determined in crowns and roots separately using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Amoxicillin (13 samples) and clindamycin (12 samples) were detected in the samples of the root and crown preparations of the extracted teeth. The mean concentration of amoxicillin was 0.502 μg/g in the roots and 0.171 μg/g in the crowns. The mean concentration of clindamycin was 0.270 μg/g in the roots and 0.064 μg/g in the crowns. A single dose of oral amoxicillin and clindamycin leads to concentrations of both antibiotics in teeth which exceed the minimal inhibition concentration of some oral bacteria. The proof of antibacterial activity in dental hard tissue after oral single-dose application is new. The antimicrobial effect of amoxicillin and clindamycin concentrations in roots of teeth may be of clinical relevance to bacterial reinfection from dentinal tubules.

  10. Amoxicillin effects on functional microbial community and spread of antibiotic resistance genes in amoxicillin manufacture wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingwei; Li, Xiangkun; Wang, Xinran; Ma, Kaili; Liu, Gaige; Zhang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to reveal how amoxicillin (AMX) affected the microbial community and the spread mechanism of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the AMX manufacture wastewater treatment system. For this purpose, a 1.47 L expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was designed and run for 241days treating artificial AMX manufacture wastewater. 454 pyrosequencing was applied to analyze functional microorganisms in the system. The antibiotic genes OXA- 1 , OXA -2 , OXA -10 , TEM -1 , CTX-M -1 , class I integrons (intI1) and 16S rRNA genes were also examined in sludge samples. The results showed that the genera Ignavibacterium, Phocoenobacter, Spirochaeta, Aminobacterium and Cloacibacillus contributed to the degradation of different organic compounds (such as various sugars and amines). And the relative quantification of each β-lactam resistance gene in the study was changed with the increasing of AMX concentration. Furthermore the vertical gene transfer was the main driver for the spread of ARGs rather than horizontal transfer pathways in the system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Electrochemical oxidation of amoxicillin in its pharmaceutical formulation at boron doped diamond (BDD electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneil Quand-Meme Gnamba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, voltammetric andelectrolysis experiments have been carried out on a conductive boron dopeddiamond (BDD electrode in solution containing amoxicillin in itspharmaceutical formulation. The physical characterization of the BDD surface byscanning electron microscopy (SEM reveals a polycrystalline structure withgrain sizes ranging between 0.3 and 0.6 µm. With Raman spectroscopy, BDDsurface is composed of diamons (Csp3 type carbon (Csp3and graphitic type carbon (Csp2. The electrochemical characterization of the BDD electrode in sulfuric acid electrolyte showed a wide potential window worthing 2.74 V. The oxidation of Amoxicillin showed an irreversible anodic wave on the voltammogram in the domain of water stability indicating a direct oxidation of amoxicillin at BDD surface. The treatment of Amoxicillin in the synthetic wastewaters under various constant current densities 20, 50, 100, 135 mA cm-2 on BDD showed that Amoxicillin is highly reducedunder 100 mA cm-2 reaching 92% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODremoval after 5 h of electrolysis. Investigation performed in perchloric acidas supporting electrolyte led to 87% of COD removal after 5 h of electrolysis.Mineralization of amoxicillin occurs on BDD and the chemical oxygen demandremoval was higher in sulfuric acid than in perchloric acid owing to theinvolvement of the in-situ formed persulfate and perchlorate  to the degradation process mainly in the bulkof the solution. The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE presents anexponential decay indicating that the process was limited by diffusion. Thespecific energy consumed after 5h of the amoxicillin electrolysis was 0.096 kWh COD-1and 0.035 kWh COD-1 in sulfuric acid and in perchloric acidrespectively.

  12. Intravenous amoxicillin/clavulanate for the prevention of bacteraemia following dental procedures: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limeres Posse, J; Álvarez Fernández, M; Fernández Feijoo, J; Medina Henríquez, J; Lockhart, P B; Chu, V H; Diz Dios, P

    2016-07-01

    Although controversy exists regarding the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for patients at risk of infective endocarditis, expert committees continue to publish recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of four antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of bacteraemia following dental extractions. The study population included 266 adults requiring dental extractions who were randomly assigned to the following five groups: control (no prophylaxis); 1000/200 mg of amoxicillin/clavulanate intravenously; 2 g of amoxicillin by mouth; 600 mg of clindamycin by mouth; and 600 mg of azithromycin by mouth. Venous blood samples were collected from each patient at baseline and at 30 s, 15 min and 1 h after dental extractions. Samples were inoculated into BACTEC Plus culture bottles and processed in the BACTEC 9240. Conventional microbiological techniques were used for subcultures and further identification of the isolated bacteria. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with ID number NCT02115776. The incidence of bacteraemia in the control, amoxicillin/clavulanate, amoxicillin, clindamycin and azithromycin groups was: 96%, 0%, 50%, 87% and 81%, respectively, at 30 s; 65%, 0%, 10%, 65% and 49% at 15 min; and 18%, 0%, 4%, 19% and 18% at 1 h. Streptococci were the most frequently identified bacteria. The percentage of positive blood cultures at 30 s post-extraction was lower in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group than in the amoxicillin group (P dental extractions was undetectable with amoxicillin/clavulanate prophylaxis. Alternative antimicrobial regimens should be sought for patients allergic to the β-lactams. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effectiveness of and obstacles to antibiotic streamlining to amoxicillin monotherapy in bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, Mathieu; Pivot, Diane; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Salmon-Rousseau, Arnaud; de Curraize, Claire; Croisier, Delphine; Chavanet, Pascal; Binquet, Christine; Piroth, Lionel

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotic streamlining is pivotal to reduce the emergence of resistant bacteria. However, whether streamlining is frequently performed and safe in difficult situations, such as bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP), has still to be assessed. All adult patients admitted to Dijon Hospital (France) from 2005 to 2013 who had BPP without complications, and were alive on the third day were enrolled. Clinical, biological, radiological, microbiological and therapeutic data were recorded. A first analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with being on amoxicillin on the third day. A second analysis, adjusting for a propensity score, was performed to determine whether 30-day mortality was associated with streamlining to amoxicillin monotherapy. Of the 196 patients hospitalized for BPP, 161 were still alive on the third day and were included in the study. Treatment was streamlined to amoxicillin in 60 patients (37%). Factors associated with not streamlining were severe pneumonia (OR 3.11, 95%CI [1.23-7.87]) and a first-line antibiotic combination (OR 3.08, 95%CI [1.34-7.09]). By contrast, starting with amoxicillin monotherapy correlated inversely with the risk of subsequent treatment with antibiotics other than amoxicillin (OR 0.06, 95%CI [0.01-0.30]). The Cox model adjusted for the propensity-score analysis showed that streamlining to amoxicillin during BPP was not significantly associated with a higher risk of 30-day mortality (HR 0.38, 95%CI [0.08-1.87]). Streamlining to amoxicillin is insufficiently implemented during BPP. This strategy is safe and potentially associated with ecological and economic benefits; therefore, it should be further encouraged, particularly when antibiotic combinations are started for severe pneumonia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effects of Low-Dose Amoxicillin on Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynek, Kevin D; Callahan, Mary T; Shimkevitch, Anton V; Farmer, Jackson T; Endres, Jennifer L; Marchand, Mélodie; Bayles, Kenneth W; Horswill, Alexander R; Kaplan, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies showed that sub-MIC levels of β-lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Here, we investigated this process by measuring the effects of sub-MIC amoxicillin on biofilm formation by the epidemic community-associated MRSA strain USA300. We found that sub-MIC amoxicillin increased the ability of USA300 cells to attach to surfaces and form biofilms under both static and flow conditions. We also found that USA300 biofilms cultured in sub-MIC amoxicillin were thicker, contained more pillar and channel structures, and were less porous than biofilms cultured without antibiotic. Biofilm formation in sub-MIC amoxicillin correlated with the production of extracellular DNA (eDNA). However, eDNA released by amoxicillin-induced cell lysis alone was evidently not sufficient to stimulate biofilm. Sub-MIC levels of two other cell wall-active agents with different mechanisms of action-d-cycloserine and fosfomycin-also stimulated eDNA-dependent biofilm, suggesting that biofilm formation may be a mechanistic adaptation to cell wall stress. Screening a USA300 mariner transposon library for mutants deficient in biofilm formation in sub-MIC amoxicillin identified numerous known mediators of S. aureus β-lactam resistance and biofilm formation, as well as novel genes not previously associated with these phenotypes. Our results link cell wall stress and biofilm formation in MRSA and suggest that eDNA-dependent biofilm formation by strain USA300 in low-dose amoxicillin is an inducible phenotype that can be used to identify novel genes impacting MRSA β-lactam resistance and biofilm formation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Biowaiver Monograph for Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Amoxicillin Trihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambavita, Dhanusha; Galappatthy, Priyadarshani; Mannapperuma, Uthpali; Jayakody, Lal; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Groot, Dirk W; Langguth, Peter; Mehta, Mehul; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    Literature and experimental data relevant to waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing amoxicillin trihydrate are reviewed. Solubility and permeability characteristics according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), therapeutic uses, therapeutic index, excipient interactions, as well as dissolution and BE and bioavailability studies were taken into consideration. Solubility and permeability studies indicate that amoxicillin doses up to 875 mg belong to BCS class I, whereas 1000 mg belongs to BCS class II and doses of more than 1000 mg belong to BCS class IV. Considering all aspects, the biowaiver procedure can be recommended for solid oral products of amoxicillin trihydrate immediate-release preparations containing amoxicillin as the single active pharmaceutical ingredient at dose strengths of 875 mg or less, provided (a) only the excipients listed in this monograph are used, and only in their usual amounts, (b) the biowaiver study is performed according to the World Health Organization-, U.S. Food and Drug Administration-, or European Medicines Agency-recommended method using the innovator as the comparator, and (c) results comply with criteria for "very rapidly dissolving" or "similarly rapidly dissolving." Products containing other excipients and those containing more than 875 mg amoxicillin per unit should be subjected to an in vivo BE study. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Amoxicillin & Cephalexin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraei AH.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the most important complications after tooth extraction and oral and maxillofacial surgery is transient bacteraemia and prescription of prophylactic antibiotic is necessary to prevent postoperative infections in immunocompromised patients. Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of cephalexin and amoxicillin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets following tooth extraction. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 80 healthy patients subjected to tooth extraction were divided into two groups. Each group received 1 gr amoxicillin or cephalexin and teeth were extracted 30-60-90-120-180 minutes after antibiotic intake. Blood sampling was performed immediately after extraction and concentrations of two antibiotics were measured in microbiology laboratory. ANOVA test and Post-hoc (Duncan test were used for statistical analysis with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The maximum serum concentration was 10.1006 μg/ml for amoxicillin at 120 minutes and 41.5467 μg/ml for cephalexin at 90 minutes after drug intake. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of cephalexin and amoxicillin for Streptococcus sanguis was 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: The mean concentration for amoxicillin was 10 times and for cephalexin was 20 times higher than MIC.

  17. Effect of prophylactic amoxicillin on endodontic flare-up in asymptomatic, necrotic teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickenpaugh, L; Reader, A; Beck, M; Meyers, W J; Peterson, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effect of prophylactic amoxicillin on the occurrence of endodontic flare-up in asymptomatic, necrotic teeth. Seventy patients participated and had a clinical diagnosis of an asymptomatic, necrotic tooth with associated periapical radiolucency. One hour before endodontic treatment, patients randomly received either 3 g of amoxicillin or 3 g of a placebo control in a double-blind manner. After endodontic treatment, each patient received: ibuprofen; acetaminophen with codeine (30 mg); and a 5 1/2-day diary to record pain, swelling, percussion pain, and number and type of pain medication taken. The results demonstrated 10% of the 70 patients had a flare-up characterized by moderate-to-severe postoperative pain or swelling that began approximately 30 h after endodontic treatment and persisted for an average of 74 h. Of the seven patients who had flare-ups, 4 were in the amoxicillin group and 3 were not. Prophylactic amoxicillin did not significantly (p = 0.80) influence the endodontic flare-up. We concluded that a prophylactic dose of amoxicillin before endodontic treatment of asymptomatic, necrotic teeth had no effect on the endodontic flare-up.

  18. Treatment of amoxicillin by O3/Fenton process in a rotating packed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Zeng, Zequan; Li, Yingwen; Arowo, Moses; Chen, Jianfeng; Meng, Hong; Shao, Lei

    2015-03-01

    In this study, simulated amoxicillin wastewater was treated by the O3/Fenton process in a rotating packed bed (RPB) and the results were compared with the Fenton process and the O3 followed by Fenton (O3 + Fenton) process. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate and the ratio of 5-day biological oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) in the O3/Fenton process were approximately 17% and 26%, respectively, higher than those in the O3 + Fenton process with an initial pH of 3. The COD removal rate of the amoxicillin solution reached maximum at the Fe(II) concentration of 0.6 mM, temperature of 25 °C, rotation speed of 800 rpm and initial pH of 3. The BOD5/COD of the amoxicillin solution increased from 0 to 0.38 after the solution was treated by the O3/Fenton process. Analysis of the intermediates indicated that the pathway of amoxicillin degradation in the O3/Fenton process was similar to that in the O3 + Fenton process. Contrast experiment results showed that amoxicillin degradation was significantly intensified in the RPB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution of the autolysin AtlA to the bactericidal activity of amoxicillin against Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravetti, Anne-Lise; Mesnage, Stéphane; Lefort, Agnès; Chau, Françoise; Eckert, Catherine; Garry, Louis; Arthur, Michel; Fantin, Bruno

    2009-04-01

    The bactericidal activity of amoxicillin was investigated against Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 and against an isogenic mutant deficient in the production of the N-acetylglucosaminidase AtlA. Comparison of the two strains indicated that this autolysin contributes to killing by amoxicillin both in vitro and in a rabbit model of experimental endocarditis.

  20. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) ...

  1. Treatment of Enterococcal Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients by Oral Amoxicillin or Intra-Peritoneal Vancomcyin: a Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk Chun Szeto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Enterococcal peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients is associated with a high complication rate. The optimal treatment regimen of PD-related enterococcal peritonitis is controversial. The latest international guideline recommends intra-peritoneal (IP vancomycin. Although ampicillin is often effective for systemic enterococcal infections, they have little in vitro activity when added to common PD solutions. Since oral amoxicillin achieves therapeutic drug level in the peritoneal cavity, we explore the efficacy of oral amoxicillin for enterococcal peritonitis. Methods: We studied 105 episodes of enterococcal peritonitis over 20 years in our unit; 43 (41.0% were treated with oral amoxicillin, and 62 (59.0% with IP vancomycin. Their clinical outcome was reviewed. Result: The overall primary response rate to oral amoxicillin and IP vancomycin was 76.4% and 85.5%, respectively (p = 0.3. The complete cure rate of oral amoxicillin and IP vancomycin was 55.8% and 54.8%, respectively (p = 0.8. When the 5 episodes of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus episodes were excluded, the primary response rate and complete cure rate of oral amoxicillin were 86.8% and 63.2%, respectively. Conclusion: Oral amoxicillin has an excellent primary response rate and complete cure rate for PD-related peritonitis episodes caused by Enterococcus species, indicating that oral amoxicillin is a valid and convenient therapeutic option for enterococcal peritonitis episodes.

  2. A Three-Pulse Release Tablet for Amoxicillin: Preparation, Pharmacokinetic Study and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Chai, Hongyu; Li, Yang; Chai, Xuyu; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfan; Tao, Tao; Xiang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Amoxicillin is a commonly used antibiotic which has a short half-life in human. The frequent administration of amoxicillin is often required to keep the plasma drug level in an effective range. The short dosing interval of amoxicillin could also cause some side effects and drug resistance, and impair its therapeutic efficacy and patients' compliance. Therefore, a three-pulse release tablet of amoxicillin is desired to generate sustained release in vivo, and thus to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. The pulsatile release tablet consists of three pulsatile components: one immediate-release granule and two delayed release pellets, all containing amoxicillin. The preparation of a pulsatile release tablet of amoxicillin mainly includes wet granulation craft, extrusion/spheronization craft, pellet coating craft, mixing craft, tablet compression craft and film coating craft. Box-Behnken design, Scanning Electron Microscope and in vitro drug release test were used to help the optimization of formulations. A crossover pharmacokinetic study was performed to compare the pharmacokinetic profile of our in-house pulsatile tablet with that of commercial immediate release tablet. The pharmacokinetic profile of this pulse formulation was simulated by physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model with the help of Simcyp®. Single factor experiments identify four important factors of the formulation, namely, coating weight of Eudragit L30 D-55 (X1), coating weight of AQOAT AS-HF (X2), the extrusion screen aperture (X3) and compression forces (X4). The interrelations of the four factors were uncovered by a Box-Behnken design to help to determine the optimal formulation. The immediate-release granule, two delayed release pellets, together with other excipients, namely, Avicel PH 102, colloidal silicon dioxide, polyplasdone and magnesium stearate were mixed, and compressed into tablets, which was subsequently coated with Opadry® film to produce pulsatile tablet of

  3. Quality Attributes and In Vitro Bioequivalence of Different Brands of Amoxicillin Trihydrate Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Fahelelbom, Khairi M S; Obaid, Dana Emad Eddin; Sayed, Sadik

    2017-05-20

    Bacterial resistance and antibiotic drug effectiveness can be related to administering generic products with a subtherapeutic dose or poor in vivo drug release. The aim of this study was to investigate whether locally marketed amoxicillin tablets have the required chemical and physical attributes, including in vitro bioequivalence performance. Five generic products (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) containing combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate as 1 g strength present in immediate release tablets were compared to the reference listed drug product Augmentin® (R) for weight variation, friability, resistance to crushing, and chemical content of amoxicillin. Difference (ƒ1) and similarity (ƒ2) factors were calculated to assess in vitro bioequivalence requirements. The tablets from different products have shown compliance with the pharmacopeial requirements of the performed tests. The measured resistance to crushing of tablets did not influence the dissolution time. Three generic products released more than 85% of amoxicillin by the first 15 min as did the reference product and were considered as bioequivalent products. T1 and T4 had ƒ1 values of 16.5% and 25.4% respectively and their ƒ2 values were 44.5 and 34.6 respectively, indicating failure to meet in vitro bioequivalence requirements. Tablet formulations can play an important role in achieving bioequivalence. Independent investigations such as this study serve as an important tool to reveal possible inferior or noncompliant products that may find their way to the market.

  4. Amoxicillin rash in patients with infectious mononucleosis: evidence of true drug sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ónodi-Nagy, Katinka; Kinyó, Ágnes; Meszes, Angéla; Garaczi, Edina; Kemény, Lajos; Bata-Csörgő, Zsuzsanna

    2015-01-01

    It hasn't been clearly understood yet whether sensitization to antibiotics, the virus itself or transient loss of drug tolerance due to the virus, is responsible for the development of maculopapular exanthems following amoxicillin intake in patients with infectious mononucleosis. We aimed to examine whether sensitization to penicillin developed among patients with skin rash following amoxicillin treatment within infectious mononucleosis. Ten patients were investigated for drug sensitization by lymphocyte transformation test and six patients were further tested by prick-, intradermal and patch tests employing the penicillin's main antigens. Lymphocyte transformation test showed negative results with amoxicillin, while one patient had positive reaction to cefixime. Six patients with suspected sensitization to amoxicillin were then investigated by in vivo tests. Prick tests were negative in all six patients, but the intradermal tests showed positive reactions in four patients. Our data demonstrate that in vitro testing is not sensitive enough in determining drug sensitization to penicillin. In vivo tests should be performed to detect sensitization and indeed with skin tests our results confirmed that sensitization to aminopenicillin may develop within infectious mononucleosis.

  5. Comparative efficacy of amoxicillin, cefuroxime and clarithromycin in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb, B.; Hameed, A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical response to amoxicillin, cefuroxime and clarithromycin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children and to see the cost effectiveness of each treatment. Subjects and Methods: Patients between 3 to 72 months of age, admitted in the hospital with community acquired pneumonia, were randomly divided into three groups 1,2,3. They were started on amoxicillin, cefuroxime and clarithromycin respectively. The patients were assessed daily. If there was no clinical improvements at 48 hours the antibiotic was changed. ANOVA statistical test was applied to see the clinical response to the treatment in the three groups. Cost effectiveness of the treatment was compared. Results: There was no statistical difference in the clinical response at 48 hours of initiating treatment and discharge (p>0.01 each). The mean hospital stay in group 1 and 2 was 3.3 days and group 3 was 3.2 days respectively (p>0.01). Ninety-seven percent patients in group 1 and 3, and 95% patients in group 2 showed clinical improvement. The cost of treatment of community acquired pneumonia for 8 days was Rs. 496/-, 730/-, 1018/- for amoxicillin, clarithromycin and cefuroxime respectively. Conclusion: Amoxicillin was found in the most cost effective followed by clarithromycin and cefuroxime respectively in the treatment of non-severe and severe community-acquired pneumonia. (author)

  6. Solvation behaviour of biologically active compounds in aqueous solutions of antibacterial drug amoxicillin at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singla, Meenu; Kumar, Harsh; Jindal, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities and speeds of sound of amino acids in aqueous amoxicillin solutions. • Partial molar volumes and compressibility of transfer. • Group contribution have been calculated. • (Ion + hydrophilic) and (hydrophilic + hydrophilic) interactions are present. • Pair-wise interactions are dominant in the mixtures. - Abstract: The interactions of glycine (Gly), L-alanine (Ala), L-valine (Val) and L-Leucine (Leu) with drug amoxicillin (AMX) as a function of temperature have been investigated by combination of volumetric and acoustic measurements. Densities and speeds of sound of amino acids in aqueous solutions of amoxicillin have been measured at T = (305.15, 310.15 and 315.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The apparent molar volume (V ϕ ), the partial molar volume (V ϕ 0 ) and standard partial molar volumes of transfer (ΔV ϕ 0 ) for amino acids from water to aqueous amoxicillin solutions have been calculated from density data. Group contributions of amino acids to partial molar volume were determined. Partial molar isentropic compression (κ ϕ,s ) and partial molar isentropic compression of transfer (Δκ ϕ,S 0 ) have been calculated from speed of sound data. The pair and triplet interaction coefficient have been calculated from both the properties. The results have been explained based on competing patterns of interactions of co-solvents and the solute

  7. Targeted Delivery of Amoxicillin to C. trachomatis by the Transferrin Iron Acquisition Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hai

    Full Text Available Weak intracellular penetration of antibiotics makes some infections difficult to treat. The Trojan horse strategy for targeted drug delivery is among the interesting routes being explored to overcome this therapeutic difficulty. Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia develops in a vacuole and is therefore protected by four membranes (plasma membrane, bacterial inclusion membrane, and bacterial membranes. In this work, the iron-transport protein, human serum-transferrin, was used as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery into the bacterial vacuole. Amoxicillin was grafted onto transferrin. The transferrin-amoxicillin construct was characterized by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Its affinity for transferrin receptor 1, determined by fluorescence emission titration [KaffTf-amox = (1.3 ± 1.0 x 108], is very close to that of transferrin [4.3 x 108]. Transmission electron and confocal microscopies showed a co-localization of transferrin with the bacteria in the vacuole and were also used to evaluate the antibiotic capability of the construct. It is significantly more effective than amoxicillin alone. These promising results demonstrate targeted delivery of amoxicillin to suppress Chlamydia and are of interest for Chlamydiaceae and maybe other intracellular bacteria therapies.

  8. Photodegradation of amoxicillin by catalyzed Fe3+/H2O2 process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Li; Tingting Shen; Dongbo Wang; Xiu Yue; Xian Liu; Qi Yang; Jianbin Cao; Wei Zheng; Guangming Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Three oxidation processes of UV-Fe3+(EDTA)/H2O2 (UV:ultraviolet light; EDTA:ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid),UV-Fe3+/H2O2 and Fe3+/H2O2 were simultaneously investigated for the degradation of amoxicillin at pH 7.0.The results indicated that,100% amoxicillin degradation and 81.9% chemical oxygen demand (CODcr) removal could be achieved in the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process.The treatment efficiency of amoxicillin and CODcr removal were found to decrease to 59.0% and 43.0% in the UV-Fe3+/H2O2 process;39.6% and 31.3% in the Fe3+/H2O2 process.Moreover,the results of biodegradability (biological oxygen demand (BOD5)/CODCr ratio) revealed that the UV-Fe3+ (EDTA)/H2O2 process was a promising strategy to degrade amoxicillin as the biodegradability of the effluent was improved to 0.45,compared with the cases of UV-Fe3+/H2O2 (0.25) and Fe3+/H2O2 (0.10) processes.Therefore,it could be deduced that EDTA and UV light performed synergetic catalytic effect on the Fe3+/H2O2 process,enhancing the treatment efficiency.The degradation mechanisms were also investigated via UV-Vis spectra,and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra.The degradation pathway of amoxicillin was further proposed.

  9. Medium-high frequency ultrasound and ozone based advanced oxidation for amoxicillin removal in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıdak, Rana; Doğan, Şifa

    2018-01-01

    In this study, treatment of an antibiotic compound amoxicillin by medium-high frequency ultrasonic irradiation and/or ozonation has been studied. Ultrasonic irradiation process was carried out in a batch reactor for aqueous amoxicillin solutions at three different frequencies (575, 861 and 1141kHz). The applied ultrasonic power was 75W and the diffused power was calculated as 14.6W/L. The highest removal was achieved at 575kHz ultrasonic frequency (>99%) with the highest pseudo first order reaction rate constant 0.04min -1 at pH 10 but the mineralization achieved was around 10%. Presence of alkalinity and humic acid species had negative effect on the removal efficiency (50% decrease). To improve the poor outcomes, ozonation had been applied with or without ultrasound. Ozone removed the amoxicillin at a rate 50 times faster than ultrasound. Moreover, due to the synergistic effect, coupling of ozone and ultrasound gave rise to rate constant of 2.5min -1 (625 times higher than ultrasound). In the processes where ozone was used, humic acid did not show any significant effect because the rate constant was so high that ozone has easily overcome the scavenging effects of natural water constituents. Furthermore, the intermediate compounds, after the incomplete oxidation mechanisms, has been analyzed to reveal the possible degradation pathways of amoxicillin through ultrasonic irradiation and ozonation applications. The outcomes of the intermediate compounds experiments and the toxicity was investigated to give a clear explanation about the safety of the resulting solution. The relevance of all the results concluded that hybrid advanced oxidation system was the best option for amoxicillin removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inorganic Profiling of Amoxicillin Drugs in Ghana Using Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (Pixe) Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Zurika

    2017-07-01

    The increase of drug counterfeits and its unconscious use has become a major cause for concern to health care practitioners and relevant stakeholders. The occurrence of counterfeit or fake drugs is perceived to be a problem encountered in both developing and underdeveloped nations where Ghana is not an exemption. The lethal implications of counterfeit/fake medications are well understood to be a major challenge to the soundness of public health systems around the world, as well as a direct threat to our individual health and well-being. Sub-standard and counterfeit/fake drugs are a widespread problem in Ghana and the need to address it is eminent. The volume of drugs that require control, from the statutory organisations like Food and Drugs Authority of Ghana (FDA) and Ghana Standard Authority (GSA) is enormous, and hence the need to explore other faster analytical techniques to help control cannot be over emphasised. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Antibiotics are the most counterfeited drugs and Amoxicillin (C 16 H 19 N 3 O 5 S) happened to be ranked first on the list. The most used and prescribed method for drug quality control analysis is the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique which accesses the quality of drugs from its Active Principal Ingredient (API) perspective. The main focus of this study is to harness additional analytical procedure to enhance the routine monitoring of the quality of some Amoxicillin drugs in Ghana from the inorganic constituent point of view. HPLC and the physical parameter tests were carried out on the samples analysed to help validate the interpretation of the inorganic element results from the PIXE technique. Two different local brands of amoxicillin and two imported amoxicillin brands were chosen for this study. A total of 30 samples were analysed for this study including one (1) standard reference material (amoxicillin) acquired from a licenced pharmaceutical company in Ghana. Particle

  11. Basophil histamine release to Amoxicilloyl-poly-L-lysine compared to amoxicillin in patients with IgE-mediated allergic reactions to amoxicillin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arribas, F; Falkencrone, S; Sola, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amoxicillin (AX) is the betalactam most often involved in IgE-mediated reactions and the diagnosis is mainly based on skin testing (ST) although without optimal sensitivity. We have produced a newly AX derivative, amoxicilloyl-poly-L-lysine (APL), and have analysed its IgE recognition...... with AX or APL. Histamine released was determined and expressed as ng of histamine release/mL blood. RESULTS: Patients clinical symptoms were anaphylaxis (N=9), urticaria (N=7), erythema (N=2) and not defined immediate reactions (N=1). The median time interval between reaction and study was 90 days (IQR...

  12. Comparison of cefixime and amoxicillin plus metronidazole in the treatment of chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukić Smiljka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Despite significant advances in current medicine and improvement of overall health education, chronic periodontitis is still a widespread disease. Losing teeth is the most serious complication of this particular illness. The aim of this study was to examine patients with chronic periodontitis in order to evaluate the efficacy of non-surgical therapy and combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole compared with cefixime, which has not been so far used for the treatment of this disease. Methods. Adult patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 90 underwent non-surgical periodontal treatment (zero-day and then randomly divided into three groups. The group I served as a control, the group II was additionally treated with the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole (for 7 days, while the group III was treated with cefixime (also for 7 days. To assess the condition of periodontium before and seven days after the therapy, four clinical parameters were used: gingival index (GI, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results. On the day 7 after the beginning of the therapy, we found that all the three groups of patients had statistically significant clinical improvement of three parameters: GI, BOP and PD, but not of the CAL. However, the improvement of PD was only statistically, but not clinically significant. The improvement in the control group of patients on the day 7 was 19% in BOP and 28% in GI; this improvement was statistically highly significant after the addition of amoxicillin plus metronodazole (71% in BOP and 77% in GI or cefixime (62% in BOP and 82% in GI. Compared to the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole, cefixim was statistically significantly more effective for GI (p < 0.05, while for the other three clinical parameters their effects were equal. Conclusion. The conjunction of amoxicillin plus metronidazole or cefixime to the causal treatment of patients with

  13. The pharmacodynamic effect of amoxicillin and danofloxacin against Salmonella typhimurium in an in-vitro pharmacodynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Friis, C.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2000-01-01

    The pharmacodynamic effect of amoxicillin and danofloxacin against two strains of Salmonella typhimurium was examined in an in-vitro pharmacodynamic model. For amoxicillin, peak concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 mu g ml(-1) and half-lives (t(1/2) of 3 and 15 hours were evaluated. For danofloxacin peak...... concentrations of 0.25, 0.50 and 1.50 mu g ml(-1) and half-lives of 7 and 15 hours were examined. For amoxicillin both the peak concentration and the half-life influenced the pharmacodynamic effect (P pharmacodynamic effect was observed when the antibiotic concentration was greater than minimum...... inhibitory concentration for 79 per cent or more of the dosing interval. The hires of the isolates increased when the amoxicillin concentrations were close to the nac during the first hours of exposure. For danofloxacin the pharmacodynamic effect was dependent on the peak concentration only (P

  14. Effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin antibiotics on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2012-01-01

    Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibitory antibiotics amoxicillin, tetracycline, and tylosin on biomass activity, specific methanogenic activity (SMA using anerobic biomass batch; into 120 ml vials: 30 ml biomass and 70 ml substrate including volatile fatty acids, mainly acetic acid and various concentrations of antibiotics were added. Methane gas production replacement through solution of KOH (2 N as an absorber of CO 2 and bromine thymol blue as indicator was measured. Each batch was tested for 10 days. Results: Based on the findings, inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and tylosin were 8000, 9000, and 9000 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that with increasing concentrations of antibiotics, the produced biogas volume from biomass per unit weight is decreased. COD removal was 42-82 % due to long retention time and adsorption to flocks.

  15. Evaluation of Amoxicillin & Cephalexin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets after tooth extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhraei AH.; Jabal Ameli F.; Ghobadi G

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the most important complications after tooth extraction and oral and maxillofacial surgery is transient bacteraemia and prescription of prophylactic antibiotic is necessary to prevent postoperative infections in immunocompromised patients. Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of cephalexin and amoxicillin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets following tooth extraction. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 80 healthy patients subje...

  16. Comparative Efficacies of Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, and Moxifloxacin in Prevention of Bacteremia following Dental Extractions

    OpenAIRE

    Diz Dios, P.; Tomás Carmona, I.; Limeres Posse, J.; Medina Henríquez, J.; Fernández Feijoo, J.; Álvarez Fernández, M.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacies of oral prophylactic treatment with amoxicillin (AMX), clindamycin (CLI), and moxifloxacin (MXF) in the prevention of bacteremia following dental extractions (BDE). Two hundred twenty-one adults who required dental extractions under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to a control group, an AMX group, a CLI group, and an MXF group (the individuals in the drug treatment groups received 2 g, 600 mg, and 400 mg, respectively, 1 to 2 h before anesthesia induction...

  17. Safely diagnosing clinically significant penicillin allergy using only penicilloyl-poly-lysine, penicillin, and oral amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Eric; Ngor, Eunis W

    2013-01-01

    Penicillin skin testing is rarely used to undiagnose penicillin "allergy" in the United States, partially because of concern that commercially available materials are inadequate. We determined whether skin testing with only commercially available penicilloyl-poly-lysine and penicillin followed by an oral amoxicillin challenge, if skin test-negative, can safely identify clinically significant penicillin allergy. Five hundred sequential persons with positive history of penicillin "allergy" were evaluated by skin testing with penicilloyl-poly-lysine and penicillin between June 8, 2010, and March 29, 2012. All persons with negative skin tests were given an oral amoxicillin challenge and observed for 1 hour. Persons undergoing penicillin allergy testing were representative of all health plan members with penicillin allergy. Only 4 persons (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.32%-2.03%) had a positive skin test result. Only 4 persons (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.32%-2.03%) had an acute objective oral amoxicillin challenge reaction. Fifteen persons (3.0%; 95% CI, 1.83%-4.98%) had subjective oral challenge reactions, either acute transient itching or dizziness. All were women and 11 (73.3%) had multiple drug intolerance syndrome. None had severe reactions or objective signs. These were not considered to be positive challenge reactions. Sixty-eight subjects (13.6%) who were negative on testing were exposed to 88 courses of penicillins during 90 days of follow-up. New reactions were reported after 4 courses (4.5%), 3 (75%) occurring in subjects with multiple drug intolerance syndrome. Penicillin skin testing, using only penicilloyl-poly-lysine and penicillin, followed by oral amoxicillin challenge, if negative, can safely identify clinically significant IgE-mediated penicillin allergy in patients who use health care in the United States at this time. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Solar photocatalytic oxidation of recalcitrant natural metabolic by-products of amoxicillin biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    João Pereira; Ana Reis; Vera Homem; José Silva; Arminda Alves; Maria Teresa Borges; Rui Boaventura; Vítor Vilar; Olga Pastor Nunes

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of the aquatic environment by non-metabolized and metabolized antibiotic residues has brought the necessity of alternative treatment steps to current water decontamination technologies. This work assessed the feasibility of using a multi-stage treatment system for amoxicillin (AMX) spiked solutions combining: i) a biological treatment process using an enriched culture to metabolize AMX, with ii) a solar photocatalytic system to achieve the removal of the metabolized transfor...

  19. Impact of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Amoxicillin on Streptococcus suis Capsule Gene Expression and Inflammatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Haas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent worldwide causing meningitis, endocarditis, arthritis and septicemia. Among the 29 serotypes identified to date, serotype 2 is mostly isolated from diseased pigs. Although several virulence mechanisms have been characterized in S. suis, the pathogenesis of S. suis infections remains only partially understood. This study focuses on the response of S. suis P1/7 to sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin. First, capsule expression was monitored by qRT-PCR when S. suis was cultivated in the presence of amoxicillin. Then, the pro-inflammatory potential of S. suis P1/7 culture supernatants or whole cells conditioned with amoxicillin was evaluated by monitoring the activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes and quantifying pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by macrophages. It was found that amoxicillin decreased capsule expression in S. suis. Moreover, conditioning the bacterium with sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin caused an increased activation of the NF-κB pathway in monocytes following exposure to bacterial culture supernatants and to a lesser extent to whole bacterial cells. This was associated with an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL8, IL-6, IL-1β by macrophages. This study identified a new mechanism by which S. suis may increase its inflammatory potential in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, a cell wall-active antibiotic, thus challenging its use for preventive treatments or as growth factor.

  20. Degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin antibiotics in aqueous solution by the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmolla, Emad S.; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effect of operating conditions (zinc oxide concentration, pH and irradiation time) of the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process on degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution. pH has a great effect on amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation. The optimum operating conditions for complete degradation of antibiotics in an aqueous solution containing 104, 105 and 103 mg/L amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively were: zinc oxide 0.5 g/L, irradiation time 180 min and pH 11. Under optimum operating conditions, complete degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin occurred and COD and DOC removal were 23.9 and 9.7%, respectively. The photocatalytic reactions under optimum conditions approximately followed a pseudo-first order kinetics with rate constant (k) 0.018, 0.015 and 0.029 min -1 for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin, respectively. UV/ZnO photocatalysis can be used for amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin degradation in aqueous solution.

  1. Resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori strains to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Khademi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori resistance to antibiotics has become a global problem and is an important factor in determining the outcome of treatment of infected patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in gastrointestinal disorders patients. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 260 gastric antrum biopsy specimens were collected from patients with gastrointestinal disorders who referred to Endoscopy Section of the Isfahan Hospitals. The E-test and Modified Disk Diffusion Method (MDDM were used to verify the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in 78 H. pylori isolates to the clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. Results: H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin were 15.3, 55.1, and 6.4%, respectively. In this studyΈ we had one multidrug resistance (MDR isolates from patient with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Conclusion: Information on antibiotic susceptibility profile plays an important role in empiric antibiotic treatment and management of refractive cases. According to the results obtained in this study, H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole was relatively high. MDR strains are emerging and will have an effect on the combination therapy.

  2. Amoxicillin / Clavulanic Acid and Cefotaxime Resistance in Salmonella Minnesota and Salmonella Heidelberg from Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues IBBE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the resistance of various Salmonella strains to beta-lactam antibiotics. Salmonella Minnesota (36 strains and Salmonella Heidelberg (24 strains were isolated from broiler chickens and carcasses by the Disk Diffusion Test and resistance genes blaCTX-M-8, blaACC-1 and blaCMY-2 were detected by PCR. Of the 60 strains tested, 80% were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Specifically, 66.7% were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 75% were resistant to cefotaxime. Among the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid resistant strains, the blaCMY-2 gene was detected in 40%, blaACC-1 in 37.5% and blaCTX-M-8 in 7.5%. Among the cefotaxime resistant strains, we detected the genes blaCTX-M-8 in 13.3%, blaACC-1 in 33.3%, and blaCMY-2 in 31.1%. The presence of cefotaxime- and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant Salmonella in poultry, and the prevalence of extended spectrum betalactamases and AmpC-betalactamases in these strains are of huge concern to public health and economy.

  3. Effects of oxytetracycline and amoxicillin on development and biomarkers activities of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rhaul; McDonough, Sakchai; Ladewig, Jessica C L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A; Domingues, Inês

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in human and veterinary medicine to treat or prevent diseases. Residues of antibiotics have been found in aquatic environments, but their effects on fish have been not properly investigated. This work aimed to assess the sub-lethal effects of oxytetracycline and amoxicillin on zebrafish development and biomarkers. Embryos and adults were exposed during 96 h to amoxicillin and oxytetracycline following OECD guidelines. Tissues of adults and pools of embryos were used for catalase, glutathione-S-transferases and lactate dehydrogenase determinations. Amoxicillin caused premature hatching (48 h-EC50=132.4 mg/l) whereas oxytetracycline cause delayed hatching of embryos (72 h-EC50=127.6 mg/l). Moreover, both antibiotics inhibited catalase and induced glutathione-S-transferases in zebrafish adults. However, only oxytetracycline induced lactate dehydrogenase. Short-term effects of antibiotics were observed at high doses (mg/l) indicating that physiological impairment in fish populations is unlike to occur. However, effects of chronic exposures to low doses of ABs must be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1% H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9% to amoxicillin and three (5.5% to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.

  5. Toxic effects of amoxicillin on the photosystem II of Synechocystis sp. characterized by a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiangliang; Deng Chunnuan; Zhang Daoyong; Wang Jianlong; Mu Guijin; Chen Ying

    2008-01-01

    Amoxicillin is one of the widely used antibiotics of environmental concern. This study shows that amoxicillin has toxic effects on the photosynthesis of Synechocystis sp. Its inhibitory effects on photosystem II (PSII) of Synechocystis sp. were investigated by using a variety of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence tests. The inhibitory effects of amoxicillin on PSII activity of Synechocystis sp. are concentration-dependent. Amoxicillin exposure leads to slowing down of electron transport on both donor side and acceptor side and causes accumulation of P680 + . Q A - reoxidation test revealed that amoxicillin hinders electron transfer from Q A - to Q B /Q B - and more Q A - is oxidized through S 2 (Q A Q B ) - charge recombination. Analysis of PSII heterogeneity demonstrated that an exposure to amoxicillin increases the proportion of inactive PSII (PSII X ) centers and the proportion of PSII centers with small antenna (PSIIβ). These changes finally result in deterioration of full photosynthesis performance

  6. Disposition Kinetics of Amoxicillin in Healthy, Hepatopathic and Nephropathic Conditions in Chicken after Single Oral Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloy Kumar Bhar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen broiler chickens (COBB 400 of 42 days of age weighing 1.8 to 2.0 kg were equally divided into 3 groups, each consisting of 5 birds. Hepatopathy was induced by oral administration of paracetamol while nephropathy was induced by intravenous administration of uranyl nitrate. Kinetic study was investigated in healthy, hepatopathic and nephropathic birds following single oral administration of amoxicillin at 40 mg kg-1. Blood samples were collected at different time schedule. Plasma concentrations of amoxicillin in healthy, hepatopathic and nephropathic birds were 41.90 ± 5.59, 9.93 ± 0.76 and 38.75 ± 6.08 µg ml-1, respectively at 1 hr; 15.34 ± 1.99, 18.57 ± 1.66 and 67.40 ± 2.62 µg ml-1, respectively at 4 hr and 2.03 ± 0.28, 15.54 ± 0.82 and 30.63 ± 1.58 µg ml-1, respectively at 24 hr. Maximum plasma concentration was detected at 1 hr in healthy birds (41.90 ± 5.59 µg ml-1 , at 8 hr in hepatopathic birds (23.51 ± 1.64 µg ml-1 and at 4 hr in nephropathic birds (67.40 ± 2.62 µg ml-1. The drug could not be detected in plasma beyond 24 hr in healthy, 72 hr in both hepatopathic and nephropathic birds. The concentration of amoxicillin was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in most of the samples of hepatopathic and nephropathic birds compared to healthy birds. Significant higher values (P < 0.01 of t1/2 K, AUC, and MRT and lower values of K and ClB in the hepatopathic and nephropathic birds in comparison to healthy birds were observed.

  7. Bismuth, lansoprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole or clarithromycin as first-line Helicobacter pylori therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qi; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Xiao, Shudong; Graham, David Y; Lu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of replacing tetracycline with amoxicillin in bismuth quadruple therapy. Subjects who were infected with Helicobacter pylori and naïve to treatment were randomly (1:1) assigned to receive a 14-day modified bismuth quadruple therapy: lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, bismuth potassium citrate 220 mg (elemental bismuth), twice a day with metronidazole 400 mg four times a day (metronidazole group) or clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day (clarithromycin group). Six weeks after treatment, H. pylori eradication was assessed by 13C-urea breath test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the twofold agar dilution method. This was a non-inferiority trial. Two hundred and fifteen subjects were randomised. Metronidazole and clarithromycin containing regimens achieved high cure rates: 94 of 97 (96.9%, 95% CI 93.5% to 100%) and 93 of 98 (94.9%, 95% CI 90.5% to 99.3%) by per-protocol and 88.9% (95% CI 83.0% to 94.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI 82.8% to 94.8%) by intention-to-treat, respectively. Amoxicillin, metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance rates were 1.5%, 45.5% and 26.5%, respectively. Only clarithromycin resistance reduced treatment success (e.g., susceptible 98.6%, resistant 76.9%, p=0.001). Adverse events were more common in the metronidazole group. These results suggest that amoxicillin can substitute for tetracycline in modified 14 day bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line treatment and still overcome metronidazole resistance in areas with high prevalence of metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance. Using clarithromycin instead of metronidazole was only effective in the presence of susceptible strains. NCT02175901. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis to amoxicillin associated with parvovirus B19 reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistru, Ana Maria; Lisboa, Carmen; Cunha, Ana Paula; Bettencourt, Herberto; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-09-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old male patient with 2 episodes, 4 months apart, of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) associated with oral intake of amoxicillin and simultaneous reactivation of parvovirus B19 infection proven by positive polymerase chain reaction test in the skin fragment and blood sample and elevation of the IgG antibodies titer. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AGEP resulting from the interaction between drug hypersensitivity and the reactivation of parvovirus B19. A combination of an immunological reaction to the drug and virus infection could be responsible for the clinical picture.

  9. Proof of pore formation and biophysical perturbations through a 2D amoxicillin-lipid membrane interaction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Daniela; Nunes, Cláudia; Fontaine, Philippe; Sarmento, Bruno; Reis, Salette

    2017-05-01

    Amoxicillin is a worldwide used antibiotic, and it is classified as a first-line drug against Helicobacter pylori gastric infections. However, the current treatment of these infections has several limitations, such as the side effects and the low therapeutic compliance. Amoxicillin has been associated with gastrointestinal and renal side effects, with higher toxicity when the pH is lower. By considering this association and the well-known pH gradient of the gastric mucosa, this work aims to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of amoxicillin. For that purpose, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) monolayers were used since phosphatidylcholines are the most common phospholipid headgroup of biological membranes. To have insight of the effects of amoxicillin, different techniques were employed, namely, isotherm measurements, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, grazing incident X-ray diffraction and Brewster angle microscopy. The monolayers of DPPC spread onto different buffer solutions (pH1.2, pH5 and pH7.4) showed different structural and packing properties. The interaction with amoxicillin also depended on the pH. At pH7.4, the highest effect was visualized at lower pressures, with partial restoration of the biophysical properties of the monolayer at 30 mN.m -1 . A higher perturbation is shown at acidic pH, in which pores were visualized by Brewster angle microscopy. These perturbations may ultimately be related with amoxicillin toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modification of TiO(2) nanotube surfaces by electro-spray deposition of amoxicillin combined with PLGA for bactericidal effects at surgical implantation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Moon, Seung-Kyun; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2013-01-01

    To fabricate the antibiotic-releasing coatings on TiO(2) nanotube surfaces for wide applications of implant and bone plate in medical and dental surgery, the optimal deposition time of amoxicillin/PLGA solution simultaneously performing non-toxicity and a high bactericidal effect for preventing early implant failures was found. FE-SEM, ESD and FT-IR were used for confirming deposition of amoxicillin/PLGA on the TiO(2) surface. Also, the elution of amoxicillin/PLGA in a TiO(2) nanotube surface was measured by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The bactericidal effect of amoxicillin on the TiO(2) nanotube surface was evaluated by using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were observed by WST assay using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. The results indicated that the TiO(2) nanotube surface controlled by electro-spray deposition time with amoxicillin/PLGA solution could provide a high bactericidal effect against S. aureus by the bactericidal effect of amoxicillin, as well as good osteoblast cell proliferation at the TiO(2) nanotube surface without toxicity. This study used electro-spray deposition (ESD) methodology to obtain amoxicillin deposition in nanotube structures of TiO(2) and found the optimal deposition time of amoxicillin/PLGA solution simultaneously performing non-toxicity and a high bactericidal effect for preventing early implant failures.

  11. Incidence of rash after amoxicillin treatment in children with infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovel-Sella, Aluma; Ben Tov, Amir; Lahav, Einat; Mor, Orna; Rudich, Hagit; Paret, Gideon; Reif, Shimon

    2013-05-01

    "Ampicillin rash," a phenomenon unique to patients with Epstein-Barr virus acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) treated with ampicillin, was first reported in the 1960s. The incidence was estimated as being between 80% and 100%, and the figures have not been reviewed since those first accounts. We sought to establish the current incidence of rash associated with antibiotic treatment among children with AIM. A retrospective study of all hospitalized children diagnosed as having AIM based upon positive Epstein-Barr virus serology in 2 pediatric tertiary medical centers in Israel. Of the 238 children who met the study entry criteria during the study period, 173 were treated with antibiotics. Fifty-seven (32.9%) of the subjects treated with antibiotics had a rash during their illness compared with 15 (23.1%) in untreated patients (P = .156; not significant). Amoxicillin was associated with the highest incidence of antibiotic-induced rash occurrence (29.5%, 95% confidence interval: 18.52-42.57), but significantly lower than the 90% rate reported for ampicillin in past studies. Age, gender, ethnicity, and atopic or allergic history were not associated with the development of rash after antibiotic exposure. Among the laboratory data, only increased white blood cell counts were more prevalent among subjects who did not develop an antibiotic-induced rash. The incidence of rash in pediatric patients with AIM after treatment with the current oral aminopenicillin (amoxicillin) is much lower than originally reported.

  12. High-Dose Amoxicillin with Clavulanate for the Treatment of Acute Otitis Media in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huei Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study uses the acute otitis media clinical practice guideline proposed in 2004 as a reference to evaluate whether antibiotics doses that are in line with the recommendations lead to better prognosis. The study also attempts to clarify possible factors that influence the outcome. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects and Methods. A total of 400 children with acute otitis media were enrolled. The dosage of amoxicillin was considered to be appropriate when in accord with clinical practice guidelines, that is, 80–90 mg/kg/day. The outcome was defined according to the description of tympanic membrane on medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between antibiotic dosage and prognosis after adjusting for baseline factors. Results. The majority of prescriptions were under dosage (89.1% but it was not noticeably associated with outcome (P= 0.41. The correlation between under dosage and poor prognosis was significant in children below 20 kg with bilateral acute otitis media (odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.02–2.59, P=0.04. Conclusion. Treating acute otitis media in children, high-dose amoxicillin with clavulanate as recommended in the clinical practice guideline was superior to conventional doses only in children under 20 kg with bilateral diseases.

  13. Comparison of efficacy of amoxicillin versus ciprofloxacin in postsurgical management of transalveolar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Natarajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transalveolar extraction and the use of pharmacological antibiotic therapy following the surgical procedure in management of postoperative infection go hand in hand in minor oral surgery. Attention has often been focused on antibiotic therapy administered at different time schedules (before or after surgery or both. This investigation reveals how the use of different molecules and dosages is critical in the postoperative period and has always provided positive result. Methodology: A prospective randomized study was carried out in 100 healthy controls of age group 20–50 years undergoing transalveolar extraction in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vivekanandha Dental College for Women. A 5-day regimen of amoxicillin or ciprofloxacin group of antibiotics along with regular analgesics was administered to the patients following transalveolar extraction. The patients were evaluated for postoperative infection, inflammation and wound care on postoperative days: day zero, day 2, day 5, day 7, day 15, day 30, and analyzed. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results and Conclusion: A total of 100 patients aged 23–50 years (24.6–4.43 met the inclusion criteria. Male accounted for 44, while female were 55, giving male:female ratio 1:1.4. Postoperative infection was minimum with ciprofloxacin group as compared to amoxicillin group and was more significant (P < 0.005 on evaluation. A complete review has also been taken into an account, various strategies used such as surgical flaps, no traumatic osteotomy, and primary or secondary closure.

  14. Nonsurgical therapy of chronic periodontitis with adjunctive systemic azithromycin or amoxicillin/metronidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentsch, Holger F R; Buchmann, Andreas; Friedrich, Abel; Eick, Sigrun

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare the effect of systemic adjunctive use of azithromycin with amoxicillin/metronidazole to scaling and root planing (SRP) in a clinical study. Data from 60 individuals with chronic periodontitis were evaluated after full-mouth SRP. Antibiotics were given from the first day of SRP, in the test group (n = 29), azithromycin for 3 days and, in the control group (n = 31), amoxicillin/metronidazole for7 days. Probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Gingival crevicular fluid was analyzed for matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-8 and interleukin (IL)-1beta levels. Subgingival plaque was taken for assessment of the major bacteria associated with periodontitis. In both groups, PD, AL, and BOP were significantly reduced (p chronic periodontitis; however, a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter study is needed. Application of azithromycin as a single antibiotic for 3 days might be considered as an additional adjunctive antibiotic to SRP in selected patients.

  15. Microcalorimetric determination of the effects of amoxicillin, metronidazole, and their combination on in vitro biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Monika; Braissant, Olivier; Hauser-Gerspach, Irmgard; Weiger, Roland; Walter, Clemens; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2014-02-01

    The mechanism of action of adjuvant antibiotic therapy in the treatment of peri-implantitis is not well understood. The aim of this study is to investigate antibiotic susceptibility of an in vitro biofilm by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). Titanium disks containing a 72-hour three-species biofilm (Streptococcus sanguinis DSM20068, Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC10953, and Porphyromonas gingivalis DSM20709) were placed in a series of IMC ampoules with nutrient agar supplemented with increasing concentrations of amoxicillin, metronidazole, or their combination and incubated anaerobically for 10 days. Lag time and maximum growth rate were determined from continuous heat-flow recordings of metabolic activity. To validate the IMC biofilm results, adherent S. sanguinis and P. gingivalis were incubated anaerobically in medium supplemented with antibiotics at 37°C for 24 hours, and their vitality was determined by live/dead staining, conventional culturing, and IMC. In all biofilm samples incubated with antibiotics, a prolonged lag phase was observed compared with controls (P live/dead staining and conventional culturing. IMC gives new evidence about antibiotic effects on oral biofilms and is more informative than conventional culture and live/dead assays. The combination of antibiotics was found to be more efficient than metronidazole alone; however, only minor differences in growth inhibition were detected compared with amoxicillin alone.

  16. Preparation of Novel Thin-Film Composite Nanofiltration Membranes for Separation of Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several novel composite membranes were prepared to separate and recycle amoxicillin from pharmaceutical wastewater via nanofiltration process. The synthesis of these membranes included three stages: 1- preparation of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes as a support via phase separation process, 2- modification of its surface by interfacial polymerization as a selective layer (polyamide, and 3- self-assembly of TiO2 nanoparticles on the selective layer as an anti-fouling agent. The rejection of all nanofiltration membranes was more than 99% and only its flux was changed proportional to different conditions. In the presence and absence of TiO2 nanoparticles, the pure water flux of polyamide thin-film membrane also obtained 44.4 and 38.4 L/h.m2 at 4 bar pressure, respectively. These were equal to 34 L/h.m2 for amoxicillin solutions. The results showed that TiO2 nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of polyamide selective layer and therefore, nanoparticles decreased the fouling level. SEM images illustrated the excellent establishment of polyamide layer and distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles on the selective layer. The properties of membrane surface were taken into consideration by using AFM, indicating the increment of surface roughness with interfacial polymerization and TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembly. The pore size of membranes was in the nanoscale (2.653 and 2.604 nm without and with TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembly, respectively

  17. Outpatient treatment of children with severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin in four countries: the MASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel; Anh, Dang D; El-Sayed, Hesham F; Fox, LeAnne M; Fox, Matthew P; MacLeod, William; Saha, Samir; Tuan, Tran A; Thea, Donald M; Qazi, Shamim

    2011-08-01

    A recent randomized clinical trial demonstrated home-based treatment of WHO-defined severe pneumonia with oral amoxicillin was equivalent to hospital-based therapy and parenteral antibiotics. We aimed to determine whether this finding is generalizable across four countries. Multicentre observational study in Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana and Vietnam between November 2005 and May 2008. Children aged 3-59 months with WHO-defined severe pneumonia were enrolled at participating health centres and managed at home with oral amoxicillin (80-90 mg/kg per day) for 5 days. Children were followed up at home on days 1, 2, 3 and 6 and at a facility on day 14 to look for cumulative treatment failure through day 6 and relapse between days 6 and 14. Of 6582 children screened, 873 were included, of whom 823 had an outcome ascertained. There was substantial variation in presenting characteristics by site. Bangladesh and Ghana had fever (97%) as a more common symptom than Egypt (74%) and Vietnam (66%), while in Vietnam, audible wheeze was more common (49%) than at other sites (range 2-16%). Treatment failure by day 6 was 9.2% (95% CI: 7.3-11.2%) across all sites, varying from 6.4% (95% CI: 3.1-9.8%) in Ghana to 13.2% (95% CI: 8.4-18.0%) in Vietnam; 2.7% (95% CI: 1.5-3.9%) of the 733 children well on day 6 relapsed by day 14. The most common causes of treatment failure were persistence of lower chest wall indrawing (LCI) at day 6 (3.8%; 95% CI: 2.6-5.2%), abnormally sleepy or difficult to wake (1.3%; 95% CI: 0.7-2.3%) and central cyanosis (1.3%; 95% CI: 0.7-2.3%). All children survived and only one adverse drug reaction occurred. Treatment failure was more frequent in young infants and those presenting with rapid respiratory rates. Clinical treatment failure and adverse event rates among children with severe pneumonia treated at home with oral amoxicillin did not substantially differ across geographic areas. Thus, home-based therapy of severe pneumonia can be applied to a wide variety of

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated in newly-hatched chickens and effect of amoxicillin treatment during their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Belenguer, Ana; Doménech, Eva; Villagrá, Arantxa; Fenollar, Alejandro; Ferrús, Maria Antonia

    2016-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food animals is the major determinant for the propagation of resistant bacteria in the animal reservoir. However, other factors may also play a part, and in particular vertical spread between the generations has been suggested to be an important transmission pathway. The objective of this paper was to determine the resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from newly-hatched chickens as well as to study the antibiotic pressure effect when amoxicillin was administered during their growing period. With this aim, meconium from 22 one-day-old Ross chickens was analysed. In addition, during their growth period, amoxicillin treatments at days 7, 21 and 35 were carried out. Results showed a high number of E. coli-resistant strains were isolated from the treated one-day-old chickens, and were the highest for β-lactams group, followed by quinolone and tetracyclines. After treatment with amoxicillin, the highest percentage of resistances were detected for this antibiotic compared to the others analysed, with significant differences in resistance percentages between control and treated broilers detected in relation to ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Differences in resistances to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid between control and treated animals were not observed and there was lack of resistance for amikacin and ceftriaxone. These results suggest the possibility of vertical transmission of resistant strains to newly-hatched chicks from parent flocks, and seem to indicate that the treatment with amoxicillin increased the resistance of E. coli to other antibiotics.

  19. Withdrawal of amoxicillin and penicillin G procaine from milk after intramammary administration in dairy cows with mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmańczuk Artur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many veterinary products containing β-lactam antibiotics which are used for mastitis treatment in cows. The aim of the study was to determine whether mastitis could have any effect on amoxicillin (AMX or penicillin G procaine (PEN withdrawal period from milk, in the context of current maximum residue limits established by the European Commission.

  20. Effects of selected pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen and amoxicillin on the demography of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus havanaensis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Karen González-Pérez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The levels of emerging chemicals have increased dramatically during the last two decades posing problems for human and environmental health. Pain-killers such as ibuprofen and antibiotics such as amoxicillin are generally consumed together and hence are discharged into waterbodies as effluents. The lack of a rigorous control of pharmaceutical discharges into natural waterbodies is a concern for limnologists and ecotoxicologists because of their possible effects on non-target organisms. Rotifers, due to their sensitivity, short generation time and high reproductive rates, are widely used as bioassay organisms in testing the effects of different substances including pharmaceuticals. Here we quantified the demographic responses of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus havanaensis exposed to three sublethal concentrations of ibuprofen (25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg L−1 and amoxicillin (200, 100 and 50 μg L−1. Our data showed that both survivorship- and reproduction-related variables were negatively affected with increasing concentrations of both pharmaceuticals. The rate of population increase of B. calyciflorus (0.63–0.72 d−1 was not affected by amoxicillin or by ibuprofen but for B. havanaensis, it was decreased significantly (from 0.89 to 0.38 d−1. Compared to ibuprofen, amoxicillin had more adverse effects on both the rotifer species.

  1. Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties, and Antimicrobial Studies of Iron (III Complexes of Ciprofloxacin, Cloxacillin, and Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian I. Eze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (III complexes of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and cloxacillin were synthesized and their aqueous solubility profiles, relative stabilities, and antimicrobial properties were evaluated. The complexes showed improved aqueous solubility when compared to the corresponding ligands. Relative thermal and acid stabilities were determined spectrophotometrically and the results showed that the complexes have enhanced thermal and acid stabilities when compared to the pure ligands. Antimicrobial studies showed that the complexes have decreased activities against most of the tested microorganisms. Ciprofloxacin complex, however, showed almost the same activity as the corresponding ligand. Job’s method of continuous variation suggested 1 : 2 metals to ligand stoichiometry for ciprofloxacin complex but 1 : 1 for cloxacillin complex.

  2. The effects of amoxicillin and vancomycin on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, S; Reijnders, D; Konings, M C J M; Groen, A K; Lütjohann, D; Goossens, G H; Blaak, E E; Plat, J

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the microbiota composition have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, not much is known on the involvement of gut microbiota in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In addition, the gut microbiota might also be a potential source of plasma oxyphytosterol and oxycholesterol concentrations (oxidation products of plant sterols and cholesterol). Therefore, the aim of this study was to modulate the gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy to investigate effects on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism and oxyphytosterol concentrations. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in which 55 obese, pre-diabetic men received oral amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (antibiotic directed against Gram-positive bacteria) or placebo (microcrystalline cellulose) capsules for 7days (1500mg/day). Plasma lipid and lipoprotein, non-cholesterol sterol, bile acid and oxy(phyto)sterol concentrations were determined at baseline and after 1-week intervention. Plasma secondary bile acids correlated negatively with cholestanol (marker for cholesterol absorption, r=-0.367; Pcholesterol synthesis, r=0.430; Pcholesterol metabolism, plasma TAG, total cholesterol, LDL-C or HDL-C concentrations as compared to placebo. In addition, both antibiotic treatments did not affect individual isoforms or total plasma oxyphytosterol or oxycholesterol concentrations. Despite strong correlations between plasma bile acid concentrations and cholesterol metabolism (synthesis and absorption), amoxicillin and vancomycin treatment for 7days did not affect plasma lipid and lipoprotein, plasma non-cholesterol sterol and oxy(phyto)sterol concentrations in obese, pre-diabetic men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. THE CLINICAL EFFICACY OF FOSFOMYCIN TROMETAMOL VERSUS AMOXICILLIN-CLAVULANIC ACID IN THE TREATMENT OF SYMPTOMATİC AND ASYMPTOMATİC BACTERIURIA IN 3rd TRIMESTER PREGNANCY

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Akarsu; Cengiz Kara; Ömer Faruk Bozkurt; Zeynep Çizmeci; Nermin Akdemir; Ali Ünsal

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to assess the clinical efficacy of a single dose of fosfomycin trometamol for the treatment of both asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria in the third trimester of pregnancy compared with a 7-day regimen of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid MATERIAL – METHODS: In this study clinical efficiency of single dose of 3 g fosfomycin trometamol and 7 day 675 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were compared on 85 pregnant women in 3rd trimester with symptomatic and...

  4. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin administered in drinking water to recently weaned 3- to 4-week-old pigs with diarrhea experimentally induced by Escherichia coli O149 : F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective-To measure effects of Escherichia coli 0149:F4-induced diarrhea on water consumption and pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after administration in drinking water. Animals-24 recently weaned 24- to 28-day-old crossbred pigs. Procedure-10 pigs were inoculated with E coli O149:F4; all 10 pigs...... of amoxicillin may be appropriate for administration in drinking water during a 4-hour period on the first day that pigs have diarrhea attributable to E coli 0149:F4....

  5. Treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis with once-daily compared with twice-daily amoxicillin: a noninferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Herbert W; Ryan, Amy G; Dallas, Steven D; Kaplan, Edward L; Johnson, Dwight R; Norton, H James; Roddey, Oliver F; Martin, Edward S; Swetenburg, Raymond L; Koonce, Elizabeth W; Felkner, Mary M; Giftos, P Michael

    2006-09-01

    Two relatively small previous studies comparing once-daily amoxicillin with conventional therapy for group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis reported similar rates of bacteriologic success for each treatment group. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate once-daily amoxicillin for GAS pharyngitis in a larger study. In a single pediatric practice, from October through May for 2 consecutive years (2001-2003), we recruited children 3 to 18 years of age who had symptoms and signs suggestive of GAS pharyngitis. Patients with a positive rapid test for GAS were stratified by weight (or=40 kg) and then randomly assigned to receive once-daily (750 mg or 1000 mg) or twice-daily (2 doses of 375 mg or 500 mg) amoxicillin for 10 days. We determined bacteriologic failure rates for GAS in the pharynx from subsequent swabs taken at 14 to 21 (visit 2) and 28 to 35 (visit 3) days after treatment initiation. We conducted a randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, noninferiority trial to evaluate whether amoxicillin given once daily would have a bacteriologic failure rate no worse than that of amoxicillin given twice daily within a prespecified margin of 10%. GAS isolates were characterized to distinguish bacteriologic failures from new acquisitions. Adverse events were described and adherence was evaluated by review of returned daily logs and dosage bottles. Of 2139 potential study patients during the 2-year period, we enrolled 652 patients, 326 into each treatment group. Children in the 2 groups were comparable with respect to all demographic and clinical characteristics except that children <40 kg more often presented with rash in each treatment group. At visit 2, failure rates were 20.1% (59 of 294) for the once-daily group and 15.5% (46 of 296) for the twice-daily group (difference, 4.53%; 90% confidence interval [CI], -0.6 to 9.7). At visit 3, failure rates were 2.8% (6 of 216) for the once-daily group and 7.1% (16 of 225) for the twice-daily group (difference, -4

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological studies of transition metal complexes of novel schiff bases derived from amoxicillin and sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, N.

    2009-01-01

    Fe (II), Co (II) and Ni (II) metal complexes of new Schiff bases derived from amoxicillin with sugars (D-Glucose, D-Galactose and D-Mannose) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, electronic absorption, and atomic absorption spectroscopy, magnetic moment measurements and thermal analysis. It has been found that Schiff bases behave as bi-dentate ligands forming complexes with 1:2 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry. The complexes were neutral as confirmed by their low conductance values. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on two gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) microorganisms by Agar diffusion disc method. It has been found that all the complexes have higher biological activities than the pure amoxicillin. (author)

  7. Impact of high-flux haemodialysis on the probability of target attainment for oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Katrina; Patel, Kashyap; Kong, David C M; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J

    2017-07-01

    Clearance of small molecules such as amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is expected to increase during high-flux haemodialysis, which may result in lower concentrations and thus reduced efficacy. To date, clearance of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) during high-flux haemodialysis remains largely unexplored. Using published pharmacokinetic parameters, a two-compartment model with first-order input was simulated to investigate the impact of high-flux haemodialysis on the probability of target attainment (PTA) of orally administered AMC combination therapy. The following pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets were used to calculate the PTA. For amoxicillin, the time that the free concentration remains above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥50% of the dosing period (≥50%ƒT >MIC ) was used. For clavulanic acid, the time that the free concentration was >0.1 mg/L of ≥45% of the dosing period (≥45%ƒT >0.1 mg/L ) was used. Dialysis clearance reported in low-flux haemodialysis for both compounds was doubled to represent the likely clearance during high-flux haemodialysis. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to produce concentration-time profiles over 10 days in 1000 virtual patients. Seven different regimens commonly seen in clinical practice were explored. When AMC was dosed twice daily, the PTA was mostly ≥90% for both compounds regardless of when haemodialysis commenced. When administered once daily, the PTA was 20-30% for clavulanic acid and ≥90% for amoxicillin. The simulations suggest that once-daily orally administered AMC in patients receiving high-flux haemodialysis may result in insufficient concentrations of clavulanic acid to effectively treat infections, especially on days when haemodialysis occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance and model of a full-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) to treat the pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hongcheng; Chen, Zhaobo; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Shi, Yue; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-30

    A full-scale test was conducted with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pre-treating pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and amoxicillin. The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of UASB in the condition of a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate from 12.57 to 21.02 kgm(-3)d(-1) and a wide pH from 5.57 to 8.26, in order to provide a reference for treating the similar chemical synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin. The results demonstrated that the UASB average percentage reduction in COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin were 52.2%, 26.3% and 21.6%, respectively. In addition, three models, built on the back propagation neural network (BPNN) theory and linear regression techniques were developed for the simulation of the UASB system performance in the biodegradation of pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin. The average error of COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin were -0.63%, 2.19% and 5.40%, respectively. The results indicated that these models built on the BPNN theory were well-fitted to the detected data, and were able to simulate and predict the removal of COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin by UASB. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of amoxicillin with and without decongestant-antihistamine for otitis media with effusion in children. Results of a double-blind, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, E M; Rockette, H E; Bluestone, C D; Paradise, J L; Nozza, R J

    1987-02-19

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 518 infants and children who had otitis media with effusion ("secretory" otitis media), we evaluated the efficacy of a two-week course of amoxicillin (40 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) with and without a four-week course of an oral decongestant-antihistamine combination. Among the 474 subjects who were evaluated at the four-week end point, the rate of resolution of middle-ear effusion was twice as high in those treated with amoxicillin, either with or without the decongestant-antihistamine, as in those who received placebo (P less than 0.001), but 69.8 percent of the amoxicillin-treated subjects still had effusion. Among both the amoxicillin-treated subjects and the placebo-treated subjects, resolution was more likely in those with initially unilateral effusion, in those who had had effusion for eight weeks or less, and in those without an upper respiratory tract infection at the four-week end point. Side effects were reported more often in subjects who received decongestant-antihistamine than in those who did not. Among the subjects without effusion at the four-week end point, recurrent effusion developed in approximately half those in both the amoxicillin and placebo groups during the subsequent three months. We conclude that in infants and children with otitis media with effusion, amoxicillin treatment increases to some extent the likelihood of resolution.

  10. Construction of an Electrochemical Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles for Trace Determination of Amoxicillin in Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor was fabricated for determination of amoxicillin in bovine milk samples by decoration of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs using ethylenediamine (en as a cross linker (AuNPs/en-MWCNTs. The constructed nanocomposite was homogenized in dimethylformamide and drop casted on screen printed electrode. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX, X-Ray diffraction (XRD and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the synthesized nanocomposites. The results show that the synthesized nanocomposites induced a remarkable synergetic effect for the oxidation of amoxicillin. Effect of some parameters, including pH, buffer, scan rate, accumulation potential, accumulation time and amount of casted nanocomposites, on the sensitivity of fabricated sensor were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, there was two linear calibration ranges from 0.2–10 µM and 10–30 µM with equations of Ipa (µA = 2.88C (µM + 1.2017; r = 0.9939 and Ipa (µA = 0.88C (µM + 22.97; r = 0.9973, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantitation (LOQ were calculated as 0.015 µM and 0.149 µM, respectively. The fabricated electrochemical sensor was successfully applied for determination of Amoxicillin in bovine milk samples and all results compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC standard method.

  11. Diatomite Modified Immobilized Delftia sp. for the Bio-Abiotic Removal of Antibiotics Amoxicillin in the Aqueous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lijuan; Sun, Jing; Guan, Kai; Shen, Tingting; Wang, Xikui

    2017-05-01

    Diatomite modified sodium alginate (Si/SA) immobilized Delftia sp. A2(2011) (STT01) was applied to degrade amoxicillin. The immobilized pellets provided a direct and visual probe for the degradation process due to their intrinsic bright colour. The results demonstrated that 100% of amoxicillin and 68.5% of CODcr removal were achieved after 72 h, comparing with the cases of sodium alginate (SA) system (81.2%, 46.9%) and the free cells system (60.5%, 35.5%). The degradation kinetics was in good agreement with Michaelis-Menten equation. The maximum rate (Vm ) and Michaelis constant (Km ) were calculated as 9.09 mg L-1 h-1 and 228 mg L-1, respectively. The results further revealed that diatomite not only acted as immobilization support to improve the mechanical strength and lifetime of the pellets but also as absorbent to promote the treatment efficiency. Therefore, both enzymatic catalysis and chemisorption were responsible for the removal of amoxicillin.

  12. Amoxicillin-resistant oral streptococci identified in dental plaque specimens from healthy Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Katsuhiko; Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Naka, Shuhei; Nomura, Ryota; Ooshima, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is known to be a life-threatening disease and invasive dental procedures are considered to be important factors. Oral amoxicillin (AMPC) is widely used for prophylaxis in patients with heart disorders who are at risk for IE. However, there is only limited information regarding the inhibition of oral bacteria by AMPC. Dental plaque specimens were obtained from 120 healthy Japanese adult subjects, then diluted and streaked onto selective medium for oral streptococci. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMPC was evaluated using a macro-dilution method by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (2006). Seven strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more were isolated from 5 subjects. The bacterial species were confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from each strain, which demonstrated that most were Streptococcus sanguinis, followed by Streptococcus oralis. Dental plaque specimens collected from these 5 subjects again after an interval of 2-3 months possessed no strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more. These findings suggest that strains with a high MIC of AMPC are present in the oral cavities of Japanese adults, though they may be transient rather than inhabitants. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Amoxicillin degradation from contaminated water by solar photocatalysis using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Tavakoli, Touraj

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the solar photocatalytic process in a pilot plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) was performed for amoxicillin (AMX) degradation, an antibiotic widely used in the world. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken statistical experiment design was used to optimize independent variables, namely TiO 2 dosage, antibiotic initial concentration, and initial pH. The results showed that AMX degradation efficiency affected by positive or negative effect of variables and their interactions. The TiO 2 dosage, pH, and interaction between AMX initial concentration and TiO 2 dosage exhibited a synergistic effect, while the linear and quadratic term of AMX initial concentration and pH showed antagonistic effect in the process response. Response surface and contour plots were used to perform process optimization. The optimum conditions found in this regard were TiO 2 dosage = 1.5 g/L, AMX initial concentration = 17 mg/L, and pH = 9.5 for AMX degradation under 240 min solar irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation of AMX after 34.95 kJ UV /L accumulated UV energy per liter of solution was 84.12 % at the solar plant.

  14. Antibiotic removal from water: Elimination of amoxicillin and ampicillin by microscale and nanoscale iron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauch, Antoine; Tuqan, Almuthanna; Assi, Hala Abou

    2009-01-01

    Zerovalent iron powder (ZVI or Fe 0 ) and nanoparticulate ZVI (nZVI or nFe 0 ) are proposed as cost-effective materials for the removal of aqueous antibiotics. Results showed complete removal of Amoxicillin (AMX) and Ampicillin (AMP) upon contact with Fe 0 and nFe 0 . Antibiotics removal was attributed to three different mechanisms: (i) a rapid rupture of the β-lactam ring (reduction), (ii) an adsorption of AMX and AMP onto iron corrosion products and (iii) sequestration of AMX and AMP in the matrix of precipitating iron hydroxides (co-precipitation with iron corrosion products). Kinetic studies demonstrated that AMP and AMX (20 mg L -1 ) undergo first-order decay with half-lives of about 60.3 ± 3.1 and 43.5 ± 2.1 min respectively after contact with ZVI under oxic conditions. In contrast, reactions under anoxic conditions demonstrated better degradation with t 1/2 of about 11.5 ± 0.6 and 11.2 ± 0.6 min for AMP and AMX respectively. NaCl additions accelerated Fe 0 consumption, shortening the service life of Fe 0 treatment systems. - Fe 0 is efficient for the aqueous removal of the β-lactam antibiotics and chlorides enhanced the removal rate by sustaining the process of iron corrosion.

  15. Efficacy of a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of pneumonia of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska-Daniel, I; Pejsak, Z

    1999-12-01

    Amoksiklav was used in the therapy of mixed respiratory tract infections in weaned pigs under field conditions. Positive effects of therapy with Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid were observed in the majority of treated pigs. The production losses due to pneumonia in pigs treated with this combination were lower than among control pigs treated with Oxytetracycline, also a significantly lower ratio of death was observed among experimental weaners in comparison to the controls. Thirty days after the end of the therapy it was found that the body weight gain (b. w. g) of the experimental animals was on average 800 g higher after this period and the experimental piglets grew daily in average 20 g more than the controls. Experimental pigs were slaughtered 3 days earlier than the controls and the average weight gain at slaughter was highest by 1.1 kg in this group. Average daily b. w. g. of experimental pigs during the period from birth to slaughter was 13 g higher in comparison to the controls.

  16. Comparative efficacies of amoxicillin, clindamycin, and moxifloxacin in prevention of bacteremia following dental extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diz Dios, P; Tomás Carmona, I; Limeres Posse, J; Medina Henríquez, J; Fernández Feijoo, J; Alvarez Fernández, M

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated the efficacies of oral prophylactic treatment with amoxicillin (AMX), clindamycin (CLI), and moxifloxacin (MXF) in the prevention of bacteremia following dental extractions (BDE). Two hundred twenty-one adults who required dental extractions under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to a control group, an AMX group, a CLI group, and an MXF group (the individuals in the drug treatment groups received 2 g, 600 mg, and 400 mg, respectively, 1 to 2 h before anesthesia induction). Venous blood samples were collected from each patient at the baseline and 30 s, 15 min, and 1 h after the dental extractions. The samples were inoculated into BACTEC Plus aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles and were processed in a BACTEC 9240 instrument. Subculture and the further identification of the isolated bacteria were performed by conventional microbiological techniques. The prevalences of BDE in the control group, AMX group, CLI group, and MXF group were 96, 46, 85, and 57%, respectively, at 30 s; 64, 11, 70, and 24%, respectively, at 15 min; and 20, 4, 22, and 7%, respectively, at 1 h. Streptococcus spp. were the most frequently identified bacteria in all groups (44 to 68%), with the lowest percentage being detected in the AMX group (44%). AMX and MXF prophylaxis showed high efficacies in reducing the prevalence and duration of BDE, but CLI prophylaxis was noneffective. As a consequence, MXF prophylaxis is a promising antibiotic alternative for the prevention of BDE when beta-lactams are not indicated.

  17. Simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate in different commercial drugs using PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejjani, A.; Roumié, M.; Akkad, S.; El-Yazbi, F.; Nsouli, B.

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated, in previous studies that Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is one of the most rapid and accurate choices for quantification of an active ingredient, in a solid drug, from the reactions induced on its specific heteroatom using pellets made from original tablets. In this work, PIXE is used, for the first time, for simultaneous quantification of two active ingredients, amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate, in six different commercial antibiotic type of drugs. Since the quality control process of a drug covers a large number of samples, the scope of this study was also to found the most rapid and low cost sample preparation needed to analyze these drugs with a good precision. The chosen drugs were analyzed in their tablets’ “as received” form, in pellets made from the powder of the tablets and also in pellets made from the powder of the tablets after being heated up to 70 °C to avoid any molecular destruction until constant weight and removal of humidity. The quantification validity related to the aspects of each sample preparation (homogeneity of the drug components and humidity) are presented and discussed.

  18. The Effect of the Wastewater of Penicillin and Amoxicillin on the Antioxidant Indexes of Limnodrilus Hoffmeisteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuxin; Shen, Hongyan

    2018-01-01

    In order to obtain some basic data for ecological risk assessment, an exposure experiment was carried out to study the effect of different volume of mixed penicillin and amoxicillin wastewater on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri was exposed to different volume (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) of mixed wastewater for 15 days. According to the experimental data, the MDA contents and SOD activities in Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri muscle tissue had seen significant change significantly during the period of exposure. The results showed that the trend of SOD activities in low concentration groups (10% and 20%) increased at first, then decreased and increased at last. As exposure concentration increased (40% and 50%), SOD activities were inhibited in the early days (3 d), and was gradually induced in the later phase. The change of MDA content in muscle tissue of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri was further investigated. It was found to be negatively correlated with the activity of SOD, and the high concentration group (50%) was in a remarkable induction state and reached the maximum at 6 d. According to the experimental data, the MDA contents and SOD activities in Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri muscle tissue had changed significantly and caused the oxidative damage.

  19. Cytotoxic effects of new synthesis heterocyclic derivatives of Amoxicillin on some cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, M. S.; Hussei, D. F.; Al-Taie, A. F.; Al-Halbosiy, M. M.; Hameed, B. A.

    2018-05-01

    A new Schiff base [I] was prepared by refluxing Amoxicillin trihydrate and 4-Hydroxy- 3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in aqueous methanol solution using glacial acetic acid as a catalyst. The new 1,3-oxazepine derivative [II] was obtained by Diels- Alder reaction of Schiff base [I] with phthalic anhydride in dry benzene. The reaction of Schiff base [I] with thioglycolic acid in dry benzene led to the formation of thiazolidin-4-one derivative [III]. While the imidazolidin-4-one [IV] derivative was produced by reacting the mentioned Schiff base [I] with glycine and triethylamine in ethanol for 9 hrs. Tetrazole derivative [V] was synthesized by refluxing Schiff base [I] with sodium azide in dimethylformamid DMF. The structure of synthesized compounds[I-V] was characterized by their melting points, elemental analysis CHN-S and by their spectral data; FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Two cancer cell lines include: (RD) human pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma and (L20B) the mice intestines carcinoma cell line (which expresses the genes for human cellular receptor for Polio viruses) were used in this study. The cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of all the synthesized compounds for 48 hrs was examined. All compounds except [IV] and [V] showed less than 50% inhibition for (L20B), while these compounds exhibit inhibition more than 50% inhibition for (RD).

  20. Simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate in different commercial drugs using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejjani, A., E-mail: abejjani@cnrs.edu.lb [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Roumié, M. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Akkad, S. [Facutly of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Beirut Arab University, Beirut (Lebanon); El-Yazbi, F. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, P.O. Box: 21521, Elmesalla, Alexandria (Egypt); Nsouli, B. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-CNRS, P.O. Box: 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-03-15

    We have demonstrated, in previous studies that Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is one of the most rapid and accurate choices for quantification of an active ingredient, in a solid drug, from the reactions induced on its specific heteroatom using pellets made from original tablets. In this work, PIXE is used, for the first time, for simultaneous quantification of two active ingredients, amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate, in six different commercial antibiotic type of drugs. Since the quality control process of a drug covers a large number of samples, the scope of this study was also to found the most rapid and low cost sample preparation needed to analyze these drugs with a good precision. The chosen drugs were analyzed in their tablets’ “as received” form, in pellets made from the powder of the tablets and also in pellets made from the powder of the tablets after being heated up to 70 °C to avoid any molecular destruction until constant weight and removal of humidity. The quantification validity related to the aspects of each sample preparation (homogeneity of the drug components and humidity) are presented and discussed.

  1. [The efficacy and safety of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women: a randomized, prospective, multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafal'skiĭ, V V; Dovgan', E V; Kozyrev, Iu V; Gustovarova, T A; Khlybova, S V; Novoselova, A V; Filippenko, N G; Likhikh, D G

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of efficacy and safety of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. A prospective, multicenter, randomized study that included 112 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria was performed. 58 women were randomized in group 1 (cefixime [suprax solutab] 400 mg 1 time a day, 7 days), 54 women were included in group 2 (amoxicillin/clavulanate [amoksiklav] 625 mg 3 times a day, 7 days). The average age of the patients in group 1 was 25.2 +/- 6.6; in group 2--26.6 +/- 5.8 years. Physical examination, evaluation of complaints, collection of data on adverse reactions, and bacteriological analysis of urine were performed after enrollment in the study at visit 2 (day 10 +/- 1) and 3 (day 35 +/- 2). Comparable effectiveness of cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was found. Eradication of the pathogen and sustained bacteriological response were observed in 94.8 and 92.7% of women treated with cefixime, and in 98.2 and 92.5% of women treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate, respectively (P > 0.05). At the same time, the use of amoxicillin/clavulanate compared with cefixime significantly higher was followed by the development of adverse reactions (13% and 1.7; respectively; P = 0.02). Seven-day courses of cefixime at a dose 400 mg 1 time a day and amoxicillin/clavulanate at a dose of 625 mg 3 times a day are high-effective treatment regimens for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women in Russia. The use of amoxicillin/clavulanate is significantly more often accompanied by the development of adverse reactions compared with cefixime.

  2. Efficacy of high doses of penicillin versus amoxicillin in the treatment of uncomplicated community acquired pneumonia in adults. A non-inferiority controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carl; Pérez, Almudena; Carandell, Eugenia; García-Sangenís, Anna; Rezola, Javier; Llorente, Marian; Gestoso, Salvador; Bobé, Francesc; Román-Rodríguez, Miguel; Cots, Josep M; Hernández, Silvia; Cortés, Jordi; Miravitlles, Marc; Morros, Rosa

    2017-10-20

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is treated with penicillin in some northern European countries. To evaluate whether high-dose penicillin V is as effective as high-dose amoxicillin for the treatment of non-severe CAP. Multicentre, parallel, double-blind, controlled, randomized clinical trial. 31 primary care centers in Spain. Patients from 18 to 75 years of age with no significant associated comorbidity and with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection and radiological confirmation of CAP were randomized to receive either penicillin V 1.6 million units, or amoxicillin 1000mg three times per day for 10 days. The main outcome was clinical cure at 14 days, and the primary hypothesis was that penicillin V would be non-inferior to amoxicillin with regard to this outcome, with a margin of 15% for the difference in proportions. EudraCT register 2012-003511-63. A total of 43 subjects (amoxicillin: 28; penicillin: 15) were randomized. Clinical cure was observed in 10 (90.9%) patients assigned to penicillin and in 25 (100%) patients assigned to amoxicillin with a difference of -9.1% (95% CI, -41.3% to 6.4%; p=.951) for non-inferiority. In the intention-to-treat analysis, amoxicillin was found to be 28.6% superior to penicillin (95% CI, 7.3-58.1%; p=.009 for superiority). The number of adverse events was similar in both groups. There was a trend favoring high-dose amoxicillin versus high-dose penicillin in adults with uncomplicated CAP. The main limitation of this trial was the low statistical power due to the low number of patients included. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-Induced Round Bodies of In Vitro Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Auwaerter, Paul G; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under experimental stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that appear resistant in vitro to customary first-line antibiotics for Lyme disease. To identify more effective drugs with activity against the round body form of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by exposure to amoxicillin (50 μg/ml) and then screened the Food and Drug Administration drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven individual drugs scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. In this amoxicillin-induced round body model, some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine also displayed enhanced activity which was similar to a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters not exposure to amoxicillin. Additional candidate drugs active against round bodies identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against amoxicillin-induced round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi

  4. Amoxicillin haptenates intracellular proteins that can be transported in exosomes to target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, F J; González-Morena, J M; Vida, Y; Pérez-Inestrosa, E; Blanca, M; Torres, M J; Pérez-Sala, D

    2017-03-01

    Allergic reactions to β-lactams are among the most frequent causes of drug allergy and constitute an important clinical problem. Drug covalent binding to endogenous proteins (haptenation) is thought to be required for activation of the immune system. Nevertheless, neither the nature nor the role of the drug protein targets involved in this process is fully understood. Here, we aim to identify novel intracellular targets for haptenation by amoxicillin (AX) and their cellular fate. We have treated B lymphocytes with either AX or a biotinylated analog (AX-B). The identification of protein targets for haptenation by AX has been approached by mass spectrometry and immunoaffinity techniques. In addition, intercellular communication mediated by the delivery of vesicles loaded with AX-B-protein adducts has been explored by microscopy techniques. We have observed a complex pattern of AX-haptenated proteins. Several novel targets for haptenation by AX in B lymphocytes have been identified. AX-haptenated proteins were detected in cell lysates and extracellularly, either as soluble proteins or in lymphocyte-derived extracellular vesicles. Interestingly, exosomes from AX-B-treated cells showed a positive biotin signal in electron microscopy. Moreover, they were internalized by endothelial cells, thus supporting their involvement in intercellular transfer of haptenated proteins. These results represent the first identification of AX-mediated haptenation of intracellular proteins. Moreover, they show that exosomes can constitute a novel vehicle for haptenated proteins, and raise the hypothesis that they could provide antigens for activation of the immune system during the allergic response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Solar photocatalytic oxidation of recalcitrant natural metabolic by-products of amoxicillin biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, João H O S; Reis, Ana C; Homem, Vera; Silva, José A; Alves, Arminda; Borges, Maria T; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P; Nunes, Olga C

    2014-11-15

    The contamination of the aquatic environment by non-metabolized and metabolized antibiotic residues has brought the necessity of alternative treatment steps to current water decontamination technologies. This work assessed the feasibility of using a multistage treatment system for amoxicillin (AMX) spiked solutions combining: i) a biological treatment process using an enriched culture to metabolize AMX, with ii) a solar photocatalytic system to achieve the removal of the metabolized transformation products (TPs) identified via LC-MS, recalcitrant to further biological degradation. Firstly, a mixed culture (MC) was obtained through the enrichment of an activated sludge sample collected in an urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Secondly, different aqueous matrices spiked with AMX were treated with the MC and the metabolic transformation products were identified. Thirdly, the efficiency of two solar assisted photocatalytic processes (TiO2/UV or Fe(3+)/Oxalate/H2O2/UV-Vis) was assessed in the degradation of the obtained TPs using a lab-scale prototype photoreactor equipped with a compound parabolic collector (CPC). Highest AMX specific biodegradation rates were obtained in buffer and urban wastewater (WW) media (0.10 ± 0.01 and 0.13 ± 0.07 g(AMX) g(biomass)(-1) h(-1), respectively). The resulting TPs, which no longer presented antibacterial activity, were identified as amoxicilloic acid (m/z = 384). The performance of the Fe(3+)/Oxalate/H2O2/UV-Vis system in the removal of the TPs from WW medium was superior to the TiO2/UV process (TPs no longer detected after 40 min (QUV = 2.6 kJ L(-1)), against incomplete TPs removal after 240 min (QUV = 14.9 kJ L(-1)), respectively). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Floating-bioadhesive gastroretentive Caesalpinia pulcherrima-based beads of amoxicillin trihydrate for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombre, Nilima A; Gide, Paraag S

    2016-01-01

    An oral dosage form containing floating bioadhesive gastroretentive microspheres forms a stomach-specific drug delivery system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori. To prepare and evaluate controlled release floating bioadhesive gastroretentive chitosan-coated amoxicillin trihydrate-loaded Caesalpinia pulcherrima galactomannan (CPG)-alginate beads (CCA-CPG-A), for H. pylori eradication. CCA-CPG-A beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation, using 2(3) factorial design with quantity of drug, combination of CPG with sodium alginate and concentration of calcium chloride as variables. Beads facilitated mucoadhesion to gastric mucosa with floating nature caused by chitosan coating for wide distribution throughout GIT. Developed beads were evaluated for characteristics like beads size-morphology, entrapment efficiency, DSC, XRD, FTIR, swelling ratio, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, in vitro floating and in vitro H. pylori growth inhibition studies. CCA-CPG-A beads were studied in Wistar rats for in vivo gastric mucoadhesion, in vivo H. pylori growth inhibition studies using PCR amplification of isolated DNA, rapid urease test. Developed beads possess drug release of 79-92%, entrapment efficiency of 65-89%, mucoadhesion of 61-89%. In vivo mucoadhesion study showed more than 85% mucoadhesion of beads even after 7th hour. In vitro-in vivo growth inhibition study showed complete eradication of H. pylori. CPG-alginate and chitosan in beads interacts with gastric mucosubstrate surface for prolonged gastric residence with floating bioadhesion mechanism for H. pylori eradication in rats. Floating bioadhesive CCA-CPG-A beads offer a promising drug delivery system for H. pylori eradication at lower dose, reduced adverse effect and enhance bioavailability.

  7. Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography: Mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Quantitative analysis of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in biological matrices requires sensitive and specific methods which allow determination of therapeutic concentration in μg/mL range. Analytical methods for determination of their concentrations in body fluids described in literature include high performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV detector (HPLC-UV and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS method which could be used for the spectral identification and quantification of the low concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma. Method. A sensitive and specific UPLC/MS method for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid determination was developed in this study. The samples were taken from the adult healthy volunteers receiving per os one tablet of amoxicillin (875 mg in combination with clavulanic acid (125 mg. Results. Plasma samples were pretreated by direct deproteinization with perchloric acid. Quantification limit of 0.01 μg/ml for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was achieved. The method was reproducible day by day (RSD < 7 %. Analytical recoveries for amoxicillin ranged from 98.82% to 100.9% (for concentrations of 1, 5 and 20 μg/mL, and recoveries for clavulanic acid were 99,89% to 100.1% (for concentrations of 1, 2 and 5 μg/mL. This assay was successfully applied to a pilot pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers after a single-oral administration of amoxicillin/ clavulanic combination. The determined plasma concentrations of both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were in the range of the expected values upon the literature data for HPLC-UV and LC-MS methods. Conclusion. The described method provided a few advantages comparing with LC/MS-MS method. The method is faster using running time of 5 minute, has lower limit of quantification (LOQ and it

  8. Effects of pore CaCO3 form agencies on dissolution mechanisms of amoxicillin drugs encapsulated in hydrogels full-IPN chitosan N-vinyl caprolactam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto, Emil; Fauzia, Maghfira

    2018-04-01

    The administration of amoxicillin trihydrate in Helicobacter pylori infection is not effective enough because the conventional preparations used have a short retention time in the stomach. To overcome this problem, amoxicillin trihydrate was encapsulated into the floating drug delivery matrix-matrix. In this study, the full-ipn acetaldehyde crosslinked hydrogel (N-vinyl caprolactam) was synthesized with a 10% CaCO3 pore forming agent and then encapsulated on amoxicillin trihydrate and studied the mechanism of drug dissolution with its kinetic kinetics approach. The K-PNVCL Hydrogel produces optimal properties which are then loaded with amoxicillin trihydrate in situ and post loading. In this research, we have got the percentage of swelling, floating time, the efficiency of in situ and post loading 873%; 3.15 minutes; 99.8% and 99.4%. The dissolution test was performed on amoxicillin trihydrate which had been encapsulated K-PNVCL hydrogel in vitro at pH 1.2 resulting in 94.5% for in situ loading and 98.5% for post loading. Results of the kinetics of drug release for post loading and in situ loading methods tend to follow the Higuchi model kinetics. The drug release mechanism occurs by Fickian diffusion. Proof of drug release mechanism from K-PNVCL hydrogel matrix is further done by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) instrument.

  9. Fourteen-day high-dose esomeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole as third-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Ignasi; González-Santiago, Jesús M; Molina-Infante, Javier; Barrio, Jesús; Herranz, Maria Teresa; Algaba, Alicia; Castro, Manuel; Gisbert, Javier P; Calvet, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of currently recommended third-line therapies for Helicobacter pylori is suboptimal, even that of culture-guided treatments. Resistance to multiple antibiotics is the major factor related to treatment failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a 14-day therapy using high-dose of amoxicillin, metronidazole and esomeprazole. Multicenter open-label study as a register in routine clinical practice in patients with two previous failures of eradication therapy. A triple therapy with esomeprazole 40 mg b.d., amoxicillin 1 g t.d.s and metronidazole 500 mg t.d.s for 2 weeks was administered as a third-line therapy after a first treatment including clarithromycin and a second treatment including a quinolone. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by either histology or 13 C-UBT both before and after treatment. A total of 68 patients were included in this study. An interim analysis showed that only three out of eight patients who had received metronidazole in previous eradication regimens were cured (37%, 95% CI 8-75); as a result, after this interim analysis only metronidazole-naïve patients were included. The ITT eradication rate in metronidazole-naive patients was 64% (95% CI 51-76). Adverse events occurred in 58% of patients, all of them mild-to-moderate. Two patients (3%) did not complete >90% of the treatment because of side effects. No severe adverse events occurred. Cure rates of this 14-day schedule using high-dose esomeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole as a third-line eradication regimen were suboptimal, especially in patients who had received metronidazole in previous failed eradication regimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A comparison of a single-dose and a seven-day treatment with Amoxicillin in asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Niro Manesh S; Amiri A; Ali yari Sh

    1994-01-01

    In this study, 1600 pregnant women who had referred to two prenatal clinics (Imam Khomeini and Mirza Kochek-Khan) were investigated. Ninety cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria were observed; 77 of those cooperated with us until the end of our study. The subjects, who were within the 14-36 weeks of gestational age, were randomly divided into two groups: Group A received the medicine (Amoxicillin) in a single-dose (3gr.); and, group B received it within seven days (1gr. TDS). The rate of recovery...

  11. In situ one-pot preparation of superparamagnetic hydrophilic porous microspheres for covalently immobilizing penicillin G acylase to synthesize amoxicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ping; Gu, Yaohua; Su, Weiguang; Shuai, Huihui; Wang, Julan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic hydrophilic porous microspheres were successfully one-pot synthesized for the first time via in situ inverse suspension polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate, N,N‧-methylene bisacrylamide and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in the presence of Fe3+ and Fe2+ dispersed in formamide, which were denoted as magnetic Fe3O4-GMH microspheres. The morphology and properties of magnetic Fe3O4-GMH microspheres were characterized by SEM, VSM, XRD, FTIR, and so on. The formamide content had an important influence on the morphology of Fe3O4-GMH, and nearly perfectly spherical Fe3O4-GMH particles were formed when the amount of formamide was 15 ml. The diameters of the microspheres were in the range of 100-200 μm and Fe3O4-GMH exhibited superparamagnetic behavior with the saturation magnetization of 5.44 emu/g. The specific surface area of microspheres was 138.7 m2/g, the average pore diameter and pore volume were 15.1 nm and 0.60 cm3/g, respectively. The content of oxirane groups on Fe3O4-GMH was 0.40 mmol/g. After penicillin G acylase (PGA) was covalently immobilized on Fe3O4-GMH microspheres, the catalytic performance for amoxicillin synthesis by 6-aminopenicillanic acid and D-hydroxyphenylglycine methyl ester was largely improved. As a result, 90.1% amoxicillin yield and 1.18 of the synthesis/hydrolysis (S/H) ratio were achieved on PGA/Fe3O4-GMH with ethylene glycol as solvent, but only 62.6% amoxicillin yield and 0.37 of the S/H ratio were obtained on free PGA under the same reaction conditions. Furthermore, the amoxicillin yield and S/H ratio were still kept at 88.2% and 1.06, respectively after the immobilized PGA was magnetically separated and recycled for 10 times, indicating that PGA/Fe3O4-GMH had a very good reusability.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin after oral administration in recently weaned piglets with experimentally induced Escherichia coli subtype O149 : F4 diarrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, G.M.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Frydendahl, K.

    2004-01-01

    Objective-To measure the effect of Escherichia coli subtype 0149:F4-induced diarrhea on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered amoxicillin in affected piglets relative to that of uninfected piglets. Animals-22 healthy 4-week-old recently weaned Danish crossbred piglets. Procedure-12 piglets...... were orally inoculated through gastric intubation with 10(9) CFUs of an E coli 0149:F4 strain and responded by developing diarrhea 12 to 16 hours later. Piglets were dosed with amoxicillin trihydrate solution (20 mg/kg) by gastric intubation. A control group of 10 age-matched piglets without signs...... that the concentration of the antimicrobial at the site of infection reflects the systemic concentration, higher doses of amoxicillin in the treatment of piglets with E coli 0149:F4-induced diarrhea may be appropriate....

  13. Effects of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid on the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Yun Lee,1 Wooseong Huh,2 Jin Ah Jung,3 Hye Min Yoo,2 Jae-Wook Ko,1,2 Jung-Ryul Kim2,4 1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan, 4Department of Clinical Research and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Valproic acid (VPA is mainly metabolized via glucuronide, which is hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and undergoes enterohepatic circulation. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC administration leads to decreased levels of β-glucuronidase-producing bacteria, suggesting that these antibiotics could interrupt enterohepatic circulation and thereby alter the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of AMC on the pharmacokinetics of VPA. This was an open-label, two-treatment, one-sequence study in 16 healthy volunteers. Two treatments were evaluated; treatment VPA, in which a single dose of VPA 500 mg was administered, and treatment AMC + VPA, in which multiple doses of AMC 500/125 mg were administered three times daily for 7 days and then a single dose of VPA was administered. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Fifteen subjects completed the study. Systemic exposures and peak concentrations of VPA were slightly lower with treatment AMC + VPA than with treatment VPA (AUClast, 851.0 h·mg/L vs 889.6 h·mg/L; Cmax, 52.1 mg/L vs 53.0 mg/L. There were no significant between-treatment effects on pharmacokinetics (95% confidence interval [CI] of AUClast and Cmax (95.7 [85.9–106.5] and 98.3 [91.6–105.6], respectively. Multiple doses of AMC had no significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of VPA; thus, no dose adjustment is necessary. Keywords: drug–drug interaction, pharmacokinetics

  14. THE EFFECTS OF AMOXICILLIN WITH OR WITHOUT CLAVULANIC ACID ON THE POSTOPERATIVE COMPLAINTS AFTER THIRD MOLAR SURGERY: A RETROSPECTIVE CHART ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan ESEN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this chart-based retrospective study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered amoxicillin alone or amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid on the frequency of post-operative complications and patients’ comfort after mandibular third molar surgery. Materials and Methods: The records of patients who had undergone lower third molar surgery between October 2014 and December 2015 were examined. A total of 62 patients who had fully impacted teeth in mesioangular position and who had been prescribed same type and dose of anti-inflammatory drug were included in this study. Among them, 32 subjects were found to have been prescribed 500 mg amoxicillin trihydrate orally every 8 h for 5 days (Group A and 30 patients 500 mg amoxicillin trihydrate plus 125 mg potassium clavulanate orally every 8 h for 5 days postoperatively (Group AC. Post-operative pain levels, swelling, presence of trismus, frequency of alveolar osteitis and quality of life (QoL scores were gathered from patients’ charts and were statistically compared. Results: Analysis of the variables showed that there were no significant differences between the Groups A and AC regarding pain levels, swelling, trismus and QoL scores. The frequency of alveolar osteitis was found to be 1.6% in the Group A, however, no significant difference was observed among study groups. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this retrospective chart review, it can be stated that amoxicillin and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid might provide similar outcome in terms of patient comfort following third molar surgery.

  15. A Validated Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Amoxicillin and Enrofloxacin Combination in an Injectable Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Batrawi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The combination of amoxicillin and enrofloxacin is a well-known mixture of veterinary drugs; it is used for the treatment of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the scientific literature, there is no high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous determination of this combination. The objective of this work is to develop and validate an HPLC method for the determination of this combination. In this regard, a new, simple and efficient reversed-phase HPLC method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of amoxicillin and enrofloxacin, in an injectable preparation with a mixture of inactive excipients, has been developed and validated. The HPLC separation method was performed using a reversed-phase (RP-C18e (250 mm × 4.0 mm, 5 μm column at room temperature, with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer containing methanol at pH 5.0, a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and ultraviolet detection at 267 nm. This method was validated in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH guidelines and showed excellent linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness, ruggedness, and system suitability results within the acceptance criteria. A stability-indicating study was also carried out and indicated that this method can also be used for purity and degradation evaluation of these formulations.

  16. Fosfomycin in a single dose versus a 7-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebanez, A; Pascual, R; Gil, V; Ortiz, F; Santibáñez, M; Pérez Barba, C

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the efficacy of a single dose of 3 g of fosfomycin to that of a 7-day regimen of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A randomised, prospective, interventional, analytical, longitudinal study was undertaken, in which the efficacy of two antibiotic regimens (one short and the other long) in the treatment of pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria is compared. One hundred and nine patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 56 were treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate and 53 with fosfomycin. The two groups were similar in terms of co-morbidity, treatments received during pregnancy, obstetric, gynaecological and surgical history and laboratory data. The efficacy of the two regimens was similar and the eradication rate was over 80% in both groups (P = 0.720) (relative risk [RR] 1.195, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.451-3.165). The number of reinfections was greater in the amoxicillin-clavulanate group (P = 0.045). The secondary effects were lower in the fosfomycin group (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in the number of persistences (P = 0.39), development of symptomatic urinary infections (P = 0.319) or recurrences (P = 0.96). Treatment with a single dose of fosfomycin is as effective as the standard course of treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate and may be preferable due to its simpler administration and the smaller number of reinfections.

  17. A comparison of a single-dose and a seven-day treatment with Amoxicillin in asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niro Manesh S

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 1600 pregnant women who had referred to two prenatal clinics (Imam Khomeini and Mirza Kochek-Khan were investigated. Ninety cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria were observed; 77 of those cooperated with us until the end of our study. The subjects, who were within the 14-36 weeks of gestational age, were randomly divided into two groups: Group A received the medicine (Amoxicillin in a single-dose (3gr.; and, group B received it within seven days (1gr. TDS. The rate of recovery (65% in group A and 56.8% in group B, based on chi-squared test, showed no significant difference (P=0.747%. According to the results of this study, we can conclude that single-dose treatment has the same value as a seven-day treatment and the advantages such as decreased total dose, lower cost, and a better patient compliance.

  18. Differential benefits of amoxicillin-metronidazole in different phases of periodontal therapy in a randomized controlled crossover clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombelli, Andrea; Almaghlouth, Adnan; Cionca, Norbert; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Giannopoulou, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    The specific advantage of administering systemic antibiotics during initial, non-surgical therapy or in the context of periodontal surgery is unclear. This study assesses the differential outcomes of periodontal therapy supplemented with amoxicillin-metronidazole during either the non-surgical or the surgical treatment phase. This is a single-center, randomized placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial with a 1-year follow-up. Eighty participants with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-associated moderate to advanced periodontitis were randomized into two treatment groups: group A, antibiotics (500 mg metronidazole plus 375 mg amoxicillin three times per day for 7 days) during the first, non-surgical phase of periodontal therapy (T1) and placebo during the second, surgical phase (T2); and group B, placebo during T1 and antibiotics during T2. The number of sites with probing depth (PD) >4 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) per patient was the primary outcome. A total of 11,212 sites were clinically monitored on 1,870 teeth. T1 with antibiotics decreased the number of sites with PD >4 mm and BOP per patient significantly more than without (group A: from 34.5 to 5.7, 84%; group B: from 28.7 to 8.7, 70%; P antibiotics, but only eight treated with placebo, achieved a 10-fold reduction of diseased sites (P = 0.007). Consequently, fewer patients of group A needed additional therapy, the mean number of surgical interventions was lower, and treatment time in T2 was shorter. Six months after T2, the mean number of residual pockets (group A: 2.8 ± 5.2; group B: 2.2 ± 5.0) was not significantly different and was sustained over 12 months in both groups. Giving the antibiotics during T1 or T2 yielded similar long-term outcomes, but antibiotics in T1 resolved the disease quicker and thus reduced the need for additional surgical intervention.

  19. Radiation Synthesis and Characterization of Polyvinyl alcohol/Acrylic acid Hydrogel and its Amoxicillin drug Delivery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El kelesh, N.A.; Ismail, S.A.; Abd El Wahab, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol /Acrylic acid based hydrogels can be synthesized by Gamma radiation technique using 60 Co irradiation cell at irradiation dose rate 1.8 Gray/second. The optimum conditions of hydrogel preparation takes place at different factors such as composition ratios of PVA/AAc, different comonomer concentration and different irradiation doses resulting in hydrogel with maximum gel percent as it obtained 98%. The structures of hydrogels were characterized by FTIR analysis. The results can be confirmed the expected structures as well as free radical copolymerization. According to the swelling studies, hydrogels with high content of AAc gave relatively high swelling percent. The hydrogel showed a super adsorbent with swelling capacity 10320 %. Water diffusion into such prepared hydrogel showed a non-Fickian type where a Fickian number was 0.77. This hydrogel was used for the adsorption of amoxicillin drug from their aqueous solutions. The factors affected on the uptake conditions such as ph, time and initial feed concentration on the amoxicillin adsorption capacity of hydrogel was studied depending on Freundlish model of adsorption isotherm.. It was observed that the interaction between drug and ionic comonomers was enhanced in alkaline medium and high initial feed concentration of the drug. The ability of the hydrogel and the affinity of the drug to be adsorbed can be cleared by determining the empirical constants n and k respectively from the logarithmic form of Freundlish equation. The recovery of drug was also investigated in different ph values to study the suitable condition of drug release as drug delivery system.

  20. Comparative Efficacy of Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid and Levofloxacin in the Reduction of Postsurgical Sequelae After Third Molar Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Clinical Trial in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndukwe, Kizito Chioma; Braimah, Ramat Oyebunmi; Owotade, John Foluso; Aregbesola, Stephen Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    The most common sequelae after surgical removal of mandibular third molar are pain, trismus, swelling, and dysphagia. However, these symptoms can also signal the onset of surgical site infection and alveoli osteitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin and preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the reduction of postinflammatory complications, surgical site infection, and alveolar osteitis following the third molar surgery. A total of 135 patients were randomized into three equal groups: Group A (preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) with preoperative dose of 875/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid followed by 500/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 12 hourly for 5 days, Group B (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid prophylaxis) with a single preoperative dose of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 875/125 mg tablets, and Group C (levofloxacin prophylaxis) with a single preoperative dose of levofloxacin 1000 mg tablets. All patients had ostectomy using surgical handpiece and burs and received same analgesics (tabs ibuprofen 400 mg 8 hourly for 3 days). No case of surgical site infection or alveoli osteitis was recorded in the study groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups with regard to pain, mouth opening, postoperative facial dimension, and body temperature. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as a single preoperative bolus should be adequate for the prevention of postoperative wound infection and alveoli osteitis following the third molar extraction as there is no need for an extension of the antibiotic. Moreover, levofloxacin can be utilized as prophylaxis in patients undergoing mandibular third molar extraction if such patients are allergic to penicillins.

  1. Comparative efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin in the reduction of postsurgical sequelae after third molar surgery: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in a Nigerian university teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizito Chioma Ndukwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common sequelae after surgical removal of mandibular third molar are pain, trismus, swelling, and dysphagia. However, these symptoms can also signal the onset of surgical site infection and alveoli osteitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and levofloxacin and preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the reduction of postinflammatory complications, surgical site infection, and alveolar osteitis following the third molar surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 135 patients were randomized into three equal groups: Group A (preemptive therapy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid with preoperative dose of 875/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid followed by 500/125 mg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 12 hourly for 5 days, Group B (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid prophylaxis with a single preoperative dose of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 875/125 mg tablets, and Group C (levofloxacin prophylaxis with a single preoperative dose of levofloxacin 1000 mg tablets. All patients had ostectomy using surgical handpiece and burs and received same analgesics (tabs ibuprofen 400 mg 8 hourly for 3 days. Results: No case of surgical site infection or alveoli osteitis was recorded in the study groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the treatment groups with regard to pain, mouth opening, postoperative facial dimension, and body temperature. Conclusion: Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as a single preoperative bolus should be adequate for the prevention of postoperative wound infection and alveoli osteitis following the third molar extraction as there is no need for an extension of the antibiotic. Moreover, levofloxacin can be utilized as prophylaxis in patients undergoing mandibular third molar extraction if such patients are allergic to penicillins.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junejo, Y. [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Güner, A., E-mail: aguner@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Biology, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were prepared by simple one-pot chemical reduction method. • Ampicillin as an antibiotic was used as both reducing and capping agents in this study. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs have proved as the remarkably efficient catalysts with enhanced rate of reduction for cefdinir, cefditoren, cefixime, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were showed excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of these antibiotics. - Abstract: We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2–5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs

  3. Synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles: Its catalytic effect on degradation of some pharmaceutical antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junejo, Y.; Güner, A.; Baykal, A.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were prepared by simple one-pot chemical reduction method. • Ampicillin as an antibiotic was used as both reducing and capping agents in this study. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs have proved as the remarkably efficient catalysts with enhanced rate of reduction for cefdinir, cefditoren, cefixime, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline. • Amp-Ag (0) NPs were showed excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of these antibiotics. - Abstract: We synthesized novel amoxicillin derived silver nanoparticles (Amp-Ag (0) NPs) in aqueous solution by one-pot simple synthetic method by reducing silver nitrate by the help of amoxicillin antibiotic as a reducing/capping agent and NaOH as the catalyst for reaction enhancement. The formation of the Amp-Ag (0) NPs was monitored using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy which confirmed the formation of Amp-Ag (0) NPs by exciting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 404 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the spherical morphology and monodispersed Amp-Ag (0) NPs with particle size 6.87 ± 2.2 nm. The antibacterial activities of the antibiotics were evaluated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus by the disk diffusion method. Whereas standard antibiotics showed normal zone of inhibition, the reduced ones with Amp-Ag (0) NPs showed no inhibition zone. The antimicrobial results therefore reveal that newly synthesized Amp-Ag (0) NPs had an excellent catalytic activity as catalyst for the 100% reduction of antibiotics i.e. cefdinir, cefditoren, cefiximee, ceftriaxone sodium and doxycycline, which was carried out in just 2–5 min. They were recovered easily from reaction medium and reused with enhanced catalytic potential five times. Based upon these results it has been concluded that Amp-Ag (0) NPs

  4. Are there specific benefits of amoxicillin plus metronidazole in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-associated periodontitis? Double-masked, randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombelli, Andrea; Cionca, Norbert; Almaghlouth, Adnan; Décaillet, Fabien; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Giannopoulou, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that prescription of amoxicillin plus metronidazole in the context of periodontal therapy should be limited to patients with specific microbiologic profiles, especially those testing positive for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The main purpose of this analysis is to determine if patients positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans with moderate to advanced periodontitis benefit specifically from amoxicillin plus metronidazole given as an adjunct to full-mouth scaling and root planing. This is a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized longitudinal study including 41 participants who were positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans and 41 participants who were negative for A. actinomycetemcomitans. All 82 patients received full-mouth periodontal debridement performed within 48 hours. Patients then received either systemic antibiotics (375 mg amoxicillin and 500 mg metronidazole, three times daily) or placebo for 7 days. The primary outcome variable was persistence of sites with a probing depth (PD) >4 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) at the 3-month reevaluation. Using multilevel logistic regression, the effect of the antibiotics was analyzed according to the following factors (interaction effect): A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive or -negative at baseline, sex, age, smoking, tooth being a molar, and interdental location. At reevaluation, participants in the test group had significantly fewer sites with a persisting PD >4 mm and BOP than control patients (P antibiotics. Patients benefited from the antibiotics irrespective of sex, age, or smoking status. Molars benefited significantly more from the antibiotics than non-molars (P for interaction effect = 0.03). Patients who were positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans had no specific benefit from amoxicillin plus metronidazole. Sites on molars benefited significantly more from the antibiotics than non-molar sites.

  5. THE CLINICAL EFFICACY OF FOSFOMYCIN TROMETAMOL VERSUS AMOXICILLIN-CLAVULANIC ACID IN THE TREATMENT OF SYMPTOMATİC AND ASYMPTOMATİC BACTERIURIA IN 3rd TRIMESTER PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study was conducted to assess the clinical efficacy of a single dose of fosfomycin trometamol for the treatment of both asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria in the third trimester of pregnancy compared with a 7-day regimen of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid MATERIAL – METHODS: In this study clinical efficiency of single dose of 3 g fosfomycin trometamol and 7 day 675 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were compared on 85 pregnant women in 3rd trimester with symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriauria. Patients divided into four groups and single dose of fosfomycin trometamol applied on group 1 (asymptomatic bacteriauria patients and group 3 (symptomatic bacteriauria patients while 7 day 675 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid applied on group 2 (asymptomatic bacteriauria patients and group 4 (symptomatic bacteriauria patients. Microbiological assessments ( urine analyses and culture and rutine biochemical tests were performed before and at 7 days after the administration. No serious side effects have been reported related with both drugs. Negative urine cultures performed 7 days after the initial positive cultures were considered as bacteriological eradication and the absence of the initial urinary symptoms were considered as clinical success. RESULTS: Escherichia coli was the most frequently observed microorganism in urine culture of all four groups with clinical success and bacterial eradication of 95-100% of the patients treated with fosfomycin trometamol in groups 1 and 3, respectively and 95-90% of the patients treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in groups 2 and 4, respectively. Both treatments were well tolerated in all groups without any serious side effects. No significant difference was detected between the success rates of both drugs. CONCLUSION: A single dose of fosfomycin trometamol is a safe and effective alternative in the treatment of both asymptomatic and symptomatic urinary tract infections in the third trimester of

  6. The combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole in the treatment of Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma and Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najwa A Mhmoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic progressive disabling and destructive inflammatory disease which is commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. It is characterized by the formation of multiple discharging sinuses. It is usually treated by antifungal agents but it is assumed that the therapeutic efficiency of these agents is reduced by the co-existence of Staphylococcus aureus co-infection developing in these sinuses. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the safety, efficacy and clinical outcome of combined antibiotic and antifungal therapy in eumycetoma patients with superimposed Staphylococcus aureus infection. The study enrolled 337 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma and S. aureus co-infection. Patients were allocated into three groups; 142 patients received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole, 93 patients received ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole and 102 patients received ketoconazole only. The study showed that, patients who received amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment had an overall better clinical outcome compared to those who had combined ciprofloxacin and ketoconazole or to those who received ketoconazole only. In this study, 60.6% of the combined amoxicillin-clavulanic acid/ketoconazole group showed complete or partial clinical response to treatment compared to 30.1% in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 36.3% in the ketoconazole only group. The study also showed that 64.5% of the patients in the ciprofloxacin/ketoconazole group and 59.8% in the ketoconazole only group had progressive disease and poor outcome. This study showed that the combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole treatment is safe and offers good clinical outcome and it is therefore recommended to treat eumycetoma patients with Staphylococcus aureus co-infection.

  7. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure To Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Homem; Arminda Alves; Lúcia Silveira Santos

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and optimized for the determination of amoxicillin in river water. Students learned the main optimization steps...

  8. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-induced Round Bodies of Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eFeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. To identify more effective drugs that are active against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by amoxicillin and screened the Food and Drug Administration (FDA drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven of these scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. While some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine overlapped with a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters, additional drug candidates active against round bodies we identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi persisters in vitro, even if pre-treated with amoxicillin. These findings may have implications for improved treatment of Lyme disease.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of the Triple Therapy Containing Ilaprazole, Levofloxacin, and Amoxicillin as First-Line Treatment in Helicobacter pylori Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jun Ahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. To establish the efficacy and safety of ilaprazole, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin as a first-line eradication treatment for Helicobacter pylori. Methods. Patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, or gastritis, as detected by esophagogastroduodenoscopy with confirmed H. pylori infection between September 2014 and November 2015, were enrolled in the study. All participants received ilaprazole (10 mg bid, levofloxacin (500 mg bid, and amoxicillin (1000 mg bid for 10 days. H. pylori eradication was confirmed by a 13C-urea breath test at 6–8 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. Of 84 patients included in the analysis, the eradication rate was 88.8% in the per protocol group (n=80. Demographic factors such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI, alcohol, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and peptic ulcer did not affect the eradication rate. However, multivariate analysis showed that overweight patients and patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA had a significantly lower eradication rate than patients with normal BMI and without CVA. Laboratory test results did not change significantly after treatment. A total of six (7.5% patients developed eight adverse reactions. Conclusions. A 10-day triple therapy containing ilaprazole, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin is a safe alternative first-line eradication treatment for H. pylori.

  10. Effects of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tiamulin and tulathromycin on pig humoral immune responses induced by erysipelas vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, M; Kwit, K; Wierzchosławski, K; Dors, A; Pejsak, Z

    2016-05-28

    It addition to their antimicrobial properties, antibiotics can influence the host immune system (modulation of cytokine secretion, antibody production and T-cell proliferation). In the present study, the authors studied the effects of therapeutic doses of amoxicillin (AMX), ceftiofur (CEF), doxycycline (DOXY), tiamulin (TIAM) and tulathromycin (TUL) on the postvaccinal immune response after pigs had been vaccinated against erysipelas. Because humoral immunity is considered as the most important in the protection against swine erysipelas, the present study focused on the interactions between antibiotics and postvaccinal humoral immunity. One hundred and five, eight-week-old pigs of both sexes were used. Specific antibodies to the Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antigen were determined using a commercial ELISA test. In pigs treated with DOXY or CEF or TIAM, a significant reduction in the number of positive pigs was observed four and six weeks after the second dose of vaccine, compared with the remaining vaccinated groups. In pigs treated with CEF, the ELISA score was significantly lower than in non-treated vaccinated pigs. While in vaccinated pigs treated with AMX or TUL, the ELISA score was significantly higher than in pigs treated with the remaining antibiotics and than in non-treated vaccinated controls. The results of the present study indicate that vaccination of pigs against erysipelas in the presence of antibiotics may result in a decrease (CEF, DOXY, TIAM) or enhancement (AMX, TUL) in the production of specific antibodies. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Liquid Chromatographic-Chemometric Techniques for the Simultaneous HPLC Determination of Lansoprazole, Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin in Commercial Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, A Hakan; Saridag, Ayse Mine

    2017-09-01

    Two multivariate calibration-prediction techniques, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares regression (PLSR) were applied to the chromatographic multicomponent analysis of the drug containing lansoprazole (LAN), clarithromycin (CLA) and amoxicillin (AMO). Optimum chromatographic separation of LAN, CLA and AMO with atorvastatin as the internal standard (IS) was obtained by using Xterra® RP18 column 5 μm 4.6 × 250 mm2, and 25 mM ammonium chloride buffer prepared ammonium chloride, acetonitrile and bidistilled water (45:45:10 v/v) as the mobile phase at flow rate 1.0 mL/min. The high pressure liquid chromatography data sets consisting of the ratios of analyte peak areas to the IS peak area were obtained by using diode array detector detection at five wavelengths (205, 210, 215, 220 and 225 nm). LC-chemometric calibration for LAN, CLA and AMO were separately constructed by using the relationship between the peak-area ratio and training sets for each analyte. A series of synthetic solutions containing different concentrations of LAN, CLA and AMO were used to check the prediction ability of the PCR and PLS. Both of the two-chemometric methods in this study can be satisfactorily used for the quantitative analysis and for dissolutions tests of multicomponent commercial drug. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Photocatalytic Decomposition of Amoxicillin Trihydrate Antibiotic in Aqueous Solutions under UV Irradiation Using Sn/TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 and Sn/TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, and BET analysis methods. The effects of Sn-doping on the crystal structure, surface area, adsorption properties, pore size distribution, and optical absorption properties of the catalysts were investigated. The effect of different Sn content on the amount of hydroxyl radical was discussed by using salicylic acid as probe molecule. The photocatalytic activity of samples was tested by photocatalytic mineralization of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX as a model pollutant. Sn/TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited high photocatalytic activity during the mineralization of AMOX under UV light due to increase in the generated hydroxyl radicals, band gap energy, specific surface area, and decrease in the crystallite size. The kinetic of the mineralization of AMOX can be explained in terms of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The values of the adsorption equilibrium constant (AMOX and the kinetic rate constant of surface reaction (c were 0.56 (mg L−1−1 and 1.86 mg L−1 min−1, respectively.

  13. Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and its relation to virulence-related factors in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that the virulence factors (VFs were detected more frequently in amoxicillin-clavulanate (AMC susceptible clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Here, we have evaluated the relationship between VFs and AMC-resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A. The presence/absence of VFs was compared with their minimum inhibitory concentrations for AMC in strains of two serovars. We observed that the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 showed a similar relationship between the number of VFs and resistance to clavulanic acid as in E. coli but not of serovar O: 6, 30. Variations in the promoters/complete coding sequences (CCDSs of β-lactamase gene (bla A or the serological characteristics could not account for unusual susceptibility to AMC displayed by the strains of the serovar O: 6, 30. Therefore, we speculate that since the clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30-6, 31 originated from the environment they were less exposed to antibiotics compared to clinical strains of serovar O: 6, 30. Thus, AMC susceptibility seems to be influenced by factors other than serotypes or promoters/CCDS of β-lactamase genes.

  14. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled noninferiority trial of amoxicillin for clinically diagnosed acute otitis media in children 6 months to 5 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saux, Nicole; Gaboury, Isabelle; Baird, Marian; Klassen, Terry P.; MacCormick, Johnna; Blanchard, Colline; Pitters, Carrol; Sampson, Margaret; Moher, David

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Debate continues with respect to a “watch and wait” approach versus immediate antibiotic treatment for the initial treatment of acute otitis media. In this double-blind noninferiority trial, we compared clinical improvement rates at 14 days for children (6 months to 5 years of age) with acute otitis media who were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin or placebo. Methods We enrolled healthy children who presented to clinics or the emergency department with a new episode of acute otitis media during the fall and winter months in Ottawa (from December 1999 to the end of March 2002). The children were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin (60 mg/kg daily) or placebo for 10 days. Telephone follow-up was performed on each of days 1, 2 and 3 and once between day 10 and day 14. The primary outcome was clinical resolution of symptoms, defined as absence of receipt of an antimicrobial (other than the amoxicillin in the treatment group) at any time during the 14-day period. Secondary outcomes were the presence of pain and fever and the activity level in the first 3 days, recurrence rates, and the presence of middle ear effusion at 1 and 3 months. Results According to clinical scoring, 415 of the 512 children who could be evaluated had moderate disease. At 14 days 84.2% of the children receiving placebo and 92.8% of those receiving amoxicillin had clinical resolution of symptoms (absolute difference –8.6%, 95% confidence interval –14.4% to –3.0%). Children who received placebo had more pain and fever in the first 2 days. There were no statistical differences in adverse events between the 2 groups, nor were there any significant differences in recurrence rates or middle ear effusion at 1 and 3 months. Interpretation Our results did not support the hypothesis that placebo was noninferior to amoxicillin (i.e., that the 14-day cure rates among children with clinically diagnosed acute otitis media would not be substantially worse in the placebo group

  15. Effect of Periodontal Therapy With Amoxicillin-Metronidazole on Pharyngeal Carriage of Penicillin- and Erythromycin-Resistant Viridans Streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombelli, Andrea; Cionca, Norbert; Almaghlouth, Adnan; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Schrenzel, Jacques; Giannopoulou, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have focused on antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative bacteria before and after periodontal therapy. The purpose of this analysis is to assess changes in resistance patterns of the commensal Gram-positive microbiota. The viridans group streptococci (VGS) have been suggested to serve as reservoirs of resistance genes for more pathogenic streptococci and may be implicated in some non-oral infections. In this randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with periodontitis are distributed randomly into two groups. In group A, patients received 375 mg amoxicillin and 500 mg metronidazole three times per day for 7 days during the non-surgical treatment phase (T1). In group B, the antibiotics were administered during the surgical phase (T2). Resistance of VGS to penicillin and erythromycin was determined by the epsilometer test. At baseline, VGS from 12.5% (group A) and 11.8% (group B) of patients had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >2 μg/mL to penicillin. Three months after T1, VGS from 15.6% and 16.7% of patients had an MIC >2 μg/mL, respectively. Six months after T2 VGS from 5.9% and 5.9% and 12 months after T2 VGS from 6.1% and 6.3% patients had an MIC >2 μg/mL. There was no effect of therapy with antibiotics, administered either in T1 or T2, on the carriage of penicillin-resistant VGS. Erythromycin resistance was high at baseline and remained unchanged throughout the study. MICs for penicillin and erythromycin were correlated (P penicillin or erythromycin.

  16. An analysis of policies for cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin and azithromycin use in Namibia's public sector: Findings and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibuule, Dan; Mubita, Mwangana; Naikaku, Ester; Kalemeera, Francis; Godman, Brian B; Sagwa, Evans

    2017-02-01

    Despite Namibia's robust medicine use systems and policies, antibiotic use indicators remain suboptimal. Recent medicine use surveys rank cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin and azithromycin (CAA) among the most used medicines. However, there is rising resistance to CAA (55.9%-96.7%). Unfortunately, to date, there have been limited studies evaluating policies to improve antibiotic use in Namibia. To evaluate public sector pharmaceutical policies and guidelines influencing the therapeutic use of CAA antibiotics in Namibia. Evaluate Namibia's pharmaceutical policies and guidelines for CAA use through quantitative text analysis. The main outcome variables were the existence of antibiotic policies, therapeutic indications per antibiotic and the type/level of healthcare facility allowed to use the antibiotic. Policies for antibiotic use were limited, with only the draft Namibia Medicines Policy having a statement on antibiotic use. Several essential antibiotics had no therapeutic indications mentioned in the guidelines. Twenty-nine antibiotics were listed for 69 therapeutic indications; CAA (49.3%) antibiotics and ATC J01C/J01D (48%) having the highest indications per antibiotic. For CAA antibiotics, this suggested use was mainly for acute respiratory infections (n=22, 37.2%). Published policies (58.6%-17/29) recommended antibiotics for use at the primary healthcare (PHC) level, with CAA antibiotics recommended mostly for respiratory tract infections and genitourinary infections. Policy and guidelines for antibiotic use in Namibia are not comprehensive and are skewed towards PHCs. Existing policies promote the wide use of CAA antibiotics, which may inadvertently result in their inappropriate use enhancing resistance rates. This calls for the development of more comprehensive antibiotic guidelines and essential medicine lists in tandem with local antimicrobial resistance patterns. In addition, educational initiatives among all key stakeholder groups. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Florfenicol in Combination with Amoxicillin or Cefuroxime against Pathogenic Bacteria of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Jin Choia, Eun-Mi Leea, Seung-Jin Lee, Md. Ahsanur Reza, Joong-Su Lee, Elias Gebru, Man-Hee Rhee and Seung-Chun Park*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro activity of florfenicol (F in combination with amoxicillin (AM or cefuroxime (CRM against pathogenic bacteria of animal origin, including E. coli, S. aureus, S. cholerasuis and P. mirabilis. The MIC of AM ranged from 16 to 256 μg/ml. The MBC of AM (64 μg/ml was four-fold higher than its MIC value (16 μg/ml for E. coli, and similar to the MIC for the other three species. The MIC of F ranged from 8 to 16 μg/ml. The MBC values of F for E. coli, S. aureus, and S. cholerasuis were eight-fold higher than the respective MIC values, and 32-fold higher than the MIC of P. mirabilis. The MIC of CRM ranged from 8 to 128 μg/ml. The MBC of CRM was the highest ( 256 μg/ml, except for E. coli. The F/AM combination resulted in synergism (FIC index  0.5 for E. coli, S. aureus, and P. mirabilis and in-difference (FIC index >1 for S. cholerasuis. For F/CRM combination, synergism (E. coli and S. cholerasuis and in-difference (S. aureus and P. mirabilis were observed. Killing rate study showed a 1.5 - > 3 log 10 cfu/ml reduction of E. coli with F/AM compared to AM or F alone. The highest activity of the combinations was observed when F comprised at least 50% of the combination. Further studies using many bacterial isolates and various proportion of each drug would reveal the potential of a combination product containing F and AM/CRM for use in veterinary practice.

  18. Comparative study of the impact of the administration of Amoxicillin and Algo-Bio® alternative substance to antibiotics, on the level of selection of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the digestive flora of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Innocent Kouamé; Guessennd, Nathalie; Dadié, Adjéhi; Koffi, Eugène; Dosso, Mireille

    2018-01-31

    The aim of study was to evaluate by comparative study the level of selection of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the digestive microbiota of piglets when using amoxicillin and Algo-Bio ® . Amoxicillin and Algo-Bio ® administration was carried out over a period of 5 days (D0-D4) at a dose of 1mL/10kg body weight. A phenotypic study was carried out with enumeration of resistant Enterobacteriaceae on MacConkey agar plates in the presence and absence of amoxicillin. Escherichia coli isolates were identified and were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The percentages of amoxicillin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae before treatment ranged from 10-15% for the four groups of piglets. Following treatment initiation, on the second day (D1) to the fifth day (D4) of treatment, the percentages increased to 54-87% for the groups treated with amoxicillin. In the group treated with Algo-Bio ® and the controls, the percentages were Bio ® groups the percentages of E. coli resistant to antibiotics did not increase. The results indicated that Algo-Bio ® constitutes a good alternative prophylactic to antibiotics to reduce bacterial growth in the digestive tract of animals. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect drug loading process on dissolution mechanism of encapsulated amoxicillin trihydrate in hydrogel semi-IPN chitosan methyl cellulose with pore forming agent KHCO3 as a floating drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fithawati, Garnis; Budianto, Emil

    2018-04-01

    Common treatment for Helicobacter pylori by repeated oral consumption of amoxicillin trihydrate is not effective. Amoxicillin trihydrate has a very short residence time in stomach which leads into its ineffectiveness. Residence time of amoxicillin trihydrate can be improved by encapsulating amoxicillin trihydrate into a floating drug delivery system. In this study, amoxicillin trihydrate is encapsulated into hydrogel semi-IPN chitosan methyl cellulose matrix as a floating drug delivery system and then treated with 20% KHCO3 as pore forming agent. Drug loading process used are in-situ loading and post loading. In-situ loading process has higher efficiency percentage and dissolution percentage than post loading process. In-situ loading process resulted 100% efficiency with 92,70% dissolution percentage. Post loading process resulted 98,7% efficiency with 90,42% dissolution percentage. Mechanism of drug dissolution study by kinetics approach showed both in-situ loading process and post loading process are diffusion and degradation process (n=0,4913) and (n=0,4602) respectively. These results are supported by characterization data from optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data from optical microscope showed both loading process resulted in coarser hydrogel surface. Characterization using SEM showed elongated pores in both loading process after dissolution test.

  20. Risk of wound infection and safety profile of amoxicillin in healthy patients which required third molar surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiordia-Espinoza, M A; Aragon-Martinez, O H; Martínez-Morales, J F; Zapata-Morales, J R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the risk of surgical wound infection and the adverse effects of amoxicillin in healthy patients who required excision of third molars. We identified eligible reports from searches of PubMed, Medline®, the Cochrane Library, Imbiomed, LILACS, and Google Scholar. Studies that met our minimum requirements were evaluated using inclusion and exclusion criteria and the Oxford Quality Scale. Those with a score of 3 or more on this Scale were included and their data were extracted and analysed. For evaluation of the risk of infection the absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat, and 95% CI were calculated. For evaluation of the risk of an adverse effect the absolute risk increase, number needed to harm, and 95% CI were calculated using the Risk Reduction Calculator. Each meta-analysis was made with the help of the Mantel-Haenszel random effects model, and estimates of risk (OR) and 95% CI were calculated using the Review Manager 5.3, from the Cochrane Library. A significant risk was assumed when the lower limit of the 95% CI was greater than 1. Probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. The results showed that there was no reduction in the risk of infection when amoxicillin was given before or after operation compared with an untreated group or placebo. In conclusion, this study suggests that amoxicillin given prophylactically or postoperatively does not reduce the risk of infection in healthy patients having their third molars extracted. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost effectiveness of amoxicillin for lower respiratory tract infections in primary care: an economic evaluation accounting for the cost of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Raymond; Smith, Richard D; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Butler, Christopher C; Goossens, Herman; Coenen, Samuel; Moore, Michael; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major disease burden and are often treated with antibiotics. Typically, studies evaluating the use of antibiotics focus on immediate costs of care, and do not account for the wider implications of antimicrobial resistance. Aim This study sought to establish whether antibiotics (principally amoxicillin) are cost effective in patients with LRTIs, and to explore the implications of taking into account costs associated with resistance. Design and setting Multinational randomised double-blinded trial in 2060 patients with acute cough/LRTIs recruited in 12 European countries. Method A cost-utility analysis from a health system perspective with a time horizon of 28 days was conducted. The primary outcome measure was the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Hierarchical modelling was used to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results Amoxicillin was associated with an ICER of €8216 (£6540) per QALY gained when the cost of resistance was excluded. If the cost of resistance is greater than €11 (£9) per patient, then amoxicillin treatment is no longer cost effective. Including possible estimates of the cost of resistance resulted in ICERs ranging from €14 730 (£11 949) per QALY gained — when only multidrug resistance costs and health care costs are included — to €727 135 (£589 856) per QALY gained when broader societal costs are also included. Conclusion Economic evaluation of antibiotic prescribing strategies that do not include the cost of resistance may provide misleading results that could be of questionable use to policymakers. However, further work is required to estimate robust costs of resistance. PMID:27402969

  2. Cost effectiveness of amoxicillin for lower respiratory tract infections in primary care: an economic evaluation accounting for the cost of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Raymond; Smith, Richard D; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Butler, Christopher C; Goossens, Herman; Coenen, Samuel; Moore, Michael; Coast, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major disease burden and are often treated with antibiotics. Typically, studies evaluating the use of antibiotics focus on immediate costs of care, and do not account for the wider implications of antimicrobial resistance. This study sought to establish whether antibiotics (principally amoxicillin) are cost effective in patients with LRTIs, and to explore the implications of taking into account costs associated with resistance. Multinational randomised double-blinded trial in 2060 patients with acute cough/LRTIs recruited in 12 European countries. A cost-utility analysis from a health system perspective with a time horizon of 28 days was conducted. The primary outcome measure was the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Hierarchical modelling was used to estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Amoxicillin was associated with an ICER of €8216 (£6540) per QALY gained when the cost of resistance was excluded. If the cost of resistance is greater than €11 (£9) per patient, then amoxicillin treatment is no longer cost effective. Including possible estimates of the cost of resistance resulted in ICERs ranging from €14 730 (£11 949) per QALY gained - when only multidrug resistance costs and health care costs are included - to €727 135 (£589 856) per QALY gained when broader societal costs are also included. Economic evaluation of antibiotic prescribing strategies that do not include the cost of resistance may provide misleading results that could be of questionable use to policymakers. However, further work is required to estimate robust costs of resistance. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  3. Pharmacodynamic analysis and clinical trial of amoxicillin sprinkle administered once daily for 7 days compared to penicillin V potassium administered four times daily for 10 days in the treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, M E; Casey, J R; Block, S L; Guttendorf, R; Flanner, H; Markowitz, D; Clausen, S

    2008-07-01

    An a priori pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target of 40% daily time above the MIC (T >MIC; based on the MIC(90) of 0.06 microg/ml for Streptococcus pyogenes reported in the literature) was shown to be achievable in a phase 1 study of 23 children with a once-daily (QD) modified-release, multiparticulate formulation of amoxicillin (amoxicillin sprinkle). The daily T >MIC achieved with the QD amoxicillin sprinkle formulation was comparable to that achieved with a four-times-daily (QID) penicillin VK suspension. An investigator-blinded, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter study involving 579 children 6 months to 12 years old with acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis was then undertaken. Children were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either the amoxicillin sprinkle (475 mg for ages 6 months to 4 years, 775 mg for ages 5 to 12 years) QD for 7 days or 10 mg/kg of body weight of penicillin VK QID for 10 days (up to the maximum dose of 250 mg QID). Unexpectedly, the rates of bacteriological eradication at the test of cure were 65.3% (132/202) for the amoxicillin sprinkle and 68.0% (132/194) for penicillin VK (95% confidence interval, -12.0% to 6.6%). Thus, neither antibiotic regimen met the minimum criterion of > or =85% eradication ordinarily required by the U.S. FDA for first-line treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to S. pyogenes. The results of subgroup analyses across demographic characteristics and current infection characteristics and by age/weight categories were consistent with the primary-efficacy result. The clinical cure rates for amoxicillin sprinkle and penicillin VK were 86.1% (216/251) and 91.9% (204/222), respectively (95% confidence interval, -11.6% to -0.4%). The results of a post hoc PD analysis suggested that a requirement for 60% daily T >MIC(90) more accurately predicted the observed high failure rates for bacteriologic eradication with the amoxicillin sprinkle and penicillin VK suspension studied. Based on the association between

  4. Pharmacodynamic Analysis and Clinical Trial of Amoxicillin Sprinkle Administered Once Daily for 7 Days Compared to Penicillin V Potassium Administered Four Times Daily for 10 Days in the Treatment of Tonsillopharyngitis Due to Streptococcus pyogenes in Children▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, M. E.; Casey, J. R.; Block, S. L.; Guttendorf, R.; Flanner, H.; Markowitz, D.; Clausen, S.

    2008-01-01

    An a priori pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target of 40% daily time above the MIC (T >MIC; based on the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/ml for Streptococcus pyogenes reported in the literature) was shown to be achievable in a phase 1 study of 23 children with a once-daily (QD) modified-release, multiparticulate formulation of amoxicillin (amoxicillin sprinkle). The daily T >MIC achieved with the QD amoxicillin sprinkle formulation was comparable to that achieved with a four-times-daily (QID) penicillin VK suspension. An investigator-blinded, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter study involving 579 children 6 months to 12 years old with acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis was then undertaken. Children were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either the amoxicillin sprinkle (475 mg for ages 6 months to 4 years, 775 mg for ages 5 to 12 years) QD for 7 days or 10 mg/kg of body weight of penicillin VK QID for 10 days (up to the maximum dose of 250 mg QID). Unexpectedly, the rates of bacteriological eradication at the test of cure were 65.3% (132/202) for the amoxicillin sprinkle and 68.0% (132/194) for penicillin VK (95% confidence interval, −12.0% to 6.6%). Thus, neither antibiotic regimen met the minimum criterion of ≥85% eradication ordinarily required by the U.S. FDA for first-line treatment of tonsillopharyngitis due to S. pyogenes. The results of subgroup analyses across demographic characteristics and current infection characteristics and by age/weight categories were consistent with the primary-efficacy result. The clinical cure rates for amoxicillin sprinkle and penicillin VK were 86.1% (216/251) and 91.9% (204/222), respectively (95% confidence interval, −11.6% to −0.4%). The results of a post hoc PD analysis suggested that a requirement for 60% daily T >MIC90 more accurately predicted the observed high failure rates for bacteriologic eradication with the amoxicillin sprinkle and penicillin VK suspension studied. Based on the association between longer

  5. The efficacy of two-week quadruple first-line therapy with bismuth, lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori eradication: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Bilal; Doğan, Zeynal; Sarikaya, Murat; Filik, Levent

    2013-12-01

    To document the efficacy and tolerability of 14-day bismuth-lansoprazole-amoxicillin-clarithromycin (BLAC) regimen for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication as a first-line therapy. Patients were considered eligible for the study if they underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and H. pylori infection was diagnosed through histologic examination of antral and body biopsy samples. Primary end point of this study was to evaluate the eradication rate of 14-day BLAC regimen therapies. H. pylori eradication was assessed using the 13C urea breath test performed 6 weeks after the completion of treatment. All patients were asked to fill in a validated questionnaire to report therapy-related side effects. Each symptom was graded from absent or present. Ninety-seven (21 men and 76 women) were enrolled. All the patients completed the study. The H. pylori eradication rate was 90.7% (88 of 97 patients). Side effects were observed in reasonable percentages, and none of the patients left the study because of drug side effect. Bismuth-lansoprazole-amoxicillin-clarithromycin regimen as a 2-week course achieved an acceptable eradication rate with relatively mild side effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Betalactámicos con inhibidores de betalactamasas: Amoxicilina-sulbactam Betalactam antibiotics combined with bectalactamases inhibitors: Amoxicillin-sulbactam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barcelona

    2008-02-01

    de infecciones de piel y partes blandas e infecciones intraabdominales.Betalactamases production is one of the main bacterial resistance mechanisms to betalactam antibiotics. The use of bectalactamases inhibitors combined with betalactam antibiotics allows the inactivation of certain betalactamases produced by Gram positive, Gram negative and anaerobic organisms, and even by mycobacteria. Betalactamases inhibitors are an improved therapeutic alternative compared with the other betalactam since, in most cases, they cover a wider antimicrobial spectrum than their analogues. Betalactamases enzimatic activity is specifically directed to the betalactam ring hydrolisis, producing a compound without antibacterial activity. According to their genomic position within microorganisms, betalactamases can be either chromosomic or plasmidic. Currently there are three betalactamases inhibitors locally available: clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam. Of them, only sulbactam has an intrinsic antimicrobial activity against penicillin binding proteins. The clinical experience from over 20 years confirms that the combination of betalactam antibiotics is effective in the empirical initial treatment of respiratory, intraabdominal, urinary tract and gynecologic infections, including those of polymicrobial origin. In the specific case of amoxicillin-sulbactam, experiences have shown the effectiveness of the combination in the treatment of peritonsillar abscess, otitis media, sinusitis, community acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonar disease (COPD, urinary tract infection and obstetric/ gynecologic infections. The spectrum and pharmacologic properties of this combination makes it also an excellent option for the treatment of skin/soft tissue and intraabdominal infections.

  7. In vitro effect of amoxicillin and clarithromycin on the 3’ region of cagA gene in Helicobacter pylori isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier Andrés; Matta, Andrés Januer; Pazos, Alvaro; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the in vitro effect of amoxicillin and clarithromycin on the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI). METHODS: One hundred and forty-nine clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cultured from gastric biopsies from 206 Colombian patients with dyspeptic symptoms from a high-risk area for gastric cancer were included as study material. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the agar dilution method. Resistant isolates at baseline and in amoxicillin and clarithromycin serial dilutions were subjected to genotyping (cagA, vacA alleles s and m), Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) polymerase chain reaction and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Images of the RAPD amplicons were analyzed by Gel-Pro Analyzer 4.5 program. Cluster analyses was done using SPSS 15.0 statistical package, where each of the fingerprint bands were denoted as variables. Dendrograms were designed by following Ward’s clustering method and the estimation of distances between each pair of H. pylori isolates was calculated with the squared Euclidean distance. RESULTS: Resistance rates were 4% for amoxicillin and 2.7% for clarithromycin with 2% double resistances. Genotyping evidenced a high prevalence of the genotype cagA-positive/vacA s1m1. The 3’ region of cagA gene was successfully amplified in 92.3% (12/13) of the baseline resistant isolates and in 60% (36/60) of the resistant isolates growing in antibiotic dilutions. Upon observing the distribution of the number of EPIYA repetitions in each dilution with respect to baseline isolates, it was found that in 61.5% (8/13) of the baseline isolates, a change in the number of EPIYA repetitions lowered antibiotic pressure. The gain and loss of EPIYA motifs resulted in a diversity of H. pylori subclones after bacterial adjustment to changing conditions product of antibiotic pressure. RAPD PCR evidenced the close clonal relationship between baseline isolates and isolates growing in antibiotic dilutions. CONCLUSION: Antibiotic

  8. Efficacy and safety of Sultamicillin (Ampicillin/Sulbactan) and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in adults--an open-label, multicentric, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João Batista; Rapoport, Priscila Bogar; Sakano, Eulália; Kós, Arthur Octávio De Avila; Piltcher, Otávio B; Pignatari, Shirley Shizue Nagata; Pinheiro, Sebastião Diógenes; Mocellin, Marcos

    2006-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common causes of medical visits in children and adults, demanding massive use of antibiotics. Bacterial resistance caused by beta-lactamase is one of the most serious problems in this matter. Sultamicillin, a double pro-drug of Ampicillin/Sulbactan, is a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor which can face this challenge. Evaluate efficacy, safety and tolerability of Ampicillin/Sulbactan compared to Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in upper respiratory tract infections in adults. 102 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive Ampicillin/Sulbactan or Amoxicillin/Clavulanate during 10 days. They were evaluated 10 and 30 days after treatment to learn about the therapeutic response. There were no differences between the two groups respecting cure at the end of treatment (visit 2) or at the end of the study (visit 3). Cure ratio was 61.7% and 93.2% (visits 2 and 3) in the Amoxicillin/Clavulanate group compared to 64.4% and 97.4%, respectively, in Ampicillin/Sulbactan group. The adverse events ratio for the two groups was the same (p=0.940). The number of patients with diarrhea was greater in the group of patients receiving Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (70.6%) than in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan (29.4%) (p=0.0164). Ampicillin/Sulbactan is as safe and efficient as Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in the empiric treatment of upper respiratory infections in adults. The low occurrence of diarrhea in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan needs confirmation in other studies.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae Decreased, except for β-Lactamase-Negative Amoxicillin-Resistant Isolates, in Parallel with Community Antibiotic Consumption in Spain from 1997 to 2007▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cobos, Silvia; Campos, José; Cercenado, Emilia; Román, Federico; Lázaro, Edurne; Pérez-Vázquez, María; de Abajo, Francisco; Oteo, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility to 14 antimicrobial agents and the mechanisms of aminopenicillin resistance were studied in 197 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae—109 isolated in 2007 (study group) and 88 isolated in 1997 (control group). Community antibiotic consumption trends were also examined. H. influenzae strains were consecutively isolated from the same geographic area, mostly from respiratory specimens from children and adults. Overall, amoxicillin resistance decreased by 8.4% (from 38.6 to 30.2%). β-Lactamase production decreased by 15.6% (from 33 to 17.4%, P = 0.01), but amoxicillin resistance without β-lactamase production increased by 7.1% (from 5.7 to 12.8%). All β-lactamase-positive isolates were TEM-1, but five different promoter regions were identified, with Pdel being the most prevalent in both years, and Prpt being associated with the highest amoxicillin resistance. A new promoter consisting of a double repeat of 54 bp was detected. Community consumption of most antibiotics decreased, as did the geometric means of their MICs, but amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and azithromycin consumption increased by ca. 60%. For amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, a 14.2% increase in the population with an MIC of 2 to 4 μg/ml (P = 0.02) was observed; for azithromycin, a 21.2% increase in the population with an MIC of 2 to 8 μg/ml (P = 0.0005) was observed. In both periods, the most common gBLNAR (i.e., H. influenzae isolates with mutations in the ftsI gene as previously defined) patterns were IIc and IIb. Community consumption of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole decreased by 54%, while resistance decreased from 50 to 34.9% (P = 0.04). Antibiotic resistance in H. influenzae decreased in Spain from 1997 to 2007, but surveillance should be maintained since new forms of resistances may be developing. PMID:18505850

  10. Bioequivalence evaluation of two brands of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 250/125 mg combination tablets in healthy human volunteers: use of replicate design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Nasir M; Al-Ghazawi, Ahmad; Najib, Naji M

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a replicate design approach to a bioequivalence study of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination following a 250/125 mg oral dose to 23 subjects, and to compare the analysis of individual bioequivalence with average bioequivalence. This was conducted as a 2-treatment 2-sequence 4-period crossover study. Average bioequivalence was shown, while the results from the individual bioequivalence approach had no success in showing bioequivalence. In conclusion, the individual bioequivalence approach is a strong statistical tool to test for intra-subject variances and also subject-by-formulation interaction variance compared with the average bioequivalence approach. copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Inoculum effect on the efficacies of amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in an experimental murine sepsis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docobo-Pérez, F; López-Cerero, L; López-Rojas, R; Egea, P; Domínguez-Herrera, J; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Pascual, A; Pachón, J

    2013-05-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly involved in infections with a heavy bacterial burden. Piperacillin-tazobactam and carbapenems are among the recommended empirical treatments for health care-associated complicated intra-abdominal infections. In contrast to amoxicillin-clavulanate, both have reduced in vitro activity in the presence of high concentrations of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli bacteria. Our goal was to compare the efficacy of these antimicrobials against different concentrations of two clinical E. coli strains, one an ESBL-producer and the other a non-ESBL-producer, in a murine sepsis model. An experimental sepsis model {~5.5 log10 CFU/g [low inoculum concentration (LI)] or ~7.5 log(10) CFU/g [high inoculum concentration (HI)]} using E. coli strains ATCC 25922 (non-ESBL producer) and Ec1062 (CTX-M-14 producer), which are susceptible to the three antimicrobials, was used. Amoxicillin-clavulanate (50/12.5 mg/kg given intramuscularly [i.m.]), piperacillin-tazobactam (25/3.125 mg/kg given intraperitoneally [i.p.]), and imipenem (30 mg/kg i.m.) were used. Piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem reduced spleen ATCC 25922 strain concentrations (-2.53 and -2.14 log10 CFU/g [P imipenem, and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively, although imipenem and amoxicillin-clavulanate were more efficacious than piperacillin-tazobactam). An adapted imipenem treatment (based on the time for which the serum drug concentration remained above the MIC obtained with a HI of the ATCC 25922 strain) improved its efficacy to -1.67 log10 CFU/g (P imipenem treatment of infections caused by ESBL- and non-ESBL-producing E. coli strains in patients with therapeutic failure with piperacillin-tazobactam.

  12. Impact of restricted amoxicillin/clavulanic acid use on Escherichia coli resistance--antibiotic DU90% profiles with bacterial resistance rates: a visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica Matanovic, Suzana; Bergman, Ulf; Vukovic, Dubravka; Wettermark, Björn; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera

    2010-10-01

    High use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC) at the University Hospital Osijek (Croatia) contributed to high rates of resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, in particular Escherichia coli (50%). Thus, in order to decrease bacterial resistance, AMC use was restricted. We present results of the restriction on resistance amongst antibiotics accounting for 90% of antibiotic use [drug utilisation 90% (DU90%)]. Data were analysed on antibiotic use and microbiological susceptibility of E. coli during two 9-month periods, before and after the restriction of AMC use. Drug use was presented as numbers of defined daily doses (DDDs) and DDDs/100 bed-days. Resistance of E. coli to antibiotics was presented as percentages of isolated strains in the DU90% segment. Use of AMC was 16 DDDs/100 bed-days or 30% of all antibiotics before the intervention. Use of AMC fell to 2 DDDs/100 bed-days or 4% after the intervention, and resistance of E. coli fell from 37% to 11%. In conclusion, restricted use of AMC resulted in a significant decrease of E. coli resistance. DU90% resistance profiles are simple and useful tools in highlighting problems in antibiotic use and resistance but may also be useful in long-term follow-up of antibiotic policy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. Stomach specific polymeric low density microballoons as a vector for extended delivery of rabeprazole and amoxicillin for treatment of peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sandeep; Jain, Ashay; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Mishra, Vijay; Agrawal, Govind P; Kesharwani, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    The study was intended to develop a new intra-gastric floating in situ microballoons system for controlled delivery of rabeprazole sodium and amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Eudragit S-100 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose based low density microballoons systems were fabricated by employing varying concentrations of Eudragit S-100 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, to which varying concentrations of drug was added, and formulated by stirring at various speed and time to optimize the process and formulation variable. The formulation variables like concentration and ratio of polymers significantly affected the in vitro drug release from the prepared floating device. The validation of the gastro-retentive potential of the prepared microballoons was carried out in rabbits by orally administration of microballoons formulation containing radio opaque material. The developed formulations showed improved buoyancy and lower ulcer index as compared to that seen with plain drugs. Ulcer protective efficacies were confirmed in ulcer-bearing mouse model. In conclusion, greater compatibility, higher gastro-retention and higher anti-ulcer activity of the presently fabricated formulations to improve potential of formulation for redefining ulcer treatment are presented here. These learning exposed a targeted and sustained drug delivery potential of prepared microballoons in gastric region for ulcer therapeutic intervention as corroborated by in vitro and in vivo findings and, thus, deserves further attention for improved ulcer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile and Detection of Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV in Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Resistant Bacteria Isolated From Retail Sausages in Kampar, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Lih-Shin; She, Li-Yen; Chew, Choy-Hoong

    2016-10-01

    Due to the overuse of antibiotics in livestock as a growth-promoting agent, the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming a concern. In this study, we aimed to detect the presence and discover the molecular determinants of foodborne bacteria in retail sausages resistant towards the antibacterial agent amoxicillin-clavulanate. Two grams of sausages were chopped into small pieces and transferred into sterile Luria-Bertani (LB) enrichment broths overnight before they were plated on MacConkey agar petri dishes. The bacteria isolated were then screened for amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance, and an antimicrobial susceptibility test of each isolate was performed by using the disc diffusion method. Double synergy and phenotypic tests were carried out to detect the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). API 20E kit was used to identify the Enterobacteriaceae . All isolates were further examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for resistant genes bla OXA-1, bla OXA-10, plasmid-mediated AmpC ( bla CMY and bla DHA), and the chromosome-mediated AmpC, Sul 1, bla TEM, and bla SHV genes. A total of 18 amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates were obtained from seven different types of retail sausages. Only half of them were identified as Enterobacteriaceae , but none were ESBL-producers. All the 18 isolated strains demonstrated resistance towards amoxicillin-clavulanate, penicillin and oxacillin (100%), cefotaxime (71.4%), cefpodoxime (66.7%), and ampicillin (83.3%). bla TEM was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene. Both plasmid- and chromosomal-bound bla TEM genes were detected in all of the isolated Enterobacteriaceae . bla SHV and Sul 1 accounted for 22.2% and 11.1% of the amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates, respectively, whereas bla AMPC, bla CMY, bla DHA, bla OXA-1, and bla OXA-10 were not found in any of the isolates. The only one ESBL-producing bacteria detected in this study was Chryseobacterium meningosepticum , which

  15. Isolation, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile and Detection of Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV in Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Resistant Bacteria Isolated From Retail Sausages in Kampar, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Lih-Shin; She, Li-Yen; Chew, Choy-Hoong

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the overuse of antibiotics in livestock as a growth-promoting agent, the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming a concern. Objectives In this study, we aimed to detect the presence and discover the molecular determinants of foodborne bacteria in retail sausages resistant towards the antibacterial agent amoxicillin-clavulanate. Methods Two grams of sausages were chopped into small pieces and transferred into sterile Luria-Bertani (LB) enrichment broths overnight before they were plated on MacConkey agar petri dishes. The bacteria isolated were then screened for amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance, and an antimicrobial susceptibility test of each isolate was performed by using the disc diffusion method. Double synergy and phenotypic tests were carried out to detect the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). API 20E kit was used to identify the Enterobacteriaceae. All isolates were further examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for resistant genes blaOXA-1, blaOXA-10, plasmid-mediated AmpC (blaCMY and blaDHA), and the chromosome-mediated AmpC, Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Results A total of 18 amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates were obtained from seven different types of retail sausages. Only half of them were identified as Enterobacteriaceae, but none were ESBL-producers. All the 18 isolated strains demonstrated resistance towards amoxicillin-clavulanate, penicillin and oxacillin (100%), cefotaxime (71.4%), cefpodoxime (66.7%), and ampicillin (83.3%). blaTEM was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene. Both plasmid- and chromosomal-bound blaTEM genes were detected in all of the isolated Enterobacteriaceae. blaSHV and Sul1 accounted for 22.2% and 11.1% of the amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates, respectively, whereas blaAMPC, blaCMY, blaDHA, blaOXA-1, and blaOXA-10 were not found in any of the isolates. The only one ESBL-producing bacteria detected in this study was Chryseobacterium

  16. Optimising adherence to childhood pneumonia treatment: the design and development of patient instructions and a job aid for amoxicillin dispersible tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebels, Kelly; Faulx, Dunia; Gerth-Guyette, Emily; Murunga, Peninah; Mahapatro, Samarendra; Das, Manoja Kumar; Ginsburg, Amy Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death from infection in children worldwide. Despite global treatment recommendations that call for children with pneumonia to receive amoxicillin dispersible tablets, only one-third of children with pneumonia receive any antibiotics and many do not complete the full course of treatment. Poor adherence to antibiotics may be driven in part by a lack of user-friendly treatment instructions. In order to optimise childhood pneumonia treatment adherence at the community level, we developed a user-friendly product presentation for caregivers and a job aid for healthcare providers (HCPs). This paper aims to document the development process and offers a model for future health communication tools. We employed an iterative design process that included document review, key stakeholder interviews, engagement with a graphic designer and pre-testing design concepts among target users in India and Kenya. The consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research were used in the description of results. Though resources for pneumonia treatment are available in some countries, their content is incomplete and inconsistent with global recommendations. Document review and stakeholder interviews provided the information necessary to convey to caregivers and recommendations for how to present this information. Target users in India and Kenya confirmed the need to support better treatment adherence, recommended specific modifications to design concepts and suggested the development of a companion job aid. There was a consensus among caregivers and HCPs that these tools would be helpful and improve adherence behaviours. The development of user-friendly instructions for medications for use in low-resource settings is a critically important but time-intensive and resource-intensive process that should involve engagement with target audiences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  17. A randomized trial of tigecycline versus ampicillin-sulbactam or amoxicillin-clavulanate for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) frequently result in hospitalization with significant morbidity and mortality. Methods In this phase 3b/4 parallel, randomized, open-label, comparative study, 531 subjects with cSSSI received tigecycline (100 mg initial dose, then 50 mg intravenously every 12 hrs) or ampicillin-sulbactam 1.5-3 g IV every 6 hrs or amoxicillin-clavulanate 1.2 g IV every 6-8 hrs. Vancomycin could be added at the discretion of the investigator to the comparator arm if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was confirmed or suspected within 72 hrs of enrollment. The primary endpoint was clinical response in the clinically evaluable (CE) population at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit. Microbiologic response and safety were also assessed. The modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population comprised 531 subjects (tigecycline, n = 268; comparator, n = 263) and 405 were clinically evaluable (tigecycline, n = 209; comparator, n = 196). Results In the CE population, 162/209 (77.5%) tigecycline-treated subjects and 152/196 (77.6%) comparator-treated subjects were clinically cured (difference 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.7, 8.6). The eradication rates at the subject level for the microbiologically evaluable (ME) population were 79.2% in the tigecycline treatment group and 76.8% in the comparator treatment group (difference 2.4; 95% CI: -9.6, 14.4) at the TOC assessment. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea rates were higher in the tigecycline group. Conclusions Tigecycline was generally safe and effective in the treatment of cSSSIs. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00368537 PMID:23145952

  18. Prospective randomized controlled study on the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 and amoxicillin-clavulanate or the combination on the gut microbiota of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Toufic A; Pallav, Kumar; Dowd, Scot E; Villafuerte-Galvez, Javier; Vanga, Rohini R; Castillo, Natalia E; Hansen, Joshua; Dennis, Melinda; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciarán P

    2017-01-02

    Probiotics are believed to be beneficial in maintaining a healthy gut microbiota whereas antibiotics are known to induce dysbiosis. This study aimed to examine the effects of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (SB), the antibiotic Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (AC) and the combination on the microbiota and symptoms of healthy humans. Healthy subjects were randomized to one of 4 study groups: SB for 14 days, AC for 7 days, SB plus AC, Control (no treatment). Participants gave stool samples and completed gastro-intestinal symptom questionnaires. Microbiota changes in stool specimens were analyzed using 16s rRNA gene pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). Only one subject withdrew prematurely due to adverse events. Subjects treated by S boulardii + AC had fewer adverse events and tolerated the study regimen better than those receiving the AC alone. Control subjects had a stable microbiota throughout the study period. Significant microbiota changes were noted in the AC alone group during antibiotic treatment. AC associated changes included reduced prevalence of the genus Roseburia and increases in Escherichia, Parabacteroides, and Enterobacter. Microbiota alterations reverted toward baseline, but were not yet completely restored 2 weeks after antibiotherapy. No significant shifts in bacterial genera were noted in the SB alone group. Adding SB to AC led to less pronounced microbiota shifts including less overgrowth of Escherichia and to a reduction in antibiotic-associated diarrhea scores. Antibiotic treatment is associated with marked microbiota changes with both reductions and increases in different genera. S. boulardii treatment can mitigate some antibiotic-induced microbiota changes (dysbiosis) and can also reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

  19. Effects of pore forming agents of potassium bicarbonate and drug loading method against dissolution mechanisms of amoxicillin drugs encapsulated in hydrogel full-Ipn chitosan-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) as a floating drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aini, Nurul; Rahayu, Dyah Utami Cahyaning; Budianto, Emil

    2018-04-01

    The limitation of amoxicillin trihydrate in the treatment of H. pylori bacteria is relatively short retention time in the stomach. The FDDS (Floating Drug Delivery System) amoxicillin trihydrate into a chitosan-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) full-Ipn hydrogel matrix using a pore-forming agent KHCO3 is expected to overcome these limitations. The pore-forming agent to be used is 15% KHCO3 compound. Chemical kinetics approach is performed to determine the dissolution mechanism of amoxicillin trihydrate from K-PNVCL hydrogel in vitro on gastric pH and characterization using SEM performed to confirm the dissolution mechanism. Hydrogels with the addition of pore-forming agents will be loading in situ loading and post loading. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to characterize K-PNVCL and UV-Vis hydrogels used to calculate the efficiency of encapsulation and drug dissolution rate in K-PNVCL hydrogel. Hydrogel K-PNVCL / KHCO3 that encapsulated by in situ loading method resulted in an encapsulation efficiency of 93.5% and dissolution of 93.4%. While the Hydrogel K-PNVCL / KHCO3 which is drug encapsulation resulted in an encapsulation efficiency of 87.2% with dissolution of 81.5%. Chemical kinetics approach to in situ encapsulation of loading and post loading shows the dissolution mechanism occurring in the K-PNVCL / KHCO3 hydrogel matrix occurs by diffusion. Observation using optical microscope and SEM showed the mechanism of drug dissolution in Hydrogel K-PNVCL occurred by diffusion.

  20. In vitro dissolution of generic immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing BCS class I drugs: comparative assessment of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin versus relevant comparator pharmaceutical products in South Africa and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Löbenberg, Raimar; Kanfer, Isadore

    2014-10-01

    Biowaivers are recommended for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms using dissolution testing as a surrogate for in vivo bioequivalence studies. Several guidance are currently available (the World Health Organization (WHO), the US FDA, and the EMEA) where the conditions are described. In this study, definitions, criteria, and methodologies according to the WHO have been applied. The dissolution performances of immediate-release metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin products purchased in South African and Indian markets were compared to the relevant comparator pharmaceutical product (CPP)/reference product. The dissolution performances were studied using US Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 2 (paddle) set at 75 rpm in each of three dissolution media (pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8). Concentrations of metronidazole, zidovudine, and amoxicillin in each dissolution media were determined by HPLC. Of the 11 metronidazole products tested, only 8 could be considered as very rapidly dissolving products as defined by the WHO, whereas 2 of those products could be considered as rapidly dissolving products but did not comply with the f 2 acceptance criteria in pH 6.8. All 11 zidovudine products were very rapidly dissolving, whereas in the case of the 14 amoxicillin products tested, none of those products met any of the WHO criteria. This study indicates that not all generic products containing the same biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) I drug and in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent. Hence, there is a need for ongoing market surveillance to determine whether marketed generic products containing BCS I drugs meet the release requirements to confirm their in vitro bioequivalence to the respective reference product.

  1. A multicenter, double-blind study on triple therapy with lansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Japanese peptic ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaka, M; Sugiyama, T; Kato, M; Satoh, K; Kuwayama, H; Fukuda, Y; Fujioka, T; Takemoto, T; Kimura, K; Shimoyama, T; Shimizu, K; Kobayashi, S

    2001-09-01

    Two triple therapies with lansoprazole (LPZ)/amoxicillin (AMPC)/clarithromycin (CAM) for eradication of Helicobacter pylori were studied in multicenter, double-blind fashion to evaluate the eradication rate of H. pylori and safety of eradiation treatment in Japanese patients with H. pylori-positive active gastric ulcers or duodenal ulcers. Patients were randomly chosen for the control treatment of LPZ 30 mg twice a day (b.i.d.; Group A-LPZ-only) or the test treatments of LPZ 30 mg plus AMPC 750 mg and CAM 200 mg b.i.d. (Group B-LAC200) and LPZ 30 mg, AMPC 750 mg and CAM 400 mg b.i.d. (Group C-LAC400). All eradication treatments lasted for a period of 7 days. Successful eradication was assessed by culture and gastric histology 1 month after completion of the ulcer treatment. The eradication rates of H. pylori in the full analysis set were 0% in Group A-LPZ-only, 87.5% in Group B-LAC200 and 89.2% in Group C-LAC400 for gastric ulcer and, 4.4% in Group A-LPZ-only, 91.1% in Group B-LAC200 and 83.7% in Group C-LAC400 for duodenal ulcer. The eradication rates of Group B-LAC200 and Group C-LAC400 were 89.2% (95% CI: 84.8-93.7%) and 86.4% (95%CI: 81.5-91.3%) in total in the full analysis set, 89% (95% CI: 84.3-93.7%) and 85.3% (95%CI: 80.1-90.5%) in the per protocol set. The eradication rates in Groups B-LAC200 and group C-LAC400 were statistically significantly higher than the rate in Group A-LPZ-only for both gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer patients (p high H. pylori eradication rate was obtained in Japanese ulcer patients with the triple therapy regimen consisting of LPZ 30 mg, AMPC 750 mg, and CAM 200 mg b.i.d.

  2. Multiwall carbon nanotubes decorated with FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, a new selective electrochemical sensor for amoxicillin determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensafi, Ali Asghar, E-mail: Ensafi@cc.iut.ac.ir; Allafchian, Ali Reza; Rezaei, Behzad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized and then multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were decorated with FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The new nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as vibrating sample magnetometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning surface microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results of the study confirm that the particles are pure FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs with a cubic structure. No diffraction peaks of other impurities such as FeO or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} were observed. The diffractive peaks of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs are broadened, implying that the crystalline size of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs particles is quite small. The mean particle size of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs calculated by Scherrer equation is about 25 nm, whereas the existence of particles with less than 30 nm size at FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs is clearly reflected in 2D and 3D AFM images. The TEM image confirms that the spaghetti-like FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs formed a porous structure. The synthesized FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs nanoparticles could be used as a new electrocatalysis for voltammetric determination of amoxicillin (AMC). Under the optimized conditions at pH 7.5 and in differential pulse voltammetry, the oxidation peak current of AMC at the surface of the mediator has two linear dynamic ranges including 0.1-10.0 and 10.0-70.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The detection limit of 0.05 {mu}mol L{sup -1} was achieved. The influence of potential interfering compounds on the selectivity was studied. Finally, the modified electrode showed good sensitivity, selectivity, and stability for the determination of AMC in real samples.

  3. Effect of drug loading method against the dissolution mechanism of encapsulated amoxicillin trihidrate drug in matrix of semi-IPN chitosan-poly (N-vinyl pyrrolidone) hydrogel with pore forming agent CaCO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjannah, Yanah; Budianto, Emil

    2018-04-01

    Heliobacter pylori (H.pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes inflammation in the lining of the stomach. The treatment of the bacterial infection by using conventional medicine which is amoxicillin trihidrate has a very short retention time in the stomach which is about 1-1,5 hours. Floating drug delivery system is expected to have a long retention time in the stomach so the efficiency of drug can be achieved. In this study, has been synthesized matrix of semi-IPN chitosan-Poly(N-vinil pyrrolidone) hydrogel with a pore-forming agent of CaCO3 under optimum conditions. Amoxicillin is encapsulated in a matrix hydrogel to be applied as a floating drug delivery system by in situ loading and post loading methods. The encapsulation efficiency and dissolution of in situ loading and post loading hydrogels are performed in vitro on gastric pH. In situ loading hydrogel shows higer percentage of encapsulation efficiency and dissolution compared to post loading hydrogel. The encapsulation efficiency of in situ and post loading hydrogels were 92,1% and 89,4%, respectively. The aim of drug dissolution by mathematical equation model is to know kinetics and the mecanism of dissolution. The kinetics release of in situ hydrogel tends to follow first order kinetics, while the post loading hydrogel follow the Higuchi model. The dissolution mecanism of hydrogels is erosion.

  4. Effect of drug loading method against drug dissolution mechanism of encapsulated amoxicillin trihydrate in matrix of semi-IPN chitosan-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogel with KHCO3 as pore forming agent in floating drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimantari, Khansa; Budianto, Emil

    2018-04-01

    Helicobacterpylori infection can be treated using trihydrate amoxicillin. However, this treatment is not effective enough, as the conventional dosage treatment has a relatively short retention time in the human stomach. In the present study, the amoxicillin trihydrate drug will be encapsulated into a semi-IPN K-PNVP hydrogel matrix with 7,5% KHCO3 as a pore-forming agent. The encapsulated drug is tested with in vitro method to see the efficiency of its encapsulation and dissolution. The hydrogel in situ loading produces an encapsulation efficiency value. The values of the encapsulation efficiency are 95% and 98%, while post loading hydrogel yields an encapsulation efficiency value is 77% and the dissolution is 84%. The study of drug dissolution mechanism was done by using mathematical equation model to know its kinetics and its mechanism of dissolution. The post loading hydrogel was done by using thefirst-order model, while hydrogel in situ loading used Higuchi model. The Korsmeyer-Peppas model shows that post loading hydrogel dissolution mechanism is a mixture of diffusion and erosion, and in situ loading hydrogel in the form of diffusion. It is supported by the results of hydrogel characterization, before and after dissolution test with an optical microscope. The results of the optical microscope show that the hydrogel surface before and after the dissolution tested for both methods shows the change becomes rougher.

  5. The impact of calcium carbonate as pore forming agent and drug entrapment method towards drug dissolution mechanism of amoxicillin trihydrate encapsulated by chitosan-methyl cellulose semi-IPN hydrogel for floating drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewantara, Fauzi; Budianto, Emil

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan-methyl cellulose semi-IPN hydrogel is used as floating drug delivery system, and calcium carbonate also added as pore forming agent. The hydrogel network arranged by not only using biopolymer chitosan and methyl cellulose, but also the crosslink agent that is glutaraldehyde. Amoxicillin trihydrate entrapped into the polymer network with two different method, in situ loading and post loading. Furthermore both method has been tested for drug entrapment efficiency along with drug dissolution test, and the result for drug entrapment efficiency is in situ loading method has highest value of 100%, compared to post loading method which has value only 71%. Moreover, at the final time of drug dissolution test shows in situ loading method has value of 96% for total accumulative of drug dissolution, meanwhile post loading method has 72%. The value of drug dissolution test from both method is used for analyzing drug dissolution mechanism of amoxicillin trihydrate from hydrogel network with four mathematical drug mechanism models as parameter. The polymer network encounter destructive degradation causes by acid solution which used as dissolution medium, and the level of degradation is observed with optical microscope. However the result shows that degradation of the polymer network doesn't affect drug dissolution mechanism directly. Although the pore forming agent causes the pore inside the hydrogel network create interconnection and it was quite influential to drug dissolution mechanism. Interconnected pore is observed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and shows that the amount and area of interconnected pore inside the hydrogel network is increasing as drug dissolution goes on.

  6. First report of real-time monitoring of coagulation function potential and IgG subtype of anti-FVIII autoantibodies in a child with acquired hemophilia A associated with streptococcal infection and amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Masahiro; Nogami, Keiji; Kajimoto, Takahiro; Ogiwara, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Shima, Midori

    2018-01-01

    We describe an 8-year-old boy with acquired hemophilia A (AHA) associated with streptococcal infection and amoxicillin. Laboratory data revealed low factor VIII activity (FVIII:C, 1.5 IU/dl), and FVIII inhibitor (15.9 BU/ml). Comprehensive coagulation function assays, including rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM ® ), revealed a markedly prolonged clotting time. Thrombin and plasmin generation (TG/PG) appeared to be moderately impaired. The inhibitor epitope of his anti-FVIII autoantibody recognized light and heavy chains. He was treated with Novoseven ® and prednisolone, resulting in rapid improvement. ROTEM showed the return of coagulation time to normal level on day 20, and TG gradually improved. PG was moderately reduced in the clinical early phase, but improved at day 20. The patient's IgG subtype was IgG 4 at onset. IgG 1 was transiently positive on day 20, but negative on day 46. FVIII inhibitor gradually decreased and was completely absent after day 46, along with the elevated FVIII:C. IgG4 was again elevated on day 83, followed by a rapid decrease, indicative of the presence of non-neutralizing antibody, which remains currently undetected. We for the first time report changes in comprehensive coagulation function and IgG subtype of anti-FVIII antibody in a rare pediatric case of AHA.

  7. [Spanish Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Spanish Society of Paediatric Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Spanish Association of Paediatric Primary Care, and the Spanish Society of Extra-hospital Paediatrics and Primary Health Care consensus document on antibiotic treatment in penicillin or amoxicillin allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero-Artigao, Fernando; Michavila, Antonio; Suárez-Rodriguez, Ángeles; Hernandez, Anselmo; Martínez-Campos, Leticia; Calvo, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    The suspected allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics, especially penicillin and amoxicillin, is the most frequent reason for consultation in Child Allergy Units. In this consensus document, the clinical and diagnostic criteria of allergic reactions are described, as well as alternative antibiotic treatment for the most common infections diagnosed in paediatrics for patients with known or suspected allergy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of azithromycin versus metronidazole– amoxicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... periodontal treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis. Materials and ... active against the bacteria in dental biofilms. Key words: ... resulting loss of teeth. ... Effects of different antibiotics on aggressive periodontitis. 507.

  9. Eficácia e segurança de Sultamicilina (Ampicilina/Sulbactam e Amoxacilina/Clavulanato no tratamento das infecções de via aéreas superiores em adultos: um estudo multicêntrico, aberto e randomizado Efficacy and safety of Sultamicillin (Ampicillin/Sulbactan and Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in adults: an open-label, multicentric, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Ferreira

    2006-02-01

    pro-drug of Ampicillin/Sulbactan, is a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor which can face this challenge. AIM: evaluate efficacy, safety and tolerability of Ampicillin/Sulbactan compared to Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in upper respiratory tract infections in adults. METHODS: 102 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive Ampicillin/Sulbactan or Amoxicillin/Clavulanate during 10 days. They were evaluated 10 and 30 days after treatment to learn about the therapeutic response. RESULTS: There were no differences between the two groups respecting cure at the end of treatment (visit 2 or at the end of the study (visit 3. Cure ratio was 61.7% and 93.2% (visits 2 and 3 in the Amoxicillin/Clavulanate group compared to 64.4% and 97.4%, respectively, in Ampicillin/Sulbactan group. The adverse events ratio for the two groups was the same (p=0.940. The number of patients with diarrhea was greater in the group of patients receiving Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (70.6% than in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan (29.4% (p=0.0164. CONCLUSIONS: Ampicillin/Sulbactan is as safe and efficient as Amoxicillin/Clavulanate in the empiric treatment of upper respiratory infections in adults. The low occurrence of diarrhea in the group receiving Ampicillin/Sulbactan needs confirmation in other studies.

  10. Helicobacter pylori eradication using tetracycline and furazolidone versus amoxicillin and azithromycin in lansoprazole based triple therapy: an open randomized clinical trial Erradicação de Helicobacter pylori com o uso de tetraciclina e furazolidona versus amoxicilina e azitromicina em terapia tríplice com lansoprazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cidrão Frota

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment has not yet been established. AIM: To evaluate H. pylori eradication using tetracycline and furazolidone versus amoxicillin and azithromycin in lansoprazole based triple therapy in northeastern of Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and four patients with H. pylori infection, as determined by rapid urease testing and histology, were randomly assigned to receive either: lansoprazole (30 mg q.d., tetracycline (500 mg q.i.d., and furazolidone (200 mg t.i.d. for 7 days (LTF; n = 52; or lansoprazole (30 mg b.i.d. and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d. for 1 week, plus azithromycin (500 mg q.d. for the first 3 days (LAAz; n = 52. H. pylori eradication was assessed 3 months following completion of therapy by means of rapid urease testing, histology and a 14C-urea breath test. RESULTS: H. pylori eradication was achieved in 46 of 52 (88.4%, 95% CI: 77.5%-95.1% patients in LTF group and in 14 of 52 (26.9%, 95% CI: 16.2%-40,1% patients in LAAz group. On a per-protocol analysis, eradication rates were 91.8% (95% CI: 81.4%-97.3% and 28.5% (95% CI: 17.2%-42.3%, respectively in LTF and LAAz groups. CONCLUSION: The LAAz regimen yielded unacceptably low eradication rates. On the other hand, the LTF scheme represents a suitable alternative for H. pylori eradication.RACIONAL: Ainda não está estabelecida a melhor terapêutica anti-H. pylori. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a erradicação de H.pylori usando tetraciclina e furazolidona versus amoxicilina e azitromicina em terapia tríplice com lansoprazol no nordeste do Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Cento e quatro pacientes infectados por H. pylori, diagnosticado através do teste rápido da urease e histologia, foram selecionados aleatoriamente para receber: lansoprazol (30 mg q.d., tetraciclina (500 mg q.i.d., furazolidona (200 mg t.i.d. por 7 dias (LTF; n = 52; ou lansoprazol (30 mg b.i.d. e amoxicilina (1 g b.i.d. por 1 semana, mais azitromicina (500 mg q.d. nos primeiros 3

  11. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of amoxicillin encapsulated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emulsion, ionotropic gelation or reverse micellar methods. The method used here is ionotropic gelation ... and deionized water (National Commission for. Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria ... washed twice with distilled water and used for the particle size determination. A thin smear was made on a ...

  12. Comparative Efficacy of Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    common minor oral surgical procedures carried out in oral surgery.[1] It is .... variables such as age, gender, marital status, and occupation. The descriptive ..... Alveolar osteitis is considered a healing disturbance related to some risk factors, and in ... due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be ...

  13. 21 CFR 522.88 - Sterile amoxicillin trihydrate for suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... within 5 days, review the diagnosis and change therapy. As with all antibiotics, appropriate in vitro... severity of infection, and the animal's response. (2) Indications for use. Treatment of diseases due to... with all antibiotics, appropriate in vitro culturing and susceptibility testing of samples taken before...

  14. 21 CFR 526.88 - Amoxicillin trihydrate for intramammary infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Indications for use. For the treatment of subclinical infectious bovine mastitis due to Streptococcus... last treatment. Do not slaughter treated animals for food purposes within 12 days after the last treatment. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. [57 FR...

  15. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of amoxicillin encapsulated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Eighteen batches of various ratios of chitosan, sodium alginate and calcium chloride were ... emulsion, ionotropic gelation or reverse micellar methods. The method used here is ionotropic gelation method ... washed twice with distilled water and used for ..... Characterization of insulin-loaded alginate nanoparticles.

  16. Eficácia do regime terapêutico empregando a associação de pantoprazol, claritromicina e amoxicilina, durante uma semana, na erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em pacientes com úlcera péptica Efficacy of the dosing regimen of pantoprazole 40 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg, twice daily for 7 days, in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudo multicêntrico, aberto, delineado para determinar a eficácia da associação de pantoprazol, claritromicina e amoxicilina, na erradicação do Helicobacter pylori em pacientes portadores de úlcera péptica. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Setenta e um pacientes (36 mulheres, 35 homens, idade média 41,9 anos provenientes de três centros universitários brasileiros (Belo Horizonte e Porto Alegre com úlcera péptica confirmada à endoscopia e infecção por H. pylori comprovada por, no mínimo, dois testes diagnósticos. Os pacientes foram tratados com a associação de pantoprazol 40 mg, claritromicina 500 mg e amoxicilina 1,0 g, administrada duas vezes ao dia, durante 7 dias. RESULTADOS: Ao final do tratamento, os pacientes foram reexaminados para avaliação dos sintomas gastrointestinais, presença de eventos adversos e aderência ao tratamento. Nova endoscopia com biopsias e teste respiratório com 13C-uréia foram repetidos 60 dias após o término do tratamento para determinação das taxas de erradicação do microrganismo. Foram considerados H. pylori negativos os pacientes com, pelo menos, o teste respiratório com 13C-uréia e mais um teste (teste da urease ou histologia negativos. Ao final do estudo 60/69 (87%, 95% = 78,9-94,8 pacientes erradicaram o H. pylori na análise por protocolo e 60/71 (84,5%, 95% = 76-92,9 na análise por intenção de tratamento. Um paciente interrompeu o tratamento devido à diarréia. Doze pacientes (16,9% apresentaram sintomas adversos e considerados de leve intensidade. CONCLUSÃO: A associação de pantoprazol, amoxicilina e claritromicina por 7 dias constitui alternativa eficaz e bem tolerada para a erradicação do H. pylori em portadores de úlcera péptica no Brasil.AIM: This is an open label, multicenter trial to determine the efficacy of the association of pantoprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin to eradicate Helicobacter pylory in patients with peptic ulcer. MATERIAL AND METHODS

  17. Severe Statin-induced Rhabdomyolysis following Cholestatic Hepatitis induced by Amoxicillin-clavulanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachele Rapetti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an 86-year-old man with a past history of coronary disease admitted to our internal medicine department for severe asthenia and weakness due to rhabdomyolysis. Three days earlier, he had been discharged from a gastroenterology unit with a diagnosis of amoxicillin–clavulanate-induced acute cholestatic hepatitis. A review of his drugs revealed that he had taken atorvastatin 10 mg daily in the previous six years, without clinical or laboratory signs of myopathy. Atorvastatin was therefore stopped, with gradual improvement of the rhabdomyolysis. All concomitant drug therapy needs to be reassessed in elderly patients, especially when they become acutely ill.

  18. 21 CFR 520.88g - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium film-coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-lactamase S. aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Escherichia coli. Treatment of periodontal infections due to susceptible strains of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. (iii) Limitations. Wounds, abscesses...

  19. 21 CFR 520.88h - Amoxicillin trihydrate and clavulanate potassium for oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...., Streptococcus spp., and Escherichia coli. Treatment of periodontal infections due to susceptible strains of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. (iii) Limitations. Administer for 5 to 7 days or 48 hours after all...

  20. 75 FR 76016 - Determination That AUGMENTIN `125' (Amoxicillin; Clavulanate Potassium) Chewable Tablet and Six...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... marketing for reasons other than safety or effectiveness. FDA will not begin procedures to withdraw approval... Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... or effectiveness. This determination means that FDA will not begin procedures to withdraw approval of...

  1. Influence of pulmonary surfactant on in vitro bactericidal activities of amoxicillin, ceftazidime, and tobramycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van 't Veen (Annemarie); J.W. Mouton (Johan); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); P. Dekkers; B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of a natural pulmonary surfactant on antibiotic activity was investigated to assess the possible use of exogenous surfactant as a vehicle for antibiotic delivery to the lung. The influence of surfactant on the bactericidal activity of

  2. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii) Limitations. Administer for 5 to 7 days or 48 hours after all..., and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract due to E. coli; and skin and soft tissue (abscesses...

  3. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S.... mirabilis, and Corynebacterium spp.; gastrointestinal tract due to E. coli, Proteus spp., Staphylococcus spp...

  4. Comparative therapeutic activities of Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin, Ceftriaxone and Cotrimoxazole in a new model of experimental infection with Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Hof, H.; Christen, A.; Hacker, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    A new mouse model for systemic infection with Escherichia coli is presented. Whereas in other models 107_108 bacteria have to be injected into an animal to induce toxic effects resulting in death within 24 hours, now, only 103_104 bacteria of an appropriate strain are required to produce a genuine infection characterized by an increase in the bacterial load over several days. The quantitative determination of bacterial counts per liver allows a more sensitive measurement than recording death ...

  5. Short-term effect of oral amoxicillin treatment on the gut microbial community composition in farm mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Laura Meier; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented that antibiotics have pronounced modulatory effects on the intestinal bacterial community of both humans and animals, with potential health consequences. The gut microbiota of mink has however attracted little attention due to low bacterial load and fast gastrointestinal...

  6. Cost effectiveness of amoxicillin for lower respiratory tract infections in primary care : An economic evaluation accounting for the cost of antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppong, Raymond; Smith, Richard D.; Little, Paul; Verheij, Theo; Butler, Christopher C.; Goossens, Herman; Coenen, Samuel; Moore, Michael; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major disease burden and are often treated with antibiotics. Typically, studies evaluating the use of antibiotics focus on immediate costs of care, and do not account for the wider implications of antimicrobial resistance. Aim This study

  7. The Combination of Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid and Ketoconazole in the Treatment of Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma and Staphylococcus aureus Co-infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Mhmoud (Najwa A.); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); E.S. Mahgoub (El Sheikh); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractEumycetoma is a chronic progressive disabling and destructive inflammatory disease which is commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. It is characterized by the formation of multiple discharging sinuses. It is usually treated by antifungal agents but it is assumed that the

  8. Selection and persistence of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of pigs treated with amoxicillin, ceftiofur, or cefquinome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Abatih, E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), mainly of the CTX-M family, have been associated with Escherichia coli strains of animal origin in Europe. An in vivo experiment was performed to study the effects of veterinary beta-lactam drugs on the selection and persistence of ESBL-producing E. coli...

  9. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  10. The Comparative Efficacy of 0.12% Chlorhexidine and Amoxicillin to Reduce the Incidence and Magnitude of Bacteremia During Third Molar Extractions: A Prospective, Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    42 x Figure 23 Plating and streaking of bacterial concentrate onto TSA II, chocolate , and...46 Figure 26 Bacterial colony growth on TSA II, chocolate , and BHK agar plates …..47 Figure 27 Hemolytic strep pure culture...situation requiring pre- or intra-operative use of antibiotics o Antibiotic use within the previous two months o Steroid therapy within the

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of anaerobic pathogens in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the Bacteroides fragilis group, Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC), Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp., Veillonella spp. and Bilophila wadsworthia for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, clindamycin and metronidazole was determined. Human clinical

  12. INVESTIGATION DE LA QUALITE D’ANTIBIOTIQUES A BASE D'AMOXICILLINE DANS LE CADRE DE LA SURVEILLANCE DU MARCHE OFFICIEL ET PERIPHERIQUE DE QUELQUES VILLES DE LA R.D. CONGO

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenda Tshilombo, Nicodème; Ciza Hamuli, Patient; Mavungu Landu, Don Jethro; Mwamba, Pierrot; Waffo, Christelle; Tidiane, Diallo; Mbinze, Jéremie; Hubert, Philippe; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Drug counterfeiting is a sad and worrisome reality, especially in developing countries where quality control is not effective and sometimes not existing at all despite political will of governments. The consequences are harmful in particular for substandard medicines that pose more threats to populations in those countries due to their direct negative impact on patients such as failure of medical treatment including development of drug resistance and even death. Socio-economic consequences an...

  13. A Cost-Utility Analysis of 5 Strategies for the Management of Acute Otitis Media in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nader; Dando, Emily E; Dunleavy, Mark L; Curran, Dorothy L; Martin, Judith M; Hoberman, Alejandro; Smith, Kenneth J

    2017-10-01

    To assess whether antimicrobial therapy in young children with acute otitis media reduces time to resolution of symptoms, overall symptom burden, and persistence of otoscopic evidence of infection. We used a cost-utility model to evaluate whether immediate antimicrobial treatment seems to be worthwhile, and if so, which antimicrobial agent is most cost effective. We compared the cost per quality-adjusted life-day of 5 treatment regimens in children younger than 2 years of age with acute otitis media: immediate amoxicillin/clavulanate, immediate amoxicillin, immediate cefdinir, watchful waiting, and delayed prescription (DP) for antibiotic. The 5 treatment regimens, listed in order from least effective to most effective were DP, watchful waiting, immediate cefdinir, immediate amoxicillin, and immediate amoxicillin/clavulanate. Listed in order from least costly to most costly, the regimens were DP, immediate amoxicillin, watchful waiting, immediate amoxicillin/clavulanate, and immediate cefdinir. The incremental cost-utility ratio of immediate amoxicillin compared with DP was $101.07 per quality-adjusted life-day gained. The incremental cost-utility ratio of immediate amoxicillin/clavulanate compared with amoxicillin was $2331.28 per quality-adjusted life-day gained. In children younger than 2 years of age with acute otitis media and no recent antibiotic exposure, immediate amoxicillin seems to be the most cost-effective initial treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria: is the absence of clinical signs and symptoms with the ... Whilst asymptomatic bacteriuria does not require antibiotic treatment, amoxicillin and ... proteinuria, hypertension, and complications during pregnancy.

  15. Formulation and Evaluation of Two-Pulse Drug Delivery System of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a pH-controlled two-pulse drug delivery system of amoxicillin in order to overcome the snag of biological ... Conclusion: The developed formulation demonstrates the feasibility of a two-phase release of amoxicillin separated by a ... comprised of a calorimeter (DSC 60), flow controller (FCL 60), thermal ...

  16. Prevalence of Arcobacter, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, varying level of resistance of Escherichia coli 66(84.6%), Salmonella 6(100%) and Arcobacter 57(100%) to amoxicillin was observed. The susceptibility pattern indicates that the bacterial isolates exhibited a varying level of resistance to two or more antimicrobial agents with maximum resistance to amoxicillin.

  17. Triple therapy with Rabeprazole,Amoxicillin and Sucralfate for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer disease%雷贝拉唑、阿莫西林和硫糖铝根除幽门螺杆菌的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建; 李孝生; 吴显才; 沈薇; 何璐

    2006-01-01

    目的观察雷贝拉唑、阿莫西林和硫糖铝三联疗法对根除幽门螺杆菌(HP)的疗效.方法将95例经胃镜检查确诊为十二指肠溃疡活动期,并经快速尿素酶试验和14C-尿素呼气试验,确定为HP阳性的患者分为两组.A组以雷贝拉唑0.01 g(qd),阿莫西林1 g(bid)和硫糖铝1 g(qid)治疗2周;B组以雷贝拉唑0.01 g(qd),阿莫西林1 g(bid)和克拉霉素0.5 g(bid)治疗2周.于用药结束后,第28天复查胃镜,观察溃疡愈合情况并检查HP.结果 A组的HP根除率为91.5%,B组为93.8%,两组无显著性差异(P>0.05);A组溃疡的愈合率(93.6%)稍高于B组(89.6%),但无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论雷贝拉唑、阿莫西林和硫糖铝三联疗法能有效地根除HP,溃疡愈合率高,安全且耐受性好,是一种较理想的HP根除新方案.

  18. Multi-analytical approach for profiling some essential medical drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abubakar, M.

    2015-07-01

    Counterfeit and substandard pharmaceutical drugs are chiefly rampant in developing countries due to inadequate analytical facilities and lack of regulatory oversight. The production of counterfeit or substandard drugs is broadly problematic. Underestimating it therefore leads to morbidity, mortality, drug resistance, introduction of toxic substances into the body and loss of confidence in health care systems. Medical drugs that are often counterfeited range from antimalarial drugs to antiretroviral drugs with antibiotics being counterfeited the most. This research work, therefore, aims at contributing towards the establishment of measures/processes for distinguishing between fake and genuine amoxicillin drugs. This was achieved by the identification and quantification of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and the excipients in the drug formulation. The major analytical techniques employed for this research work were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro Dissolution Test. The amoxicillin samples analyzed were the foreign generic amoxicillin purchased from Ernest Chemists pharmacy at East Legon, Accra, the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) amoxicillin purchased at Fair Mile pharmacy at West Legon, Accra and the Suspected Fake amoxicillin purchased at Okaishi market. For the establishment of fingerprint for identification of substandard amoxicillin, INAA was used to qualitatively determine the short lived radionuclides (excipients) which then facilitated the correct identification of the API and the excipient phases in each of the amoxicillin groups. The phases identified were Amoxicillin Trihydrate as the excipient, Magnesium Stearate (hydrated) and Magnesium Stearate (anhydrous) as the excipients. For Quality control purposes, High Performance Liquid Chromatography approach and also, the in vitro Dissolution test were conducted on each of the groups of

  19. Correlation of CYP2C19 Genetic Polymorphisms With Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Patients With Cirrhosis and Peptic Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Shyan Lay

    2010-04-01

    Conclusion: The results of the genotyping test for CYP2C19 seem to predict cure of H. pylori infection and peptic ulcer in patients with cirrhosis who receive triple therapy with rabeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin.

  20. Effect of Interaction of Methanol Leaf Extract of Spondias mombin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effect of interaction between methanol leaf extract of Spondias mombin and ... Keywords: Diarrheagenic E. coli, Drug interaction, Spondias mombin, Amoxicillin, ..... coli isolated from cattle, food, and children during a one-.

  1. A simple, low-cost and robust capillary zone electrophoresis Method with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection for the routine determination of four selected penicillins in Money-constrained laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Prasanta; Sänger-van de Griend, Cari; Adams, Erwin; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2018-01-01

    A simple and robust capillary zone electrophoresis Method was developed and validated for the determination of amoxicillin and clavulanate, ampicillin, phenoxymethyl penicillin (Pen V) as well as flucloxacillin. Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection was employed as detection Mode

  2. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI in Yasuj city during 1391-1392.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: It is recommended to treat urinary tract infections by using fewer antibiotics such as Amoxicillin / Clavulanic acid and co-trimoxazole, and administration of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin should be used with caution.

  3. Spiramycin resistance in human periodontitis microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Dujardin, Sebastien; Sautter, Jacqueline D; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    Purpose: The occurrence of in vitro resistance to therapeutic concentrations of spiramycin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole was determined for putative periodontal pathogens isolated in the United States. Materials and methods: Subgingival plaque specimens from 37 consecutive adults with untreated

  4. Killing curve activity of ciprofloxacin is comparable to synergistic effect of beta-lactam-tobramycin combinations against Haemophilus species endocarditis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H; Frimodt-Møller, N; Gutschik, E

    1992-01-01

    Nine Haemophilus species strains, all beta-lactamase negative, isolated from patients with endocarditis were tested in killing curve experiments. Antibiotics used were penicillin, amoxicillin, aztreonam alone and in combination with tobramycin, as well as ciprofloxacin alone. Synergism between beta...

  5. Prescribing Patterns and Medicine Use at the University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University Teaching Hospital (UTH) using World Health. Organization (WHO) ... The global scale and impact of irrational use of medicines .... cotrimoxazole (18), erythromycin (13) and amoxicillin- .... and 45% respectively pre-intervention.

  6. AEROBIC BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM INFECTED WOUNDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    most frequently reported as the cause of delay wound healing (6-9, 3). ... All isolates were resistant to Ampicillin, Amoxicillin- clavulanate and .... Ulcer bed infection. Report of a case of enlarging venous leg ulcer colonized by ... Ann. Burns Fire.

  7. Evaluation and comparison of in-vitro dissolution profiles for different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Food and Medicine quality Control Laboratory, Food, Medicine and ... Methods: Dissolution profiles for nine brands of amoxicillin capsules ... Senior pharmaceutical analysis expert. Food ..... Overall, it can be recommended that drug regulatory.

  8. AFRIMEDIC VOL. 1, NO. 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buchi

    injuries is very important in preventing long term effects. Keywords: ... It is estimated that one in five females and one in ten males report ... are females . ... The intravenous antibiotics Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid .... P.Domestic Violence and.

  9. Fluoroquinolones in the treatment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans associated periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinfelder, JW; Mueller, RF; Lange, DE

    Background: Periodontitis patients harboring Actinobacillus actinmycetemcomitans (Aa) are prime candidates for systemic antibiotic therapy. Besides tetracycline and the combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin the fluoroquinolones are also believed to have antibacterial activity against Aa. The

  10. An Overview of the Special Operations Interactive Medical Training Program (SOIMTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-08

    morphine, penicillin v potassium, hydroxyzine, hydrocortisone, meclizine hydrochloride, tolnaftate, acetamenophen, amoxicillin, clotrimazole cream ...dystocia, calf delivery, colt delivery, deworming, immunizations, horse colic , equine infectious anemia, heartworm disease, and other related topics

  11. Synergistic antibacterial effects of β-lactam antibiotic combined with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Juan; Wu, Changzhu; Wu, Qingsheng; Li, Jian

    2005-09-01

    The bactericidal action of silver (0) nanoparticles and amoxicillin on Escherichia coli is studied, respectively. Increasing concentration of both amoxicillin (0-0.525 mg ml-1) and silver nanoparticles (0-40 µg ml-1) showed a higher antibacterial effect in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Escherichia coli cells have different bactericidal sensitivity to them. When amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles are combined, it results in greater bactericidal efficiency on Escherichia coli cells than when they were applied separately. Dynamic tests on bacterial growth indicated that exponential and stationary phases are greatly decreased and delayed in the synergistic effect of amoxicillin and silver nanoparticles. In addition, the effect induced by a preincubation with silver nanoparticles is examined. The results show that solutions with more silver nanoparticles have better antimicrobial effects. One hypothesized mechanism is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  12. Tobramycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WARNING section and any of the following: other antibiotics such as amoxicillin (Amoxil, Larotid, Moxatag, in Augmentin, in Prevpac), ampicillin, or penicillin; dimenhydrinate (Dramamine); meclizine (Bonine); or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin (Indocin, Tivorbex). Your doctor ...

  13. Amikacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WARNING section and any of the following: other antibiotics such as amoxicillin (Amoxil, Larotid, Moxatag, in Augmentin, in Prevpac), ampicillin, or penicillin; dimenhydrinate (Dramamine); meclizine (Bonine); or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin (Indocin, Tivorbex). Your doctor ...

  14. Gentamicin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WARNING section and any of the following: other antibiotics such as amoxicillin (Amoxil, Larotid, Moxatag, in Augmentin, in Prevpac), ampicillin, or penicillin; dimenhydrate (Dramamine); meclizine (Bonine); or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin (Indocin, Tivorbex). Your doctor ...

  15. Same Exposure but two radically different responses to antibiotics: Resilience of the salivary microbiome versus long-term microbial shifts in feces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, E.; Brandt, B.W.; Mattos, M.J.T. de; Buijs, M.J.; Caspers, M.P. M.; Rashid, M.U.; Weintraub, A.; Nord, C.E.; Savell, A.; Hu, Y.; Coates, A.R.; Hubank, M.; Spratt, D.A.; Wilson, M.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Crielaard, W.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the spread of resistance, antibiotic exposure receives increasing attention. Ecological consequences for the different niches of individual microbiomes are, however, largely ignored. Here, we report the effects of widely used antibiotics (clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and

  16. Simultaneous removal and evaluation of organic substrates and NH{sub 3}-N by a novel combined process in treating chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhaobo [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wang, Hongcheng [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Ren, Nanqi, E-mail: rnq@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Cui, Minhua; Nie, Shukai; Hu, Dongxue [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We research a novel combined process to treat chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of amoxicillin verifies that the biodegradation, adsorption, hydrolysis and unknown mechanism were able to remove amoxicillin from wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study demonstrates that biodegradation is the major factor for removal mechanism at work for amoxicillin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mathematical statistic methods were employed to evaluate the performance of the WWTP. - Abstract: A full-scale novel combined anaerobic/micro-aerobic and two-stage aerobic biological process is used for the treatment of an actual chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater containing amoxicillin. The anaerobic system is an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), the micro-aerobic system is a novel micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification reactor (NHAR) and the two-stage aerobic process comprised cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and biological contact oxidation tank (BCOT). The influent wastewater was high in COD, NH{sub 3}-N varying daily 4016-13,093 mg-COD L{sup -1} and 156.4-650.2 mg-NH{sub 3}-N L{sup -1}, amoxicillin varying weekly between 69.1 and 105.4 mg-amoxicillin L{sup -1}, respectively; Almost all the COD, NH{sub 3}-N, amoxicillin were removed by the biological combined system, with removal percentages 97%, 93.4% and 97.2%, respectively, leaving around 104 mg-COD L{sup -1}, 9.4 mg-NH{sub 3}-N L{sup -1} and 2.6 {+-} 0.8 mg-amoxicillin L{sup -1} in the final clarifier effluent. The performance evaluation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by mathematical statistic methods shown that at most of time effluent can meet the higher treatment discharge standard. In addition, the fate of amoxicillin in the full-scale WWTP and the amoxicillin removal rate of each different removal routes in UASB, NHAR, CASS, BCOT and final clarifier processes are investigated

  17. Simultaneous removal and evaluation of organic substrates and NH3-N by a novel combined process in treating chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhaobo; Wang, Hongcheng; Ren, Nanqi; Cui, Minhua; Nie, Shukai; Hu, Dongxue

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We research a novel combined process to treat chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater. ► The mechanism of amoxicillin verifies that the biodegradation, adsorption, hydrolysis and unknown mechanism were able to remove amoxicillin from wastewater. ► In this study demonstrates that biodegradation is the major factor for removal mechanism at work for amoxicillin. ► Mathematical statistic methods were employed to evaluate the performance of the WWTP. - Abstract: A full-scale novel combined anaerobic/micro-aerobic and two-stage aerobic biological process is used for the treatment of an actual chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater containing amoxicillin. The anaerobic system is an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), the micro-aerobic system is a novel micro-aerobic hydrolysis acidification reactor (NHAR) and the two-stage aerobic process comprised cyclic activated sludge system (CASS) and biological contact oxidation tank (BCOT). The influent wastewater was high in COD, NH 3 -N varying daily 4016–13,093 mg-COD L −1 and 156.4–650.2 mg-NH 3 -N L −1 , amoxicillin varying weekly between 69.1 and 105.4 mg-amoxicillin L −1 , respectively; Almost all the COD, NH 3 -N, amoxicillin were removed by the biological combined system, with removal percentages 97%, 93.4% and 97.2%, respectively, leaving around 104 mg-COD L −1 , 9.4 mg-NH 3 -N L −1 and 2.6 ± 0.8 mg-amoxicillin L −1 in the final clarifier effluent. The performance evaluation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by mathematical statistic methods shown that at most of time effluent can meet the higher treatment discharge standard. In addition, the fate of amoxicillin in the full-scale WWTP and the amoxicillin removal rate of each different removal routes in UASB, NHAR, CASS, BCOT and final clarifier processes are investigated in this paper. The results show that biodegradation, adsorption and hydrolysis are the major mechanisms for amoxicillin removal.

  18. In vitro selection of resistance in haemophilus influenzae by 4 quinolones and 5 beta-lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Catherine; Kosowska, Klaudia; Bozdogan, Bülent; Credito, Kim; Dewasse, Bonifacio; McGhee, Pamela; Jacobs, Michael R; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2004-05-01

    We tested abilities of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefixime, cefpodoxime, and cefdinir to select resistant mutants in 5 beta-lactamase positive and 5 beta-lactamase negative Haemophilus influenzae strains by single and multistep methodology. In multistep tests, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate and cefpodoxime exposure did not cause >4-fold minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increase after 50 days. One mutant selected by cefdinir had one amino acid substitution (Gly490Glu) in PBP3 and became resistant to cefdinir. Cefixime exposure caused 8-fold MIC-increase in 1 strain with TEM but the mutant remained cefixime susceptible and had no alteration in PBP3 or TEM. Among 10 strains tested, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin caused >4-fold MIC increase in 6, 6, 5, and 2 strain, respectively. Despite the increases in quinolone MICs, none of the mutants became resistant to quinolones by established criteria. Quinolone selected mutants had quindone resistance-determining region (QRDR) alterations in GyrA, GyrB, ParC, ParE. Four quinolone mutants had no QRDR alterations. Among beta-lactams cefdinir and cefixime selected one mutant each with higher MICs however amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and cefpodoxime exposure did not select resistant mutants.

  19. High prevalence and resistance rates to antibiotics in anaerobic bacteria in specimens from patients with chronic balanitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Mitev, Angel; Gergova, Galina; Mateev, Grisha; Mitov, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    Aim of the study was to assess both prevalence and antibiotic resistance in anaerobic bacteria from glans penis skin of 70 adults. Strain susceptibility was determined by breakpoint susceptibility test or E test. In 9 asymptomatic, 48 untreated and 13 treated symptomatic patients, anaerobes were found in 22.2%, 70.8% and 53.3%, respectively. Gram-positive strains (GPAs) were 2.2-fold more common than Gram-negative ones. Prevalent Gram-negative (GNAs) and GPAs were Prevotella spp. and anaerobic cocci, respectively. Clostridium difficile strain was found in an untreated patient. In GNAs, resistance rates to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 42.1, 0, 52.6, 53.3, 86.7 and 5.2%, respectively. In GPAs, the resistance rates to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 18.2, 34.1, 52.6, 36.8 and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, anaerobes were 1.6-fold more frequent in untreated symptomatic patients compared with other patients, suggesting their participation in development of chronic balanitis. GPAs were more common than GNAs. The resistance rates to amoxicillin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were high. Most active agents were metronidazole and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Resistance in anaerobes varies according to sites of specimens and years of study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2017-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is the most important factor leading to the failure of eradication regimens; thus, it is important to obtain regional antibiotic resistance information. This review focuses on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori primary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and furazolidone in China. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedical databases from the earliest date of each database to October 2016. The search terms included the following: H. pylori, antibiotic (including clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and furazolidone) resistance with or without China or different regions of China. The data analysis was performed using MedCalc 15.2.2. Each article was weighted according to the number of isolated H. pylori strains. A pooled proportion analysis was performed. Twenty-three studies (14 studies in English and 9 in Chinese) were included in this review. A total of 6274, 6418, 3921, 5468, 2802, and 275 H. pylori strains were included in this review to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori primary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone, respectively. Overall, the primary resistance rates of clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone were 28.9, 63.8, 28.0, 3.1, 3.9, and 1.7%, respectively. In China, the prevalence of H. pylori primary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin was high and increased over time, whereas the resistance rates to amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone were low and stable over time.

  1. Auditing and benchmarking of azithromycin utilization in primary care military clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, Uri; Admon, Gil; Borer, Abraham; Schlaeffer, Francisc; Aviram, Eliad E; Gilad, Jacob

    2007-10-01

    Despite widespread azithromycin use, no audit has targeted this drug to date. Azithromycin was audited in primary military clinics between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2003 (period 1). Consumption (defined daily doses/1000 visits) and economic expenditure of penicillin V, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and azithromycin were evaluated. An educational intervention was performed (dissemination of local guideline regarding indications for azithromycin use) and its impact was assessed between July 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 (period 2). During periods 1 and 2, 105 and 31 patients were prescribed azithromycin. Azithromycin was appropriately chosen in 5.7% vs. 70.9% of cases (p amoxicillin consumption (20.2%). Intervention decreased azithromycin consumption and expenditure but its effect was offset by increased consumption of other agents, mainly amoxicillin. Interventions in primary care settings should target prescribing behavior through a multifaceted approach to increase efficacy while preventing a trade-off effect.

  2. Listeria Endocarditis: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmina J. A. R. M. Valckx MD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old hemodialysis patient with a history of an atrial septum defect closure, coronary bypass surgery, and a St. Jude aortic prosthetic valve was diagnosed with pneumonia and volume overload. Blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, and amoxicillin was given for 2 weeks. Immediately after discontinuation of amoxicillin, fever relapsed. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography showed no sign of endocarditis. Given the fever relapse and 3 positive minor Duke criteria, an 18F-FDG PET-CT scan (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was performed. This scan showed activity at the aortic root, proximal ascending aorta, and inferior wall of the heart, making Listeria monocytogenes endocarditis a likely explanation. Amoxicillin was given for 6 weeks with good clinical result. Diagnosing a life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes endocarditis can be challenging and an 18F-FDG PET-CT scan can be helpful.

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Flores, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Tavarez-Alejandro, Roman Erick; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2004-01-01

    In Mexico mycetomas are mostly produced by Nocardia brasiliensis, which can be isolated from about 86% of cases. In the present work, we determined the sensitivities of 30 N. brasiliensis strains isolated from patients with mycetoma to several groups of antimicrobials. As a first screening step we carried out disk diffusion assays with 44 antimicrobials, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, macrolides, and some others. In these assays we observed that some antimicrobials have an effect on more than 66% of the strains: linezolid, amikacin, gentamicin, isepamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin, minocycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, nitroxolin, and spiramycin. Drug activity was confirmed quantitatively by the broth microdilution method. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, and amikacin, which have been used to treat patients, were tested in an experimental model of mycetoma in BALB/c mice in order to validate the in vitro results. Linezolid showed the highest activity in vivo, followed by the combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amikacin. PMID:14982772

  4. [Prospective randomized study regarding the effect of the preoperative antibiotic and chlorhexidine rinse on wound healing after mandibular third molar surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposvári, István; Körmöczi, Kinga; László, Zsuzsa Beáta; Oberna, Ferenc; Horváth, Ferenc; Joób-Fancsaly, Árpád

    2017-01-01

    The study compares the antibiotic prophylaxis combined with postoperative antibiotic therapy to preoperative chlorhexidine rinse combined with postoperative antibiotic therapy in preventing complications after surgical removal of a mandibular third molar. 71 healthy patients in four groups were enrolled in the study: I. prophylactic dose of 2000 mg of amoxicillin clavulanate, continued with amoxicillin clavulanate postoperatively; II. prophylactic dose of 600 mg of clindamycin, continued with clindamycin postoperatively; III. prophylactic chlorhexidin rinsing, continued randomized amoxicillin clavulanate or clindamycin postoperatively; IV. control, with clindamycin postoperatively. The pain was smaller in the prophylaxis groups. Alveolitis occurred only in the control group: 2 patients. Wound opening occurred in 22,2 % in group IV., 14,2 % in group II, 10 % in group I., 5 % in group III. We consider completing the indicated postoperative antibiotic prescription with antibiotic or antiseptic prophylaxis. Chlorhexidin prophylaxis could have the same positive effect. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(1), 13-19.

  5. Reduced-Concentration Clavulanate for Young Children with Acute Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Jack L.; Rockette, Howard E.; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Kearney, Diana H.; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Shope, Timothy R.; Muñiz, Gysella; Martin, Judith M.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Haralam, MaryAnn; Pope, Marcia A.; Nagg, Jennifer P.; Zhao, Wenchen; Miah, Mohammad Kowser; Beumer, Jan; Venkataramanan, Raman; Shaikh, Nader

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Amoxicillin-clavulanate (A/C) is currently the most effective oral antimicrobial in treating children with acute otitis media (AOM), but the standard dosage of 90 mg amoxicillin/6.4 mg clavulanate/kg of body weight/day commonly causes diarrhea. We examined whether an A/C formulation containing lower concentrations of clavulanate would result in less diarrhea while maintaining plasma levels of amoxicillin and clavulanate adequate to eradicate middle-ear pathogens and to achieve clinical success. We conducted an open-label study in children with AOM who were 6 to 23 months of age. In phase 1, we treated 40 children with a reduced-clavulanate A/C formulation providing 90 mg amoxicillin/3.2 mg clavulanate/kg/day for 10 days. In phase 2, we treated 72 children with the same formulation at a dosage of 80 mg amoxicillin/2.85 mg clavulanate/kg/day for 10 days. We compared the rates of protocol-defined diarrhea (PDD), diaper dermatitis, and AOM clinical response in these children with rates we had reported in children who received the standard A/C regimen, and we obtained plasma levels of amoxicillin and clavulanate at various time points. Outcomes in phase 1 children and in children who had received the standard regimen did not differ significantly. Rates of PDD in children receiving phase 2 and standard regimens were 17% and 26%, respectively (P = 0.10). The corresponding rates of diaper dermatitis were 21% and 33% (P = 0.04) and of AOM treatment failure were 12% and 16% (P = 0.44). Symptomatic responses did not differ significantly between regimens; both gave clavulanate levels sufficient to inhibit β-lactamase activity. In young children with AOM, clavulanate dosages lower than those currently used may be associated with fewer side effects without reducing clinical efficacy. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT02630992.) PMID:28438923

  6. Empirical antimicrobial therapy of acute dentoalveolar abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijević Stevo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common cause of acute dental infections are oral streptococci and anaerobe bacteria. Acute dentoalveolar infections are usually treated surgically in combination with antibiotics. Empirical therapy in such infections usually requires the use of penicillin-based antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficiency of amoxicillin and cefalexin in the empirical treatment of acute odontogenic abscess and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in early phases of its development. Methods. This study included 90 patients with acute odontogenic abscess who received surgical treatment (extraction of a teeth and/or abscess incision and were divided into three groups: two surgicalantibiotic groups (amoxicillin, cefalexin and the surgical group. In order to evaluate the effects of the applied therapy following clinical symptoms were monitored: inflammatory swelling, trismus, regional lymphadentytis and febrility. In all the patients before the beginning of antibiotic treatment suppuration was suched out of the abscess and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was tested by using the disk diffusion method. Results. The infection signs and symptoms lasted on the average 4.47 days, 4.67 days, and 6.17 days in the amoxicillin, cefalexin, and surgically only treated group, respectively. A total of 111 bacterial strains were isolated from 90 patients. Mostly, the bacteria were Gram-positive facultative anaerobs (81.1%. The most common bacteria isolated were Viridans streptococci (68/111. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria to amoxicillin was 76.6% and cefalexin 89.2%. Conclusion. Empirical, peroral use of amoxicillin or cefalexin after surgical treatment in early phase of development of dentoalveolar abscess significantly reduced the time of clinical symptoms duration in the acute odontogenic infections in comparison to surgical treatment only. Bacterial strains

  7. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy-a new strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antsupova, Valeria; Nørgaard, Nis; Bisbjerg, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    mutual synergistic activity and the combination of these agents has a broad coverage of the majority of microorganisms causing infectious complications after TRUBP and may be a valuable future prophylactic regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 2624 men that underwent...... pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was used (5.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is an attractive prophylaxis for TRUBP from a clinical, bacteriological and ecological point of view as compared with ciprofloxacin....

  8. Generation of drugs coated iron nanoparticles through high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhika Devi, A.; Murty, B. S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Chelvane, J. A. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prabhakar, P. K.; Padma Priya, P. V.; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-03-28

    The iron nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and drugs such as folic acid/Amoxicillin were synthesized by high energy ball milling and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscope, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) measurements, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA measurements show good adsorption of drugs on oleic acid coated nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements indicate that saturation magnetization is larger for amoxicillin coated particles compared to folic acid coated particles. The biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles prepared was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay using L929 cells as model cells.

  9. Uptake of antibiotics from irrigation water by plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azanu, David; Mortey, Christiana; Darko, Godfred

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through...... tested concentrations of 0.1-15 mg L(-1). Tetracycline was detected in all plant samples, at concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 28.3 ng/g in lettuce and 12.0-36.8 ng g(-1) fresh weight in carrots. Amoxicillin showed absorption with concentrations ranging from 13.7 ng g(-1) to 45.2 ng g(-1) for the plant...

  10. The Clinical Potential of Semisynthetic Penicillins in Acute Bacterial Otitis Media and Acute Bacterial Tonsillitis in Children in the Practice of ENT Doctor: Focus on Ospamox and Amoxsiclav®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Popovych

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide prevalence of bacterial infections of upper respiratory tract, especially in childhood, the presence of complications that threaten the health and lives of patients necessitate the prescription of a rational systemic antibiotic therapy. Given the fact that in most cases the characteristics of the bacterial spectrum as an etiologic agent of these diseases is known, penicillin antibiotics are the first line in this pathology. On the example of two clinical cases, we have considered the use of suspension Ospamox (amoxicillin and Amoxiclav® (amoxicillin clavulanate in children with acute tonsillitis and acute otitis media, which demonstrated high efficacy and safety of treatment.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae recovered from Missouri swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fales, W H; Morehouse, L G; Mittal, K R; Bean-Knudsen, C; Nelson, S L; Kintner, L D; Turk, J R; Turk, M A; Brown, T P; Shaw, D P

    1989-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae isolates from swine in Missouri was determined with a microdilution minimal inhibitory concentration test system. Serotyping was accomplished by means of co-agglutination. Serotype 1 (39/73) and serotype 5 (30/73) were commonly found, whereas serotype 7 (4/73) was infrequently encountered. Most isolates (MIC90) were found susceptible to ampicillin (amoxicillin), cephalothin, penicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. Marked resistance was found with oxytetracycline, tylosin, and sulfadimethoxine. The data indicate that use of ampicillin (amoxicillin) or penicillin may correlate well with the favorable outcome of treatment.

  12. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilienne Verkaeren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  13. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Erica L.; Carvalho, Juliana F.; Pontes, Thales R.F.; Oliveira, Elquio E.; Francelino, Barbara L.; Medeiros, Aldo C.; Egito, E. Socrates T. do; Araujo, Jose H.; Carrico, Artur S.

    2009-01-01

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 μm, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  14. Development of a magnetic system for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Erica L.; Carvalho, Juliana F.; Pontes, Thales R.F.; Oliveira, Elquio E. [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Francelino, Barbara L.; Medeiros, Aldo C. [Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Egito, E. Socrates T. do [Departamento de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Gal Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias s.n, Petropolis, 59010-180 Natal-RN (Brazil); Araujo, Jose H. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Carrico, Artur S. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)], E-mail: ascarrico@dfte.ufrn.br

    2009-05-15

    We report a study to develop a magnetic system for local delivery of amoxicillin. Magnetite microparticles produced by coprecipitation were coated with a solution of amoxicillin and Eudragit S100 by spray drying. Scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry revealed that the particles were superparamagnetic, with an average diameter of 17.2 {mu}m, and an initial susceptibility controllable by the magnetite content in the suspension feeding the sprayer. Our results suggest a possible way to treat Helicobacter pylori infections, using an oral drug delivery system, and open prospects to coat magnetic microparticles by spray drying for biomedical applications.

  15. Safe and feasible outpatient treatment following induction and consolidation chemotherapy for patients with acute leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Nielsen, Ove Juul; Welinder, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    incorporating comprehensive patient education for self-care management at home during pancytopenia and involvement of patients in care of their tunnelled central venous catheter (CVC). During neutropenia, patients are treated with prophylactic ciprofloxacine, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and fluconazole. Herein...

  16. Experimental Simulation of the Effects of an Initial Antibiotic Treatment on a Subsequent Treatment after Initial Therapy Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Yanfang; Händel, Nadine; de Groot, Marnix H. P.; Brul, Stanley; Schultsz, Constance; ter Kuile, Benno H.

    2014-01-01

    Therapy failure of empirical antibiotic treatments prescribed by primary care physicians occurs commonly. The effect of such a treatment on the susceptibility to second line antimicrobial drugs is unknown. Resistance to amoxicillin was rapidly induced or selected in E. coli at concentrations

  17. Risk factors for meningitis after transsphenoidal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, M. O.; de Marie, S.; van der Lely, A. J.; Singh, R.; van den Berge, J. H.; Poublon, R. M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Lamberts, S. W.; de Herder, W. W.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate possible risk factors for meningitis, we retrospectively reviewed 228 transsphenoidal operations (in which a standard regimen of amoxicillin prophylaxis was used) for sellar pathology. The incidence of meningitis was 3.1% (seven of 228 cases). Cultures of preoperative specimens from the

  18. Augmentin treatment during pregnancy and the prevalence of congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the human teratogenic potential of augmentin (amoxicillin+clavulanic acid) treatment during pregnancy. Materials and methods: Pair analysis of cases with different congenital abnormalities and their matched controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control...

  19. Perceived Barriers and Opportunities to the Linkage of Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown User

    treatment for many urinary tract infections, antibiotic-resistant strains of bacterial species commonly ... isolates were resistant to aminopenicillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin) and to trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole ...... study was an indication that carbapenems resistance is yet to be fully established in species of the family of ...

  20. Rapid in vivo screening method for the evaluation of new anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid in vivo screening method for the evaluation of new anti helicobacter ... Six to eight week-old mice pre-treated (7 days) with Amoxicillin/Metronidazole (25 ... These findings were used as a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection to ...

  1. Antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Chinese children: A multicenter retrospective study over 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ke, Yini; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Guogang; Yang, Ningmin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Youming

    2017-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, and furazolidone in Helicobacter pylori isolated from Chinese children. This multicenter retrospective study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2015. A total of 1746 isolates of H. pylori were collected from nine areas of Zhejiang province in the southeast coastal region of China. H. pylori strains were examined for antibiotics susceptibility by agar dilution method. The resistance rates were 75.20% for metronidazole, 16.38% for clarithromycin, 6.70% for levofloxacin, 0.06% for amoxicillin, and 0.06% for furazolidone. The pattern of H. pylori antibiotic resistance demonstrated no significant changes in the rates of resistance to clarithromycin, amoxicillin, furazolidone, and metronidazole over 7 years. A significant trend of increasing resistance to metronidazole was observed as children aged, but a downward trend in clarithromycin resistance was observed as children aged. No difference in the resistance to other antibiotics was observed among different age groups. Also, there was no significant difference between male and female subjects in rates of resistance to these five types of antibiotics. The predominant dual resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin was presented in 10.65% of the isolates. The resistance rates of H. pylori in children from southeast coastal region of China were very high to metronidazole, moderate to clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and low to amoxicillin and furazolidone. It is important to continue monitoring the resistance profiles of H. pylori isolated in this region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and genetic diversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin and linezolid and resistant in high numbers (194, 81.9%) to ampicillin. Resistances to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole were below 20%. The overall prevalence of MRSA among ...

  3. Occurrence of otitis media in children and assessment of treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokoye, N N; Egwari, L O; Olubi, O O

    2015-08-01

    Otitis media is a more frequent occurrence in children, and the disease may progress from an acute to chronic state if appropriate and timely intervention is not initiated. A total of 212 children aged 6 months to 10 years were examined and treated for otitis media, in a 13-month hospital-based study. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 130 (61.3 per cent) of the patients. There were 82 (38.7 per cent) chronic suppurative otitis media cases. The incidence of acute otitis media and chronic suppurative otitis media in the first year of life was 54.6 per cent and 45.1 per cent respectively. Chronic suppurative otitis media patients were assigned to one of three treatment groups. Recovery occurred in 70.4 per cent of amoxicillin-treated patients, in 88.9 per cent of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treated patients and in 96.4 per cent of culture and antibiotic sensitivity test patients. Relapses were seen only in the amoxicillin (five cases) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (two cases) groups. The success rate in patients treated with antibiotics makes this option mandatory for an established diagnosis.

  4. Cutane nocardiose als opportunistische infectie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, H. J.; Erkelens, G. W.; Faber, W. R.; de Vries, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    A 46-year-old man who had been treated with azathioprine and budesonide for Crohn's disease for the past eight years developed a purulent skin condition on the right ring finger. Despite surgical drainage and treatment with amoxicillin and flucloxacillin, the condition spread itself over the hand

  5. Potential of berberine to enhance antimicrobial activity of commonly used antibiotics for dairy cow mastitis caused by multiple drug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Yang, C; Li, Y; Liu, X; Wang, Y

    2015-08-19

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of berberine against multi-drug resistant field isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were investigated using berberine alone or in combination with a commonly used antibiotics in veterinary clinics, including penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin. The results indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of berberine, penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin against field S. epidermidis isolates were 2-512, 0.8-213, 0.4-1024, and 0.4-256 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial activity against these multi-drug resistant isolates were observed when the berberine was combined with penicillin, lincomycin, or amoxicillin; no antagonistic effect of the combination was detected in any of the clinical isolates. These observations were further confirmed using a time-killing assay, in which a combination of 2 agents yielded a greater than 2.03-2.44 log10 decrease in colony-forming unit/mL compared with each agent alone. These findings suggest that berberine is a promising compound for preventing and treating multi-drug resistant S. epidermidis infected mastitis in dairy cows either alone or in combination with other commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin.

  6. Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans : A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, Dorien; Goossens, Gijs H.; Hermes, Gerben D. A.; Neis, Evelien P. J. G.; van der Beek, Christina M.; Most, Jasper; Holst, Jens J.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Kootte, Ruud S.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Groen, Albert K.; Damink, Steven W. M. Olde; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Smidt, Hauke; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men.

  7. Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, Dorien; Goossens, Gijs H.; Hermes, Gerben D. A.; Neis, Evelien P. J. G.; van der Beek, Christina M.; Most, Jasper; Holst, Jens J.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Kootte, Ruud S.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Groen, Albert K.; Olde Damink, Steven W. M.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Smidt, Hauke; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Blaak, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men.

  8. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Inpatient Data Record (SIDR) to determine healthcare-associated exposures, Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) rosters to determine burden among...Department of Defense (DOD) active duty (AD) service members, and the DMDC Contingency Tracking System (CTS) to determine Department of the Navy (DON...antibiotics included amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole. Table 5. Antibiogram of Escherichia

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attama, AA. Vol 3, No 2 (2005) - Articles In vitro study of the interaction between amoxicillin and norfloxacin with lansoprazole. Abstract · Vol 3, No 2 (2005) - Articles Evaluation of snail mucin as bioadhesive agent for the delivery of chlorpropamide. Abstract · Vol 7, No 1 (2009) - Articles In-vitro evaluation of bioadhesive and ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwafor, CN. Vol 3, No 2 (2005) - Articles In vitro study of the interaction between amoxicillin and norfloxacin with lansoprazole. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-7409. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  11. Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijnders, Dorien; Goossens, Gijs H; Hermes, Gerben D A

    2016-01-01

    . Vancomycin, but not amoxicillin, decreased bacterial diversity and reduced Firmicutes involved in short-chain fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, concomitant with altered plasma and/or fecal metabolite concentrations. Adipose tissue gene expression of oxidative pathways was upregulated by antibiotics...

  12. The effect of fermented milk with Bifidobacterium infantis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... antibiotherapy with amoxicillin and contamination with ... analysis of the stools of 120 infants who were the most affected by ..... competitiveness for sites of adherence (Kelly et al.,. 2006). .... Fingerprinting demonstrates the survival of ... precursor cell increased traffic in allergic subjects an immunology.

  13. PATTERNS OF SEVEN AND COMPLICATED MALARIA IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... Data were collected using structured questionnaires and were processed and analyzed ... sulphamethoxazole, amoxicillin and penicillin-G. Both Gram positive ... impact on the acquisition and natural history of ..... Unless intervention is made on time, UTI will ... also be due to the extensive health education.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in Danish isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Schmidt, A.S.; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    were tested and the resulting antibiograms were used to predict the theoretical therapeutic efficacy and to evaluate if resistance had changed as a course of time. Antimicrobial agents included in this investigation were oxolinic acid (OXA), amoxicillin (AMX), potentiated sulfadiazine, oxytetracycline...

  15. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.

    2016-01-01

    -1 for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L-1 for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L-1 for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L-1 for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values...

  16. A Combination Of Amoxicillian And Clavulanic Acid In The Treatment Of Impetigo In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Kar Col

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (ACA a combination of potentially effective antibiotic against beta-lactamase producing bacteria was compared with that of amoxicillin, erythomycin and co-trimoxazole in an open label, randomized trial in 100 children with mild to severe impetigo. 22% children had mild, 25% had moderate and 53% children had severe impetigo. Pure growth of S. aureus was isolated in 68% children, S.pyogenes in 26% and both staphyto and streptococci in 6% children. In mild to moderate infection 100% children receiving ACA were cured clinically after first week, whereas 7 out of 15(46.6% children in amoxicillin group, 7 out of 13(53.1% children in erythromycin group and 4 out 12 (33.3% children in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure after first week. In severe impetigo 46.1% children receiving ACA, 20% children in amoxicillin group, 16.6% children inerythromycin group and 7.6% in co-trimoxazole group showed clinical cure on therapy after one week. ACA was well tolerated in children.

  17. Drug Reaction, Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome secondary to allopurinol with early lymphadenopathy and symptom relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Rhiannon; Skittrall, Jordan Peter; Donovan, Joseph; Agranoff, Daniel

    2015-10-05

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare condition with a mortality rate of up to 10%. Herein, we describe a case of DRESS syndrome secondary to allopurinol and which may have been precipitated by amoxicillin, the diagnostic challenge it represented and the successful treatment of the condition with corticosteroids. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Prevalence of nasopharyngeal antibiotic-Resistant pneumococcal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Pneumococcal resistance was significant in this group of children with easy access to paediatric services and antibiotic use. The implication of such high resistance for the treatment of pneumococcal diseases is that high-dose amoxicillin is the preferred empirical oral therapy for treatment of otitis media.

  19. Time-kill studies of the antianaerobe activity of garenoxacin compared with those of nine other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim L; Jacobs, Michael R; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2003-04-01

    The activities of garenoxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 20 anaerobes were tested. At two times the MIC, garenoxacin was bactericidal against 19 of 20 strains after 48 h and against 17 of 20 after 24 h. Other drugs, except clindamycin (which gave lower killing rates), gave killing rates similar to those for garenoxacin.

  20. Formulation and Evaluation of Two-Pulse Drug Delivery System of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a pH-controlled two-pulse drug delivery system of amoxicillin in order to overcome ... delivery have lately been applied in developing a .... Note: Each tablet contained 2 mg each of magnesium stearate and colloidal silicon dioxide; total weight of each ..... and Manufacture of Medicines, 3rd edn, Elsevier,.

  1. First Trimester Listeria monocytogenes Septicemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddijn, M.; Schipper, H. G.; Spanjaard, L.; Wolf, H.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Little is known about fetal outcome after Listeria monocytogenes septicemia in the first trimester of pregnancy.Case: A primigravida with L. monocytogenes septicemia at 9 weeks gestation was treated with amoxicillin. At 40 weeks gestation a healthy female infant was born.Conclusion: This

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal outpatients in Mekelle hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Kahsay, Getahun; Wasihun, Araya Gebreysus

    2015-10-28

    Emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species is a global challenge, particularly in developing countries where increased misuse of antimicrobial agents occurs. There is no published data in the study area on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal patients. This study was therefore, under taken to fill this gap. Using cross sectional study method, stool specimens were collected from 216 patients with acute diarrhea at Mekelle Hospital from August to November 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of the total 216 participants, Shigella was isolated from 15 (6.9 %) of the participants. Ten (66.7 %) of the positive isolates were from children Shigella showed 100, 86.7 and 66.7 % resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Low levels of resistance were observed for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (6.7 % each). Overall, 80 % of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Shigella isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. However, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were effective. Antibiotic surveillance is needed to prevent further emergence of drug resistant Shigella strains. More has to be done in the availability of latrine, supply of safe drinking water to the community to reduce the disease burden.

  3. Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, S. A.; Smeele, L. E.; Kostense, P. J.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the need for antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery. Fifty-four patients (age range, 18 to 40 years) underwent bimaxillary orthognatic surgery. After randomization, a placebo (n = 19), 2,200 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (n = 18), or 1,500 mg cefuroxime (n = 17) was

  4. Antibiotic Multiresistance Analysis of Mesophilic and Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Goat and Lamb Slaughterhouse Surfaces throughout the Meat Production Process

    OpenAIRE

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles of pseudomonads isolated from surfaces of a goat and lamb slaughterhouse, which were representative of areas that are possible sources of meat contamination. Mesophilic (85 isolates) and psychrotrophic (37 isolates) pseudomonads identified at the species level generally were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, rifampin, and cefta...

  5. Antibiotic resistance and resistance genes in Escherichia coli from poultry farms, southwest Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelowo, Olawale O.; Fagade, Obasola E.; Agersø, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    %, ampicillin 36%, spectinomycin 28%, nalidixic acid 25%, chloramphenicol 22%, neomycin 14%, gentamicin 8%, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, colistin, florfenicol and apramycin 0%. Resistance genes found among the isolates include bla-TEM (85%), sul2 (67%), sul3 (17%), aadA (65%), strA (70%), str...

  6. Formulation and evaluation of two-pulse drug delivery system of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a pH-controlled two-pulse drug delivery system of amoxicillin in order to overcome the snag of biological tolerance and to improve bactericidal activity. Methods: The core tablets were compressed and coated with hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) of different viscosities with spray-dried lactose ...

  7. Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

    1996-01-01

    of Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC...

  8. Allergy test outcomes in patients self-reported as having penicillin allergy: Two-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Juan; Thursfield, David; Lukawska, Joanna J

    2016-09-01

    Penicillin allergy is associated with increased antibiotic resistance and health care costs. However, most patients with self-reported penicillin allergy are not truly allergic. To summarize our experience with allergy tests in patients with a history of penicillin allergy and to compare them with the results of other groups. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with a suspected clinical history of penicillin allergy referred to the Drug Allergy Unit at University College London Hospital between March 2013 and June 2015. In total, 84 patients were reviewed. The index drugs included: unidentified penicillin (n = 44), amoxicillin (n = 17), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (n = 13), flucloxacillin (n = 4), and other penicillins (ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam; n = 7). Allergy diagnoses were confirmed in 24 patients (28.6%) (16 to penicillin, 3 to flucloxacillin, 5 to clavulanic acid). Twenty-two patients (91.7%) had allergy diagnosed by positive skin test results. Two patients (8.3%) developed IgE-mediated allergic symptoms during oral challenge (although the skin test results were negative). In vitro specific IgE test results for penicilloyl V, penicilloyl G, and amoxicilloyl were positive in 3 of 16 patients (18.8%). Moreover, reactions to cefuroxime were observed in 3 of 15 patients with penicillin allergy (20%). Selective clavulanic acid and flucloxacillin responders tolerated amoxicillin challenge. The interval between the index reaction and evaluation was shorter (P penicillin allergy were confirmed to be allergic. Importantly, when the index drug is amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or flucloxacillin, the patients may tolerate amoxicillin. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Second-line rescue triple therapy with levofloxacin after failure of non-bismuth quadruple "sequential" or "concomitant" treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P; Molina-Infante, Javier; Marin, Alicia C; Vinagre, Gemma; Barrio, Jesus; McNicholl, Adrian Gerald

    2013-06-01

    Non-bismuth quadruple "sequential" and "concomitant" regimens, including a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin, clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole, are increasingly used as first-line treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection. Eradication with rescue regimens may be challenging after failure of key antibiotics such as clarithromycin and nitroimidazoles. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a second-line levofloxacin-containing triple regimen (PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin) in the eradication of H. pylori after non-bismuth quadruple-containing treatment failure. prospective multicenter study. in whom a non-bismuth quadruple regimen, administered either sequentially (PPI + amoxicillin for 5 days followed by PPI + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 more days) or concomitantly (PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 10 days) had previously failed. levofloxacin (500 mg b.i.d.), amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d.) and PPI (standard dose b.i.d.) for 10 days. eradication was confirmed with (13)C-urea breath test 4-8 weeks after therapy. Compliance and tolerance: compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. Incidence of adverse effects was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. 100 consecutive patients were included (mean age 50 years, 62% females, 12% peptic ulcer and 88% dyspepsia): 37 after "sequential", and 63 after "concomitant" treatment failure. All patients took all medications correctly. Overall, per-protocol and intention-to-treat H. pylori eradication rates were 75.5% (95% CI 66-85%) and 74% (65-83%). Respective intention-to-treat cure rates for "sequential" and "concomitant" failure regimens were 74.4% and 71.4%, respectively. Adverse effects were reported in six (6%) patients; all of them were mild. Ten-day levofloxacin-containing triple therapy constitutes an encouraging second-line strategy in patients with previous non-bismuth quadruple "sequential" or "concomitant" treatment failure.

  10. Reduced-Concentration Clavulanate for Young Children with Acute Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, Alejandro; Paradise, Jack L; Rockette, Howard E; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Kearney, Diana H; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Shope, Timothy R; Muñiz, Gysella; Martin, Judith M; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Haralam, MaryAnn; Pope, Marcia A; Nagg, Jennifer P; Zhao, Wenchen; Miah, Mohammad Kowser; Beumer, Jan; Venkataramanan, Raman; Shaikh, Nader

    2017-07-01

    Amoxicillin-clavulanate (A/C) is currently the most effective oral antimicrobial in treating children with acute otitis media (AOM), but the standard dosage of 90 mg amoxicillin/6.4 mg clavulanate/kg of body weight/day commonly causes diarrhea. We examined whether an A/C formulation containing lower concentrations of clavulanate would result in less diarrhea while maintaining plasma levels of amoxicillin and clavulanate adequate to eradicate middle-ear pathogens and to achieve clinical success. We conducted an open-label study in children with AOM who were 6 to 23 months of age. In phase 1, we treated 40 children with a reduced-clavulanate A/C formulation providing 90 mg amoxicillin/3.2 mg clavulanate/kg/day for 10 days. In phase 2, we treated 72 children with the same formulation at a dosage of 80 mg amoxicillin/2.85 mg clavulanate/kg/day for 10 days. We compared the rates of protocol-defined diarrhea (PDD), diaper dermatitis, and AOM clinical response in these children with rates we had reported in children who received the standard A/C regimen, and we obtained plasma levels of amoxicillin and clavulanate at various time points. Outcomes in phase 1 children and in children who had received the standard regimen did not differ significantly. Rates of PDD in children receiving phase 2 and standard regimens were 17% and 26%, respectively ( P = 0.10). The corresponding rates of diaper dermatitis were 21% and 33% ( P = 0.04) and of AOM treatment failure were 12% and 16% ( P = 0.44). Symptomatic responses did not differ significantly between regimens; both gave clavulanate levels sufficient to inhibit β-lactamase activity. In young children with AOM, clavulanate dosages lower than those currently used may be associated with fewer side effects without reducing clinical efficacy. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT02630992.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Resistance to non-quinolone antimicrobials in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from chickens treated orally with enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Sonia; Medina, Alberto; de la Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A; Orden, José A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was evaluate how oral administration of enrofloxacin affected the frequency of resistance to different antimicrobials in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy chickens. A further objective of this study was to characterize the mechanisms of resistance in these isolates. A trend towards increased resistance to enrofloxacin, doxycycline and amoxicillin of E. coli isolates from chickens after enrofloxacin administration was observed. The increase in the resistance to doxycycline and amoxicillin was probably due to a co-selection of tetracycline and β-lactam resistance genes by the administration of enrofloxacin. The detection of tetM was much higher than expected (50%), which indicates that this gene may play an important role in tetracycline resistance in E. coli from chickens.

  12. Obesity and the use of antibiotics and probiotics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Tardelli Ferreira, Alessandra Cristina Marciano; Marciano, Jorge José; Marques, Maria Claudia; Sant'Ana, Luciane Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become a major public health challenge in recent years. Recent studies suggest that alterations of the gut microbiota by antibiotics could play an important role in obesity. We investigated this topic using 60 Wistar rats, which were divided into 3 experimental groups: rats treated with amoxicillin, rats treated with amoxicillin plus Saccharomyces boulardii and controls. Treatments were administered over the course of 2 weeks. Tetrapolar bioelectric impedance analysis and anthropometric evaluations were conducted. The body mass index was significantly lower for the animals in the control group (p = 0.034). The same result was observed for the Lee index: the control group had a lower index than the 2 groups that received antibiotic treatment (p = 0.0019). The total body water data demonstrated that the control group had the greatest amount of body water (279.1 g, p = 0.0243). The groups treated with the antibiotic exhibited a greater accumulation of body fat than the control group.

  13. Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) Agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar was used to develop a disk diffusion assay for Leptospira spp. Ten pathogenic Leptospira isolates were tested, all of which were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doripenem, doxycycline, gentamicin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and tetracycline). All 10 isolates had no zone of growth inhibition for four antimicrobials (fosfomycin, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Of the ten Leptospira, seven had a growth inhibition zone of ≤ 21 mm for aztreonam, the zone diameter susceptibility break point for Enterobacteriaceae. This assay could find utility as a simple screening method during the epidemiological surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Leptospira spp. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. The determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected antimicrobials for porcine Haemophilus parasuis isolates from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus parasuis isolates obtained from pigs in the Czech Republic were tested for their susceptibility to amoxicillin, penicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, and tulathromycin by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations using the broth microdilution method. The H. parasuis isolates were mostly susceptible to majority of tested antimicrobials (amoxicillin 90%, penicillin 73.3%, enrofloxacin 83.3%, and tulathromycin 83.3%. All isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur. On the other hand, no isolate was susceptible to tetracycline, 30% of tested isolates were intermediately susceptible, and 70% were resistant. These findings indicate that tested antimicrobials with the exception of tetracycline should be the preferred option used for the treatment of infection caused by H. parasuis but due to the potential transmission of resistance from animals to humans, the use of ceftiofur is considered as a last resort option in antimicrobial treatment of animals.

  15. Incidence of phlebitis and post-infusion phlebitis in hospitalised adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanetto, Janete de Souza; Muniz, Franciele de Oliveira Minuto; Silva, Renata Martins da; Freitas, Ana Paula Christo de; Oliveira, Ana Paula Ribeiro de; Santos, Jessica de Cassia Ramos Dos

    2017-06-29

    to determine the incidence of phlebitis during and after the use of peripheral intravenous catheter (PIC), and analyse the association of this complication with risk factors. cohort study with 165 adult patients admitted to a university hospital in Porto Alegre, totalling 447 accesses, from December 2014 to February 2015. Data were collected on a daily basis and analysed by means of descriptive and analytical statistics. The incidence of phlebitis during PIC was 7.15% and the incidence of post-infusion phlebitis was 22.9%. Phlebitis during catheter use was associated with the use of Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid. The grade of post-infusion phlebitis was associated with age and use of Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid, Tramadol Hydrochloride, and Amphotericin. The incidence of post-infusion phlebitis proved to be an important indicator to analyse the quality of the healthcare setting.

  16. [In vitro activity of 12 antibiotics used in veterinary medicine against Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida isolated from calves in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevius, D J; Hartman, E G

    2000-03-01

    Results of susceptibility tests of clinical isolates of animal pathogens are periodically summarized and reported by the Animal Health Service. However, these results are based upon qualitative test methods. In the present paper results of quantitative susceptibility tests of twelve antibacterial agents against Mannheimia haemolytica (MHA) and Pasteurella multocida (PMU) isolated from Dutch calves in 1996 and 1997 are presented. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, tilmicosin, neomycin, gentamicin, spectinomycin, flumequine, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol and florfenicol were determined. No resistance was detected for ceftiofur and florfenicol. Three strains had an intermediate susceptibility to tilmicosin. The resistance percentages of MHA and PMU for neomycin, gentamicin, spectinomycin, flumequine, enrofloxacin, and chloramphenicol varied from 2% to 16%. Higher resistance percentages (16%-53%) were observed for amoxicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. The MIC breakpoints used to determine whether a strain is susceptible, intermediate, or resistant are arbitrary and discussed in this paper.

  17. A successful antimicrobial therapeutic strategy for the discitis caused by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans under unknown drug susceptibility: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Shunsuke; Horiuchi, Yosuke; Uchida, Takae; Yonaha, Akiko; Miyata, Takanori; Nagano, Eiko; Kodama, Takao; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2018-04-20

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is well-known as the pathogen of gingivitis or periodontitis, and discitis or vertebral osteomyelitis cases caused by this organism have rarely been reported. Ampicillin or amoxicillin has been used in the previously reported discitis cases; however, no cases have been reported that is treated with levofloxacin. We report the first published case we chose levofloxacin to treat. We failed to perform the susceptibility testing because of the poor growth and fastidious nature of the organism, and the result of susceptibility of amoxicillin was unclear. Levofloxacin, which A. actinomycetemcomitans is usually susceptible to, can be an effective alternative oral antimicrobial agent in such cases. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Age, Gender, and Addition of Probiotics on Treatment Success for Helicobacter pylori in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Weiner MD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, gender, and the use of probiotics with standard treatment regimen on Helicobacter pylori eradication. Based on endoscopic findings and clinical presentation, selected patients were treated with standard triple therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin. Those who failed were offered a repeat treatment with omeprazole, metronidazole, and amoxicillin. After the publications of the possible advantages of probiotic treatment on H pylori eradication, the probiotic agent “Probiotica Forte” was routinely added to the treatment. Eradication was noted for 94/130 patients (72% and for 128/197 patients (65% with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .23. For second-line treatment eradication was noted in 33/46 (72% and in 9/20 (45% with or without probiotic agent, respectively (P = .053. The addition of probiotics may improve eradication success especially in addition to second-line treatment.

  19. Sharp Absorption Peaks in THz Spectra Valuable for Crystal Quality Evaluation of Middle Molecular Weight Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuo; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Otsuka, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    Middle molecular weight (MMW) pharmaceuticals (MW 400 4000) are attracting attention for their possible use in new medications. Sharp absorption peaks were observed in MMW pharmaceuticals at low temperatures by measuring with a high-resolution terahertz (THz) spectrometer. As examples, high-resolution THz spectra for amoxicillin trihydrate, atorvastatin calcium trihydrate, probucol, and α,β,γ,δ-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin p-toluenesulfonate (TMPyP) were obtained at 10 K. Typically observed as peaks with full width at half-height (FWHM) values as low as 5.639 GHz at 0.96492 THz in amoxicillin trihydrate and 8.857 GHz at 1.07974 THz for probucol, many sharp peaks of MMW pharmaceuticals could be observed. Such narrow absorption peaks enable evaluation of the crystal quality of MMW pharmaceuticals and afford sensitive detection of impurities.

  20. Diagnosis and Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Karymdzhanov

    2016-02-01

    The initial antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia is carried out empirically. In the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia in children from 2 months to 5 years, the drug of choice is amoxicillin orally. Macrolides are the drugs of choice for children aged 5 to 16 years. In severe pneumonia, drugs of choice are amoxicillin clavulanate, 2nd–4th generation cephalosporins. In general, the duration of antibiotic therapy in the community-acquired pneumonia caused by typical bacteria is 7–10 days, by atypical bacteria — 10–14 days. In the real clinical practice, the errors associated with the choice of drug, route of administration, dosage, regimen of application, length of treatment are frequent during antibacterial therapy.

  1. Resistance profiles to antimicrobial agents in bacteria isolated from acute endodontic infections: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pauline M; Jacinto, Rogério C; Dal Pizzol, Tatiane S; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz C; Montagner, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Infected root canal or acute apical abscess exudates can harbour several species, including Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Streptococcus, Treponema, Olsenella and not-yet cultivable species. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in clinical studies that isolated bacteria from acute endodontic infections. Electronic databases and the grey literature were searched up to May 2015. Clinical studies in humans evaluating the antimicrobial resistance of primary acute endodontic infection isolates were included. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A random-effect meta-analysis was employed. The outcome was described as the pooled resistance rates for each antimicrobial agent. Heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses were performed. Subgroup analyses were conducted based upon report or not of the use of antibiotics prior to sampling as an exclusion factor (subgroups A and B, respectively). Data from seven studies were extracted. Resistance rates for 15 different antimicrobial agents were evaluated (range, 3.5-40.0%). Lower resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and amoxicillin; higher resistance rates were detected for tetracycline. Resistance rates varied according to previous use of an antimicrobial agent as demonstrated by the subgroup analyses. Heterogeneity was observed for the resistance profiles of penicillin G in subgroup A and for amoxicillin, clindamycin, metronidazole and tetracycline in subgroup B. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that resistance rates changed for metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and amoxicillin. These findings suggest that clinical isolates had low resistance to β-lactams. Further well-designed studies are needed to clarify whether the differences in susceptibility among the antimicrobial agents may influence clinical responses to treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing before first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Angel; Montes, Milagrosa; Ibarra, Begoña; Tamayo, Esther; Alonso, Horacio; Mendarte, Usua; Lizasoan, Jacobo; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis

    2017-05-14

    To evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial susceptibility-guided therapy before first-line treatment for infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance. A total of 1034 patients infected by Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) during 2013-2014 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. 157 of 1034 (15%) patients showed resistance to two (127/1034; 12%) and to three (30/1034; 3%) antibiotics. Sixty-eight patients with dual H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin) were treated for 10 d with triple therapies: OAL (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d.) 43 cases, OAM (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d.) 12 cases and OAC (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.) 13 cases based on the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twelve patients showed triple H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) and received for 10 d triple therapy with OAR (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and rifabutin 150 mg b.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test. Adverse effects and compliance were assessed by a questionnaire. Intention-to-treat eradication rates were: OAL (97.6%), OAM (91.6%), OAC (92.3%) and OAR (58.3%). Cure rate was significantly higher in naïve patients treated with OAR-10 compared to patients who had two or three previous treatment failures (83% vs 33%). Adverse events rates for OAL, OAM, OAC and OAR were 22%, 25%, 23% and 17%, respectively, all of them mild-moderate. Antimicrobial susceptibility-guided triple therapies during 10 d for first-line treatment leads to an eradication rate superior to 90% in patients with dual antibiotic H. pylori resistance.

  3. Influence of vitamin C and E supplementation on the eradication rates of triple and quadruple eradication regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Hakan; Uygun İlikhan, Sevil; Öztürk, Kadir; Üstündağ, Yücel; Kurt, Ömer; Bilici, Muammer; Köktürk, Furuzan; Uygun, Ahmet

    2015-11-01

    In our study, we aimed to assess the effect of vitamin E and C supplementation to triple and quadruple Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens. Four hundred patients with H. pylori infection were classified into four groups. Patients in group A (n=100) received amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and lansoprazole for 2 weeks. In group B, patients (n=100) received vitamins C and E for a month, in addition to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and lansoprazole for 2 weeks. Patients in group C (n=100) received amoxicillin, clarithromycin, lansoprazole, and bismuth subcitrate for 2 weeks, whereas those in group D (n=100) received vitamins C and E for a month, in addition to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, lansoprazole, and bismuth subcitrate for 2 weeks. H. pylori eradication was assessed with the C14 urea breath test 2 months after the end of the therapy. The eradication rate was assessed using per-protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. Three hundred forty-eight patients finished the study. The eradication of H. pylori was achieved in 63 of 84 patients (75%) by PP and 63 of 100 (63%) by ITT analysis in group A, 60 of 84 (71.4%) by PP and 60 of 100 (60%) by ITT analysis in group B, 72 of 89 (80.9 %) by PP and 72 of 100 (72%) by ITT analysis in group C, and 76 of 91 (83.5%) by PP and 76 of 100 (76%) by ITT analysis in group D. There was no remarkable change between groups A and B (p>0.05). Similar results were also found between groups D and C (p>0.05). This study revealed that supplementing vitamins C and E to either the triple or quadruple therapies did not provide an additional advantage for achieving significantly higher eradication rates for H. pylori.

  4. Soft tissue infections from fish spike wounds: normal commensal bacteria are more common than marine pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Hannah; Lee, Kin Mun; Cheng, Paul T-Y; Hulme, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    A fish spike injury can be sustained by anyone handling fish; during fishing, meal preparation or in retail. Case reports of fish spikes inoculating victims with virulent marine-specific pathogens and causing systemic illness led us to question whether empirical treatment of these injuries with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is adequate. This 2-year prospective observational study was conducted at Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. Wound swabs and tissue samples belonging to patients presenting to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery with an upper limb fish spike injury were sent to the laboratory (n = 60). A series of stains and cultures were performed to look specifically for marine bacteria not typically isolated in other soft tissue injuries. Patient demographic data and injury details were collected. Of the patients with adequate microbiology samples, 12% (6/50) grew clinically relevant bacteria resistant to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. These included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (8%, 4/50), Enterobacter cloacae (2%, 1/50) and an anaerobic sporing bacillus (2%, 1/50). Only one patient grew a true marine-specific bacteria, Photobacterium damselae, which was susceptible to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The authors concluded that amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is an adequate first-line antibiotic for fish spike injuries but that flucloxacillin may be more appropriate given most bacteria were from patients' own skin flora. The authors suggest that clinicians consider the presence of resistant marine-specific bacteria in cases where there is sepsis or inadequate response to initial therapy. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Use of etanercept to treat toxic epidermal necrolysis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Yi Lee; Jui-Hung Ko; Chia-Hung Wei; Wen-Hung Chung

    2013-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an uncommon and severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction that causes disseminated necrosis of epidermal cells and mucocutaneous detachment. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection who presented with generalized violaceous macules and blister formation 4 days after the administration of mefenamic acid and amoxicillin for a dental procedure. Additional symptoms included oral ulcers and conjunctivitis. Results of...

  6. Structural Variabilities in β-Lactamase (blaA of Different Biovars of Yersinia enterocolitica: Implications for β-Lactam Antibiotic and β-Lactamase Inhibitor Susceptibilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelja Singhal

    Full Text Available Yersiniosis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been reported from all continents. The bacterial species is divided into more than fifty serovars and six biovars viz. 1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which differ in geographical distribution, ecological niches and pathogenicity. Most Y.enterocolitica strains harbor chromosomal genes for two β-lactamases, blaA an Ambler class A penicillinase and blaB an Ambler class C inducible cephalosporinase. In the present study, susceptibility to b-lactam antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitor was studied for Y. enterocolitica strains of biovars 1A, 1B, 2 and 4. We observed that β-lactamases were expressed differentially among strains of different biovars. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying such differential expression, the sequences of genes and promoters of blaA were compared. Also, the variants of blaA present in different biovars were modeled and docked with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The mRNA secondary structures of blaA variants were also predicted in-silico. Our findings indicated that neither variations in the promoter regions, nor the secondary structures of mRNA contributed to higher/lower expression of blaA in different biovars. Analysis of H-bonding residues of blaA variants with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid revealed that if amino acid residues of a β-lactamase interacting with amoxicillin and the clavulanic acid were similar, clavulanic acid was effective in engaging the enzyme, accounting for a significant reduction in MIC of amoxicillin-clavulanate. This finding might aid in designing better β-lactamase inhibitors with improved efficiencies in future.

  7. Dental Mold: A Novel Formulation to Treat Common Dental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Soma; Roy, Gopa; Mukherjee, Biswajit

    2009-01-01

    Oral administration of antibiotics to treat dental problems mostly yields slow actions due to slow onset and hepatic “first-pass.” Again, commonly used dental paints are generally washed out by saliva within few hours of application. To overcome the challenges, polymeric molds to be placed on an affected tooth (during carries and gum problems) were prepared and evaluated in vitro for sustained drug release for prolonged local action. Here, amoxicillin trihydrate and lidocaine hydrochloride we...

  8. Recurrent Respiratory Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yurochko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers a problem of recurrent respiratory infections (RRI in children. Their description, risk factors, diagnostic algorithm have been dwelt. A special attention is paid to the treatment. An optimal antibiotic in RRI of bacterial genesis is a high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate (registered as Augmentin™ ES in Ukraine, the efficacy of which is 94.6–96.3 % according to different data.

  9. Can traditional birth attendants be trained to accurately identify septic infants, initiate antibiotics, and refer in a rural African setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher John; MacLeod, William B; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Mirochnick, Mark; Knapp, Anna B; Hamer, Davidson H

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of neonatal mortality. In populations with limited access to health care, early identification of bacterial infections and initiation of antibiotics by community health workers (CHWs) could be lifesaving. It is unknown whether this strategy would be feasible using traditional birth attendants (TBAs), a cadre of CHWs who typically have limited training and educational backgrounds. We analyzed data from the intervention arm of a cluster-randomized trial involving TBAs in Lufwanyama District, Zambia, from June 2006 to November 2008. TBAs followed neonates for signs of potential infection through 28 days of life. If any of 16 criteria were met, TBAs administered oral amoxicillin and facilitated referral to a rural health center. Our analysis included 1,889 neonates with final vital status by day 28. TBAs conducted a median of 2 (interquartile range 2-6) home visits (51.4% in week 1 and 48.2% in weeks 2-4) and referred 208 neonates (11%) for suspected sepsis. Of referred neonates, 176/208 (84.6%) completed their referral. Among neonates given amoxicillin, 171/183 (93.4%) were referred; among referred neonates, 171/208 (82.2%) received amoxicillin. Referral and/or initiation of antibiotics were strongly associated with neonatal death (for referral, relative risk [RR] = 7.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.4-14.3; for amoxicillin administration, RR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.4-8.7). Neonates clinically judged to be "extremely sick" by the referring TBA were at greatest risk of death (RR = 8.61, 95% CI = 4.0-18.5). The strategy of administering a first dose of antibiotics and referring based solely on the clinical evaluation of a TBA is feasible and could be effective in reducing neonatal mortality in remote rural settings.

  10. Beta-lactamic resistance profiles in Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Parvimonas species isolated from acute endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Francisco; Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Correa Signoretti, Fernanda Graziela; Scheffer de Mattos, Vanessa; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2014-03-01

    Susceptibility to beta-lactamic agents has changed among anaerobic isolates from acute endodontic infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene in Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., and Parviomonas micra strains and show its phenotypic expression. Root canal samples from teeth with acute endodontic infections were collected and Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Parvimonas micra strains were isolated and microbiologically identified with conventional culture techniques. The susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin + clavulanate using the E-test method (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden). The presence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene was determined through primer-specific polymerase chain reaction. The nitrocefin test was used to determine the expression of the lactamase enzyme. Prevotella disiens, Prevotella oralis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and P. micra strains were susceptible to benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin + clavulanate. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was detected in 2 of 29 isolates (6.9%). Simultaneous detection of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene and lactamase production was observed for 1 Prevotella buccalis strain. The gene was in 1 P. micra strain but was not expressed. Three strains were positive for lactamase production, but the cfxA/cfxA2 gene was not detected through polymerase chain reaction. There is a low prevalence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene and its expression in Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp., and P. micra strains isolated from acute endodontic infections. Genetic and phenotypic screening must be performed simultaneously to best describe additional mechanisms involved in lactamic resistance for strict anaerobes. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 strains isolated from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, B; Kelneric, Z; Hajsig, D; Madic, J; Naglic, T

    1996-03-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for thirty-three epidemiologicaly unrelated clinical isolates of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 were determined in relation to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin, clavulanate-amoxicillin, penicillin G, cephalexin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tylosin and doxycycline, using the microtitre broth dilution procedure described by the U.S. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Gentamicin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of 0.4 mg/L. Overall, 70% of strains were resistant to doxycycline (MIC(90) > or = 100.0 mg/L), followed by penicillin G (51% of strains) (MIC(90) + or = 100.0 mg/L). Resistance to amoxicillin and ampicillin was 36.4% (MIC(90) 12.5 mg/L) and 33.3% (MIC(90) 50.0 mg/L), respectively. 15.2% of S. suis strains were resistant to streptomycin, tylosin and cephalexin with MIC90 values of 25.0 mg/L, 12.5 mg/L and 25.0 mg/L, respectively. A combination of ampicillin and sulbactam (MIC(90) 6.3 mg/L) and a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanate (MIC(90) 3.1 mg/L) as well as erythromycin (1.6 mg/L) were of the same efficacy, with a total of 9.1% resistant S. suis strains. This high percentage of resistance to doxycycline and penicillin G precludes the use of these antibiotics as empiric therapy of swine diseases.

  12. The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model

    OpenAIRE

    Lanckriet , Anouk; Timbermont , Leen; De Gussem , Maarten; Marien , Maja; Vancraeynest , Dieter; Haesebrouck , Freddy; Ducatelle , Richard; Van Immerseel , Filip

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Necrotic enteritis poses an important health risk to broilers. The ionophore anticoccidials lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin, narasin and a combination of narasin and nicarbazin were tested in feed for their prophylactic effect on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental infection model that uses coccidia as predisposing factor. In addition, drinking water medication with the antibiotics amoxicillin, tylosin and lincomycin was evaluated as curat...

  13. Diagnostic evaluation of a large group of patients with immediate allergy to penicillins: the role of skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M J; Romano, A; Mayorga, C; Moya, M C; Guzman, A E; Reche, M; Juarez, C; Blanca, M

    2001-09-01

    Penicillin is no longer the most commonly prescribed beta-lactam, and the pattern of reactions has changed. We studied the diagnostic value of skin testing in penicillin-allergic subjects from a population where benzylpenicillin is not now the most frequently used beta-lactam. Patients with a history of immediate allergic reactions to penicillins were studied with: skin tests with major and minor determinants of benzylpenicillin (BPO/MDM), amoxicillin, and ampicillin; in vitro determination of specific IgE; and controlled administration for those with a positive history but negative skin and in vitro tests. A reaction was considered immediate when symptoms appeared within a maximum of 1 h after drug intake. After testing, 290 patients (71% having anaphylaxis and 29% having urticaria) proved to be allergic. Amoxicillin was involved in 64.8% and benzylpenicillin in 2.8% of the patients. Skin test positivity to at least one determinant appeared in 70% of cases, amoxicillin being the most frequent. The overall sensitivity decreased markedly when only BPO and MDM were considered. In 13.1% of patients, the diagnosis was established by in vitro test and in 16.9% by controlled administration. Of the 290 patients, 42.1% were positive to determinants generated from benzylpenicillin and 57.9% were selective responders. Sensitivity of skin tests to BPO was lower than reported, being partly replaced by minor determinants, mostly amoxicillin. The incorporation of additional reagents and the development of new tests are required, and these will probably change as the patterns of consumption vary.

  14. PATTERN OF ANTIMICROBIAL USE FOR URINARY TRACT INFECTION DURING PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Haldia Priyanka, Sharma Taruna, Nautiyal Ruchira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) may be classified as lower (cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria) or upper urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis). The recommended antibiotics for use in pregnancy for management of ASB include amoxicillin, oral cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin; and for the treatment of lower UTI during pregnancy include penicillins, oral cephalosporins. Data from the antibiotic usage study in UTI during pregnancy will help in establishing a proper antibiotic uti...

  15. Electron spin resonance studies of some irradiated pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibella, M.; Crucq, A-S.; Tilquin, B.; Stocker, P.; Lesgards, G.; Raffi, J.

    2000-01-01

    Five antibiotics belonging to the cephalosporins and penicillins groups have been irradiated: anhydrous ampicilline acid, amoxicilline acid trihydrate, cefuroxime sodium salt, cloxacilline sodium salt monohydrate and ceftazidime pentahydrate. ESR studies have been carried out, showing the influence of irradiation and storage parameters on the nature and concentration of the free radicals trapped. These results may be used to detect an irradiation treatment on such pharmaceuticals. (author)

  16. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized gold nanoparticles — Design, characterization and antimicrobial study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manju, V. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Dhandapani, P. [Corrosion Materials and Protection Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, 630006 (India); Gurusamy Neelavannan, M. [Characterization and Measurement lab, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Maruthamuthu, S. [Corrosion Materials and Protection Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu, 630006 (India); Berchmans, S. [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India); Palaniappan, A., E-mail: palani112@gmail.com [Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu 630006 (India)

    2015-04-01

    A facile one-step approach is developed to synthesize highly stable (up to 6 months) gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using Clavam, pharmaceutical form of amoxicillin which contains a mixture of amoxicillin and potassium salt of clavulanic acid, at room temperature (25–30 °C). The clavam stabilized GNPs are characterized using various techniques including UV–Visible, FT-IR spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using intracellular concentrations of glutathione (GSH). The process is monitored using an UV–Vis spectroscopy and the amount of clavam released in terms of amoxicillin concentration is quantitatively estimated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) technique. In vitro study reveals that the clavam released from GNPs' surface was found to show a significant enhancement in antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and the cause of enhancement is addressed. - Graphical abstract: Stable and nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared at room temperature (~ 25–30 °C) using clavam; commercial form of amoxicillin antibiotic. Tunable release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated by the addition of varying concentrations of glutathione. Interactions between clavam and gold core are investigated in detail. The mechanism of enhanced antimicrobial activity of clavam released from clavam stabilized GNPs is probed. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are prepared without reducing agent using antibiotic clavam{sup TR}. • Our work shed lights on the nature of interaction between the clavam and GNPs. • Sustained release of clavam from clavam stabilized GNPs is demonstrated using glutathione. • Antimicrobial activity of the released clavam is confirmed using various techniques. • Our study suggests that the clavam released from GNPs shows better inhibition of E. coli.

  17. Acute otitis media in children

    OpenAIRE

    Cherpillod, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Jacques CherpillodEar, Nose and Throat Department, Childrens’ University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandDate of preparation: 6th March 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: What is the best treatment for acute otitis media in children?Results: Watchful waiting, followed by amoxicillin treatment, if necessary, is the best first-line treatment for acute otitis media in children aged six months or older.Keywords: acute otitis media, antibiotics, watchful waitin

  18. Acute otitis media in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherpillod J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jacques CherpillodEar, Nose and Throat Department, Childrens’ University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandDate of preparation: 6th March 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: What is the best treatment for acute otitis media in children?Results: Watchful waiting, followed by amoxicillin treatment, if necessary, is the best first-line treatment for acute otitis media in children aged six months or older.Keywords: acute otitis media, antibiotics, watchful waitin

  19. Activity of OPT-80, a novel macrocycle, compared with those of eight other agents against selected anaerobic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim L; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2004-11-01

    Agar dilution MIC was used to compare activities of OPT-80, linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 350 gram-positive and -negative anaerobes. OPT-80 was active against gram-positive strains only, especially Clostridium spp. (85 strains tested, including 21 strains of C. difficile), with MICs ranging between

  20. Efek Kombinasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Sirih (Piper betle L) Dengan Amoksisilin Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Remon Gortap

    2017-01-01

    The combination of antibiotic and plant extract is a new concept and has been used for the treatment of resistant bacterial infections. Betel leaves have antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus because they contain secondary metabolites such as flavonoid, saponin, tanin, and steroid/ triterpenoid. Extract combination with amoxicillin needs to be tested to determine the effectiveness of a single comparison. This study aims was to investigated the characteristi...

  1. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads isolated from the dental prostheses biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanrrangers Sales Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspiration of oral bacteria leads to cardiac and respiratory infectious diseases and dentures can act as a reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms. Objective: To determine the occurrence and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads from the denture biofilm of 52 subjects at the Center for Dental Specialties of Sobral/ Ceara, Brazil. Material and Methods: Denture biofilm was collected and samples plated on MacConkey agar. The isolated bacterial colonies were identified using the BBL Crystal enteric/non-fermenter system. Antibiotic bacterial susceptibility was assessed by the disc diffusion method of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, doxycycline, tetracycline, tobramycin, imipenem, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of cefotaxime, tobramycin, doxycycline, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin was determined for 40 species by E-test. Results: 34 subjects (65.4% harbored enteric rods in their prostheses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.5%, Escherichia coli (23.5%, and Enterobacter aerogenes (23.5% were the most prevalent species. All organisms were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and most species were resistant to amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, demonstrating variable sensitivity patterns to other antimicrobials. However, the MIC showed the emergence of strains with reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (MIC90≥3 μg/ mL and cefotaxime (MIC90≥2 μg/mL. Conclusion: The findings show high prevalence of nosocomial diseases-related bacterial species and low susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, these results imply caution against the indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics in dental practice.

  2. Assessment of antibiotic prescribing in Latvian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumpis Uga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though general antibiotic consumption data is available, information on the actual patterns of prescribing antibiotics locally is difficult to obtain. An easy to use methodology was designed to assess ambulatory management of infections by Latvian general practitioners (GPs. Methods GPs were asked to record data in a patient data collection form for every patient that received antibiotics. Study period – (7 days one week in November, 2008. Data recorded included the following details: an antibiotic, the prescribed dose, dosing interval, route of administration combined with the demographic factors of the patient and clinical diagnosis based on a pre-defined list. Results Two hundred forty eight forms out of the 600 (41% were returned by post. Antibiotics were prescribed in 6.4% (1711/26803 of outpatient consultations. In total, 1763 antibiotics were prescribed during the study period. Ninety seven percent of the patients received monotherapy and only 47 (2.7% patients were prescribed two antibiotics. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (33.9% of prescribed, amoxicillin/clavulanate (18,7% and clarithromycin (7.6%. The most commonly treated indications were pharyngitis (29.8%, acute bronchitis (25.3% and rhinosinusitis (10.2%. Pneumonia was mostly treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate (25,7%, amoxicillin (15.7% and clarithromycin (19.3%. Conclusions Methodology employed provided useful additional information on ambulatory practice of prescribing antibiotics and could be used in further assessment studies. Educational interventions should be focused on treatment of acute pharyngitis and bronchitis in children and unnecessary use of quinolones in adults for uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

  3. Effects of Prolonged Empirical Antibiotic Administration on Post-Surgical Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Local Dogs Undergoing Non-Laparoscopic Gastrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    J.F. Akinrinmade; Gladys O. Melekwe; Adenike A.O. Ogunshe

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged post-surgical antibiotic administration may be of less advantage in prevention of post-surgical infections. This study therefore, aimed at investigating the prolonged effect of empiric administration of three most-prescribed antibiotics (amoxicillin, cefotaxime and oxytetracycline) by veterinary practices in Southwest Nigeria on intestinal bacterial population of dogs undergoing partial, non-laparoscopic gastrectomy. Using conventional quantitative and qualitative microbial culture ...

  4. A Comparison Study of the Removal of Selected Pharmaceuticals in Waters by Chemical Oxidation Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    F. Javier Benitez; Juan Luis Acero; Francisco J. Real; Gloria Roldan; Francisco Casas

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in some water matrices was studied by using several chemical treatments. The pharmaceuticals selected were the beta-blocker metoprolol, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory naproxen, the antibiotic amoxicillin, and the analgesic phenacetin; and their degradations were conducted by using UV radiation alone, ozone, Fenton-s reagent, Fenton-like system, photo-Fenton system, and combinations of UV radiation and ozone with H2O2, TiO2, ...

  5. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF RESPIRATORY ISOLATES OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM CHILDREN HOSPITALIZED IN THE CLINICAL CENTER NIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinić, Marina M; Mladenović Antić, Snezana; Kocić, Branislava; Stanković Dordević, Dobrila; Vrbić, Miodrag; Bogdanović, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of respiratory infections. The aim was to study the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of respiratory isolates ofStreptococcus pneumoniae obtained from hospitalized children. A total of 190 respiratory pneumococcal isolates obtained from children aged from 0 to 14 years were isolated and identified by using standard microbiological methods. Susceptibility to oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin and rifampicin was tested by disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations for amoxicillin and ceftriaxone were determined by means of E test. The macrolide-resistant phenotype was detected by double disc diffusion test. All tested isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftriaxone. The minimal amoxicillin concentration inhibiting the growth of 50% of isolates and of 90% of isolates was 0.50 microg/ml and 1.0 microg/ml, respectively and the minimal ceftriaxone concentration inhibiting the growth of 50% of isolates and of 90% of isolates was 0.25 microg/ml and 0.50 microg/ml, respectively. Susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin was observed in 21.6% and 29.47% of isolates, respectively. The resistence to macrolides-M phenotype was detected in 10.07% of isolates and constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin phenotype (constitutive MLS phenotype) was found in 89.93% of isolates. All tested isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin and rifampicin. Amoxicillin could be the therapy of choice in pediatric practice. The macrolides should not be recommended for the empirical therapy of pneumococcal respiratory tract infection in our local area.

  6. Third-line rescue therapy with bismuth-containing quadruple regimen after failure of two treatments (with clarithromycin and levofloxacin) for H. pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, J P; Perez-Aisa, A; Rodrigo, L; Molina-Infante, J; Modolell, I; Bermejo, F; Castro-Fernández, M; Antón, R; Sacristán, B; Cosme, A; Barrio, J; Harb, Y; Gonzalez-Barcenas, M; Fernandez-Bermejo, M; Algaba, A; Marín, A C; McNicholl, A G

    2014-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin, and amoxicillin fails in >20 % of cases. A rescue therapy with PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin still fails in >20 % of patients. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a bismuth-containing quadruple regimen in patients with two consecutive eradication failures. Prospective multicenter study of patients in whom 1st treatment with PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin and 2nd with PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin had failed. A 3rd eradication regimen with a 7- to 14-day PPI (standard dose b.i.d.), bismuth subcitrate (120 mg q.i.d. or 240 mg b.i.d.), tetracycline (from 250 mg t.i.d. to 500 mg q.i.d.) and metronidazole (from 250 mg t.i.d. to 500 mg q.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by (13)C-urea-breath-test 4-8 weeks after therapy. Compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. Adverse effects were evaluated by means of a questionnaire. Two hundred patients (mean age 50 years, 55 % females, 20 % peptic ulcer/80 % uninvestigated-functional dyspepsia) were initially included, and two were lost to follow-up. In all, 97 % of patients complied with the protocol. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 67 % (95 % CI 60-74 %) and 65 % (58-72 %). Adverse effects were reported in 22 % of patients, the most common being nausea (12 %), abdominal pain (11 %), metallic taste (8.5 %), and diarrhea (8 %), none of them severe. A bismuth-containing quadruple regimen is an acceptable third-line strategy and a safe alternative after two previous H. pylori eradication failures with standard clarithromycin- and levofloxacin-containing triple therapies.

  7. Biochemical identification and determination of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria obtained from the Hospital San Juan de Dios in the period 2009 to 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meza Pena, Maria Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Clinical isolates of 81 anaerobic bacteria isolated are identified to patients of the Hospital San Juan de Dios, between 2009 to 2011; by algorithms that have employed biochemical methods of reference chemical samples. Antimicrobial resistance is determined. The miniaturized methods and biochemical algorithms proposed were compared to identify differences between methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration of metronidazole, clindamycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline and cefotaxime are determined to 81 anaerobic bacteria isolated from the Hospital mentioned [es

  8. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Muenchen from Pigs and Humans and Potential Interserovar Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2005-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Recently, we reported on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains among pigs with resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (resistance [R] type AKSSuT) and resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (R type AxACSSuT). In the present study, 67 isolates (39 from humans...

  9. Chorioamnionitis due to Lactococcus lactis cremoris: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis cremoris is rarely involved in human pathology. A thirty two-year old pregnant woman with premature rupture of membrane history presented with chorioamnionitis due to L. lactis cremoris. She underwent an emergency caesarian section and was treated with antibiotics including the association of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. She was completely recovered. This is the first case to our knowledge of chorioamnionitis due to this organism. Keywords: Chorioamnionitis, Premature rupture of membranes, Lactococcus lactis cremoris

  10. Designation of pathogenic resistant bacteria in the Sparusaurata sea collected in Tunisia coastlines: Correlation with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouiten, Amina; Mehri, Ines; Beltifa, Asma; Ghorbel, Asma; Sire, Olivier; Van Loco, Joris; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Reyns, Tim; Ben Mansour, Hedi

    2017-05-01

    Vibrio is characterized by a large number of species and some of them are human pathogens causing gastro intestinal and wound infections through the ingestion or manipulation of contaminated fishes including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, we reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from wild and farm sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) along the Tunisian coast from December 2015 to April 2016. Therefore, the antibiograms indicate a difference between farmed and wild fish. Resistance against amoxicillin antibiotic appears for the bacteria isolated from wild fish, while those from aquaculture farming presented sensitivity to amoxicillin and resistance to antibiotics colistin and fusidic acid. The chloramphenicol antibiotic exhibited a high sensitivity in all isolated bacteria. In fact, traces of amoxicillin in the organs of the fish from Hergla farm were detected by UPLC-MS/MS analysis during December 2016 to April 2016. In addition, antibiotics were detected in January 2014 with high concentration of norfloxacin 2262 ng/g in fish from Hergla coast. The results obtained in this work indicated that the use and presence of antibiotics in water impacts on the occurrence of resistant bacteria and the detection of antibiotic in fish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Comparing recurrent antibiotic prescriptions in children treated with a brand name or a generic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovani, Daniele; Clavenna, Antonio; Cartabia, Massimo; Bortolotti, Angela; Fortino, Ida; Merlino, Luca; Bonati, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of recurrent prescriptions and hospital admissions in children receiving a brand name or generic antibiotic prescription. The data source was a database of reimbursed prescriptions. Outpatient children/adolescents brand name formulations and for each age strata (0-5, 6-11, and 12-17 years old) for four antibiotics: amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate, clarithromycin, and cefaclor. The percentage of therapy switches was calculated. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was used to compare the age-adjusted outcomes. In all, 17.5% (57 346) of children received at least one recurrent prescription. The rate of recurrent prescriptions was slightly lower in children receiving any generic (OR 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.98), compared with any brand name, antibiotic. The percentage of hospital admissions occurring in children initially treated with a brand name (1.01%; 95%CI 0.98-1.08) or generic (1.03%; 0.96-1.06) antibiotic was not different (p = 0.43). For children receiving amoxicillin clavulanate, the hospital admission rate was slightly higher in the brand name group (p = 0.002), while no differences were found for the other active substances. Children treated with generic antibiotics had no worse safety and effectiveness outcomes when compared with those receiving brand name ones. These results provide additional evidence on the safety of generic antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Divergent mechanisms for passive pneumococcal resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in the presence of Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Kristin E D; Juneau, Richard A; Murrah, Kyle A; Pang, Bing; Armbruster, Chelsie E; Richardson, Stephen H; Swords, W Edward

    2011-02-15

    Otitis media, for which antibiotic treatment failure is increasingly common, is a leading pediatric public health problem. In vitro and in vivo studies using the chinchilla model of otitis media were performed using a β-lactamase-producing strain of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi 86-028NP) and an isogenic mutant deficient in β-lactamase production (NTHi 86-028NP bla) to define the roles of biofilm formation and β-lactamase production in antibiotic resistance. Coinfection studies were done with Streptococcus pneumoniae to determine if NTHi provides passive protection by means of β-lactamase production, biofilm formation, or both. NTHi 86-028NP bla was resistant to amoxicillin killing in biofilm studies in vitro; however, it was cleared by amoxicillin treatment in vivo, whereas NTHi 86-028NP was unaffected in either system. NTHi 86-028NP protected pneumococcus in vivo in both the effusion fluid and bullar homogenate. NTHi 86-028NP bla and pneumococcus were both recovered from the surface-associated bacteria of amoxicillin-treated animals; only NTHi 86-028NP bla was recovered from effusion. Based on these studies, we conclude that NTHi provides passive protection for S. pneumoniae in vivo through 2 distinct mechanisms: production of β-lactamase and formation of biofilm communities.

  13. Primary lung abscess caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Deng-Wei; Lee, Chao-Tai

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a strain of coagulase-negative staphylococci, is part of the normal flora of human skin but can cause multiple infections at various sites. This microorganism has emerged as a major human pathogen. However, no study has reported primary lung abscess caused by S. lugdunensis. A 54-year-old alcoholic man without relevant past medical history was admitted because of primary lung abscesses. Empirical amoxicillin/clavulanate therapy was initially administered; however, the patient had persistent pleuritic chest pain and fever. He subsequently underwent resection of the lung abscess and removal of exudative pleural effusion on the fourth hospital day. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of lung abscess, and colonies of gram-positive bacteria were identified. The culture specimen from the abscess was positive for S. lugdunensis, which was susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, oxacillin, teicoplanin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Following resection and 3 weeks of amoxicillin/clavulanate therapy, the patient eventually recovered well without relapse. This case report is the first to describe S. lugdunensis as a cause of primary lung abscess; this microorganism should be considered a potential monomicrobial pathogen in primary lung abscess. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacteremia associated with toothbrushing and dental extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Peter B; Brennan, Michael T; Sasser, Howell C; Fox, Philip C; Paster, Bruce J; Bahrani-Mougeot, Farah K

    2008-06-17

    Antibiotic prophylaxis recommendations for the prevention of infective endocarditis are based in part on studies of bacteremia from dental procedures, but toothbrushing may pose a greater threat. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence, duration, nature, and magnitude of endocarditis-related bacteremia from single-tooth extraction and toothbrushing and to determine the impact of amoxicillin prophylaxis on single-tooth extraction. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 290 subjects were randomized to (1) toothbrushing, (2) single-tooth extraction with amoxicillin prophylaxis, or (3) single-tooth extraction with identical placebo. Blood was drawn for bacterial culturing and identification at 6 time points before, during, and after these interventions. The focus of our analysis was on bacterial species reported to cause infective endocarditis. We identified 98 bacterial species, 32 of which are reported to cause endocarditis. Cumulative incidence of endocarditis-related bacteria from all 6 blood draws was 23%, 33%, and 60% for the toothbrushing, extraction-amoxicillin, and extraction-placebo groups, respectively (Pextraction, given the greater frequency for oral hygiene, toothbrushing may be a greater threat for individuals at risk for infective endocarditis.

  15. Etiological and Resistance Profile of Bacteria Involved in Urinary Tract Infections in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sorlózano-Puerto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objective of this study was to identify the bacteria most frequently responsible for urinary tract infection (UTI in the population of under-2-year-olds in our geographic area and to evaluate the activity of antibiotics widely used for UTI treatment during a 4-year study period. Materials and Methods. A retrospective analysis was conducted of data on the identification and susceptibility of microorganisms isolated in urine samples from children under 2 years of age. Results. A total of 1,045 uropathogens were isolated. Escherichia coli accounted for the majority (60.3% of these, followed by Enterococcus faecalis (22.4% and Klebsiella spp. (6.5%. The highest E. coli susceptibility rates (>90% were to piperacillin-tazobactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, imipenem, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, and fosfomycin, and the lowest were to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole. Among all bacteria isolated, we highlight the overall high activity of piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, nitrofurantoin, and fosfomycin against both community and hospital isolates and the reduced activity of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalosporins, gentamicin, and cotrimoxazole. There was no significant change in the total activity of any of the studied antibiotics over the 4-year study period. Conclusion. Empiric treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cotrimoxazole, cephalosporins, and gentamicin may be inadequate due to their limited activity against uropathogens in our setting.

  16. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AMONG CHILDREN AND THERAPY SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.A. Kornienko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reason for the low therapy efficiency of many gastrobduodenal diseases is the increasing resistance to the antibiotics helicobacter pylori (Н. pylori, which is conditioned by the mutations of its various genes. The most practical importance is attributed to the 23s RRNA mutations, underlying resistance to claritromicin. According to the international consensus maastrichtb3, the scheme of treatment with the inhibitor of the proton pump, claritromicin and metronidasol is recommended as the 1st line therapy. The present work assesses the resistance of Н. pylori to claritromicin aided by pcrbdiagnostics of the 23s RRNA mutation of rna in the biopsy material of the mucous coat of stomach and standard treatment scheme efficiency if compared with the onebantibiotic scheme – amoxicillin, bismuth and inhibitor of the proton pump. 68 children with Н. pylori bassociated diseases have been examined. The frequency of resistance of Н. pylori to claritromicin made up 28%. The standard 10bday long scheme of treatment was efficient among 14% of the patients, the 7bday long schemes with amoxicillin, bismuth and omeprazole were efficient among 40% of the patients, the 10bday long schemes with amoxicillin, bismuth and omeprazole were efficient among 75% of the patients; with omeprazole replaced by esomeprazole the efficiency was observed among 83% of the patients along with the good treatment tolerance.Key words: helicobacter pylori, antibiotic resistance, eradication.

  17. Efficacy of Prophylactic use of Antibiotics to Avoid Flare up During Root Canal Treatment of Nonvital Teeth: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Flare-up during root canal treatment of non vital teeth is a common clinical incident. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of prophylactic use of antibiotics to avoid flare up during root canal treatment of the teeth having asymptomatic necrotic pulp. Materials and Methods: A randomized double blind clinical trial with parallel design was conducted on 100 subjects with asymptomatic non vital teeth. They were randomly divided into two groups. The first group (50 participants) was given two gram amoxicillin one hour before the first visit of root canal treatment; the second group (50 participants) did not receive any treatment (control group). In both groups, root canal treatment was performed in two visits. The flare up was assessed by the pain visual analogue scale and based on the swelling criteria. The data were processed and analyzed using SPSS statistical software 17. A p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 80% of participants in the experimental group had flare up while 12% of participants had flare up in the control group. Prophylactic Amoxicillin had no effect on inter-appointment flare up (p > 0.05). There was no relationship between flare up and patient’s age, gender and tooth type (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Prophylactic use of Amoxicillin in asymptomatic non vital teeth before root canal treatment had no effect on the incidence of flare-up. PMID:25954695

  18. [Comparison of two antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens in biliary tract surgery: a randomized controlled clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, H; Sifuentes Osornio, J; Prado, E; Takahashi, T; López Graniel, C M; Anaya, E; Canto, J

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy in prophylaxis during biliary tract and gallbladder surgery with amoxicillin/clavulanate and to compare it with the combination of cephalothin and clindamycin. A randomized nonblinded clinical trial with a blind independent observer. Tertiary-care center. Forty-two patients were included. All had undergone biliary tract and/or gallbladder surgery. They were divided in two groups: 22 in group A (cephalothin and clindamycin), and 20 in group B (amoxicillin/clavulanate). Patients from group A were intravenously treated with three doses of cephalothin (2 g at anesthetic induction and two additional doses of 1 g at six-hour intervals), and three of clindamycin (600 mg every six hours). Patients from group B received three doses of amoxicillin/clavulanate (1000/200 mg IV, one during the induction of the anesthesia followed by two more at six-hour intervals). In group A six wound infections were recorded, one of them with secondary bacteremia. In group B we did not record any infection (Fisher p clindamycin.

  19. The effect of commonly used anticoccidials and antibiotics in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanckriet, A; Timbermont, L; De Gussem, M; Marien, M; Vancraeynest, D; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2010-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis poses an important health risk to broilers. The ionophore anticoccidials lasalocid, salinomycin, maduramicin, narasin and a combination of narasin and nicarbazin were tested in feed for their prophylactic effect on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in a subclinical experimental infection model that uses coccidia as a predisposing factor. In addition, drinking water medication with the antibiotics amoxicillin, tylosin and lincomycin was evaluated as curative treatment in the same experimental model. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all antibiotics and anticoccidials were determined in vitro against 51 Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broilers. The strains examined appeared uniformly susceptible to lasalocid, maduramicin, narasin, salinomycin, amoxicillin and tylosin, whereas an extended frequency distribution range of MICs for lincomycin was seen, indicating acquired resistance in 36 isolates in the higher range of MICs. Nicarbazin did not inhibit the in vitro growth of the C. perfringens strains even at a concentration of 128 microg/ml. Supplementation of the diet from day 1 onwards with lasalocid, salinomycin, narasin or maduramicin led to a reduction in birds with necrotic enteritis lesions as compared with the non-medicated infected control group. A combination product of narasin and nicarbazin had no significant protective effect. Treatment with amoxicillin, lincomycin and tylosin completely stopped the development of necrotic lesions.

  20. Sensitivitas Salmonella Sp. Penyebab Demam Tifoid Terhadap Beberapa Antibiotik di Rumah Sakit Immanuel Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Mulyana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is an enteric fever caused by Salmonella sp. especially Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Various antibiotics used for therapy beside chloramphenicol as drug of choice. Non rational use of antibiotics may result increasing of resistence in bacteria. The aim of the research is to know the sensitivity of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi to some antibiotics. The purpose is to gather information about antibiotics which are still effective for typhoid fever and enteric therapy. Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi strain from positive cultures diagnose typhoid fever patients at Immanuel Hospital Bandung during 2004-2007. The method of resistance is Kirby Bauer's disk diffusion assay with NCCLS standard. The disk antibiotics used are amoxicillin, amoxicillinclavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The result showed penicillin group, amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid had 96.3–99.68% sensitive against Salmonella sp. Sensitivity of chloramphenicol as drug of choice of typhoid fever still 99.05%. Since the sensitivity less than 100%, it means there was about 8% resistence. Thats why eventhough this data can be used as empiric therapy, the writer suggest to do sensitivity test to Salmonella sp. that caused typhoid to get rationally dan effective treatment. From the result, it's concluded that Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi are still sensitive to all that antibiotics.

  1. Comparison of single-dose and multiple-dose antibiotics for lower urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Taner A; Dogan, Ozgur; Ates, Ugur; Yucel, Burak; Onar, Zehra; Kaya, Erdal

    2011-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of fosfomycin trometamol, cefuroxime axetil, and amoxicillin clavulanate antibiotics, and to assess the difference in patient compliance, in the treatment of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Between September 2007 and May 2008, 90 out of 324 pregnant women with complaints of lower urinary tract infection, who were followed at the outpatient clinic or referred to the emergency department of Vakif Gureba Education and Research Hospital, were enrolled in a prospective study. Patients were randomized into 3 equal groups for treatment with single-dose fosfomycin trometamol, or 5-day courses of amoxicillin clavulanate or cefuroxime axetil. After follow-up, study data were obtained for 28, 27, and 29 patients, respectively. The treatment groups did not differ significantly in terms of demographics, clinical success rate, microbiological cure rate, or adverse effects. Significantly higher drug compliance was observed in the fosfomycin trometamol group than in the other 2 groups (PUTI as the standard course of treatment with amoxicillin clavulanate or cefuroxime axetil. Fosfomycin trometamol may be a preferable treatment for UTI because of its simpler use and better rates of compliance. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of pore forming agents on chitosan-graft-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) hydrogel properties for use as a matrix for floating drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto, E.; Al-Shidqi, M. F.; Cahyana, A. H.

    2017-07-01

    Eradicating H. pylori-based infection by using conventional oral dosage form of amoxicillin trihydrate finds difficulties to overcome rapid gastric retention time. Encapsulating amoxicillin trihydrate in floating drug delivery system may solve the problem. In this research, the floating drug delivery system of amoxicillin trihydrate encapsulated in floating chitosan-graft-poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) hydrogels containing CaCO3 and NaHCO3 as pore forming agents has been successfully prepared. Pore forming agents used was varied with the ratio of 10 to 25% pore forming agents to total mass of the used materials. The hydrogel were characterizedusing FTIR spectrophotometer and stereo microscope. As pore forming agents compositions increased, the porosity (%) and floating properties increased but followed by decrease in drug entrapment efficiency. Most of the floating hydrogels possessed floating ability longer than 180 min and the highest porosity was found in hydrogel containing 25% NaHCO3. Hydrogel containing CaCO3 showed sustained drug release profile than hydrogel containing NaHCO3. However, the optimum formulation was achieved at composition of 10% NaHCO3 with 57% of drug entrapped within the hydrogel and 43% drug released. The results of these studies show that NaHCO3 is an effective pore forming agents for chitosan-graft-poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) hydrogel preparation as compare to CaCO3.

  3. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  4. Urinary Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their relationship with community antibiotic use in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meumann, Ella M; Mitchell, Brett G; McGregor, Alistair; McBryde, Emma; Cooley, Louise

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed urinary Escherichia coli antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Tasmania, Australia, and examined their association with community antibiotic use. The susceptibility profiles of all urinary E. coli isolates collected in Tasmania between January 2010 and December 2012 were included. The amount of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS)-subsidised use of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), cefalexin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was retrieved (at the Tasmanian population level) and the number of defined daily doses per 1000 population per day in Tasmania for these antibiotics was calculated for each month during the study period. Antimicrobial susceptibility data were assessed for changes over time in the 3-year study period. Antimicrobial use and susceptibility data were assessed for seasonal differences and lag in resistance following antibiotic use. Excluding duplicates, 28145 E. coli isolates were included. Resistance levels were low; 35% of isolates were non-susceptible to amoxicillin, 14% were non-susceptible to trimethoprim and antibiotics for treatment of respiratory tract infections in winter. Quinolone use is restricted by the PBS in Australia, which is the likely explanation for the low levels of quinolone use and resistance identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. Trend and seasonality of community-acquired Escherichia coli antimicrobial resistance and its dynamic relationship with antimicrobial use assessed by ARIMA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio Egea, María Ángeles; Huertas Vaquero, María; Carranza González, Rafael; Herráez Carrera, Óscar; Redondo González, Olga; Arias Arias, Ángel

    2017-12-04

    We studied the trend and seasonality of community-acquired Escherichia coli resistance and quantified its correlation with the previous use of certain antibiotics. A time series study of resistant community-acquired E. coli isolates and their association with antibiotic use was conducted in a Primary Health Care Area from 2008 to 2012. A Poisson regression model was constructed to estimate the trend and seasonality of E. coli resistance. A significant increasing trend in mean E. coli resistance to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and nitrofurantoin was observed. Seasonal resistance to ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was significantly higher in autumn-winter. There was a delay of 7, 10 and 12 months between the use of cotrimoxazole (P<0.038), fosfomycin (P<0.024) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (P<0.015), respectively, and the occurrence of E. coli resistance. An average delay of 10 months between the previous use of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cotrimoxazole and fosfomycin and the appearance of resistant community-acquired E. coli strains was detected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Frequency, microbial interactions, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Rogério C; Montagner, Francisco; Signoretti, Fernanda G C; Almeida, Geovania C; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2008-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and microbial interactions of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum in primary endodontic infections from a Brazilian population and their antimicrobial susceptibility to some antibiotics by the E-test. One hundred ten samples from infected teeth with periapical pathologies were analyzed by culture methods. Five hundred eighty individual strains were isolated; 81.4% were strict anaerobes. F. nucleatum was found in 38 root canals and was associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., and Eubacterium spp. F. necrophorum was found in 20 root canals and was associated with Peptostreptococcus prevotii. The simultaneous presence of F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum was not related to endodontic symptoms (p > 0.05). They were 100% susceptible to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and cephaclor. Fusobacterium spp. is frequently isolated from primary-infected root canals of teeth with periapical pathologies. Amoxicillin is a useful antibiotic against F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum in endodontic infections and has been prescribed as the first choice in Brazil.

  7. Quality and safety of integrated community case management of malaria using rapid diagnostic tests and pneumonia by community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Davidson H; Brooks, Erin Twohig; Semrau, Katherine; Pilingana, Portipher; MacLeod, William B; Siazeele, Kazungu; Sabin, Lora L; Thea, Donald M; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo

    2012-03-01

    To assess the quality and safety of having community health workers (CHWs) in rural Zambia use rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and provide integrated management of malaria and pneumonia. In the context of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of two models for community-based management of malaria and/or non-severe pneumonia in children under 5 years old, CHWs in the intervention arm were trained to use RDTs, follow a simple algorithm for classification and treat malaria with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and pneumonia with amoxicillin. CHW records were reviewed to assess the ability of the CHWs to appropriately classify and treat malaria and pneumonia, and account for supplies. Patients were also followed up to assess treatment safety. During the 12-month study, the CHWs evaluated 1017 children with fever and/or fast/difficult breathing and performed 975 RDTs. Malaria and/or pneumonia were appropriately classified 94-100% of the time. Treatment based on disease classification was correct in 94-100% of episodes. Supply management was excellent with over 98% of RDTs, amoxicillin, and AL properly accounted for. The use of RDTs, amoxicillin, and AL was associated with few minor adverse events. Most febrile children (90%) with negative RDT results recovered after being treated with an antipyretic alone. Volunteer CHWs in rural Zambia are capable of providing integrated management of malaria and pneumonia to children safely and at high quality.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Two Garlic Species (Allium Sativum and A. Tuberosum) Against Staphylococci Infection. In Vivo Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Paulo César; Raimundo Figueroba, Sidney; Dias Nani, Bruno; Eduardo Nunes Ferreira, Luiz; Vilela Muniz, Bruno; de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Sartoratto, Adilson; Antonio Ribeiro Rosa, Edvaldo; Carlos Groppo, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: This study observed the effect of garlic extracts and amoxicillin against an induced staphylococcal infection model. MIC and MBC were also obtained for aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (Asa) and Allium tuberosum (Atu) against Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-sensitive (PSSA - ATCC 25923) and MRSA (ATCC 33592). Methods: Granulation tissues were induced in the back of 205 rats. After 14 days, 0.5 mL of 10 8 CFU/mL of PSSA or MRSA were injected inside tissues. After 24h, animals were divided: G1 (Control) - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G2 - Asa 100 mg/kg or 400mg/kg; G3 - Atu 100 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg; G4 - amoxicillin suspension 50 mg/kg, considering PSSA infection; and G5 (Control) - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G6 - Asa 400mg/kg; G7 - amoxicillin 50 mg/kg; and G8 - Asa 400 mg/kg + amoxicillin 50 mg/kg for MRSA. All treatments were administered P.O. every 6h. Animals were killed at 0, 6, 12 and 24h. Samples were spread on salt-mannitol agar. Colonies were counted after 18 h at 37 °C. Atu was not able to inhibit or kill PSSA and MRSA. Considering Asa, MIC and MBC against PSSA were 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively; and 16 mg/mL and 64 mg/mL against MRSA. Results: No effect was observed in vivo for control, Asa 100 mg/kg and Atu 100 mg/kg, while amoxicillin, Atu 400 mg/kg and Asa 400 mg/kg decreased PSSA counts in all-time points. No effect of any group against MRSA was observed at any time. Conclusion: Thus, A. sativum and A. tuberosum were able to reduce PSSA infection, but not MRSA infection.

  9. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2011-13 in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshchenko, Y; Dzyublik, A; Pertseva, T; Bratus, E; Dzyublik, Y; Gladka, G; Morrissey, I; Torumkuney, D

    2016-05-01

    To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of respiratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae collected in 2011-13 from Ukraine. MICs were determined by CLSI broth microdilution and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. A total of 134 isolates of S. pneumoniae and 67 of H. influenzae were collected from eight sites in Ukraine. Overall, 87.3% of S. pneumoniae were penicillin susceptible by CLSI oral breakpoints and 99.3% by CLSI iv breakpoints. Susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin), ceftriaxone and levofloxacin was 100% by CLSI and PK/PD breakpoints. Cephalosporin and macrolide susceptibility was ≥95.5% and 88.1%, respectively using CLSI breakpoints. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was essentially inactive against pneumococci. Of the 67 H. influenzae tested, 4.5% were β-lactamase positive and all H. influenzae were fully susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, cefixime and levofloxacin (all breakpoints). Cefuroxime susceptibility was 100% by CLSI but 73.1% by EUCAST and PK/PD breakpoints. A discrepancy was found in macrolide susceptibility between CLSI (∼100% susceptible), EUCAST (22%-43% susceptible) and PK/PD (0%-22% susceptible) breakpoints. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was poorly active (59.7% susceptible). Generally, antibiotic resistance was low in respiratory pathogens from Ukraine. However, only amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin), ceftriaxone and levofloxacin were fully active against both species. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was the least active, particularly against S. pneumoniae. Some susceptibility differences were apparent between CLSI, EUCAST and PK/PD breakpoints, especially with macrolides against H. influenzae. These data suggest that further efforts are required to harmonize these international breakpoints. Future studies are warranted to monitor continued low resistance levels in Ukraine

  10. Antibiotic treatment of exacerbations of COPD in general practice: long-term impact on healthrelated quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Miravitlles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marc Miravitlles1, Carles Llor2, Jesús Molina3, Karlos Naberan4, Josep M Cots5, Fernando Ros6 on behalf of the EVOCA Study Group1Fundació Clínic. Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 2Primary Health Care Center ‘Jaume I’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 3Primary Health Care Center ‘Francia’, Grupo de Respiratorio de la Sociedad Madrileña de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Madrid, Spain; 4Primary Health Care Center ‘Fuentes de Ebro’, Grupo de Investigación del Instituto Aragonés Ciencias de la Salud (IACS, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Primary Health Care Center ‘La Marina’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona, Spain; 6Medical Department, Bayer Healthcare, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To investigate the impact of exacerbations in health-related quality of life (HRQL of patients with COPD and to compare the effect of treatment of COPD exacerbations with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 5 days and amoxicillin/clavulanate (500/125 mg 3 times a day for 10 days on HRQL.Methods: 229 outpatients with stable COPD (mean age 68.2 years; mean FEV1 % predicted 49.3% participated in a prospective, observational study of 2 years’ duration. The St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ was completed at baseline and every 6 months thereafter.Results: COPD exacerbations (mean 2.7 episodes/patient occurred in 136 patients (124 patients received the study medications [amoxicillin/clavulanate 54, moxifloxacin 70]. Differences between baseline and the final visit were higher for moxifloxacin compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate for total SGRQ score (-2.60 [13.1] vs 4.21 [16.2], P = 0.05 and “Symptoms” subscale (-5.64 [16.7] vs 8.27 [21], P = 0.02. The same findings were observed in patients with two or more

  11. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of commonly prescribed oral antibiotics against respiratory bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pignatari Antonio CC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs account for a substantial portion of outpatient antibiotic utilization. However, the pharmacodynamic activity of commonly used oral antibiotic regimens has not been studied against clinically relevant pathogens. The objective of this study was to assess the probability of achieving the requisite pharmacodynamic exposure for oral antibacterial regimens commonly prescribed for RTIs in adults against bacterial isolates frequently involved in these processes (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catharralis. Methods Using a 5000-subject Monte Carlo simulation, the cumulative fractions of response (CFR, (i.e., probabilities of achieving requisite pharmacodynamic targets for the most commonly prescribed oral antibiotic regimens, as determined by a structured survey of medical prescription patterns, were assessed against local respiratory bacterial isolates from adults in São Paulo collected during the same time period. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 230 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (103, Haemophilus influenzae (98, and Moraxella catharralis (29 from a previous local surveillance were used. Results The most commonly prescribed antibiotic regimens were azithromycin 500 mg QD, amoxicillin 500 mg TID, and levofloxacin 500 mg QD, accounting for 58% of the prescriptions. Varied doses of these agents, plus gatifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, moxifloxacin, and cefaclor made up the remaining regimens. Utilizing aggressive pharmacodynamic exposure targets, the only regimens to achieve greater than 90% CFR against all three pathogens were amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanate 500 mg TID (> 91%, gatifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%, and moxifloxacin 400 mg QD (100%. Considering S. pneumoniae isolates alone, azithromycin 1000 mg QD also achieved greater than 90% CFR (91.3%. Conclusions The only regimens to achieve high CFR against all three pathogen populations in both scenarios

  12. Resistance to oral antibiotics in 4569 Gram-negative rods isolated from urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzi, Anna; Grignolo, Sara; Caviglia, Ilaria; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Piaggio, Giorgio; Bandettini, Roberto; Castagnola, Elio

    2016-09-01

    To investigate antibiotic resistance among pathogens isolated from urines in a tertiary care children's hospital in Italy. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on antibiotic susceptibility of Gram-negatives isolated from urines at the Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa - Italy from 2007 to 2014. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated. By means of CLSI criteria from 2007 to 2010, while from 2011 EUCAST criteria were adopted. Data on susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanate, co-trimoxazole, cefuroxime, nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin and ciprofloxacin were evaluated for Escherichia coli, while for other Enterobacteriaceae data were collected for amoxicillin-clavulanate, co-trimoxazole and ciprofloxacin and for ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed for risk factors associated with resistance. A total of 4596 Gram-negative strains were observed in 3364 patients. A significant increase in the proportion of resistant strains was observed for E.coli against amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime and ciprofloxacin and for others Enterobacteriaceae against co-trimoxazole and ciprofloxacin. Resistance to nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin was very infrequent in E.coli. Logistic regression analysis showed that repeated episode of urinary tract infections was a risk factor for E.coli resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate, co-trimoxazole and cefuroxime, while admission in one of the Units usually managing children with urinary tract malformations was significantly associated to resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefuroxime. In conclusion the present study shows an increase in antibiotic resistance in pediatric bacteria isolated from urines in children, especially in presence of repeated episodes and/or urinary tract malformations. This resistance is worrisome for beta-lactams and cotrimoxazole, and start to increase also for fluoroquinolones while nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin still could represent useful

  13. Antibiotics for bronchiectasis exacerbations in children: rationale and study protocol for a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Anne B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite bronchiectasis being increasingly recognised as an important cause of chronic respiratory morbidity in both indigenous and non-indigenous settings globally, high quality evidence to inform management is scarce. It is assumed that antibiotics are efficacious for all bronchiectasis exacerbations, but not all practitioners agree. Inadequately treated exacerbations may risk lung function deterioration. Our study tests the hypothesis that both oral azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid are superior to placebo at improving resolution rates of respiratory exacerbations by day 14 in children with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. Methods We are conducting a bronchiectasis exacerbation study (BEST, which is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial, in five centres (Brisbane, Perth, Darwin, Melbourne, Auckland. In the component of BEST presented here, 189 children fulfilling inclusion criteria are randomised (allocation-concealed to receive amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (22.5 mg/kg twice daily with placebo-azithromycin; azithromycin (5 mg/kg daily with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; or placebo-azithromycin with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for 14 days. Clinical data and a paediatric cough-specific quality of life score are obtained at baseline, at the start and resolution of exacerbations, and at day 14. In most children, blood and deep nasal swabs are also collected at the same time points. The primary outcome is the proportion of children whose exacerbations have resolved at day 14. The main secondary outcome is the paediatric cough-specific quality of life score. Other outcomes are time to next exacerbation; requirement for hospitalisation; duration of exacerbation; and spirometry data. Descriptive viral and bacteriological data from nasal samples and blood markers will also be reported. Discussion Effective, evidence-based management

  14. Antibiotic use at dental implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Keenan, James R

    2015-06-01

    Cochrane Oral Health Groups Trial Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE via OVID and EMBASE via OVID. Databases were searched with no language or date restrictions. Two authors independently reviewed the titles and the abstracts for inclusion. Disagreements were resolved by discussion. If needed, a third author was consulted. Included were randomised clinical trials with a follow-up of at least three months which evaluated the use of prophylactic antibiotic compared to no antibiotic or a placebo and examined different antibiotics of different doses and durations in patients undergoing dental implant placement. The outcomes were implant failure (considered as implant mobility, removal of implant due to bone loss or infection) and prosthesis failure (prosthesis could not be placed). Standard Cochrane methodology procedures were followed. Risk of bias was completed independently and in duplicate by two review authors. Results were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) using a random-effects model for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The statistical unit was the participant and not the prosthesis or implant. Heterogeneity including both clinical and methodological factors was investigated. Six randomised clinical trials with 1162 participants were identified for the review. Three trials compared 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (927 participants). One trial compared 3 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (55 participants). Another trial compared 1 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 500 mg four times a day for two days versus no antibiotic (80 participants). An additional trial compared four groups: (1) 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin; (2) 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 1 g twice a day for seven days; (3) 1 g of postoperative amoxicillin twice a day for seven days and (4) no antibiotics (100 participants). The overall body of the evidence was considered moderate.The meta-analysis of the

  15. Simplified antibiotic regimens for treatment of clinical severe infection in the outpatient setting when referral is not possible for young infants in Pakistan (Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trial [SATT]): a randomised, open-label, equivalence trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Fatima; Nisar, Imran; Tikmani, Shiyam S; Baloch, Benazir; Shakoor, Sadia; Jehan, Fyezah; Ahmed, Imran; Cousens, Simon; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2017-02-01

    Parenteral antibiotic therapy for young infants (aged 0-59 days) with suspected sepsis is sometimes not available or feasible in countries with high neonatal mortality. Outpatient treatment could save lives in such settings. We aimed to assess the equivalence of two simplified antibiotic regimens, comprising fewer injections and oral rather than parenteral administration, compared with a reference treatment for young infants with clinical severe infection. We undertook the Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trial (SATT), a three-arm, randomised, open-label, equivalence trial in five communities in Karachi, Pakistan. We enrolled young infants (aged 0-59 days) who either presented at a primary health-care clinic or were identified by a community health worker with signs of clinical severe infection. We included infants who were not critically ill and whose family refused admission. We randomly assigned infants to either intramuscular procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin once a day for 7 days (reference); oral amoxicillin twice daily and intramuscular gentamicin once a day for 7 days; or intramuscular procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin once a day for 2 days followed by oral amoxicillin twice daily for 5 days. The primary outcome was treatment failure within 7 days of enrolment and the primary analysis was per protocol. We judged experimental treatments as efficacious as the reference if the upper bound of the 95% CI for the difference in treatment failure was less than 5·0. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027429. Between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 26, 2013, 2780 infants were deemed eligible for the trial, of whom 2453 (88%) were enrolled. Because of inadequate clinical follow-up or treatment adherence, 2251 infants were included in the per-protocol analysis. 820 infants (747 per protocol) were assigned the reference treatment of procaine benzylpenicillin and gentamicin, 816 (751 per protocol) were allocated amoxicillin and gentamicin, and

  16. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of resistance genes of obligate anaerobes isolated from periodontal abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Chen, Jiazhen; He, Junlin; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; Wu, Xingwen; Xu, Beiyun; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2014-02-01

    This study attempts to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of obligate anaerobic bacteria that were isolated from a periodontal abscess and to evaluate the prevalence of resistance genes in these bacteria. Forty-one periodontal abscess samples were cultivated on selective and non-selective culture media to isolate the oral anaerobes. Their antibiotic susceptibilities to clindamycin, doxycycline, amoxicillin, imipenem, cefradine, cefixime, roxithromycin, and metronidazole were determined using the agar dilution method, and polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to detect the presence of the ermF, tetQ, nim, and cfxA drug resistance genes. A total of 60 different bacterial colonies was isolated and identified. All of the isolates were sensitive to imipenem. Of the strains, 6.7%, 13.3%, 16.7%, and 25% were resistant to doxycycline, metronidazole, cefixime, and amoxicillin, respectively. The resistance rate for both clindamycin and roxithromycin was 31.7%. Approximately 60.7% of the strains had the ermF gene, and 53.3% of the amoxicillin-resistant strains were found to have the cfxA gene. Two nim genes that were found in eight metronidazole-resistant strains were identified as nimB. In the present study, the Prevotella species are the most frequently isolated obligate anaerobes from periodontal abscesses. The current results show their alarmingly high resistance rate against clindamycin and roxithromycin; thus, the use of these antibiotics is unacceptable for the empirical therapy of periodontal abscesses. A brief prevalence of four resistance genes in the anaerobic bacteria that were isolated was also demonstrated.

  17. Etiology and anti-microbial sensitivity of organisms causing community acquired pneumonia: A single hospital study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi U Menon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the common etiological pathogens causing community acquired pneumonia (CAP in our hospital and sensitivity patterns to the common antibiotics used. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken in a 750 bedded multi-specialty referral hospital in Kerala catering to both urban and semi-urban populations. It is a prospective study of patients who attended the medical out-patient department and those admitted with a clinical diagnosis of CAP, during the year 2009. Data were collected based on detailed patient interview, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. The latter included sputum culture and sensitivity pattern. These were tabulated and percentage incidence of etiological pathogens calculated. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was also classified by percentage and expressed as bar diagram. Results: The study showed Streptococcus pneumoniae to be the most common etiological agent for CAP, in our hospital setting. The other organisms isolated in order of frequency were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alpha hemolytic streptococci, Escherichia coli, Beta hemolytic streptococci and atypical coli. S. pneumoniae was most sensitive to linezolid, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanate (augmentin, cloxacillin and ceftriaxone. Overall, the common pathogens causing CAP showed highest sensitivity to amikacin, followed by ofloxacin, gentamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate (augmentin, ceftriaxone and linezolid. The least sensitivity rates were shown to amoxicillin and cefoperazone. Conclusion: In a hospital setting, empirical management for cases of CAP is not advisable. The present study has shown S. pneumoniae as the most likely pathogen and either linezolid or amikacin as the most likely effective antimicrobial in cases of CAP, in our setting.

  18. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns of Porphyromonas gingivalis isolated from chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japoni, Aziz; Vasin, Afsaneh; Noushadi, Sadighah; Kiany, Farin; Japoni, Sara; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2011-11-01

    To test the antimicrobial sensitivity of Porphyromonas gingivalis to a panel of eight orally administrable antibiotics in chronic periodontal diseases and to evaluate factors associated with periodontitis in adult patients. A total of fifty strains of P. gingivalis were isolated from one hundred and twenty adult patients with chronic perio-dontitis. Identification of bacteria was carried out by anaerobic culture and biochemical tests. Selected colonies of P. gingivalis were used to evaluate the antibacterial activities of penicillin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, clindamycin, doxy-cycline, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin. Most of the patients were female, age ranging between 40 to 50 years. Majority of the patients frequently had scaling and depths of periodontal pockets in infected teeth were 5-8 mm and most of them had hemorrhage during sampling. Susceptibility testing revealed a sensitivity of 100% of P. gingivalis to azithromycin, doxycycline and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid but lower susceptibilities were found for the rest of antibiotic agents evaluated. Frequent scaling in women aged between 40-50 years had positive correlation with chronic periodontitis. The application of antibiotics in conjuction with mechanical debridation, may reflect in the level of resistance of P. gingivalis in patients with chronic periodontal infections. This could suggest periodical antibiotic susceptibility testing is necessary to determine the efficacy of antimicrobial agents if the perfect curing of chronic periodontal diseases after mechanical debridation is meant. Further clinical studies are required to confirm the in vitro results. The only limitation in this study was identification of bacteria to species rather than subspecies level.

  19. Correlation of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms with helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with cirrhosis and peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Chii-Shyan; Lin, Chun-Jung; Lin, Jiun-Rong

    2010-04-01

    To investigate whether or not CYP2C19 genotype status is associated with cure rate for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with cirrhosis and peptic ulcer, achieved with 2 weeks of triple therapy with rabeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin. We prospectively studied 95 consecutive patients with cirrhosis and H. pylori-infected active peptic ulcers. H. pylori infection was confirmed if any 2 of the following were positive: H. pylori DNA, histology, and rapid urease test. Patients were assigned to an open-label 2-week course of oral amoxicillin 1,000 mg b.i.d., rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. Subsequently, all patients received oral rabeprazole 20 mg once daily until week 8. Three months and 1 year after therapy, all patients with cirrhosis were followed up endoscopically for peptic ulcer, rapid urease test, and (13)C-urea breath test. The CYP2C19 genotype status for 2 mutations associated with the extensive metabolizer phenotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Cure rates for H. pylori infection were 80.9% (95% CI, 22.8-88.6%), 89.8% (95% CI, 50.8-90.2%), and 100% (95% CI, 62.8-100%) in the rapid-, intermediate-, and poor-metabolizer groups, respectively. Healing rates for duodenal and gastric ulcer in the 3 groups were roughly parallel with cure rates for H. pylori infection. The results of the genotyping test for CYP2C19 seem to predict cure of H. pylori infection and peptic ulcer in patients with cirrhosis who receive triple therapy with rabeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains to five antibiotics, including levofloxacin, in Northwestern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Caliskan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is the main factor that affects the efficacy of current therapeutic regimens against Helicobacter pylori. This study aimed to determine the rates of resistance to efficacy clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and metronidazole among H. pylori strains isolated from Turkish patients with dyspepsia. METHODS: H. pylori was cultured from corpus and antrum biopsies that were collected from patients with dyspeptic symptoms, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of H. pylori was determined using the E-test (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole and levofloxacin according to the EUCAST breakpoints. Point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin-resistant strains were investigated using real-time PCR. RESULTS: A total of 98 H. pylori strains were isolated, all of which were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. Of these strains, 36.7% (36/98 were resistant to clarithromycin, 35.5% (34/98 were resistant to metronidazole, and 29.5% (29/98 were resistant to levofloxacin. Multiple resistance was detected in 19.3% of the isolates. The A2143G and A2144G point mutations in the 23S rRNA-encoding gene were found in all 36 (100% of the clarithromycin-resistant strains. Additionally, the levofloxacin MIC values increased to 32 mg/L in our H. pylori strains. Finally, among the clarithromycin-resistant strains, 27.2% were resistant to levofloxacin, and 45.4% were resistant to metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that treatment failure after clarithromycin- or levofloxacin-based triple therapy is not surprising and that metronidazole is not a reliable agent for the eradication of H. pylori infection in Turkey.

  1. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of High Dose Short Duration Enrofloxacin Treatment Regimen for Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westropp, JL; Sykes, JE; Irom, S; Daniels, JB; Smith, A; Keil, D; Settje, T; Wang, Y; Chew, DJ

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) in dogs usually are treated with antimicrobial drugs for 10–14 days. Shorter duration antimicrobial regimens have been evaluated in human patients. Hypothesis A high dose short duration (HDSD) enrofloxacin protocol administered to dogs with uncomplicated UTI will not be inferior to a 14-day treatment regimen with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Animals Client-owned adult, otherwise healthy dogs with aerobic bacterial urine culture yielding ≥103 CFU/mL of bacteria after cystocentesis. Methods Prospective, multicenter, controlled, randomized blinded clinical trial. Enrolled dogs were randomized to group 1 (enrofloxacin 18–20 mg/kg PO q24h for 3 days) or group 2 (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 13.75–25 mg/kg PO q12h for 14 days). Urine cultures were obtained at days 0, 10, and 21. Microbiologic and clinical cure rates were evaluated 7 days after antimicrobial treatment was discontinued. Lower urinary tract signs and adverse events also were recorded. Results There were 35 dogs in group 1 and 33 in group 2. The microbiologic cure rate was 77.1 and 81.2% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The clinical cure rate was 88.6 and 87.9% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Cure rates between groups did not differ according to the selected margin of noninferiority. Conclusions and Clinical Importance HDSD enrofloxacin treatment was not inferior to a conventional amoxicillin-clavulanic acid protocol for the treatment of uncomplicated bacterial UTI in dogs. Further research is warranted to determine if this protocol will positively impact owner compliance and decrease the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:22486931

  2. Bacterial profile and antibiogram of otitis media among children in yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanna, M.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media is a worldwide disease and is higher in developing countries, particularly among the low socioeconomic levels of the society. The aim of the study is to identify the bacterial etiologic agents of otitis media (OM) and their antibiotics sensitivity patterns among children in Specialized Sam Paediatric Centre (SSPC) and Al-Mamoon Diagnostic Medical Centre (AMDC), in Sana'a city. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in SSPC and AMDC from January to October 2015. A total of 150 patients who had ear pus discharge and clinically diagnosed as OM were included in this study. Samples of ear discharge were collected, bacteriologically tested by standard methods and bacterial strains were identified using biochemical testes. Questionnaire was administered on patients or parents that cover the age, gender and the duration of symptoms. Results: A total of 150 children with OM, their age ranged from below 1-15 years (85 males and 65 females). Children less than 5 years of age were 100 and 50 with age ranged from 6-15 years. Bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (44%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.67%), Enterococcus species (12.67%), and Streptococcus pneumonia (10%). Bacterial culture revealed that, Staphylococcus aureus sensitivity to cefotaxime and azithromycin was 98%, to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 92% and it was 85% to gentamicin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitivity to cefotaxime was 100%, to azithromycin and gentamicin was 98% and it was 80% to cefaclor. Enterococcus sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 85%, to azithromycin was 80%, and it was 75% to cefotaxime, and gentamicin. Conclusion: The most common microorganism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterococcus species, and then Streptococcus pneumonia. The most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, azithromycin and gentamicin. Therefore, knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility test is essential for guiding appropriate

  3. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis at placement of dental implants: a Cochrane systematic review of randomised controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Coulthard, Paul; Oliver, Richard; Worthington, Helen V

    To assess the beneficial or harmful effects of systemic prophylactic antibiotics at dental implant placement versus no antibiotic/placebo administration and, if antibiotics are of benefit, to find which type, dosage and duration is the most effective. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched and several journals were handsearched with no language restriction up to January 2008. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a follow up of at least 3 months comparing the administration of various prophylactic antibiotic regimens versus no antibiotics to patients undergoing dental implant placement were eligible. Screening of studies, quality assessment and data extraction were conducted in duplicate. Missing information was requested. Outcome measures were: prosthesis and implant failures, postoperative infections and adverse events (gastrointestinal, hypersensitivity, etc.). Two RCTs were identified: one comparing 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (316 patients) and the other comparing 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin + 500 mg four times a day for 2 days versus no antibiotics (80 patients). The meta-analyses of the two trials showed a statistically significant higher number of patients experiencing implant failures in the group not receiving antibiotics: RR = 0.22 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.86). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one patient having an implant failure is 25 (95% CI 13 to 100), based on a patient implant failure rate of 6% in patients not receiving antibiotics. The other outcomes were not statistically significant, and only two minor adverse events were recorded, one of which was in the placebo group. There is some evidence suggesting that 2 g of amoxicillin given 1 hour preoperatively significantly reduce failures of dental implants placed in ordinary conditions. It remains unclear whether postoperative antibiotics are beneficial, and which is the most effective antibiotic. It might be

  4. Which antibiotic regimen prevents implant failure or infection after dental implant surgery? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sánchez, Fabio; Rodríguez Andrés, Carlos; Arteagoitia, Iciar

    2018-04-01

    To assess which antibiotic regimen prevents dental implant failures or postoperative infections following dental implant placement. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pubmed, Cochrane, Science Direct, and EMBASE via OVID were searched up to August 2017. Only randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) using antibiotics were included. Outcome measures were set on dental implant failures or postoperative infection incidence after dental implant surgery. Three reviewers independently undertook risk of bias assessment and data extraction. Stratified meta-analyses of binary data using fixed-effects models were performed using Stata 14.0. The risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. Nine articles were included corresponding to 15 RCTs. All RCTs tested only oral amoxicillin. Implant-failure analysis: overall RR = 0.53 (P = .005, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82) and overall NNT = 55 (95% CI, 33-167). Single-dose oral amoxicillin preoperatively (SDOAP) is beneficial (RR = 0.50, CI: 0.29-0.86. P = .012), when compared to postoperative oral amoxicillin (POA): RR = 0.60, CI: 0.28-1.30. P = .197. Postoperative-infection analysis: overall RR = 0.76 (P = 0.250, 95% CI: 0.47-1.22). Neither SDOAP (RR = 0.82, CI = 0.46-1.45, P = .488) nor POA (RR = 0.64, CI = 0.27-1.51, P = .309) are beneficial. I 2  = 0.0%, chi-squared tests P ≈ 1. Only SDOAP is effective and efficacious at preventing implant failures, but it was not significant for postoperative infections following dental implant surgeries. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prospective, multicenter clinical trial to validate new products for skin tests in the diagnosis of allergy to penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J; Torres, M J; Campos, J; Arribas-Poves, F; Blanca, M

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to penicillin is the most commonly reported type of drug hypersensitivity. Diagnosis is currently confirmed using skin tests with benzylpenicillin reagents, ie, penicilloyl-polylysine (PPL) as the major determinant of benzylpenicillin and benzylpenicillin, benzylpenicilloate and benzylpenilloate as a minor determinant mixture (MDM). To synthesize and assess the diagnostic capacity of 2 new benzylpenicillin reagents in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to B-lactams: benzylpenicilloyl octa-L-lysine (BP-OL) as the major determinant and benzylpenilloate (penilloate) as the minor determinant. Prospective multicenter clinical trial performed in 18 Spanish centers. Efficacy was assessed by detection of positive skin test results in an allergic population and negative skin test results in a nonallergic, drug-exposed population. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were determined. The study sample comprised 94 allergic patients: 31 (35.23%) presented anaphylaxis, 4 (4.55%) anaphylactic shock, 51 (58.04%) urticaria, and 2 (2.27%) no specific condition. The culprit 8-lactams were amoxicillin in 63 cases (71.60%), benzypencillin in 14 cases (15.89%), cephalosporins in 2 cases (2.27%), other drugs in 3 cases (3.42%), and unidentified agents in 6 cases (6.82%). The results of testing with BP-OL were positive in 46 cases (52.3%); the results of testing with penilloate were positive in 33 cases (37.5%). When both reagents were taken into consideration, sensitivity reached 61.36% and specificity 100%. Skin testing with penilloate was significantly more often negative when the interval between the reaction and the study was longer. The sensitivity of BP-OL and penilloate was 61%. Considering that amoxicillin was the culprit drug in 71% of reactions, these results indicate that most patients were allergic to the whole group of penicillins. These data support the use of benzylpenicillin determinants in the diagnosis of allergy

  6. Seasonal variation in penicillin use in Mexico and Brazil: analysis of the impact of over-the-counter restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2015-01-01

    During 2010, Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting over-the-counter sales of antibiotics. We determined if the enforcement led to more appropriate antibiotic use by measuring changes in seasonal variation of penicillin use. We used retail quarterly sales data in defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitant-days (DDD/TID) from IMS Health from the private sector in Mexico and Brazil from the first quarter of 2007 to the first quarter of 2013. This database contains information on volume of antibiotics sold in retail pharmacies using information from wholesalers. We used interrupted time-series models controlling for external factors with the use of antihypertensives with interaction terms to assess changes in trend, level, and variation in use between quarters for total penicillin use and by active substance. The most used penicillin was amoxicillin, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin (minimal use in Brazil). Before the restrictions, the seasonal variation in penicillin use was 1.1 DDD/TID in Mexico and 0.8 DDD/TID in Brazil. In Mexico, we estimated a significant decrease in the seasonal variation of 0.4 DDD/TID after the restriction, mainly due to changes in seasonal variation of amoxicillin and ampicillin. In Brazil, the seasonal variation did not change significantly, overall and in the breakdown by individual active substances. For Mexico, inappropriate penicillin use may have diminished after the restrictions were enforced. For Brazil, increasing use and no change in seasonal variation suggest that further efforts are needed to reduce inappropriate penicillin use. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of a combined (4% chlorhexidine digluconate shampoo and solution) protocol in MRS and non-MRS canine superficial pyoderma: a randomized, blinded, antibiotic-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borio, Stefano; Colombo, Silvia; La Rosa, Giuseppe; De Lucia, Michela; Damborg, Peter; Guardabassi, Luca

    2015-10-01

    There is a lack of studies comparing topical antiseptics to systemic antibiotics in the treatment of canine superficial pyoderma. To compare the efficacy of topical chlorhexidine with systemic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of canine superficial pyoderma. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in dogs with superficial pyoderma. Group T (n = 31) was treated topically with 4% chlorhexidine digluconate shampoo (twice weekly) and solution (once daily) for 4 weeks. Group S (n = 20) was treated orally with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (25 mg/kg) twice daily for 4 weeks. Bacterial culture and susceptibility testing were performed on clinical specimens collected before treatment. Severity of lesions and number of intracellular bacteria were evaluated using four-point scales to calculate a total pyoderma score for each dog. Pruritus was assessed by owners using a visual analog scale (range 0-10). Scores were analysed for statistical differences between groups T and S. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated from 48 dogs, including eight meticillin-resistant strains (MRSP). Although the number of dogs was small, no significant differences in pyoderma and pruritus scores were observed between groups throughout the study except for day 1, when group S had a significantly higher total score than group T (P = 0.03). Treatment with chlorhexidine products resulted in resolution of clinical signs in all dogs including those infected with MRSP. Topical therapy with chlorhexidine digluconate products may be as effective as systemic therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. This finding supports the current recommendations to use topical antiseptics alone for the management of superficial pyoderma. © 2015 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  8. [Pharmacist interventions on antibiotic prescriptions in outpatient pediatric unit in a teaching hospital of Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrogoua, D P; Koffi, N O; Doffou, E

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of our study were to analyse the prescriptions of antibiotics and assessing the relevance of pharmacist interventions (PI) in outpatient consultations in a pediatric unit of a Teaching Hospital of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study from May to December 2013. The analysis of antibiotic prescriptions was documented. The tool of PI classification validated by the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy was used. The PI rating was made by prescribers. This rating evolved from PI0 to PI3 depending on the severity of the clinical impact of the problem and to the severity of clinical consequences avoided by the PI. The relevance was evaluated by the PI acceptance rate by physicians and clinical evaluation of their impact. Our study included 150 patients with a mean age of 11.75 months and a sex ratio (M/F) of 2. The amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (27.2 %) and amoxicillin (22.3 %) were the most prescribed antibiotics. Sixty-three drug-related problems (DRPs) were detected on the antibiotic prescriptions. They were non-optimal drug administration plan (88.9 %) and underdose (11.1 %). The amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (61.9 %) and josamycin (17.4 %) were the most affected by these DRPs. PI were related to the precision of modes of drug administration (88.9 %) and dose adjustments (11.1 %). The prescribers accepted 93.7 % of PIs. All accepted PIs was rated PI1 (significant clinical impact). PIs performed on antibiotic prescription were relevant with a high rate of acceptance and a significant clinical impact. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Seasonal Variation in Penicillin Use in Mexico and Brazil: Analysis of the Impact of Over-the-Counter Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Ana-Tellez, Yared; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.

    2014-01-01

    During 2010, Mexico and Brazil implemented policies to enforce existing laws of restricting over-the-counter sales of antibiotics. We determined if the enforcement led to more appropriate antibiotic use by measuring changes in seasonal variation of penicillin use. We used retail quarterly sales data in defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitant-days (DDD/TID) from IMS Health from the private sector in Mexico and Brazil from the first quarter of 2007 to the first quarter of 2013. This database contains information on volume of antibiotics sold in retail pharmacies using information from wholesalers. We used interrupted time-series models controlling for external factors with the use of antihypertensives with interaction terms to assess changes in trend, level, and variation in use between quarters for total penicillin use and by active substance. The most used penicillin was amoxicillin, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin (minimal use in Brazil). Before the restrictions, the seasonal variation in penicillin use was 1.1 DDD/TID in Mexico and 0.8 DDD/TID in Brazil. In Mexico, we estimated a significant decrease in the seasonal variation of 0.4 DDD/TID after the restriction, mainly due to changes in seasonal variation of amoxicillin and ampicillin. In Brazil, the seasonal variation did not change significantly, overall and in the breakdown by individual active substances. For Mexico, inappropriate penicillin use may have diminished after the restrictions were enforced. For Brazil, increasing use and no change in seasonal variation suggest that further efforts are needed to reduce inappropriate penicillin use. PMID:25313222

  10. Bacterial Profile And Antibiogram Of Otitis Media Among Children In Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Mohanna, Mabrook Aidah; Bahannan, Abdurrahman Ali

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media is a worldwide disease and is higher in developing countries, particularly among the low socioeconomic levels of the society. The aim of the study is to identify the bacterial etiologic agents of otitis media (OM) and their antibiotics sensitivity patterns among children in Specialized Sam Paediatric Centre (SSPC) and Al-Mamoon Diagnostic Medical Centre (AMDC), in Sana'a city. A cross-sectional study was done in SSPC and AMDC from January to October 2015. A total of 150 patients who had ear pus discharge and clinically diagnosed as OM were included in this study. Samples of ear discharge were collected, bacteriologically tested by standard methods and bacterial strains were identified using biochemical testes. Questionnaire was administered on patients or parents that cover the age, gender and the duration of symptoms. A total of 150 children with OM, their age ranged from below 1-15 years (85 males and 65 females). Children less than 5 years of age were 100 and 50 with age ranged from 6-15 years. Bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (44%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.67%), Enterococcus species (12.67%), and Streptococcus pneumonia (10%). Bacterial culture revealed that, Staphylococcus aureus sensitivity to cefotaxime and azithromycin was 98%, to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 92% and it was 85% to gentamicin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitivity to cefotaxime was 100%, to azithromycin and gentamicin was 98% and it was 80% to cefaclor. Enterococcus sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 85%, to azithromycin was 80%, and it was 75% to cefotaxime, and gentamicin. The most common microorganism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterococcus species, and then Streptococcus pneumonia. The most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, azithromycin and gentamicin. Therefore, knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility test is essential for guiding appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  11. Estimation of the clinical and economic consequences of non-compliance with antimicrobial treatment of canine skin infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vlaenderen, Ilse; Nautrup, Barbara Poulsen; Gasper, Sabina M

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the health and economic consequences of non-compliance with oral antimicrobial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma, wounds or abscesses in the US. A mathematical model (Markov model) which simulated treatment with long-term injectable cefovecin versus oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was developed and accounted for the effect of non-compliance on clinical outcomes and mean total treatment costs per patient. Efficacy parameters considered in the model were derived from clinical studies. Treatment failure due to oral antimicrobial treatment non-compliance was approximated from published data at 13.6%. US cost data for 2009 were derived from public sources. When non-compliance was considered as a cause of treatment failure with oral medication, the long-term injectable antibiotic was more effective than oral comparator (162 versus 158 days without clinical signs). Mean total treatment costs were lower with cefovecin (USD 376.74) versus amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (USD 382.34) in dogs of 25 kg; and cefovecin remained cost-saving up to a body weight of 31 kg. In large dogs, cefovecin was more costly; however, total therapy costs were less than 6% greater than with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Accordingly the higher drug and administration costs of the long-term injectable antibiotic were totally or substantially offset when non-compliance was considered as reason for treatment failure with oral medication. The model also allowed for the estimation of the impact of various non-compliance scenarios. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antipneumococcal activity of DW-224a, a new quinolone, compared to those of eight other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Credito, Kim; Pankuch, Glenn A; Lin, Gengrong; Bozdogan, Bülent; McGhee, Pamela; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Choi, Dong-Rack; Ryu, Jei Man; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2006-06-01

    DW-224a is a new broad-spectrum quinolone with excellent antipneumococcal activity. Agar dilution MIC was used to test the activity of DW-224a compared to those of penicillin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime, and azithromycin against 353 quinolone-susceptible pneumococci. The MICs of 29 quinolone-resistant pneumococci with defined quinolone resistance mechanisms against seven quinolones and an efflux mechanism were also tested. DW-224a was the most potent quinolone against quinolone-susceptible pneumococci (MIC(50), 0.016 microg/ml; MIC(90), 0.03 microg/ml), followed by gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. beta-Lactam MICs rose with those of penicillin G, and azithromycin resistance was seen mainly in strains with raised penicillin G MICs. Against the 29 quinolone-resistant strains, DW-224a had the lowest MICs (0.06 to 1 microg/ml) compared to those of gemifloxacin, clinafloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. DW-224a at 2x MIC was bactericidal after 24 h against eight of nine strains tested. Other quinolones gave similar kill kinetics relative to higher MICs. Serial passages of nine strains in the presence of sub-MIC concentrations of DW-224a, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime, and azithromycin were performed. DW-224a yielded resistant clones similar to moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin but also yielded lower MICs. Azithromycin selected resistant clones in three of the five parents tested. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefuroxime did not yield resistant clones after 50 days.

  13. Sex- and age-specific trends in antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli urinary isolates from outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Jessina C; Elman, Miriam R; Bearden, David T; Smith, David H

    2013-02-22

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections treated in ambulatory care settings, however the epidemiology differs by age and sex. The incidence of UTI is far greater in females than males, and infection in pediatric patients is more often due to anatomical abnormalities. The purpose of this research was to describe age- and sex-specific trends in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli from ambulatory primary care patients in a regional health maintenance organization. Clinical microbiology data were collected for all urine cultures from patients with visits to primary care clinics in a regional health maintenance organization between 2005 and 2010. The first positive culture for E. coli tested for antibiotic susceptibilities per patient per year was included in the analysis dataset. The frequency of susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was calculated for male and female patients. The Cochrane-Mantel-Haenzel test was used to test for differences in age-stratified susceptibility to each antibiotic between males and females. A total of 43,493 E. coli isolates from 34,539 unique patients were identified for study inclusion. After stratifying by age, E. coli susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin differed significantly between males and females. However, the magnitude of the differences was less than 10% for all strata except amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptibility in E. coli isolated from males age 18-64 compared to females of the same age. We did not observe clinically meaningful differences in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among E. coli isolated from males versus females. These data suggest that male sex alone should not be used as an indication for empiric use of second-line broad-spectrum antibiotic agents

  14. Urinary tract infections in hospital pediatrics: many previous antibiotherapy and antibiotics resistance, including fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, A; Marguet, C; Checoury, A; Boyer, S; Gardrat, A; Houivet, E; Caron, F

    2014-02-01

    We studied antibiotic resistance in pediatric UTIs and we evaluated the impact of antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months, very little French data being available for this population. We conducted a multicenter prospective study including children consulting for, or admitted in 2 hospitals. Prior antibiotic exposure was documented from their health record. One hundred and ten patients (73 girls), 11 days to 12 years of age, were included in 10 months. Ninety-six percent presented with pyelonephritis, associated to uropathy for 25%. Escherichia coli was predominant (78%), followed by Proteus spp. and Enterococcus spp. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was high and close to that reported for adults with complicated UTIs: amoxicillin 60%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 35%, cefotaxim 5%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 26%, nalidixic acid 9%, ciprofloxacin 7%, gentamycin 1%, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin 0%. The antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months involved 62 children (56%) most frequently with β-lactams (89%) for a respiratory tract infection (56%). A clear relationship between exposure and resistance was observed for amoxicillin (71% vs. 46%), first generation (65% vs. 46%) and third generation (9% vs. 3%) cephalosporins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36% vs. 15%). However, antibiotic exposure could not account alone for the results, as suggested by the 7% of ciprofloxacin resistance, observed without any identified previous treatment. Bacterial species and antibiotic resistance level in children are similar to those reported for adults. Antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months increases the risk of resistance but other factors are involved (previous antibiotic therapies and fecal-oral or mother-to-child transmission). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2014-16 in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torumkuney, D; Zemlickova, H; Maruscak, M; Morrissey, I

    2018-04-01

    To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae collected in 2014-16 from patients with community-acquired respiratory infections in the Czech Republic. MICs were determined by CLSI broth microdilution and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. S. pneumoniae isolates (n = 200) showed high rates of susceptibility (>95%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, penicillin [intravenous (iv) non-meningitis], ceftriaxone, cefuroxime and the fluoroquinolones using CLSI breakpoints. Susceptibility to cefaclor and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 94%-94.5%, to penicillin (oral) 91.5% and to the macrolides 89.5%. Susceptibility of H. influenzae (n = 197) to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, azithromycin and the fluoroquinolones was ≥98% by CLSI criteria. Rates of susceptibility to the remaining agents were ≥75% except for clarithromycin at 37.1%. Great variability was seen across breakpoints, especially for the macrolides, cefaclor and cefuroxime (oral), 98.0% of H. influenzae showing susceptibility to the latter by CLSI criteria, 69.5% by PK/PD and 1.5% by EUCAST standards. The β-lactamase rate was 13.7% with no β-lactamase-negative-ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) isolates by CLSI criteria. Antibiotic resistance among the two major respiratory pathogens remained low in the Czech Republic. These findings support local clinicians in continuing the historically restrictive use of antibiotics in the Czech Republic, with selection of narrower-spectrum agents for the empirical therapy of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This highlights one of the great benefits of continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance: knowledge of current local resistance patterns reduces the need to choose broad-spectrum agents that contribute to increasing resistance worldwide.

  16. Efficacy of a triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in a well-developed urban area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bellelis

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Helicobacter pylori eradication has become the standard treatment for peptic ulcer disease. Triple therapy with omeprazole plus two antibiotics has been used. Due to the lack of ideal treatment and the high rates of primary resistance to nitroimidazoles, the use of clarithromycin has been adopted. OBJECTIVE: To determine the Helicobacter pylori eradication rates using lansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin for seven days, in patients with peptic ulcer disease in a well developed urban area in Brazil. METHODS: This was a retrospective, open-label study carried out at the School of Medicine of the Fundação ABC. It included 130 patients with peptic ulcer disease (upper endoscopy who had been tested positive for Helicobacter pylori infection (urease test, histology or breath test, without previous treatment. Patients were treated with lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1,000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., for seven days. Eradication was verified after 90 days. RESULTS: Follow-up data were available for 94 patients. Their mean age was 52.23 years; 51.54% were woman, 84.31% white, 37.69% smokers, 20.77% using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and 8.46% alcoholics. Upper endoscopy revealed that 78.46% had duodenal ulcers and 21.53% had gastric ulcers (a 4:1 DU:GU ratio. The eradication rates were 85.11% per protocol and 61.54% by intention to treat; 97% had no adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Triple therapy using lansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin is well tolerated with high eradication rates and forms a good alternative for developing countries.

  17. Changes in bacterial resistance patterns in children with urinary tract infections on antimicrobial prophylaxis at University Hospital in Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Tanja; Gračan, Sanda; Arapović, Adela; Čapkun, Vesna; Šubat-Dežulović, Mirna; Saraga, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background We assessed prevalence and resistance of uropathogens on antimicrobial agents (AA) from urine cultures (UC) in children hospitalized with urinary tract infections (UTI) at University Hospital in Split. Material/Methods During the 7-year period, children hospitalized only once with UTI alone were compared to those repeatedly hospitalized, and who received long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis (LTAP), as well as those with associated anomalies of the urinary system (US). Results E. coli was the most frequent isolate (67.7%) with resistance to ampicillin by 69.5%, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid by 3.5%, cephalexin by 6.6%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) by 27.5%, and nitrofurantoin by 0.4%. For other uropathogens, AA resistance rates were the following: 64.3%, 5.8%, 10.5%, 21.3%, and 7.9%. The high or increasing resistance to TMP-SMX is characterized by all uropathogens. Patients with anomalies of US showed a lower prevalence of E. coli and Enterococcus sp., but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp., ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella sp. than those without US anomalies. Repeatedly hospitalized patients showed a lower prevalence of E. coli, but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp. and Klebsiella sp. than patients hospitalized only once. Both groups displayed significantly less resistance of Enterococcus sp. In patients receiving LTAP before hospitalization, E. coli was significantly more resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid and TMP/SMX than in those without LTAP. Conclusions Based on our results, we recommend excluding ampicillin altogether, and reconsideration of further use of TMP-SMX, as well as use of nitrofurantoin, cephalexin and amoxicillin/clavulonic acid for LTAP in our region. PMID:21709628

  18. Helicobacter pylori second-line rescue therapy with levofloxacin- and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy, after failure of standard triple or non-bismuth quadruple treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, J P; Romano, M; Gravina, A G; Solís-Muñoz, P; Bermejo, F; Molina-Infante, J; Castro-Fernández, M; Ortuño, J; Lucendo, A J; Herranz, M; Modolell, I; Del Castillo, F; Gómez, J; Barrio, J; Velayos, B; Gómez, B; Domínguez, J L; Miranda, A; Martorano, M; Algaba, A; Pabón, M; Angueira, T; Fernández-Salazar, L; Federico, A; Marín, A C; McNicholl, A G

    2015-04-01

    The most commonly used second-line Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens are bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and levofloxacin-containing triple therapy, both offering suboptimal results. Combining bismuth and levofloxacin may enhance the efficacy of rescue eradication regimens. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a second-line quadruple regimen containing levofloxacin and bismuth in patients whose previous H. pylori eradication treatment failed. This was a prospective multicenter study including patients in whom a standard triple therapy (PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin) or a non-bismuth quadruple therapy (PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin-metronidazole, either sequential or concomitant) had failed. Esomeprazole (40 mg b.d.), amoxicillin (1 g b.d.), levofloxacin (500 mg o.d.) and bismuth (240 mg b.d.) was prescribed for 14 days. Eradication was confirmed by (13) C-urea breath test. Compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. Incidence of adverse effects was evaluated by questionnaires. 200 patients were included consecutively (mean age 47 years, 67% women, 13% ulcer). Previous failed therapy included: standard clarithromycin triple therapy (131 patients), sequential (32) and concomitant (37). A total of 96% took all medications correctly. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 91.1% (95%CI = 87-95%) and 90% (95%CI = 86-94%). Cure rates were similar regardless of previous (failed) treatment or country of origin. Adverse effects were reported in 46% of patients, most commonly nausea (17%) and diarrhoea (16%); 3% were intense but none was serious. Fourteen-day bismuth- and levofloxacin-containing quadruple therapy is an effective (≥90% cure rate), simple and safe second-line strategy in patients whose previous standard triple or non-bismuth quadruple (sequential or concomitant) therapies have failed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Helicobacter pylori: From Bench to Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Chiba

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential increase in research in the field of Helicobacter pylori a paradigm shift has occurred. It is now recognized that H pylori is a chronic infection of the stomach causing inflammation. Some patients remain asymptomatic, while others may develop dyspepsia, duodenal or gastric ulcer, gastric cancer or a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, the role of H pylori in contributing to nonulcer dyspepsia or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy remains controversial. An effective vaccine against H pylori is years away. Major interest has focused on the questions "who should be investigated and therefore treated" and "what is the latest gold standard for eradication of H pylori"? In Europe, guidelines have been developed to help the practitioner answer these important questions. Canadian guidelines will soon be available. For persons with known peptic ulcer disease there should be unequivocal acceptance that the good clinical practice of eradicating H pylori will result in substantial savings in health care expenses. The original 'classical triple therapy' (bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline [BMT] has now been surpassed by the combination of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI plus two antibiotics (metronidazole plus clarithromycin; amoxicillin plus clarithromycin; or amoxicillin plus metronidazole, each given twice a day for one week. In Canada, the regimen of omeprazole plus one antibiotic (amoxicillin or clarithromycin was approved recently but gives an eradication rate that is lower than the current target of 90%. According to the European (Mäastricht recommendations, if a single treatment attempt with PPI plus two antibiotics fails, PPI plus BMT is recommended.

  20. Aggregatibacter aphrophilus in a patient with recurrent empyema: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olver William J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (formerly Haemophilus aphrophilus and H. paraphrophilus is classically associated with infective endocarditis. Other infections reported in the literature include brain abscess, bone and joint infections and endophthalmitis. There are only two cases of empyema ever reported due to this organism. We report the isolation of A. aphrophilus from pleural fluid on three separate hospital admissions in a patient with recurrent empyema. Case presentation A 65-year-old female patient of Caucasian origin presented with a three-week history of fever, shortness of breath and dry cough. She was found to have a pleural empyema so a chest drain was inserted and a sample of pus was sent to the microbiology laboratory. After overnight incubation, a chocolate blood agar plate incubated in 5% carbon dioxide showed a profuse growth of small, round, glistening colonies which were identified as Gram-negative coccobacilli. They were oxidase- and catalase-negative. Biochemical testing using RapID NH confirmed the identity of the organism as A. aphrophilus. It was susceptible to amoxicillin, levofloxacin and doxycycline. Our patient was treated with intravenous amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and clarithromycin followed by oral doxycycline, but was re-admitted twice over the next three months with recurrent empyema and the same organism was isolated. Each episode was managed with chest drainage and a six-week course of antibiotic--doxycycline for the second episode and amoxicillin for the third episode, after which she has remained well. Conclusion This is the first case report of recurrent empyema due to A. aphrophilus. Our patient had no underlying condition to explain the recurrence. Although our isolate was doxycycline susceptible, our patient had recurrent infection after treatment with this antibiotic, suggesting that this antibiotic is ineffective in treatment of deep-seated A. aphrophilus infection. This

  1. Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendonça Sergio

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of primary resistance of Brazilian H. pylori isolates to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone. In addition, the vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE genotypes of strains isolated from Brazilian patients were determined and associated with clinical data in an effort to correlate these four virulence markers and antibiotic resistance. Methods H. pylori was cultured in 155 H. pylori-positive patients and MICs for metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone were determined by the agar dilution method. Genomic DNA was extracted, and allelic variants of vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE were identified by the polymerase chain reaction. Results There was a strong association between the vacA s1/cagA -positive genotype and peptic ulcer disease (OR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.6–11.3, p = 0.0006. Additionally, infection by more virulent strains may protect against GERD, since logistic regression showed a negative association between the more virulent strain, vacA s1/cagA-positive genotype and GERD (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.8, p = 0.03. Resistance to metronidazole was detected in 75 patients (55%, to amoxicillin in 54 individuals (38%, to clarithromycin in 23 patients (16%, to tetracycline in 13 patients (9%, and to furazolidone in 19 individuals (13%. No significant correlation between pathogenicity and resistance or susceptibility was detected when MIC values for each antibiotic were compared with different vacA, iceA, cagA and cagE genotypes. Conclusion The analysis of virulence genes revealed a specific association between H. pylori strains and clinical outcome, furthermore, no significant association was detected among pathogenicity and resistance or susceptibility.

  2. MASTER: a model to improve and standardize clinical breakpoints for antimicrobial susceptibility testing using forecast probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöchliger, Nicolas; Keller, Peter M; Böttger, Erik C; Hombach, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The procedure for setting clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial susceptibility has been poorly standardized with respect to population data, pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcome. Tools to standardize CBP setting could result in improved antibiogram forecast probabilities. We propose a model to estimate probabilities for methodological categorization errors and defined zones of methodological uncertainty (ZMUs), i.e. ranges of zone diameters that cannot reliably be classified. The impact of ZMUs on methodological error rates was used for CBP optimization. The model distinguishes theoretical true inhibition zone diameters from observed diameters, which suffer from methodological variation. True diameter distributions are described with a normal mixture model. The model was fitted to observed inhibition zone diameters of clinical Escherichia coli strains. Repeated measurements for a quality control strain were used to quantify methodological variation. For 9 of 13 antibiotics analysed, our model predicted error rates of  0.1% for ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Increasing the susceptible CBP (cefoxitin) and introducing ZMUs (ampicillin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) decreased error rates to < 0.1%. ZMUs contained low numbers of isolates for ampicillin and cefuroxime (3% and 6%), whereas the ZMU for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid contained 41% of all isolates and was considered not practical. We demonstrate that CBPs can be improved and standardized by minimizing methodological categorization error rates. ZMUs may be introduced if an intermediate zone is not appropriate for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic or drug dosing reasons. Optimized CBPs will provide a standardized antibiotic susceptibility testing interpretation at a defined level of probability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  3. Bacteremia during quinsy and elective tonsillectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Henriksen, Jens-Jacob; Rusan, Maria

    2012-01-01

    for each isolate obtained from elective tonsillectomy cases compared to quinsy tonsillectomy cases (P bacterial endocarditis...... prophylaxis recommendations to patients at high risk of infective endocarditis who are undergoing tonsillectomy. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 80 patients undergoing elective tonsillectomy and 36 patients undergoing acute tonsillectomy due to peritonsillar abscess. Blood cultures, tonsillar...... prophylaxis recommendation only to patients undergoing procedures to treat an established infection. To provide full empiric coverage, including coverage for Staphylococcus aureus, we advocate the use of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid in patients at high risk of infective endocarditis....

  4. Modified Sequential Therapy Regimen versus Conventional Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Duodenal Ulcer Patients in China: A Multicenter Clinical Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Qun Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Antimicrobial resistance has decreased eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori infection worldwide. To observe the effect of eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and the treatment of duodenal ulcer by 2 kinds of modified sequential therapy through comparing with that of 10-day standard triple therapy. Methods. A total of 210 patients who were confirmed in duodenal ulcer active or heal period by gastroscopy and H. pylori positive confirmed by rapid urease test, serum anti-H. pylori antibody (ELASE, or histological examination enrolled in the study. All the patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A (70 cases and group B (70 cases were provided 10-day modified sequential therapy; group C (70 cases was provided 10-day standard triple therapy. Patients of group A received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group B received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the first 5 days, followed by 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for the remaining 5 days. Group C received 20 mg of Esomeprazole, 500 mg of Clarithromycin, and 1000 mg of Amoxicillin for standard 10-day therapy. All drugs were given twice daily. H. pylori eradication rate was checked four to eight weeks after taking the medicine by using a 13C urea breath test. In the first, second, third, seventh, twenty-first, thirty-fifth days respectively, the symptoms of patients such as epigastric gnawing, burning pain, and acidity were evaluated simultaneously. Results. Overall, 210 patients accomplished all therapy schemes, 9 case patients were excluded. The examination result indicated that the H. pylori eradication rate of each group was as follows: group A 92.5% (62/67, group B 86.8% (59/68, and group C 78.8% (52/66. The H. pylori

  5. Breast abscess due to Finegoldia magna in a non-puerperal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Sampedro, Antonio; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2017-10-01

    Finegoldia magna is a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus involved in a wide variety of infections. We report a unusual case of breast abscess in a non-puerperal patient. A 46-year-old woman presented with pain and a nodular lesion in the left breast. Culture of abscess drainage resulted in isolation of F. magna. Initial treatment with clindamycin was changed to a definitive treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate for 10 days due to resistance to clindamycin, and improvement of this infection was documented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An optimized clarithromycin-free 14-day triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication achieves high cure rates in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacoll, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Balter, Henia; Pazos, Ximena; Di Pace, María; Sandoya, Gabriela; Cohen, Henry; Calvet, Xavier

    Strong acid inhibition increases cure rates with triple therapy and 14-day are more effective than 7-day treatments. The combination of amoxicillin plus metronidazole at full doses has been shown to overcome metronidazole resistance and to achieve good eradication rates even in patients harboring resistant strains. No previous studies have been reported in Latin-America with this optimized triple-therapy scheme. The aim of the present study was to assess the eradication rate and tolerance of a new first-line treatment regimen associating strong acid inhibition, amoxicillin and metronidazole. Patients from the Clínica de Gastroenterología of the Hospital de Clínicas (Montevideo, Uruguay) were included. Hp status was mainly assessed by at least one of the following: histologyor urea breath test (UBT). A 14-day treatment was prescribed comprising esomeprazole 40mg twice a day plus amoxicillin 1g and metronidazole 500mg, both three times a day. H. pylori cure was assessed by UBT. Forty-one patients were enrolled. Mean age was 53.3±13 years and 17.1% of patients were male. Main indications for treatment were: functional dyspepsia (27.5%), gastritis (45%), gastric or duodenal erosions (20%), gastric ulcer (5%) and intestinal metaplasia (2.5%). H. pylori eradication was achieved in 33 of the 37 patients who returned for follow-up. Eradication rates were 80.5% (95% CI: 68.4-92.6) by intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and 89.2% (95% CI; 79.2-99.2) per protocol (PP). No major side effects were reported; 26 patients (65.8%) complained of mild side effects (nausea, diarrhea and headache). Cure rates of this triple therapy including esomeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole were 81% per ITT and the treatment was well tolerated. These optimal results with a simple clarithromycin-free triple therapy are better than described for standard triple therapy but there is still room for improvement to reach the desired target of 90% per ITT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S

  7. Emerging antimicrobial resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori in central Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H B Pandya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem in H. pylori treatment. The study was intended to evaluate the prevalence of resistance amongst 80 H.pylori isolates cultured from biopsy taken during routine endoscopies in 2008-2011. Materials and Methods: 855 gastro duodenal biopsies were collected and cultured on H.pylori selective medium (containing Brucella agar and Columbia agar (Hi media, with Skirrow′s supplement (antibiotic supplement and 7% human blood cells. H.pylori was isolated from 80 specimens. The antimicrobial susceptibility of H.pylori isolates was carried out by the Kirby Bauer technique against metronidazole (5 µg, clarithromycin (15 µg, ciprofloxacin (5 µg, amoxicillin (10 µg, tetracycline (30 µg, erythromycin (15 µg, levofloxacin (5 µg, and furazolidone (50 µg (Sigma- Aldrich, MO. Results: 83.8% isolates were resistant to metronidazole, 58.8% were resistant to Clarithromycin 72.5% were resistant to Amoxicillin, 50% to Ciprofloxacin and 53.8% to tetracycline. furazolidone, erythromycin and Levofloxacin showed only 13.8% resistance to H.pylori. Multi drug resistance with metronidazole+ clarithromycin+ tetracycline was 85%. For all the drugs Antimicrobial resistance rate was found higher in males compare to females. Metronidazole and amoxicillin resistance was found noteworthy in patients with duodenal ulcer (p = 0.018, gastritis (P = 0.00, and in reflux esophagitis (P = 0.00. clarithromycin and tetracycline resistance was suggestively linked with duodenitis (P = 0.018, while furazolidone, erythromycin and levofloxacin showed excellent sensitivity in patients with duodenitis (P value- 0.018, gastritis (P= 0.00 and reflux esophagitis (P = 0.00. Resistance with metronidazole (P = 0.481, clarithromycin (P= 0.261, amoxicillin (P = 0.276, tetracycline (P = 0.356, ciprofloxacin (P = 0.164 was not correlated well with Age-group and Gender of the patients. Conclusion: A very high percentage of patients were infected

  8. Identification of Mycobacterial Genes Involved in Antibiotic Sensitivity: Implications for the Treatment of Tuberculosis with β-Lactam-Containing Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Gopinath; Yadav, Sangya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant library screen, transposon mutants with insertions in fhaA, dprE2, rpsT, and parA displayed hypersusceptibility to antibiotics, including the β-lactams meropenem, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cefotaxime. Sub-MIC levels of octoclothepin, a psychotic drug inhibiting ParA, phenocopied the parA insertion and enhanced the bactericidal activity of meropenem against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in combination with clavulanate. Our study identifies novel factors associated with antibiotic resistance, with implications in repurposing β-lactams for tuberculosis treatment. PMID:28438925

  9. Bakterielle infektioner som komplikation til hundebid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, C K; Hansen, P B; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1998-01-01

    coverage is obtained by amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and that antibiotic prophylaxis should be given to all immunocompromised patients experiencing a dog bite. Moreover, prophylactic treatment should be initiated for all patients with greater penetrating wounds and those involving the hands....... coagulation syndrome, peripheral gangrene and renal failure. The mortality of C. canimorsus septicaemia is about 23-31%. These severe infections are most often reported in immunocompromised patients and occur a few days after the bite. By reviewing the literature it is concluded that the broadest prophylactic...

  10. Characterisation of antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infections in Danish general practice: a retrospective registry based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars

    2017-05-19

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456,532 antibiotic prescriptions issued between July 2012 and June 2013. Pneumonia was the most common indication with 178,354 prescriptions (39%), followed by acute tonsillitis (21%) and acute otitis media (19%). In total, penicillin V accounted for 58% of all prescriptions, followed by macrolides (18%) and amoxicillin (15%). The use of second-line agents increased with age for all indications, and comprised more than 40% of the prescriptions in patients aged >75 years. Women were more often prescribed antibiotics regardless of clinical indication. This is the first Danish study to characterise antibiotic prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second-line agents like macrolides and amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid are overused. Strategies to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing especially for pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute rhinosinusitis are warranted. TRACKING THE OVERUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS: Better adherence to guidelines for prescribing antibiotics for different respiratory tract infections are warranted in Danish general practice. The over-use of antibiotics, particularly so

  11. [A case of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with penicillin allergy successfully treated with levofloxacin, minomycin and rabeprazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Tomoko; Motoori, Shigeatsu; Iwamoto, Nozomi; Miyazawa, Tomoe; Saito, Shigeyo; Kitagawa, Naoko; Saisho, Hiromitsu; Furuse, Junji; Itabashi, Masayuki

    2010-10-01

    A 52-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our Institute because of Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori)-positive gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue(MALT)lymphoma. Since she had a penicillin allergy, we could not eradicate H. pylori using the standard triple therapy including amoxicillin. Additionally, H. pylori was resistant to both clarithromycin and metronidazole. So she was treated with minomycin (MINO), levofloxacin (LVFX), and rabeprazole (RPZ) based on a drug sensitivity test. MINO+LVFX+RPZ appear to be a promising, appropriate, and well-tolerated eradication regimen for H. pylori demonstrating resistance to both clarithromycin and metronidazole, and for patients who are allergic to penicillin.

  12. Successful salvage treatment of native valve Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis with telavancin: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mickala M; Hassoun, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) one-year mortality rates approach 40%. Here, we report two native valve Enterococcus faecalis IE cases in patients successfully treated with telavancin. An 88-year-old with mitral valve endocarditis and a penicillin allergy, initially treated with intravenous vancomycin, was switched to telavancin. A 69-year-old, who previously received amoxicillin and intravenous vancomycin for presumed enterococcal bacteraemia, was diagnosed with dual valve endocarditis for which he received telavancin. Both received six weeks of telavancin. Neither had telavancin-related adverse events, evidence of infection at six months, nor required telavancin dosing adjustments. Documented use of novel treatments for serious enterococcal infections is needed.

  13. In Vitro Activity of PNU-100766 (Linezolid), a New Oxazolidinone Antimicrobial, against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gómez-Flores, Alejandra; Escalante-Fuentes, Wendy G.; Welsh, Oliverio

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of a novel oxazolidinone, linezolid, was studied by comparing the activity of linezolid with those of amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against 25 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis isolated from patients with mycetoma. All N. brasiliensis strains tested were sensitive to linezolid (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC90], 2 μg/ml; MIC50, 1 μg/ml). This antimicrobial might constitute a good alternative for treatment of actinomycetoma. PMID:11709356

  14. Peritonitis with Listeria monocytogenes in a patient on automated peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanna Bjarkhamar; Á Steig, Torkil; Björkman, Jonas T

    2018-01-01

    We present a case where Listeria monocytogenesserotype 1/2a was determined to be the causative agent of peritonitis in a patient on automated peritoneal dialysis. The patient, a 53-year-old Caucasian woman from the Faroe Islands was admitted to the National Hospital reporting of constant abdominal...... pain and a fever. Peritoneal cultures were positive for growth of L. monocytogenes. The patient was successfully treated with oral amoxicillin for 2 weeks and intraperitoneal vancomycin for 3 weeks. To date, the patient has not been readmitted due to peritonitis. The Faroese salmon was the suspected...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from piglets with or without diarrhea in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otávio; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; da Costa Cruz Júnior, Eduardo Coulaud; Albefaro, Isabella Silva; de Carvalho Guedes, Roberto Maurício; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 13 antibiotics against Clostridium perfringens isolated from Brazilian piglets. The collection of isolates was performed in June to October 2010. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftiofur, whereas most were resistant to tetracycline and lincomycin. Avilamycin and narasin were more effective against isolates from non-diarrheic than from diarrheic piglets. The other antimicrobials were less active in need of high concentrations to inhibit the growth of the C. perfringens type A. These results suggest the need for further studies evaluating molecular factors related to the antimicrobial resistance of C. perfringens. PMID:24031924

  16. Aerococcus urinae: An Emerging Cause of Urinary Tract Infection in Older Adults with Multimorbidity and Urologic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Higgins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aerococcus urinae is a rare organism isolated from urine cultures. We present a case of an 80 year-old male with bladder cancer and multimorbidity who developed A. urinae infection. A. urinae may cause simple and complicated UTIs, bacteremia, and endocarditis in older adults with multimorbidity, chronic urinary retention, or indwelling catheters. A. urinae treatment should employ penicillin, amoxicillin, and nitrofurantoin. Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, urine culture should include antibiotic susceptibility testing. Prompt and culture-specific treatment is critical to avoid clinical progression of the infection.

  17. Synthesis of new bioactive aminophosphonates and study of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well the assessment of their toxicological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiche, Rebiha; Chafaa, Salah

    2017-02-01

    Two new categories of α-aminophosphonates molecules were synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis, IR, and NMR. Their spectral properties show a perfect convergence. Their biological activities were evaluated. Molecules 1a, 2a, and 1d present a greater antioxidant potential than BHT and vitamin C. The best anti-inflammatory activity is shown by the 2b molecule and that of 1a, 2a, and 2c molecules are closely comparable to that of diclofenac. The antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds is significantly higher than the antibiotic amoxicillin. The hemolysis rate HR of compounds 1b, 1c, 2b, and 2c was lower than 5%.

  18. Cutaneous fistula due to pulmonary actinomycosis in a Mapuche girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Gaston; Guzman, Pablo; Schafer, Fabiola

    2013-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria of the genus Actinomyces. Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare infection in children, and its extension into the chest wall is infrequently reported. We report a case of pulmonary actinomycosis in a 14-year-old girl of Mapuche descent who presented with chronic respiratory symptoms and multiple discharging skin sinuses on her right lower chest wall. The diagnosis was made by skin biopsy, which showed sulfur granules with actinomyces colonies. She was successfully treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and penicillin G for 6 weeks, followed by oral amoxicillin for 6 months. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prevalence, virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from dairy farms and traditional dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Wuni, Alhassan; Akabanda, Fortune

    2017-01-01

    of B. cereus sensu lato isolated from cattle grazing soils and dairy products in Ghana. A total of 114 samples made up of 25 soil collected from cattle grazing farm land, 30 raw milk, 28 nunu (yoghurt-like product) and 31 woagashie (West African soft cheese). Ninety-six B. cereus sensu lato isolates......%), oxacillin (92%), penicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%), and cefepime (100%) but susceptible to other antibiotics tested. Conclusions: Bacillus cereus s. l. is prevalent in soil, raw milk and dairy products in Ghana. However, loads are at levels considered to be safe for consumption. Various enterotoxin...

  20. Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Famouri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Childrenwith Helicobacter infection need treatment. The aim of treatment is elimination of H.Pylori. Most patients with this infection are asymptomatic and without peptic disease. Treatment and management of these patients are controversy. Conventional Treatment: The best treatment for H. pylori eradication regimens should have cure rates of at least 80%, be without major side effects, and induce minimal bacterial resistance. Antibiotics alone have not achieved this. Luminal acidity influences both the effectiveness of some antimicrobial agents and the survival of the bacteri; thus antibiotics have been combined with acid suppression such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, bismuth, or H2 antagonists. The “classic” regimen is treatment twice daily for 7 days with a PPI and clarithromycin plus either amoxicillin or metronidazole Bismuth has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and 1 part o quadruple therapy for H.Pylori but compliance of children for it is low.   Sequential Therapy  Sequential therapyinvolves dual therapy with a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed sequentially by clarithromycin, Tinidazole and omeperazole for 5 days or other triple therapy for 7 days. This treatment has had 97% efficacy.   Adjunctive Therapies A number of studies have showed the potential benefits of probiotic therapy in H. pylori treatment regimens.Consumption of these drugs accompanied with other medications increase H.Pylori eradication.    

  1. Helicobacter pylori Primary Antibiotic Resistance in 2015 in Morocco: A Phenotypic and Genotypic Prospective and Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouihat, Najat; Burucoa, Christophe; Benkirane, Ahmed; Seddik, Hassan; Sentissi, Sara; Al Bouzidi, Abderrahmane; Elouennas, Mustapha; Benouda, Amina

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of local antibiotic resistance is crucial to adaption of the choice of effective empirical first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in Morocco, the prevalence of the primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and rifamycin. We conducted a 1-year prospective study (2015), including 255 Moroccan patients referred for gastro-duodenal endoscopy to two hospitals of Rabat (Morocco) and never previously treated for H. pylori infection. Three gastric biopsies were collected: one for histology, one for culture, and one for molecular detection of H. pylori and the mutations in 23S rRNA genes that confer resistance to clarithromycin. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on isolated strains by Etest and disk diffusion methods. One hundred seventy-seven patients were infected (69.4%). The prevalence of primary resistances of H. pylori to clarithromycin was 29%, 40% to metronidazole, 0% to amoxicillin, tetracycline, and rifamycin, and 11% to levofloxacin. Only four isolates (2%) were resistant to both clarithromycin and metronidazole. The high level of primary clarithromycin resistance in the H. pylori strains infecting the Moroccan population leads us to recommend the abandonment of the standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy as a first-line treatment in Morocco and to prefer a concomitant quadruple therapy.

  2. Effects of parenteral administration of enrofloxacin on electrocardiographic parameters in hospitalized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Agudelo Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of enrofloxacin on the QT interval of the electrocardiogram was studied in 30 hospitalized dogs. The experimental group (n = 15 received enrofloxacin parenterally (subcutaneously at a dose of 5 mg/kg twice daily and amoxicillin-clavulanate intravenously at a dose of 22 mg/kg three times daily. The control group (n = 15 received only amoxicillin-clavulanate. Electrocardiography was carried out for 5 min once daily for 6 days. The QT interval was corrected by four different formulae. No differences were found between the two groups or within each group for the duration of the study. On the last day of the study the average QT interval for the control and experimental groups was 213.2 ms and 202.9 ms, respectively. Enrofloxacin did not cause prolongation of the QT or corrected QT intervals. We can conclude that the parenteral administration of enrofloxacin in non-cardiac dogs does not adversely affect the electrocardiographic indicators (no prolongation of the QT or corrected QT interval and does not induce ventricular arrhythmias. Parenteral use of enrofloxacin is thus safe and effective in non-cardiac dogs.

  3. [Sensitivity of microbial associations of periodontal lesions to antibacterial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeeva, I M; Daurova, F Yu; Byakova, S F; Ippolitov, E V; Gostev, M S; Polikushina, A O; Shubin, E V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the development of approaches to improve the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in dental practice on the basis of determining the sensitivity of pathogenic microorganisms to antibiotics of different groups. The study included determination of the sensitivity of the microbial complexes from wound exudate of periodontal pocket and apical abscess to macrolides, quinolones, penicillins, lincosamides and 5-nitroimidazole. A survey of dentists and dental clinics patients to identify the cause and frequency of use of antibiotics and to identify possible adverse reactions was also conducted. Dentists prefer macrolide antibiotics, protected penicillins, and fluoroquinolone combined with 5-nitroimidazole. All patients have taken antibiotics themselves at least once a year. Microbial complexes in patients with acute and exacerbated apical periodontitis in 79% of cases are susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, to azithromycin - 52%, lincomycin - 36%, 5-nitroimidazole - 68%, ciprofloxacin - 73.7%. In patients with apical abscess high rates of resistance of microbial complexes to all types of antibiotics was revealed (33% for lincomycin 76,1% for ciprofloxacin, 28,6% for 5-nitroimidazole). Patients with moderate to severe periodontitis in 90.5% are sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and azithromycin, in 62.4% to lincomycin. Sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was detected in 85.7% of patients, in 14.3% - moderate resistance.

  4. The periodontal abscess (II). Short-term clinical and microbiological efficacy of 2 systemic antibiotic regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, D; Roldán, S; O'Connor, A; Sanz, M

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this short-term open parallel longitudinal clinical study was to compare the clinical and microbiological efficacy of 2 different antibiotic regimes in the treatment of acute periodontal abscesses. After patient selection, a clinical examination was carried out recording the following variables: pain, edema, redness, swelling, bleeding on probing, suppuration, tooth mobility, lymphadenopathy, and probing pocket depth. Microbiological samples were taken from the lesion and the patient was randomly assigned to one of two antibiotic regimes: azithromycin or amoxicillin/clavulanate. Clinical variables were recorded, and microbiological samples were taken, at 3-5 days, 10-12 days and 30 days. Additional mechanical treatment (debridement and scaling) was performed in the third visit (10-12 days). Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and after 10-12 days. Microbiological samples were processed by anaerobic culturing, and isolated periodontal pathogens were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by means of the spiral gradient endpoint methodology. 15 patients took azithromycin, and 14 amoxicillin/clavulanate. Subjective clinical variables demonstrated statistically significant improvements with both antibiotic regimes, which lasted for at least 1 month (pperiodontal abscesses in periodontitis patients.

  5. Recommended treatment for urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercaigne, L M; Zhanel, G G

    1994-02-01

    To establish and recommend a therapeutic regimen for the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy based on the published studies. An English-language literature search employing MEDLINE, Index Medicus, and bibliographic reviews of the references obtained were searched (key terms: urinary tract infection, UTI, pregnancy, bacteriuria). All identified human studies dealing with bacteriuria or UTI in pregnancy were analyzed. Limited data are available regarding the appropriate antibiotic management of UTI in pregnancy. Single-dose cure rates with amoxicillin are approximately 80 percent. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole provides cure rates of greater than 80 percent. Cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin produce variable results. We recommend separating pregnant subjects with UTI into two groups. Those with asymptomatic bacteriuria can be treated with a single dose of an antimicrobial to which the organism is susceptible. For those with symptomatic UTI, we recommend amoxicillin 500 mg tid for three days. Urine cultures should be repeated seven days following therapy to assess cure or failure. Well-designed studies need to be performed, comparing single-dose and three-day therapy for UTI in pregnancy.

  6. Are postoperative intravenous antibiotics necessary after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S K; Lo, J; Zwahlen, R A

    2011-12-01

    Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is often administered intravenously, despite an increased morbidity rate compared with oral application. This study investigates whether a postoperative oral antibiotic regimen is as effective as incorporation of intravenous antibiotics after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. 42 patients who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery between December 2008 and May 2010 were randomly allocated to 2 placebo-controlled postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis groups. Group 1 received oral amoxicillin 500mg three times daily; group 2 received intravenous ampicillin 1g four times daily, during the first two postoperative days. Both groups subsequently took oral amoxicillin for three more days. Clinically, the infection rate was assessed in both study groups for a period of 6 weeks after the surgery. 9 patients (21.4%) developed infection. No adverse drug event was detected. No significant difference (p=0.45) was detected in the infection rate between group 1 (3/21) and group 2 (6/21). Age, type of surgical procedures, duration of the operative procedure, surgical procedure-related events, blood loss, and blood transfusion were all found not related to infection (p>0.05). Administration of more cost-effective oral antibiotic prophylaxis, which causes less comorbidity, can be considered to be safe in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery with segmentalizations. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustained Release of Antibacterial Agents from Doped Halloysite Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Patel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanomaterials for improving drug delivery methods has been shown to be advantageous technically and viable economically. This study employed the use of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs as nanocontainers, as well as enhancers of structural integrity in electrospun poly-e-caprolactone (PCL scaffolds. HNTs were loaded with amoxicillin, Brilliant Green, chlorhexidine, doxycycline, gentamicin sulfate, iodine, and potassium calvulanate and release profiles assessed. Selected doped halloysite nanotubes (containing either Brilliant Green, amoxicillin and potassium calvulanate were then mixed with poly-e-caprolactone (PLC using the electrospinning method and woven into random and oriented-fibered nanocomposite mats. The rate of drug release from HNTs, HNTs/PCL nanocomposites, and their effect on inhibiting bacterial growth was investigated. Release profiles from nanocomposite mats showed a pattern of sustained release for all bacterial agents. Nanocomposites were able to inhibit bacterial growth for up to one-month with only a slight decrease in bacterial growth inhibition. We propose that halloysite doped nanotubes have the potential for use in a variety of medical applications including sutures and surgical dressings, without compromising material properties.

  8. Sustained Release of Antibacterial Agents from Doped Halloysite Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shraddha; Jammalamadaka, Uday; Sun, Lin; Tappa, Karthik; Mills, David K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials for improving drug delivery methods has been shown to be advantageous technically and viable economically. This study employed the use of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) as nanocontainers, as well as enhancers of structural integrity in electrospun poly-e-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. HNTs were loaded with amoxicillin, Brilliant Green, chlorhexidine, doxycycline, gentamicin sulfate, iodine, and potassium calvulanate and release profiles assessed. Selected doped halloysite nanotubes (containing either Brilliant Green, amoxicillin and potassium calvulanate) were then mixed with poly-e-caprolactone (PLC) using the electrospinning method and woven into random and oriented-fibered nanocomposite mats. The rate of drug release from HNTs, HNTs/PCL nanocomposites, and their effect on inhibiting bacterial growth was investigated. Release profiles from nanocomposite mats showed a pattern of sustained release for all bacterial agents. Nanocomposites were able to inhibit bacterial growth for up to one-month with only a slight decrease in bacterial growth inhibition. We propose that halloysite doped nanotubes have the potential for use in a variety of medical applications including sutures and surgical dressings, without compromising material properties. PMID:28952563

  9. Targeted adsorption of molecules in the colon with the novel adsorbent-based medicinal product, DAV132: A proof of concept study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gunzburg, Jean; Ducher, Annie; Modess, Christiane; Wegner, Danilo; Oswald, Stefan; Dressman, Jennifer; Augustin, Violaine; Feger, Céline; Andremont, Antoine; Weitschies, Werner; Siegmund, Werner

    2015-01-01

    During antibiotic treatments, active residuals reaching the colon profoundly affect the bacterial flora resulting in the emergence of resistance. To prevent these effects, we developed an enteric-coated formulated activated-charcoal based product, DAV132, meant to deliver its adsorbent to the ileum and neutralize antibiotic residues in the proximal colon. In a randomized, control, crossover study, the plasma pharmacokinetics of the probe drugs amoxicillin (500 mg) absorbed in the proximal intestine, and sulfapyridine (25 mg) metabolized from sulfasalazine in the cecum and rapidly absorbed, were compared after a single administration in 18 healthy subjects who had received DAV132, uncoated formulated activated charcoal (FAC) or water 16 and 8 hours before, concomitantly with the probe drugs, and 8 hours thereafter. The AUC0-96 h of amoxicillin was reduced by more than 70% when it was taken with FAC, but bioequivalent when it was taken with water or DAV132. By contrast, the AUC0-96 h of sulfapyridine was reduced by more than 90% when administered with either FAC or DAV132 in comparison with water. The results show that DAV132 can selectively adsorb drug compounds in the proximal colon, without interfering with drug absorption in the proximal small intestine, thereby constituting a proof of concept that DAV132 actually functions in humans. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. A better cure rate with 800 mg than with 400 mg clarithromycin regimens in one-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection in cigarette-smoking peptic ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Hidehiko; Mizuno, Motowo; Take, Susumu; Ishiki, Kuniharu; Nagahara, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tomowo; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Kenji; Oguma, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    In Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, using a proton pump inhibitor plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin (PPI/AC regimen), the impact of the clarithromycin dose and smoking on efficacy is conflicting. Here, we compared the efficacy of 400 and 800 mg of clarithromycin in the regimen in relation to smoking in patients with peptic ulcer disease. We studied 601 H. pylori-positive patients with peptic ulcer disease who had received amoxicillin 750 mg and clarithromycin 200 or 400 mg together with lansoprazole 30 mg b.i.d. 305 patients were treated with a regimen containing 400 mg of clarithromycin (C400 group), and 296 patients with a regimen containing 800 mg (C800 group). Overall cure rates between the two groups were not significantly different, but the cure rate in the C800 group was significantly better than that in the C400 group among patients infected with clarithromycin-sensitive strains (p = 0.03). This difference could be attributed to differences among smokers versus non-smokers: the cure rate among smokers in the C800 group (91.0%) was better than that in the C400 group (80.0%, p = 0.003). 800 mg of clarithromycin is recommended in the PPI/AC regimen for patients who smoke and are infected with clarithromycin-sensitive H. pylori. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Cure of Helicobacter pylori-associated ulcer disease through eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfertheiner, P; Leodolter, A; Peitz, U

    2000-02-01

    The eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has led to a dramatic benefit for patients with gastroduodenal ulcer disease, as the majority of these patients receive a lifelong cure. Relapses after successful H. pylori cure may be caused by either recrudescence or reinfection, both rare events nowadays, or be attributed to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin intake. In certain geographical areas, H. pylori-negative relapses are proposed as a new, pathophysiological and not yet elucidated entity. The cure of H. pylori infection in uncomplicated duodenal ulcer diseases consists of 7 days of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) based triple therapy, containing two antibiotics from clarithromycin, amoxicillin and metronidazole. In gastric ulcer, it is recommended that the PPI is continued for a further 3 weeks as these ulcers have a prolonged healing time. Rescue therapies after failure need to take into consideration the resistance pattern of the micro-organism and are offered in the form of quadruple therapy or a high-dose PPI with amoxicillin.

  12. Fosfomycin trometamol: a review of its use as a single-dose oral treatment for patients with acute lower urinary tract infections and pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-11-01

    Fosfomycin trometamol (fosfomycin tromethamine) [Monuril(®), Monurol(®), Monural(®)] is approved in numerous countries worldwide, mainly for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Fosfomycin has good in vitro activity against common uropathogens, such as Escherichia coli (including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli), Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and the susceptibility of uropathogens to fosfomycin has remained relatively stable over time. A single oral dose of fosfomycin trometamol 3 g (the approved dosage) achieves high concentrations in urine. Results of recent randomized trials indicate that single-dose fosfomycin trometamol had similar clinical and/or bacteriological efficacy to 3- to 7-day regimens of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, cotrimoxazole or nitrofurantoin in women with uncomplicated lower UTIs. In addition, single-dose fosfomycin trometamol had similar bacteriological efficacy to a 5-day course of cefuroxime axetil or a 7-day course of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria, and similar clinical and/or bacteriological efficacy to a 5-day course of cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or a 3-day course of ceftibuten in pregnant women with a lower UTI. Single-dose fosfomycin trometamol was generally well tolerated, with gastrointestinal adverse events (e.g. diarrhoea, nausea) reported most commonly. In conclusion, single-dose fosfomycin trometamol is an important option for the first-line empirical treatment of uncomplicated lower UTIs.

  13. Gingival bleeding, a possible "serious" adverse drug reaction: An observational study in the French PharmacoVigilance Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Mourgues, Thibaut; Rousseau, Vanessa; Cousty, Sarah; Cottin, Judith; Drablier, Guillaume; Micallef, Joëlle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2017-09-01

    Antithrombotic drugs are known to increase the risk of gingival bleeding because they affect coagulation. However, other drugs could also be involved in gingival bleeding. We performed a pharmacoepidemiological study to identify the drugs most frequently "suspected" in the occurrence of gingival bleeding. We selected reports of "gingival bleeding" from 1 January 1985 to 30 September 2014 in the French PharmacoVigilance Database. Among 523,808 reports of adverse drug reactions, we identified 454 reports of gingival bleeding (0.09%). Most of them were "serious" (58.4%) and occurred in females (54.6%). The frequency of gingival bleeding increased with age. The most frequently "suspected" drugs were antithrombotics (67.8%), particularly fluindione. Other drugs frequently involved were furosemide followed by paracetamol, amiodarone, amoxicillin, paroxetine, ketoprofen, zolpidem, enalapril and ramipril. Thirty-nine reports involved a drug-drug interaction with antithrombotics, mainly with anti-infectives. Gingival bleeding can be an adverse drug reaction, often "serious" and rarely fatal. Patients older than 50 years and women are particularly at risk. Among drugs known to increase the risk of gingival bleeding, the most frequently involved were fluindione, furosemide, paracetamol, amiodarone, amoxicillin, paroxetine or ketoprofen. We also identified signal for drugs not usually known to be involved in bleeding, like zolpidem, enalapril or ramipril. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Frequency of resistance in obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from dogs, cats, and horses to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhon, S D; Taylor, A; Fajt, V R

    2013-11-01

    Clinical specimens from dogs, cats, and horses were examined for the presence of obligate anaerobic bacteria. Of 4,018 specimens cultured, 368 yielded 606 isolates of obligate anaerobic bacteria (248 from dogs, 50 from cats, and 308 from horses). There were 100 specimens from 94 animals from which only anaerobes were isolated (25 dogs, 8 cats, and 61 horses). The most common sites tested were abdominal fluid (dogs and cats) and intestinal contents (horses). The most common microorganism isolated from dogs, cats, and horses was Clostridium perfringens (75, 13, and101 isolates, respectively). The MICs of amoxicillin with clavulanate, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and penicillin were determined using a gradient endpoint method for anaerobes. Isolates collected at necropsy were not tested for antimicrobial susceptibility unless so requested by the clinician. There were 1/145 isolates tested that were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate (resistance breakpoint ≥ 16/8 μg/ml), 7/77 isolates tested were resistant to ampicillin (resistance breakpoint ≥ 2 μg/ml), 4/242 isolates tested were resistant to chloramphenicol (resistance breakpoint ≥ 32 μg/ml), 12/158 isolates tested were resistant to clindamycin (resistance breakpoint ≥ 8 μg/ml), 10/247 isolates tested were resistant to metronidazole (resistance breakpoint ≥ 32 μg/ml), and 54/243 isolates tested were resistant to penicillin (resistance breakpoint ≥ 2 μg/ml). These data suggest that anaerobes are generally susceptible to antimicrobial drugs in vitro.

  15. Increasing antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group bacteria and emergence of MRSP in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, L; Bond, R; Graham, P A; Jackson, B; Lloyd, D H; Loeffler, A

    2015-02-14

    Frequencies of antimicrobial resistance were determined amongst 14,555 clinical Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) isolates from UK dogs and cats to estimate resistance trends and quantify the occurrence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Reports from two diagnostic laboratories (13,313 general submissions, 1242 referral centre only submissions) were analysed retrospectively (2003/2006-2012). MRSP were defined by phenotypic resistance to meticillin and concurrent broad β-lactam resistance; a subset was confirmed genetically (SIG-specific nuc and mecA). Trends were analysed by Cochran-Armitage test. Resistance remained below 10 per cent for cefalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and the fluoroquinolones. Increasing resistance trends were seen in both laboratories for ampicillin/amoxicillin (both PResistance to cefalexin increased over time in referral hospital isolates (Presistance to important antimicrobials was identified overtime and the emergence of MRSP from UK clinical cases was confirmed. Attention to responsible use of antibacterial therapy in small animal practice is urgently needed. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Antibiotic Prescribing Habits of Dental Surgeons in Hyderabad City, India, for Pulpal and Periapical Pathologies: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pavan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the antibiotic prescribing habits for pulpal and periapical pathology among dentists in Hyderabad city, India. Methodology. A total of 246 questionnaires were distributed to all the dentists registered with the local dental branch. Demographic details and questions regarding type and dosage of antibiotics prescribed for allergic and nonallergic patients were recorded. Inferential statistics were performed, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The response rate for the study was 87.8%. Around 148 (68.5% of respondents regularly prescribed antibiotics for endodontic management. The first antibiotic of choice for patients with no history of medical allergies was a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole, followed by amoxicillin alone (29.1%. The first antibiotic of choice in case of allergy to penicillin was erythromycin. Necrotic pulp with acute apical periodontitis with swelling and moderate/severe preoperative symptom was the condition most commonly identified for antibiotic therapy (92.1%. Conclusion. The present study reveals that the overall antibiotic prescribing practices among this group of dentists were quite high, and there is a need for more educational initiatives to rationalize the use of antibiotics in dentistry.

  17. Validation of the BetaStar® Advanced for Beta-lactams Test Kit for the Screening of Bulk Tank and Tanker Truck Milks for the Presence of Beta-lactam Drug Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhartigh, Andrew; Reynolds, Lindsay; Palmer, Katherine; Klein, Frank; Rice, Jennifer; Rejman, John J

    2018-05-18

    A validation study was conducted for an immunochromatographic method (BetaStar ® Advanced for Beta-lactams) for the detection of beta-lactam residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay detected amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin, cephapirin, and ceftiofur below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tolerance levels but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments. The results of internal and independent laboratory dose-response studies employing spiked samples were in agreement. The test detected all six drugs at the approximate 90/95% sensitivity levels in milk from cows treated with each drug. Selectivity of the assay was 100%, as no false-positive results were obtained in testing 1148 control milk samples. Testing the estimated 90/95% sensitivity level for amoxicillin (8.5 ppb), ampicillin (6.9 ppb), cloxacillin (8.9 ppb), penicillin (4.2 ppb), and cephapirin (17.6 ppb), and at 100 ppb for each antibiotic, resulted in 94-100% positive tests for each of the beta-lactam drugs. The results of ruggedness experiments established the operating parameter tolerances for the assay. Cross-reactivity testing established that the assay detects other certain beta-lactam drugs, but it does not cross-react with any of 30 drugs belonging to seven different drug classes. Abnormally high bacterial or somatic cell counts in raw milk produced no assay interference.

  18. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women receiving ante-natal care in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeinde, Bankole H; Omoregie, Richard; Oladeinde, Oladapo B

    2015-01-01

    A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. Clean-catch urine was collected from 220 pregnant women attending a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria. Urine samples were processed, and microbial isolates identified using standard bacteriological procedures. A cross-sectional study design was used. The prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women was 55.0%, significantly affected by parity and gestational age (Pinfection was recorded among 13(10.7%) pregnant women, and was unaffected by maternal age, parity, gravidity, gestational age, and educational status. Irrespective of trimester Escherichia coli was the most prevalent etiologic agent of urinary tract infection, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. The flouroquinolones were the most effective antibacterial agents, while Sulphamethoxazole-trimetoprim, Amoxicillin, Nalidixic acid, and Nitrofurantoin had poor activity against uropathogens isolated. The prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women was 55.0% and significantly affected by gestational age and parity. The most prevalent etiologic agent observed was Escherichia coli. With the exception of the flouroquinolones, aminoglycoside, and Amoxicillin-cluvanate, the activity of other antibiotics used on uropathogens were poor. Health education of the traditional birth attendant and her clients by relevant intervention agencies is strongly advocated.

  19. Antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Mashhad, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zendedel, A.; Almasi, V.; Moradimoghadam, F.; Zivarifar, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate Helicobacter pylori resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and tetracycline in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study was done from January to May 2008 in Mashhad, involving 185 patients who had been indicated for endoscopy and lesions had been found. Biopsy samples were assessed with histological evaluation, rapid urease test, and culture. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by the disc diffusion method. Data was analysed with SPSS 11.5 using chi-square and Fisher exact test. P values of < 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. Results: Of the total patients, histological evaluations were positive in 124 (67%). Compared with histology, sensitivity and specificity of rapid urease test were 96.7% and 100%, respectively. In 82 (66.1%) patients with positive cultures, antibiotic resistance was found in 14 (17.1%) for clarithromycin; 53 (64.6%) for metronidazole; and 8 (9.8%) for amoxicillin. No resistance was observed for tetracycline. Moreover, 9 (64%) patients with resistance to clarithromycin had co-resistance to metronidazole. Conclusion: Metronidazole is not recommended for treatment of Helicobacter pylori as a first-line drug. Also, considering the sensitivity and specificity of rapid urease test, we suggest this method as a suitable alternative for histology. (author)

  20. In vitro activity of fluoroquinolones (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin and trovafloxacin and seven other antibiotics against Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicodemo A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the level of resistance of S. pneumoniae to beta-lactam and/or macrolides has increased around the world including some countries in South America. Because of this resistance, it is necessary to test the therapeutic alternatives for treating this pathogen, including the newer quinolones. This study was carried out in order to compare the in vitro activity of fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, levofloxacin and trovafloxacin, to penicillin G, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cufuroxime sodium, ceftriaxone, azithromycin and clarithromycin, against 300 strains of S. pneumoniae. Of the 300 samples tested, 18.6% were not susceptible to penicillin (56 strains and 7% (21 strains were resistant to the second generation cephalosporin. Among the macrolides, resistance ranged from 6.7% for clarithromycin to 29.6% for azithromycin. Susceptibility to the newer quinolones was 100% including the 56 strains not susceptible to penicillin. Among the 10 antibiotics evaluated, the fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin displayed high levels of in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae.

  1. Antibiotic prescription: An oral physician′s point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Patait

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotics are important in the management and prophylaxis of infections in patients at a risk of experiencing microbial disease. Uses of systemic antibiotics in dentistry are limited since management of acute dental conditions is primarily based upon extraction of teeth or extirpation of the pulp. However, the literature provides evidence of inappropriate prescribing practices by practitioners, due to a number of factors from inadequate knowledge to social factors. Aim: The aim was to assess the therapeutic prescription of antibiotics in the dental office. Materials and Methods: In the current study, 42 faculty members of two dental colleges in the same vicinity were included. A questionnaire was drafted and sent to the dentists to collect data pertaining to the conditions in which antibiotics were prescribed and most commonly prescribed antibiotic. Results: During the study period, 42 faculty members from various departments in the institutes were surveyed, of which 41 questionnaires were completely filled. Amoxicillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic followed by other amoxicillin combinations; Metronidazole was most widely prescribed antibiotic for anaerobic infections. Conclusion: We have entered an era where cures may be few due to increasing microbial resistance. The biggest force for change will be if all practicing dentists looked at their prescribing and made it more rational.

  2. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: antibiotics at dental implant placement to prevent complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Worthington, Helen V

    2013-07-31

    events (gastrointestinal, hypersensitivity, etc). Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the risk of bias of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two review authors. Results were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) using a random-effects model for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity, including both clinical and methodological factors, was to be investigated. Six RCTs with 1162 participants were included: three trials compared 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (927 participants), one compared 3 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (55 participants), one compared 1 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 500 mg four times a day for two days versus no antibiotics (80 participants), and one compared four groups: (1) 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin; (2) 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 1 g twice a day for seven days; (3) 1 g of postoperative amoxicillin twice a day for seven days, and (4) no antibiotics (100 participants). The overall body of evidence was considered to be of moderate quality. The meta-analyses of the six trials showed a statistically significant higher number of participants experiencing implant failures in the group not receiving antibiotics (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.67, P value 0.002, heterogeneity: Tau(2) 0.00; Chi(2) 2.87, df = 5 (P value 0.57); I(2) 0%). The number needed to treat for one additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) to prevent one person having an implant failure is 25 (95% CI 14 to 100), based on an implant failure rate of 6% in participants not receiving antibiotics. There was borderline statistical significance for prosthesis failures (RR 0.44; 95% CI 0.19 to 1.00), with no statistically significant differences for infections (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.36 to 1.35), or adverse events (RR 1; 95% CI 0.06 to 15.85) (only two minor adverse events were recorded, one in the placebo group). No conclusive information can be derived from the only trial that

  3. Drug-Induced QTc Interval Prolongation: A Multicenter Study to Detect Drugs and Clinical Factors Involved in Every Day Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Guillermo A; Alvarez, Paulino A; Ponte, Marcelo L; Belloso, Waldo H; Bagnes, Claudia; Sparanochia, Cecilia; Gonzalez, Claudio D; Villa Etchegoyen, M Cecilia; Diez, Roberto A; Di Girolamo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The actual prevalence of drug induced QTc prolongation in clinical practice is unknown. Our objective was to determine the occurrence and characteristics of drug-induced QT prolongation in several common clinical practices. Additionally, a subgroup of patients treated with dextropropoxyphene of particular interest for the regulatory authority was analysed. Medical history and comorbidities predisposing to QT interval prolongation were registered for 1270 patient requiring medical assistance that involved drug administration. Three ionograms and ECGs were performed: baseline, intra- and after treatment; QT interval was corrected with Bazzet formula. Among patients, 9.9% presented QTc >450/470 ms, 3% QTc > 500 ms, 12.7% ΔQTc >30 ms and 5.2% ΔQTc >60 ms. QTc prolongation associated with congestive heart failure, ischemic cardiopathy, diabetes, renal failure, arrhythmias, hypothyroidism, and bradycardia. At univariate analysis, clarithromycin, haloperidol, tramadol, amiodarone, glyceryl trinitrate, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, amoxicillin + sulbactam, ampicillin + sulbactam, fentanyl, piperacillin + tazobactam, and diazepam prolonged QTc. Prolongation remained significantly associated with furosemide, clarithromycin, glyceryl trinitrate and betalactamase inhibitors after multivariate analysis. QT interval prolongation in everyday practice is frequent, in association to clinical factors and drugs that can be easily identified for monitoring and prevention strategies.

  4. Potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Aeromonas species isolated from pet turtles and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalasena, S H M P; Shin, Gee-Wook; Hossain, Sabrina; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2017-05-23

    To investigate the potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonads from pet turtles as a risk for human infection, one hundred and two Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the feces, skin and rearing environments of pet turtles and identified by biochemical and gyrB sequence analyses. Aeromonas enteropelogenes was the predominant species among the isolates (52.9%) followed by A. hydrophila (32.4%), A. dharkensis (5.9%), A. veronii (4.9%) and A. caviae (3.9%). Their potential enterotoxicities were evaluated by PCR assays for detecting genes encoding cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) and two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast). 75.8% of A. hydrophila isolates exhibited the act + /alt + /ast + genotype, whereas 94.4% of A. enteropelogenes isolates were determined to be act - /alt - /ast - . In an antimicrobial susceptibility test, most isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics except amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Non-susceptible isolates to penicillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin) and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin) were frequently observed among the A. enteropelogenes isolates. Few isolates were resistant to imipenem, amikacin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Collectively, these results suggest that pet turtles may pose a public health risk of infection by enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial resistant Aeromonas strains.

  5. The Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on HNP1-3 Level in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Chronic Periodontitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolińska, Ewa; Skurska, Anna; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Dymicka-Piekarska, Violetta; Milewski, Robert; Pietruski, Jan; Sculean, Anton

    2017-08-01

    The rich bacterial flora of oral cavity is controlled by innate immune response, including antibacterial peptides and among them human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (HNP1-3). The knowledge of the involvement of HNPs in innate and acquired immunity of the periodontium is fragmentary. The aim of the study was to assess alterations in HNP1-3 levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis patients before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Nineteen patients with chronic periodontitis were qualified to the study. After periodontal examination, one site with pocket depth (PD) ≥4 mm was selected. All the patients received periodontal treatment involving scaling and root planing with additional systemic antibiotic therapy (Amoxicillin 375 mg three times daily and Metronidazole 250 mg three times daily for 7 days). Prior to therapy, 3 and 6 months after it, clinical periodontal parameters were measured and GCF was collected from previously chosen site. The level of HNP1-3 in GCF was determined by means of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. The periodontal therapy caused a statistically significant (p periodontal therapy with additional systemic administration of Amoxicillin and Metronidazole increases the level of HNP1-3 in GCF.

  6. Detection of coliform bacteria, determination of phylogenetic typing and antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli in qanats and springs of East-Azerbaijan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shabani Lokarani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli as a fecal contamination and is considered as an index in water. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of E. coli and antibiotic resistance of the isolates collected from qanats and springs in East-Azerbaijan province. For this purpose, 118 samples were selected from above mentioned area and examined by MPN method. The positive coliform samples were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Afterwards, to determine the genetic diversity of E. coli isolates, phylogenetic typing we conducted by means of multiplex PCR. To determine the antibiotic resistance profile, antibiotic discs of Nalidixic Acid, Co-trimoxazol, Amoxicillin, Gentamaicin Ciprofloxacin, Chloramphenicol, Imipenem, Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime antibiogram were used. Based on results, 48% of the samples were evaluated as positive for coliform including 40% for E. coli and 19% for Klebsiella. Amongst 23 isolates confirmed as E. coli by PCR. Phylogenetic typing revealed  that 44% of E. coli strains belonged to type D and B2 and 56% belonged to A and B1 phylotypes. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern showed that 92% of E. coli isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin. All E. coli isolates were sensitive to Imipenem. It was concluded that presence of pathogenic E. coli with high rate of antibacterial resistance in waters source could be considered as a human health hazard.

  7. Occurrence of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in the Wildlife: First Report of OXA-48 in Wild Boars in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiri, Taous; Bakour, Sofiane; Lalaoui, Rym; Belkebla, Nadia; Allouache, Meriem; Rolain, Jean Marc; Touati, Abdelaziz

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen for the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) isolates from wild boars and Barbary macaques in Algeria. Fecal samples were collected from wild boars (n = 168) and Barbary macaques (n = 212), in Bejaia, Algeria, between September 2014 and April 2016. The isolates were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. Carbapenem resistance determinants were studied using PCR and sequencing, while clonal relatedness was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR was used to investigate certain virulence genes. Three CPE isolates from three different samples (1.8%) recovered from wild boars were identified as Escherichia coli (two isolates) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (one isolate). These isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, tobramycin, ertapenem, and meropenem. The results of PCR and sequencing analysis showed that all three isolates produced the OXA-48 enzyme. The MLST showed that the two E. coli isolates were assigned to the same sequence type, ST635, and belonged to phylogroup A, whereas K. pneumoniae strain belonged to ST13. The K. pneumoniae strain was positive for multiple virulence factors, whereas no virulence determinants were found in E. coli isolates. This is the first report of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae in wild animals from Algeria and Africa.

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of anaerobic pathogens in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, A C M; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2015-02-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the Bacteroides fragilis group, Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC), Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp., Veillonella spp. and Bilophila wadsworthia for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, clindamycin and metronidazole was determined. Human clinical isolates were isolated between 2011 and 2013 at the Microbiological Diagnostic Laboratory of the University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS identification and susceptibility testing using E-test for MIC determination. Differences in clindamycin susceptibility between species of the B. fragilis group and GPAC were observed, with Bacteroides ovatus and Peptoniphilus harei having the highest resistance rates. Compared to other European countries, in The Netherlands the MIC90 for clindamycin of fusobacteria is low. Metronidazole resistance was first encountered in the genus Prevotella in 2013, but not in species of GPAC as reported in Belgium and Bulgaria. The differences in clindamycin resistance between the different European countries and reports of metronidazole resistance within the genera Prevotella and GPAC warrant more extensive susceptibility studies on anaerobic pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of Levofloxacin-Based Third-Line Therapy for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Peptic Ulcer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Song, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Han, Jae Pil; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Ji Hyun; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kim, Gwang Ha; Shim, Ki-Nam; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Sun Moon; Chung, Il-Kwon; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Heung Up; Lee, Joongyub; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2017-03-15

    The resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori is gradually increasing. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication in peptic ulcer disease. Between 2002 and 2014, 110 patients in 14 medical centers received levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease. Of these, 88 were included in the study; 21 were excluded because of lack of follow-up and one was excluded for poor compliance. Their eradication rates, treatment regimens and durations, and types of peptic ulcers were analyzed. The overall eradiation rate was 71.6%. The adherence rate was 80.0%. All except one received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin. One received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, and clarithromycin, and the eradication was successful. Thirty-one were administered the therapy for 7 days, 25 for 10 days, and 32 for 14 days. No significant differences were observed in the eradication rates between the three groups (7-days, 80.6% vs 10-days, 64.0% vs 14-days, 68.8%, p=0.353). Additionally, no differences were found in the eradiation rates according to the type of peptic ulcer (gastric ulcer, 73.2% vs duodenal/gastroduodenal ulcer, 68.8%, p=0.655). Levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication showed efficacy similar to that of previously reported first/second-line therapies.

  10. Prevalence and emerging resistance of Moraxella catarrhalis in lower respiratory tract infections in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, F.E.; Ahuja, K.R.; Kumar, H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Moraxella catarrhalis in sputum cultures from patients with lower respiratory tract infection and their antimicrobial sensitivity profiles. Methods: The study comprised sputum specimens of 776 patients at various branches of Dr Essa's Diagnostic Lab, Karachi. The specimens were cultured on blood, chocolate, and eosin methylene blue agars between October 2010 and October 2011. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and anti-biograms were determined by the Kirby-Bauer Agar Disc Diffusion Method. Results: Moraxella catarrhalis was isolated from 39 (5.02%) sputa of which 18 (46.15%) belonged to males. The bimodal age prevalence was 238 (30.7%) in age group 20-29 years, and 180 (23.1%) in 70 years and above. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone were most effective (100%). Very high resistance was seen with amikacin (92.3%), cefixime (92.3%), fosfomycin (84.6%), cefuroxime (84.6%), erythromycin and amoxicillin (76.9%), cotrimoxazole (90%) and doxycycline (76.9%). Conclusions: The incidence of Moraxella catarrhalis in sputum encourages routine culture and sensitivity of sputa from patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infection, especially the elderly and immunocompromised, for tailored drug prescription. (author)

  11. Necrotizing cellulitis with multiple abscesses on the leg caused by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Estelle; Bouaziz, Jean-David; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Saussine, Anne; Masson, Vincent; Rausky, Jonathan; Bagot, Martine; Guibal, Fabien

    2016-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is an unusual cause of severe skin infection initially described in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of necrotizing cellulitis of the leg caused by S marcescens in a 68-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and a history of chronic lymphoedema of the leg. We reviewed the literature and found 49 cases of severe skin infections from S marcescens that included 20 cases of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) as well as 29 cases of severe skin infections without NF (non-NF cases). Patients were immunocompromised in 59% to 70% of cases. The mortality rate was high in NF cases (60%) versus non-NF cases (3%). Surgery was required in 95% of NF cases and in 24% of non-NF cases. The other clinical manifestations of S marcescens skin infection reported in the literature included disseminated papular eruptions in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus with folliculitis on the trunk. Serratia marcescens is naturally resistant to amoxicillin alone and amoxicillin associated with clavulanic acid. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are indicated to treat S marcescens skin infections, and surgery should be promptly considered in cases of severe skin infections if appropriate antibiotic therapy does not lead to rapid improvement.

  12. The efficacy of levofloxacin-based triple therapy for first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Aydın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard triple therapy composed of a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin and amoxicillin has been widely preferred for H. pylori eradication in Turkey and World. Alternative therapies are currently under investigation because of an increase in clarithromycin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a levoflox-acin-containing triple therapy.Materials and methods: The study was carried out in 81 H. pylori-infected patients (52 female, 29 male with nonul-cer dyspepsia. The mean age was found 46.3 ± 13.9. Treatment was indicated with lansoprazol 30 mg b.d., amoxicil-lin 1 g b.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg daily for 7 days. H. pylori status was rechecked by (14C urea breath test 6-8 weeks after the end of therapy.Results: Totally 81 patients could complete the treatment and follow-up protocol. Effectiveness was 68%. The distrib-tions of age, gender and smoking were similar between eradicated and non-eradicated groups (p > 0.05.Conclusion: Seven-day levofloxacin based triple therapy is not very effective in the first-line treatment of H. pylori in-fection. The new treatment modalities should be investigated.

  13. [Antibiotic prescribing in acute respiratory tract infections in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, S; Bjerrum, L; Feja, C; Lallana, M J; Poncel, A; Rabanaque, M J

    2015-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide threat to public health. Acute respiratory tract infections are the main reason for antibiotic prescribing in the Spanish paediatric population. The aim of the study was to describe the frequency of antibiotic prescription and their pattern of use in acute respiratory tract infections diagnosed in children in Primary Care in Aragón (Spain). A study was conducted over a 1-year period on children between 0 and 14 years-old, recording all episodes of acute otitis, acute pharyngotonsillitis, non-specific upper respiratory infection, and acute bronchitis. The proportion of episodes within each diagnosis receiving an antibiotic prescription was calculated, and the prescribing pattern was determined. Half (50%) of the children in Aragón were diagnosed with a respiratory tract infection during the study period. Non-specific upper respiratory infection was the most frequent diagnosis. An antibiotic was prescribed in 75% of pharyngotonsillitis episodes, 72% of otitis, 27% of bronchitis, and 16% of non-specific upper respiratory infections. Broad spectrum antibiotics, mainly amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic, were predominantly prescribed. Antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections in children was generally high, and the choice of antibiotics was probably inappropriate in a high percentage of cases. Therefore an improvement in antibiotic prescribing in children appears to be needed. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial use in Belgian broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoons, Davy; Dewulf, Jeroen; Smet, Annemieke; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Martel, An; Catry, Boudewijn; Butaye, Patrick; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2012-08-01

    The use of antimicrobials in production animals has become a worldwide concern in the face of rising resistance levels in commensal, pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria. In the years 2007 and 2008 antimicrobial consumption records were collected during two non consecutive production cycles in 32 randomly selected Belgian broiler farms. Antimicrobials were used in 48 of the 64 monitored production cycles, 7 farms did not use any antimicrobials in both production cycles, 2 farms only administered antimicrobials in one of the two production cycles, the other 23 farms applied antimicrobial treatment in both production cycles. For the quantification of antimicrobial drug use, the treatment incidences (TI) based on the defined daily doses (the dose as it should be applied: DDD) and used daily doses (the actual dose applied: UDD) were calculated. A mean antimicrobial treatment incidence per 1000 animals of 131.8 (standard deviation 126.8) animals treated daily with one DDD and 121.4 (SD 106.7) animals treated daily with one UDD was found. The most frequently used compounds were amoxicillin, tylosin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide with a mean TI(UDD) of 37.9, 34.8, and 21.7, respectively. The ratio of the UDD/DDD gives an estimate on correctness of dosing. Tylosin was underdosed in most of the administrations whereas amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulphonamide were slightly overdosed in the average flock. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al Rifai, Rami; Al-Majali, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens (Cp) causes necrotic enteritis disease in commercial poultry. Antimicrobials are used to control and treat this disease and sometimes clinical outbreaks do not respond well to certain treatments. This study was designed to isolate Cp from clinical cases, type these isolates by multiplex PCR, and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility by micro-dilution method. A total of 67 Cp isolates were obtained from 155 broiler chicken flocks. All isolates were classified as type A and non-enterotoxin producers. Lincomycin, erythromycins, and tilmicosin showed very high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 of ≥256 μg/ml. However, tylosin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline had variable MIC₅₀ of 64, 0.5, 1, 1, 8, 4, 8, 4, 8, 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. It is recommended that Cp infections in Jordan be treated with either penicillins or tetracyclines especially amoxicillin and oxytetracycline. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salah K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTI can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0% were symptomatic and 169 (71.9% asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%, and (14.7% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596, and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%. In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4% and S. aureus (39.3% were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended.

  17. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Ziad, Abdel Haliem M; Ali, Salah K; Adam, Ishag

    2011-01-18

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0%) were symptomatic and 169 (71.9%) asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%), and (14.7%) respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596), and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%). In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4%) and S. aureus (39.3%) were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively. Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended.

  18. Distribution, fate and risk assessment of antibiotics in sewage treatment plants in Hong Kong, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H W; Minh, T B; Murphy, M B; Lam, James C W; So, M K; Martin, Michael; Lam, Paul K S; Richardson, B J

    2012-07-01

    Occurrence, removal, consumption and environmental risks of sixteen antibiotics were investigated in several sewage treatment plants (STPs) featuring different treatment levels in Hong Kong, China. Cefalexin, ofloxacin and erythromycin-H(2)O were predominant with concentrations of 1020-5640, 142-7900 and 243-4740 ng/L in influent, respectively; their mass loads were comparable to levels reported in urban regions in China and were at the high end of the range reported for western countries. The target antibiotics behaved differently depending on the treatment level employed at the STPs and relatively higher removal efficiencies (>70%) were observed for cefalexin, cefotaxime, amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol during secondary treatment. ß-lactams were especially susceptible to removal via the activated sludge process while macrolides were recalcitrant (antibiotic consumption in Hong Kong was back-calculated based on influent mass flows and compared with available prescription and usage data. This model was verified by a good approximation of 82% and 141% to the predicted consumption of total ofloxacin, but a less accurate estimate was obtained for erythromycin usage. Risk assessment indicated that algae are susceptible to the environmental concentrations of amoxicillin as well as the mixture of the nine detected antibiotics in receiving surface waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Outcome evaluation of clarithromycin, metronidazole and lansoprazole regimens in Helicobacter pylori positive or negative children with resistant otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel-Hennawi, D; Ahmed, M R

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of two treatment regimens among Helicobacter pylori stool antigen positive children suffering from resistant otitis media with effusion. The study comprised 258 children with bilateral otitis media with effusion; 134 were positive for H pylori stool antigen, and were equally and randomly allocated to the control group or study group. The control group received standard otitis media with effusion therapy (amoxicillin and clavulanate), while the study group received standard H pylori triple therapy (clarithromycin, metronidazole and lansoprazole). In the control group, there was a marked clinical response to treatment in 33 of the 67 children (49.3 per cent). In the study group, there was a marked response in a significantly higher number of children (46 out of 67, 68.7 per cent). The 124 H pylori stool antigen negative children not included in the 2 aforementioned groups received amoxicillin and clavulanate, and a marked response in symptoms was evident in 98 of these children (79 per cent). H pylori infection may lead to resistance to traditional otitis media with effusion treatment in some cases. H pylori eradication is associated with a high cure rate.

  20. Analysis of antibiotics from liquid sample using electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Li; Jian, Jia; Xiaoguang, Gao; Xiuli, He [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li Jianping, E-mail: jpli@mail.ie.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reduced mobilities of 18 antibiotics are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Establishing antibiotic mass-mobility correlation using (12,4) potential model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multi-component characteristics of antibiotics can be revealed using ESI-IMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most mixtures of antibiotics can be analyzed using ESI-IMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detection limit of amoxicillin is 70 pg. - Abstract: The recent findings of antibiotic residues in aquatic environment at trace level have gained much concern for the detrimental effect on ecological and human health due to bacterial resistance. Here, the feasibility of using electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) for analysis antibiotics in liquid sample is demonstrated. Reduced mobilities and collision cross sections of 18 antibiotics are experimentally measured and compared with theoretical values according to mass-mobility correlation. Gentamicin is used as an example to investigate the capability of ESI-IMS for multi-component analysis of antibiotics. Mixtures of antibiotics at different concentrations are analyzed. The estimated detection limit for amoxicillin is 0.7 mg L{sup -1} (70 pg) and the linear range of response maintains over two orders. This method will be a potential technique for the analysis of antibiotics in aquatic environment.

  1. Risk factors for ceftiofur resistance in Escherichia coli from Belgian broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoons, D; Haesebrouck, F; Smet, A; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; Martel, A; Catry, B; Berge, A C; Butaye, P; Dewulf, J

    2011-05-01

    A cross-sectional study on 32 different Belgian broiler farms was performed in 2007 and 2008 to identify risk factors for ceftiofur resistance in Escherichia coli. On each farm, one E. coli colony was isolated from 30 random birds. Following susceptibility testing of 14 antimicrobials, an on-farm questionnaire was used to obtain information on risk factors. Using a multilevel logistic regression model two factors were identified at the animal level: resistance to amoxicillin and to trimethoprim-sulfonamide. On the farm level, besides antimicrobial use, seven management factors were found to be associated with the occurrence of ceftiofur resistance in E. coli from broilers: poor hygienic condition of the medicinal treatment reservoir, no acidification of drinking water, more than three feed changes during the production cycle, hatchery of origin, breed, litter material used, and treatment with amoxicillin. This study confirms that not only on-farm antimicrobial therapy, but also management- and hatchery-related factors influence the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Environmental Risk Assessment of Selected Antibiotics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Alighardashi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the increasing use of pharmaceuticals and personal-care products (PPCPs, especially antibiotics, has become a particular concern because of their undesirable potential ecological and human health effects. This study presents an environmental risk assessment for the aquatic environment of some frequently used antibiotics in Iran in three stages including; a short literature review about antibiotic consumption in Iran, a comprehensive estimation regarding acute toxicity of selected antibiotics and finally calculation of Risk Quotient (RQ using the predicted environmental concentration (PEC and the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC. According to recently published data, the consumption of antibiotics in Iran is several times greater than European countries and in case of antibiotics (e.g. Penicillin is approximately 10 times greater than Scandinavian region. The calculated PECs were ranged from 0.0071 to 0.8570 and the PNECs value based on ecotoxicity data was found for all studied antibiotics (varied from 0.0037 to 177. The RQ exceeded one for Amoxicillin, Penicillin G, Sulfamethoxazole, and Erythromycin. Amoxicillin has the highest risk to aquatic organisms based on this study. With respect to the emergence of microbial resistance, it is important to begin monitoring the most frequently used antibiotics

  3. Dermabacter hominis: a usually daptomycin-resistant gram-positive organism infrequently isolated from human clinical samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Natal, I; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Medina-Pascual, M J; Albersmeier, A; Valdezate, S; Guerra-Laso, J M; Rodríguez, H; Marrodán, T; Parras, T; Tauch, A; Soriano, F

    2013-01-01

    During a 12-year period, Dermabacter hominis was isolated from 21 clinical samples belonging to 14 patients attending a tertiary hospital in León, Spain. Samples included blood cultures (14), peritoneal dialysis catheter exit sites (three), cutaneous abscesses (two), an infected vascular catheter (one) and a wound swab (one). Identification was made by API Coryne™ V2.0, Biolog™ GP2 and 16S rRNA gene amplification. Six febrile patients had positive blood cultures (one, two or three sets) and all of them were treated with teicoplanin (two patients), vancomycin, ampicillin plus gentamicin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin (one each). An additional patient with a single positive blood culture was not treated, the finding being considered non-significant. In the remaining seven patients the organism was isolated from a single specimen and three of them received antimicrobial treatment (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone plus vancomycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid). At least ten patients had several underlying diseases and conditions, and no direct mortality was observed in relation to the isolated organism. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, rifampin and linezolid. Resistance to other antibiotics varied: erythromycin (100%), clindamycin (78.5%), ciprofloxacin (21.4%) and gentamicin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, benzylpenicillin and imipenem 7.1% each. Thirteen isolates were highly resistant to daptomycin with MICs ranging from 8 to 48 (MIC90 = 32 mg/L); only one was daptomycin-sensitive (MIC = 0.19 mg/L). PMID:25356327

  4. A Comparative Clinical Evaluation of the Effect of Preoperative and Postoperative Antimicrobial Therapy on Postoperative Sequelae after Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olurotimi Akanbi Olojede

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effect of preoperative and postoperative antibiotics therapy on postoperative sequelae after impacted mandibular third molar extractions. Material and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted at Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Lagos University Teaching Hospitalon consecutive patients with impacted third molar extractions for a 12 month period. Group I (n = 31 had administration of 1 gram of oral metronidazole and 1 gram of amoxicillin capsules 30 minutes preoperative and Group II (n = 31 had 500 milligrams of amoxicillin capsule 8 hourly and 400 milligrams of metronidazole tablets administered post operatively for 5 days. Pain, facial swelling and mouth opening assessment were done postoperatively and on days 1, 3 and 7. Results: The general pattern of postoperative pain, regardless of antimicrobial use revealed that pain increased from day 1 to day 3 postoperatively and began to decrease in intensity subsequently up to the seventh day. There was however a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0001 between the two groups on the 7th postoperative day with the subjects in Group I showing lower pain intensity. The mean difference of the facial width on days 1 and 3 was significant (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0001 respectively with subjects in Group II having a reduced facial width compared to those in Group I. Conclusions: This study suggested that the administration of preoperative or postoperative antibiotics showed no marked differences in the degree of postoperative sequaele that occur after impacted mandibular third molar extractions.

  5. Synbiotic for Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Jafari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antibiotic- associated diarrhea is a common problem in pediatric population. There is growing interest in probiotics, probiotics and synbiotics for prevention of this complication because of their worldwide availability as dietary supplements. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a synbiotic mixture in prevention of antibiotic- associated diarrhea.   Materials and Methods:  In this randomized controlled  trial,  218 patients ( 111 in the synbiotic and 107 in the placebo group aged 6 months to 14 years with respiratory tract infection and/ or otitis media who needed antibiotic treatment in outpatient setting, were enrolled. They received 1 billion Colony Forming Unit of seven probiotics species plus Fructooligosaccharide in form of powder  or placebo ( matched for size, shape, and volume for 7 days. Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin-clavalanic acid, cefixim and Azithromicin were the most common drugs used by physcicians Mothers recorded stool frequency and consistency daily for 7 days.   Results: We found no significant difference (P>0.05 in occurrence of diarrhea between synbiotic and placebo groups.   Conclusion: This synbiotic mixture did not appear to reduce antibiotic- associated diarrhea in children. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential benefits of Synbiotics in prevention of this disease.  

  6. [Community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, E; Wüst, J; Speich, R; Flury, G; Krause, M

    1993-08-21

    We report the history of a 38-year-old male native of Sri Lanka admitted to the emergency ward because of chest pain and shortness of breath. On physical and radiographic examination a bilateral predominantly right-sided pneumonia was found. The patient was admitted to the medical ICU and an antibiotic regimen with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and erythromycin was initiated. Shortly afterwards septic shock developed. The patient was intubated and received high doses of catecholamines. He died 30 hours after admission to the hospital. Cultures from sputum, tracheal aspirate and blood grew Acinetobacter baumanni. Acinetobacter is an ubiquitous gram-negative rod with coccobacillary appearance in clinical specimens, that may appear gram-positive due to poor discoloration on Gram-stain. It is a well known causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in intensive care units. Community-acquired pneumonias, however, are quite rare. Sporadic cases have been reported from the US, Papua-New Guinea and Australia. Interestingly, these pneumonias are fulminant and have a high mortality. Chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and tobacco and alcohol consumption appear to be predisposing factors. Due to the rapid course and poor prognosis, prompt diagnosis and adequate antibiotic treatment are indicated. Antibiotics use for community-acquired pneumonias, such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or macrolides, are not sufficient. Appropriate antibiotics for the initial treatment of suspected Acinetobacter infections include imipenem and carboxy- and ureidopenicillins combined with an aminoglycoside.

  7. Fusobacterium necrophorum Pharyngitis Complicated by Lemierre’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Faraone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an 18-year-old woman who was referred to our outpatient clinic because of a 2-week history of sore throat, high fever, and neck tenderness unresponsive to a 7-day amoxicillin/clavulanic acid course. Infectious mononucleosis was initially suspected, but an extremely high value of procalcitonin and clinical deterioration suggested a bacterial sepsis, prompting the patient admission to our internal medicine ward. Blood cultures were positive for Fusobacterium necrophorum. CT scan detected a parapharyngeal abscess, a right internal jugular vein thrombosis, and multiple bilateral lung abscesses, suggesting the diagnosis of Lemierre’s syndrome. The patient was treated with a 2-week course of metronidazole and meropenem with a gradual clinical recovery. She was thereafter discharged home with metronidazole and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for 14 days and a 3-month course of enoxaparin, experiencing an uneventful recovery. The present case highlights the importance of taking into consideration the Lemierre’s syndrome whenever a pharyngotonsillitis has a severe and unusual course.

  8. Microbiology of urinary tract infections in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Renuart

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The microbiology and epidemiology of UTI pathogens are largely unknown in Botswana, a high prevalence HIV setting. Using laboratory data from the largest referral hospital and a private hospital, we describe the major pathogens causing UTI and their antimicrobial resistance patterns. METHODS: This retrospective study examined antimicrobial susceptibility data for urine samples collected at Princess Marina Hospital (PMH, Bokamoso Private Hospital (BPH, or one of their affiliated outpatient clinics. A urine sample was included in our dataset if it demonstrated pure growth of a single organism and accompanying antimicrobial susceptibility and subject demographic data were available. RESULTS: A total of 744 samples were included. Greater than 10% resistance was observed for amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and ciprofloxacin. Resistance of E. coli isolates to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole was greater than 60% in all settings. HIV status did not significantly impact the microbiology of UTIs, but did impact antimicrobial resistance to co-trimoxazole. CONCLUSIONS: Data suggests that antimicrobial resistance has already emerged to most oral antibiotics, making empiric management of outpatient UTIs challenging. Ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin should not be used as empiric treatment for UTI in this context. Nitrofurantoin could be used for simple cystitis; aminoglycosides for uncomplicated UTI in inpatients.

  9. Antibiotics prescription in Nigerian dental healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, C C; Ojehanon, P I

    2014-09-01

    Inappropriate antibiotics prescription in dental healthcare delivery that may result in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, is a worldwide concern. The objective of the study was to determine the antibiotics knowledge and prescription patterns among dentists in Nigeria. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed to dentists attending continuing education courses organized by two organizations in Southern and Northern parts of Nigeria. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. A total of 146 questionnaires were returned, properly filled, out of 160 questionnaires, giving an overall response rate 91.3%. The clinical factors predominantly influenced the choice of therapeutic antibiotics among the respondents. In this study, the most commonly prescribed antibiotics among the respondents was a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole. Of the respondents, 136 (93.2%) of them considered antibiotic resistance as a major problem in Nigeria and 102 (69.9%) have experienced antibiotics resistance in dental practice. The major reported conditions for prophylactic antibiotics among the respondents were diabetic mellitus, HIV/AIDS, history of rheumatic fever, other heart anomalies presenting with heart murmur and presence of prosthetic hip. The knowledge of adverse effects of antibiotics was greatest for tooth discoloration which is related to tetracycline. Data from this study revealed the most commonly prescribed antibiotics as a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole. There existed gaps in prophylactic antibiotic prescription, consideration in the choice of therapeutic antibiotics and knowledge of adverse effects of antibiotics among the studied dentists.

  10. Microbiological analysis of infected root canals from symptomatic and asymptomatic teeth with periapical periodontitis and the antimicrobial susceptibility of some isolated anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, R C; Gomes, B P F A; Ferraz, C C R; Zaia, A A; Filho, F J Souza

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the composition of the bacterial flora isolated from infected root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis with the presence of clinical signs and symptoms, and to test the antibiotic susceptibility of five anaerobic bacteria mostly commonly found in the root canals of symptomatic teeth against various substances using the E-test. Microbial samples were taken from 48 root canals, 29 symptomatic and 19 asymptomatic, using adequate techniques. A total of 218 cultivable isolates were recovered from 48 different microbial species and 19 different genera. Root canals from symptomatic teeth harbored more obligate anaerobes and a bigger number of bacterial species than the asymptomatic teeth. More than 70% of the bacterial isolates were strict anaerobes. Statistical analysis used a Pearson Chi-squared test or a one-sided Fisher's Exact test as appropriate. Suggested relationships were found between specific microorganisms, especially gram-negative anaerobes, and the presence of spontaneous or previous pain, tenderness to percussion, pain on palpation and swelling amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanate and cephaclor were effective against all the strains tested. The lowest susceptibility rate was presented by Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens against Penicillin G. Our results suggested that specific bacteria are associated with endodontic symptoms of infected teeth with periapical periodontitis and the majority of the anaerobic bacterial species tested were susceptible to all antibiotics studied.

  11. Sub-acute mastitis associated with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a cow: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Chandrasekaran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year old Holstein Friesian cross breed cow was presented to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history of reduced milk yield. Clinical examination of udder revealed normal milk color and soft udder. The milk pH was 7.0, with California Mastitis Test score 3+, Electrical Conductivity 270U, and Somatic Cell Count as 328,000. Isolation and identification of causative agent revealed Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA from the sub-acute mastitis sample. Agar disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility revealed that the MRSA was sensitive to Enrofloxacin, Gentamicin, Oxytetracycline and Amoxicillin+Sulbactam. On the other hand, the isolate was resistance to Amoxicillin, Penicillin G, Ceftriaxone and Methicillin. The isolate was positive for β-lactamase resistance by Nitrocefin test. The MRSA was confirmed for the presence of mecA and blaZ target genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The cow was treated with Enrofloxacin, Vitamin E and inorganic Selenium, and was recovered after 5 days of post-treatment.

  12. Occurrence, distribution, and potential sources of antibiotics pollution in the water-sediment of the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafaei, Raheleh; Papari, Fatemeh; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Sahebi, Soleyman; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Sorial, George A; Asgari, Ghorban; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2018-06-15

    Occurrence and frequency of six most prescribed antibiotics (tetracycline, norfloxacin, azithromycin, anhydro erythromycin, cephalexin, and amoxicillin) were assessed in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and in water and sediments of the Persian Gulf at Bushehr coastline, Iran. The antibiotics concentration in the influent and effluent of septic tank (the hospital WWTP), activated sludge (the hospital WWTP), and stabilization pond (municipal WWTP) ranged between 7.89 and 149.63, 13.49-198.47, 6.55-16.37 ng/L, respectively. Conventional treatment resulted in incomplete removal of most of the studied antibiotics. Furthermore, the activated sludge was more effective in terms of antibiotic elimination compared to the stabilization pond or septic tank. The mean concentration of antibiotics ranged 1.21-51.50 ng/L in seawater and 1.40-25.32 ng/g in sediments during summer and winter. Norfloxacin was the dominant detected antibiotic in seawater, sediments, and influent of two hospital WWTPs. Seasonal comparisons showed significant differences for erythromycin and amoxicillin concentrations in seawater. Spatial variation indicated the role of physicochemical properties on distribution of antibiotics in seawater and sediments. The results emphasize the need to pay attention to antibiotic contamination in water and sediments of the Persian Gulf. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost effectiveness of Alternative Helicobacter pylori Eradication Strategies in the Management of Duodenal Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie O'Brien

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Published data and techniques for decision analysis were used to construct a model to estimate the cost effectiveness of nine alternative strategies for the management of patients diagnosed with uncomplicated duodenal ulcer. Two strategies of intermittent therapy with either ranitidine or omeprazole, one strategy of continuous maintenance treatment with ranitidine, and six strategies for ulcer healing and eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection were considered. Healing time curves were estimated by using published data, allowing for estimation of expected time for acute healing episodes. The expected number of weeks to heal per patient, in a one-year period, was estimated by combining healing time data with probability of ulcer recurrence. It was found that patients that underwent any of the six H pylori eradication regimens had fewer days with ulcer per year than those who underwent maintenance or intermittent ranitidine. Four eradication regimens had lower costs and better outcomes than ranitidine therapy. In comparing H pylori strategies, the two strategies of omeprazole plus one antibiotic (either amoxicillin or clarithromycin are more costly than omeprazole plus two antibiotics (specifically amoxicillin and metronidazole or clarithromycin and metronidazole and result in similar outcomes. Although omeprazole-based eradication regimens are more costly than ranitidine bismuth triple therapy, they are associated with fewer recurrences of ulcer and days of symptoms. A limitation of the analysis is that it did not incorporate issues of compliance and metronidazole resistance; however, the former concern may be less of an issue as H pylori regimens become simpler and shorter in duration.

  14. [Susceptibility to azithromycin and other antibiotics in recent isolates of Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Pozo, Angeles; Arana, David M; Fuentes, Miriam; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Azithromycin represents an alternative option to treat bacterial diarrhea when the antibiotic therapy is indicated. Little is known regarding the susceptibility to azithromycin in enteropathogens in Spain. The MICs of azithromycin were determined by E-test against Salmonella non-typhi (SNT), Shigella and Yersinia isolates collected over the last three years (2010-2012). In addition, the susceptibility to other antibiotics usually used to treat gastrointestinal diseases was determined in these isolates by using a microdilution method. A total of 139 strains of SNT, Shigella and Yersinia were studied. All of them, except one strain, had a MIC≤16mg/L of azithromycin. In the adult population, 14.7% and 40.6% of SNT and Shigella isolates, respectively, were resistant to at least 2 of following antibiotics: amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. In the pediatric population, 10% of SNT clinical isolates and 28.6% (2/7) of Shigella isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In our experience, azithromycin would be a useful antibiotic alternative to treat bacterial diarrhea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence for a complex relationship between antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli: from medical center patients to a receiving environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlé, Kenny; Capdeville, Marion-Justine; Berthe, Thierry; Budzinski, Hélène; Petit, Fabienne

    2012-02-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria (E. coli) in water along a medical center-wastewater treatment plant-river continuum (4 km). A multiresidue chemical analysis methodology, using solid phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, was performed to detect whether low levels of contamination by 34 antibiotics were related to antibiotic resistance of E. coli and antibiotic use. The contamination of water by antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant E. coli decreased along the continuum. Although amoxicillin was predominantly prescribed, only ofloxacin (1 ng·L(-1)) and sulfamethoxazole (4 ng·L(-1)) persisted in the river. At the retirement home, in the medical center, even though no tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole were consumed, the highest occurrences of antibiotic resistance were in classes of quinolones (42.0%), sulfonamides (24.0%), tetracyclines (38.0%), and penicillins (38.0%), mainly due to the presence of multiple antibiotic-resistance genes on class 1 integrons. Along the continuum, the occurrence of E. coli resistant to antibiotics and those carrying class 1 integrons decreased in water samples (p-value antibiotic compounds (ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole) were found, but they did not correspond to the major resistances (tetracycline, amoxicillin) of E. coli.

  16. The camelliagenin from defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera as antibiotic substitute to treat chicken against infection of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong; Yang, Qian; Fang, Fei; Li, Yue

    2015-08-18

    Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are the main pathogens infectious to poultry, and their resistances against antibiotics have become troublesome currently. Biofilm formation is an important reason for drug resistance. Our previous research has found that the extract of Camellia oleifera seeds has lots of pharmacological effects. In order to find the substitute for antibiotics, the saponin was isolated from the defatted C. oleifera seeds with structural identification. Its efficacy was evaluated by the inhibition on amoxicillin-resistant E. coli and erythromycin-resistant S. aureus and therapeutic effect on chicks infected by the two bacteria. The bacterial growth inhibition rate increased and the bacterial count in vivo decreased significantly in dose dependence after administration of the saponin and its combination with amoxicillin or erythromycin, suggesting its antibacterial effect. The saponin identified as camelliagenin shows significant inhibition on the biofilm of E. coli and S. aureus, and it is related to the decrease of mannitol dehydrogenase (MDH) activity and extracellular DNA (eDNA) content. Molecular simulation reveals the strong interaction existing between the saponin and MDH or eDNA. The mechanism of camelliagenin's improvement on antibiotic effects is its interaction with MDH and eDNA in biofilm. The saponin is a prospective substitute of antibiotics, and molecular simulation is a convenient alternative method to find out hopeful candidates of antibiotics substitute.

  17. Assessment of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates and screening of Salmonella spp. in wild ungulates from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Diana; Torres, Rita T; Kronvall, Göran; Fonseca, Carlos; Mendo, Sónia; Caetano, Tânia

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global problem. Wild animals are rarely exposed to antibiotics and therefore low levels of antibiotic resistance are expected. However, the growing interactions of these animals with humans and livestock may have a huge impact on their bacterial flora. This study aimed to assess the levels of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from widespread wild ungulates in Portugal. The interpretation of inhibition zone diameters was performed according to clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cut-offs, determined with the normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method. For clinical breakpoints, 16% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, including ampicillin (10%), tetracycline (9%), streptomycin (5%) co-trimoxazole (4%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%) and cefoxitin (1%). The levels of resistance detected in E. coli strains isolated from wild boar were statistically different for ampicillin and co-trimoxasol. According to NRI cut-offs, 10% of the population showed a non-wild-type phenotype against at least one antibiotic, also including tetracycline (9%), co-trimoxazole (6%), streptomycin (4%), ampicillin (2%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%). Considering this parameter of comparison, no statistically different levels of resistance were identified between E. coli recovered from the three wild ungulates. Screening of Salmonella spp., which can be potentially pathogenic, was also performed, revealing that its prevalence was very low (1.5%). The study demonstrated that wild ungulates from Portugal are also reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibiotic sensitivity of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection referred to Kermanshah central laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Mohajeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Escherichia coli (Ecoli has been considered as the most common agent of urinary tract infection in all regions. Recently, increased drug resistance has been lead to some problems in treatment related diseases. So, evaluation of resistance patterns of bacteria in each region could be a valuable guide for empirical treatment.Methods: All referred urine sample to Kermanshah Central Laboratory during 1998 that was reported positive to Ecoli were assessed. Susceptibility pattern to 19 antimicrobial agents was evaluated using Kirby Bauer method according to CLSI standards.Results: A total of 834 Ecoli isolated from 19,208 positive urine cultures. 84% of subjects were females and 16% males. Sensitivity rate for nitrofurantoin (84%, ceftizoxime (72%, norfloxacin (70%, cefotaxime (69%, Amikacin (66%, ciprofloxacin (65%, ceftriaxone (64%, ceftazidim (55% was higher than 50%. Sensitivity to nalidixic acid, cefexime, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, ticarcillin, caphalexin, cephalotin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, amoxicillin clavulanate and ampicillin were determined less than 50%.Conclusion: Nitrofurantoin and ceftizoxime are currently effective against Ecoli, although an indiscriminate use of antibiotics should be avoided because of drug resistance probable. It seems that ampicillin could be excluded from routine sensitivity testing.

  19. Antibiotics in Serbian Households: a Source of Potential Health and Environmental Threats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusturica, Milica Paut; Tomić, Zdenko; Bukumirić, Zoran; Horvat, Olga; Pavlović, Nebojša; Mikov, Momir; Sabo, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide data indicate that antibiotics are frequently used inappropriately. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of storage and wastage of antibacterial agents in households in Novi Sad, Serbia. The study was performed in 8 months period (December 2011-July 2012) in households in Novi Sad, Serbia. The households were randomly selected from the telephone directory. The interviewer performed the survey visiting each household. The total number of antibacterial agents in the 383 surveyed households was 318, constituting 7.3% of the total stored medications. From 383 families included in the study antibiotics were found in 178 (46.5%). In 13 (7.3%) families were found more than one pack of the same antibiotics. The median number of antibacterial agents per household was 1 (range 1-5). The most common antibacterial agents that were not in current use were cephalexin (22.1%) and amoxicillin (16.6%), followed by doxycycline (11.4%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (11.4%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (9.2%). The percentage of expired antibacterial agents was 20.8%, while 85.2% were not currently in use. Antibacterial agents were commonly encountered in Serbian households, and a relatively large percentage was wasted. Informational and educational activities aimed at improving the public knowledge about antimicrobials play the leading role in reducing imprudent use of antibiotics. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  20. Performance evaluation of reverse osmosis technology for selected antibiotics removal from synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholami Mitra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study addresses the possibility for low pressure reverse osmosis membrane (RE 2521, CSM process to serve as an alternative to remove selected antibiotics (ampicillin and amoxicillin from synthetic wastewater by changing operating conditions such as pH = 3, 6.5 and 10; Pressure = 9, 11 and13 (bar; antibiotic concentration = 10, 255 and 500(mg/L, and temperature = 20, 30 and 40°C. The experiment was designed based on Box-benken, which is a Response Surface methodology design (RSM, using Design Expert software. The concentration of antibiotics was measured by applying a UV-spectrophotometer (Cecil, at the wavelength of 254 nm. Results showed a range of rejection percentage from 73.52% to 99.36% and 75.1% to 98.8%, for amoxicillin and ampicillin, respectively. Considering the solute rejections and the membrane porosity show that the prevailing rejection mechanism of the examined antibiotics by the membrane was the size exclusion effect. The permeate flux for both of the antibiotics was 12–18.73 L/m2.h. Although the permeate flux and antibiotic rejection are influenced by operating pressure, pH, and temperature individually, the interaction between operating parameters did not have noticeable effects. According to the results obtained in this study, the application of RO membrane is recommended for the selected antibiotics to be removed to a considerable degree (up to 95%.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from different parts of the digestive tract of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Afshari-Safavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate differences in resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from different parts of sheep digestive tract, the intestinal tracts of 24 sheep were sampled at various locations (duode-num, jejunum, caecum, colon and rectum after slaughter. Samples were cultured on MacConkey agar and obtained colonies were confirmed as E. coli based on the biochemical tests results. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 10 antibiotics (colistin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, ampicillin, cephotaxime, neomycin and florfenicol, using disc diffusion method. The tested E. coli resistant to colistin, ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were isolated more frequently from large intestine (rectum than from small intestine (duodenum (P<0.05. In conclusion, antimicrobial resistance pattern of generic E. coli inhabiting the intestinal tract of sheep depends on sampling location, which should be considered in interpreting the results of antimicrobial resistance tests of E. coli isolated from the faecal samples and generalising results to bacteria colonised in other parts of the digestive tract

  2. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  3. Antibacterial Effect of Diclofenac Sodium on Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Salemmilani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have shown antibacterial activity in some recent studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of diclofenac against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis as a resistant endodontic bacterium in comparison with ibuprofen, calcium hydroxide and amoxicillin.Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of materials was evaluated using agar diffusion test and tube dilution method. Mixtures of 400 mg/ml of materials were prepared. The bacteria were seeded on 10 Muller-Hinton agar culture plates. Thirty microliter of each test material was placed in each well punched in agar plates. After incubation, the zone of bacterial inhibition was measured. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the test materials was determined by agar dilution method. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA followed by Sidak post hoc test was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups.Results: There were significant differences between the two groups (p< 0.05. Results of the agar diffusion test showed that antibiotics (amoxicillin, gentamycin had the greatest antibacterial activity followed by NSAIDs (ibuprofen, diclofenac. Ca(OH2 failed to show antibacterial activity. Diclofenac and ibuprofen showed distinct antibacterial activity against E. faecalis in 50 µg/ml and above concentrations.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it is concluded that diclofenac and ibuprofen have significantly more pronounced antibacterial activity against E. faecalis in comparison with Ca(OH2.

  4. Effects of a Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonist on Experimentally Induced Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized, and controlled study examined the effects of tumor necrosis factor soluble receptor type I (sTNFRI, a TNF-α antagonist on experimentally induced rhinosinusitis in rats. The experimental groups received an instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS plus an intramuscular injection of amoxicillin/clavulanate (antibiotic group, an instillation of sTNFRI (sTNFRI group, an instillation of sTNFRI and an injection of amoxicillin/clavulanate (sTNFRI/antibiotic group, or no additional treatment (LPS group. Histopathological changes were determined using hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining. Leakage of exudate was determined using fluorescence microscopy. Vascular permeability was measured using the Evans blue dye technique. Expression of MUC5AC was measured using reverse transcriptase PCR. The sTNFRI, antibiotic, and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups had significantly less capillary permeability, mucosal edema, PAS staining, and expression of MUC5AC than the LPS group. There were no differences in capillary permeability, mucosal edema, PAS staining, and MUC5AC expression between the sTNFRI and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups. The antibiotic group had PAS staining similar to that of the sTNFRI and sTNFRI/antibiotic groups but had a greater increase in capillary permeability, mucosal edema, and MUC5AC expression. This study shows that sTNFRI reduces inflammatory activity and mucus hypersecretion in LPS-induced rhinosinusitis in rats.

  5. Analysis of antibiotics from liquid sample using electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shu; Jia Jian; Gao Xiaoguang; He Xiuli; Li Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The reduced mobilities of 18 antibiotics are determined. ► Establishing antibiotic mass-mobility correlation using (12,4) potential model. ► Multi-component characteristics of antibiotics can be revealed using ESI-IMS. ► Most mixtures of antibiotics can be analyzed using ESI-IMS. ► The detection limit of amoxicillin is 70 pg. - Abstract: The recent findings of antibiotic residues in aquatic environment at trace level have gained much concern for the detrimental effect on ecological and human health due to bacterial resistance. Here, the feasibility of using electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) for analysis antibiotics in liquid sample is demonstrated. Reduced mobilities and collision cross sections of 18 antibiotics are experimentally measured and compared with theoretical values according to mass-mobility correlation. Gentamicin is used as an example to investigate the capability of ESI-IMS for multi-component analysis of antibiotics. Mixtures of antibiotics at different concentrations are analyzed. The estimated detection limit for amoxicillin is 0.7 mg L −1 (70 pg) and the linear range of response maintains over two orders. This method will be a potential technique for the analysis of antibiotics in aquatic environment.

  6. Application of solid phase microextraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the determination of antibiotic drugs and their metabolites in human whole blood and tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szultka-Mlynska, Malgorzata; Pomastowski, Pawel; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2018-06-01

    A sensitive, rapid and specific analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS) was developed to determine selected antibiotic drugs and their metabolites (amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and metronidazole; amoxycilloic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl glycyl amoxicillin, desacetyl cefotaxime, 3-desacetyl cefotaxime lactone, ciprofloxacin N-oxide, N-demethylclindamycin, clindamycin sulfoxide, and hydroxy metronidazole) in human whole blood and vascularized tissue after single oral administration. The samples were prepared by solid phase microextraction with C18 fibers (SPME C18 ) and determined on a GRACE analytical C18 column, Vision HT (50 × 2 mm, 1.5 μm) at the flow rate of 0.4 mL min -1 using water and acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) as the mobile phase. The proposed method was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study of the selected antibiotic drugs and their metabolites in real human samples. Additionally, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) was used for identification and qualification analysis of the target compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of avibactam derivatives and activity on β-lactamases and peptidoglycan biosynthesis enzymes of mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoo, Zainab; Iannazzo, Laura; Compain, Fabrice; Li de la Sierra Gallay, Inès; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Fonvielle, Matthieu; Bouchet, Flavie; Le Run, Eva; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Arthur, Michel; Ethève-Quelquejeu, Mélanie; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel

    2018-03-30

    There is a renewed interest for β-lactams for treating infections due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. abscessus since their β-lactamases are inhibited by classical (clavulanate) or new generation (avibactam) inhibitors, respectively. Here, we report access to an azido derivative of the diazabicyclooctane (DBO) scaffold of avibactam for functionalization by the Huisgen-Sharpless cycloaddition reaction. The amoxicillin-DBO combinations were active indicating that the triazole ring is compatible with drug penetration (minimal inhibitory concentration of 16 µg/ml for both species). Mechanistically, β-lactamase inhibition was not sufficient to account for the potentiation of amoxicillin by DBOs. Thus, we investigated the latter compounds as inhibitors of L,D-transpeptidases (LDTs), which are the main peptidoglycan polymerases in mycobacteria. The DBOs acted as slow-binding inhibitors of LDTs by S-carbamoylation indicating that optimization of DBOs for LDT inhibition is an attractive strategy to obtain drugs selectively active on mycobacteria. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in New Zealand: 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sally A; Shore, Keith P; Paviour, Susan D; Holland, David; Morris, Arthur J

    2006-05-01

    Routine susceptibility testing of all anaerobic organisms is not advocated, but it is useful for laboratories to test periodically for anaerobic organisms and provide local susceptibility data to guide therapy. This study reports the national trend of antibiotic susceptibility of clinically significant anaerobes in New Zealand. Clinical isolates were tested using standardized methods against a range of antibiotics commonly used to treat anaerobic infections. Susceptibility was determined using NCCLS criteria. The change in susceptibility trends between this study and earlier studies was measured by comparing the geometric mean of the MIC. A total of 364 anaerobes were tested. Penicillin had poor activity against Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp., Eubacterium spp., Clostridium tertium and Veillonella spp. In general, Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroides ureolyticus, Propionibacterium spp., Clostridium perfringens and anaerobic streptococci isolates, with the exception of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, were penicillin susceptible. Amoxicillin/clavulanate showed good activity against most anaerobes, but resistance was seen with Bacteroides fragilis group and P. anaerobius isolates. Cefoxitin was more active than cefotetan, particularly against non-B. fragilis species, Eubacterium spp. and P. anaerobius. Meropenem and imipenem showed good activity against all anaerobes, with only 2 and 4% of Bacteroides spp., respectively, showing resistance. With the exception of Propionibacterium acnes isolates, which are predictably resistant, metronidazole was active against all anaerobes tested. There has been little change in susceptibility since 1997. Metronidazole, cefoxitin, piperacillin/tazobactam and amoxicillin/clavulanate remain good empirical choices when anaerobes are expected in our setting. No clinically relevant changes in susceptibility over time were found.

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in a Naive Portuguese Population: Is Sequential Treatment Superior to Triple Therapy in Real World Clinical Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal Carvalho, Pedro; Magalhães, Joana; Dias de Castro, Francisca; Rosa, Bruno; Cotter, José

    2017-03-31

    Helicobacter pylori eradication has become increasingly difficult as resistances to several antibiotics develop. We aimed to compare Helicobacter pylori eradication rates between triple therapy and sequential therapy in a naive Portuguese population. Prospective randomized trial including consecutive patients referred for first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment. previous gastric surgery/neoplasia, pregnancy/lactancy, allergy to any of the drugs. The compared eradication regimens were triple therapy (pantoprazol, amoxicillin and clarithromycin 12/12 hours, 14 days) and sequential therapy (pantoprazol 12/12 hours for 10 days, amoxicillin 12/12 hours for days 1 - 5 and clarithromycin plus metronidazol 12/12 hours during days 6 - 10). Eradication success was confirmed with urea breath test. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v21.0 and a p-value population, we found a satisfactory global Helicobacter pylori eradication rate of 82%, with no statistical differences observed in the efficacy of the treatment between triple and sequential regimens. These results support the use of either therapy for the first-line eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

  10. [Resistance of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli in pregnant women and other women in generative ages in comparison with antibiotics consumption in Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Josip; Mlinarić-Dzepina, Ana; Leppée, Marcel; Vranes, Jasmina

    2010-02-01

    To compare resistance of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC) to antibiotics in women in generative ages and pregnant women during two year period (2004 and 2008) in Zagreb, and comparison of resistance and the consumption of antibiotics. The standard disk-diffusion method was used for sensitivity testing to 16 different antibiotics. Data on antibiotic utilization were used to calculate the number of defined daily doses (DDD) and DDD per 1000 inhabitants using Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical/DDD methodology. Data on antibiotic consumption during pregnancy were collected using a questionnaire filled in by 893 women after delivery. During 2004 resistance of UPEC to antimicrobial drugs was not different in pregnant and in non-pregnant women, with the exception of amoxicillin and nitrofurantoin, with statistically higher resistance in pregnant women (p drugs in Zagreb increased significantly, from 32 to 39 DDD/1000 inhabitants per day. The most used antibiotic was co-amoxiclav, and its utilization increased from 9.6 to 12.2 DDD/1000/day. Amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav were used during pregnancy by 9.6% interviewed women. The observed significant decrease of resistance to cefalexin makes that antibiotic the drug of choice for treatment of urinary tract infections in women in generative ages, and together with coamoxiclav can be administered in pregnancy. Constant monitoring of urinary tract pathogens resistance to antimicrobial agents ensures the effectiveness of empirical therapy, whose versatile use is limited due the potentially harmful effects of antimicrobial drugs on fetus.

  11. An estimate of pocket closure and avoided needs of surgery after scaling and root planing with systemic antibiotics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakovic, Mirela; Held, Ulrike; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Sahrmann, Philipp

    2014-12-22

    Relevant benefits of adjunctive medication of antibiotica after conventional root surface debridement in terms of enhanced pocket depth (PD) reduction have been shown. However, means and standard deviations of enhanced reductions are difficult to translate into clinical relevant treatment outcomes such as pocket resolution or avoidance of additional surgical interventions. Accordingly, the aim of this systematic review was to calculate odds ratios for relevant cut-off values of PD after mechanical periodontal treatment with and without antibiotics, specifically the combination of amoxicilline and metronidazol, from published studies. As clinical relevant cut-off values "pocket closure" for PD ≤ 3mm and "avoidance of surgical intervention" for PD ≤ 5 mm were determined. The databases PubMed, Embase and Central were searched for randomized clinical studies assessing the beneficial effect of the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole after non-surgical mechanical debridement. Titles, abstracts and finally full texts were scrutinized for possible inclusion by two independent investigators. Quality and heterogeneity of the studies were assessed and the study designs were examined. From published means and standard deviations for PD after therapy, odds ratios for the clinically relevant cut-off values were calculated using a specific statistical approach. Meta-analyses were performed for the time points 3 and 6 month after mechanical therapy. Generally, a pronounced chance for pocket closure from 3 to 6 months of healing was shown. The administration of antibiotics resulted in a 3.55 and 4.43 fold higher probability of pocket closure after 3 and 6 months as compared to mechanical therapy alone. However, as the estimated risk for residual pockets > 5 mm was 0 for both groups, no odds ratio could be calculated for persistent needs for surgery. Generally, studies showed a moderate to high quality and large heterogeneity regarding treatment protocol, dose of

  12. Antimicrobial residues in tissues and eggs of laying hens at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariful Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antimicrobial residue in animal food products is an important index of food safety. Antimicrobial residues could result from chemotherapeutic or chemoprophylactic use of drugs in food animals. This occurrence of residue in animal food products has received enormous worldwide attention from some local, international, and public health agencies. A crosssectional study was conducted from July to December 2009 to detect the antibiotic residues in tissues and eggs of laying hens at Chittagong of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Microbial inhibition test (MIT and thin layer chromatography (TLC methods were used to detect antibacterial residues in poultry tissues (liver, kidney, breast, and thigh muscles and eggs. The bacteria and pH of the MIT method were as follows: Bacillus subtilis on test agar medium with a pH of 7.2, Bacillus cereus with a pH of 6.0, and Escherichia coli at pH with an 8.0. Results: The overall prevalence of antibiotic residues detected by MIT was 64% in liver, 63% in kidney, 56% in breast muscle, 50% in thigh muscle, and 60% in eggs. There was significant variation in results between MIT and TLC (p<0.05. Tetracycline residues were found in 48% in liver, 24% in kidneys, 20% in thigh muscles, 26% in breast muscles, and 36% in eggs. Ciprofloxacin residues were found 46% in liver, 42% in kidneys, 34% in thigh muscles, 30% in breast muscles, and 30% in eggs. Enrofloxacin residues were found 40% in livers, 36% in kidneys, 24% in thigh muscles, 20% in breast muscles, and 26% in eggs. Amoxicillin residues were found 48% in livers, 30% in kidneys, 26% in thigh muscles, 22% in breast muscles, and 24% in eggs. The most frequently detected antibiotic residues by both MIT and TLC were found in liver tissue, tetracycline (48%, ciprofloxacin (46%, enrofloxacin (40%, and amoxicillin (42% were found in liver. Breast muscle tissue was least likely to contain antibiotic residues (24%. Tetracycline (p=0.01 and amoxicillin (p=0.03 residues had

  13. Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    different tissues of carcasses of sheep/lambs were subjected to in-vitro drug sensitivity testing. Ciprofloxacin, cefixime, polymyxin B, amoxicillin + sulbactam, and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid were the most sensitive drugs followed by amikacin, ofloxacin, ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, and amoxicillin. Conclusions: From the present study, it is reasonable to conclude that the major etiopathological cause of GIT disorders in sheep was E. coli infection, which causes a pathomorphological effect on various cadaver organs viz. abomasum, intestine, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs, spleen, kidneys, and heart followed by parasitic infection of Haemonchus contortus.

  14. Wound infection secondary to snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wagener

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Snakebites can produce severe local and systemic septic complications as well as being associated with significant overall morbidity and even mortality. Objective. A prospective audit was undertaken to determine the bacterial causation of wound infection secondary to snakebite, and attempt to quantify the burden of disease. Methods. The audit was undertaken at Ngwelezane Hospital, which provides both regional and tertiary services for north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, over a 4-month period. Records of patients who required surgical debridement for extensive skin and soft-tissue necrosis were analysed. At the time of debridement, tissue samples of necrotic or infected tissue were sent for bacteriological analysis as standard of care. Microbiology results were analysed. Results. A total of 164 patients were admitted to hospital for management of snakebite, of whom 57 required surgical debridement and 42 were included in the final microbiological analysis. Children were found to be the most frequent victims of snakebite; 57.8% of patients in this study were aged ≤10 years and 73.7% ≤15 years. Culture showed a single organism in 32/42 cases, two organisms in 8 and no growth in 2. Eight different types of organisms were cultured, five of them more than once. Thirty-five specimens (83.3% grew Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, the most frequent being Morganella morganii and Proteus species. Thirteen specimens (31.0% grew Enterococcus faecalis. Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae showed 31.4% sensitivity to ampicillin, 40.0% sensitivity to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 34.3% sensitivity to cefuroxime, 97.1% sensitivity to ceftriaxone, and 100% sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and amikacin. E. faecalis was 92.3% sensitive to amoxicillin, 92.3% sensitive to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 92.3% resistant to erythromycin and 100% resistant to ceftriaxone. Conclusion. Children are

  15. Wound infection secondary to snakebite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, M; Naidoo, M; Aldous, C

    2017-03-29

    Snakebites can produce severe local and systemic septic complications as well as being associated with significant overall morbidity and even mortality. A prospective audit was undertaken to determine the bacterial causation of wound infection secondary to snakebite, and attempt to quantify the burden of disease. The audit was undertaken at Ngwelezane Hospital, which provides both regional and tertiary services for north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, over a 4-month period. Records of patients who required surgical debridement for extensive skin and soft-tissue necrosis were analysed. At the time of debridement, tissue samples of necrotic or infected tissue were sent for bacteriological analysis as standard of care. Microbiology results were analysed. A total of 164 patients were admitted to hospital for management of snakebite, of whom 57 required surgical debridement and 42 were included in the final microbiological analysis. Children were found to be the most frequent victims of snakebite; 57.8% of patients in this study were aged ≤10 years and 73.7% ≤15 years. Culture showed a single organism in 32/42 cases, two organisms in 8 and no growth in 2. Eight different types of organisms were cultured, five of them more than once. Thirty-five specimens (83.3%) grew Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, the most frequent being Morganella morganii and Proteus species. Thirteen specimens (31.0%) grew Enterococcus faecalis. Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae showed 31.4% sensitivity to ampicillin, 40.0% sensitivity to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 34.3% sensitivity to cefuroxime, 97.1% sensitivity to ceftriaxone, and 100% sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and amikacin. E. faecalis was 92.3% sensitive to amoxicillin, 92.3% sensitive to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 92.3% resistant to erythromycin and 100% resistant to ceftriaxone. Children are particularly vulnerable to snakebite, and the consequences can be

  16. Antibacterial resistances in uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women: ECO·SENS II data from primary health care in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamenski Gustav

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI are a frequent reason for consultation of women in primary health care. To avoid therapy failure and development of resistances, the choice of an antibiotic should be based on the knowledge of recent local resistance data but these data are scarce for the Austrian primary health care sector. Within the context of the ECO·SENS II study it was the aim to obtain appropriate and relevant local resistance data and describe the changes in the resistance pattern in comparison to the ECO·SENS study. Methods 23 GPs from different parts of Austria participated in the study between July 2007 and November 2008. According to the defined inclusion- and exclusion criteria female patients with symptoms of an uncomplicated UTI were included and a midstream urine sample was collected. In case of significant bacteriuria susceptibility testing of E. coli against 14 antibiotics was performed. Descriptive statistical methods were used. Results In 313 patients included in the study, a total of 147 E. coli isolates (47% were detected and tested. The resistance rates were in %: Mecillinam (0.0, nitrofurantoin (0.7, fosfomycin trometamol (0.7, gentamycin (1.4, cefotaxime (2.7, ceftazidime (2.7, Cephadroxil (4.1 and ciprofloxacin (4.1. Higher resistance rates were found in amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (8.9, nalidixic acid (9.6, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (14.4, trimethoprim (15.8, sulphamethoxazole (21.2 and ampicillin (28.8. Additionally, the comparison of these results with the results of the ECO·SENS study demonstrated an increase in resistance rates of ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Conclusions The resistance data for E. coli in uncomplicated UTIs in women gained by this study are the most recent data for this disease in Austria at the moment. The increased resistance rates of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid should be

  17. Effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil on milk somatic cell count, milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in Awassi sheep with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekish, Myassar O; Ismail, Zuhair B; Awawdeh, Mofleh S; Shatnawi, Shoroq

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of intramammary infusion of sage ( Salvia officinalis ) essential oil (EO) on milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in 20 Awassi ewes affected with subclinical mastitis. The dried leaves of sage were used to extract the EO by hydrodistillation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of sage EO against Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the broth dilution method. Ewes were divided randomly into three main groups and received one of the following treatments; Group 1 (n=5): Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone (5 ml; 0.2 ml of DMSO in 4.8 ml of saline), Group 2 (n=5): Amoxicillin alone (3 ml), and Group 3 (n=10): Sage EO (5 ml of sage EO solution [0.2 ml DMSO+1 ml EO+3.8 ml sterile saline]). All treatments were administered by intramammary infusion into each teat twice per day for 3 consecutive days. Milk samples for SCC and milk components determination and whole blood samples for hematology and serum biochemical analyses were collected before treatment (T0) and at 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h after the last treatment. The MIC and MBC of sage EO against S. aureus were 12.5% and 6.1%, respectively. SCC was decreased significantly (psage EO and amoxicillin treated groups. Milk fat and lactose were increased significantly (psage EO and amoxicillin treated ewes while no significant changes were observed in the percentages of solids-not-fat, protein and total solids. No significant effects of sage EO treatment on any of the hematology or serum biochemical parameters were observed. There were no local or systemic side effects observed in any of the treated ewes. However, further clinical trials are warranted to determine safety and possible withdrawal times in milk before its recommendation for use in organic operations. In this study, the intramammary infusion of sage EO to ewes affected with

  18. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Addisu; Asrat, Daniel; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; G/Hiwot, Yirgu; Abdella, Ahmed; Melesse, Tadele

    2008-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common complication of pregnancy. It may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. The aim of this cross sectional study was to identify bacterial agents and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern isolated from pregnant women with UTI attending antenatal clinic of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). Four hundred and fourteen pregnant women with asymptomatic UTI (n = 369) and symptomatic UTI (n = 45) were investigated for urinary tract infection from January to March 2005. The age range of both groups was 18 to 44 years. Bacteriological screening of mid-stream urine specimens revealed that 39/369 (10.6%) and 9/45 (20%) had significant bacteriuria in asymptomatic and symptomatic group, respectively (p = 0.10). The overall prevalence of urinary tract infection was 48/414 (11.6%). The bacterial pathogens isolated were predominantly E. coil (44%), followed by S. aureus (20%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (16%), and K. pneumoniae (8%). Others found in small in number included P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and non-Group A-beta hemolytic Streptococcus, this accounted 2% for each. The gram positive and negative bacteria accounted 40% and 60% respectively. The susceptibility pattern for gram-negative bacteria showed that most of the isolates (> 65% of the strains) were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (70%), chloramphenicol (83.3%), gentamicin (93.3%), kanamycin (93.3%), nitrofurantoin (87.7%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (73.3%). Among the gram-positives, more than 60% of the isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), cephalothin (95%), chloramphenicol (70%), erythromycin (80%), gentamicin (85%), methicillin (83.3%), nitrofurantoin (100%) and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (65%). Generally, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole were effective at least in 70% of the isolates. Multiple drug resistance (resistance two or

  19. Characterisation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from companion animals in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkaba, A; Grinberg, A; Benschop, J; Pleydell, E

    2017-03-01

    To assess the occurrence of, and characterise, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated by veterinary diagnostic laboratories from infection sites in companion animals in New Zealand. Selected Enterobacteriaceae isolates were submitted by seven New Zealand veterinary diagnostic laboratories. They were isolated from infection sites in companion animals between June 2012 and June 2013, and were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, fluoroquinolones, or any combination of two or more antimicrobials. Based on disk diffusion test results, the isolates were phenotypically categorised according to production of ESBL and AmpC. Genes for ESBL and AmpC production were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Escherichia coli isolates were also typed by multilocus sequence typing. A total of 115 isolates matching the inclusion criteria were obtained from the participating laboratories, of which 74 (64%) originated from dogs and 29 (25%) from cats. Seven bacterial species were identified, of which E. coli was the most common (87/115, 76%). Of the 115 isolates, 10 (9%) expressed the ESBL phenotype, 43 (37%) the AmpC phenotype, and seven (6%) both ESBL and AmpC phenotypes. Of the 60 ESBL and AmpC-producing isolates, 36 (60%) were E. coli. Amongst these isolates, 27/60 (45%) were classified as multidrug resistant, compared with 15/55 (27%) non-ESBL or AmpC-producing isolates (pEnterobacteriaceae isolated by one laboratory network over the study period. ESBL and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae were associated with clinical infections in companion animals in New Zealand, and were often multidrug resistant. In this study, these organisms accounted for Enterobacteriaceae isolated from infection sites by one laboratory network, but their prevalence among isolates resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 61%. Therefore routine secondary testing for ESBL and AmpC production by Enterobacteriaceae that are resistant to

  20. Do children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition need antibiotics? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alcoba

    Full Text Available Current (1999 World Health Organization guidelines recommend giving routine antibiotics (AB for all children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM, even if they have uncomplicated disease with no clinically obvious infections. We examined the evidence behind this recommendation.OVID-MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, GLOBAL-HEALTH, CINAHL, POPLINE, AFRICA-WIDE-NiPAD, and LILACS were searched for AB efficacy, bacterial resistance, and infection rates in SAM. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Three randomised controlled trials (RCT, five Cochrane reviews, and 37 observational studies were identified. One cohort-study showed no increase in nutritional-cure and mortality in uncomplicated SAM where no AB were used. (p>0.05. However, an unpublished RCT in this setting did show mortality benefits. Another RCT did not show superiority of ceftriaxone over amoxicilllin for these same outcomes, but adressed SAM children with and without complications (p = 0.27. Another RCT showed no difference between amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole efficacies for pneumonia in underweight, but not SAM. Our meta-analysis of 12 pooled susceptibility-studies for all types of bacterial isolates, including 2767 stricly SAM children, favoured amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole for susceptibility medians: 42% (IQR 27-55% vs 22% (IQR 17-23% and population-weighted-means 52.9% (range 23-57% vs 35.4% (range 6.7-42%. Susceptibilities to second-line AB were better, above 80%. Prevalence of serious infections in SAM, pooled from 24 studies, ranged from 17% to 35.2%. No study infered any association of infection prevalence with AB regimens in SAM.The evidence underlying current antibiotic recommendations for uncomplicated SAM is weak. Susceptibility-studies favour amoxicillin over cotrimoxazole. However, given that these antibiotics have side-effects, costs, and risks as well as benefits, their routine use needs urgent testing. With reliable

  1. Prospective drug safety monitoring using the UK primary-care General Practice Research Database: theoretical framework, feasibility analysis and extrapolation to future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Saga; Wallander, Mari-Ann; de Abajo, Francisco J; García Rodríguez, Luis Alberto

    2010-03-01

    Post-launch drug safety monitoring is essential for the detection of adverse drug signals that may be missed during preclinical trials. Traditional methods of postmarketing surveillance such as spontaneous reporting have intrinsic limitations, many of which can be overcome by the additional application of structured pharmacoepidemiological approaches. However, further improvement in drug safety monitoring requires a shift towards more proactive pharmacoepidemiological methods that can detect adverse drug signals as they occur in the population. To assess the feasibility of using proactive monitoring of an electronic medical record system, in combination with an independent endpoint adjudication committee, to detect adverse events among users of selected drugs. UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD) information was used to detect acute liver disorder associated with the use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (hepatotoxic) or low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid [non-hepatotoxic]). Individuals newly prescribed these drugs between 1 October 2005 and 31 March 2006 were identified. Acute liver disorder cases were assessed using GPRD computer records in combination with case validation by an independent endpoint adjudication committee. Signal generation thresholds were based on the background rate of acute liver disorder in the general population. Over a 6-month period, 8148 patients newly prescribed amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 5577 patients newly prescribed low-dose aspirin were identified. Within this cohort, searches identified 11 potential liver disorder cases from computerized records: six for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and five for low-dose aspirin. The independent endpoint adjudication committee refined this to four potential acute liver disorder cases for whom paper-based information was requested for final case assessment. Final case assessments confirmed no cases of acute liver disorder. The time taken for this study was 18 months (6 months for

  2. Activity of Telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared to Those of Eight Other Agents by Time-Kill Methodology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim L.; Ednie, Lois M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    Time-kill studies examined the activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647), erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and metronidazole against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Time-kill studies were carried out with the addition of Oxyrase in order to prevent the introduction of CO2. Macrolide-azalide-ketolide MICs were 0.004 to 32.0 μg/ml. Of the latter group, telithromycin had the lowest MICs, especially against non-Bacteroides fragilis group strains, followed by azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin A, and roxithromycin. Clindamycin was active (MIC ≤ 2.0 μg/ml) against all anaerobes except Peptostreptococcus magnus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, while pristinamycin MICs were 0.06 to 4.0 μg/ml. Amoxicillin-clavulanate had MICs of ≤1.0 μg/ml, while metronidazole was active (MICs, 0.03 to 2.0 μg/ml) against all except Propionibacterium acnes. After 48 h at twice the MIC, telithromycin was bactericidal (≥99.9% killing) against 6 strains, with 99% killing of 9 strains and 90% killing of 10 strains. After 24 h at twice the MIC, 90, 99, and 99.9% killing of nine, six, and three strains, respectively, occurred. Lower rates of killing were seen at earlier times. Similar kill kinetics relative to the MIC were seen with other macrolides. After 48 h at the MIC, clindamycin was bactericidal against 8 strains, with 99 and 90% killing of 9 and 10 strains, respectively. After 24 h, 90% killing of 10 strains occurred at the MIC. The kinetics of clindamycin were similar to those of pristinamycin. After 48 h at the MIC, amoxicillin-clavulanate showed 99.9% killing of seven strains, with 99% killing of eight strains and 90% killing of nine strains. At four times the MIC, metronidazole was bactericidal against 8 of 10 strains tested after 48 h and against all 10 strains after 24 h; after 12 h, 99% killing of all 10 strains occurred. PMID:10428930

  3. [The etiology of urinary tract infections and antimicrobial susceptibility: study based on children hospitalized in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowska, Teresa; Chwiećko, Jakub; Hartmann, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the etiology of urinary tract infections and pathogen drug sensitivity in hospitalized children. We analyzed 156 medical records of patients admitted to the Clinical Department of Pediatrics, Bielański Hospital in Warsaw in 2012, with a suspected UTI. Positive urine culture results were found in 113 (72.4%) children (68; 60.2% of girls and 45; 39.8% of boys), aged from 2 months to 17.9 years (the average age was 2 years and 3 months). E. coli was the most frequent isolated pathogen - 92.0% of patients (104/113). The greatest sensitivity of pathogens showed to cephalosporins of the second and third generation (80.5-90.3%). The sensitivity to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid was 71.7% and 41.6% for ampicillin. The length of hospital stay and treatment ranged from 2 to 16 days (average 8.6 days). In 60.2% (68/113) of patients were treated with second cephalosporin, in 17.7% (20/113) with third generation cephalosporins. Only 11.5% of them (13/113) received amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. Before the treatment, 69.9% (79/113) of children had a fever from 38 up to 41,7ºC, and the fever persisted for the average of 2.5 days (1-8 days). We found significantly higher levels of CRP in children aged between 2-4 in comparison to other age groups (p= 0.0290). In 44.2% (50/113) of children the cystourethrography was performed and in 22% (11/50) cases we recognized a unilateral or bilateral vesicoureteral-ureter of a I to IV degree, on one or both sides. The most common etiological agent of UTIs in children remains E. coli. The sensitivity of urinary pathogens to the commonly used antibiotics is still high, however, finds a large percentage of strains resistant to ampicillin and to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. The antibiotic recommended for empiric therapy of UTIs in children should be cephalosporins, if there is such a possibility, the treatment should be based on drug sensitivity tests of the organisms grown. Because of the relatively long hospitalization

  4. Antibacterial effects of Apis mellifera and stingless bees honeys on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewnetu, Yalemwork; Lemma, Wossenseged; Birhane, Nega

    2013-10-19

    Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees and has nutritional and therapeutic uses. In Ethiopia, honeys are used traditionally to treat wounds, respiratory infections and diarrhoea. Recent increase of drug resistant bacteria against the existing antibiotics forced investigators to search for alternative natural remedies and evaluate their potential use on scientific bases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of different types of honeys in Ethiopia which are used traditionally to treat different types of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Mueller Hinton agar (70191) diffusion and nutrient broth culture medium assays were performed to determine susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and resistant clinical isolates (Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), Escherichia coli(R) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (R), using honeys of Apis mellifera and stingless bees in northern and north western Ethiopia. Honey of the stingless bees produced the highest mean inhibition (22.27 ± 3.79 mm) compared to white honey (21.0 ± 2.7 mm) and yellow honey (18.0 ± 2.3 mm) at 50% (v/v) concentration on all the standard and resistant strains. Stingless bees honey was found to have Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 6.25% (6.25 mg/ml) for 80% of the test organisms compared to 40% for white and yellow Apis mellifera honeys. All the honeys were found to have minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5% (12.5 mg/ml) against all the test organisms. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) was susceptible to amoxicillin, methicillin, kanamycine, tetracycline, and vancomycine standard antibiotic discs used for susceptibility tests. Similarly, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) was found susceptible for kanamycine, tetracycline and vancomycine. Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) has not been tested for amoxicillin ampicillin and methicillin. The susceptibility tests performed against

  5. Finding of coagulase negative staphylococci in the herd with an increased number of somatic cells in milk and their antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are generally considered to be opportunistic pathogens. Controlling CNS mastitis is difficult because the epidemiology is not clear, and the CNS group consists of about 40 different Staphylococcus species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coagulasenegative staphylococci in milk of the cows with subclinical mastitis, as well as to determine different CNS species isolated from quarter milk samples for their susceptibility to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. On the farm where there was found an increase of somatic cells in bulk milk, 112 dairy cows were examined by mastitis test. From 52 udder quarters where mastitis test showed an increase of somatic cells, milk samples were taken for bacteriological examination. For isolating the causes of mastitis there was used blood agar. Identification of the causative agents of mastitis was carried out on the basis of colony appearance on blood agar and their physiological characteristics. Coagulasepositive staphylococci sensitivity which cause mastitis was tested by Kirby Bauer method. For susceptibility testing there were used commercially produced discs containing: 10 IU penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (20 +10 μg, cloxacillin 25 μg, 30 μg amoxicillin, cephalexin 30 μg, ceftiofur 30 μg, 15 μg lincomycin, gentamicin and tetracycline 30 μg. The sensitivity of microorganisms was evaluated on the basis of inhibition zone diameter recommended by the manufacturer and was labeled as sensitive (S moderately sensitive (I or resistant (R. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 61.53% of samples from cows with subclinical mastitis, making them the most common cause of subclinical mastitis. The highest resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to penicillin G (58.33% of isolates. Full sensitivity of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (100% of

  6. [Saccharomyces boulardii modulates dendritic cell properties and intestinal microbiota disruption after antibiotic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, A; Sandré, C; Barc, M-C

    2010-09-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a non-pathogenic yeast with biotherapeutic properties that has been used successfully to prevent and to treat various infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrheas. The intestinal microbiota is responsible for colonization resistance and immune response to pathogens but can be disrupted by antibiotics and lose its barrier effect. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system with the ability to initiate a primary immune response or immune tolerance. In a human microbiota-associated mouse model, we evaluated the influence of S. boulardii on the composition of the microbiota and on the properties of dendritic cells in normal homeostatic conditions and after antibiotic-induced stress. The DCs were derived from splenic precursors. Membrane antigen expression and phagocytosis of FITC-latex beads by DCs were evaluated by flow cytometry. The molecular analysis of the microbiota was performed with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with flow cytometry or confocal microscopy using group specific 16S rRNA targeted probes. This evaluation was conducted during and after a 7-day oral treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid alone and in combination with the administration of the yeast. The antibiotic treatment increased the phagocytic activity of DCs. Their antigen presenting function (MHC class II antigen and CD 86 costimulatory molecule membrane expression) was up-regulated. This reflects a functional activation of DCs. In the presence of S. boulardii, the modification of membrane antigen expression was down regulated. To correlate these modifications to the microbiota disruption, we analyzed in parallel the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As previously shown, the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment, both alone and with S. boulardii, did not quantitatively alter the total microbiota. In contrast, after one day of the antibiotic treatment the Clostridium coccoides group decreased

  7. [Impact of regulatory measures in the trends of community consumption of antibiotics in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavestrello, Luis; Cabello, Angela; Casanova, Dunny

    2002-11-01

    The indiscriminate use of antibiotics increases the appearance of bacterial resistance and forces the use of more expensive alternatives. The Chilean Ministry of Health is regulating the consumption of antibiotics since September 1999. These regulatory measures restricted the sale of antibiotics only when these were prescribed by an MD or an DS. To study the impact of these regulatory measures on antibiotics sales in pharmacies. A retrospective analysis of antibiotics sales in pharmacies from 1996 to 2000. The information was obtained from the International Marketing System (IMS Health), an auditing system of pharmacy sales. The consumption unit used was the Defined Daily Dose per 1000 inhabitants/day (DDD). There was an important reduction in DDD, after the introduction of regulatory measures, for amoxicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulpha, chroramphenicol, cloxacillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin. There was also a important fall in sales, expressed in dollars. The regulatory measures of the Ministry of Health, had an immediate and great impact on antibiotics sales in Chile.

  8. Antibacterial prophylaxis in neutropenic children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Barone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period of neutropenia due to chemotherapy, patients have high risk of infections. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce neutropenia-related complications in oncologic patients is still disputed. Recent meta-analysis and clinical trials demonstrated that antibiotic prophylaxis with chinolons reduces fever episodes, bacterial infections and mortality in adult oncologic patients with neutropenia due to chemotherapy for acute leukaemia. In paediatric patients, the only randomized, double-blind, prospective study up till now suggested that Amoxicillin clavulanate may represent an effective prophylactic treatment to reduce fever and infections in oncologic children with neutropenia, with an efficacy statistically demonstrated only in patients with acute leukaemia. Considering the risk of resistances, antibiotic-prophylaxis should be used only in selected patients.

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal women in Lagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olamijulo, Joseph Ayodeji; Adewale, Chris Olu; Olaleye, Olalekan

    2016-08-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), the commonest bacterial isolates and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern among 556 pregnant women in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Nigeria. Women with a bacterial count over 100,000 colony-forming units per millilitre of the same organisms in paired urine samples were considered to have ASB. The prevalence of ASB was 14.6%. Klebsiella was the commonest micro-organism (39.2%) isolated. ASB was significantly associated with marital status, body mass index and parity. There was a significant relationship between urinary nitrites and ASB. The isolated organisms showed remarkable resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cloxacillin and trimethoprim but good sensitivity to ofloxacin, gentamycin and ceftazidime. These facts have implications for the management of ASB in pregnancy.

  10. Hospital Resource Utilisation by Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, S

    2017-09-01

    Little data is available on the resource utilisation of patients admitted with Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Ireland. A retrospective review of 50 randomly-selected patients admitted to Beaumont Hospital with CAP was undertaken. The mean length of stay of patients with CAP was 12 days (+\\/- 16 days). All patients were emergency admissions, all had a chest x-ray, a C-reactive protein blood test, and occupied a public bed at some point during admission. Common antimicrobial therapies were intravenous (IV) amoxicillin\\/clavulanic acid and oral clarithromycin; 60% received physiotherapy. The estimated mean cost of CAP per patient was €14,802.17. Costs arising from admission to hospital with CAP are substantial, but efforts can be undertaken to ensure that resources are used efficiently to improve patient care such as discharge planning and fewer in-hospital ward transfers

  11. A Systematic Review on Effect of Single-Dose Preoperative Antibiotics at Surgical Osteotomy Extraction of Lower Third Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Karoline Brørup; Laulund, Anne Sofie; Jørgensen, Henrik L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of preoperative antibiotic administered perorally, intravenously, intramuscularly, or topically for preventing infection and alveolar osteitis in lower third molar...... that penicillin V was effective in reducing the incidence of alveolar osteitis (OR = 0.1; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.30; P ≤ .0001). CONCLUSIONS: A single oral dose of 2 g of amoxicillin before lower third molar osteotomy surgical extraction significantly decreased the incidence of SSI. A single dose of 0.8 g...... of penicillin V before lower third molar osteotomy surgical extraction significantly decreased the incidence of alveolar osteitis....

  12. Antibiotic treatment in patients with low-back pain associated with Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema): a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, HB; Manniche, C; Sørensen, JS

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of antibiotic treatment in a cohort of patients with low-back pain (LBP) and Modic changes Type 1 (bone oedema) following a lumbar herniated disc. DESIGN: This was a prospective uncontrolled trial of 32 LBP patients who had Modic...... and LBP at 14 months follow-up (n = 37) were invited to participate in this subsequent antibiotic trial but five did not meet the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: 29 patients completed the treatment, as three patients dropped out due to severe diarrhoea. At the end of treatment and at long-term follow...... changes and were treated with Amoxicillin-clavulanate (500 mg/125 mg) 3 x day for 90 days. All patients had previously participated in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigated active conservative treatment for a lumbar herniated disc (n = 166). All patients in that RCT who had Modic changes...

  13. Use of etanercept to treat toxic epidermal necrolysis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yi Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is an uncommon and severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction that causes disseminated necrosis of epidermal cells and mucocutaneous detachment. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus infection who presented with generalized violaceous macules and blister formation 4 days after the administration of mefenamic acid and amoxicillin for a dental procedure. Additional symptoms included oral ulcers and conjunctivitis. Results of skin biopsy were compatible with Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS. SJS progressed to TEN within 2 days. Etanercept treatment showed a dramatic improvement in the symptoms of mucocutaneous lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the treatment of TEN using etanercept in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli from swine, horses, dogs and cats as determined in the BfT-GermVet monitoring program 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobbel, Mirjam; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Alesík, Eva; Schwarz, Stefan; Wallmann, Jürgen; Werckenthin, Christiane; Wieler, Lothar H

    2007-01-01

    A total of 417 isolates of Escherichia coli collected from five animal species/organ system combinations from swine [urinary/genital tract (UGT) incl. mastitis metritis agalactia syndrome], horses [genital tract (GT)] and dogs/cats [respiratory tract (RT), UGT and gastrointestinal tract (GIT)] were analysed quantitatively for their susceptibility against different antimicrobial agents by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. Regardless of which animal species the strains originated from, resistance appeared most frequently against sulfamethoxazole (18-59%), tetracycline (14-54 %), and ampicillin (14-39%). High percentages of intermediate isolates were observed for cephalothin (39-46 %). In general, low prevalences of resistance were detected for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1-4%), gentamicin (1-9%), and cefazolin (0-11%). Generally speaking, the antimicrobial resistance situation among E. coli isolates from horses and small animals is relatively good.

  15. Acute Otitis due to Vibrio fluvialis after Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Jen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old female presented with purulent exudate through the left auditive duct and pain in the left ear region, which intensified during mastication. After collection of the pus from the left ear lesion, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for seven days was prescribed for a presumed diagnosis of acute otitis. Four days later, the pus culture grew V. fluvialis which is further identified by API 20E identification system (bioMérieux. Following the successful completion of a course of antibiotics, the patient recovered completely and without complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Vibrio fluvialis otitis after swimming in an immunocompetent patient.

  16. Bacteroides forsythus: sensibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de pacientes portadores de periodontite Bacteroides forsythus: sensitivity to antimicrobial agents in samples from patients with periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fraga Moreira LOTUFO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores realizaram teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana in vitro (técnica de diluição em ágar para 105 cepas de B. forsythus obtidas de pacientes portadores de periodontite. De acordo com o teste realizado, o microrganismo demonstrou ser sensível ao metronidazol (100% das cepas testadas e à amoxicilina (94% das cepas testadas, enquanto 72% e 65% das cepas foram susceptíveis à tetraciclina e ciprofloxacina, respectivamente. O metronidazol e a amoxicilina parecem ser os antimicrobianos indicados para o tratamento de infecções periodontais nas quais B. forsythus seja o patógeno predominante.An in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity test (technique of agar dilution was carried out for 105 clinical isolates of B. forsythus from patients with periodontitis. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were the most efficient drugs and, thus, are indicated for the treatment of periodontal infections in which this microorganism is the most prevalent pathogen.

  17. Treatment of helicobacter pylori infection; a controlled randomized comparative clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, A.; Usmanghani, K.; Mohiuddin, E.; Akram, M.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori induces chronic inflammation of the underlying gastric mucosa and is strongly linked to the development of duodenal and gastric carcinoma. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Pylorex, a herbal formulation, for treatment of H. pylori infection as compared to triple allopathic therapy (Omeprazole, Amoxicillin, Metronidazole). The therapeutic evaluations of these medicines were conducted on 97 clinically and immunologically diagnosed cases of H. pylori infection. H. pylori was eradicated in 16 (32.6%) out of 49 patients by the use of triple allopathic therapy (Control drugs), and in 9 (18.7%) out of 48 patients by the use of Pylorex (Test drug). Pylorex possesses a therapeutic value for the treatment of H. pylori associated symptoms but the eradication rate is superior in triple allopathic therapy. (author)

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study....../spot) as the inoculum and 72 h as the incubation time. A modest inoculum effect was noted for amoxicillin and metronidazole. By the methodology derived from our preliminary study, the susceptibilities of 230 H. pylori strains to six antibiotics were subsequently determined. The results were generally in accord...... with those of others, and apart from metronidazole, the MIC of which for approximately 25% of the strains tested was >8 microg/ml, resistance was low in Denmark. The situation might, however, quickly change when and if the number of indications for antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections increase...

  19. Primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains among adults and children in a tertiary referral centre in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dargiene, Gintare; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Jonaitis, Laimas

    2018-01-01

    The study evaluated primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori within the period 2013-2015 and trends of antibiotic consumption over the last decade in Lithuania; 242 adults and 55 children were included in the study. E-tests were performed for amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin......, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. The presence of H. pylori and clarithromycin resistance was additionally tested by PCR. Helicobacter pylori culture was positive in 67 of 242 (28%) adult and in 12 of 55 (21.8%) children samples. Resistance rates among adults by E-tests were as follows: metronidazole......, while it has doubled from 1.10 to 2.22 DDD/1000/children/day in children within 2003-2015. There are no significant changes in the susceptibility of H. pylori to the most widely used antibiotics in adults over the last years in Lithuania; however, clarithromycin resistance among children exceeds 15...

  20. Actinomyces graevenitzii Pulmonary Abscess Mimicking Tuberculosis in a Healthy Young Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Gliga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare disease that is often misdiag-nosed as tuberculosis or lung cancer. Actinomyces graevenitzii is a relatively new recognized Actinomyces species isolated from various clinical samples. The authors report a case of pulmonary actinomycosis caused by A graevenitzii. A computed tomography examination revealed an excavated consolidation in the middle right lobe of a previously healthy young man who presented with a long history of moderate cough. Cultures of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary abscess caused by A gravenitzii. At the three-month follow-up consultation and, after six weeks of high-dose amoxicillin, the pulmonary lesion had completely disappeared.

  1. Does antibiotic prophylaxis at implant placement decrease early implant failures? A Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Loli, Vasiliki; Coulthard, Paul; Worthington, Helen V

    2010-01-01

    conducted. Four RCTs were identified: three comparing 2 g of preoperative amoxicillin versus placebo (927 patients) and the other comparing 1 g of preoperative amoxicillin plus 500 mg four times a day for 2 days versus no antibiotics (80 patients). The meta-analyses of the four trials showed a statistically significantly higher number of patients experiencing implant failures in the group not receiving antibiotics: risk ratio=0.40 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.84). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one patient having an implant failure is 33 (95% CI 17-100), based on a patient implant failure rate of 5% in patients not receiving antibiotics. The other outcomes were not statistically significant, and only two minor adverse events were recorded, one in the placebo group. There is some evidence suggesting that 2 g of amoxicillin given orally 1 h preoperatively significantly reduce failures of dental implants placed in ordinary conditions. No significant adverse events were reported. It might be sensible to suggest the use of a single dose of 2 g prophylactic amoxicillin prior to dental implant placement. It is still unknown whether post-operative antibiotics are beneficial, and which is the most effective antibiotic.

  2. Multi-objective optimization of an industrial penicillin V bioreactor train using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fook Choon; Rangaiah, Gade Pandu; Ray, Ajay Kumar

    2007-10-15

    Bulk of the penicillin produced is used as raw material for semi-synthetic penicillin (such as amoxicillin and ampicillin) and semi-synthetic cephalosporins (such as cephalexin and cefadroxil). In the present paper, an industrial penicillin V bioreactor train is optimized for multiple objectives simultaneously. An industrial train, comprising a bank of identical bioreactors, is run semi-continuously in a synchronous fashion. The fermentation taking place in a bioreactor is modeled using a morphologically structured mechanism. For multi-objective optimization for two and three objectives, the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is chosen. Instead of a single optimum as in the traditional optimization, a wide range of optimal design and operating conditions depicting trade-offs of key performance indicators such as batch cycle time, yield, profit and penicillin concentration, is successfully obtained. The effects of design and operating variables on the optimal solutions are discussed in detail. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Karakteristik Beberapa Jenis Antibiotik Berdasarkan Pola Difraksi Sinar-X (XRD Dan Spektrum FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzan T Razzak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pengukuran karakteristik difraksi sinar-x (XRD terhadap beberapa jenisantibiotik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memahami karakteristik difraksi sinar-x suatuantibiotik sebagai upaya untuk identifikasi antibiotik secara cepat. Dalam penelitian ini diamatikarakteristik difraksi sinar-x dari 15 (lima belas antibiotik yang tersedia di pasaran. SpektrumXRD diukur pada sudut 2 antara 5 – 75 untuk dibandingkan dan dievaluasi mengenai bentukkristalnya. Selanjutnya diukur pula spektrum XRD dari pencampuran antibiotik dengan tepungtapioka. Pengukuran spektrum infrared dengan FTIR juga dilakukan untuk menguji konsistensihasil evaluasi spektrum XRD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa amoxicillin dan ampicillinmempunyai struktur kristal yang sama, yaitu orthorombic primitif. Sayangnya baik XRDmaupun FTIR, tidak memberikan nilai kuantitatif pada antibiotik. Oleh sebab itu, perbedaankonsentrasi dengan pencampuran tepung tapioka tidak dapat dideteksi. Walaupun demikian,metode ini terbukti dapat digunakan untuk membedakan komposisi zat penyusun antibiotiksecara cepat dan akurat.

  4. Serological characterisation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains isolated from pigs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C B; Rodríguez Barbosa, J I; Tascón, R I; Costa, L; Riera, P; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1995-07-15

    Seventy-one isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from the lungs of pigs in outbreaks of pleuropneumonia in Spain were serotyped by indirect haemagglutination. Serotype 4 (42.2 per cent), serotype 7 (22.5 per cent) and serotype 2 (12.8 per cent) were predominant, whereas serotypes 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 and untypable isolates were present only in small numbers. Serotypes 1, 2, 4 and 7 originated mainly from cases of acute pleuropneumonia, whereas serotypes 3, 6, 8, 9 and 12 were associated with chronically infected herds. The susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined by agar disc diffusion. Most were susceptible to cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefazolin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, oxolinic acid, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, thiamphenicol, colistin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Marked resistance was found with amoxicillin, ticarcillin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline and metronidazole. Rifampicin, fosfomycin and tiamulin were the agents most effective against the isolates tested.

  5. Shigella flexneri-induced vaginitis in a prepubertal children: description of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Restelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In prepuberal girls vulvo-vaginitis are caused by germs of intestinal origin,mycetes, Gardnerella vaginalis, protozoa. Shigella is an uncommon agent able to induce valvovaginitis in children. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with chronic vulvo-vaginitis caused by S. flexneri. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing revealed that S. flexnery was sensible to cefotaxime, amoxicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, but resistant to amikacin, cefazolin, gentamycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. A treatment with ciprofloxacin brought to a rapid resolution of all symptoms. At the follows up at 3 and 6 months the patient did not report symptoms of infection or articular cartilage abnormality; microbiological evaluations were also negative. Even if it is a single case report and other clinical trial may be performed in order to validate this hypothesis,we speculate that in patient with vulvo-vaginal infection living in environment with low hygiene care, a carefully microbiological evaluation of uncommon agents may be performed.

  6. Study of antibiotic prescribing among dental practitioners in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessal, G; Khabiri, A; Mirkhani, H; Cookson, B D; Askarian, M

    2011-10-01

    Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics by health care professionals is a worldwide concern. This study evaluated the knowledge and practices of dental practitioners in the city of Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran regarding their therapeutic use of antibiotics for patients with dentoalveolar infections. Of 219 (48.6%) dentists responding to the questionnaire more than 40% would prescribe antibiotics for localized fluctuant swelling and for problems for which antibiotics are not required according to good practice guidelines (acute pulpitis, chronic apical infection, periodontal abscess, chronic gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, pericoronitis and dry socket). A majority correctly prescribed antibiotics for acute periapical infection (77.2%), cellulitis (75.3%) and acute ulcerated gingivitis (63.0%). Amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic for all clinical conditions but there was a wide variation in dosage, frequency and duration for all antibiotics used. Guidelines on rational antibiotic use are needed for dental practitioners in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  7. Selective vancomycin detection using optical fibre long period gratings functionalised with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korposh, Sergiy; Chianella, Iva; Guerreiro, Antonio; Caygill, Sarah; Piletsky, Sergey; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2014-05-07

    An optical fibre long period grating (LPG) sensor modified with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) for the specific detection of antibiotics is presented. The operation of the sensor is based on the measurement of changes in refractive index induced by the interaction of nanoMIPs deposited onto the cladding of the LPG with free vancomycin (VA). The binding of nanoMIPs to vancomycin was characterised by a binding constant of 4.3 ± 0.1 × 10(-8) M. The lowest concentration of analyte measured by the fibre sensor was 10 nM. In addition, the sensor exhibited selectivity, as much smaller responses were obtained for high concentrations (∼700 μM) of other commonly prescribed antibiotics such as amoxicillin, bleomycin and gentamicin. In addition, the response of the sensor was characterised in a complex matrix, porcine plasma, spiked with 10 μM of VA.

  8. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics are frequently administered orally to treat bacterial infections not necessarily related to the gastrointestinal system. This has adverse effects on the commensal gut microbial community, by disrupting the intricate balance between specific bacterial groups within this ecosystem...... potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (n=12 per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin...... (AMX), cefataxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and cecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity...

  9. Subcutaneously administered antibiotics: a national survey of current practice from the French Infectious Diseases (SPILF) and Geriatric Medicine (SFGG) society networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, E; Paccalin, M; Roubaud-Baudron, C; Fraisse, T; Gavazzi, G; Gaillat, J

    2015-04-01

    A national survey was performed to explore antibiotic prescription by the subcutaneous (sc) route among French infectious diseases and geriatric practitioners. Among the participating physicians, 367 (96.1%) declared administering sc antibiotics at some point. Ceftriaxone was prescribed sc by all but one, and ertapenem, teicoplanin, aminoglycosides and amoxicillin by 33.2%, 39.2%, 35.1% and 15.3%, respectively. The sc route was resorted to mainly in case of unavailable oral, intravenous or intramuscular routes, especially during palliative care. Pain, skin necrosis and lack of efficacy were the main adverse effects, reported by 70.8%, 12.8% and 19.9% of practitioners, respectively. Further studies are needed to precise the indications, modalities and tolerance of sc antibiotic use. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tigecycline in-vitro susceptibility and antibiotics fitness forgram-negative pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, Subhash C.; Agarwal, N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the tigecycline in-vitro susceptibility ofnaive gram-negative pathogens from serious infections in Delhi, India. DuringJuly to October 2007 investigations were carried out to determine thetigecycline in vitro susceptibility of 50 consecutive gram-negative pathogensfrom serious infections at the Sant Parmanand Hospital, Delhi, India. Minimumtigecycline inhibitory concentrations were determined employing the E testmethod (AB Biodisk). Twenty-four percent of isolates were found to betigecycline resistant or partly susceptible. Susceptibility of the isolateswere lower than meropenem but similar to piperacillin-tazobactum,amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amikacin. Tigecycline resistance wasprevalent in the gram-negative isolates from serious infections prior to itsmarketing in India. The choice of any recently marketed antibiotic for apilot treatment against serious gram-negative infections should not beautomatic. In the initial phase of its marketing, it should be evaluated inparallel with the antibiotics with excellent local susceptibility profiles.(author)

  11. Lactobacillus Species Identification, H2O2 Production, and Antibiotic Resistance and Correlation with Human Clinical Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, Annie; Barreau, Claude; Bizet, Chantal; Lagrange, Philippe Henri; Philippon, Alain

    1999-01-01

    Lactobacilli recovered from the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, respiratory tract, and gut of 20 hospitalized immunocompromised septic patients were analyzed. Biochemical carbohydrate fermentation and total soluble cell protein profiles were used to identify the species. Hydrogen peroxide production was measured. Susceptibility to 19 antibiotics was tested by a diffusion method, and the MICs of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, imipenem, erythromycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, and levofloxacin were determined. A small number of species produced H2O2, and antibiotic susceptibilities were species related. Eighteen (90%) of the isolates were L. rhamnosus, one was L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, and one was L. crispatus. L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei isolates, and the type strains were neither H2O2 producers nor vancomycin susceptible (MICs, ≥256 μg/ml). L. crispatus, as well as most of the type strains of lactobacilli which belong to the L. acidophilus group, was an H2O2 producer and vancomycin susceptible (MICs, <4 μg/ml). PMID:9986841

  12. Not the usual sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Hussam; Kott, Amy; Fouda, Ragai

    2012-01-01

    An encephalocele is a protrusion of the cranial contents beyond the normal confines of the skull. It is a rare cause of seizure in adults. A 38-year-old woman presented with a first-onset seizure. Brain CT was interpreted as right frontal sinus opacification suggestive of sinusitis. The patient was discharged home with an amoxicillin prescription. A few days later, she was re-admitted with another seizure. Careful evaluation of the brain CT and MRI revealed a right frontal sinus posterior wall defect and possible brain encephalocele. The patient had complained of chronic nasal discharge for years and had also noticed a watery discharge from her right nostril. We suspected cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. A bifrontal craniotomy was performed, the encephalocele was resected and cranialisation of the frontal sinus was completed. The patient remained free of seizures at the last follow-up. PMID:23188840

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus spp. from domestic and wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela de Godoy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of veterinary clinical isolates of Staphylococcus and analyze their antimicrobial susceptibility. One hundred Staphylococcus spp. clinical isolates from domestic and wild animals were subjected to partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to species determination. Antimicrobial susceptibility was obtained by a disk diffusion test against six antibiotics: amoxicillin (AMX, cephalexin (LEX, ciprofloxacin (CIP, erythromycin (ERY, gentamicin (GEN and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT. The most common specie was S. pseudintermedius (61%, 61/100 and resistance to ERY (57%, 57/100, SXT (50%, 50/100 and AMX (46%, 46/100 was detected most frequently. In total, 40% (40/100 of Staphylococcus spp. exhibited a multidrug-resistant (MDR phenotype. Results of this study emphasize that animals are reservoir of MDR Staphylococcus spp.

  14. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  15. Septic Bursitis in an 8-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Kratimenos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prepatellar bursa can become inflamed owing to repeated trauma. Prepatellar bursitis is extremely rare in children. Methods. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was treated for an erythematous, swollen, and severely painful right knee, fever, inability to bear weight on the leg, and purulent material draining from a puncture wound. We describe the differential diagnosis for tender swollen knee, including infection, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. If untreated, prepatellar bursitis can progress to patellar osteomyelitis. Results. Wound cultures grew Streptococcus pyogenes, with the infection resolving with amoxicillin. Conclusions. A high index of suspicion is necessary in children presenting with prepatellar bursitis to prevent potentially devastating sequelae of infection of the septic joint.

  16. Immobilization of the enzyme β-lactamase by self-assembly on thin films of a poly(phenyleneethynylene) sequenced with flexible segments containing sulfur atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Erika; Aguilar, Abdieel Esquivel; Moggio, Ivana; Arias, Eduardo; Romero, Jorge; Barrientos, Hector; Torres, Jose Roman; Luz Reyes Vega, Maria de la

    2007-01-01

    A novel poly(phenyleneethynylene) sequenced in the main conjugated chain with flexible groups containing sulfur atoms has been synthesized by Heck-Sonogashira coupling reaction. Layer-by-layer films of the polymer have been prepared with a linear growth in thickness up to four layers as evidenced by UV-Vis spectroscopy and perfilometry. On the top of these multilayers, the enzyme β-lactamase was deposited by self-assembly. The enzymatic activity was measured by a modified spectrophotometric standard assay method for penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin. A higher and faster activity was obtained for penicillin G and thus preliminary study of the biosensor response by fluorescence was carried out for this antibiotic revealing a decrease in the polymer fluorescence as function of the penicillin G concentration

  17. Prioritizing veterinary pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Kim, Myunghyun; Park, Jeongim; Boxall, Alistair B A; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-09-01

    Pharmaceutical residues may have serious impacts on nontarget biological organisms in aquatic ecosystems, and have therefore precipitated numerous investigations worldwide. Many pharmaceutical compounds available on the market need to be prioritized based on their potential ecological and human health risks in order to develop sound management decisions. We prioritized veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea by their usage, potential to enter the environment, and toxicological hazard. Twenty compounds were identified in the top priority class, most of which were antibiotics. Among these compounds, 8 were identified as deserving more immediate attention: amoxicillin, enramycin, fenbendazole, florfenicol, ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin. A limitation of this study is that we initially screened veterinary pharmaceuticals by sales tonnage for veterinary use only. However, this is the first attempt to prioritize veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea, and it provides important concepts for developing environmental risk management plans for such contaminants in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lactococcus garvieae Suşlarının Antimikrobiyal Duyarlılıklarının Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    KUBILAY, Ayşegül; ALTUN, Soner; ULUKÖY, Gülşen; DILER, Öznur

    2005-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, 9 farklı Lactococcus garveiae suşlanmn Mueller-Hinton agarda disk diffüzyon tekniği ile ATB VET (Biomerieux 14 289) strip sistemi kullanılarak antimikrobiyal duyarlılıklarının yanısıra E testi (AB BIODISK) ile de Eritromycin antibiyotiğinin MIK(Minimal inhibitör konsantrasyonu) değerleri incelenmiştir. L.garvieae suşlarının; disk diffüzyon testi ve ATB VET sistemine göre Amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, Ampicillin, Enrofloxacin, Vancomycin, Tetracycline, Doxycycline, Chloramphenicol...

  19. Measurement of trace levels of antibiotics in river water using on-line enrichment and triple-quadrupole LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Quoc Tuc; Alliot, Fabrice; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Eurin, Joëlle; Chevreuil, Marc; Labadie, Pierre

    2011-09-15

    This study presents the development of an automated on-line solid phase extraction (SPE)-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of 23 antibiotics in environmental water samples. After optimisation of LC-MS/MS conditions, SPE parameters such as sorbent type, sample pH or sample volume were optimised. Antibiotic recoveries ranged from 64% to 98% and compared favourably with those achieved using off-line SPE. Limits of detection were in the range 0.5-13.7 ng L(-1). This on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS procedure was applied to the analysis of water samples taken in three rivers within the Seine River basin, near Paris (France). The obtained results revealed the occurrence of 12 antibiotics, including tylosin, erythromycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, oxolinic acid, flumequine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and vancomycin (2-1435 ng L(-1)). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Infectious Mononucleosis and Cholestatic Hepatitis: A Rare Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Catarina; Garcia, Ana Margarida; Rúbio, Catarina; Cunha, Florbela

    2017-12-29

    Infectious mononucleosis is one of the major clinical manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus infection. In this syndrome, elevation of liver transaminase levels is common but cholestasis is rare, with few cases described in the literature. We present the case of a 14-year-old female adolescent, admitted to the Emergency Room with fever, odynophagia and cervical adenomegaly. She was treated with amoxicillin and two days later he presented with jaundice. The analytical evaluation was compatible with cholestatic hepatitis and abdominal ultrasound revealed hepatosplenomegaly without dilatation of the bile ducts. The diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection was confirmed by the presence of serological markers. This case aims to raise awareness of a rare manifestation of a common infectious agent and, consequently, to the inclusion of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection in the differential diagnosis of pediatric cholestatic hepatitis.