... your condition, symptoms, and personal and family medical history. You and your doctor will decide what type ... doctor if you are being treated with electroshock therapy (procedure in which small electric shocks are administered to the brain to treat certain ...
林祖武; 刘建涛; 何金梅
OBJECTIVE: To study the hygroscopicity of Amoxapine maleate direct compression mixed powder, and to provide reference for the promotion of direct powder compression. METHODS: Amoxapine maleate mixed powder was placed in desiccators with different relative humidities (31% , 43% , 75% and 92.5% ), then the growth rate of moisture was measured at different time to obtain moisture absorption balance time and moisture absorption rate was calculated, and the moisture equilibrium curve was drawn to achieve critical relative humidity. RESULTS: The critical relative humidity of Amoxapine maleate mixed powder was 75%, and moisture absorption balance time was 3 days. CONCLUSION: The study provides scientific basis for reasonable relative humidity control of industrial production of direct powder compression and the promotion of technology.%目的:对阿莫沙平马来酸盐直接压片混粉进行吸湿性研究,为粉末直接压片工艺的推广提供依据.方法:取阿莫沙平马来酸盐混粉置于不同相对湿度(31％、43％、75％和92.5％)环境中,通过测定不同时间吸湿增重得到吸湿平衡时间并计算吸湿率,绘制吸湿平衡曲线得到临界相对湿度.结果:阿莫沙平马来酸盐混粉临界相对湿度为75％,其吸湿平衡时间为3d.结论:本研究为粉末直接压片工艺的工业化生产控制合理的相对环境湿度及工艺的推广提供了科学依据.
Full Text Available D00228 Drug Amoxapine (JP16/USP/INN); Asendin (TN) C17H16ClN3O 313.0982 313.7814 D00228.gif Antidepress...ant Therapeutic category: 1179 ATC code: N06AA17 Tricyclic antidepressants serotonin tra... CYP2D6 [HSA:1565], CYP1A2 [HSA:1544], CYP2C19 [HSA:1557], CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] map07027 Antidepress... (JP16/USP/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antidepressants Tricyclics A
Mika, Joanna; Zychowska, Magdalena; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Przewlocka, Barbara
The current knowledge of the pharmacological actions of the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) has slowly evolved through their over 40-year history. Chronic pain represents one of the most important public health problems, and antidepressants are an essential part of the therapeutic strategy in addition to classical analgesics. This article reviews the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in chronic pain conditions; namely, headaches, low back pain, fibromyalgia, cancer pain and especially neuropathic pain. TCAs are traditionally the main type of depression medication used to treat chronic pain. Recently, new antidepressants were introduced into clinical use, with a significant reduction in side effects and equivalent efficacy on mood disorders. These new drugs that are effective for chronic pain belong to the tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs) group (amoxapine, maprotiline), the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) group (duloxetine, venlafaxine, milnacipran) and the atypical antidepressants group (bupropion, trazodone, mirtazapine, nefazodone). In this review, we present the available publications on TCAs (amitriptyline, doxepin, imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline), TeCAs (amoxapine, maprotiline), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine), SNRIs (duloxetine, venlafaxine, milnacipran) and atypical antidepressants (bupropion) for the treatment of neuropathic pain. We also review analgesics acting as both opioid receptor agonists and also acting as aminergic reuptake inhibitors. Existing data are insufficient to conclude which of these new classes of antidepressants has the best clinical profile and will be the most effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain; in addition, a lower incidence of side effects should be considered. Increased experimental and translational research is a key for further improvement of the treatment of chronic pain with antidepressants. However
Yaman, Ayhan; Kendirli, Tanıl; Ödek, Çağlar; Yıldız, Caner; Beğde, Fırat; Erkol, Hatice; İnce, Erdal
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of treatment with antipsychotic medication. NMS has also been associated with non-neuroleptic agents that block central dopamine pathways, such as metoclopramide, amoxapine and lithium. Metoclopromide has antidopaminergic properties and is a rare but well-recognized perpetrator in the development of NMS. NMS has a constellation of signs and symptoms, including hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, autonomic instability, tachycardia, tachypnea, diaphoresis, hypertension and altered mental status. We present a 2-year-old girl who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome after metoclopromide therapy. High-dose metoclopromide was given to our patient, and it is very likely that she was dehydrated while using metoclopromide, as she developed NMS two hours after treatment. The patient was discharged on the sixth day after admission to our hospital, having been cured. In summary, NMS developed in this patient very soon after metoclopromide treatment. NMS is a life-threatening emergency; if not recognized, or left untreated, it may be fatal. Therefore, early recognition of the developing signs and symptoms, along with a thorough medical history, is of great importance.
Sato, Mitsuko; Murakami, Masato
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disease with good prognosis, which is diagnosed by exclusion of possible causative organic diseases. However, since the patients tend to have strong psychotic symptoms including anxiety, tension, depression, irritation and insomnia, this syndrome has to be elucidated as a psychosomatic disease. Although the symptoms are usually limited to gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and abnormal bowel movements, many patients also manifest some kinds of psychiatric abnormalities such as hypochondria, depression, hysteria, panic disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Especially, the prevalence of depression is high. Therefore, use of psychotropic drugs is efficient in treating IBS. Antidepressant agents including tricyclic agents such as amitriptyline, trimipramine, imipramine, clomipramine, amoxapine and nortriptyline; tetracyclic antidepressant; antidepressants such as SSRI and SNRI; sulpiride; benzodiazepine class anxiolytic agents; tandospirone; and Chinese herbal medicine are being used. IBS is a stress-related disease. Therefore, in spite of the importance of pharmacotherapy, patients should also be instructed to avoid the stress that aggravates the symptoms in all aspects of daily life.
Full Text Available Various antidepressants are commonly used for the treatment of depression and several other neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition to their primary effects on serotonergic or noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems, antidepressants have been shown to interact with several receptors and ion channels. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of antidepressants have not yet been sufficiently clarified. G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+ (GIRK, Kir3 channels play an important role in regulating neuronal excitability and heart rate, and GIRK channel modulation has been suggested to have therapeutic potential for several neuropsychiatric disorders and cardiac arrhythmias. In the present study, we investigated the effects of various classes of antidepressants on GIRK channels using the Xenopus oocyte expression assay. In oocytes injected with mRNA for GIRK1/GIRK2 or GIRK1/GIRK4 subunits, extracellular application of sertraline, duloxetine, and amoxapine effectively reduced GIRK currents, whereas nefazodone, venlafaxine, mianserin, and mirtazapine weakly inhibited GIRK currents even at toxic levels. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent, with various degrees of potency and effectiveness. Furthermore, the effects of sertraline were voltage-independent and time-independent during each voltage pulse, whereas the effects of duloxetine were voltage-dependent with weaker inhibition with negative membrane potentials and time-dependent with a gradual decrease in each voltage pulse. However, Kir2.1 channels were insensitive to all of the drugs. Moreover, the GIRK currents induced by ethanol were inhibited by sertraline but not by intracellularly applied sertraline. The present results suggest that GIRK channel inhibition may reveal a novel characteristic of the commonly used antidepressants, particularly sertraline, and contributes to some of the therapeutic effects and adverse effects.