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Sample records for amorphous wc superconducting

  1. Superconducting and normal properties of metallic amorphous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquinazi, P.D.

    1983-02-01

    The superconducting and transport properties (superconducing critical temperature, superconducting critical currents, electric resistivity and thermal conductivity) of the amorphous alloys La 70 Cu 30 and Zr 70 Cu 30 prepared by melt spinning have been investigated. The modification of these properties when, the initial amorphous metals relax to other metastable state under thermal treatment at below crystallization temperatures, have also been studied. (M.E.L.) [es

  2. Ultrasonic properties of superconducting amorphous PdZr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, G.; Arnold, W.; Dransfeld, K.; Guentherodt, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Propagation of longitudinal waves in superconducting amorphous Pd 30 Zr 70 has been studied down to temperatures as low as 0.4 K. A strong decrease of the absorption is observed for temperatures lower than 1.5 K whereas no change of the absorption occurs when passing through the super-conducting transition temperature. Below 1.5 K the absorption becomes strongly magnetic-field dependent. Its overall behaviour is compared with a recently developed theory. At the lowest temperatures, the temperature variation of the sound velocity exhibits a contribution arising from resonant interaction of phonons with tunnelling centers, also present in this material. (author)

  3. Superconducting properties of amorphous Zr-Ge binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Toyota, N.; Fukase, T.; Masumoto, T.

    1982-01-01

    A new type of refractory metal-metalloid amorphous alloys exhibiting superconductivity has been found in a binary Zr-Ge system by a modified melt-spinning technique. Specimens are in the form of continuous ribbons 1 to 2 mm wide and 0.02 to 0.03 mm thick. The germanium content in the amorphous alloys is limited to the range of 13 to 21 at%. These amorphous alloys are so ductile that no cracks are observed even after closely contacted bending test. Data are reported for various alloy compositions for the Vickers hardness and crystallization temperature, the tensile fracture strength, superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c), upper critical magnetic field, critical current density in the absence of an applied field, upper critical field gradient at Tsub(c) and the electrical resistivity at 4.2 K. The Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter and the GL coherence length were estimated to be 72 to 111 and about 7.9 nm, respectively, from these experimental values by using the Ginzburg-Landau-Abrikosov-Gorkov theory and hence it is concluded that the Zr-Ge amorphous alloys are extremely 'soft' type-II superconductor with high degree of dirtiness which possesses the Tsub(c) values higher than zirconium metal, in addition to high strength combined with good ductility. (author)

  4. Determination of the fraction of amorphous phases in superconducting samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes Junior, G.G.; Ogasawara, T.; Amorim, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    The study phase formation of high critical temperature superconducting (Bi, Pb) - 2223 by partial melting and recrystallization aims to improve the microstructure of the material. Was used for X-ray diffraction characterization of the phases present. The DDM method (Derivative Difference Minimization) was used for the refinement of structures, quantification of the phases and determination the fraction of this amorphous. The advantage this method is not necessary to introduce an internal standard to determine the amorphous fraction. Were observed in the powder precursor phases (Bi, Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (Bi, Pb) -2223, 93% of the sample, Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O y (Bi-2212) and Bi 2 Sr 2 CuO z (Bi-2201). The powder precursor was heat treated at 820-870 deg C. To minimize volatilization of lead, the material was placed in silver crucibles closed. To get a high recovery of (Bi, Pb) - 2223, the material was cooled slowly, due to slow kinetic of formation of this phase. We observed a partial recovery phase (Bi, Pb) -2223. (author)

  5. Properties of amorphous SiC coatings deposited on WC-Co substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, silicon carbide films were deposited onto tungsten carbide from a sintered SiC target on a r.f. magnetron sputtering system. Based on previous results about the influence of r.f. power and argon pressure upon the properties of films deposited on silicon substrates, suitable conditions were chosen to produce high quality films on WC-Co pieces. Deposition parameters were chosen in order to obtain high deposition rates (about 30 nm/min at 400 W rf power and acceptable residual stresses (1.5 GPa. Argon pressure affects the energy of particles so that films with higher hardness (30 GPa were obtained at low pressures (0.05 Pa. Wear rates of the coated pieces against a chromium steel ball in a diamond suspension medium were found to be about half of the uncoated ones. Hardness and wear resistance measurements were done also in thermally annealed (200-800 °C samples revealing the effectiveness of SiC coatings to protect tool material against severe mechanical degradation resulting of high temperature (above 500 °C oxidation.

  6. Effects of thermal relaxation on an amorphous superconducting Zr--Rh alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drehman, A.J.; Johnson, W.L.

    1978-05-01

    The electronic and superconducting properties of an amorphous transition metal alloy are used to evaluate the effects of low temperature annealing. It is observed that the superconducting transition temperature and the electrical resistivity relax exponentially in time from their initial value to a final relaxed value. From this an activation energy for the relaxation process is derived and an explanation is suggested which involves internal stress

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigations of superconductivity. Amorphous semiconductors, superconductivity and magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The research activities from 1 March 1963 to 28 February 1973 are summarized. Major lectures are listed along with publications on superconductivity, superfluidity, electronic structures and Fermi surfaces of metals, optical spectra of solids, electronic structure of insulators and semiconductors, theory of magnetic metals, physics of surfaces, structures of metals, and molecular physics.

  8. Long-term research in Japan: amorphous metals, metal oxide varistors, high-power semiconductors and superconducting generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.; Yorozu, M.; Sogabe, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The review revealed that significant activity is under way in the research of amorphous metals, but that little fundamental work is being pursued on metal oxide varistors and high-power semiconductors. Also, the investigation of long-term research program plans for superconducting generators reveals that activity is at a low level, pending the recommendations of a study currently being conducted through Japan's Central Electric Power Council.

  9. Properties of a tunnel point contact between aluminum and the superconducting amorphous alloy NiZr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantmakher, V.F.; Golubov, A.A.; Osherov, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The I-V characteristics of a tunnel point contact between aluminum and an amorphous ribbon resembling NiZr 2 in composition differ qualitatively from those of ordinary tunnel junctions between a superconductor and a normal metal. It is demonstrated that the observed curve shapes cannot be explained by accounting solely for one-particle tunneling in conditions of the proximity effect. This is followed by a qualitative discussion of a model in which the current rise at the potential eV equal to the gap width Δ (T) is generated by two-particle electron tunneling through the intermediate state which is manifested as a Cooper pair on the Fermi-level in the thin superconducting layer produced in the aluminum by the proximity effect. The current flowing through the contact will cause a breakdown of superconductivity in the vicinity of the contact at voltages exceeding the gap width. Smallness of the junction plays a decisive role both in inducing superconductivity for eV Δ

  10. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  11. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Mortensen, K.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains lecture notes of the basic lectures presented at the 1st Topsoee Summer School on Superconductivity held at Risoe National Laboratory, June 20-24, 1988. The following lecture notes are included: L.M. Falicov: 'Superconductivity: Phenomenology', A. Bohr and O. Ulfbeck: 'Quantal structure of superconductivity. Gauge angle', G. Aeppli: 'Muons, neutrons and superconductivity', N.F. Pedersen: 'The Josephson junction', C. Michel: 'Physicochemistry of high-T c superconductors', C. Laverick and J.K. Hulm: 'Manufacturing and application of superconducting wires', J. Clarke: 'SQUID concepts and systems'. (orig.) With 10 tabs., 128 figs., 219 refs

  12. Determination of the fraction of amorphous phases in superconducting samples; Determinacao da fracao de fases amorfas em amostras supercondutoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes Junior, G.G.; Ogasawara, T., E-mail: georgeg@metalmat.ufjr.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Dept. de Eng. Metalurgica e Materiais; Bispo, E.R.; Polasek, A. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Amorim, H.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    The study phase formation of high critical temperature superconducting (Bi, Pb) - 2223 by partial melting and recrystallization aims to improve the microstructure of the material. Was used for X-ray diffraction characterization of the phases present. The DDM method (Derivative Difference Minimization) was used for the refinement of structures, quantification of the phases and determination the fraction of this amorphous. The advantage this method is not necessary to introduce an internal standard to determine the amorphous fraction. Were observed in the powder precursor phases (Bi, Pb) {sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (Bi, Pb) -2223, 93% of the sample, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212) and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub z} (Bi-2201). The powder precursor was heat treated at 820-870 deg C. To minimize volatilization of lead, the material was placed in silver crucibles closed. To get a high recovery of (Bi, Pb) - 2223, the material was cooled slowly, due to slow kinetic of formation of this phase. We observed a partial recovery phase (Bi, Pb) -2223. (author)

  13. Low-Loss, Low-Noise, Crystalline and Amorphous Silicon Dielectrics for Superconducting Microstriplines and Kinetic Inductance Detector Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golwala, Sunil

    Prospective future PCOS (Inflation Probe) and COR (Origins Space Telescope, FIR Interferometer) missions require large arrays of highly sensitive millimeter-wave and submillimeter (mm/submm) detectors, including spectroscopic detectors. A number of technology developments in superconducting sensors for these applications require lowloss dielectric thin films. Examples include: Microstrip-coupled superconducting mm/submm detectors, which rely on superconductor-dielectric-superconductor microstrip transmission line to transmit optical power from a coherent reception element (feed horn, lens coupled antenna, phased-array antenna) to detectors; Superconducting spectrometers (SuperSpec, TIME, MicroSpec), which use such microstrip to route optical power to detectors and to define spectral channels; Kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs), which use capacitors. In the above, the dielectric loss, quantified by the loss tangent (tan delta), is critical: it determines the optical loss in the microstrip, the resolution of spectral channels, and the two-level-system (TLS) dielectric fluctuation noise of the KID capacitor. Currently, the amorphous dielectrics SiO2 and SiNx are used because they are most convenient for fabrication. They have tan delta 1e-3. This loss tangent is acceptable for microstripline but severely limits the possible architectures and spectral resolving power, and it is too large for KID capacitors. Lower loss dielectric would result in a quantum leap in capability, opening up design space heretofore inaccessible and enabling design innovations. Specific impacts on the above technologies would be: For phased-array antennas, lower optical loss would allow the detectors to be moved away from the antenna, allowing them to be shielded from absorption of light that has not been spatially or spectrally filtered and also obviating long wiring busses. More sophisticated antenna designs, such as multiscale antennas covering a decade of spectral bandwidth, could be

  14. Upper critical fields and superconducting transition temperatures of some zirconium-base amorphous transition-metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkut, M.G.; Hake, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Superconducting upper critical fields H/sub c/2(T), transition temperatures T/sub c/, and normal-state electrical resistivities rho/sub n/ have been measured in the amorphous transition-metal alloy series Zr/sub 1-z/Co/sub x/, Zr/sub 1-x/Ni/sub x/, (Zr/sub 1-x/Ti/sub x/)/sub 0.78/Ni/sub 0.22/, and (Zr/sub 1-x/Nb/sub x/)/sub 0.78/Ni/sub 0.22/. Structural integrity of these melt-spun alloys is indicated by x-ray, density, bend-ductility, normal-state electrical resistivity, superconducting transition width, and mixed-state flux-pinning measurements. The specimens display T/sub c/ = 2.1--3.8 K, rho/sub n/ = 159--190 μΩ cm, and Vertical Bar(dH/sub c/2/dT)cVertical Bar = 28--36 kG/K. These imply electron mean free paths lroughly-equal2--6 A, zero-temperature Ginzburg-Landau coherence distances xi/sub G/0roughly-equal50--70 A, penetration depths lambda/sub G/0roughly-equal(7--10) x 10 3 A, and extremely high dirtiness parameters xi 0 /lroughly-equal300--1300. All alloys display H/sub c/2(T) curves with negative curvature and (with two exceptions) fair agreement with the standard dirty-limit theory of Werthamer, Helfand, Hohenberg, and Maki (WHHM) for physically reasonable values of spin-orbit-coupling induced, electron-spin-flip scattering time tau/sub so/. This is in contrast to the anomalously elevated H/sub c/2(T) behavior which is nearly linear in T that is observed by some, and the unphysically low-tau/sub so/ fits to WHHM theory obtained by others, for various amorphous alloys

  15. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  16. Correlation between structural relaxation enthalpy and superconducting properties of amorphous Zr70Cu30 and Zr70Ni30 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Matsuzaki, K.; Toyota, N.; Chen, H.S.; Masumoto, T.; Fukase, T.

    1985-01-01

    The anneal-induced change in the superconducting properties together with the irrecoverable relaxation enthalpy (ΔHsub(i,exo)) and recoverable relaxation enthalpy (ΔHsub(r,endo)) of amorphous Zr 70 Cu 30 and Zr 70 Ni 30 alloys was examined. The increase in ΔHsub(i,exo) and the degradation of Tsub(c) progress logarithmically with annealing time tsub(a) in a temperature range of 373 to 523 K. The activation energy and the attempted frequency were respectively estimated to be 1.5 eV and 6.6 x 10 13 sec -1 for the increase in ΔHsub(i,exo) and 1.5 eV and 1.9 x 10 14 sec -1 for the degradation of Tsub(c). The recoverable structure relaxation exerts little effect on Tsub(c). Based on the agreement between the kinetic parameters for the changes of ΔHsub(i,exo) and Tsub(c), it appears that the degradation of Tsub(c) on annealing is associated with the irrecoverable structural relaxation as a result of the annihilation of frozen-in defects and the topological and compositional atomic rearrangement. The values of the attempted frequency being of the order of Debye frequency suggest that the irrecoverable structural relaxation processes occur more or less independently from each other. (author)

  17. Suppression of the superconductivity in ultrathin amorphous Mo78Ge22 films observed by STM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotnyk, D.; Onufriienko, O.; Samuely, T.; Shylenko, O.; Komanický, V.; Szabó, P.; Feher, A.; Samuely, P.

    2017-08-01

    In contact with a superconductor a normal metal modifies its properties due to Andreev reflection. In the current work the local density of states (LDOS) of superconductor-normal metal Mo78Ge22-Au bilayers are studied by means of STM applied from the Au side. Three bilayers have been prepared on silicate glass substrate consisting of 100, 10 and 5 nm MoGe thin films covered always by 5 nm Au layer. The tunneling spectra were measured at temperatures from 0.5 to 7 K. The two-dimensional cross-correlation between topography and normalized zero-bias conductance indicates a proximity effect between 100 and 10 nm MoGe thin films and Au layer where a superconducting gap slightly smaller than that of bulk MoGe is observed. The effect of the thinnest 5 nm MoGe layer on Au leads to much smaller gap moreover the LDOS reveals almost completely suppressed coherence peaks. This is attributed to a strong pair-breaking effect of spin-flip processes at the interface between MoGe films and the substrate.

  18. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  19. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During 2007, a large amount of the work was centred on the ITER project and related tasks. The activities based on low-temperature superconducting (LTS) materials included the manufacture and qualification of ITER full-size conductors under relevant operating conditions, the design of conductors and magnets for the JT-60SA tokamak and the manufacture of the conductors for the European dipole facility. A preliminary study was also performed to develop a new test facility at ENEA in order to test long-length ITER or DEMO full-size conductors. Several studies on different superconducting materials were also started to create a more complete database of superconductor properties, and also for use in magnet design. In this context, an extensive measurement campaign on transport and magnetic properties was carried out on commercially available NbTi strands. Work was started on characterising MgB 2 wire and bulk samples to optimise their performance. In addition, an intense experimental study was started to clarify the effect of mechanical loads on the transport properties of multi-filamentary Nb 3 Sn strands with twisted or untwisted superconducting filaments. The experimental activity on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials was mainly focussed on the development and characterisation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) based coated conductors. Several characteristics regarding YBCO deposition, current transport performance and tape manufacture were investigated. In the framework of chemical approaches for YBCO film growth, a new method, developed in collaboration with the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca (TUCN), Romania, was studied to obtain YBCO film via chemical solution deposition, which modifies the well-assessed metallic organic deposition trifluoroacetate (MOD-TFA) approach. The results are promising in terms of critical current and film thickness values. YBCO properties in films with artificially added pinning sites were characterised in collaboration with

  20. Superconductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and electronic properties of amorphous (Mo/sub 1-x/Ru/sub x/)80P20 alloys obtained by liquid quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Poon, S.J.; Duwez, P.

    1977-11-01

    Results of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction, and crystallization studies on amorphous (Mo/sub 1-x/Ru/sub x/) 80 P 20 alloys obtained by liquid quenching are presented and discussed. The alloys are all found to be superconducting with transition temperatures ranging from approximately 3 0 K to approximately 9 0 K. The variation of T/sub c/ with alloy composition is compared to that obtained by Collver and Hammond for vapor quenched transition metal films. Results of magnetic susceptibility measurements are used to estimate the variation of the electronic density of states at the Fermi level, N(0), from the Pauli paramagnetic contribution. The relationship between the variation of T/sub c/ and N(0) is discussed in terms of the microscope theory of superconductivity. Finally, results of measurements of the upper critical field H/sub c2/, and the normal state electronic transport properties are presented and compared with recent theoretical models for amorphous superconductors

  1. Magnetotransport in spin-valve systems with amorphous magnetic and superconducting partial layers; Magnetotransport in Spinventil-Systemen mit amorphen magnetischen und supraleitenden Teilschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Roland Johannes

    2006-04-27

    The first part of this work deals with the fabrication and characterisation of spin valves with an amorphous FeB layer acting as a weak ferromagnet embedded into the structure. In the second part of this work ferromagnet/superconductor hybrid structures are fabricated and the relevant magnetic field dependent transport phenomena are analyzed. The interlayer of a conventional spin valve was replaced by a superconducting niobium layer. Small applied fields close to the coercivity field of the involved ferromagnets - and thus far below the critical magnetic field of the superconductor - affected the critical temperature of the niobium layer. Measurements of the field dependent resistance and the critical temperature of a FM/SC/FMsystem showed a local maximum in the T{sub c}(H)- and the R(H)-curve. (orig.)

  2. Enhancing superconducting properties of MgB2 pellets by addition of amorphous magnetic Ni-Co-B nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapić, M.; Horvat, J.; Hossain, M. S.; Skoko, Ž.; Dou, S. X.

    2013-07-01

    Amorphous magnetic Ni-Co-B nanoparticles with an average size of 5 nm were added to precursor powders of MgB2 superconductor. The preparation procedure for MgB2 pellets was optimized for obtaining the best critical current density (Jc) at elevated magnetic fields. Addition of Ni-Co-B decreases the Jc for heat treatment of precursor powders at 650 ° C. Heat treatments at 770 ° C and higher improve Jc at 20 and 5 K. This improvement occurs at both temperatures through the increase of the effective connectivity between MgB2 crystals. Vortex pinning was enhanced at 5 K, but not at 20 K. Ni-Co-B nanoparticles reacted with Mg in heat treatments above 730 ° C, forming Mg2Ni and MgCo2 nanoparticles. Ni-Co-B addition was associated with lower oxygen content in MgB2, indicating that reduction of MgO content is the mechanism for improvement of grain connectivity. Decomposition of magnetic Ni-Co-B nanoparticles results mostly in non-magnetic nanoparticles, so magnetic pinning did not occur in our samples.

  3. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  4. Amorphous metal matrix composite ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barczy, P.; Szigeti, F.

    1998-01-01

    Composite ribbons with amorphous matrix and ceramic (SiC, WC, MoB) particles were produced by modified planar melt flow casting methods. Weldability, abrasive wear and wood sanding examinations were carried out in order to find optimal material and technology for elevated wear resistance and sanding durability. The correlation between structure and composite properties is discussed. (author)

  5. Sampling and analysis of inactive radioactive waste tanks W-17, W-18, WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, and WC-11 through WC-14 at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.; Pack, R.T.; Ross, T.; Schenley, R.L.

    1995-12-01

    The sampling and analysis of nine inactive liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are described-tanks W-17, W-18, WC-5, WC-6, WC-8, and WC-11 through WC-14. Samples of the waste tank liquids and sludges were analyzed to determine (1) the major chemical constituents, (2) the principal radionuclides, (3) metals listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contract Laboratory Program Inorganic Target Analyte List, (4) organic compounds, and (5) some physical properties. The organic chemical characterization consisted of determinations of the EPA Contract Laboratory Program Target Compound List volatile and semivolatile compounds, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyis (PCBs). This report provides data (1) to meet requirements under the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation to characterize the contents of LLLW tanks which have been removed from service and (2) to support planning for the treatment and disposal of the wastes

  6. Superconductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and electronic properties of amorphous (Mo/sub 1-x/Ru/sub x/)/sub 80/P/sub 20/ alloys obtained by liquid quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.L.; Poon, S.J.; Duwez, P.

    1977-11-01

    Results of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction, and crystallization studies on amorphous (Mo/sub 1-x/Ru/sub x/)/sub 80/P/sub 20/ alloys obtained by liquid quenching are presented and discussed. The alloys are all found to be superconducting with transition temperatures ranging from approximately 3/sup 0/K to approximately 9/sup 0/K. The variation of T/sub c/ with alloy composition is compared to that obtained by Collver and Hammond for vapor quenched transition metal films. Results of magnetic susceptibility measurements are used to estimate the variation of the electronic density of states at the Fermi level, N(0), from the Pauli paramagnetic contribution. The relationship between the variation of T/sub c/ and N(0) is discussed in terms of the microscope theory of superconductivity. Finally, results of measurements of the upper critical field H/sub c2/, and the normal state electronic transport properties are presented and compared with recent theoretical models for amorphous superconductors.

  7. Study on single step solid state synthesis of WC@C nanocomposite and electrochemical stability of synthesized WC@C & Pt/WC@C for alcohol oxidation (methanol/ethanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, Gourav, E-mail: gsinghla@gmail.com; Singh, K., E-mail: kusingh@thapar.edu; Pandey, O.P., E-mail: oppandey@thapar.edu

    2016-04-25

    WC@C nano composite was prepared by a single step solid–state reaction through in situ reduction and carburization of WO{sub 3} in the presence of Mg and activated charcoal. The XRD results and thermodynamics analysis showed that the optimization of reaction temperature facilitates the reduction as well as carburization of tungsten oxide(s) at different reaction temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis of the product was done to assess the thermal stability in air. The Raman spectroscopy was used to find out the nature (amorphous/graphitic) of carbon in the obtained phase. The N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurement showed a narrow pore size distribution from 3 to 4 nm with BET surface area of up to 522.5 m{sup 2}/g. TEM/HRTEM images confirmed formation of the WC nano particles with spherical morphology. Electrochemical stability of pure and platinized carbide sample (Pt/WC) has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry in acidic media for alcohol (methanol and ethanol) oxidation. - Highlights: • Tungsten carbide nano powder was synthesized using charcoal as carbon source. • Formation of WC occurs through the formation of lower tungsten oxide. • CO{sub 2}/CO ratio effect the formation of WC. • Mesoporous tungsten carbide with surface areas 522.5 m{sup 2}/g obtained by using charcoal. • Pt modified WC powder showed higher electrochemical stability.

  8. Simulating the effect of boron doping in superconducting carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuki; Chelikowsky, James R.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the effect of boron doping in superconducting forms of amorphous carbon. By judiciously optimizing boron substitutional sites in simulated amorphous carbon, we predict a superconducting transition temperature near 37 K at 14% boron concentration. Our findings have direct implications for understanding the recently discovered high-Tc superconductivity in Q-carbon.

  9. Anomalous magnetoresistance in amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'menko, V.M.; Vladychkin, A.N.; Mel'nikov, V.I.; Sudovtsev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetoresistance of amorphous Bi, Ca, V and Yb films is investigated in fields up to 4 T at low temperatures. For all metals the magnetoresistance is positive, sharply decreases with growth of temperature and depends anomalously on the magnetic field strength. For amorphous superconductors the results agree satisfactorily with the theory of anomalous magnetoresistance in which allowance is made for scattering of electrons by the superconducting fluctuations

  10. Qubit compatible superconducting interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxen, B.; Mutus, J. Y.; Lucero, E.; Graff, R.; Megrant, A.; Chen, Yu; Quintana, C.; Burkett, B.; Kelly, J.; Jeffrey, E.; Yang, Yan; Yu, Anthony; Arya, K.; Barends, R.; Chen, Zijun; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A.; Gidney, C.; Giustina, M.; Huang, T.; Klimov, P.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Martinis, John M.

    2018-01-01

    We present a fabrication process for fully superconducting interconnects compatible with superconducting qubit technology. These interconnects allow for the three dimensional integration of quantum circuits without introducing lossy amorphous dielectrics. They are composed of indium bumps several microns tall separated from an aluminum base layer by titanium nitride which serves as a diffusion barrier. We measure the whole structure to be superconducting (transition temperature of 1.1 K), limited by the aluminum. These interconnects have an average critical current of 26.8 mA, and mechanical shear and thermal cycle testing indicate that these devices are mechanically robust. Our process provides a method that reliably yields superconducting interconnects suitable for use with superconducting qubits.

  11. Mechanical property and wear performance dependence on processing condition for cold-sprayed WC-(nanoWC-Co)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guan-Jun; Gao, Pei-Hu; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2015-03-01

    WC-(nanoWC-Co) with micro-WC reinforcing particles in nanoWC-Co cermet matrix was cold-sprayed by using WC-Co with bimodal sized WC particles (with both micro-sized WC particles and nano-sized WC particles). The effect of spray powder property and post-spray treatment on the mechanical properties and wear performance of cold-sprayed WC-(nanoWC-Co) coating were examined in comparison to the conventional high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed WC-Co coating. Results showed that both hardness and toughness were influenced by the spray powder properties and the post-spray heat treatment. Compared to the HVOF-sprayed WC-Co coating with micro-sized WC particles, WC-(nanoWC-Co) exhibited much higher hardness and toughness and thereby much higher wear resistance. The further toughening of WC-(nanoWC-Co) by post-spray heat treatment significantly doubled the wear performance. The excellent wear resistance of WC-(nanoWC-Co) is attributed to the simultaneous strengthening and toughening effects resulting from the microstructure design of bimodal WC particle size distribution composed of both micro-sized and nano-sized WC particles.

  12. Direct fabrication of a W-C SNS Josephson junction using focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jun; Kometani, Reo; Ishihara, Sunao; Warisawa, Shin’ichi; Onomitsu, Koji; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A tungsten-carbide (W-C) superconductor/normal metal/superconductor (SNS) Josephson junction has been fabricated using focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition (FIB-CVD). Under certain process conditions, the component ratio has been tuned from W: C: Ga = 26%: 66%: 8% in the superconducting wires to W: C: Ga = 14%: 79%: 7% in the metallic junction. The critical current density at 2.5 K in the SNS Josephson junction is 1/3 of that in W-C superconducting nanowire. Also, a Fraunhofer-like oscillation of critical current in the junction with four periods is observed. FIB-CVD opens avenues for novel functional superconducting nanodevices. (paper)

  13. Amorphous magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechenberg, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The consequences of disorder on magnetic properties of solids are examined. In this context the word 'disorder' is not synonimous of structural amorphicity; chemical disorder can be achieved e.g. by randomly diffusing magnetic atoms on a nonmagnetic crystalline lattice. The name Amorphous Magnetism must be taken in a broad sense. (Author) [pt

  14. Metastable superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.

    1978-07-01

    The study of metastable metals and alloys has become one of the principal activities of specialists working in the field of superconducting materials. Metastable crystalline superconductors such as the A15-type materials have been given much attention. Non-crystalline superconductors were first studied over twenty years ago by Buckel and Hilsch using the technique of thin film evaporation on a cryogenic substrate. More recently, melt-quenching, sputtering, and ion implantation techniques have been employed to produce a variety of amorphous superconductors. The present article presents a brief review of experimental results and a survey of current work on these materials. The systematics of superconductivity in non-crystalline metals and alloys are described along with an analysis of the microscopic parameters which underlie the observed trends. The unique properties of these superconductors which arise from the high degree of structural disorder in the amorphous state are emphasized

  15. Defect Control of the WC Hardmetal by Mixing Recycled WC Nano Powder and Tungsten Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Man Gyu; Shin, Mi Kyung; Kim, Deug Joong; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2018-03-01

    Tungsten metal powder was added to recycled WC nano powder to control the macro and micro defects of WC hardmetal. The macro and micro defects caused by the excess carbon in the recycled WC powder were markedly removed after the addition of tungsten metal powder ranging from 2 to 6 wt%. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals also increased due to the removal of defects after adding the tungsten metal powder. The density and hardness of WC hardmetals with the addition of W metal powder ranged from 8 to 12 wt% increased linearly as the W metal powder content increased due to the formation of a new (Co- and W-rich WC) composition. The surface morphology of the WC hardmetals was observed via field emission scanning electron microscopy, and a quantitative elemental analysis was conducted via X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals were respectively measured using an analytical balance and a Vikers hardness tester. The effect on the defects in the recycled WC hardmetals through the addition of the tungsten metal powder was discussed in detail.

  16. Defect Control of the WC Hardmetal by Mixing Recycled WC Nano Powder and Tungsten Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Man Gyu; Shin, Mi Kyung; Kim, Deug Joong; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten metal powder was added to recycled WC nano powder to control the macro and micro defects of WC hardmetal. The macro and micro defects caused by the excess carbon in the recycled WC powder were markedly removed after the addition of tungsten metal powder ranging from 2 to 6 wt%. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals also increased due to the removal of defects after adding the tungsten metal powder. The density and hardness of WC hardmetals with the addition of W metal powder ranged from 8 to 12 wt% increased linearly as the W metal powder content increased due to the formation of a new (Co- and W-rich WC) composition. The surface morphology of the WC hardmetals was observed via field emission scanning electron microscopy, and a quantitative elemental analysis was conducted via X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The density and hardness of the WC hardmetals were respectively measured using an analytical balance and a Vikers hardness tester. The effect on the defects in the recycled WC hardmetals through the addition of the tungsten metal powder was discussed in detail.

  17. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  18. Amorphous nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Scharf, Toralf

    2013-01-01

    This book represents the first comprehensive overview over amorphous nano-optical and nano-photonic systems. Nanophotonics is a burgeoning branch of optics that enables many applications by steering the mould of light on length scales smaller than the wavelength with devoted nanostructures. Amorphous nanophotonics exploits self-organization mechanisms based on bottom-up approaches to fabricate nanooptical systems. The resulting structures presented in the book are characterized by a deterministic unit cell with tailored geometries; but their spatial arrangement is not controlled. Instead of periodic, the structures appear either amorphous or random. The aim of this book is to discuss all aspects related to observable effects in amorphous nanophotonic material and aspects related to their design, fabrication, characterization and integration into applications. The book has an interdisciplinary nature with contributions from scientists in physics, chemistry and materials sciences and sheds light on the topic fr...

  19. APT analysis of WC-Co based cemented carbides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidow, Jonathan; Andrén, Hans-Olof

    2011-05-01

    A method for quickly producing sharp and site-specific atom probe specimens from WC-Co based cemented carbides was developed using a combination of electropolishing, controlled back-polishing and FIB milling. Also, a method for measuring the amount of segregated atoms to an interface between two phases with a big difference in field needed for field evaporation was developed. Using atom probe tomography, the interface chemistry of WC/WC grain boundaries, WC/(M,W)C phase boundaries and WC/binder phase boundaries was analysed. In addition, the transition metal solubility in WC was determined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of WC Particle Size and Co Content on the Graded Structure in Functionally Gradient WC-Co Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yigao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functionally gradient WC-Co composites having a Co depleted surface zone and not comprising the h phase can be manufactured via carburizing process. During carburizing, besides carburizing process parameters, the microstructural parameters of WC-Co materials, such as WC grain size and Co content, also have significant influences on the formation of Co gradient structure. In this study, the effects of WC particle size and Co content on the gradient structure within gradient hardmetals have been studied, based on a series of carburizing experiments of WC-Co materials with different WC particle sizes and cobalt contents. The results show that both the thickness and the amplitude of the gradients within gradient WC-Co materials increase with increasing initial WC particle size and Co content of WC-Co alloys. The reason for this finding is discussed.

  1. Quantitative analysis of WC grain shape in sintered WC-Co cemented carbides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mikael; Wahnström, Göran; Allibert, Colette; Lay, Sabine

    2005-02-18

    The morphology of WC grains is examined by ab initio calculations, and by transmission electron microscopy in a WC-Co cemented carbide. Two compositions are studied to determine the effect of carbon chemical potential on the shape development. The WC grains are found to be truncated triangles, and the grain morphology is adequately reproduced by the ab initio calculations. The energy difference between the two types of grain facets is shown to be due to the formation of stronger bonds with more covalent character between low coordinated W and Co atoms at one type of facet.

  2. Structural analysis of sputtered (W-C)1-xMx (M≡Fe,Co) films with 0≤x≤0.20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaleiro, A.; Trindade, B.; Vieira, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Structural characterization of (W-C) 1-x M x (M≡Fe,Co) films with 0≤x≤0.20 was carried out using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy-electron diffraction (TEM-ED). The results showed that the structure of these films depends on the percentage of iron and cobalt and becomes amorphous with increasing content of these elements. The microstructure of the crystalline coatings was found to be composed of small grains of β-WC 1-x with a high number of defects. A strong β-WC 1-x [311] texture was observed for iron and cobalt contents around 5.5 at.%. The films richer in iron and cobalt showed typical amorphous XRD and ED patterns, exhibiting two broad peaks and two wide diffuse rings respectively. Moreover, bright-field analysis revealed fairly contrasted images, the structure of these films being difficult to resolve. (orig.)

  3. APT analysis of WC-Co based cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidow, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.weidow@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Andren, Hans-Olof [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    A method for quickly producing sharp and site-specific atom probe specimens from WC-Co based cemented carbides was developed using a combination of electropolishing, controlled back-polishing and FIB milling. Also, a method for measuring the amount of segregated atoms to an interface between two phases with a big difference in field needed for field evaporation was developed. Using atom probe tomography, the interface chemistry of WC/WC grain boundaries, WC/(M,W)C phase boundaries and WC/binder phase boundaries was analysed. In addition, the transition metal solubility in WC was determined. -- Research highlights: {yields} We develop a method for producing specimens from WC-Co based cemented carbides. {yields} Measure segregated atoms to an interface between phases with different field evaporation field. {yields} The interface chemistry in cemented carbides. {yields} The transition metal solubility in WC.

  4. Metal modified tungsten carbide (WC) for catalytic and electrocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Zachary J.

    One of the major challenges in the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is the cost, and low CO tolerance of the anode electrocatalyst material. The anode typically requires a high loading of precious metal electrocatalyst (Pt or Pt--Ru) to obtain a useful amount of electrical energy from the electrooxidation of methanol (CH3OH) or ethanol (C2H5OH). The complete electro--oxidation of methanol or ethanol on these catalysts produces strongly adsorbed CO on the surface, which reduces the activity of the Pt or Pt--Ru catalysts. Another major disadvantage of these electrocatalyst components is the scarcity and consequently high price of both Pt and Ru. Tungsten monocarbide (WC) has shown similar catalytic properties to Pt, leading to the utilization of WC and metal modified WC as replacements to Pt and Pt--Ru. In this thesis we investigated WC and Pt--modified WC as a potentially more CO--tolerant electrocatalysts as compared to pure Pt. These catalysts would reduce or remove the high loading of Pt used industrially. The binding energy of CO, estimated using temperature programmed desorption, is weaker on WC and Pt/WC than on Pt, suggesting that it should be easier to oxidize CO on WC and Pt/WC. This hypothesis was verified using cyclic voltammetry to compare the electro--oxidation of CO on WC, Pt/WC, and Pt supported on carbon substrates, which showed a lower voltage for the onset of oxidation of CO on WC and Pt/WC than on Pt. After observing these improved properties on the Pt/WC catalysts, we decided to expand our studies to investigate Pd--modified WC as Pd is less expensive than Pt and has shown more ideal properties for alcohol electrocatalysis in alkaline media. Pd/WC showed a lower binding energy of CO than both its parent metal Pd as well as Pt. Then, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to determine how the presence of Pd affected the bonding of methanol and ethanol on the WC surface. The DFT studies showed

  5. Corrosion Resistance of Ni-Based WC/Co Coatings Deposited by Spray and Fuse Process Varying the Oxygen Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, H.; Olaya, J. J.; Alfonso, J. E.; Mtshali, C. B.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the effect of oxygen flow variation in the corrosion behavior of Ni-based WC/Co coatings deposited by spray and fuse process was investigated. The coatings were deposited on gray cast iron substrates using a Superjet Eutalloy thermal spraying gun. The morphology of the coatings was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The crystallographic phases were registered by x-ray diffraction (XRD), the diffraction patterns show the crystalline phases of the powder components with principal reflections for Ni and WC, the increase in flame temperature, due to the oxygen flow variation, generated amorphization in the nickel and an important crystallization of the planes (111) and (222) of WC as well as the decarburization of WC in W2C and W metallic. The corrosion behavior was investigated at room temperature in a 3.5% w/w aqueous solution of NaCl via potentiodynamic polarization. Electrochemical corrosion test showed that the coatings deposited under neutral flame conditions with an oxygen flow of 12.88 SCFH evidenced higher corrosion resistance. The chemical composition of the coatings and corrosion areas were analyzed by particle-induced x-ray emission, this technique permitting the corroboration of the decarburization process of WC determined by XRD and the formation of Cl structures.

  6. On the preparation of fine V8C7-WC and V 4C3-WC powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osborne, C

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce V8C7-WC and V 4C3-WC powders with grain size between 1 and 2mu-m, as a first stage of the preparation of fine grained WC-VC-Co hardmetal. V8C7-WC powder was produced via two routes: starting from preformed V8C7...

  7. Properties and Rapid Sintering of Nanostructured WC and WC-TiAl by the High Frequency Induction Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Bong-Won; Oh, Seung-Jin; Shon, In-Jin [Chonbuk National University, Junju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Su [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jin-Kook [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In the case of cemented WC, Ni or Co is added as a binder for the formation of composite structures. However, the high cost and the low hardness of Ni or Co, and the low corrosion resistance of the WC-Ni and WC-Co cermets have generated interest in alternative binder phases recently. In this study, TiAl was used as a novel binder and consolidated by the high frequency induction heated sintering (HFIHS) method. Nanopowders of WC and TiAl were made by high energy ball milling. Highly dense WC and WC-10 vol% TiAl with a relative density of up to 99% were obtained within one min by HFIHS under a pressure of 80 MPa. The addition of TiAl to WC enhanced the toughness without great decrease of hardness due to the crack deflection and nanostructured phase.

  8. Polarity of prismatic facets delimiting WC grains in WC-Co alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Sabine; Donnadieu, Patricia; Loubradou, Marc

    2010-07-01

    This study reports a determination of the polarity of WC facets in WC-Co alloys sintered at the liquid state. In these alloys, WC grains are delimited by basal facets and two sets of {10 10} prismatic facets, one set of facets being much more developed than the other. A variation of the shape is observed as a function of the composition of the alloy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the polarity of the prismatic facets owing to the typical triangular patterns appearing on the images. The effect of the composition is investigated using two alloys with different carbon potentials and one containing VC and Cr(3)C(2) as grain growth inhibitors. The interpretation of the images shows that in all cases, the same set of prismatic planes is favoured. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Superconductivity revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    While the macroscopic phenomenon of superconductivity is well known and in practical use worldwide in many industries, including MRIs in medical diagnostics, the current theoretical paradigm for superconductivity (BCS theory) suffers from a number of limitations, not the least of which is an adequate explanation of high temperature superconductivity. This book reviews the current theory and its limitations and suggests new ideas and approaches in addressing these issues. The central objective of the book is to develop a new, coherent, understandable theory of superconductivity directly based on molecular quantum mechanics.

  10. Atom probe tomography analysis of WC powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidow, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    A tantalum doped tungsten carbide powder, (W,Ta)C, was prepared with the purpose to maximise the amount of Ta in the hexagonal mixed crystal carbide. Atom probe tomography (APT) was considered to be the best technique to quantitatively measure the amount of Ta within this carbide. As the carbide powder consisted in the form of very small particles (WC-Co based cemented carbide specimen. With the use of a laser assisted atom probe, it was shown that the method is working and the Ta content of the (W,Ta)C could be measured quantitatively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reactive Sintering of Bimodal WC-Co Hardmetals

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tarraste; Kristjan Juhani; Jüri Pirso; Mart Viljus

    2015-01-01

    Bimodal WC-Co hardmetals were produced using novel technology - reactive sintering. Milled and activated tungsten and graphite powders were mixed with commercial coarse grained WC-Co powder and then sintered. The microstructure of produced materials was free of defects and consisted of evenly distributed coarse and fine tungsten carbide grains in cobalt binder. The microstructure, hardness and fracture toughness of reactive sintered bimodal WC-Co hardmetals is exhibited. Developed bimodal har...

  12. Fracture behaviour of WC-Co hardmetals with WC partially substituted by titanium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szutkowska, M.; Boniecki, M.; Cygan, S.; Kalinka, A.; Grilli, M. L.; Balos, S.

    2018-03-01

    The addition of various amounts of TiC0.9 phase in the range from 5wt.% to 20wt.% substituting WC phase was applied in WC-Co hardmetals with 9.5 wt.% bonding cobalt phase. The hardmetals were consolidated using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) method at temperature of 1573K and pressure of 1500 atm. The plain strain fracture toughness has been determined from 3PB test on a precracking single edge notched beam (SENB) specimen. The indentation fracture toughness with Vickers cracks for comparison was also measured, which changed from 12 to 9.0 MPa·m1/2. The amount of the TiC0.9 phase affected the mechanical and physical properties: Vickers hardness from 12.5 to 14.0 GPa, Young’s modulus from 550 to 460 GPa, density from 13.1 to 9.6 g/cm3, friction coefficient from 0.24 to 0.45, fracture toughness from 16.8 to 11.0 MPa·m1/2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray and electron diffraction phase analysis were used to examine the WC-Co hardmetal with addition of the TiC0.9 phase. For comparison, physical and mechanical properties of the WC-Co hardmetals before modification were tested.

  13. Deformation Behaviors of Cold-Sprayed WC-Co Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Gang-Chang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hong-Tao; Bai, Xiao-Bo; Dong, Zeng-Xiang

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, the WC-Co particles with different sizes and contents of WC particle were deposited on the stainless and WC-Co substrate in different accelerating gas temperatures. The deformation mechanisms of incident WC-Co particles and impacted substrates, and especially their interactions were characterized via scan electron microscopy (SEM) observations of both surface morphologies and cross-sectional microstructures of individual splats, and splat/substrate interface with the assistance of focus ion beam (FIB). The effects of feedstock powder structure, i.e., WC particle size and Co content, and temperature of accelerating gas on plastic deformation were comprehensively studied. It was revealed that the splats on stainless steel exhibited ellipsoid shape with a comparative integrated contour similar to original powder, and there were some revers on substrate around splats. In contrast, splats on WC-Co substrate exhibited more flattened pie shape with some ejectas on its periphery in the radial direction. The more curved interface convex to stainless steel substrate appeared compared to that of WC-Co substrate. Deformation of WC-Co splats was enhanced by the increment of substrate hardness and increment of Co binder and reduction of WC size of incident particles.

  14. Comparative studies of WC-Co and WC-Co-Ni composites obtained by conventional powder metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Martins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports a comparative study of cemented carbides of compositions WC-6Co, WC-10Co, WC-20Co, WC-6Co-6Ni and WC-12Ni-6Co. The purpose was to study the powder metallurgical production process of these compositions starting from a commercial WC-6Co powder, obtaining the desired compositions by mass balance with pure Co and pure Ni powders. During the process steps mixing, milling, compacting and sintering the powders were described by its apparent density, green density, shrinkage and sintered density. Lower densities were observed in composites with higher binder content. The process was monitored by scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis to evaluate the homogeneity of the powders, to detect contaminations by the process and to characterize the microstructure of the sintered materials. A finer microstructure was found when the binder contained Ni. Potentiodynamic polarization tests in sulfuric acid revealed pseudo-passive behavior for all the tested hard metals.

  15. Analysis of Formation and Interfacial WC Dissolution Behavior of WC-Co/Invar Laser-TIG Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P. Q.; Ren, J. W.; Zhang, P. L.; Gong, H. Y.; Yang, S. L.

    2013-02-01

    During the valve fabrication, hard metal is welded to stainless steel or invar alloy for sealing purposes because of its good heat resistance operating at 500 °C. However, WC (tungsten carbide) dissolution in weld pool softens the hard metal and decreases mechanical properties near the hard metal/weld interface. In order to analyze the WC dissolution in welded joint, joining of hard metal and invar alloy was carried out using laser-tungsten inert gas hybrid welding method. Microstructures of the weld region, chemical composition were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy, and EDAX, respectively. Mechanical properties such as microhardness and four-point bend strength test were performed. Larger and smaller WC dissolution and WC dissolution through transition layer based on thermo-dynamics were discussed. The results thus indicate that WC dissolution led to cellular microstructure, columnar crystal, and transition layer under the effect of laser beam and tungsten arc. WC dissolution was affected by metal ions Fe+, Ni+, Co+ exchange in W-M-C system, and WC grain growth was driven by forces caused by laser beam and tungsten arc in larger WC, smaller WC, and liquid Fe, Ni systems.

  16. Organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)

  17. WC-Co Composite Coating Deposited by Cold Spraying of a Core-Shell-Structured WC-Co Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Tao; Li, Cheng-Xin; Shang, Fu-Lin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Wang, Yu-Yue; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a core-shell-structured WC-Co powder was used to develop a heterogeneously structured WC-Co coating with tens micrometers of WC-10Co as strengthening phase and Co-rich WC-Co as the binder in order to realize simultaneous strengthening and toughening. Spray powder particles contain WC-10Co core coated with a Co-rich WC-Co shell by mechanical milling. WC-Co coating with dual-scale strengthening phases was deposited by cold spraying. Post-spray annealing was carried out to further modify the coating microstructure. Microstructures of the spray powder and the coating were characterized by SEM. Mechanical properties of the coating in terms of microhardness and fracture toughness were examined. Results show that a biomodal WC-Co coating with a porosity of only 0.7% was deposited by cold spray. The Co-rich matrix phase contains submicrometer-sized carbide and primary hard phase is WC-10Co particles. The measurement yielded a Vickers microhardness of 1493 ± 76.7 HV0.1 for WC-10Co core and 693 ± 47.3 HV0.1 for Co-rich binder phase. After annealed at 900 °C for 5 h, a remarkable increase in fracture toughness from 21.2 ± 3.8 to 35.7±5.2 MPa m-0.5 was achieved while no evident change occurred to the hardness of WC-10Co cores.

  18. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  19. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormann, R.; Loiseau, R.; Marcilhac, B.

    1989-01-01

    The invention concerns superconducting ceramics containing essentially barium, calcium and copper fluorinated oxides with close offset and onset temperatures around 97 K and 100 K and containing neither Y nor rare earth [fr

  20. Superconductivity: Phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    This document discusses first the following topics: (a) The superconducting transition temperature; (b) Zero resistivity; (c) The Meissner effect; (d) The isotope effect; (e) Microwave and optical properties; and (f) The superconducting energy gap. Part II of this document investigates the Ginzburg-Landau equations by discussing: (a) The coherence length; (b) The penetration depth; (c) Flux quantization; (d) Magnetic-field dependence of the energy gap; (e) Quantum interference phenomena; and (f) The Josephson effect

  1. Manufacturing and properties of polycrystalline WC-Co based cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Pötschke, Johannes; Richter, Volkmar; Mayer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline WC-Co hardmetals consist of coarse polycrystalline WC-particles, which itself consist of many nanoscaled WC crystals. Due to higher hardness of nanoscaled polycstalline WC (up to 2900 HV10) compared to conventional medium or coarse grained WC (~ 1500 HV10) these novel hardmetals offer a much better hardness while keeping the same fracture toughness of conventional monocrystalline hardness with the same Co content and WC particle size. By adjusting the Co content as well as the...

  2. Effect of WC/Co coherency phase boundaries on Fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxian Xie; Xiaoyan Song; Fuxing Yin; Yongguang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of coherency WC/Co phase boundaries on the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides is studied by MD simulation method. The simulation results show that the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides with coherency WC/Co phase boundaries has higher fracture toughness than that without coherency WC/Co phase boundaries. Moreover, the mechanism of why coherency WC/Co phase boundaries can improve the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides is a...

  3. Annual Performance Evaluation of a Pair of Energy Efficient Houses (WC3 and WC4) in Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Beginning in 2008, two pairs of energy-saver houses were built at Wolf Creek in Oak Ridge, TN. These houses were designed to maximize energy efficiency using new ultra-high-efficiency components emerging from ORNL s Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners and others. The first two houses contained 3713 square feet of conditioned area and were designated as WC1 and WC2; the second pair consisted of 2721 square feet conditioned area with crawlspace foundation and they re called WC3 and WC4. This report is focused on the annual energy performance of WC3 and WC4, and how they compare against a previously benchmarked maximum energy efficient house of a similar footprint. WC3 and WC4 are both about 55-60% more efficient than traditional new construction. Each house showcases a different envelope system: WC3 is built with advanced framing featured cellulose insulation partially mixed with phase change materials (PCM); and WC4 house has cladding composed of an exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS). The previously benchmarked house was one of three built at the Campbell Creek subdivision in Knoxville, TN. This house (CC3) was designed as a transformation of a builder house (CC1) with the most advanced energy-efficiency features, including solar electricity and hot water, which market conditions are likely to permit within the 2012 2015 period. The builder house itself was representative of a standard, IECC 2006 code-certified, all-electric house built by the builder to sell around 2005 2008.

  4. Influence of Cobalt on the Adhesion Strength of Polycrystalline Diamond Coatings on WC-Co Hard Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnik, S. A.; Gaidaichuk, A. V.; Okhotnikov, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    The influence of cobalt on the phase composition and adhesion strength of polycrystalline diamond coatings has been studied using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray microanalysis. The coatings have been deposited on WC-Co hard alloy substrates in glow discharge plasma. It has been found that the catalytic amorphization of carbon only takes place during the direct synthesis of the diamond coating, when the cobalt vapor pressure over the substrate is high and the cobalt-related degradation of the synthesized diamond is absent.

  5. Microstructural Evaluation of Suspension Thermally Sprayed WC-Co Nanocomposite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R.; Faisal, N. H.; Ali, O.; Al-Anazi, Nayef M.; Al-Mutairi, S.; Mamour, S.; Polychroniadis, E. K.; Goosen, M. F. A.

    Microstructural and sliding wear evaluations of nanostructured coatings deposited by Suspension High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (S-HVOF) spraying were conducted in as-sprayed and HIPed (Hot Isostatically Pressed) conditions. S-HVOF coatings were nanostructured via ball milling of the WC-12Co start powder, and deposited via an aqueous based suspension using modified HVOF (TopGun) spraying. Microstructural evaluations of these hardmetal coatings included TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Sliding wear tests were conducted using a ball-on-flat test rig. Results indicated that nanostructured features inherited from the start powder in S-HVOF spraying were retained in the resulting coatings. The decarburisation of WC due to a higher surface area to volume ratio was also observed in the S-HVOF coatings. Nanostructured and amorphous phases caused by the high cooling rates during thermal spraying crystallized into complex eta-phases after the HIPing treatment. Sliding wear performance indicated that the coating wear was lower for the HIPed coatings.

  6. Atom probe tomography analysis of WC powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidow, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.weidow@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164, A-1060 Wien (Austria)

    2013-09-15

    A tantalum doped tungsten carbide powder, (W,Ta)C, was prepared with the purpose to maximise the amount of Ta in the hexagonal mixed crystal carbide. Atom probe tomography (APT) was considered to be the best technique to quantitatively measure the amount of Ta within this carbide. As the carbide powder consisted in the form of very small particles (<1 μm), a method to produce APT specimens of such a powder was developed. The powder was at first embedded in copper and a FIB-SEM workstation was used to make an in-situ lift-out from a selected powder particle. The powder particle was then deposited on a post made from a WC-Co based cemented carbide specimen. With the use of a laser assisted atom probe, it was shown that the method is working and the Ta content of the (W,Ta)C could be measured quantitatively. - Highlights: ► Method for producing atom probe tomography specimens of powders was developed. ► Method was successfully implemented on (W,Ta)C powder. ► Method can possibly be implemented on completely other powders.

  7. Sliding wear behavior of nanostructured WC-Co-Cr coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Wang, Xuezheng; Song, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Xingwei

    2015-11-01

    The nanostructured WC-10Co-4Cr coatings were fabricated by high velocity oxy-fuel spraying using the in situ synthesized WC-Co nanocomposite powder with size of 70-200 nm and Cr addition. Through optimization of the processing conditions, the nanostructured WC-Co-Cr coating has only a small amount of decarburized phase, a dense microstructure and an excellent combination of hardness, fracture toughness and wear resistance. A series of sliding wear tests were performed to investigate the wear behavior of the nanostructured cermet coating. The evolution of the friction coefficient, wear characteristics and their mechanisms were studied for the nanostructured WC-Co-Cr coating with the change of the load. The present study proposes a new understanding of the occurrence and the related mechanisms of the wear of the cermet coatings.

  8. Superconducting rotating electronic machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Hui Yeong

    1989-04-01

    This book is divided into ten chapters, which handles summary of superconducting electronic machine, aspect of using of superconductor, superconducting direct current : Homopolar D. C. Machines, Drum machines, segmented slip-ring principle and carbon fibre brushes, superconducting alternating current turbine generator, design of superconducting alternating current machine, performance of superconducting alternating current machine, superconducting turbo generator by new rotor design, basic design of superconducting current generator, generator and power model, design of rotor and information of material property.

  9. Superconducting transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    A three film superconducting tunneling device, analogous to a semiconductor transistor, is presented, including a theoretical description and experimental results showing a current gain of four. Much larger current gains are shown to be feasible. Such a development is particularly interesting because of its novelty and the striking analogies with the semiconductor junction transistor

  10. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvalds, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fermi liquid nesting in high temperature superconductors; optical properties of high temperature superconductors; Hall effect in superconducting La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 ; source of high transition temperatures; and prospects for new superconductors

  11. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-T c superconductor at low temperature

  12. Bipolar superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A model of bipolaron superconductivity suggested by Soviet scientist Alexandrov A.S. and French scientist Ranninger is presentes in a popular way. It is noted that the bipolaron theory gives a good explanation of certain properties of new superconductors, high critical temperature, in particular

  13. Comparative study of nanocrystalline diamond deposition on WC-Ni and WC-Co substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J A; Neto, V F; Cabral, G; Ruch, D; Grácio, J

    2011-06-01

    Tungsten carbide alloys possess a large number of applications, due to its high hardness, high resistance to heat and to wear, which makes it ideal to be used in wear parts of machinery or on surfaces liable to corrosion, abrasion or high temperatures. For practical applications, it is alloyed with cobalt (Co) or nickel (Ni) in order to improve its properties. The increasing demand of broadening the operation limits of some components, impose the need to improve its life time. Coating these parts with hard and smooth diamond thin film may improve the wear performance and decrease their roughness and friction coefficient. In this work, a comparative study of nanodiamond films deposit onto WC-Co and WC-Ni, by means of a hot-filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD) system, is presented. The study was accomplished by varying the CH4/H2/Ar gas ratio of the deposition process. The substrate temperature was kept low (< 700 degrees C) to minimize the thermal stress in the coating-substrate system. The microstructure of the deposited diamond film was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Roughness of the working surfaces were also accessed prior and after the depositions.

  14. Microstructural and mechanical characterizations of a novel HVOF-sprayed WC-Co coating deposited from electroless Ni–P coated WC-12Co powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, M., E-mail: majid_jafari@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iranian Surface Research and Engineering Centre, Isfahan 84155-337 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Enayati, M.H.; Salehi, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iranian Surface Research and Engineering Centre, Isfahan 84155-337 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nahvi, S.M. [Iranian Surface Research and Engineering Centre, Isfahan 84155-337 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Park, C.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-20

    In this research, a novel WC-Co coating was deposited from electroless Ni–P coated WC-12Co powders using high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) process. Toward this purpose, an electroless Ni–P plating process was used to develop a uniform Ni–P layer on the surface of WC-12Co powders. The obtained Ni–P coated powders were then used as HVOF feedstock material. Microstructural characteristics of the Ni–P coated WC-12Co powders and the resultant coating, which is denoted as Ni–P modified coating, were investigated using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (HR FE SEM). The micro-hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness measurements were executed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the Ni–P modified coating. For comparison, the same experiments were performed on two conventional HVOF sprayed WC-12Co and WC-17Co coatings. The Ni–P modified WC-12Co coating showed a dense structure with extremely low porosity of ∼0.3% which was much lower than that of WC-12Co and WC-17Co coatings. Besides, it was observed that the Ni–P modified coating has undergone negligible decarburization of 2.6% as compared to conventional WC-12Co and WC-17Co coatings with that of 16.3 and 17.6%. The Ni–P modified coating showed the maximum hardness of ∼11.45 GPa, while lower hardness values of 10.98 and 10.59 GPa were measured for the WC-12Co and WC-17Co coatings. The fracture toughness of Ni–P modified WC-12Co coating was found to be 9.86 MPa m{sup 1/2}, indicating 71.2 and 61.1% increase in comparison with WC-12Co and WC-17Co coatings, respectively.

  15. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  16. Wear resistance and fracture mechanics of WC-Co composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaytbay, Saleh [Benha Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; El-Hadek, Medhat [Port-Said Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Production and Mechanical Design

    2014-06-15

    Manufacturing of WC-Co composites using the electroless precipitation method at different sintering temperatures of 1 100, 1 250, 1 350 and 1 500 C was successfully achieved. The chemical composition of the investigated materials was 90 wt.% WC with 10 wt.% Co, and 80 wt.% WC with 20 wt.% Co. The specific density, densification, and Vickers microhardness measurements were found to increase with increased sintering temperature for both the WC-Co compositions. The composites of tungsten carbide with 10 wt.% Co had a higher specific density and Vickers microhardness measurements than those for the composites of tungsten carbide with 20 wt.% Co. Composites with WC-10 wt.% Co had better wear resistance. The stress-strain and transverse rupture strength increased monotonically with the increase in sintering temperatures, agreeing with the material hardness and wear resistance behavior. Fractographical scanning electron microscopy analysis of the fracture surface demonstrated a rough characteristic conical shape failure in the direction of the maximum shear stress. A proposed mechanism for the formation of the conical fracture surface under compression testing is presented. (orig.)

  17. A computational study of interfaces in WC-Co cemented carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petisme, Martin V. G.; Johansson, Sven A. E.; Wahnström, Göran

    2015-06-01

    Interfaces in WC-Co cemented carbides have been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). Six different model WC/WC grain boundaries are considered, together with the corresponding WC surfaces and WC/Co phase boundaries. The contribution to the grain boundary energies arising from misfit is estimated using an analytical bond order potential (ABOP) and the effect of magnetism is investigated using spinpolarized and non-spinpolarized calculations. A systematic study of adsorption of Co to WC surfaces, Co segregation to WC/WC grain boundaries and Co substitution at WC/Co phase boundaries has been carried out. Adsorption of Co to most WC surfaces is predicted, and result in a monolayer coverage of Co and sometimes a mixed Co/W or Co/W monolayer. The WC surfaces will become prewetted with Co as soon as the atoms become mobile at finite temperatures. Co substitutional segregation is predicted to all model WC/WC grain boundaries in 0.5 monolayer proportion. The segregation of Co to grain boundaries stabilizes the continuous skeleton network of hard WC grains in cemented carbides. Using the obtained interfacial energies, the wetting and the driving force for cobalt grain boundary infiltration are discussed. A dependence on the wetting efficiency on the carbon chemical potential is predicted, which could be an explanation for the better wetting observed experimentally under W-rich conditions.

  18. Reactive Sintering of Bimodal WC-Co Hardmetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tarraste

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bimodal WC-Co hardmetals were produced using novel technology - reactive sintering. Milled and activated tungsten and graphite powders were mixed with commercial coarse grained WC-Co powder and then sintered. The microstructure of produced materials was free of defects and consisted of evenly distributed coarse and fine tungsten carbide grains in cobalt binder. The microstructure, hardness and fracture toughness of reactive sintered bimodal WC-Co hardmetals is exhibited. Developed bimodal hardmetal has perspective for demanding wear applications for its increased combined hardness and toughness. Compared to coarse material there is only slight decrease in fracture toughness (K1c is 14.7 for coarse grained and 14.4 for bimodal, hardness is increased from 1290 to 1350 HV units.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7511

  19. Modern aspects of superconductivity theory of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kruchinin, Sergei; Aono, Shigeyuki

    2011-01-01

    Superconductivity remains one of the most interesting research areas in physics and stood as a major scientific mystery for a large part of this century. This book, written for graduate students and researchers in the field of superconductivity, discusses important aspects of the experiment and theory surrounding superconductivity. New experimental investigations of magnetic and thermodynamic superconducting properties of mesoscopic samples are explored with the help of recent developments in nanotechnologies and measurement techniques, and the results are predicted based upon theoretical mode

  20. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  1. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  2. PCC properties to support w/c determination for durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The fresh concrete watercement ratio (w/c) determination tool is urgently needed for use in the QC/QA process at the job site. Various : techniques have been used in the past to determine this parameter. However, many of these techniques can be co...

  3. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  4. Superconducting accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  5. Investigation of WC-Co Electrospark Coatings with Various Carbon Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, A. A.; Pyachin, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    Electrospark deposition was employed to clad WC-10%Co, W/C1.6 -10%Co, and W/C0.5 -10%Co hard alloys on steel 1035, and the tribological properties of the coatings obtained were examined. The influence of the W/C ratio in the electrode materials on the decarburization of tungsten carbide was studied. It is shown that the degree of tungsten carbide degradation can be reduced by increasing the concentration of carbon in the WC-Co electrode materials, and also that the WC decarburization reaction is reversible on annealing. Coatings deposited using new electrode materials with an excess of carbon (W/C0.5) and/or tungsten (W/C1.6) have increased microhardness and improved frictional characteristics compared with the conventional coating.

  6. Effect of WC/Co coherency phase boundaries on Fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongxian; Song, Xiaoyan; Yin, Fuxing; Zhang, Yongguang

    2016-08-01

    The effect of coherency WC/Co phase boundaries on the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides is studied by MD simulation method. The simulation results show that the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides with coherency WC/Co phase boundaries has higher fracture toughness than that without coherency WC/Co phase boundaries. Moreover, the mechanism of why coherency WC/Co phase boundaries can improve the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides is also investigated. It is found the fact that the separation energy of the coherent WC/Co phase boundary is larger than that of the incoherent WC/Co phase boundaries is the main reason for this excellent mechanical property.

  7. Hydrogen in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peercy, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The structural aspects of amorphous silicon and the role of hydrogen in this structure are reviewed with emphasis on ion implantation studies. In amorphous silicon produced by Si ion implantation of crystalline silicon, the material reconstructs into a metastable amorphous structure which has optical and electrical properties qualitatively similar to the corresponding properties in high-purity evaporated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen studies further indicate that these structures will accomodate less than or equal to 5 at.% hydrogen and this hydrogen is bonded predominantly in a monohydride (SiH 1 ) site. Larger hydrogen concentrations than this can be achieved under certain conditions, but the excess hydrogen may be attributed to defects and voids in the material. Similarly, glow discharge or sputter deposited amorphous silicon has more desirable electrical and optical properties when the material is prepared with low hydrogen concentration and monohydride bonding. Results of structural studies and hydrogen incorporation in amorphous silicon were discussed relative to the different models proposed for amorphous silicon

  8. Physics of amorphous metals

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalenko, Nikolai P; Krey, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of bulk metallic glasses has led to a large increase in the industrial importance of amorphous metals, and this is expected to continue. This book is the first to describe the theoretical physics of amorphous metals, including the important theoretical development of the last 20 years.The renowned authors stress the universal aspects in their description of the phonon or magnon low-energy excitations in the amorphous metals, e.g. concerning the remarkable consequences of the properties of these excitations for the thermodynamics at low and intermediate temperatures. Tunneling

  9. Amorphization within the tablet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doreth, Maria; Hussein, Murtadha Abdul; Priemel, Petra A.

    2017-01-01

    , the feasibility of microwave irradiation to prepare amorphous solid dispersions (glass solutions) in situ was investigated. Indomethacin (IND) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K12 (PVP) were tableted at a 1:2 (w/w) ratio. In order to study the influence of moisture content and energy input on the degree of amorphization......, tablet formulations were stored at different relative humidity (32, 43 and 54% RH) and subsequently microwaved using nine different power-time combinations up to a maximum energy input of 90 kJ. XRPD results showed that up to 80% (w/w) of IND could be amorphized within the tablet. mDSC measurements...

  10. Magnetoresistance of amorphous CuZr: weak localization in a three dimensional system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, J.B.; Fert, A.; Creuzet, G.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of anomalous magnetoresistance in amorphous CuZr at low temperature are reported. The magnetoresistance can be precisely accounted for in theoretical models of localization for 3-dimensional metallic systems in the presence of strong spin-orbit interactions (with a significant additional contribution from the quenching of superconducting fluctuations at the lowest temperatures). Magnetoresistance measurements on various other systems show that such 3-dimensional localization effects are very generally observed in amorphous alloys. (author)

  11. Pd enhanced WC catalyst to promote heterogeneous methane combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terracciano, Anthony Carmine; De Oliveira, Samuel; Siddhanti, Deepti; Blair, Richard; Vasu, Subith S.; Orlovskaya, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pd enhanced WC catalyst particles were synthesized via mechanochemical alloying. • Catalyst was characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM, and EDS. • Catalyst was deposited on porous ZrO 2 and evaluated in heterogeneous combustion. • During combustion temperature profiles and spectral emissions were collected. - Abstract: The efficiency of combustion for low cost heat production could be greatly enhanced if an active and low cost catalyst would be used to facilitate the chemical reactions occurring during combustor operation. Within this work an experimental study of palladium (Pd) enhanced tungsten carbide (WC) catalyst, synthesized via high energy ball milling and deposited by dip coating onto a magnesia partially stabilized zirconia (MgO-ZrO 2 ) porous matrix of 10 ppin was evaluated in heterogeneous methane combustion. The synthesized powder was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, as well as by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF); and the morphology of the deposited WC-Pd coating was also characterized using SEM and EDS. Performance evaluation of the heterogeneous combustor with WC-Pd coated MgO-ZrO 2 porous media was conducted at constant air flow rate and various equivalence ratios of methane/air gaseous mixtures, while monitoring axial temperature profiles within the combustion chamber using thermocouples, as well as thermal radiative and acoustic emissions from the combustor exhaust using an externally placed CCD camera and a microphone. It was found that there is a strong dependence of flame position and maximum temperature on equivalence ratio (φ) over the range of 0.47 ± 0.02 ⩽ φ ⩽ 0.75 ± 0.02. Additionally it was found that over the same equivalence ratio range, there is a characteristic 4 peak acoustic signature between 200 and 500 Hz. It was found that at higher equivalence ratios 0.51 ± 0.02 ⩽ φ ⩽ 0.75 ± 0.02 the performance of

  12. Tensile properties and fracture behavior of laser cladded WC/Ni composite coatings with different contents of WC particle studied by in-situ tensile testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jin-Sha [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety, Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Xian-Cheng, E-mail: xczhang@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety, Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Tian, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Zheng-Dong; Tu, Shan-Tung [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety, Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2013-01-10

    The aim of this paper was to address the effect of WC content on the tensile properties of WC/Ni composite coatings deposited by laser cladding on 45 steel substrates. The tensile tests were performed in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope. Experimental results showed that the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of WC/Ni coatings were strongly dependent on the volume fraction of WC reinforcing particles in the coatings. The tensile properties of the coating decreased with increasing content of WC particle. When the WC content was relatively high, multiple through-width cracks (TWC) in the coating can be found. The number of through-width cracks in the coating as a function of applied strain was measured. From the in-situ observation of coating surfaces, most of cracks were initiated from the WC particle, and then propagated throughout the coatings. This phenomenon was attributed to the stress concentration in the WC particle or near the WC particle, which was confirmed by using finite element analysis. The present research may provide some insights on the development of designing methodology of composite coatings.

  13. Superconductivity and the Periodic Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapnik, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    In view of the inability of the present theory of superconductivity to make reliable predictions for the magnitude of Tsub(c) it seems useful to search for empirical relationships between the composition of the compound and the Tsub(c) value. Table I gives a list of the available Tsub(c) data for transition metals (TM) having from 3 to 9 outer electrons and Tsub(c) data for non-transition elements (NTE) of groups IIB, IIIB and IVB, including data for amorphous (Am) structures and structures (marked by triangles) obtained at high pressures. The analogous metals have therefore the same structure. In Tables II to IV the Tsub(c) data are presented for analogous compounds of NTE from IB - VIB group. Conclusions are presented. (author)

  14. A study on the synthesis and microstructure of WC-TiN superlattice coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J.S.; Myung, H.S.; Han, J.G. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Suwon (Korea). Plasma Appl. Mater. Lab.; Musil, J. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of West Bohemia (Czech Republic)

    2000-09-01

    WC-TiN superhard coatings are formulated to form a nanoscaled superlattice by separate arc reactive evaporation of Ti and WC. The microstructure of WC-TiN films was identified to be a superlattice of TiN and {beta}-WC{sub 1-x} phases with modulation period ({lambda}) of 5-13 nm and the lattice planes were continuous through the TiN and {beta}-WC{sub 1-x} layers. The residual stress of WC-TiN films was measured to be 7.9 GPa. This high stress was reduced to 2.2 GPa by introducing Ti or Ti-WC interlayers. Ti-WC interlayer also increased the film adhesion strength. In spite of almost the same residual stress of 2.2-2.3 GPa, Ti-WC/WC-TiN film showed a higher adhesion strength of 48.5 N than that of Ti/WC-TiN film. These results are attributed to the low residual stress and higher stiffness of the Ti-WC interlayer than the soft Ti interlayer. The microhardness of Ti-WC/WC-TiN film on cemented carbide was measured to be 40 GPa and the maximum hardness was obtained as the period ({lambda}) was approximately 7 nm. This value is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of the TiN single layer film. Other WC-TiN superlattice coatings with Ti and WC interlayers showed a hardness range of 38-40 GPa. The ratio H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} (plastic deformation resistance) of WC-TiN superlattice films with various interlayers was calculated to be in a range from 0.18 to 0.33. This paper reports the preparation of WC-TiN superlattice coatings on WC-Co and Si substrates using a multi-cathode arc ion-plating system. The microstructures and mechanical properties of WC-TiN superlattice films were investigated, too. (orig.)

  15. Regeneration of WC-Co Nanopowders Via Sodiothermic Reduction in Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Liu, Xue-Mei; Chai, Li-Hua; Wu, Jinyu; Shen, Xuyang

    WC-Co nanoparticles were directly recycled via sodiothermic reduction in NaCl-52mol%CaCl2 molten salts using oxidized hard metal scrap as the raw materials. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that a series of cemented carbide, such as W, W-Co, WC and WC-Co nanoparticles, were successfully recycled using the molten salt systems. The results show that WC/WC-Co nanoparticles can be recycled form oxidized hard metal scrap via sodiothermic reduction in the NaCl-52mol%CaCl2 molten salts.

  16. The Hardness and Strength Properties of WC-Co Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald W

    2011-07-14

    The industrially-important WC-Co composite materials provide a useful, albeit complicated materials system for understanding the combined influences on hardness and strength properties of the constituent WC particle strengths, the particle sizes, their contiguities, and of Co binder hardness and mean free paths, and in total, the volume fraction of constituents. A connection is made here between the composite material properties, especially including the material fracture toughness, and the several materials-type considerations of: (1) related hardness stress-strain behaviors; (2) dislocation (viscoplastic) thermal activation characterizations; (3) Hall-Petch type reciprocal square root of particle or grain size dependencies; and (4) indentation and conventional fracture mechanics results. Related behaviors of MgO and Al₂O₃ crystal and polycrystal materials are also described for the purpose of making comparisons.

  17. The Hardness and Strength Properties of WC-Co Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald W.

    2011-01-01

    The industrially-important WC-Co composite materials provide a useful, albeit complicated materials system for understanding the combined influences on hardness and strength properties of the constituent WC particle strengths, the particle sizes, their contiguities, and of Co binder hardness and mean free paths, and in total, the volume fraction of constituents. A connection is made here between the composite material properties, especially including the material fracture toughness, and the several materials-type considerations of: (1) related hardness stress-strain behaviors; (2) dislocation (viscoplastic) thermal activation characterizations; (3) Hall-Petch type reciprocal square root of particle or grain size dependencies; and (4) indentation and conventional fracture mechanics results. Related behaviors of MgO and Al2O3 crystal and polycrystal materials are also described for the purpose of making comparisons. PMID:28824143

  18. Morpho-Structural Characterization of WC20Co Deposited Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugui, C. A.; Vizureanu, P.

    2017-06-01

    Hydroelectric power plants use the power of water to produce electricity. In this paper we propose a solution that will increase the efficiency of turbine operation by implementing new innovative technologies to increase the working characteristics by depositing hard thin films of tungsten carbide. For this purpose hard tough deposits with WC20Co and Jet Plasma Jet on X3CrNiMo13-4 stainless steel were used for the realization of the Francis turbine with vertical shaft.

  19. Thermal properties of WC-10 wt. (% Co alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Léo Machado

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, photothermal techniques were used in order to determine some thermal properties: diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity and specific heat capacity of WC-10 wt. (% Co six samples subjected to different sintering processes. The samples were sintered using high pressure - high temperature (HPHT sintering system. The open cell photoacoustic (OPC used to measure thermal diffusivity is described in detail. The values of thermal properties here measured and evaluated are consistent to those previously reported in the literature.

  20. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991

  1. Simple Superconducting "Permanent" Electromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed short tube of high-temperature-superconducting material like YBa2Cu3O7 acts as strong electromagnet that flows as long as magnetic field remains below critical value and temperature of cylinder maintained sufficiently below superconducting-transition temperature. Design exploits maximally anisotropy of high-temperature-superconducting material.

  2. Structural amorphous steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.P.; Liu, C.T.; Porter, W.D.; Thompson, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist's dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed

  3. Tungsten Carbide Grain Size Computation for WC-Co Dissimilar Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongran; Cui, Haichao; Xu, Peiquan; Lu, Fenggui

    2016-06-01

    A "two-step" image processing method based on electron backscatter diffraction in scanning electron microscopy was used to compute the tungsten carbide (WC) grain size distribution for tungsten inert gas (TIG) welds and laser welds. Twenty-four images were collected on randomly set fields per sample located at the top, middle, and bottom of a cross-sectional micrograph. Each field contained 500 to 1500 WC grains. The images were recognized through clustering-based image segmentation and WC grain growth recognition. According to the WC grain size computation and experiments, a simple WC-WC interaction model was developed to explain the WC dissolution, grain growth, and aggregation in welded joints. The WC-WC interaction and blunt corners were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The WC grain size distribution and the effects of heat input E on grain size distribution for the laser samples were discussed. The results indicate that (1) the grain size distribution follows a Gaussian distribution. Grain sizes at the top of the weld were larger than those near the middle and weld root because of power attenuation. (2) Significant WC grain growth occurred during welding as observed in the as-welded micrographs. The average grain size was 11.47 μm in the TIG samples, which was much larger than that in base metal 1 (BM1 2.13 μm). The grain size distribution curves for the TIG samples revealed a broad particle size distribution without fine grains. The average grain size (1.59 μm) in laser samples was larger than that in base metal 2 (BM2 1.01 μm). (3) WC-WC interaction exhibited complex plane, edge, and blunt corner characteristics during grain growth. A WC ( { 1 {bar{{1}}}00} ) to WC ( {0 1 1 {bar{{0}}}} ) edge disappeared and became a blunt plane WC ( { 10 1 {bar{{0}}}} ) , several grains with two- or three-sided planes and edges disappeared into a multi-edge, and a WC-WC merged.

  4. Heat capacity of amorphous and disordered Nb3Ge thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.A.H.K.

    1979-06-01

    Heat capacity measurements on 1000 to 1500A thick amorphous Nb 3 Ge and granular Al films have been carried out using an ac technique. The major goal of the experiment was to study the effect of thermal fluctuations, both above and below the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/, in dirty, short meanfree path materials

  5. Comparison between Zr-Rh amorphous alloys fabricated by different processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missell, F.P.

    1984-01-01

    It has been considered Zr-Rh amorphous alloys fabricated by sputtering and melt-spinning. For these materials, it was compared the superconducting transition temperatures T c , the superior critical field H c2 , the states density at Fermi energy N*, the dependence of T c with the hydrostatic pressure and results of differential thermic analysis. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  6. Superconducting material development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    A superconducting compound was developed that showed a transition to a zero-resistance state at 65 C, or 338 K. The superconducting material, which is an oxide based on strontium, barium, yttrium, and copper, continued in the zero-resistance state similar to superconductivity for 10 days at room temperature in the air. It was also noted that measurements of the material allowed it to observe a nonlinear characteristic curve between current and voltage at 65 C, which is another indication of superconductivity. The research results of the laboratory experiment with the superconducting material will be published in the August edition of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.

  7. Superconductivity in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.

  8. Mechanical intermixing of components in (CoMoNi)-based systems and the formation of (CoMoNi)/WC nanocomposite layers on Ti sheets under ball collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romankov, S.; Park, Y. C.; Shchetinin, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    Cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni) components were simultaneously introduced onto titanium (Ti) surfaces from a composed target using ball collisions. Tungsten carbide (WC) balls were selected for processing as the source of a cemented carbide reinforcement phase. During processing, ball collisions continuously introduced components from the target and the grinding media onto the Ti surface and induced mechanical intermixing of the elements, resulting in formation of a complex nanocomposite structure onto the Ti surface. The as-fabricated microstructure consisted of uniformly dispersed WC particles embedded within an integrated metallic matrix composed of an amorphous phase with nanocrystalline grains. The phase composition of the alloyed layers, atomic reactions, and the matrix grain sizes depended on the combination of components introduced onto the Ti surface during milling. The as-fabricated layer exhibited a very high hardness compared to industrial metallic alloys and tool steel materials. This approach could be used for the manufacture of both cemented carbides and amorphous matrix composite layers.

  9. Moessbauer effect in superconducting organosol of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekhtyar, I.Ya.; Zhelibo, E.P.; Kushnir, B.G.; Nishchenko, M.M.; Pan, V.M.; Popov, A.G.; Khvorov, M.M.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Kolloidnoj Khimii i Khimii Vody)

    1977-01-01

    Structure of disperse particles (approximately 1 μm) of tin organosols have been investigated by means of the Moessbauer effect. A considerable amount of oxides (up to 20%) in amorphous (SnO 2 ) or in metastable crystalline (SnO) states has been discovered. The observed properties of the Moessbauer spectrum of organosols are compared with measurements of their critical temperature. The effect of impurities and of other structural defects on the dynamic and superconducting properties of organosols is observed. Temperature broadening of lines and temperature variation of the Moessbauer effect value for the particle of different dimensions are in a qualitative agreement with the theory of the granular Moessbauer absorbers

  10. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Performances and reliability of WC based thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, A.; Rosso, M.; Salvarani, L.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal spray processes are used for a lot of traditional and innovative applications and their importance is becoming higher and higher. WC/CoCr based thermal spray coatings represent one of the most important class of coatings that find application in a wide range of industrial sectors. This paper will address a review of current applications and characteristics of this kind of coating. The most important spraying processes, namely HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) are examined, the characterization of the coatings from the point of view of corrosion and wear resistance is considered. (author)

  12. TEM INVESTIGATIONS OF WC-Co ALLOYS AFTER CREEP EXPERIMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lay , S.; Osterstock , F.; Vicens , J.

    1986-01-01

    Carbide tungsten cobalt alloys were deformed in compression or in three point bending in a temperature range 1000-1350°C and in a stress domain 30-1000MPa. In these conditions, the stress exponent n of WC-Co alloys is a function of only the cobalt volumic ratio and tends towards n = 1 for pure carbide. The apparent activation energy is 550 kj mole-1. T.E.M. investigations on pure carbide deformed at 1450°C show an extensive intragranular deformation. Analysis of these defects have been perfor...

  13. The role of the binder phase in the WC-Co sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva A.G.P. da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering of hardmetal in the solid state is studied. The influence of the WC particle size on the sintering kinetics, the role of the binder phase in the densification process and how sintering depends on the heating conditions are investigated. It is observed that alloys with different WC particle size show quite different structural evolution during sintering, although the densification mechanisms are the same. This is explained by the formation of agglomerates of WC and Co. Hardmetal alloys can sinter very rapidly when high heating rates are used, since rapid heating accelerates the binder spreading and the formation of WC-Co agglomerates. The binder phase (Co spreads on the WC particles initially as a thin layer. Subsequently, more Co spreads on this layer and WC-Co agglomerates are formed.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of WC-Co reinforced with NbC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Acchar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Cemented carbides such as tungsten carbide-cobalt WC-Co composites have been widely used as cutting tool materials. Several reports have shown the influence of different factors such as grain size, type and amount of binder phase and the addition of hard particles on the properties of WC-Co. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of niobium carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of WC-Co. Specimens of WC-Co reinforced with NbC were mixed and subsequently hot-pressed in a inert atmosphere. The WC-Co-NbC composite material exhibited high hardness values (18.9 GPa, flexural strength (2100 MPa and fracture toughness (11.2 MPa.m½ . TEM analysis has shown a bimodal grain size distribution of WC.

  15. Collective-pinning properties of superconducting a-NbxGe and a-MoxSi films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdenweber, R.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of superconducting flux pinning in amorphous NbGe and MoSi films of various compositions and thickness. Amorphous NbGe and MoSi alloys belong to the weak-coupling type-II superconductors in the extreme dirty limit. This feature enables to determine several important superconducting parameters from well-known theoretical expressions. It is also responsible for the weak pinning, which is necessary to observe the two-dimensional collective pinning properties according to the Larkin-Ovchinnikov theory. (Auth.)

  16. Influence of Nickel-Coated Nanostructured WC-Co Powders on Microstructural and Tribological Properties of HVOF Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M.; Enayati, M. H.; Salehi, M.; Nahvi, S. M.; Hosseini, S. N.; Park, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    In this research, a novel nickel-coated nanostructured WC-12Co powder (Ni/nc-WC) was developed and used as feedstock material for high velocity oxygen fuel process. The Ni/nc-WC powders with average WC grain size of ~15 nm were produced by mechanical milling and electroless plating processes. The microstructural and tribological characteristics of Ni/nc-WC coating were investigated and compared with those of microcrystalline WC-12Co (mc-WC) and nanostructured WC-12Co (nc-WC) coatings. X-ray diffractometry, high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of the powders and coatings. A ball-on-disk technique was used to probe the wear behavior of the coatings. The Ni/nc-WC coating showed negligible decarburization of ~5.4%, while mc-WC and nc-WC coatings suffered from higher decarburization levels of 16.3 and 36.8%. The wear rate of Ni/nc-WC coating was 2.5 × 10-4 mg/m indicating ~ 75 and 82% increase in wear resistance compared with mc-WC and nc-WC coatings. The wear track analysis of mc-WC and nc-WC coatings showed evidences of delamination mechanism. Besides, a severe carbide pullout mechanism was operative in wear of nc-WC coating. As for Ni/nc-WC coating, individual carbide pullout following the elimination of Ni(Co) matrix was the predominant wear mechanism.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of WC-Co reinforced with NbC

    OpenAIRE

    Acchar, Wilson; Zollfrank, Cordt; Greil, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Cemented carbides such as tungsten carbide-cobalt WC-Co composites have been widely used as cutting tool materials. Several reports have shown the influence of different factors such as grain size, type and amount of binder phase and the addition of hard particles on the properties of WC-Co. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of niobium carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of WC-Co. Specimens of WC-Co reinforced with NbC were mixed and subsequently hot-p...

  18. Binder deformation in WC-(Co, Ni) cemented carbide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasel, C. H.; Krawitz, A. D.; Drake, E. F.; Kenik, E. A.

    1985-12-01

    The microstructural responses to monotonic and cyclic compressive loading of three WC-(Co,Ni) alloys have been characterized and measured by high voltage transmission electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. A base alloy comprising WC-17 wt pct Co was prepared and evaluated, along with two alloys in which the binder composition was altered by replacing 15 pct and 30 pct of the total cobalt by nickel. Results are presented for strains of 0, 0.75, and 5.0 pct, and for two fatigue stress levels, both at 0.5 million cycles. Predominant binder-deformation mechanisms were observed to shift with increasing Ni content from the fcc-hcp martensitic transformation to slip plus twinning over the composition range studied. In the base alloy, 44.5 vol pct of the binder had transformed at the highest strain level, while only 11.4 pct transformation occurred at the same strain in the 30 pct Ni-binder alloy. The shift in binder plasticity mechanisms and the corresponding changes in composite stressstrain behavior have been discussed with respect to several theories on the role of binder deformation in cermet mechanical response.

  19. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  20. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  1. Superconductivity and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, António

    2017-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado em International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’17), 4 a 6 de Abril de 2017, Málaga, Espanha The research in the field of superconductivity has led to the synthesis of superconducting materials with features that allow you to expand the applicability of this kind of materials. Among the superconducting materials characteristics, the critical temperature of the superconductor is framing the range and type of industrial applications that can b...

  2. Surface and Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, L. P.

    2006-07-01

    Experiments reveal the existence of metallic bands at surfaces of metals and insulators. The bands can be doped externally. We review properties of surface superconductivity that may set up in such bands at low temperatures and various means of superconductivity defection. The fundamental difference as compared to the ordinary superconductivity in metals, besides its two-dimensionality lies in the absence of the center of space inversion. This results in mixing between the singlet and triplet channels of the Cooper pairing.

  3. Superconductivity in the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Lawson, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The trends in the occurrence of superconductivity in actinide materials are discussed. Most of them seem to show simple transition metal behavior. However, the superconductivity of americium proves that the f electrons are localized in that element and that ''actinides'' is the correct name for this row of elements. Recently the superconductivity of UBe 13 and UPt 3 has been shown to be extremely unusual, and these compounds fall in the new class of compounds now known as heavy fermion materials

  4. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  5. Moessbauer and transport studies of amorphous and icosahedral Zr-Ni-Cu-Ag-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadnik, Z.M.; Rapp, O.; Srinivas, V.; Saida, J.; Inoue, A.

    2002-01-01

    The alloy Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.3 Fe 0.2 Ag 10 in the amorphous and icosahedral states, and the bulk amorphous alloy Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.5 Ag 10 , have been studied with 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, electrical resistance and magnetoresistance techniques. The average quadrupole splitting in both alloys decreases with temperature as T 3/2 . The average quadrupole splitting in the icosahedral alloy is the largest ever reported for a metallic system. The lattice vibrations of the Fe atoms in the amorphous and icosahedral alloys are well described by a simple Debye model, with the characteristic Moessbauer temperatures of 379(29) and 439(28) K, respectively. Amorphous alloys Zr 65 Al 7. )5Ni 10 Cu 7.5 Ag 10 and Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.3 Fe 0.2 Ag 10 have been found to be superconducting with the transition temperature, T c , of about 1.7 K. The magnitude of Tc and the critical field slope at Tc are in agreement with previous work on Zr-based amorphous superconductors, while the low-temperature normal state resistivity is larger than typical results for binary and ternary Zr-based alloys. The resistivity of icosahedral Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.3 Fe 0.2 Ag 10 is larger than that for the amorphous ribbon of the same composition, as inferred both from direct measurements on the ribbons and from the observed magnetoresistance. However the icosahedral sample is non-superconducting in the measurement range down to 1.5 K. The results for the resistivity and the superconducting T c both suggest a stronger electronic disorder in the icosahedral phase than in the amorphous phase. (author)

  6. Superconductivity and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadoni, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper, after a short introduction to superconductivity and to multifilamentary superconducting composites is aiming to review the state of the art and the future perspective of some of the applications of the superconducting materials. The main interest is focussed to large scale applications like, for istance, magnets for accelerators or fusion reactors, superconducting system for NMR thomography, etc. A short paragraph is dedicated to applications for high sensitivity instrumentation. The paper is then concluded by some considerations about the potentialities of the newly discovered high critical temperature materials

  7. Superconductivity in power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This proceedings volume presents 24 conference papers and 15 posters dealing with the following aspects: 1) Principles and elementary aspects of high-temperature superconductivity (3 plenary lectures); 2) Preparation, properties and materials requirements of metallic or oxide superconductors (critical current behaviour, soldered joints, structural studies); 3) Magnet technology (large magnets for thermonuclear fusion devices; magnets for particle accelerators and medical devices); 4) Magnetic levitation and superconductivity; 5) Cryogenics; 6) Energy storage systems using superconducting coils (SMES); 7) Superconducting power transmission cables, switches, transformers, and generator systems for power plant; 8) Supporting activities, industrial aspects, patents. There are thirty-eight records in the ENERGY database relating to individual conference papers. (MM) [de

  8. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  9. Amorphous Semiconductor Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Arun

    1985-08-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) based alloys have attracted a considerable amount of interest because of their applications in a wide variety of technologies. However, the major effort has concentrated on inexpensive photovoltaic device applications and has moved from a laboratory curiosity in the early 1970's to viable commercial applications in the 1980's. Impressive progress in this field has been made since the group at University of Dundee demonstrated that a low defect, device quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) 12 material could be produced using the radio frequency (r.f.) glow discharge in SiH4 gas ' and that the material could be doped n- and p-type.3 These results spurred a worldwide interest in a-Si based alloys, especially for photovoltaic devices which has resulted in a conversion efficiency approaching 12%. There is now a quest for even higher conversion efficiencies by using the multijunction cell approach. This necessitates the synthesis of new materials of differing bandgaps, which in principle amorphous semiconductors can achieve. In this article, we review some of this work and consider from a device and a materials point of view the hurdles which have to be overcome before this type of concept can be realized.

  10. Superconductivity in Bismuth. A New Look at an Old Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaahel Mata-Pinzón

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between atomic topology, vibrational and electronic properties and superconductivity of bismuth, a 216-atom amorphous structure (a-Bi216 was computer-generated using our undermelt-quench approach. Its pair distribution function compares well with experiment. The calculated electronic and vibrational densities of states (eDOS and vDOS, respectively show that the amorphous eDOS is about 4 times the crystalline at the Fermi energy, whereas for the vDOS the energy range of the amorphous is roughly the same as the crystalline but the shapes are quite different. A simple BCS estimate of the possible crystalline superconducting transition temperature gives an upper limit of 1.3 mK. The e-ph coupling is more preponderant in a-Bi than in crystalline bismuth (x-Bi as indicated by the λ obtained via McMillan's formula, λc = 0.24 and experiment λa = 2.46. Therefore with respect to x-Bi, superconductivity in a-Bi is enhanced by the higher values of λ and of eDOS at the Fermi energy.

  11. Superconductivity in Bismuth. A New Look at an Old Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between atomic topology, vibrational and electronic properties and superconductivity of bismuth, a 216-atom amorphous structure (a-Bi216) was computer-generated using our undermelt-quench approach. Its pair distribution function compares well with experiment. The calculated electronic and vibrational densities of states (eDOS and vDOS, respectively) show that the amorphous eDOS is about 4 times the crystalline at the Fermi energy, whereas for the vDOS the energy range of the amorphous is roughly the same as the crystalline but the shapes are quite different. A simple BCS estimate of the possible crystalline superconducting transition temperature gives an upper limit of 1.3 mK. The e-ph coupling is more preponderant in a-Bi than in crystalline bismuth (x-Bi) as indicated by the λ obtained via McMillan’s formula, λc = 0.24 and experiment λa = 2.46. Therefore with respect to x-Bi, superconductivity in a-Bi is enhanced by the higher values of λ and of eDOS at the Fermi energy. PMID:26815431

  12. Quenching of superconductivity in disordered thin films by phase fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebard, A.F.; Palaanen, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The amplitude Ψ 0 and phase Φ of the superconducting order parameter in thin-film systems are affected differently by disorder and dimensionality. With increasing disorder superconducting long range order is quenched in sufficiently thin films by physical processes driven by phase fluctuations. This occurs at both the zero-field vortex-antivortex unbinding transition and at the zero-temperature magnetic-field-tuned superconducting-insulating transition. At both of these transitions Ψ 0 is finite and constant, vanishing only when temperature, disorder, and/or magnetic field are increased further. Experimental results on amorphous-composite InO x films are presented to illustrate these points and appropriate comparisons are made to other experimental systems. (orig.)

  13. The Stabilization of Amorphous Zopiclone in an Amorphous Solid Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Marnus; Liebenberg, Wilna; Aucamp, Marique

    2015-10-01

    Zopiclone is a poorly soluble psychotherapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize an amorphous form of zopiclone as well as the characterization and performance of a stable amorphous solid dispersion. The amorphous form was prepared by the well-known method of quench-cooling of the melt. The solid dispersion was prepared by a solvent evaporation method of zopiclone, polyvinylpyrrolidone-25 (PVP-25), and methanol, followed by freeze-drying. The physico-chemical properties and stability of amorphous zopiclone and the solid dispersion was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hot-stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), solubility, and dissolution studies. The zopiclone amorphous solid-state form was determined to be a fragile glass; it was concluded that the stability of the amorphous form is influenced by both temperature and water. Exposure of amorphous zopiclone to moisture results in rapid transformation of the amorphous form to the crystalline dihydrated form. In comparison, the amorphous solid dispersion proved to be more stable with increased aqueous solubility.

  14. Bonding of WC with an iron aluminide (FeAl) intermetallic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneibel, J.H.; Subramanian, R.

    1996-08-01

    FeAl, which has high oxidation and sulfidation resistance, was shown to be thermodynamically compatible with WC. Calculations indicate that soly. of WC in liq. Fe-40at.%Al at 1450 C is about 2 at.%. Since liquid FeAl wets WC very well, the WC/FeAl system lends itself to liquid-phase sintering, resulting in close to theoretical densities. Almost fully dense cermets with 20.6 wt% FeAl binder were produced. With one-step infiltration, 98% dense cermets with only 7 wt% FeAl binder were fabricated. RT bend strengths and fracture toughness for WC-20.6 wt% FeAl reached 1680 MPa and 22 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2}. Ductile binder fracture was observed on the fracture surfaces. Pores containing oxide inclusions were found, suggesting that improvements in processing are likely to further improve the mechanical properties. Insufficient process control may explain why WC/FeAlNi cermets did not show improved mechanical properties, although Ni strengthens FeAl. For WC bonded with FeAl, mechanical properties were measured at RT and 800 C. Bend strengths at 800 C in air increased with WC volume fraction, and fracture toughness were higher than at RT.

  15. An alternative approach to estimate the W/C ratio of hardened concrete using image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.; Nijland, T.G.; Larbi, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The water cement (w/c) ratio is a typical quality parameter for concrete. The NT Build 361 Nordtest method is a standard for estimating the w/c ratio in hardened concrete and is based on the relationship between the ilc ratio and the capillary porosity in the cement paste. The latter can be

  16. Superconducting elliptical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sekutowicz, J K

    2011-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the history, state of the art, and future for elliptical superconducting cavities. Principles of the cell shape optimization, criteria for multi-cell structures design, HOM damping schemes and other features are discussed along with examples of superconducting structures for various applications.

  17. Large superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Pérot, J

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the use of large superconducting magnets in the areas of particle physics, thermonuclear fusion, and magnetohydrodynamics. In addition to considering the physics of the superconducting state, the article considers machines such as BEBC (Big European Bubble Chamber) at CERN, the LINAC at SLAC and possible Tokamak applications. The future application of superconductors to high speed trains is discussed. (0 refs).

  18. Superconducting cavities for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Above: a 350 MHz superconducting accelerating cavity in niobium of the type envisaged for accelerating electrons and positrons in later phases of LEP. Below: a small 1 GHz cavity used for investigating the surface problems of superconducting niobium. Albert Insomby stays on the right. See Annual Report 1983 p. 51.

  19. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  20. The equilibrium morphology of WC particles - A combined ab initio and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yang; Zhu Hong; Shaw, Leon L.; Ramprasad, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report an ab initio density functional theory study, complemented by parallel experimental work, of the equilibrium shape of WC particles. The equilibrium shape is simulated under the condition of little or no liquid-phase sintering. The effects of the carbon-rich and carbon-deficient conditions and the adsorption of Co and Ni atoms on the surface of WC particles are investigated. The equilibrium shape of WC particles is found to be a truncated triangular prism under both carbon-rich and carbon-deficient conditions. The adsorption of Co and Ni on the WC surface can promote the formation of either truncated triangular prisms or near-hexagonal prisms, depending on their specific combination with the carbon chemical potential. Under all the conditions investigated, the equilibrium shapes of WC crystals can be described as 'bulky' rather than 'plate-like'. The findings in this study are consistent with the experimental observations.

  1. High Temperature Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Performance of Laser Cladding WC/Ni Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jiao-xi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different types of agglomerate and angular WC/Ni matrix composite coatings were deposited by laser cladding. The high temperature wear resistance of these composite coatings was tested with a ring-on-disc MMG-10 apparatus. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS for elemental composition. The results show that the high temperature wear resistance of the laser clad WC/Ni-based composite coatings is improved significantly with WC mass fraction increasing. The 60% agglomerate WC/Ni composite coating has optimal high temperature wear resistance. High temperature wear mechanism of 60% WC/Ni composite coating is from abrasive wear of low temperature into composite function of the oxidation wear and abrasive wear.

  2. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However......, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10...

  3. Structure and hardness of a hard metal alloy prepared with a WC powder synthesized at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.A. da [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)], E-mail: francineac@yahoo.com; Medeiros, F.F.P. de [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Silva, A.G.P. da [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, U.U. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Filgueira, M. [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Souza, C.P. de [Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Reatores, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-06-25

    The structure and hardness of a WC-10 wt% Co alloy prepared with an experimental WC powder are compared with those of another alloy of the same composition produced under the same conditions and prepared with a commercial WC powder. The experimental WC powder was synthesized by a gas-solid reaction between APT and methane at low temperature and the commercial WC powder was conventionally produced by a solid-solid reaction between tungsten and carbon black. WC-10 wt% Co alloys with the two powders were prepared under the same conditions of milling and sintering. The structure of the sample prepared with the experimental WC powder is homogeneous and coarse grained. The structure of the sample prepared with the commercial powder is heterogeneous. Furthermore the size and shape of the WC grains are significantly different.

  4. Nanoparticles of WC-Co, WC, Co and Cu of relevance for traffic wear particles - Particle stability and reactivity in synthetic surface water and influence of humic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Hedberg, Jonas F; Isaksson, Sara; Mei, Nanxuan; Blomberg, Eva; Wold, Susanna; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2017-05-01

    Studded tyres made of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) are in the Northern countries commonly used during the winter time. Tungsten (W)-containing nano- and micron-sized particles have been detected close to busy roads in several European countries. Other typical traffic wear particles consist of copper (Cu). The aims of this study were to investigate particle stability and transformation/dissolution properties of nanoparticles (NPs) of WC-Co compared with NPs of tungsten carbide (WC), cobalt (Co), and Cu. Their physicochemical characteristics (primarily surface oxide and charge) are compared with their extent of sedimentation and metal release in synthetic surface water (SW) with and without two different model organic molecules, 2,3- and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) mimicking certain sorption sites of humic substances, for time periods up to 22 days. The WC-Co NPs possessed a higher electrochemical and chemical reactivity in SW with and without DHBA molecules as compared with NPs of WC, Co, and Cu. Co was completely released from the WC-Co NPs within a few hours of exposure, although it remained adsorbed/bonded to the particle surface and enabled the adsorption of negatively charged DHBA molecules, in contrast with the WC NPs (no adsorption of DHBA). The DHBA molecules were found to rapidly adsorb on the Co and Cu NPs. The sedimentation of the WC and WC-Co NPs was not influenced by the presence of the 2,3- or 3,4-DHBA molecules. A slight influence (slower sedimentation) was observed for the Co NPs, and a strong influence (slower sedimentation) was observed for the Cu NPs in SW with 2,3-DHBA compared with SW alone. The extent of metal release increased in the order: WC WC-Co NPs. All NPs released more than 1 wt-% of their metal total mass. The release from the Cu NPs was most influenced by the presence of DHBA molecules. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  6. Origins of discontinuous grain growth during liquid phase sintering of WC-Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, M.; Schmitt, T.; Lux, B.; Lassner, E.

    1984-07-01

    The origins of discontinuous grain growth of fine grained WC powders (about 1 ..mu..m average grain size) with Co binder occurring during liquid phase sintering were studied. The results indicate that small amounts of coarse grained WC powder added to fine grained WC-Co mixtures, which otherwise do not show local grain coarsening during liquid phase sintering, produce enhanced local grain growth of the WC crystals. Effects of milling conditions and sintering temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties, such as transverse rupture strength and hardness, were determined. As already observed in previous studies trace elements in blue oxide can have an important effect on the average grain size and grain size distribution of the WC-powder. Also the considerable influence on the sintering behaviour of such powders described here can be traced back to such impurities. It is shown that phosphorus decreases the melting temperature of the WC-Co system and a heterogeneous distribution of it promotes discontinuous grain growth. Contrary to this, carbon heterogeneities in fine grained WC powders did not cause any discontinuous grain growth at all.

  7. In vitro inflammatory effects of hard metal (WC-Co) nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Andrea L; Li, Bingyun

    Identifying the toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) is an important area of research as the number of nanomaterial-based consumer and industrial products continually rises. In addition, the potential inflammatory effects resulting from pulmonary NP exposure are emerging as an important aspect of nanotoxicity. In this study, the toxicity and inflammatory state resulting from tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) NP exposure in macrophages and a coculture (CC) of lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and macrophages (THP-1) at a 3:1 ratio were examined. It was found that the toxicity of nano-WC-Co was cell dependent; significantly less toxicity was observed in THP-1 cells compared to BEAS-2B cells. It was demonstrated that nano-WC-Co caused reduced toxicity in the CC model compared to lung epithelial cell monoculture, which suggested that macrophages may play a protective role against nano-WC-Co-mediated toxicity in CCs. Nano-WC-Co exposure in macrophages resulted in increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-12 secretion and decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). In addition, the polarizing effects of nano-WC-Co exposure toward the M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) macrophage phenotypes were investigated. The results of this study indicated that nano-WC-Co exposure stimulated the M1 phenotype, marked by high expression of CD40 M1 macrophage surface markers.

  8. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The lecture series will address physicists, such as particle and nuclear physicists, familiar with non-relativistic quantum mechanics but not with solid state physics. The aim of this introduction to low temperature superconductivity is to give sufficient bases to the student for him/her to be able to access the scientific literature on this field. The five lectures will cover the following topics : 1. Normal metals, free electron gas, chambers equation. 2. Cooper pairs, the BCS ground state, quasi particle excitations. 3. DC superconductivity, Meissner state, dirty superconductors.4. Self consistent approach, Ginsburg Landau equations, Abrikosov fluxon lattice. 5. Josephson effects, high temperature superconductivity.

  9. Superconducting tin core fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-11-13

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  10. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  11. The chronicle of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassalo, J.M.F.

    1981-01-01

    The chronicle of the superconductivity is shown, since the first observation made of Kamerlingh-Onnes, in the begining of our century about superconductivity effects, by describing several models and theories made by the physicists, by trying to explain the phenomenons referred about supercurrent, up to the modern BCS Theory. Our fundamental purpose rather than to make a historical-philosophical evolution about the superconductivity is only to make a sequence as who made what, when and how, by using the Solla-Price meaning. (Author) [pt

  12. Superconductivity in doped insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ''bad metals'', with such a poor conductivity that the usual meanfield theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. It is argued that the supression of a first order phase transition (phase separation) by the long-range Coulomb interaction leads to high temperature superconductivity accompanied by static or dynamical charge inhomogeneIty. Evidence in support of this picture for high temperature superconductors is described

  13. Superconducting materials and magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Superconducting Materials and Magnets was convened by the IAEA and held by invitation of the Japanese government on September 4-6, 1989 in Tokyo. The meeting was hosted by the National Research Institute for Metals. Topics of the conference related to superconducting magnets and technology with particular application to fusion and the superconducting supercollider. Technology using both high and low-temperature superconductors was discussed. This document is a compendium of the papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  15. Ultrafine WC-Ni cemented carbides fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong Huiyong [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences at Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng Zhijian, E-mail: pengzhijian@cugb.edu.cn [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences at Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ren Xiaoyong; Peng Ying; Wang Chengbiao; Fu Zhiqiang [School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences at Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Qi Longhao; Miao Hezhuo [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrafine WC-Ni cemented carbides with average WC grain size of about 330 nm prepared by combination of sparking plasma sintering and grain growth inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very short mean free path of about 22 nm for crack in metal binder of the obtained materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher hardness than those of WC-Co cemented carbide counterparts sintered by rapid sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Observation of fracture along metal binder and no carbon-carbon fracture face. - Abstract: With VC and TaC as WC grain growth inhibitors, ultrafine WC-Ni cemented carbides with different fractions (6-10 wt%) of binder metal nickel were fabricated by utilizing high energy milling together with spark plasma sintering. In the obtained samples, only WC and Ni phases were detected in X-ray diffraction limit. The microstructure of the specimens was examined on fractural, polished, and polished/etched surfaces by scanning electron microscopy, and the results revealed that the average WC grain size of the WC-Ni cemented carbides was about 330 nm, and there were lots of micro-pores in the samples. The relative density of the samples was all higher than 92%. But the measurement of hardness and flexural strength indicated that the existence of micro-pores had no significant influence on the performance of the obtained materials. On the basis of observation on the micro-fracture surface of the samples, it was found that fractures occurred along the binder metal, and the obtained ultrafine WC-Ni cemented carbides showed a very short binder mean free path (about 22 nm), thus resulting in excellent performance in mechanical strength.

  16. Friction and wear characteristics of ceramic nanocomposite coatings: Titanium carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D. M.; Feng, B.; Meng, W. J.; Rehn, L. E.; Baldo, P. M.; Khonsari, M. M.

    2001-07-16

    Friction and wear characteristics of titanium-containing amorphous hydrocarbon (Ti--C:H) coatings were measured during unlubricated sliding against WC--Co. These Ti--C:H coatings consist of nanocrystalline TiC clusters embedded in an amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) matrix, i.e., they are TiC/a-C:H nanocomposites. The elastic modulus and hardness of the coatings exhibit smooth variations with increasing Ti composition. In contrast, a relatively abrupt transition occurs in the friction coefficient and wear rate of the coatings over a relatively narrow (20--30 at. %) Ti composition range. Our results reveal bimodal friction and wear behaviors for the TiC/a-C:H nanocomposites, a-C:H like at Ti compositions below 20%, and TiC like at Ti compositions above 30%. The two different wear mechanisms that operate as the volume fraction of nanocrystalline TiC clusters changes are discussed.

  17. Friction and wear characteristics of ceramic nanocomposite coatings: Titanium carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, D. M.; Feng, B.; Meng, W. J.; Rehn, L. E.; Baldo, P. M.; Khonsari, M. M.

    2001-07-01

    Friction and wear characteristics of titanium-containing amorphous hydrocarbon (Ti-C:H) coatings were measured during unlubricated sliding against WC-Co. These Ti-C:H coatings consist of nanocrystalline TiC clusters embedded in an amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) matrix, i.e., they are TiC/a-C:H nanocomposites. The elastic modulus and hardness of the coatings exhibit smooth variations with increasing Ti composition. In contrast, a relatively abrupt transition occurs in the friction coefficient and wear rate of the coatings over a relatively narrow (20-30 at. %) Ti composition range. Our results reveal bimodal friction and wear behaviors for the TiC/a-C:H nanocomposites, a-C:H like at Ti compositions below 20%, and TiC like at Ti compositions above 30%. The two different wear mechanisms that operate as the volume fraction of nanocrystalline TiC clusters changes are discussed.

  18. Amorphous Gyroscopic Topological Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Noah P.; Nash, Lisa M.; Hexner, Daniel; Turner, Ari M.; Irvine, William T. M.

    Mechanical topological metamaterials display striking mechanical responses, such as unidirectional surface modes that are impervious to disorder. This behavior arises from the topology of their vibrational spectra. All examples of topological metamaterials to date are finely-tuned structures such as crystalline lattices or jammed packings. Here, we present robust recipes for building amorphous topological metamaterials with arbitrary underlying structure and no long-range order. Using interacting gyroscopes as a model system, we demonstrate through experiment, simulation, and theoretical methods that the local geometry and interactions are sufficient to generate topological mobility gaps, allowing for spatially-resolved, real-space calculations of the Chern number. The robustness of our approach enables the design and self-assembly of non-crystalline materials with protected, unidirectional waveguides on the micro and macro scale.

  19. Superconducting Technology Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This Superconducting Technology Assessment (STA) has been conducted by the National Security Agency to address the fundamental question of a potential replacement for silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS...

  20. Superconductivity and its devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    Among the more important developments that are discussed are cryotrons, superconducting motors and generators, and high-field magnets. Cryotrons will create faster and more economical computer systems. Superconducting motors and generators will cost much less to build than conventional electric generators and cut fuel consumption. Moreover, high-field magnets are being used to confine plasma in connection with nuclear fusion. Superconductors have a vital role to play in all of these developments. Most importantly, though, are the magnetic properties of superconductivity. Superconducting magnets are an integral part of nuclear fusion. In addition, high-field magnets are necessary in the use of accelerators, which are needed to study the interactions between elementary particles

  1. Superconductivity: Heike's heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, D.; Golden, M.

    2011-01-01

    A century ago, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity. And yet, despite the conventional superconductors being understood, the list of unconventional superconductors is growing — for which unconventional theories may be required.

  2. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    magnetic and superconducting nanowires. Using different approaches entailing measurements on both single wires and arrays, numerous interesting physical properties have been identified in relation to the nanoscopic dimensions of these materials. Finally, various novel applications of the nanowires are also...

  3. Industrial applied superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabrie, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the main applications of superconductivity in D.C. in variable current and in A.C. The existing markets are now worth the effort of producing commercial superconductors and of developing applications [fr

  4. Superconductivity fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckel, Werner

    2004-01-01

    This is the second English edition of what has become one of the definitive works on superconductivity in German -- currently in its sixth edition. Comprehensive and easy to understand, this introductory text is written especially with the non-specialist in mind. The authors, both long-term experts in this field, present the fundamental considerations without the need for extensive mathematics, describing the various phenomena connected with the superconducting state, with liberal insertion of experimental facts and examples for modern applications. While all fields of superconducting phenomena are dealt with in detail, this new edition pays particular attention to the groundbreaking discovery of magnesium diboride and the current developments in this field. In addition, a new chapter provides an overview of the elements, alloys and compounds where superconductivity has been observed in experiments, together with their major characteristics. The chapter on technical applications has been considerably expanded...

  5. HRTEM and Nanoindentation Studies of Bulk WC Nanocrystalline Materials Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering of Ball-Milled Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif El-Eskandarany, M.; Al-Hazza, Abdulsalam; Al-Hajji, L. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, mechanical milling technique using a high-energy ball mill was employed for preparing of nanoscaled WC grains powders with an average grain size of 7 nm in diameters of WC. The present study demonstrates a successful consolidation process achieved at 1250 °C for sintering of ball-milled WC powders into full dense bulk buttons (above 99.6%), using SPS technique. The as-consolidated WC bulk nanocrystalline buttons revealed high hardness value ( 24 GPa) with low elastic modulus ( 332 GPa). Moreover, they possessed a high fracture toughness (15 MPa m1/2) that has never been reported for pure WC.

  6. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Yunying Pan; Danhzen Gu

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends ...

  7. Superconducting Fullerene Nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized superconducting fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs by potassium (K intercalation. They showed large superconducting volume fractions, as high as 80%. The superconducting transition temperature at 17 K was independent of the K content (x in the range between 1.6 and 6.0 in K-doped C60 nanowhiskers (KxC60NWs, while the superconducting volume fractions changed with x. The highest shielding fraction of a full shielding volume was observed in the material of K3.3C60NW by heating at 200 °C. On the other hand, that of a K-doped fullerene (K-C60 crystal was less than 1%. We report the superconducting behaviors of our newly synthesized KxC60NWs in comparison to those of KxC60 crystals, which show superconductivity at 19 K in K3C60. The lattice structures are also discussed, based on the x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses.

  8. Electron pairing without superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jeremy

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is the first and best known superconducting semiconductor. It exhibits an extremely low carrier density threshold for superconductivity, and possesses a phase diagram similar to that of high-temperature superconductors--two factors that suggest an unconventional pairing mechanism. Despite sustained interest for 50 years, direct experimental insight into the nature of electron pairing in SrTiO3 has remained elusive. Here we perform transport experiments with nanowire-based single-electron transistors at the interface between SrTiO3 and a thin layer of lanthanum aluminate, LaAlO3. Electrostatic gating reveals a series of two-electron conductance resonances--paired electron states--that bifurcate above a critical pairing field Bp of about 1-4 tesla, an order of magnitude larger than the superconducting critical magnetic field. For magnetic fields below Bp, these resonances are insensitive to the applied magnetic field; for fields in excess of Bp, the resonances exhibit a linear Zeeman-like energy splitting. Electron pairing is stable at temperatures as high as 900 millikelvin, well above the superconducting transition temperature (about 300 millikelvin). These experiments demonstrate the existence of a robust electronic phase in which electrons pair without forming a superconducting state. Key experimental signatures are captured by a model involving an attractive Hubbard interaction that describes real-space electron pairing as a precursor to superconductivity. Support from AFOSR, ONR, ARO, NSF, DOE and NSSEFF is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Emergent Higgsless Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Diamantini M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalizable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D-1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact lowenergy effective BF theories. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D thi! s type of superconductivity is explicitly realized as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

  10. Effects of Rare Earth Elements on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of HVOF-Sprayed WC-Co Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Gou, Guoqing; Wang, Xiaomin; Jia, Qiang; Chen, Hui; Tu, Mingjing

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth has been widely used in materials manufacturing to improve hardness and toughness. In this paper, conventional, nanostructured, and rare earth CeO2-doped WC-12Co powders were sprayed by using HVOF spraying technology. Microstructure, hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness of the three coatings were investigated. The results showed that nanostructured WC-12Co coatings possessed the densest microstructure and excellent combination of strength and toughness. The WC particles with the size ranging from 50 to 500 nm distributed uniformly in the nanostructured WC-12Co coating. The average free path of Co matrix in rare earth-doped WC-12Co coating was shorter than that of conventional WC-12Co coating. XRD results showed no obvious decarburization in all three coatings. The addition of rare earth could improve the mechanical properties of the coating compared with that without rare earth. The hardness value of nanostructured WC-12Co coating (12.2 GPa) was similar to that of rare earth-doped WC-12Co coating (12.2 GPa), which was 15.1% higher than that of conventional WC-12Co coating. The elastic modulus and fracture toughness of nanostructured WC-12Co coating were the highest, and that of conventional WC-12Co coating was the lowest.

  11. Effects of ion implantation on the abrasive wear of WC-Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci Luyckx, S.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1988-01-01

    An explanation of the improved abrasive wear resistance of ion-implanted WC-Co components has been sought. X-ray analysis is reported of scratches produced on polished implanted and non-implanted WC-Co surfaces by a single pass scratch test. It can be inferred from the results that extrusion of cobalt from a WC-Co surface under the stress of an abrading diamond is easier in the non-implanted than in the implanted case; this is the first stage of the abrasion wear process. Transmission electron diffraction of a WC-Co foil, before and after implantation by nitrogen ions, indicated the formation of Co 2 N microprecipitates during implantation. Precipitation hardening, hindering cobalt extrusion, is offered therefore as the explanation of the improved service life of the components. (U.K.)

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of WC-Ni-Al based cemented carbides developed for engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Edmilson O.; Santos, Julio N. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Minas Gerais (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica; Klein, Aloisio N. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-11-15

    In this paper the influence of the Ni binder metal and Al as an additional alloying element on the microstructure and mechanical properties of WC-based cemented carbides processed by conventional powder metallurgy was studied. Microstructural examinations of the cemented carbides with 3 and 5 wt.% of Al in the binder metal indicated the presence of a very low and evenly distributed porosity as well as the presence of islands of metal binder in the microstructure. With the cemented carbide with 7 wt.% of Al in the metal binder, the presence of brittle needle-like regions was observed. The WC particles inside these regions were rounded and had a larger mean free path. Vickers hardness and flexural strength tests indicated that the cemented carbide WC-Ni - Al with addition of 5 wt.% of Al in the binder metal presented bulk hardness similar to the conventional WC-Co cemented carbides as well as superior flexure strength and fracture toughness. (orig.)

  13. Grain boundary character distributions of coincidence site lattice boundaries in WC-Co composites with different WC grain sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaokun, E-mail: yuanxiaokun@bjut.edu.cn

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •GBCDs of two kinds of CSL boundaries in cemented carbides are examined. •Carbide mean grain size is determinant in controlling the populations of CSL boundaries. •Rapid decrease of sigma2 boundaries occurs at higher speed than the coarsening of carbide grains. -- Abstract: The grain boundary character distributions of sigma2 and sigma13 boundaries were investigated in cemented carbide samples with different carbide grain sizes. Samples were prepared with average carbide grain sizes of about 0.5 μm, 1 μm and 2 μm, respectively. The electron backscattered diffraction measurements show that with the increase of the carbide grain size, populations of both sigma2 and sigma13 boundaries decrease; in the meantime, the sigma2 twist and sigma13 twist boundaries keep as the most common boundary types. The results suggest that the carbide grain size could be determinant in controlling the populations of coincidence site lattice boundaries in WC-Co composites.

  14. Grinding-induced metallurgical alterations in the binder phase of WC-Co cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jing; Roa Rovira, Joan Josep; Schwind, Martin; Odén, M.; Johansonn Joesaar, M. P.; Llanes Pitarch, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The metallic binder phase dictates the toughening behavior of WC-Co cemented carbides (hardmetals), even though it occupies a relative small fraction of the composite. Studies on deformation and phase transformation of the binder constituent are scarce. Grinding represents a key manufacturing step in machining of hardmetal tools, and is well-recognized to induce surface integrity alterations. In this work, metallurgical alterations of the binder phase in ground WC-Co cemented carbides have be...

  15. WC grain growth during sintering of cemented carbides : Experiments and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Mannesson, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Cemented carbides are composite materials consisting of a hard carbide and a ductile binder. They are powdermetallurgically manufactured, where liquid-phase sintering is one of the main steps. The most common cemented carbide consists of WC and Co and it is widely used for cutting tools. Two of the most important factors controlling the mechanical properties are the WC grain size and the grain size distribution and thus it is of great interest to understand the grain growth behavior. In this ...

  16. Review on Sintering Process of WC-Co Cemented Carbide in Metal Injection Molding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathabrao, M.; Amin, Sri Yulis M.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview on sintering process of WC-Co cemented carbides in metal injection molding technology. Metal injection molding is an advanced and promising technology in producing cemented nanostructured carbides. Cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) hard metal is known for its high hardness and wear resistance in various applications. Moreover, areas include fine grained materials, alternative binders, and alternative sintering techniques has been discussed in this paper.

  17. Kinetically Controlled Two-Step Amorphization and Amorphous-Amorphous Transition in Ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Yong, Xue; Tse, John S.; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of in situ structural characterization of the amorphization of crystalline ice Ih under compression and the relaxation of high-density amorphous (HDA) ice under decompression at temperatures between 96 and 160 K by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The results show that ice Ih transforms to an intermediate crystalline phase at 100 K prior to complete amorphization, which is supported by molecular dynamics calculations. The phase transition pathways show clear temperature dependence: direct amorphization without an intermediate phase is observed at 133 K, while at 145 K a direct Ih-to-IX transformation is observed; decompression of HDA shows a transition to low-density amorphous ice at 96 K and ~ 1 Pa , to ice Ic at 135 K and to ice IX at 145 K. These observations show that the amorphization of compressed ice Ih and the recrystallization of decompressed HDA are strongly dependent on temperature and controlled by kinetic barriers. Pressure-induced amorphous ice is an intermediate state in the phase transition from the connected H-bond water network in low pressure ices to the independent and interpenetrating H-bond network of high-pressure ices.

  18. Nanotoxicity: emerging concerns regarding nanomaterial safety and occupational hard metal (WC-Co) nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Andrea L; Li, Bingyun

    As the number of commercial and consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) continually rises, the increased use and production of these ENMs presents an important toxicological concern. Although ENMs offer a number of advantages over traditional materials, their extremely small size and associated characteristics may also greatly enhance their toxic potentials. ENM exposure can occur in various consumer and industrial settings through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal routes. Although the importance of accurate ENM characterization, effective dosage metrics, and selection of appropriate cell or animal-based models are universally agreed upon as important factors in ENM research, at present, there is no "standardized" approach used to assess ENM toxicity in the research community. Of particular interest is occupational exposure to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) "dusts," composed of nano- and micro-sized particles, in hard metal manufacturing facilities and mining and drilling industries. Inhalation of WC-Co dust is known to cause "hard metal lung disease" and an increased risk of lung cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying WC-Co toxicity, the inflammatory disease state and progression to cancer are poorly understood. Herein, a discussion of ENM toxicity is followed by a review of the known literature regarding the effects of WC-Co particle exposure. The risk of WC-Co exposure in occupational settings and the updates of in vitro and in vivo studies of both micro- and nano-WC-Co particles are discussed.

  19. Phase composition and microstructure of WC-Co alloys obtained by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmyrov, Roman S.; Shevchukov, Alexandr P.; Gusarov, Andrey V.; Tarasova, Tatyana V.

    2018-03-01

    Phase composition and microstructure of initial WC, BK8 (powder alloy 92 wt.% WC-8 wt.% Co), Co powders, ball-milled powders with four different compositions (1) 25 wt.% WC-75 wt.% Co, (2) 30 wt.% BK8-70 wt.% Co, (3) 50 wt.% WC-50 wt.% Co, (4) 94 wt.% WC-6 wt.% Co, and bulk alloys obtained by selective laser melting (SLM) from as-milled powders in as-melted state and after heat treatment were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Initial and ball-milled powders consist of WC, hexagonal α-Co and face-centered cubic β-Co. The SLM leads to the formation of major new phases W3Co3C, W4Co2C and face-centered cubic β-Co-based solid solution. During the heat treatment, there occurs partial decomposition of the face-centered cubic β-Co-based solid solution with the formation of W2C and hexagonal α-Co solid solution. The microstructure of obtained bulk samples, in general, corresponds to the observed phase composition.

  20. Obtaining Crack-free WC-Co Alloys by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmyrov, R. S.; Safronov, V. A.; Gusarov, A. V.

    Standard hardmetals of WC-Co system are brittle and often crack at selective laser melting (SLM). The objective of this study is to estimate the range of WC/Co ratio where cracking can be avoided. Micron-sized Co powder was mixed with WC nanopowder in a ball mill to obtain uniform distribution of WC over the surface of Co particles. Continuous layers of remelted material on the surface of a hardmetal plate were obtained from this composite powder by SLM at 1.07μm wavelength. The layers have satisfactory porosity and are well bound to the substrate. The chemical composition of the layers matches the composition of the initial powder mixtures. The powder mixture with 25wt.%WC can be used for SLM to obtain materials without cracks. The powder mixture with 50wt.%WC cracks because of formation of brittle W3Co3C phase. Cracking can considerably reduce the mechanical strength, so that the use of this composition is not advised.

  1. Study on grain growth of fine grained WC-Co hardmetal by numerical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, N. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Hayashi, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of industrial Science

    2000-12-15

    This paper reviews our simulation study by numerical calculation based on two-, three- and multi-grain-size models on WC grain growth in fine grained WC-Co hardmetal doped with VC. The study aimed to presume or predict the following: (1) the cause and conditions for the abnormal grain growth which occurs in some cases in the fine grained hardmetal prepared from fine WC powders with mean grain size below about 0.2{mu}m, and (2) how the mean grain size of the hardmetal varies with decreasing mean grain size of the WC starting powder to 0.1 pm or nano-meter size. The calculation results by these three kinds of models suggested the following, respectively: (1) the occurrence of the abnormal grain growth is generally substantial for WC starting powder with bimodal size-distribution and mean gram size below 0.1 - 0.2{mu}m, and not due to the non-uniform distribution of the grain growth inhibitor, (2) the introduction of middle grains caused the disappearance of small (fine) grains during sintering, leading to abruptly increase of the mean grain size of alloy, and (3) the mean grain size of alloy becomes so large as about 0.3 - 0.4{mu}m, even when the WC starting powders with nano-size as well as 0.1 {mu}m are used. (author)

  2. Nanotoxicity: emerging concerns regarding nanomaterial safety and occupational hard metal (WC-Co) nanoparticle exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Andrea L; Li, Bingyun

    2016-01-01

    As the number of commercial and consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) continually rises, the increased use and production of these ENMs presents an important toxicological concern. Although ENMs offer a number of advantages over traditional materials, their extremely small size and associated characteristics may also greatly enhance their toxic potentials. ENM exposure can occur in various consumer and industrial settings through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal routes. Although the importance of accurate ENM characterization, effective dosage metrics, and selection of appropriate cell or animal-based models are universally agreed upon as important factors in ENM research, at present, there is no “standardized” approach used to assess ENM toxicity in the research community. Of particular interest is occupational exposure to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) “dusts,” composed of nano- and micro-sized particles, in hard metal manufacturing facilities and mining and drilling industries. Inhalation of WC-Co dust is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” and an increased risk of lung cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying WC-Co toxicity, the inflammatory disease state and progression to cancer are poorly understood. Herein, a discussion of ENM toxicity is followed by a review of the known literature regarding the effects of WC-Co particle exposure. The risk of WC-Co exposure in occupational settings and the updates of in vitro and in vivo studies of both micro- and nano-WC-Co particles are discussed. PMID:27942214

  3. Structural morphology of amorphous conducting carbon film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    been found to be having a lot of technological applica- tions. The properties of these amorphous carbons sensi- tively depend on the relative concentration of sp3 and sp2 hybridized carbons. The resulting amorphous materials are variously referred to as tetrahedral amorphous carbon. (ta-C), amorphous carbon (a-C), ...

  4. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New...... formulation principles are needed to ensure the stability of amorphous drug forms. The formation of solid dispersions is still the most investigated approach, but additional approaches are desirable to overcome the shortcomings of solid dispersions. Spatial separation by either coating or the use of micro......-containers has shown potential to prevent or delay recrystallization. Another recent approach is the formation of co-amorphous mixtures between either two drugs or one drug and one low molecular weight excipient. Molecular interactions between the two molecules provide an energy barrier that has to be overcome...

  5. Diamond amorphization in neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaenko, V.A.; Gordeev, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results on neutron irradiation of the diamond in a nuclear reactor. It is shown that the neutron irradiation stimulates the diamond transition to the amorphous state. At a temperature below 750 o K the time required for the diamond-graphite transition decreases with decreasing irradiation temperature. On the contrary, in irradiation at higher temperatures the time of diamond conversion into the amorphous state increases with decreasing but always remains shorter than in the absence of irradiation. (author)

  6. 4. MESOSCOPIC SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: Some signatures of quantum chaos on dirty superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, F.

    2001-10-01

    The Anderson theory of dirty superconductivity was established a few years after the discovery of the BCS wave function. Disregarding the rich properties in the one-particle energy spectrum in dirty limit, the theory claimed that the ground state condensate is translationally invariant and free from Toulouse type of frustrations. This theory also set down the foundation of dirty superconductivity in the presence of external fields. In this talk, I demonstrate the failure of the Anderson theory in amorphous superconducting films in general and its connection with Wigner-Dyson surmise. I will discuss the Chandrasekar-Glogston limit in which the nodes in one-particle wave functions are shown to result in a novel superconducting glass phase. I will also discuss why nature has tolerated the failure.

  7. Gene number determination and genetic polymorphism of the gamma delta T cell co-receptor WC1 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chuang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WC1 co-receptors belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR superfamily and are encoded by a multi-gene family. Expression of particular WC1 genes defines functional subpopulations of WC1+ γδ T cells. We have previously identified partial or complete genomic sequences for thirteen different WC1 genes through annotation of the bovine genome Btau_3.1 build. We also identified two WC1 cDNA sequences from other cattle that did not correspond to sequences in the Btau_3.1 build. Their absence in the Btau_3.1 build may have reflected gaps in the genome assembly or polymorphisms among animals. Since the response of γδ T cells to bacterial challenge is determined by WC1 gene expression, it was critical to understand whether individual cattle or breeds differ in the number of WC1 genes or display polymorphisms. Results Real-time quantitative PCR using DNA from the animal whose genome was sequenced (“Dominette” and sixteen other animals representing ten breeds of cattle, showed that the number of genes coding for WC1 co-receptors is thirteen. The complete coding sequences of those thirteen WC1 genes is presented, including the correction of an error in the WC1-2 gene due to mis-assembly in the Btau_3.1 build. All other cDNA sequences were found to agree with the previous annotation of complete or partial WC1 genes. PCR amplification and sequencing of the most variable N-terminal SRCR domain (domain 1 which has the SRCR “a” pattern of each of the thirteen WC1 genes showed that the sequences are highly conserved among individuals and breeds. Of 160 sequences of domain 1 from three breeds of cattle, no additional sequences beyond the thirteen described WC1 genes were found. Analysis of the complete WC1 cDNA sequences indicated that the thirteen WC1 genes code for three distinct WC1 molecular forms. Conclusion The bovine WC1 multi-gene family is composed of thirteen genes coding for three structural forms whose

  8. Superconductivity transformers in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, L.; Bocchi, M.; De Nigris, M.; Morandi, A.; Trevisan, L.; Fabbri, M.; Ribani, P.; Negrini, F.

    2008-01-01

    Transformers in superconducting materials at high temperatures offer many advantages in economic, environmental and functional aspects, compared to traditional transformers. Are presented the potentials of superconducting transformers available, aspects of design and the international state of the art [it

  9. Superconducting state mechanisms and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kresin, Vladimir Z; Wolf, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    'Superconducting State' provides a very detailed theoretical treatment of the key mechanisms of superconductivity, including the current state of the art (phonons, magnons, and plasmons). A very complete description is given of the electron-phonon mechanism responsible for superconductivity in the majority of superconducting systems, and the history of its development, as well as a detailed description of the key experimental techniques used to study the superconducting state and determine the mechanisms. In addition, there are chapters describing the discovery and properties of the key superconducting compounds that are of the most interest for science, and applications including a special chapter on the cuprate superconductors. It provides detailed treatments of some very novel aspects of superconductivity, including multiple bands (gaps), the "pseudogap" state, novel isotope effects beyond BCS, and induced superconductivity.

  10. Fullerides - Superconductivity at the limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    The successful synthesis of highly crystalline Cs3C60, exhibiting superconductivity up to a record temperature for fullerides of 38 K, demonstrates a powerful synthetic route for investigating the origin of superconductivity in this class of materials.

  11. Rf superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, W.H.; Passow, C.

    1975-01-01

    Topics discussed include (1) the theory of superconductors in high-frequency fields (London surface impedance, anomalous normal surface resistance, pippard nonlocal theory, quantum mechanical model, superconductor parameters, quantum mechanical calculation techniques for the surface, impedance, and experimental verification of surface impedance theories); (2) residual resistance (separation of losses, magnetic field effects, surface resistance of imperfect and impure conductors, residual loss due to acoustic coupling, losses from nonideal surfaces, high magnetic field losses, field emission, and nonlinear effects); (3) design and performance of superconducting devices (design considerations, materials and fabrication techniques, measurement of performance, and frequency stability); (4) devices for particle acceleration and deflection (advantages and problems of using superconductors, accelerators for fast particles, accelerators for particles with slow velocities, beam optical devices separators, and applications and projects under way); (5) applications of low-power superconducting resonators (superconducting filters and tuners, oscillators and detectors, mixers and amplifiers, antennas and output tanks, superconducting resonators for materials research, and radiation detection with loaded superconducting resonators); and (6) transmission and delay lines

  12. Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gufei; Samuely, Tomas; Xu, Zheng; Jochum, Johanna K; Volodin, Alexander; Zhou, Shengqiang; May, Paul W; Onufriienko, Oleksandr; Kačmarčík, Jozef; Steele, Julian A; Li, Jun; Vanacken, Johan; Vacík, Jiri; Szabó, Pavol; Yuan, Haifeng; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Cerbu, Dorin; Samuely, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2017-06-27

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are two mutually antagonistic states in condensed matter. Research on the interplay between these two competing orderings sheds light not only on the cause of various quantum phenomena in strongly correlated systems but also on the general mechanism of superconductivity. Here we report on the observation of the electronic entanglement between superconducting and ferromagnetic states in hydrogenated boron-doped nanodiamond films, which have a superconducting transition temperature T c ∼ 3 K and a Curie temperature T Curie > 400 K. In spite of the high T Curie , our nanodiamond films demonstrate a decrease in the temperature dependence of magnetization below 100 K, in correspondence to an increase in the temperature dependence of resistivity. These anomalous magnetic and electrical transport properties reveal the presence of an intriguing precursor phase, in which spin fluctuations intervene as a result of the interplay between the two antagonistic states. Furthermore, the observations of high-temperature ferromagnetism, giant positive magnetoresistance, and anomalous Hall effect bring attention to the potential applications of our superconducting ferromagnetic nanodiamond films in magnetoelectronics, spintronics, and magnetic field sensing.

  13. Evaluation of the apoptogenic potential of hard metal dust (WC-Co), tungsten carbide and metallic cobalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombaert, Noömi; De Boeck, Marlies; Decordier, Ilse; Cundari, Enrico; Lison, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2004-12-01

    The present study aimed at comparing in vitro the apoptogenic properties of metallic cobalt (Co), tungsten carbide (WC) and tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) in conditions known to cause genotoxicity. Human peripheral blood mononucleated cells were incubated with 2.0-6.0 microg/ml of Co alone or mixed with WC particles and 33.3-100.0 microg/ml WC alone for up to 24 h. Under these culture conditions the majority (60%) of the cobalt metal particles were almost immediately solubilised in the culture medium, while WC remained under the form of particles that were progressively phagocytosed by monocytes. Apoptosis was assessed by Annexin-V staining, flow cytometry and analysis of DNA fragmentation by ELISA. Metallic Co-particles induced apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, although so far considered as biologically inert, WC particles also induced apoptosis. When compared with its individual components WC-Co displayed an additive apoptotic effect in the DNA fragmentation assay. Apoptosis induced by WC particles was found largely dependent on caspase-9 activation and occurred presumably in monocytes, while that induced by Co involved both caspase-9 and -8 activation. The data suggest that apoptosis induced by the tested WC-Co mixture results from the additive effects of WC apoptosis induced in monocytes and Co-specific apoptosis in both monocytes and lymphocytes. The apoptogenic properties of these metals may be important in the mechanism of lung pathologies induced by the cobalt-containing particles.

  14. Thickness-modulated tungsten-carbon superconducting nanostructures grown by focused ion beam induced deposition for vortex pinning up to high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Ismael García; Sesé, Javier; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann; Vieira, Sebastián; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo; De Teresa, José María

    2016-01-01

    We report efficient vortex pinning in thickness-modulated tungsten-carbon-based (W-C) nanostructures grown by focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). By using FIBID, W-C superconducting films have been created with thickness modulation properties exhibiting periodicity from 60 to 140 nm, leading to a strong pinning potential for the vortex lattice. This produces local minima in the resistivity up to high magnetic fields (2.2 T) in a broad temperature range due to commensurability effects between the pinning potential and the vortex lattice. The results show that the combination of single-step FIBID fabrication of superconducting nanostructures with built-in artificial pinning landscapes and the small intrinsic random pinning potential of this material produces strong periodic pinning potentials, maximizing the opportunities for the investigation of fundamental aspects in vortex science under changing external stimuli (e.g., temperature, magnetic field, electrical current).

  15. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  16. Superconductive Signal-Processing Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    September 1991. 13. P. H. Xiao, E. Charbon , A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, T. Van Duzer,and S.W. Whiteley, "INDEX: An inductance extractor for superconducting...APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 3, ,Q I, MARCH 1993 2629 INDEX: An Inductance Extractor for Superconducting Circuits P. H. Xiao, E. Charbon , A

  17. Interface high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-12-01

    Cuprate high-temperature superconductors consist of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) substructures: CuO2 superconducting layers and charge reservoir layers. The superconductivity is realized by charge transfer from the charge reservoir layers into the superconducting layers without chemical dopants and defects being introduced into the latter, similar to modulation-doping in the semiconductor superlattices of AlGaAs/GaAs. Inspired by this scheme, we have been searching for high-temperature superconductivity in ultra-thin films of superconductors epitaxially grown on semiconductor/oxide substrates since 2008. We have observed interface-enhanced superconductivity in both conventional and unconventional superconducting films, including single atomic layer films of Pb and In on Si substrates and single unit cell (UC) films of FeSe on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with a superconducting gap of ∼20 meV in 1UC-FeSe/STO has stimulated tremendous interest in the superconductivity community, for it opens a new avenue for both raising superconducting transition temperature and understanding the pairing mechanism of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review mainly the experimental progress on interface-enhanced superconductivity in the three systems mentioned above with emphasis on 1UC-FeSe/STO, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport experiments. We discuss the roles of interfaces and a possible pairing mechanism inferred from these studies.

  18. Nonlinear terahertz superconducting plasmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jingbo; Liang, Lanju; Jin, Biaobing, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics (RISE), School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Caihong; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Tonouchi, Masayoshi, E-mail: bbjin@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: tonouchi@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: phwu@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Huabing [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics (RISE), School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    Nonlinear terahertz (THz) transmission through subwavelength hole array in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) film is experimentally investigated using intense THz pulses. The good agreement between the measurement and numerical simulations indicates that the field strength dependent transmission mainly arises from the nonlinear properties of the superconducting film. Under weak THz pulses, the transmission peak can be tuned over a frequency range of 145 GHz which is attributed to the high kinetic inductance of 50 nm-thick NbN film. Utilizing the THz pump-THz probe spectroscopy, we study the dynamic process of transmission spectra and demonstrate that the transition time of such superconducting plasmonic device is within 5 ps.

  19. Applied Superconductivity Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Energy Efficiency is a worldwide imperative driven by an increasing awareness of the need to conserve valuable natural resources. Superconductivity, the technology which revolutionized non-invasive medical imaging through MRI starting in the 1980’s, is one of the most promising enablers of energy efficiency in the 21st century. From energy efficient supercomputers to power generation, transmission, and storage, the spectrum of applications of superconductivity is broad in its reach and potential. As ASC comes to Charlotte, site of the hall of fame of NASCAR, our theme, “Race to Energy Efficiency,” is intended to inspire the world experts in superconductivity who will converge to Charlotte to present their latest results, exchange information, network, and plan and project the future breakthroughs.

  20. On anyon superconductivity--

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-H.; Wilczek, F.; Witten, E.; Halperin, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the statistical mechanics of a gas of fractional statistics particles in 2 + 1 dimensions. In the case of statistics very close to Fermi statistics (statistical parameter θ = π(1 - 1/n), for large n), the effect of the statistics is a weak attraction. Building upon earlier RPA calculation for the case n = 2, the authors argue that for large n perturbation theory is reliable and exhibits superfluidity (or superconductivity after coupling to electromagnetism). They describe the order parameter for this superconductng phase in terms of spontaneous breaking of commutativity of translations as opposed to the usual pairing order parameters. The vortices of the superconducting anyon gas are charged, and superconducting order parameters of the usual type vanish. They investigate the characteristic P and T violating phenomenology

  1. Connectivity and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The motto of connectivity and superconductivity is that the solutions of the Ginzburg--Landau equations are qualitatively influenced by the topology of the boundaries, as in multiply-connected samples. Special attention is paid to the "zero set", the set of the positions (also known as "quantum vortices") where the order parameter vanishes. The effects considered here usually become important in the regime where the coherence length is of the order of the dimensions of the sample. It takes the intuition of physicists and the awareness of mathematicians to find these new effects. In connectivity and superconductivity, theoretical and experimental physicists are brought together with pure and applied mathematicians to review these surprising results. This volume is intended to serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers in physics or mathematics interested in superconductivity, or in the Schrödinger equation as a limiting case of the Ginzburg--Landau equations.

  2. Superconductivity for mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Masataka

    2007-01-01

    Time-of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy (TOF-MS) with super-conducting detectors has two advantages over MS with conventional ion detectors. First, it is coverage for a very wide range of molecule weight over 1,000,000. Secondly, kinetic energies of accelerated molecules can be measured at impact events one by one. These unique features enable an ultimate detection efficiency of 100% for intact ions and a fragmentation analysis that is critical for top-down proteomics. Superconducting MS is expected to play a role in, for example, the detection of antigen-antibody complexes, which are important for medical diagnosis. In this paper, how superconductivity contributes to MS is described. (author)

  3. Superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider is to be a 20 TeV per beam proton-proton accelerator and collider. Physically the SCC will be 52 miles in circumference and slightly oval in shape. The use of superconducting magnets instead of conventional cuts the circumference from 180 miles to the 52 miles. The operating cost of the SCC per year is estimated to be about $200-250 million. A detailed cost estimate of the project is roughly $3 billion in 1986 dollars. For the big collider ring, the technical cost are dominated by the magnet system. That is why one must focus on the cost and design of the magnets. Presently, the process of site selection is underway. The major R and D efforts concern superconducting dipoles. The magnets use niobium-titanium as a conductor stabilized in a copper matrix. 10 figures

  4. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthik

    2011-12-01

    Silicon Photonics is quickly proving to be a suitable interconnect technology for meeting the future goals of on-chip bandwidth and low power requirements. However, it is not clear how silicon photonics will be integrated into CMOS chips, particularly microprocessors. The issue of integrating photonic circuits into electronic IC fabrication processes to achieve maximum flexibility and minimum complexity and cost is an important one. In order to minimize usage of chip real estate, it will be advantageous to integrate in three-dimensions. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is emerging as a promising material for the 3-D integration of silicon photonics for on-chip optical interconnects. In addition, a-Si:H film can be deposited using CMOS compatible low temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process at any point in the fabrication process allowing maximum flexibility and minimal complexity. In this thesis, we demonstrate a-Si:H as a high performance alternate platform to crystalline silicon, enabling backend integration of optical interconnects in a hybrid photonic-electronic network-on-chip architecture. High quality passive devices are fabricated on a low-loss a-Si:H platform enabling wavelength division multiplexing schemes. We demonstrate a broadband all-optical modulation scheme based on free-carrier absorption effect, which can enable compact electro-optic modulators in a-Si:H. Furthermore, we comprehensively characterize the optical nonlinearities in a-Si:H and observe that a-Si:H exhibits enhanced nonlinearities as compared to crystalline silicon. Based on the enhanced nonlinearities, we demonstrate low-power four-wave mixing in a-Si:H waveguides enabling high speed all-optical devices in an a-Si:H platform. Finally, we demonstrate a novel data encoding scheme using thermal and all-optical tuning of silicon waveguides, increasing the spectral efficiency in an interconnect link.

  5. High pressure induced superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K.; Shimizu, K

    2003-10-15

    We have developed complex extreme condition of very low temperature down to 30 mK and ultra high pressure exceeding 200 GPa by assembling compact diamond anvil cell (DAC) on a powerful {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He dilution refrigerator. We have also developed measuring techniques of electrical resistance, magnetization and optical measurement for the sample confined in the sample space of the DAC. Using the newly developed apparatus and techniques, we have searched for superconductivity in various materials under pressure. In this paper, we will shortly review our newly developed experimental apparatus and techniques and discuss a few examples of pressure induced superconductivity which were observed recently.

  6. Today's markets for superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The worldwide market for superconductive products may exceed $1 billion in 1987. These products are expanding the frontiers of science, revolutionizing the art of medical diagnosis, and developing the energy technology of the future. In general, today's customers for superconductive equipment want the highest possible performance, almost regardless of cost. The products operate within a few degrees of absolute zero, and virtually all are fabricated from niobium or niobium alloys-so far the high-temperature superconductors discovered in 1986 and 1987 have had no impact on these markets. The industry shows potential and profound societal impact, even without the new materials

  7. Materials for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The ideal material for superconducting cavities should exhibit a high critical temperature, a high critical field, and, above all, a low surface resistance. Unfortunately, these requirements can be conflicting and a compromise has to be found. To date, most superconducting cavities for accelerators are made of niobium. The reasons for this choice are discussed. Thin films of other materials such as NbN, Nb 3 Sn, or even YBCO compounds can also be envisaged and are presently investigated in various laboratories. It is shown that their success will depend critically on the crystalline perfection of these films. (author)

  8. Superconducting magnetic quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.

  9. Superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources

  10. Gambling with Superconducting Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Marek; Zgirski, Maciej

    2015-08-01

    Josephson junctions and superconducting nanowires, when biased close to superconducting critical current, can switch to a nonzero voltage state by thermal or quantum fluctuations. The process is understood as an escape of a Brownian particle from a metastable state. Since this effect is fully stochastic, we propose to use it for generating random numbers. We present protocol for obtaining random numbers and test the experimentally harvested data for their fidelity. Our work is prerequisite for using the Josephson junction as a tool for stochastic (probabilistic) determination of physical parameters such as magnetic flux, temperature, and current.

  11. Superconducting current generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevey, P.

    1970-01-01

    After a brief summary of the principle of energy storage and liberation with superconducting coils,two current generators are described that create currents in the range 600 to 1400 A, used for two storage experiments of 25 kJ and 50 kJ respectively. The two current generators are: a) a flux pump and b) a superconducting transformer. Both could be developed into more powerful units. The study shows the advantage of the transformer over the flux pump in order to create large currents. The efficiencies of the two generators are 95 per cent and 40 to 60 per cent respectively. (author) [fr

  12. Vortex variable range hopping in a conventional superconducting film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percher, Ilana M.; Volotsenko, Irina; Frydman, Aviad; Shklovskii, Boris I.; Goldman, Allen M.

    2017-12-01

    The behavior of a disordered amorphous thin film of superconducting indium oxide has been studied as a function of temperature and magnetic field applied perpendicular to its plane. A superconductor-insulator transition has been observed, though the isotherms do not cross at a single point. The curves of resistance versus temperature on the putative superconducting side of this transition, where the resistance decreases with decreasing temperature, obey two-dimensional Mott variable-range hopping of vortices over wide ranges of temperature and resistance. To estimate the parameters of hopping, the film is modeled as a granular system and the hopping of vortices is treated in a manner analogous to hopping of charges. The reason the long-range interaction between vortices over the range of magnetic fields investigated does not lead to a stronger variation of resistance with temperature than that of two-dimensional Mott variable-range hopping remains unresolved.

  13. Contribution to the quantum study of neutral tungsten carbide WC and ionized (WCq+, q=1 and 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabor, Said

    2015-01-01

    Metal carbides and oxides are more interesting in catalytic and industrial domains. Tungsten carbide WC has been detected as serious substituent of platinum Pt catalytic. The ultimate goal of this thesis is theoretical studies of electronic structure, stability and the bound nature on WC, WO and its cations. Our preliminary research were motivated by the available spectroscopic data on W, W + , W 2+ , WC and WC 2+ . We used the methodology (CASSCF/MRCI/MRCI+Q/aug-cc-pV5Z(-PP)) implemented on MOLPRO package to perform quantum calculations with high accuracy taking into account the correlation and relativistic effects with a specific treatment of spin orbit coupling for some low lying excited electronic states of WC n+ , (n=0, 1 et 2). Our results are shown in good agreement with those available in the literature. Furthermore, in this work for the first time we demonstrated that a carbide dication (WC 2+ ) is thermodynamically stable. (author) [fr

  14. An approximate method for calculating electron-phonon matrix element of a disordered transition metal and relevant comments on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.

    1981-08-01

    A method based on the tight-binding approximation is developed to calculate the electron-phonon matrix element for the disordered transition metals. With the method as a basis the experimental Tsub(c) data of the amorphous transition metal superconductors are re-analysed. Some comments on the superconductivity of the disordered materials are given

  15. Fabrication and evaluation of atmospheric plasma spraying WC-Co-Cu-MoS{sub 2} composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Jianhui [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dingxi 1295, Changning, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Zhu Yingchun, E-mail: yzhu@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dingxi 1295, Changning, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Zheng Xuebing; Ji Heng; Yang Tao [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (SIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Dingxi 1295, Changning, Shanghai, 200050 (China)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Protective WC-Co-based coatings containing solid lubricant Cu and MoS{sub 2} used in wear applications were investigated in this study. > It was found that the MoS{sub 2} composition in the feed powder was kept in WC-Co-Cu-MoS{sub 2} coatings, and the decomposition and decarburization of WC in APS process were improved. > Combining the wear resistance of WC with the lubricating properties of Cu and MoS{sub 2} has an extremely beneficial effect on improving the tribological performance of the resulting coating. - Abstract: Protective WC-Co-based coatings containing solid lubricant Cu and MoS{sub 2} used in wear applications were investigated in this study. These coatings were deposited on mild steel substrates by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The feedstock powders were prepared by mechanically mixing the solid lubricant powders and WC-Co powder, followed by sintering and crushing the mixtures to avoid different particle flighting trajectories at plasma. The tribological properties of the coatings against stainless steel balls were examined by ball-on-disk (BOD) tribometer under normal atmospheric condition. The microstructure of the coatings was studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the MoS{sub 2} composition in the feed powder was kept in WC-Co-Cu-MoS{sub 2} coatings, and the decomposition and decarburization of WC in APS process were improved, which were attributed to the protection of Cu around them. The friction and wear behaviors of all the WC-Co-Cu-MoS{sub 2} coatings were superior to that of WC-Co coating. Such behavior was associated to different wear mechanisms operating for WC-Co coating and the WC-Co-Cu-MoS{sub 2} coatings.

  16. WC-Co COATINGS AND SINTERS MODIFIED WITH NANO-SIZED TiC MICROSTRUCTURE – QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Myalska; Bartłomiej Dybowski; Grzegorz Moskal

    2017-01-01

    The different concepts of WC-Co thermally sprayed coatings improvement may be considered and the application of nanoparticles, as the mechanical strengthening addition, is one of them. Nanostructured WC-Co coatings are characterized by higher hardness than the coatings formed from micrometric WC grains; whereas coatings with bimodal distribution of particles reveal greater wear resistance than the coatings obtained exclusively from nano-sized powders. Mixed effect of the matrix reinforcement ...

  17. The Synthesis of Nanostructured WC-Based Hardmetals Using Mechanical Alloying and Their Direct Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Al-Aqeeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide- (WC- based hardmetals or cemented carbides represent an important class of materials used in a wide range of industrial applications which primarily include cutting/drilling tools and wear resistant components. The introduction and processing of nanostructured WC-based cemented carbides and their subsequent consolidation to produce dense components have been the subject of several investigations. One of the attractive means of producing this class of materials is by mechanical alloying technique. However, one of the challenging issues in obtaining the right end-product is the possible loss of the nanocrystallite sizes due to the undesirable grain growth during powder sintering step. Many research groups have engaged in multiple projects aiming at exploring the right path of consolidating the nanostructured WC-based powders without substantially loosing the attained nanostructure. The present paper highlights some key issues related to powder synthesis and sintering of WC-based nanostructured materials using mechanical alloying. The path of directly consolidating the powders using nonconventional consolidation techniques will be addressed and some light will be shed on the advantageous use of such techniques. Cobalt-bonded hardmetals will be principally covered in this work along with an additional exposure of the use of other binders in the WC-based hardmetals.

  18. The role of nanocrystalline binder metallic coating into WC after additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, A. J.; Fernandes, C. M.; Farinha, A. R.; Gestel, C. V.; Jhabvala, J.; Boillat, E.; Senos, A. M. R.; Vieira, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten carbide with microsized particle powders are commonly used embedded in a tough binder metal. The application of these composites is not limited to cutting tools, WC based material has been increasingly used in gaskets and other mechanical parts with complex geometries. Consequently, additive manufacturing processes as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) might be the solution to overcome some of the manufacturing problems. However, the use of SLS leads to resolve the problems resulting from difference of physical properties between tungsten carbide and the metallic binder, such as laser absorbance and thermal conductivity. In this work, an original approach of powder surface modification was considered to prepare WC-metal composite powders and overcome these constraints, consisting on the sputter-coating of the WC particle surfaces with a nanocrystalline thin film of metallic binder material (stainless steel). The coating improves the thermal behavior and rheology of the WC particles and, at the same time, ensures a binder homogenous distribution. The feasibility of the SLS technology as manufacturing process for WC powder sputter-coated with 13 wt% stainless steel AISI 304L was explored with different laser power and scanning speed parameters. The SLS layers were characterized regarding elemental distribution, phase composition and morphology, and the results are discussed emphasizing the role of the coating on the consolidation process.

  19. Effect of -bar 2 grain boundaries on plastic deformation of WC-Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostberg, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)]. E-mail: gusto@fy.chalmers.se; Farooq, M.U. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Christensen, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Andren, H.-O. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Klement, U. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Wahnstroem, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-01-25

    Cutting inserts of WC-6wt.% Co were investigated before and after plastic deformation. The deformation tests were performed with a turning operation under realistic, yet controlled, conditions. SEM studies showed that after deformation the WC skeleton structure had broken up and thin lamellae of binder phase had formed in less than 10% of the grain boundaries. Ab initio calculations showed that -bar 2 twist WC/WC boundaries have a high work of separation and the interface energy is not lowered by forming two Co/WC boundaries. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements showed an apparent increase in the relative occurrence of -bar 2 boundaries due to poor indexing of the deformed material. The accumulation of dislocations in general boundaries is held responsible for the difficulty in identifying them compared with -bar 2 boundaries. At the -bar 2 tilt boundary the grains have the glide planes {l_brace}101-bar 0{r_brace} in common and at the -bar 2 twist boundary there are three glide planes intersecting, which facilitate dislocation movements across the -bar 2 boundaries.

  20. Neutron and X-ray residual stress measurements of WC-Co alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Keisuke [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kamiyama, Takashi [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science

    2001-07-01

    As cemented carbides composed of metal carbides and pure metals had low deformation and excellent abrasion resistance at high temperature, they are used for various kinds of machining tools. As WC-Co is a typical cemented carbides, some residual stress when sintering a mixed molding of powdered WC and Co at 1400 to 1450 centigrade were introduced into the alloy, to largely affect strength of its materials. In this study, by using WC-Co alloys with various Co contents, thermal residual stress at each composing phase was tested by using X-ray and neutron methods, to investigate on effect of the Co content on the residual stress. And, a comparison with forecasting values using intercalated matters theory was also investigated. As a result, it was found that on the X-ray method, as thermal compressive residual stress increased with increase of content in Co phase, at more than 23.6 % it reduced and residual stress on vertical direction of specimen surface was nearly zero. And, it was also found that on neutron diffraction using angular dispersion method, residual stress in WC phase well agreed with forecasting value using the intercalated matters theory. Furthermore, it was also found that residual stress, when compensated by tested results of WC phase on 36.9 % material obtained by the angular dispersion method, showed good agreement with the forecasting values without relation to its testing methods. (G.K.)

  1. Quasi-Plastic Deformation of WC-Co Composites Loaded with a Spherical Indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Belnap, J. Daniel

    2007-03-01

    The quasi-plastic deformation behavior of cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) materials was studied using Hertzian indentation techniques. The indentation stress-strain curves of three WC-10 wt pct Co alloys with different hardness values demonstrate that WC-Co alloys exhibit “quasi-plasticity” behavior under indentation load and the increase of indentation stress vs indentation strain bears similarity to “strain hardening” in ductile metals. The analysis of the subsurface indentation damage shows that the mechanisms of the quasi-plastic deformation of WC-Co material are the formation of microcracks. Microcracks were found at heavily damaged areas in all three alloys, and the number of microcracks was higher for the sample with the higher apparent quasi-plasticity. The threshold stress values for the onset of quasi-plastic deformation and formation of ring cracks were determined and used to evaluate the brittleness index of these materials. The correlation of the brittleness index with hardness values gives insight with regard to the brittle or quasi-plastic responses of WC-Co materials.

  2. Neutron and X-ray residual stress measurements of WC-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    As cemented carbides composed of metal carbides and pure metals had low deformation and excellent abrasion resistance at high temperature, they are used for various kinds of machining tools. As WC-Co is a typical cemented carbides, some residual stress when sintering a mixed molding of powdered WC and Co at 1400 to 1450 centigrade were introduced into the alloy, to largely affect strength of its materials. In this study, by using WC-Co alloys with various Co contents, thermal residual stress at each composing phase was tested by using X-ray and neutron methods, to investigate on effect of the Co content on the residual stress. And, a comparison with forecasting values using intercalated matters theory was also investigated. As a result, it was found that on the X-ray method, as thermal compressive residual stress increased with increase of content in Co phase, at more than 23.6 % it reduced and residual stress on vertical direction of specimen surface was nearly zero. And, it was also found that on neutron diffraction using angular dispersion method, residual stress in WC phase well agreed with forecasting value using the intercalated matters theory. Furthermore, it was also found that residual stress, when compensated by tested results of WC phase on 36.9 % material obtained by the angular dispersion method, showed good agreement with the forecasting values without relation to its testing methods. (G.K.)

  3. Microstructural evolution in WC-Co cermet reinforced - A17075 metal matrix composites by stir casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal Krishna, U. B.; Ranganatha, P.; Auradi, V.; Mahendra Kumar, S.; Vasudeva, B.

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium metal matrix composites (AMMCs) are preferred because of their enhanced properties like high strength to weight ratio, stiffness and wear resistance. In the present work, an attempt is made to develop cermet (WC-Co) reinforced with Al7075 metal matrix composite by stir casting technique. WC-Co cermet is reduced to an average size of 10μm through ball milling using Alumina as grinding media. Ball milled WC-Co Cermet in an amount of 6 wt. % is used as reinforcement in Al7075 matrix. Microstructural characterization of the prepared composites is carried out using SEM/EDX and XRD studies. X-ray diffraction studies have revealed the peaks corresponding to α-Al, WC, Co and minor Al5W phases. SEM/EDX characterization revealed the uniform distribution of cermet in Al matrix. Further studies also revealed that, addition of WC-Co cermet to Al7075 matrix has resulted in improvement in hardness and Densities of Al7075 matrix.

  4. LHC superconducting strand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    This cross-section through a strand of superconducting matieral as used in the LHC shows the 8000 Niobium-Titanium filaments embedded like a honeycomb in copper. When cooled to 1.9 degrees above absolute zero in the LHC accelerator, these filaments will have zero resistance and so will carry a high electric current with no energy loss.

  5. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  6. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Superconductivity, the awe-inspiring word came into existence when KamerIingh Onnes (Box 1) discovered a new phenom- enon in 1911. When he cooled a sample of liquid metal mercury, it lost its electrical resistance at temperatures close to 0 K. Years of careful experimentation at Leiden preceded his success in the.

  7. LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    Engineers work in a clean room on one of the superconducting cavities for the upgrade to the LEP accelerator, known as LEP-2. The use of superconductors allow higher electric fields to be produced so that higher beam energies can be reached.

  8. Superconducting Super Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1986-04-01

    The scientific need for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is outlined, along with the history of the development of the SSC concept. A brief technical description is given of each of the main points of the SSC conceptual design. The construction cost and construction schedule are discussed, followed by issues associated with the realization of the SSC. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Alternative superconducting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the context of the experiment on 'Development of high temperature superconducting system components' supported by the German Ministry of Research and Technology, investigations were carried out by the Working Party of Prof. von Schnering at the Max Planck Institute for Solids Research, the aim of which is to find characteristic structural features of superconducting substances. Alternative systems are to be looked for with the aid of correlation of superconducting properties with simple electronic and chemical structure models, where very powerful 3D computer graphics are used to visualize them. The theoretical and information technology part of the work was supplemented by experiments. Superconducting phases and related compounds were represented and their structures and physical properties were determined. According to the tasks described above, the report is divided into three sections. Starting with the description of a program system for three-dimensional representation of structures and properties of periodic systems, in the second section a process for calculating node surfaces is explained and the importance of curvature in chemical structures is pointed out. The results of the experiments are collected in the third part. (orig.) [de

  10. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  11. Superconducting electronics testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.A.; Guernsey, R.W.; Stasiak, J.W.; Flint, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    An I/O assembly has been designed and constructed to support the operation of superconducting circuitry. A system, previously described for chip testing, has been adapted for use with a Josephson technology system level experiment. The cryoinsert assembly, constructed of non-magnetic parts, provides 80 high frequency I/O lines between room temperature and 4.2 K. (author)

  12. High temperature superconductivity: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedell, K.S.; Coffey, D.; Meltzer, D.E.; Pines, D.; Schrieffer, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book is the result of a symposium at Los Alamos in 1989 on High Temperature Superconductivity. The topics covered include: phenomenology, quantum spin liquids, spin space fluctuations in the insulating and metallic phases, normal state properties, and numerical studies and simulations. (JF)

  13. Superconductivity : Controlling magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, Mikhail Yu.

    Manipulation of the magnetic state in spin valve structures by superconductivity has now been achieved, opening a new route for the development of ultra-fast cryogenic memories. Spintronics is a rapidly developing field that allows insight into fundamental spin-dependent physical properties and the

  14. Superconducting magnets 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on Superconducting Magnets; SSC Magnet Industrialization; Collider Quadrupole Development; A Record-Setting Magnet; D20: The Push Beyond 10T; Nonaccelerator Applications; APC Materials Development; High-T c at Low Temperature; Cable and Cabling-Machine Development; and Analytical Magnet Design

  15. Superconductors for superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbalestier, David

    2011-03-01

    Even in 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes envisioned the use of superconductors to create powerful magnetic fields well beyond the capability provided by cooling normal metals with liquid helium. Only some ``bad places'' in his Hg and Pb wires seemed to impede his first attempts at this dream, one that he imagined would be resolved in a few weeks of effort. In fact, of course, resolution required another 50 years and development of both a true understanding of the difference between type I and type II superconductors and the discovery of compounds such as Nb 3 Sn that could remain superconducting to fields as high as 30 T. And then indeed, starting in the 1960s, Onnes's dreams were comfortably surpassed. In the last 45 years virtually all superconducting magnets have been made from just two Nb-base materials, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn. Now it seems that a new generation of magnets based on cuprate high temperature superconductors with fields well above 30 T are possible using Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and the RE-Ba-Cu-O compounds. We hope that a first demonstration of this possibility will be an all-superconducting 32 T magnet with RE-Ba-Cu-O insert that we are building for NHMFL users. The magnet application potential of this new generation of superconducting conductors will be discussed.

  16. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  17. MOCVD superconducting oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Toshio; Yamane, Hisanori

    1991-01-01

    Preparation of high- Tc superconducting oxide films by MOCVD, their films structure and superconducting properties are reviewed from the standpoint of "nano-composites" and "fine-composites". Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) films formed on SrTiO 3(100) at 850°C showed a superconducting transition temperature with zero resistivity above 90 K. The maximum critical current density was 2.0×10 6 A/cm 2 at 77.3 K and 0 T, and 6.5×10 4 A/cm 2 at 77.3 K and 27 T. CuO and a-axis oriented YBCO grains were contained in the matrix of c-axis oriented YBCO. A transmission electron microscope observation revealed that inclusions of about 10-30 nm were embedded in the a- b plane of YBCO. MOCVD-YBCO films prepared on MgO(100) were used for superconducting devices. Some studies on the MOCVD films of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O are also reviewed.

  18. ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.

  19. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 9. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity. Suresh V Vettoor. General Article Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 41-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/09/0041-0048 ...

  20. Structure and phase transformations in WC-Co hard alloys irradiated with a low-flux electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrenko, P.V.; Grabovskij, Yu.E.; Gritskevich, A.L.; Kulish, N.P.; Mel'nikova, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    The structure and phase composition in electron irradiated WC-Co hard alloys have been studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy methods. It is shown that the dose dependences of WC and Co lattice parameters are significantly different for the initial alloys and the electrolytically etched alloys, from the surface of which either cobalt or tungsten carbide was removed. Microstress level, size and volume of primary grains of WC were decreased under irradiation. It is assumed, the radiation-stimulated ordering-disordering transformation processes in tungsten carbide take place, and WC particles redistribution in Co matrix occurs [ru

  1. Nanostructures having crystalline and amorphous phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-04-28

    The present invention includes a nanostructure, a method of making thereof, and a method of photocatalysis. In one embodiment, the nanostructure includes a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase in contact with the crystalline phase. Each of the crystalline and amorphous phases has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes a nanoparticle comprising a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase. The amorphous phase is in a selected amount. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes crystalline titanium dioxide and amorphous titanium dioxide in contact with the crystalline titanium dioxide. Each of the crystalline and amorphous titanium dioxide has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale.

  2. Fundamentals of amorphous solids structure and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Stachurski, Zbigniew H

    2014-01-01

    Long awaited, this textbook fills the gap for convincing concepts to describe amorphous solids. Adopting a unique approach, the author develops a framework that lays the foundations for a theory of amorphousness. He unravels the scientific mysteries surrounding the topic, replacing rather vague notions of amorphous materials as disordered crystalline solids with the well-founded concept of ideal amorphous solids. A classification of amorphous materials into inorganic glasses, organic glasses, glassy metallic alloys, and thin films sets the scene for the development of the model of ideal amorph

  3. Intermediate normal metal layers in superconducting circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.F.; Gershenson, M.; Fleming, D.L.; Barta, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a superconducting device comprising a first superconducting layer, a junction layer on the first superconducting layer, an insulating layer on the first superconducting layer, at least one superconducting area on the junction layer surrounded by the insulator layer, superconducting connector pad means disposed over the superconducting area, and superconducting wire means electrically connected to the superconducting connector pad means. The improvement comprising a first metal layer is disposed over the insulator layer and intermediate the superconducting area. The connector pad means and a second metal layer are disposed between the connector pad means and the superconductor wire means. The first metal layer covers the superconducting area and the first and second metal layers are sufficiently thin to allow quantum mechanical tunneling between the connector pad means and the superconducting area and the connector pad means and the superconducting wire means, respectively

  4. Microstructure of Ni/WC surface composite on a copper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wenming; Yang Guirong; Lu Jinjun; Hao Yuan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the researching work which investigated the microstructure and hardness of the surface infiltrated composite (WC/Ni) layers produced on copper substrates. The surface infiltrated composite layers were produced by a vacuum infiltration casting technique (VICT) using Ni-based composite powder with different WC particles content as raw materials. With an appropriate choice of processing condition, a compact infiltrated layer was achievable and this was conformed through a scanning electron microstructure (SEM). The infiltrated layer includes a surface composite layer and a transition layer, and the thickness of the transition layer decreases with the increasing content of WC. The surface macro-hardness and micro-hardness of the infiltrated layer had been evaluated. The macro-hardness of the layer is about HRC60.0 and the distribution of micro-hardness presents gradient change. The average micro-hardness of the infiltrated layer is about HV800

  5. Effect of gas corrosion on the character of phase boundaries in Ni3Al / WC composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fras

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of quite specific physico-chemical and performance properties, the composite based on an intermetallic Ni3Al compoundreinforced with tungsten carbides (WC was selected for investigations. The said composite is characterised by very good mechanical and tribological properties within a wide range of temperatures, combined with good corrosion resistance. In fabrication of the Ni3Al/WC composite, a modified variant of the SHS process was applied. It is the SHSB process, i.e. the Self- Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis in Bath. The said method enables obtaining pure products of reaction, unoxidised and free from the precipitates of alien phases.The main goal of this study has been determination of the susceptibility of the Ni3Al/WC composite to gas corrosion. To examine the microstructure and chemical composition of both the composite and the scale, the metallographic and structural examinations were made,using optical and scanning microscopy.

  6. High-temperature tensile ductility in WC-Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, I.C. [Kyungpook National Univ., Taegusi (Korea, Republic of); Sakuma, T. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science

    1997-09-01

    High-temperature tensile deformation in WC-Co was investigated at temperatures between 1,150 C and 1,250 C. The flow stress is sensitive to temperature, strain rate, volume fraction of binder, and the addition of other carbides. The stress-strain rate relationship is divided into three regions at each temperature as in superplastic metals. A large tensile elongation over 100 pct was first obtained in WC-6Co and WC-13Co (wt pct) at temperatures of 1,200 C. Contrary to superplastic metals, the largest tensile elongation is not obtained in region II but on the border of regions I and II. The failure mode changes from necking in region I to sharp cracking in region II.

  7. High-temperature plastic flow behaviour in the binder of WC-Co cemented carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Chul

    1996-04-01

    Co-rich solid solution alloys regarded as the composition of binder phasesat elevated temperatures in WC-Co cemented carbides were fabricated and the high-temperature deformation behaviour of the alloys was investigated. The logarithmic relationship between flow stress and strain rate is expressed by a single straight line with the slope of 0.15 at a constant temperature in all strain rate range examined, unlike in cemented carbides showing the sigmoidal behaviour. The solid solution hardening due to the addition of Cr3C2 and VC is negligible in the Co-9WC-lCr3C2-0.5VC alloy and the mutual relation in flow stress is different between the cemented carbides and their binder phases in region I. The plastic flow in region I in WC-Co cemented carbides cannot be explained by the flow stress or flow behaviour in the binder phase.

  8. Synthesis and Multi Scale Tribological Behavior of WC-Co/Nanodiamond Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Andy; Jiang, Lin; Kim, Jaekang; Kim, Dae-Eun; Schoenung, Julie M

    2017-08-01

    Nanodiamonds (ND) present a unique combination of desirable mechanical, functional, and chemical characteristics that are ideally suited for reinforcing and enhancing the wear resistance of carbide based materials. Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) matrix nanocomposites reinforced with varying amounts of ND (2 - 10 vol.%) were synthesized here by spark plasma sintering. The rapid thermal consolidation route enabled attainment of dense samples with a significant retention of the metastable diamond phase. NDs affected the microstructural evolution, chemistry, and mechanical properties of WC-Co. Macroscale reciprocating pin-on-disk tests were conducted to assess wear behavior under conditions relevant to service environments, e.g., high cycles and high contact pressure. Microscale tribological properties were assessed using microscratch tests in order to investigate the intrinsic effects of ND on the localized mechanical and tribological response of WC-Co-ND composites. The incorporation of 10 vol.% ND enhanced wear resistance at both the micro- and macroscale, by 28% and 35%, respectively.

  9. Erosion-Corrosion Property of CeO2-Modified HVOF WC-Co Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hang, Zongqiu; Chen, Hui; Ceng, Shengbo; Gou, Guoqing; Wang, Xiaomin; Tu, Mingjing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2016-04-01

    Rare-earth elements have been widely used in materials manufacturing to improve hardness and toughness. In this work, conventional, nanostructured, and CeO2-modified WC-12Co powders were sprayed using high-velocity oxygen flame spraying. The erosion-corrosion behavior and interaction of erosion and corrosion of the coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated. In situ observation was employed to analyze the failure mechanism. The results showed that the CeO2-modified WC-12Co coating possessed the best erosion-corrosion resistance, while the lowest corrosion resistance was exhibited by the conventional WC-12Co coating. The results also suggested that the erosion-corrosion mechanism in the three coatings was dominated by corrosion-accelerated erosion. However, the extent of acceleration of erosion by corrosion differed.

  10. Orientation relationship in WC-Co composite nanoparticles synthesized by in situ reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Song, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Xingwei; Wang, Haibin; Zhou, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Using the nanoscale violet tungsten oxide as the tungsten source, the WC-Co composite powder was synthesized by the in situ reactions. The particle size of the WC-Co composite powder has a narrow distribution with the mean particle size below 100 nm, and the single composite particle has a nanocrystalline structure with a mean grain size smaller than 10 nm. The detailed characterizations of the nanoparticle microstructure reveal that the orientation relationship and coherence at the interfaces can form during the in situ reactions and further inherit in the consolidated cemented carbide bulk material. The favorable crystallographic characteristics of the WC-Co composite nanoparticles play a significant role in the enhancement of the mechanical properties of the prepared cemented carbide bulk material.

  11. Corrosion resistance enhancement of WC-Co hard metal in NaOH solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Sun Mog; Park, Jae Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    SiC is a useful non-oxide ceramic material having unique physicochemical and mechanical properties such as high strength, excellent wear, and oxidation and corrosion resistance. These properties originate from the very strong covalent bond between silicon and carbon and its tetrahedral coordination. However, adhesion between the materials is a serious obstacle to the application of a SiC coating to WC-Co. Several techniques are used to improve the adhesion, such as sputtering, ion beam mixing (IBM), dynamic ion mixing and ion beam assisted deposition. Among those, IBM is a powerful tool. This paper demonstrates that SiC can be successfully coated on WC-Co through the IBM technique. The corrosion resistance of WC-Co in alkali solutions is greatly enhanced by the ion mixed SiC coating, as proven by potentiodynamic electrochemical experiments

  12. Comparative studies on mechanical properties of WC-Co composites sintered by SPS and conventional techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pristinskiy Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spark plasma sintering (SPS is an extremely fast solidification technique for compounds that are difficult to sinter within the material group metals, ceramics, or composites thereof, SPS uses a uniaxial pressure and a very rapid heating cycle to consolidate these materials. With SPS the main benefit is the ability to control the WC grain size due to the short sintering times at high temperature. Additionally, its allows to avoid negative reactions between WC and cobalt and to minimize the formation of undesirable phases in sintered composites. The WC-6wt.% Co cermet prepared by SPS processing achieves the enhanced mechanical properties with the hardness of 18.3 GPa and the fracture toughness of 15.5 MPa·m1/2 in comparison to standard reference tungsten carbide/cobalt material.

  13. Exploring the potential role of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticle internalization in observed toxicity toward lung epithelial cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstead, Andrea L.; Arena, Christopher B.; Li, Bingyun

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) has been recognized as a workplace inhalation hazard in the manufacturing, mining and drilling industries by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Exposure to WC-Co is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” but the relationship between exposure, toxicity and development of disease remain poorly understood. To better understand this relationship, the present study examined the role of WC-Co particle size and internalization on toxicity using lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that nano- and micro-WC-Co particles exerted toxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that nano-WC-Co particles caused significantly greater toxicity at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times compared to micro-WC-Co particles. WC-Co particles in the nano-size range (not micron-sized) were internalized by lung epithelial cells, which suggested that internalization may play a key role in the enhanced toxicity of nano-WC-Co particles over micro-WC-Co particles. Further exploration of the internalization process indicated that there may be multiple mechanisms involved in WC-Co internalization such as actin and microtubule based cytoskeletal rearrangements. These findings support our hypothesis that WC-Co particle internalization contributes to cellular toxicity and suggest that therapeutic treatments inhibiting particle internalization may serve as prophylactic approaches for those at risk of WC-Co particle exposure. - Highlights: • Hard metal (WC-Co) particle toxicity was established in lung epithelial cells. • Nano-WC-Co particles caused greater toxicity than micro-WC-Co particles. • Nano- and micro-WC-Co particles were capable of inducing cellular apoptosis. • Nano-WC-Co particles were internalized by lung epithelial cells. • WC-Co particle internalization was mediated by actin dynamics

  14. Exploring the potential role of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticle internalization in observed toxicity toward lung epithelial cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstead, Andrea L. [Biomaterials, Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences Graduate Program, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Arena, Christopher B. [Biomaterials, Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); E.J. Van Liere Research Program, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Li, Bingyun, E-mail: bili@hsc.wvu.edu [Biomaterials, Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences Graduate Program, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); E.J. Van Liere Research Program, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) has been recognized as a workplace inhalation hazard in the manufacturing, mining and drilling industries by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Exposure to WC-Co is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” but the relationship between exposure, toxicity and development of disease remain poorly understood. To better understand this relationship, the present study examined the role of WC-Co particle size and internalization on toxicity using lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that nano- and micro-WC-Co particles exerted toxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that nano-WC-Co particles caused significantly greater toxicity at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times compared to micro-WC-Co particles. WC-Co particles in the nano-size range (not micron-sized) were internalized by lung epithelial cells, which suggested that internalization may play a key role in the enhanced toxicity of nano-WC-Co particles over micro-WC-Co particles. Further exploration of the internalization process indicated that there may be multiple mechanisms involved in WC-Co internalization such as actin and microtubule based cytoskeletal rearrangements. These findings support our hypothesis that WC-Co particle internalization contributes to cellular toxicity and suggest that therapeutic treatments inhibiting particle internalization may serve as prophylactic approaches for those at risk of WC-Co particle exposure. - Highlights: • Hard metal (WC-Co) particle toxicity was established in lung epithelial cells. • Nano-WC-Co particles caused greater toxicity than micro-WC-Co particles. • Nano- and micro-WC-Co particles were capable of inducing cellular apoptosis. • Nano-WC-Co particles were internalized by lung epithelial cells. • WC-Co particle internalization was mediated by actin dynamics.

  15. Nanotoxicity: emerging concerns regarding nanomaterial safety and occupational hard metal (WC-Co nanoparticle exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstead AL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrea L Armstead,1,2 Bingyun Li1–3 1Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, 3Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, Morgantown, WV, USA Abstract: As the number of commercial and consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs continually rises, the increased use and production of these ENMs presents an important toxicological concern. Although ENMs offer a number of advantages over traditional materials, their extremely small size and associated characteristics may also greatly enhance their toxic potentials. ENM exposure can occur in various consumer and industrial settings through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal routes. Although the importance of accurate ENM characterization, effective dosage metrics, and selection of appropriate cell or animal-based models are universally agreed upon as important factors in ENM research, at present, there is no “standardized” approach used to assess ENM toxicity in the research community. Of particular interest is occupational exposure to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co “dusts,” composed of nano- and micro-sized particles, in hard metal manufacturing facilities and mining and drilling industries. Inhalation of WC-Co dust is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” and an increased risk of lung cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying WC-Co toxicity, the inflammatory disease state and progression to cancer are poorly understood. Herein, a discussion of ENM toxicity is followed by a review of the known literature regarding the effects of WC-Co particle exposure. The risk of WC-Co exposure in occupational settings and the updates of in vitro and in vivo studies of both micro- and nano-WC-Co particles are discussed. Keywords: engineered nanomaterial, occupational exposure, lung disease, cancer, toxicity, particle

  16. Preparation of Ultrafine CVD WC Powders Deposited from WCl6 Gas Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xing; Haubner, R.; Lux, B.; Kieffer, B.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrafine WC powders were produced from WCl6-C3H8-H2 gaz mixtures in a conventional tubular hot-wall downstream CVD reactor. At reaction temperatures between 1100 and 1550°C powders containing W, W2C, WC and carbon were produced. The overall chemical compositions of the tungsten compounds as well as the free carbon contents depended strongly on the reaction temperature and the ratio of the reaction gases introduced. With increased reaction temperature and exposure time the amount of tungsten ...

  17. Effect of C and milling parameters on the synthesis of WC powders by mechanical alloying

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolokang, S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials xxx (2009) xxx–xxx Contents lists availabl Int. Journal of Refractory Metal ls ARTICLE IN PRESS E-mail address: abolokang@csir.co.za (S. Bolokang). avoided [1]. Although MA can produce a non-equilibrium, super....09.006 s & Hard Materials xxx (2009) xxx–xxx Fig. 3 shows a decrease in powder crystallite size with increas- ing milling times. After 12 h milling time, 11 nm WC crystallite size was obtained. Fig. 2. XRD pattern for the production of WC from interrupted high...

  18. COBRA-WC model and predictions for a fast-reactor natural-circulation transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, T.L.; Basehore, K.L.; Prather, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    The COBRA-WC (Whole Core) code has been used to predict the core-wide coolant and rod temperature distribution in a liquid metal fast reactor during the early part (first 220 seconds) of a natural circulation transient. Approximately one-sixth of the core was modeled including bypass flows and the pressure losses above and below the core region. Detailed temperature and flow distributions were obtained for the two test fuel assemblies. The COBRA-WC model, the approach, and predictions of core-wide transient coolant and rod temperatures during a natural circulation transient are presented in this paper

  19. Amorphous nanoparticles — Experiments and computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Vo Van; Ganguli, Dibyendu

    2012-01-01

    The data obtained by both experiments and computer simulations concerning the amorphous nanoparticles for decades including methods of synthesis, characterization, structural properties, atomic mechanism of a glass formation in nanoparticles, crystallization of the amorphous nanoparticles, physico-chemical properties (i.e. catalytic, optical, thermodynamic, magnetic, bioactivity and other properties) and various applications in science and technology have been reviewed. Amorphous nanoparticles coated with different surfactants are also reviewed as an extension in this direction. Much attention is paid to the pressure-induced polyamorphism of the amorphous nanoparticles or amorphization of the nanocrystalline counterparts. We also introduce here nanocomposites and nanofluids containing amorphous nanoparticles. Overall, amorphous nanoparticles exhibit a disordered structure different from that of corresponding bulks or from that of the nanocrystalline counterparts. Therefore, amorphous nanoparticles can have unique physico-chemical properties differed from those of the crystalline counterparts leading to their potential applications in science and technology.

  20. Model for amorphous aggregation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranks, Samuel D.; Ecroyd, Heath; van Sluyter, Steven; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Carver, John A.; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2009-11-01

    The amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with many phenomena, ranging from the formation of protein wine haze to the development of cataract in the eye lens and the precipitation of recombinant proteins during their expression and purification. While much literature exists describing models for linear protein aggregation, such as amyloid fibril formation, there are few reports of models which address amorphous aggregation. Here, we propose a model to describe the amorphous aggregation of proteins which is also more widely applicable to other situations where a similar process occurs, such as in the formation of colloids and nanoclusters. As first applications of the model, we have tested it against experimental turbidimetry data of three proteins relevant to the wine industry and biochemistry, namely, thaumatin, a thaumatinlike protein, and α -lactalbumin. The model is very robust and describes amorphous experimental data to a high degree of accuracy. Details about the aggregation process, such as shape parameters of the aggregates and rate constants, can also be extracted.

  1. Atomistic Models of Amorphous Semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarolimek, K.

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline silicon is probably the best studied material, widely used by the semiconductor industry. The subject of this thesis is an intriguing form of this element namely amorphous silicon. It can contain a varying amount of hydrogen and is denoted as a-Si:H. It completely lacks the neat long

  2. Fracture Phenomena in Amorphous Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard-Andersen, Asger; Dahle, Birgit

    1966-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of amorphous selenium broken in flexure at room temperature have been studied. The fracture velocity was found to vary in different regions of the fracture surface. Peculiar features were observed in a transition zone between fast and slower fracture. In this zone cleavage steps...

  3. Superconducting energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsel, W.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages obtained by the energy store device according to the invention with a superconducting solenoid system consist of the fact that only relatively short superconducting forward and return leads are required, which are collected into cables as far as possible. This limits the coolant losses of the cables. Only one relatively expensive connecting part with a transition of its conductors from room temperature to a low temperature is required, which, like the normal conducting current switch, is easily accessible. As the continuation has to be cooled independently of the upper part solenoid, cooling of this continuation part can prevent the introduction of large quantities of heat into the connected part solenoid. Due to the cooling of the forward and return conductors of the connecting cable with the coolant of the lower part solenoid, there are relatively few separations between the coolant spaces of the part solenoids. (orig./MM) [de

  4. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S

    1996-01-01

    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  5. Statistical mechanics of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kita, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical, step-by-step comprehensive explanation of superconductivity for undergraduate and graduate students who have completed elementary courses on thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. To this end, it adopts the unique approach of starting with the statistical mechanics of quantum ideal gases and successively adding and clarifying elements and techniques indispensible for understanding it. They include the spin-statistics theorem, second quantization, density matrices, the Bloch–De Dominicis theorem, the variational principle in statistical mechanics, attractive interaction, and bound states. Ample examples of their usage are also provided in terms of topics from advanced statistical mechanics such as two-particle correlations of quantum ideal gases, derivation of the Hartree–Fock equations, and Landau’s Fermi-liquid theory, among others. With these preliminaries, the fundamental mean-field equations of superconductivity are derived with maximum mathematical clarity based on ...

  6. 2017 Gordon Conference on Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubukov, Andrey [Univ. of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN (United States)

    2017-11-14

    The DOE award was for a 2017 Gordon Research conference on Superconductivity (GRC). The objective of GRC is to interchange the information about the latest theoretical and experimental developments in the area of superconductivity and to select most perspective directions for future research in this area.The goal of the Gordon Conference on Superconductivity is to present and discuss the latest results in the field of modern superconductivity, discuss new ideas and new directions of research in the area. It is a long-standing tradition of the Gordon conference on Superconductivity that the vast majority of participants are junior scientists. Funding for the conference would primarily be used to support junior researchers, particularly from under-represented groups. We had more 10 female speakers, some of them junior researchers, and some funding was used to support these speakers. The conference was held together with Gordon Research Seminar on Superconductivity, where almost all speakers and participants were junior scientists.

  7. Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1992-03-01

    We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs

  8. Topological confinement and superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.

  9. Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, G.; Samuely, T.; Xu, Z.; Jochum, J. K.; Volodin, A.; Zhou, S. Q.; May, P. W.; Onufriienko, O.; Kacmarik, J.; Steele, J. A.; Li, J.; Vanacken, J.; Vacík, Jiří; Szabo, P.; Yuan, H. F.; Roeffaers, M. B. J.; Cerbu, D.; Samuely, P.; Hofkens, J.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2017), s. 5358-5366 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanodiamond * superconductivity and ferromagnetism * spin fluctuations * giant positive magnetoresistance * anamalous Hall effect Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 13.942, year: 2016

  10. Unconventional superconductivity near inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenicke, A.F.

    2008-01-25

    After the presentation of a quasi-classical theory the specific heat of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is considered. Then tunneling spectroscopy on cuprate superconductors is discussed. Thereafter the subharmonic gap structure in d-wave superconductors is considered. Finally the application of the S-matrix in superconductivity is discussed with spin mixing, CrO{sub 2} as example, and an interface model. (HSI)

  11. Superconducting magnets and cryogenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Several significant superconducting beam line magnet systems are being constructed in the U. S. These will demonstrate the practicability of superconductors in beam lines. It is now time to consider some of the more subtle engineering problems associated with these magnets in order to assure a ''next generation'' of highly usable magnets. This paper presents some engineering approaches to better magnets for the future. (U.S.)

  12. Superconducting Panofsky quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    A design for a rectangular aperture quadrupole magnet without pole-tips was introduced by Hand and Panofsky in 1959. This design was quite radical but simple to construct. Few magnets of this design were ever built because of the large power needed. With the advent of superconducting coils there has been a renewed interest in them. The mathematical basis, field characteristics, and present and future construction of these magnets are described

  13. Lighting up superconducting stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergeçen, Emre; Gedik, Nuh

    2018-02-01

    Cuprate superconductors display a plethora of complex phases as a function of temperature and carrier concentration, the understanding of which could provide clues into the mechanism of superconductivity. For example, when about one-eighth of the conduction electrons are removed from the copper oxygen planes in cuprates such as La2‑xBaxCuO4 (LBCO), the doped holes (missing electrons) organize into one-dimensional stripes (1). The bulk superconducting transition temperature (Tc) is greatly reduced, and just above Tc, electrical transport perpendicular to the planes (along the c axis) becomes resistive, but parallel to the copper oxygen planes, resistivity remains zero for a range of temperatures (2). It was proposed a decade ago (3) that this anisotropic behavior is caused by pair density waves (PDWs); superconducting Cooper pairs exist along the stripes within the planes but cannot tunnel to the adjacent layers. On page 575 of this issue, Rajasekaran et al. (4) now report detection of this state in LBCO using nonlinear reflection of high-intensity terahertz (THz) light.

  14. The origin of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.D., E-mail: jdfan3@cox.net [Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing (China); JD Duz Institute for Superconductivity, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (United States); Malozovsky, Y.M. [Southern University and A and M College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (United States); JD Duz Institute for Superconductivity, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (United States)

    2013-10-15

    We have shown in the other article of ours, published in the same issue as this one and entitled “Superconductivity in a Fermi liquid: The role of electron-phonon interaction,” that the quasiparticle interaction is just the particle interaction with an opposite sign. In other words, the interaction between two quasielectrons in k- or momentum-space is attractive while the interaction between two electrons in real space is repulsive. Since the quasiparticles are responsible for all properties of a Fermi liquid, then investigations of behaviors of quasipartilces will be sufficient for one to understand the relevant properties of the system consisting of those quasiparticles (particles), Moreover, as shown in our earlier work [1,2], pairing of two quasiparticles in a spin singlet state due to the Coulomb interaction is well-reasoned without needing any boson like retarded mediation between them, and a quartet structure among paired four quasiparticles will be further formed, leading to the doubly lower biding energy than that from a single Cooper’s pair. Under a certain condition a superconducting phase transition, corresponding to the resonance of a many-electron system with repulsion in the spin singlet state, may occur naturally. This showcases the physical picture of our earlier assertion [3] that superconductivity takes place naturally due to the Coulombic repulsive interaction.

  15. Microstructure and tribology behaviors of in-situ WC/Fe carbide coating fabricated by plasma transferred arc metallurgic reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Youlu; Li, Zhuguo

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve the dry sliding tribology properties of mild steel compound, the in-situ WC carbide coatings with 18, 32, 54 vol% WC were successfully synthesized using plasma transferred arc metallurgic reaction (PTAMR) with alloy powders W, C and Fe-30Ni. The composition, microstructure and microhardness of the carbide coatings were characterized. It was found that the carbide coating consisted of WC, M6C and γ phases, carbides distribute gradually from the coating bottom to top, the in-situ WC crystal grows into triangle prism structure with high hardness and good toughness. Dry sliding tribology behaviors were studied on block-on-wheel dry sliding wear tester with load 300 N, sliding speed 0.836 m/s and distance 500 m. Results show that the friction coefficient diagrams contain three stages, variation of friction coefficient increase with the content of WC, friction temperature increase with the sliding distance, increasing the content of WC can directly increase the antiwear property of WC/Fe carbide coating. The main wear mechanisms of in-situ WC/Fe carbide coating are adhesive, oxidation, micro-cutting and ploughing wear.

  16. Semi-empirical relationship between the hardness, grain size and mean free path of WC-Co

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makhele-Lekala, L

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vickers hardness of several well-characterized grades of WC-Co (23 in total) was measured. The mean grain size of these samples ranged from 0.6 to 5.0 mums and the cobalt content from 6 to 50 wt%. An empirical formula between hardness of WC...

  17. Effect of neutron irradiation on Mo-Si amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Fumitake; Hasegawa, Masayuki; Suzuki, Kenji; Honda, Toshihisa; Fukunaga, Toshiharu.

    1982-01-01

    The irradiation effects on Mo-Si amorphous alloys were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation, and their electric resistance at low temperature was measured to examine the superconductivity of the alloys. The specimens of Mo 68 Si 32 and Mo 45 Si 55 were irradiated with the neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) of about 9 x 10 18 n/cm 2 without temperature control in the Japanese Material Testing Reactor (JMTR). For these irradiated specimens, the X-ray diffraction experiment was performed to examine the irradiation effects on the radial distribution function, and the angular correlation curves for the positron annihilation were also measured. Both experiments showed that there was almost no irradiation effect. However, the width of the superconductive transition measured in Mo 68 Si 32 became extremely narrow due to neutron irradiation, and the transition temperature rose from 6.89 K to 7.03 K. On the other hand, in Mo 45 Si 55 , the width showed a tendency to become somewhat narrow, but the transition temperature shifted to the lower side. (Asami, T.)

  18. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: mark.ellerby@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  19. Thermospin effects in superconducting heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, I. V.; Bobkov, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, thermally created pure spin currents were predicted for Zeeman-split superconductor/normal-metal heterostructures. Here it is shown that this "thermospin" current can lead to an accumulation of a pure spin imbalance in a system. The thermally induced spin imbalance can reach the value of Zeeman splitting of the superconducting density of states and strongly influences superconductivity in the heterostructure. Depending on the temperature difference between the superconductor and the normal reservoir it can enhance the critical temperature of the superconductor or additionally suppress the zero-temperature superconducting state. The last possibility gives rise to an unusual superconducting state, which starts to develop at finite temperature.

  20. Superconducting Nonlinear Kinetic Inductance Devices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting quantum interference devices, or SQUIDs, are by far the most sensitive magnetometers available, but two issues limit their commercial potential:...

  1. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-04-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  2. Unconventional superconductivity in honeycomb lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sahebsara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available   ‎ The possibility of symmetrical s-wave superconductivity in the honeycomb lattice is studied within a strongly correlated regime, using the Hubbard model. The superconducting order parameter is defined by introducing the Green function, which is obtained by calculating the density of the electrons ‎ . In this study showed that the superconducting order parameter appears in doping interval between 0 and 0.5, and x=0.25 is the optimum doping for the s-wave superconductivity in honeycomb lattice.

  3. Density of states in Mo-Ru amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, W.

    1985-01-01

    The density of states is calculated for several compositions of amorphous Mo 1-x Ru x . In order to simulate amorphous clusters, the structures (atomic positions) utilized in the calculations were built from a small dense randomly packed unit of hard spheres with periodic boundary conditions. The density of states is calculated from a tight-binding Hamiltonian with hopping integrals parametrized in terms of the ddσ, ddΠ and ddδ molecular integrals. The results for pure Mo and pure Ru, compared in the canonical band aproximation, agree well with the literature. For binary alloys, the comparison of the calculated density of states with the rigid band aproximation results indicates that a more complex approach than the rigid band model must be used, even when the two atoms have similar bands, with band centers at nearly the same energy. The results also indicate that there is no relation between the peak in the superconducting critical temperature as a function of the number of valence eletrons per atom (e/a) in the region near Mo(e/a=6) and the peak of the density of states at the Fermi level in the same region, as has been sugested by some authors. (Author) [pt

  4. Two-level tunneling systems in amorphous alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Irina V.; Paz, Alejandro P.; Tokatly, Ilya V.; Rubio, Angel

    2014-03-01

    The decades of research on thermal properties of amorphous solids at temperatures below 1 K suggest that their anomalous behaviour can be related to quantum mechanical tunneling of atoms between two nearly equivalent states that can be described as a two-level system (TLS). This theory is also supported by recent studies on microwave spectroscopy of superconducting qubits. However, the microscopic nature of the TLS remains unknown. To identify structural motifs for TLSs in amorphous alumina we have performed extensive classical molecular dynamics simulations. Several bistable motifs with only one or two atoms jumping by considerable distance ~ 0.5 Å were found at T=25 K. Accounting for the surrounding environment relaxation was shown to be important up to distances ~ 7 Å. The energy asymmetry and barrier for the detected motifs lied in the ranges 0.5 - 2 meV and 4 - 15 meV, respectively, while their density was about 1 motif per 10 000 atoms. Tuning of motif asymmetry by strain was demonstrated with the coupling coefficient below 1 eV. The tunnel splitting for the symmetrized motifs was estimated on the order of 0.1 meV. The discovered motifs are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The financial support from the Marie Curie Fellowship PIIF-GA-2012-326435 (RespSpatDisp) is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. The influence of aggregates type on W/C ratio on the strength and other properties of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaiskiene, J.; Skripkiunas, G.; Vaiciene, M.; Karpova, E.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of different types of aggregates and W/C ratio on concrete properties is analysed. In order to achieve this aim, lightweight (with expanded clay aggregate) and normal concrete (with gravel aggregate) mixtures are prepared with different W/C ratios. Different W/C ratios are selected by reducing the amount of cement when the amount of water is constant. The following properties of concrete have been determined: density, compressive strength and water absorption. Additionally, the statistical data analysis is performed and influence of aggregate type and W/C ratio on concrete properties is determined. The empirical equations indicating dependence between concrete strength and W/C and strength of aggregate are obtained for normal concrete and light-weight concrete.

  6. Microstructure and hardness of WC-Co particle reinforced iron matrix surface composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a high Cr cast iron surface composite material reinforced with WC-Co particles 2-6 mm in size was prepared using a pressureless sand mold infiltration casting technique. The composition, microstructure and hardness were determined by means of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA, scanning electron microscope (SEM and Rockwell hardness measurements. It is determined that the obtained composite layer is about 15 mm thick with a WC-Co particle volumetric fraction of ~38%. During solidification, interface reaction takes place between WC-Co particles and high chromium cast iron. Melting and dissolving of prefabricated particles are also found, suggesting that local Co melting and diffusion play an important role in promoting interface metallurgical bonding. The composite layer is composed of ferrite and a series of carbides, such as (Cr, W, Fe23C6, WC, W2C, M6C and M12C. The inhomogeneous hardness in the obtained composite material shows a gradient decrease from the particle reinforced metal matrix composite layer to the matrix layer. The maximum hardness of 86.3 HRA (69.5 HRC is obtained on the particle reinforced surface, strongly indicating that the composite can be used as wear resistant material.

  7. Elastic properties and 2D icosahedral bonding in borides of hexagonal WC type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2005-01-01

    Using ab initio calculations we have identified materials with bulk moduli comparable to cubic BN. These are WB, IrB, ReB and OsB crystallizing in the hexagonal WC structure. In the (0 0 0 2) planes of these compounds, we find 2D icosahedral bonding between adjacent B atoms, which has previously not been reported

  8. Laser surface alloying of aluminium with WC+Co+NiCr for improved wear resistance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nath, S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, laser surfac ealloying of aluminium with WC + Co + NiCr (in the ratio of 70:15:15) has been conducted using a 5 kW continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser (at a beam diameter of 0.003 m), with the output power ranging from 3 to 3.5 k...

  9. Laser surface alloying of aluminium with WC+Co+NiCr for improved wear resistance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nath, S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, laser surface alloying of aluminium with WC + Co + NiCr (in the ratio of 70:15:15) has been conducted using a 5 kW continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser (at a beam diameter of 0.003 m), with the output power ranging from 3 to 3.5 k...

  10. WC as a non-platinum hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst for high temperature PEM water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) nanopowder was tested as a non-platinum cathode electrocatalyst for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) water electrolysers, operating at elevated temperatures. It was prepared in thermal plasma reactor with confined plasma jet from WO3 precursor in combination with CH4 carbu...

  11. Influence of temperature, grain size and cobalt content on the hardness of WC-Co alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milman, YV

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available , grain size and cobalt content on the hardness of WC?Co alloys Yu.V. Milman a, S. Luyckx b,c, IT Northrop d a Institute of Problems in Materials Science, Kiev, Ukraine b School of Process and Materials Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand...

  12. Pt-Ni/WC Alloy Nanorods Arrays as ORR Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Mahbuba; Yurukcu, Mesut; Yurtsever, Fatma; Ergul, Busra; Kariuki, Nancy; Myers, Deborah J.; Karabacak, Tansel

    2017-08-24

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) among the other types of fuel cell technology are attractive power sources, especially for electric vehicle applications. While significant progress and plausible prospects of PEMFCs have been achieved, there are still some challenges related to the performance, durability, and cost that need to be overcome to make them economically viable for widespread commercialization. Our strategy is to develop thin films of high-active and stable catalyst coated on vertically aligned nanorod arrays of conductive and stable support. In this work, we fabricated tungsten carbide (WC) nanorods as support and coated them with a platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni) alloy shell denoted as Pt-Ni/WC catalysts. The Pt- Ni/WC nanorods were deposited on glassy carbon disks as well as on silicon substrates for evaluation of their electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and physical properties. Cyclic voltammetry experiments using rotating disk electrode were performed in perchloric acid (0.1 M HClO4) electrolyte at room temperature to characterize the ORR activity and stability of Pt-Ni/WC nanorods catalysts. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were utilized to study the morphology and crystallographic properties, respectively.

  13. New results on the relationship between hardness and fracture toughness of WC-Co hardmetal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Quigley, DGF

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Two sets of WC-Co grades were produced, with cobalt content ranging from 3 to 50 wt.%. The mean grain size of the two sets was 2.2 and 6 mu m respectively. The two sets of grades were used to investigate the relationship between hardness...

  14. A threshold stress for high-temperature plastic flow in WC-CO cemented carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Chul

    1995-04-01

    The logarithmic relationship between flow stress and strain rate in WC-Co cemented carbides is represented by a signoidal curve at a constant temperature and is divided into three regions, as in superplastic metals. The flow stress in region I has no dependence on both carbide grain size and binder content, indicative of the presence of a threshold stress for high-temperature plastic flow in cemented carbides. The threshold stress estimated by extrapolating the plot of ɛm against σ to zero strain rate has a strong dependence on temperature. The logarithmic plot of the effective stress compensated by the threshold stress against strain rate shows a single straight line for region I and region II at a constant temperature, which suggests that the regions I and II are controlled by the same deformation process i.e. the grain boundary sliding in WC/WC boundaries. A small addition of Cr3C2 and VC gives rise to the outstanding increase in flow stress in region I and subsequently results in the marked increase in the threshold stress. The origin of the threshold stress in WC-Co cemented carbides is closely related to the impurity elements or the intensional additives such as Cr3C2 and VC.

  15. Study on the relation between structural parameters and fracture strength of WC-Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B. [East China Univ. of Sci. and Technol., Shanghai (China). Inst. of Tech. Chem. and Phys.; Zhang, Y. [Materials Physics Department of Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Ouyang, S. [State Key Laboratory For Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials of China, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2000-01-14

    In this article, a directly proportional relation between average free path (M) and ductile deformation energy ({gamma}) was proposed, and on the basis of it, a quantitative analysis was conducted for studying the effects of the structural parameters on fracture strength of WC-Co cemented carbides. The results show that, for different WC-Co cemented carbides with different cobalt contents, there exist different critical WC grain size R{sub c} and critical free path of binder M{sub c}. R{sub c} and M{sub c} act as the criteria that determine the growth behavior of crackles. When average free path of cobalt binder M < M{sub c}, or WC grain size R < R{sub c}, crackles will expand mainly across cobalt binder, which will result in intergranular fracture; when M M{sub c} or R R{sub c}, transgranular fracture will happen; when M = M{sub c} or R = R{sub c}, concurrence of intergranular fracture and transgranular fracture will take place. R{sub c} and M{sub c} will decrease with increasing of cobalt content, followed by increasing of fracture strength. The dimension of crackles in the circular fissure-breeding district is also a determinative factor to affect fracture strength of cemented carbides. (orig.)

  16. Atomic composition of WC/ and Zr/O-terminated diamond Schottky interfaces close to ideality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñero, J.C., E-mail: josecarlos.pinero@uca.es [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Araújo, D. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Fiori, A. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Traoré, A. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, av. des Martyrs, Grenoble,38042 France (France); Villar, M.P. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Eon, D.; Muret, P.; Pernot, J. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, av. des Martyrs, Grenoble,38042 France (France); Teraji, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Metal/O-terminated diamond interfaces are analyzed by a variety of TEM techniques. • Thermal treatment is shown to modify structural and chemical interface properties. • Electrical behavior vs annealing is shown to be related with interface modification. • Interfaces are characterized with atomic resolution to probe inhomogeneities. • Oxide formation and modification is demonstrated in both Schottky diodes. - Abstract: Electrical and nano-structural properties of Zr and WC-based Schottky power diodes are compared and used for investigating oxide-related effects at the diamond/metal interface. Differences in Schottky barrier heights and ideality factors of both structures are shown to be related with the modification of the oxygen-terminated diamond/metal interface configuration. Oxide formation, oxide thickness variations and interfacial oxygen redistribution, associated with thermal treatment are demonstrated. Ideality factors close to ideality (n{sub WC} = 1.02 and n{sub Zr} = 1.16) are obtained after thermal treatment and are shown to be related with the relative oxygen content at the surface (OCR{sub WC} = 3.03 and OCR{sub Zr} = 1.5). Indeed, thermal treatment at higher temperatures is shown to promote an escape of oxygen for the case of the WC diode, while it generates a sharper accumulation of oxygen at the metal/diamond interface for the case of Zr diode. Therefore, the metal-oxygen affinity is shown to be a key parameter to improve diamond-based Schottky diodes.

  17. Cross-linked PEEK-WC proton exchange membrane for fuel cell

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lou, H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The low cost proton exchange membrane was prepared by cross-linking water soluble sulfonated-sulfinated poly(oxa-p-phenylene-3,3-phthalido-p-phenylene-oxa-p-phenylene-oxyphenylene) (SsPEEK-WC). The prepared cross-linked membrane became insoluble...

  18. Influence of w/c ratio on rate of chloride induced corrosion of steel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The results of the experimental study on the influence of w/c ratio on the rate of chloride-induced corrosion and its dependence on the ambient temperature are reported here. A mathematical expression of the found relation- ships which represents a possibility for the mathematical prediction of the corrosion rate and service ...

  19. CVD of alternated microcrystalline (MCD) and nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond films on WC-TIC-CO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Raonei Alves; Contin, Andre; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J.; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Barquete, Danilo Maciel

    2010-01-01

    CVD Diamond coating of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools has been an alternative to increase tool lifetime. Experiments have shown that residual stresses produced during films growth on WC-TiC-Co substrates significantly increases with increasing film thickness up to 20 μm and usually leads to film delamination. In this work alternated micro- and nanocrystalline CVD diamond films have been used to relax interface stresses and to increase diamond coatings performance. WC-TiC-Co substrates have been submitted to a boronizing thermal diffusion treatment prior to CVD diamond films growth. After reactive heat treatment samples were submitted to chemical etching in acid and alkaline solution. The diamond films deposition was performed using HFCVD reactor with different gas concentrations for microcrystalline (MCD) and nano-crystalline (NCD) films growth. As a result, we present the improvement of diamond films adherence on WC-TiC-Co, evaluated by indentation and machining tests. Samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) for qualitative analysis of diamond films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was used for phases identification after boronizing process. Diamond film compressive residual stresses were analyzed by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy (RSS). (author)

  20. Corrosion of WC-VC-Co hardmetal in neutral chloride containing media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machio, Christopher N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is an important surface degradation process in some, if not all, applications of tungsten-carbide-(WC-) cobalt- (Co-) based hardmetals. Applications like tools for machining of metals and for wear resistance in the mining industry expose...

  1. Study of Selected Properties of Thermally Sprayed Coatings Containing WC and WB Hard Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brezinová Janette

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research of the essential characteristics of two kinds of advanced coatings applied by HVOF technology. One studied coating: WB-WC-Co (60-30-10% contains two types of hard particles (WC and WB, the second coating is eco-friendly alternative to the previously used WC-based coatings, called “green carbides” with the composition WC-FeCrAl (85-15%. In green carbides coating the heavy metals (Co, Ni, NiCr forming the binding matrix in conventional wear-resistant coatings are replaced by more environmentally friendly matrix based on FeCrAl alloy. On the coatings was carried out: metallographic analysis, measurement of thickness, micro-hardness, adhesion, resistance to thermal cyclic loading and adhesive wear resistance (pin-on-disk test. One thermal cycle consisted of heating the coatings to 600°C, dwell for 10 minutes, and subsequently cooling on the still air. The number of thermal cycles: 10. The base material was stainless steel AISI 316L, pretreatment prior to application of the coating: blasting with white corundum, application device JP-5000.

  2. Development of new WC-Ni hardmetals for use in high pressure experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kouhei; Yagi, Takehiko; Gotou, Hirotada; Iizuka, Riko; Kawakami, Masaru; Kitamura, Kozo; Hayashi, Koji

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafine-grained (0.2-0.3 µm) WC-Ni hardmetals with a low Ni content (3-5 wt%) were developed using new production techniques based on adding an appropriate amount of VC and Cr3C2, combined with the strong mixing of raw materials. Their uniaxial compressibility was subsequently compared with that of existing WC-Ni and WC-Co hardmetals to assess their suitability for use as anvils in various high pressure experiments, particularly those associated with neutron or magnetic studies. The ultimate compressive strength of the newly developed hardmetals was over 7.7 GPa, which was higher by 1.2 GPa than that of the existing WC-Ni hardmetal 'MF10'. When these hardmetals were used as anvils, a pressure of approximately 16 GPa was generated using a Paris-Edinburgh-type apparatus with φ8 mm culet, thereby proving that they can allow the physical properties of various materials to be measured at higher pressures than is possible with existing hardmetals.

  3. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Near-Nano and Nanostructured WC-Co Cemented Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Alar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrochemical corrosion resistance of near-nano and nanostructured WC-Co cemented carbides was investigated. WC powders with an average grain size dBET in the range from 95 nm to 150 nm and with an addition of vanadium carbide (VC and chromium carbide Cr3C2 as grain growth inhibitors were used as starting powders. The mixtures with 6 wt. % and 9 wt. % Co were consolidated by two different processes; sintering in hydrogen atmosphere and the sinter-HIP process. WC-Co samples were researched by direct current and alternating current techniques in the solution of 3.5% NaCl at room temperature. Corrosion parameters such as corrosion potential (Ecorr, corrosion current density (jcorr and polarization resistance (Rp were determined by electrochemical techniques. From the conducted research, it was found that the consolidation processes and microstructural characteristics—grain growth inhibitors, grain size of the starting WC powders and η-phase—influenced the electrochemical corrosion resistance. η-phase enhanced the formation of a passive layer on the samples’ surfaces, thereby reducing the tendency of the sample dissolution and increasing the stability of oxides forming therewith a passive layer on the sample surface.

  4. Fundamentals of grinding : surface conditions of ground WC-Co systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, JBJW; De Hosson, JTM; Shulepov, SY; Lousberg, N; de With, G; Brebbia, CA; Kenny, JM

    1999-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the fundamentals of grinding of inorganic materials. A statistical grinding model was developed based on the topography of the grinding wheel. The results of the model are compared with the results of grinding experiments on WC-Co hardmetals. The calculated profiles and

  5. In vitro expression of hard metal dust (WC-Co)--responsive genes in human peripheral blood mononucleated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombaert, Noömi; Lison, Dominique; Van Hummelen, Paul; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2008-03-01

    Hard metals consist of tungsten carbide (WC) and metallic cobalt (Co) particles and are important industrial materials produced for their extreme hardness and high wear resistance properties. While occupational exposure to metallic Co alone is apparently not associated with an increased risk of cancer, the WC-Co particle mixture was shown to be carcinogenic in exposed workers. The in vitro mutagenic/apoptogenic potential of WC-Co in human peripheral blood mononucleated cells was previously demonstrated by us. This study aimed at obtaining a broader view of the pathways responsible for WC-Co induced carcinogenicity, and in particular genotoxicity and apoptosis. We analyzed the profile of gene expression induced in vitro by WC-Co versus control (24 h treatment) in human PBMC and monocytes using microarrays. The most significantly up-regulated pathways for WC-Co treated PBMC were apoptosis and stress/defense response; the most down-regulated was immune response. For WC-Co treated monocytes the most significantly up- and down-regulated pathways were nucleosome/chromatin assembly and immune response respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR data for a selection of the most strongly modulated genes (HMOX1, HSPA1A, HSPA1L, BNIP3, BNIP3L, ADORA2B, MT3, PLA2G7, TNFAIP6), and some additionally chosen apoptosis related genes (BCL2, BAX, FAS, FASL, TNFalpha), confirmed the microarray data after WC-Co exposure and demonstrated limited differences between the Co-containing compounds. Overall, this study provides the first analysis of gene expression induced by the WC-Co mixture showing a large profile of gene modulation and giving a preliminary indication for a hypoxia mimicking environment induced by WC-Co exposure.

  6. Optimization of superconducting tiling pattern for superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for reducing magnetic field inhomogeneities which produce rotational loss mechanisms in high temperature superconducting magnetic bearings. Magnetic field inhomogeneities are reduced by dividing high temperature superconducting structures into smaller structures, and arranging the smaller structures into tiers which stagger the magnetic field maximum locations of the smaller structures.

  7. Liquid Phase Sintering of (Ti,Zr)C with WC-Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Taoran; Borrajo-Pelaez, Rafael; Hedström, Peter; Blomqvist, Andreas; Borgh, Ida; Norgren, Susanne; Odqvist, Joakim

    2017-01-11

    (Ti,Zr)C powder was sintered with WC-Co following an industrial process, including an isotherm at 1410 °C. A series of interrupted sintering trials was performed with the aim of studying the sintering behavior and the microstructural evolution during both solid-state and liquid-state sintering. Reference samples, using the same elemental compositions but with the starting components TiC and ZrC instead of (Ti,Zr)C, were also sintered. The microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is found that the (Ti,Zr)C phase decomposes into Ti-rich and Zr-rich nano-scale lamellae before the liquid-state of the sintering initiates. The final microstructure consists of the binder and WC as well as two different γ phases, rich in either Ti (γ₁) or Zr (γ₂). The γ₂ phase grains have a core-shell structure with a (Ti,Zr)C core following the full sintering cycle. The major differences observed in (Ti,Zr)C with respect to the reference samples after the full sintering cycle were the referred core-shell structure and the carbide grain sizes; additionally, the microstructural evolution during sintering differs. The grain size of carbides (WC, γ₁, and γ₂) is about 10% smaller in WC-(Ti,Zr)C-Co than WC-TiC-ZrC-Co. The shrinkage behavior and hardness of both composites are reported and discussed.

  8. Liquid Phase Sintering of (Ti,ZrC with WC-Co

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoran Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available (Ti,ZrC powder was sintered with WC-Co following an industrial process, including an isotherm at 1410 °C. A series of interrupted sintering trials was performed with the aim of studying the sintering behavior and the microstructural evolution during both solid-state and liquid-state sintering. Reference samples, using the same elemental compositions but with the starting components TiC and ZrC instead of (Ti,ZrC, were also sintered. The microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is found that the (Ti,ZrC phase decomposes into Ti-rich and Zr-rich nano-scale lamellae before the liquid-state of the sintering initiates. The final microstructure consists of the binder and WC as well as two different γ phases, rich in either Ti (γ1 or Zr (γ2. The γ2 phase grains have a core-shell structure with a (Ti,ZrC core following the full sintering cycle. The major differences observed in (Ti,ZrC with respect to the reference samples after the full sintering cycle were the referred core-shell structure and the carbide grain sizes; additionally, the microstructural evolution during sintering differs. The grain size of carbides (WC, γ1, and γ2 is about 10% smaller in WC-(Ti,ZrC-Co than WC-TiC-ZrC-Co. The shrinkage behavior and hardness of both composites are reported and discussed.

  9. Anisotropic atomic packing model for abnormal grain growth mechanism of WC-25 wt.% Co alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoo, H.S.; Hwang, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    During liquid phase sintering, cemented carbide particles grow into either faceted or non-faceted grain shapes depending on ally system. In case of WC-Co alloy, prism-shape faceted grains with (0001) planes and {1 bar 100} planes on each face are observed, and furthermore an abnormal grain growth has been reported to occur. When abnormal grain growth occurs in WC crystals, dimension ratio, R, of the length of the side of the triangular prism face to the height of the prism is higher than 4 whereas that for normal grains is approximately 2. Abnormal grain growth in this alloy is accelerated by the fineness of starting powders and by high sintering temperature. To account for the mechanism of the abnormal grain growth, there are two proposed models which drew much research attention: nucleation and subsequent carburization and transformation of η (W 3 Co 3 C) phase into WC, and coalescence of coarse WC grains through dissolution and re-precipitation. Park et al. proposed a two-dimensional nucleation theory to explain the abnormal grain growth of faceted grains. There are questions, however, on the role of η phase on abnormal grain growth. The mechanism of coalescence of spherical grains as proposed by Kingery is also unsuitable for faceted grains. So far theories on abnormal grain growth do not provide a satisfactory explanation on the change of R value during the growth process. In the present work a new mechanism of nucleation and growth of faceted WC grains is proposed on the ground of anisotropic packing sequence of each atom

  10. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Transient photoconductivity in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mpawenayo, P.

    1997-07-01

    Localized states in amorphous semiconductors are divided in disorder induced shallow trap levels and dangling bonds deep states. Dangling bonds are assumed here to be either neutral or charged and their energy distribution is a single gaussian. Here, it is shown analytically that transient photocurrent in amorphous semiconductors is fully controlled by charge carriers transitions between localized states for one part and tunneling hopping carriers on the other. Localized dangling bonds deep states act as non radiative recombination centres, while hopping tunnelling is assisted by the Coulomb interaction between defects sites. The half-width of defects distribution is the disorder parameter that determines the carrier hopping time between defects sites. The macroscopic time that explains the long decay response times observed will all types of amorphous semiconductors is duly thought to be temperature dependent. Basic equations developed by Longeaud and Kleider are solved for the general case of a semiconductor after photo-generation. It turns out that the transient photoconductivity decay has two components; one with short response times from carriers trap-release transitions between shallow levels and extended states and a hopping component made of inter-dependent exponentials whose time constants span in larger ranges depending on disorder. The photoconductivity hopping component appears as an additional term to be added to photocurrents derived from existing models. The results of the present study explain and complete the power law decay derived in the multiple trapping models developed 20 years ago only in the approximation of the short response time regime. The long response time regime is described by the hopping macroscopic time. The present model is verified for all samples of amorphous semiconductors known so far. Finally, it is proposed to improved the modulated photoconductivity calculation techniques by including the long-lasting hopping dark documents

  12. Uranium incorporation into amorphous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Michael S; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Nelson, Joey M; Fendorf, Scott; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of uranium are commonly observed in naturally occurring amorphous silica (including opal) deposits, suggesting that incorporation of U into amorphous silica may represent a natural attenuation mechanism and promising strategy for U remediation. However, the stability of uranium in opaline silicates, determined in part by the binding mechanism for U, is an important factor in its long-term fate. U may bind directly to the opaline silicate matrix, or to materials such as iron (hydr)oxides that are subsequently occluded within the opal. Here, we examine the coordination environment of U within opaline silica to elucidate incorporation mechanisms. Precipitates (with and without ferrihydrite inclusions) were synthesized from U-bearing sodium metasilicate solutions, buffered at pH ∼ 5.6. Natural and synthetic solids were analyzed with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and a suite of other techniques. In synthetic amorphous silica, U was coordinated by silicate in a double corner-sharing coordination geometry (Si at ∼ 3.8-3.9 Å) and a small amount of uranyl and silicate in a bidentate, mononuclear (edge-sharing) coordination (Si at ∼ 3.1-3.2 Å, U at ∼ 3.8-3.9 Å). In iron-bearing synthetic solids, U was adsorbed to iron (hydr)oxide, but the coordination environment also contained silicate in both edge-sharing and corner-sharing coordination. Uranium local coordination in synthetic solids is similar to that of natural U-bearing opals that retain U for millions of years. The stability and extent of U incorporation into opaline and amorphous silica represents a long-term repository for U that may provide an alternative strategy for remediation of U contamination.

  13. Evidence of weak superconductivity at the room-temperature grown LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prawiroatmodjo, G. E. D. K.; Trier, Felix; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional electron gas at the crystalline LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (c-LAO/STO) interface has sparked large interest due to its exotic properties, including an intriguing gate-tunable superconducting phase. While there is growing evidence of pronounced spatial inhomogeneity in the conductivity at STO......-based interfaces, the consequences for superconductivity remain largely unknown. We study interfaces based on amorphous LAO top layers grown at room temperature (a-LAO/STO) and demonstrate a superconducting phase similar to c-LAO/STO, however, with a gate-tunable critical temperature of 460 mK. The dependence...... of the superconducting critical current on temperature, magnetic field, and back-gate-controlled doping is found to be consistently described by a model of a random array of Josephson-coupled superconducting domains....

  14. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  15. Defects and an unusual superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gor' kov, L.P.; Kalugin, P.A.

    1985-03-10

    If the superconducting gap in a pure material has zeros on an entire line along the Fermi surface, the state density is finite at epsilon = 0, beginning with the lowest defect concentrations. The splitting of the superconducting transition by impurities, U/sub 1-x/Th/sub x/Be/sub 13/ is discussed.

  16. Heavy-ion superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs

  17. The Danish Superconducting Cable Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...

  18. the tj model and superconductivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Perhaps that in the reason why their explanations of the superconductivity have had limited scope . A proper theory and mechanism of superconductivity in the ceramic cuprates should take account of magnetism inherent in the compounds. For the (214) compound experiment have revealed strong antiferromagnetic (AF).

  19. Exploring the potential role of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticle internalization in observed toxicity toward lung epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Andrea L; Arena, Christopher B; Li, Bingyun

    2014-07-01

    Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) has been recognized as a workplace inhalation hazard in the manufacturing, mining and drilling industries by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Exposure to WC-Co is known to cause "hard metal lung disease" but the relationship between exposure, toxicity and development of disease remain poorly understood. To better understand this relationship, the present study examined the role of WC-Co particle size and internalization on toxicity using lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that nano- and micro-WC-Co particles exerted toxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that nano-WC-Co particles caused significantly greater toxicity at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times compared to micro-WC-Co particles. WC-Co particles in the nano-size range (not micron-sized) were internalized by lung epithelial cells, which suggested that internalization may play a key role in the enhanced toxicity of nano-WC-Co particles over micro-WC-Co particles. Further exploration of the internalization process indicated that there may be multiple mechanisms involved in WC-Co internalization such as actin and microtubule based cytoskeletal rearrangements. These findings support our hypothesis that WC-Co particle internalization contributes to cellular toxicity and suggest that therapeutic treatments inhibiting particle internalization may serve as prophylactic approaches for those at risk of WC-Co particle exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploring the potential role of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticle internalization in observed toxicity toward lung epithelial cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Andrea L.; Arena, Christopher B.; Li, Bingyun

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) has been recognized as a workplace inhalation hazard in the manufacturing, mining and drilling industries by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Exposure to WC-Co is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” but the relationship between exposure, toxicity and development of disease remain poorly understood. To better understand this relationship, the present study examined the role of WC-Co particle size and internalization on toxicity using lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that nano- and micro-WC-Co particles exerted toxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that nano-WC-Co particles caused significantly greater toxicity at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times compared to micro-WC-Co particles. WC-Co particles in the nano-size range (not micron-sized) were internalized by lung epithelial cells, which suggested that internalization may play a key role in the enhanced toxicity of nano-WC-Co particles over micro-WC-Co particles. Further exploration of the internalization process indicated that there may be multiple mechanisms involved in WC-Co internalization such as actin and microtubule based cytoskeletal rearrangements. These findings support our hypothesis that WC-Co particle internalization contributes to cellular toxicity and suggests that therapeutic treatments inhibiting particle internalization may serve as prophylactic approaches for those at risk of WC-Co particle exposure. PMID:24746988

  1. Superconductivity under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K.; Shimizu, K.; Takeda, K.; Tateiwa, N.; Muramatsu, T.; Ishizuka, M.; Kobayashi, T.C

    2003-05-01

    In part 1, we review techniques developed in our laboratory for producing the complex extreme condition of very low temperature and ultra-high pressure and those for measuring electrical resistance and magnetization of the sample confined in the extremely small space of the used pressure cell. In part 2, we review our experimental results in search for pressure-induced superconductivity, which have been obtained by the use of developed techniques. Typical examples are shown in the case of simple inorganic and organic molecular crystals, ionic crystals, and magnetic metals.

  2. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rose-Innes, A C

    1978-01-01

    Introduction to Superconductivity differs from the first edition chiefly in Chapter 11, which has been almost completely rewritten to give a more physically-based picture of the effects arising from the long-range coherence of the electron-waves in superconductors and the operation of quantum interference devices. In this revised second edition, some further modifications have been made to the text and an extra chapter dealing with """"high-temperature"""" superconductors has been added. A vast amount of research has been carried out on these since their discovery in 1986 but the results, both

  3. Remarks on superconductive networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, D.; Lopez, A.R.N.; Simonin, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Some remarks on the determination of the normal-superconductor phase boundary in random superconductive networks are made. A recently reported work by Soukoulis, Grest and Li which introduces weak links between nodes as these are removed in the site percolation problem is discussed. By the analysis of two simple geometries, it is shown that this procedure introduces spurious effects which mask the physical properties of the system. These affect in particular the field slope critical index and the sharpness of the normal-superconductor boundary. (Author)

  4. Superconductivity at disordered interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The increase of the superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c) due to the tunneling of conduction electrons into negative-u centers at a disordered metal-semiconductor interface is calculated. The strong dependence of the experimental increase of Tsub(c) on the Fermi energy of the metal is accounted for by the polaronic reduction of the tunneling matrix elements. The latter reduction is dynamically suppressed by the decreasing lifetime of the localized state as Esub(F) increases. The theoretical enhancement is sufficiently strong to explain the increase of Tsub(c) observed in eutectic alloys. (author)

  5. Review of superconducting linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status of the technology of superconducting (SC) linacs designed for the acceleration of ions. The emphasis is on the technical issues involved, with only brief descriptions of the numerous linacs now in operation or under construction. Recent developments of special interest are treated in more detail, and remaining technical challenges are outlined. The technology required for acceleration of ions with velocity β ∼ 1 is not discussed because it is almost the same as for relativistic electrons. That is, this paper is mainly about SC linacs for low-velocity heavy ions. (Author) 5 tabs., 6 figs., 29 refs

  6. Precursor of color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitazawa, M. [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Koide, T.; Kunihiro, T. [Kyoto Univ., Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Nemoto, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States)

    2002-09-01

    We investigate possible precursory phenomena of color superconductivity in quark matter at finite temperature T with use of a simple Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. It is found that the fluctuating pair field exists with a prominent strength even well above the critical temperature T{sub c}. We show that the collective pair field has a complex energy located in the second Riemann sheet, which approaches the origin as T is lowered to T{sub c}. We discuss the possible relevance of the precursor to the observables to be detected in heavy ion collisions. (author)

  7. Superconductivity in nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Bezryadin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The importance and actuality of nanotechnology is unabated and will be for years to come. A main challenge is to understand the various properties of certain nanostructures, and how to generate structures with specific properties for use in actual applications in Electrical Engineering and Medicine.One of the most important structures are nanowires, in particular superconducting ones. They are highly promising for future electronics, transporting current without resistance and at scales of a few nanometers. To fabricate wires to certain defined standards however, is a major challenge, and so i

  8. Superconducting ac cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-01-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings >= 2000 MVA have been developed. The cable design especially considered was of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope and flexible hollow coaxial cable cores pulled into the former. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-Al composite wires and a HDPE-tape wrapped electrical insulation. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminations for 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of our cable design. (orig.) [de

  9. High gradient superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.

    1987-07-01

    Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed

  10. Superconducting switch and amplifier device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    An amplifying or switching superconductive device is described whose current-voltage characteristic is drastically altered by heavy injection of excess energetic quasi-particles. In this device, the superconducting bandgap of a superconducting layer is greatly altered by overinjection of energetic quasi-particles so that the bandgap changes greatly with respect to its thermal equilibrium value, and in most cases is made to vanish. In a preferred embodiment, a three electrode device is fabricated where at least one of the electrodes is a superconductor. Tunnel barriers are located between the electrodes. A first tunnel junction is used to heavily inject energetic quasi-particles into the superconducting electrode to change its superconducting bandgap drastically. In turn, this greatly modifies the currentvoltage characteristics of the second tunnel junction. This device can be used to provide logic circuits, or as an amplifier, and has an output sufficiently large that it can drive other similar devices

  11. Performance and characterisation of CVD diamond coated, sintered diamond and WC-Co cutting tools for dental and micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein, Htet; Ahmed, Waqar; Jackson, Mark; Woodwards, Robert; Polini, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Diamond coatings are attractive for cutting processes due to their high hardness, low friction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and chemical inertness. The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools was the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size 1-3 μm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates, it is necessary to etch away the surface Co and prepare the surface for subsequent diamond growth. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films. Diamond film quality and purity have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The performance of diamond coated WC-Co bur, uncoated WC-Co bur, and diamond embedded (sintered) bur have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human teeth, borosilicate glass and porcelain teeth. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools. The materials subjected to cutting processes have been examined to assess the quality of the finish. Diamond coated WC-Co microdrills and uncoated microdrills were also tested on aluminium alloys. Results show that there was a 300% improvement when the drills were coated with diamond compared to the uncoated tools

  12. A comparison of the DPSS UV laser ablation characteristic of 1024 and H10F WC-Co

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Tian Long; Chantzis, Dimitrios; Royer, Raphael; Metsios, Ioannis; Antar, Mohammad; Marimuthu, Sundar

    2017-07-01

    An investigation on ablation characteristics of 1024 and H10F cobalt cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) with a DPSS nanosecond UV laser (50 ns pulse width, 355 nm wavelength, 90 W average power and 10 kHz repetition rate) is presented. The ablation characteristic parameters such as ablation threshold, incubation effect and optical penetration depth were evaluated based on the spot ablation diameter and depth. It was observed that the ablation threshold is significantly influenced by the number of pulses (NOP) and it decreases with increase NOP which is attributed to the incubation effect. Only one ablation region is observed at low laser fluence and an additional molten ablation region is observed at high laser fluence accompanied with cracks. The cracks formation is due to the thermal induced stress and changes in WC microstructure during laser beam irradiation. The crack depth is proportional to the thickness of the molten WC region. The ablation threshold of 1024 WC-Co and H10F WC-Co were found to be Fth1 =4.32 J/cm2 and Fth1 =4.26 J/cm2 respectively. The difference in chemical composition has insignificant effect on the ablation threshold value of the material. The incubation factor and optical penetration depth values of 1024 WC-Co and H10F WC-Co were found to be ξ=0.73, α-1 =411 nm and ξ=0.75, α-1 =397 nm respectively.

  13. Tc, 2Δ0/KBTc and parameters of phonon spectrum for amorphous superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaowen

    1987-04-01

    After the correlations between superconducting parameters T C and 2Δ 0 , the parameters of the phonon spectrum, λ, , 2 > and Hall coefficient R H and between the superconducting T C and the parameters of the phonon spectrum ω 0 and /ω 0 were researched analytically. It had been found that there is a maximum of the above-mentioned both superconducting and the phonon spectrum parameters in the region of R H = -3.5 to -4.0 x 10 -11 m 3 /AS and that the materials having high ω 0 is favourable to obtain amorphous superconductors with high T C as well as that the relation between T C and the degree of the lattice disorder (i.e. /ω 0 value) is linear. On the basis of the above-mentioned results, a formula of T C and 2Δ 0 /k B T C of amorphous superconductors had been given. According to both proposed formula, it is noted for the first time that amorphous superconductor of the non-transition metals and their alloys is either a typical strong coupling superconductor which has a much larger 2 Δ 0 /k B T C than BCS theory or a extreme weak coupling superconductor which has a much smaller 2 Δ 0 /k B T C than BCS theory. Of coures, they can be also a weak coupling superconductor whose 2 Δ 0 /k B T C is consistent with BCS theory or approximate to one. The reason that the measurement value of 2 Δ 0 /k BTC of the weak coupling superconductors in the crystal state deviates obviously from BCS theory has been explained

  14. Low-temperature properties and localization effects in amorphous thin films of W-Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffy, H.; Laibowitz, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    W-Re amorphous films have been prepared with thicknesses ranging from 30 to 1000 A and with the concentration of Re between 30 and 70 at. %. The influence of thickness and related atomic disorder on the superconducting and transport properties has been studied. In particular, both the decrease of the superconducting transition temperature with increasing R/sub D'Alembertian/ and the low-field magnetoresistance are adequately described by the relevant theories of Maekawa and Fukuyama and Larkin based on the localization effect. We have also shown that the W-Re system is dominated by a strong spin-orbit effect and that e-e interaction effects are responsible for the low-temperature logarithmic increase of the resistance for low-T/sub c/ samples

  15. Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, Methods Of Making Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, And Methods Of Using Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2015-04-09

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.

  16. Topics in unconventional superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreto, Paul

    Disordered systems have been of continuing interest to condensed matter physicists. Disorder is associated with a wide range of interesting phenomena such as glassiness and localization. Superconductivity, the phase of matter in which materials conduct without dissipation, has similarly fascinated condensed matter physicists, as it is an outstanding example of the macroscopic effects of quantum mechanics. In this thesis, the interplay of superconductivity and disorder is discussed. The particular focus of this thesis is how a BCS d-wave superconductor in the quantum superconductor to metal transition can develop a global s-wave phase due to the existence of rare regions. The critical assumption of this work is that the metal is highly conducting. Though the calculations done in this thesis are all in the weak coupling framework, it is possible that this phase might be observed in the overdoped cuprates. Additionally, this thesis contains a discussion of the effect of critical nematic fluctuations on relativistic nodal quasiparticles. In this work, it is found that the nematic order increases the anisotropy in the velocity of the nodal quasiparticles and broadens the quasiparticle peaks except for a narrow wedge in momentum space near the Fermi surface where the quasiparticles remain sharp. The implications for the cuprates are discussed.

  17. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  18. Superconductivity and future accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1963-01-01

    For 50 years particle accelerators employing accelerating cavities and deflecting magnets have been developed at a prodigious rate. New accelerator concepts and hardware ensembles have yielded great improvements in performance and GeV/$. The great idea for collective acceleration resulting from intense auxiliary charged-particle beams or laser light may or may not be just around the corner. In its absence, superconductivity (SC) applied both to rf cavities and to magnets opened up the potential for very large accelerators without excessive energy consumption and with other economies, even with the cw operation desirable for colliding beams. HEP has aggressively pioneered this new technology: the Fermilab single ring 1 TeV accelerator - 2 TeV collider is near the testing stage. Brookhaven National Laboratory's high luminosity pp 2 ring 800 GeV CBA collider is well into construction. Other types of superconducting projects are in the planning stage with much background R and D accomplished. The next generation of hadron colliders under discussion involves perhaps a 20 TeV ring (or rings) with 40 TeV CM energy. This is a very large machine: even if the highest practical field B approx. 10T is used, the radius is 10x that of the Fermilab accelerator. An extreme effort to get maximum GeV/$ may be crucial even for serious consideration of funding

  19. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for diurnal load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks are being developed. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is also being developed by LASL. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch and 1-to-2-s slow tokamak energy transfer systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of an SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given for a 1-GWh reference design load-leveling unit, for a 30-MJ coil proposed stabilization unit, and for tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are also presented. The common technology base for the systems is discussed

  20. Overview on superconducting photoinjectors

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, A

    2011-01-01

    The success of most of the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR) and high power IR–free-electron lasers (FELs) largely depends on the development of an appropriate source. For example, to meet the FEL specifications [J.W. Lewellen, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5534, 22 (2004)] electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1 µmrad), and high average current (hundreds of mA) are required. An elegant way to create a beam of such quality is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting rf photoinjector with the superconducting technology, i.e., to build a superconducting rf photoinjector (SRF gun). SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches have been launched at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University). Substantial progress was achieved in recent years and the first long term ...

  1. Superconducting composites materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerjouan, P.; Boterel, F.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J.P.; Haussonne, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The new superconductor materials with a high critical current own a large importance as well in the electronic components or in the electrotechnical devices fields. The deposit of such materials with the thick films technology is to be more and more developed in the years to come. Therefore, we tried to realize such thick films screen printed on alumina, and composed mainly of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ material. We first realized a composite material glass/YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ , by analogy with the classical screen-printed inks where the glass ensures the bonding with the substrate. We thus realized different materials by using some different classes of glass. These materials owned a superconducting transition close to the one of the pure YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ material. We made a slurry with the most significant composite materials and binders, and screen-printed them on an alumina substrate preliminary or not coated with a diffusion barrier layer. After firing, we studied the thick films adhesion, the alumina/glass/composite material interfaces, and their superconducting properties. 8 refs.; 14 figs.; 9 tabs [fr

  2. Small-sized and contacting Pt-WC nanostructures on graphene as highly efficient anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruihong; Xie, Ying; Shi, Keying; Wang, Jianqiang; Tian, Chungui; Shen, Peikang; Fu, Honggang

    2012-06-11

    The synergistic effect between Pt and WC is beneficial for methanol electro-oxidation, and makes Pt-WC catalyst a promising anode candidate for the direct methanol fuel cell. This paper reports on the design and synthesis of small-sized and contacting Pt-WC nanostructures on graphene that bring the synergistic effect into full play. Firstly, DFT calculations show the existence of a strong covalent interaction between WC and graphene, which suggests great potential for anchoring WC on graphene with formation of small-sized, well-dispersed WC particles. The calculations also reveal that, when Pt attaches to the pre-existing WC/graphene hybrid, Pt particles preferentially grow on WC rather than graphene. Our experiments confirmed that highly disperse WC nanoparticles (ca. 5 nm) can indeed be anchored on graphene. Also, Pt particles 2-3 nm in size are well dispersed on WC/graphene hybrid and preferentially grow on WC grains, forming contacting Pt-WC nanostructures. These results are consistent with the theoretical findings. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy further confirms the intimate contact between Pt and WC, and demonstrates that the presence of WC can facilitate the crystallinity of Pt particles. This new Pt-WC/graphene catalyst exhibits a high catalytic efficiency toward methanol oxidation, with a mass activity 1.98 and 4.52 times those of commercial PtRu/C and Pt/C catalysts, respectively. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hydrogen in disordered and amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambakidis, G; Bowman, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topoics: elements of the theory of amorphous semiconductors; electronic structure of alpha-SiH; fluctuation induced gap states in amorphous hydrogenated silicon; hydrogen on semiconductor surfaces; the influence of hydrogen on the defects and instabilities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon; deuteron magnetic resonance in some amorphous semiconductors; formation of amorphous metals by solid state reactions of hydrogen with an intermetallic compound; NMR studies of the hydrides of disordered and amorphous alloys; neutron vibrational spectroscopy of disordered metal-hydrogen system; dynamical disorder of hydrogen in LaNi /SUB 5-y/ M /SUB y/ hydrides studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering; recent studies of intermetallic hydrides; tritium in Pd and Pd /SUB 0.80/ Sg /SUB 0.20/ ; and determination of hydrogen concentration in thin films of absorbing materials

  4. Laser irradiation effects in crystalline and amorphous YBaCuO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, S. J.; Jung, G.; Okunev, V. D.; Samoilenko, Z. A.; Isaev, V. A.; Abaloshev, A.; Gierlowski, P.; Klimov, A.; Barbanera, S.

    2000-11-01

    We have conducted a systematic study of the effects of laser irradiation on the properties of crystalline and amorphous YBaCuO thin films obtained by laser deposition. The irradiation experiments were mainly performed with a KrF and XeCl pulsed (25 ns) excimer lasers producing energy densities of the order of 0.1 J/cm2, but we used also Cu vapor green and Ar ion blue lasers with medium power output. In all cases the irradiation produced irreversible changes in the investigated samples. We measured structural, optical and transport properties of the irradiated films. After high dose laser treatment of crystalline (orthorombic) films their superconducting properties as a rule deteriorated, but even small dose was sufficient for a marked improvement of surface smoothness. The response of amorphous films was more complex, dependent on the substrate and relied on the presence of crystalline clusters embedded in the amorphous matrix. X-ray diffraction studies of amorphous films revealed structural transformations caused by the interaction with laser light, and the results of optical spectroscopic measurements lead to interesting conclusions concerning the band structure in the investigated materials. Photon assisted structural transformations are suggested as the possible explanation of the observed effects.

  5. Evaluation of fatigue crack growth characteristics of WC-Co cemented carbides; WC-Co choko gokin no hiro kiretsu shinten tokusei no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Y.; Boo, M. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Science; Kishi, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Park, Y. [Dong-A University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    The fatigue crack growth tests of WC-Co Cemented Carbides were carried out in a wide range of fatigue crack growth rate covering the threshold stress intensity factor range {Delta} Kth. The effects of the stress ratio, Co volume fraction and the phase transformation of Co on the fatigue crack growth characteristics were investigated on the basis of fracture mechanics and fractography. The crack growth rate was measured using 3-point bending specimens. Crack growth tests were carried out at 10 HZ and the stress ratio R=0.1 and 0.5. The main results obtained are as follows; (1) The Paris rule can be applied between da/dN and{Delta}K and it is shown to be da/dN=C({Delta}K){sup m}. (2) The fractography of the fracture surface, shows that brittle fracture occurs in the Co binder phase at the stress rate R = 0.1 but ductile fracture occurs in the Co binder phase at R= 0.5. (3) The relation of da/dn-{Delta}Keff / E of WC-Co cemented carbides shows the characteristic in the middle of the other metals and the alumina ceramics. (4) The Co binder phase undergoes phase transformation by repeated deformation and so it affects the characteristics delicately. 22 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. The physics and applications of amorphous semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Madan, Arun

    1988-01-01

    This comprehensive, detailed treatise on the physics and applications of the new emerging technology of amorphous semiconductors focuses on specific device research problems such as the optimization of device performance. The first part of the book presents hydrogenated amorphous silicon type alloys, whose applications include inexpensive solar cells, thin film transistors, image scanners, electrophotography, optical recording and gas sensors. The second part of the book discusses amorphous chalcogenides, whose applications include electrophotography, switching, and memory elements. This boo

  7. Polyamorphous transition in amorphous fullerites C70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, P. A.; Agafonov, S. S.; Glazkov, V. P.; D’yakonova, N. P.; Somenkov, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Samples of amorphous fullerites C 70 have been obtained by mechanical activation (grinding in a ball mill). The structure of the samples has been investigated by neutron and X-ray diffraction. The high-temperature (up to 1200°C) annealing of amorphous fullerites revealed a polyamorphous transition from molecular to atomic glass, which is accompanied by the disappearance of fullerene halos at small scattering angles. Possible structural versions of the high-temperature amorphous phase are discussed.

  8. Operational Merits of Maritime Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.; Bosklopper, J. J.; van der Meij, K. H.

    The perspective of superconductivity to transfer currents without loss is very appealing in high power applications. In the maritime sector many machines and systems exist in the roughly 1-100 MW range and the losses are well over 50%, which calls for dramatic efficiency improvements. This paper reports on three studies that aimed at the perspectives of superconductivity in the maritime sector. It is important to realize that the introduction of superconductivity comprises two technology transitions namely firstly electrification i.e. the transition from mechanical drives to electric drives and secondly the transition from normal to superconductive electrical machinery. It is concluded that superconductivity does reduce losses, but its impact on the total energy chain is of little significance compared to the investments and the risk of introducing a very promising but as yet not proven technology in the harsh maritime environment. The main reason of the little impact is that the largest losses are imposed on the system by the fossil fueled generators as prime movers that generate the electricity through mechanical torque. Unless electric power is supplied by an efficient and reliable technology that does not involve mechanical torque with the present losses both normal as well as superconductive electrification of the propulsion will hardly improve energy efficiency or may even reduce it. One exception may be the application of degaussing coils. Still appealing merits of superconductivity do exist, but they are rather related to the behavior of superconductive machines and strong magnetic fields and consequently reduction in volume and mass of machinery or (sometimes radically) better performance. The merits are rather convenience, design flexibility as well as novel applications and capabilities which together yield more adequate systems. These may yield lower operational costs in the long run, but at present the added value of superconductivity rather seems more

  9. Modelizacion de la formación de recubrimientos de WC-Co por proyección HVOF sobre sustratos de cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobolev, V. V.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Present paper deals with the mathematical simulation of the heat transfer between a WC-Co coating and a copper substrate during HVOF spraying. This modelling includes the investigation of temperature variation, coating solidification, melting and subsequent solidification in the substrate interfacial region and specific features of the substrate-coating thermal interaction. The results obtained are used for modelling of the development of the coating structure and adhesion during HVOF spraying of the WC-Co powder on a copper substrate. Two types of substrate were considered: smooth (polished and rough. Variations of solidification times, solidification velocity, thermal gradient and cooling velocity in the coating and substrate interfacial region are studied. Development of the amorphous and crystalline structures in the coating and of the crystalline structure in the substrate interfacial region is discussed. Behaviour of the crystal size and intercrystalline distance with respect to the thermal spray parameters and morphology of the substrate surface is analyzed. Optimal conditions for the formation of fine and dense crystalline structure are determined. Structural changes in the solid state of the substrate occurring because of heating and rapid cooling are considered. Mechanical and thermal mechanisms of development of the substrate-coating adhesion are discussed. Results obtained agree well with experimental data.

    En el presente trabajo se ha investigado la simulación matemática de la transferencia de calor entre un recubrimiento de WC-Co y un sustrato de cobre durante la proyección HVOF. Este modelo incluye el estudio de la variación de termperatura, solidificación del recubrimiento, la fusión y posterior solidificación en la región interfacial del sustrato, y caracerísticas especiales de la interacción térmica sustrato- recubrimiento. Los resultados obtenidos han sido utilizados en la modelización del desarrollo de la

  10. Structure and Abrasive Wear of Composite HSS M2/WC Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Gnyusov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of phase-structure formation and abrasive wear resistance of composite coatings “WC-M2 steel” worn against tungsten monocarbide have been investigated. It was established that adding 20 wt.% WC to the deposited powder mixture leads to the increase in M6C carbide content. These carbides show a multimodal size distribution consisting of ~5.9 μm eutectic carbides along the grain boundaries, ~0.25 μm carbides dispersed inside the grains. Also a greater amount of metastable austenite (~88 vol.% is found. The high abrasive wear resistance of these coatings is provided by γ→α′-martensitic transformation and multimodal size distribution of reinforcing particles.

  11. Experimental investigation of surface quality in ultrasonic machining of WC-Co composites through Taguchi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Pabla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In manufacturing industries, the demand of WC-Co composite is flourishing because of the distinctive characteristics it offers such as: toughness (with hardness, good dimensional stability, higher mechanical strength etc. However, the difficulties in its machining restrict the application and competitiveness of this material. The current article has been targeted at evaluation of the effect of process conditions (varying power rating, cobalt content, tool material, part thickness, tool geometry, and size of abrasive particle on surface roughness in ultrasonic drilling of WC-Co composite. Results showed that abrasive grit size is most influential factor. From the microstructure analysis, the mode of material deformation has been observed and the parameters, i.e. work material properties, grit size, and power rating was revealed as the most crucial for the deformation mode.

  12. Interfacial reaction in cast WC particulate reinforced titanium metal matrix composites coating produced by laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dejian; Hu, Peipei; Min, Guoqing

    2015-06-01

    Laser injection of ceramic particle was conducted to produce particulate reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Cast WC particle (WCp) was used as injection reinforcement to avoid excessive release of carbon atoms into the melt pool. The interfaces and boundaries between WC and Ti matrix were investigated by electron microscopy study. Compared with single crystal WCp, cast WCp was an appropriate solution to control the reaction products (TiC) in the matrix and the total amount of reaction products was significantly reduced. Irregular-shape reaction layers were formed around cast WCp. The reaction layers consist of a W2C layer and a mixed layer of W and TiC. Such reaction layers are effective in load transfer under an external load.

  13. Cross-sectional AEM preparation technique for ceramic-coated WC-Co cutting tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostreicher, K; Sung, C

    1993-04-15

    The preparation of cross-sectional specimens for AEM studies of materials such as ceramic coated tungsten carbide presents some unique problems. Pieces joined by the use of epoxides often separate at the interface between the WC and ceramic coating during the initial mechanical grinding and subsequent thinning process as a result of the vibration and physical strain placed on the sample. These problems have been overcome through the use of a preparation process which essentially encapsulates the sample within the confines of an epoxy filled quartz tube. This preparation process has allowed for facile AEM cross-sectional analysis of TiN/TiCN coatings on WC-Co substrates, and has revealed two distinct grain morphologies within the TiCN coating.

  14. The effect of laser treatment of WC-Co coatings on their failure under thermal cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasterov, Artur; Shugurov, Artur; Kazachenok, Marina; Panin, Alexey; Cheng, Chin-Hsiang; Chang, I.-Ling

    2016-11-01

    The given paper studies the effect of surface laser treatment of WC-Co coatings on their surface morphology, phase composition and thermal cycling behavior. The coatings were sprayed on stainless steel substrates with the use of a high velocity oxy fuel spraying process. Application of the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that re-melting of the coating surface layer during laser treatment induced changes in its phase composition as well as the formation of regular rows of globular asperities on the coating surface. The latter resulted in a sharp increase in thermal shock resistance of the laser treated WC-Co coatings under water quench tests; its underlying mechanism are proposed and discussed in the paper.

  15. Amorphous silicon based radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Qureshi, S.; Wildermuth, D.; Fujieda, I.; Street, R.A.

    1991-07-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin(1 μm) and thick (>30μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and γ rays. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. 13 refs., 7 figs

  16. Signatures of topological superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yang

    2017-07-19

    The prediction and experimental discovery of topological insulators brought the importance of topology in condensed matter physics into the limelight. Topology hence acts as a new dimension along which more and more new states of matter start to emerge. One of these topological states of matter, namely topological superconductors, comes into the focus because of their gapless excitations. These gapless excitations, especially in one dimensional topological superconductors, are Majorana zero modes localized at the ends of the superconductor and exhibit exotic nonabelian statistics, which can be potentially applied to fault-tolerant quantum computation. Given their highly interesting physical properties and potential applications to quantum computation, both theorists and experimentalists spend great efforts to realize topological supercondoctors and to detect Majoranas. In two projects within this thesis, we investigate the properties of Majorana zero modes in realistic materials which are absent in simple theoretical models. We find that the superconducting proximity effect, an essential ingredient in all existing platforms for topological superconductors, plays a significant role in determining the localization property of the Majoranas. Strong proximity coupling between the normal system and the superconducting substrate can lead to strongly localized Majoranas, which can explain the observation in a recent experiment. Motivated by experiments in Molenkamp's group, we also look at realistic quantum spin Hall Josephson junctions, in which charge puddles acting as magnetic impurities are coupled to the helical edge states. We find that with this setup, the junction generically realizes an exotic 8π periodic Josephson effect, which is absent in a pristine Josephson junction. In another two projects, we propose more pronounced signatures of Majoranas that are accessible with current experimental techniques. The first one is a transport measurement, which uses

  17. PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J.; Turner, E.N.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60 degrees F but insoluble in water above 90 degrees F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL's Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination

  18. Machinability and scratch wear resistance of carbon-coated WC inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazhanivel, B., E-mail: palcecri@yahoo.co.in; Kumar, T. Prem; Sozhan, G.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Cemented WC inserts were coated with carbon by CVD. • The deposits were either loosely held MWCNTs or adherent carbides. • Co-efficient of friction (ramp load; 1–13 N); 0.2 and 0.1 μ, respectively, for the uncoated and carbide-coated inserts. • The carbide-coated insert exhibited better machinability and surface finish than a commercial TiCN-coated insert. - Abstract: In this work, cemented tungsten carbide (WC) inserts were coated with nanocarbons/carbides by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and their machinability and scratch wear resistance were investigated. The hardness and surface conditions of the WC substrate were studied before and after coating. The CVD-generated nanocarbons on the insert surfaces were examined by SEM, FE-SEM and TEM. The electron microscopic images revealed that the carbons generated were multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or carbides depending on the experimental conditions. In both the cases, the cutting edges of the inserts had dense deposits. Scratch wear test with the coated inserts showed that the co-efficient of friction was 0.1 μ as against 0.2 μ for the uncoated inserts under a ramp load of 1–13 N. The machinability characteristics of commercially available TiCN-coated inserts and the carbon-coated WC inserts were compared by using a CNC machine and a Rapid I vision inspection system. It was found that the carbide-coated inserts exhibited machinability with better surface finish comparable to that of the TiCN-coated inserts while the MWCNT-coated inserts showed inferior adhesion properties.

  19. Associations between depression and different measures of obesity (BMI, WC, WHtR, WHR)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiltink, J?rg; Michal, Matthias; Wild, Philipp S; Zwiener, Isabella; Blettner, Maria; M?nzel, Thomas; Schulz, Andreas; Kirschner, Yvonne; Beutel, Manfred E

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that abdominal obesity is a more important risk factor for the prognosis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than BMI. Somatic-affective symptoms of depression have also been linked to cardiovascular risk. The relationship between obesity and depression, however, has remained contradictory. Our aim was therefore to relate body mass index (BMI) and different measures for abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC, waist-to-hip ratio, WHR, waist-to-heig...

  20. Nano- and microcrystalline diamond deposition on pretreated WC-Co substrates: structural properties and adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, M. A.; Contin, A.; Rodríguez, L. A. A.; Vieira, J.; Campos, R. A.; Corat, E. J.; Trava Airoldi, V. J.

    2016-02-01

    Many developments have been made to improve the quality and adherence of CVD diamond films onto WC-Co hard metal tools by the removing the cobalt from the substrate surface through substrate pretreatments. Here we compare the efficiency of three chemical pretreatments of WC-Co substrates for this purpose. First, the work was focused on a detailed study of the composition and structure of as-polished and pretreated substrate surfaces to characterize the effects of the substrate preparation. Considering this objective, a set of WC-9% Co substrates, before and after pretreatment, was analyzed by FEG-SEM, EDS and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The second stage of the work was devoted to the evaluation of the influence of seeding process, using 4 nm diamond nanoparticles, on the morphology and roughness of the pretreated substrates. The last and most important stage was to deposit diamond coatings with different crystallite sizes (nano and micro) by hot-filament CVD to understand fully the mechanism of growth and adhesion of CVD diamond films on pretreated WC-Co substrates. The transition from nano to microcrystalline diamond was achieved by controlling the CH4/H2 gas ratio. The nano and microcrystalline samples were grown under same time at different substrate temperatures 600 °C and 800 °C, respectively. The different substrate temperatures allowed the analysis of the cobalt diffusion from the bulk to the substrate surface during CVD film growth. Furthermore, it was possible to evaluate how the coating adhesion is affected by the diffusion. The diamond coatings were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, XRD, EDS, FEG-SEM, atomic force microscope and 1500 N Rockwell indentation to evaluate the adhesion.

  1. Characteristics of dissimilar laser-brazed joints of isotropic graphite to WC-Co alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatsuka, Kimiaki, E-mail: nagatuka@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Joining and Welding Research Institute, 11-1, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Sechi, Yoshihisa, E-mail: sechi@kagoshima-it.go.jp [Kagoshima Prefectural Institute of Industrial Technology, 1445-1 Oda, Hayato-cho, Kirishima, Kagoshima 899-5105 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yoshinari, E-mail: y_miyamoto@toyotanso.co.jp [Toyo Tanso Co., Ltd., 5-7-12 Takeshima, Nishiyodgawa-ku, Osaka 555-0011 (Japan); Nakata, Kazuhiro, E-mail: nakata@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2012-04-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti was required in the filler metal for brazing graphite to WC-Co alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shear strength of the joint increased with Ti content up to 1.7 mass%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti concentrated at the interface of graphite/filler metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiC was formed at the interface of graphite/filler metal. - Abstract: The effect of Ti serving as an activator in a eutectic Ag-Cu alloy filler metal in dissimilar laser-brazed joints of isotropic graphite and a WC-Co alloy on the joint strength and the interface structure of the joint is investigated in this study. To evaluate the joint characteristics, the Ti content in the filler metal was increased from 0 to 2.8 mass%. The laser brazing was carried out by irradiating a laser beam selectively on the WC-Co alloy plate in Ar atmosphere. The threshold content of Ti required to join isotropic graphite to WC-Co alloy was 0.4 mass%. The shear strength at the brazed joint increased rapidly with increasing Ti content up to 1.7 mass%, and a higher Ti content was found to be likely to saturate the shear strength to a constant value of about 14 MPa. The isotropic graphite blocks also fractured at this content. The concentration of Ti observed at the interface between isotropic graphite and the filler metal indicates the formation of an intermetallic layer of TiC.

  2. Effects of microstructure on the erosion of WC-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, H.; McCabe, D.; Sargent, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates the erosion of cemented WC-Co alloys containing 6 to 10.5 wt.% Co and with mean WC particle sizes from 0.9 to 5.1 μm using a sandblaster-type erosion tester employing 240 grit Al 2 O 3 particles at velocities of 20 to 99 ms -1 and impingement angles of 15 0 to 90 0 . Discusses hardness, erosion, effects of particle impingement angle and velocity, effects of microstructure, SEM observations, and erosion mechanisms. Concludes that maximum erosion occurred for near 90 0 , typical of the erosion of brittle materials; the velocity exponent n of erosion ranged between 1.9 and 3.7 with the higher values of n occurring for the lower velocities and impingement angles and the lower values at the higher velocities and impingement angles; SEM micrographs of the eroded surfaces showed highly distorted structure near the surface, cracking of carbide grains, protrusion of carbide grains and shadowing by carbide grains at shallow impingement angles; the erosion rate decreased with increase in WC size d at low velocities and increased with volume fraction of Co; and some correlation was found with the elastic-plastic fracture models for the tests at low velocities, and the correlation at higher velocities was more in accord with an elastic Hertzian fracture model

  3. TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF TiBx AND WC/C COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER KÚŠ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tribological properties of TiBx and WC/C coatings have been studied using the ball-on-disc method at room and elevated temperatures in air to investigate their behavior under conditions approaching high performance dry cutting. The average room temperature coefficients of friction (COF of both nanocomposite DC magnetron sputtered TiBx coatings and PECVD WC/C coatings were in the range 0.2-0.6. The lowest value of TiBx coatings of 0.16 was achieved in case of prefferentially oriented stuctures deposited at the highest negative bias. The lowest COF of WC/C was around 0.11. The increase of testing temperature to 450°C caused the increase of COF up to approximately 0.7-0.8. The experiments at elevated temperatures suggest the existence of the oxide transfer film with higher COF than that of the sliding contact without the film. Although both coating systems have relatively high COF values at elevated temperatures, they exhibit elements of some adaptive behavior.

  4. Chemical reactivity of PVD-coated WC-Co tools with steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, S. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Huang, S.G. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van der Biest, O. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Vleugels, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)]. E-mail: jozef.vleugels@mtm.kuleuven.be

    2007-01-30

    The chemical reactivity of CrN, ZrN, TiC {sub x}N{sub 1-x} and naCo (registered) PVD coatings on a WC-Co cemented carbide substrate with steel has been evaluated by means of the static interaction couples technique. Diffusion experiments with coated and uncoated tools were carried out at 900, 1100 and 1300 deg. C in order to establish the maximum temperature at which the substrate-coating-workpiece combinations are chemically stable. Computational equilibrium thermodynamics was used to identify the interaction products formed at elevated temperature and the chemical solubility of the different coating materials into iron. A metallic (Fe, Co) fcc solid solution was identified at the steel side of the interface from 1100 deg. C on for all the coated tools and from 900 deg. C for the uncoated carbide. In addition to this interaction product, the {eta}-carbide was identified at 1300 deg. C on the WC-Co side of the interface. Both of the experimental findings and thermodynamic equilibrium solubility calculations demonstrated that the PVD-coated WC-Co tools exhibit a lower chemical reactivity with respect to the uncoated tools.

  5. Superconducting Hadron Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the main building blocks of a superconducting (SC) linac, the choice of SC resonators, their frequencies, accelerating gradients and apertures, focusing structures, practical aspects of cryomodule design, and concepts to minimize the heat load into the cryogenic system. It starts with an overview of design concepts for all types of hadron linacs differentiated by duty cycle (pulsed or continuous wave) or by the type of ion species (protons, H-, and ions) being accelerated. Design concepts are detailed for SC linacs in application to both light ion (proton, deuteron) and heavy ion linacs. The physics design of SC linacs, including transverse and longitudinal lattice designs, matching between different accelerating–focusing lattices, and transition from NC to SC sections, is detailed. Design of high-intensity SC linacs for light ions, methods for the reduction of beam losses, preventing beam halo formation, and the effect of HOMs and errors on beam quality are discussed. Examples are ta...

  6. Superconducting coil protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    The protection system is based on a two-phase construction program. Phase I is the development of a reliable hardwired relay control system with a digital loop utilizing firmware and a microprocessor controller. Phase II is an expansion of the digital loop to include many heretofore unmonitored coil variables. These new monitored variables will be utilized to establish early quench detection and to formulate confirmation techniques of the quench detection mechanism. Established quench detection methods are discussed and a new approach to quench detection is presented. The new circuit is insensitive to external pulsed magnetic fields and the associated induced voltages. Reliability aspects of the coil protection system are discussed with respect to shutdowns of superconducting coil systems. Redundance and digital system methods are presented as related topics

  7. The LHC superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Häbel, E; Kindermann, H P; Losito, R; Marque, S; Rödel, V; Stirbet, M

    1999-01-01

    The LHC RF system, which must handle high intensity (0.5 A d.c.) beams, makes use of superconducting single-cell cavities, best suited to minimizing the effects of periodic transient beam loading. There will be eight cavities per beam, each capable of delivering 2 MV (5 MV/m accelerating field) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industry, using niobium-on-copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A cavity unit includes a helium tank (4.5 K operating temperature) built around a cavity cell, RF and HOM couplers and a mechanical tuner, all housed in a modular cryostat. Four-unit modules are ultimately foreseen for the LHC (two per beam), while at present a prototype version with two complete units is being extensively tested. In addition to a detailed description of the cavity and its ancillary equipment, the first test results of the prototype will be reported.

  8. Superconducting pulsed magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mechanisms and calculation of total losses in the magnet. The need for cooling to minimize temperature rise in a magnet. Measuring ac losses in wires and in magnets. Lecture 5. Stab...

  9. Validation of HVOF WC/Co Thermal Spray Coatings as a Replacement for Hard Chrome Plating on Aircraft Landing Gear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sartwell, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    .... This document constitutes the final report on a project to quality high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray WC/Co coatings as a replacement for hard chrome plating on landing gear components...

  10. Adsorption and reaction of CO and H2O on WC(0001) surface: A first-principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu-Jhe; Wu, Shiuan-Yau; Chen, Hsin-Tsung

    2018-01-01

    We have performed a spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) study for understanding the detailed reaction mechanism of CO and H2O on WC (0001) surface. The adsorption properties and vibrational frequencies of H2O, OH, O, H, CO and CO2 on the WC (0001) surface were illustrated. These results are well in consistent with the experimental observations studied by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). Based on the adsorption results, potential energy profiles of H2O and OH dehydrogenation and HCO, COH, COOH, and CO2 formation on the WC (0001) surface were predicted. The calculation results demonstrated that the WC (0001) surface as Fe (110) surface exhibits significantly reaction activity toward the dehydrogenation of H2O and OH but less activity toward the formation of HCO, COH, COOH and CO2 compared to the Cu (111) and Pt (111) surfaces.

  11. Overview on superconducting photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arnold

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of most of the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR and high power IR–free-electron lasers (FELs largely depends on the development of an appropriate source. For example, to meet the FEL specifications [J. W. Lewellen, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5534, 22 (2004PSISDG0277-786X10.1117/12.557378] electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1  μmrad, and high average current (hundreds of mA are required. An elegant way to create a beam of such quality is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting rf photoinjector with the superconducting technology, i.e., to build a superconducting rf photoinjector (SRF gun. SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches have been launched at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University. Substantial progress was achieved in recent years and the first long term operation was demonstrated at FZD [R. Xiang et al., in Proceedings of the 31st International Free Electron Laser Conference (FEL 09, Liverpool, UK (STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, 2009, p. 488]. In the near future SRF guns are expected to play an important role for linac-driven FEL facilities. In this paper we will review the concepts, the design parameters, and the status of the major SRF gun projects.

  12. A comparative study on wear behavior of TiN and diamond coated WC-Co substrates against hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarthy, G.V. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Chandran, Maneesh, E-mail: maneesh@physics.iitm.ac.in [Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Bhattacharya, S.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Rao, M.S. Ramachandra [Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India); Kamaraj, M., E-mail: kamaraj@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036 (India)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wear behaviors of diamond/WC-Co, TiN/WC-Co and WC-Co against Al-Si were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both TiN and diamond coatings were done using chemical vapor deposition technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction and sliding wear properties were characterized using a pin-on-disc method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond coated WC-Co pins showed one order less wear loss than bare WC-Co pins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A weight gain was observed for the TiN coated WC-Co pins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Average coefficient of friction was lowest for the diamond coated WC-Co pins. - Abstract: The demand for better tools for machining hypereutectic aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are increasing day by day since the extensive use of these alloys in internal combustion engines. In addition to the lifetime of the machining tool, surface finish of the machined piece is also equally important, as it directly affects the performance of the engine. In this paper, we compared the wear behavior of bare tungsten carbide (WC-Co), titanium nitride (TiN) coated WC-Co and diamond coated WC-Co substrates against Al-Si alloys using pin-on-disc method. Both TiN and diamond coatings were done using chemical vapor deposition technique. Diamond coated WC-Co substrates show one order less wear loss compared to the bare WC-Co substrates. Instead of weight loss, a weight gain was observed for the TiN coated WC-Co substrates. Average coefficient of friction was lowest for the diamond coated WC-Co substrates due to the different wear behavior of diamond coated tribological system, which is explained in detail.

  13. Studies of hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, S G; Carlos, W E

    1984-07-01

    This report discusses the results of probing the defect structure and bonding of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films using both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron spin resonance (ESR). The doping efficiency of boron in a-Si:H was found to be less than 1%, with 90% of the boron in a threefold coordinated state. On the other hand, phosphorus NMR chemical shift measurements yielded a ration of threefold to fourfold P sites of roughly 4 to 1. Various resonance lines were observed in heavily boron- and phosphorus-doped films and a-SiC:H alloys. These lines were attributed to band tail states on twofold coordinated silicon. In a-SiC:H films, a strong resonance was attributed to dangling bonds on carbon atoms. ESR measurements on low-pressure chemical-vapor-deposited (LPCVD) a-Si:H were performed on samples. The defect density in the bulk of the films was 10/sup 17//cc with a factor of 3 increase at the surface of the sample. The ESR spectrum of LPCVD-prepared films was not affected by prolonged exposure to strong light. Microcrystalline silicon samples were also examined. The phosphorus-doped films showed a strong signal from the crystalline material and no resonance from the amorphous matrix. This shows that phosphorus is incorporated in the crystals and is active as a dopant. No signal was recorded from the boron-doped films.

  14. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  15. The central question in superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    I will argue that the most basic and fundamental question in superconductivity is: when a superconductor in a magnetic field goes normal, how does the supercurrent stop? The supercurrent has to stop before the material becomes resistive because the transition is reversible in an ideal situation, with no Joule heat dissipated. I will argue that the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity cannot answer this question. I will propose an answer to this question that requires that there is flow and counterflow of charge across the normal-superconductor phase boundary, and requires that the normal state current carriers have hole-like character. The conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity does not have these physical elements, the theory of hole superconductivity does.

  16. Superconductivity in all its states

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    Temporary exhibition at the Saint-Genis-Pouilly Tourist Office. For the 100th anniversary of its discovery, take a plunge into the amazing world of superconductivity. Some materials, when cooled down to extreme temperatures, acquire a remarkable property -  they become superconducting. Superconductivity is a rare example of a quantum effect that can be witnessed on the macroscopic scale and is today at the heart of much research. In laboratories, researchers try to gain a better understanding of its origins, study new superconducting materials, explore the phenomenon at the nanometric scale and pursue their indefatigable search for new applications. Monday to Friday: 09:00 a.m. to 12:00 and 2:30 p.m. to 6:30 p.m. Saturday: 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon » Open to all – Admission free For further information: +33 (0)4 50 42 29 37

  17. Recent advances in fullerene superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Margadonna, S

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting transition temperatures in bulk chemically intercalated fulleride salts reach 33 K at ambient pressure and in hole-doped C sub 6 sub 0 derivatives in field-effect-transistor (FET) configurations, they reach 117 K. These advances pose important challenges for our understanding of high-temperature superconductivity in these highly correlated organic metals. Here we review the structures and properties of intercalated fullerides, paying particular attention to the correlation between superconductivity and interfullerene separation, orientational order/disorder, valence state, orbital degeneracy, low-symmetry distortions, and metal-C sub 6 sub 0 interactions. The metal-insulator transition at large interfullerene separations is discussed in detail. An overview is also given of the exploding field of gate-induced superconductivity of fullerenes in FET electronic devices.

  18. Superconducting materials and fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, M.O.; Magnier, C.

    1989-01-01

    A fine powder of superconducting material is obtained from an aqueous solution of rare earth, alkaline earth metal and transition metal nitrates and/or acetates which is dried by atomization, calcined and eventually crushed [fr

  19. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to 6...

  20. Positron annihilation in superconductive metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekhtjar, I.J.

    1969-03-10

    A correlation is shown between the parameters of superconductive metals and those of positron annihilation. Particular attention is paid to the density states obtained from the electron specific heat.

  1. Superconductivity in Layered Organic Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wosnitza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, I will give an overview on the current understanding of the superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic metals. Thereby, I will focus on charge-transfer salts based on bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET for short. In these materials, strong electronic correlations are clearly evident, resulting in unique phase diagrams. The layered crystallographic structure leads to highly anisotropic electronic as well as superconducting properties. The corresponding very high orbital critical field for in-plane magnetic-field alignment allows for the occurrence of the Fulde–Ferrell– Larkin–Ovchinnikov state as evidenced by thermodynamic measurements. The experimental picture on the nature of the superconducting state is still controversial with evidence both for unconventional as well as for BCS-like superconductivity.

  2. Superconducting linacs used with tandems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1984-01-01

    The main features of superconducting linacs used as post-accelerators of tandems are reviewed. Various aspects of resonators, cryogenics and electronics are discussed, and recent advances in the field are presented. (orig.)

  3. The superconducting bending magnets 'CESAR'

    CERN Document Server

    Pérot, J

    1978-01-01

    In 1975, CERN decided to build two high precision superconducting dipoles for a beam line in the SPS north experimental area. The aim was to determine whether superconducting magnets of the required accuracy and reliability can be built and what their economies and performances in operation will be. Collaboration between CERN and CAE /SACLAY was established in order to make use of the knowledge and experience already acquired in the two laboratories. (0 refs).

  4. Transient stability of superconducting alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuyama, M.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A simulation study is performed for the purpose of determining the transient stability characteristics of superconducting alternators. This simulation is compared with an equal area criterion method. It is found that superconducting machines have good transient stability characteristics, that field forcing is not particularly helpful nor necessary. It is also found that the equal area criterion is useful for computing critical clearing times, if voltage behind subtransient reactance is held constant. (U.S.)

  5. Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer (SQOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-05

    has photon loss in the optical fibre would appear has an effective T1 process and destroy any entanglement. 2.2.3 TEMPORAL MODE FILTER FUNCTION To...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The SQOT (Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer) project proposes to build a novel electro- optic system which can...exchange quantum information between optical qubits at telecom frequencies and superconducting qubits. A direct quantum information transfer between

  6. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  7. Superconductivity in domains with corners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnaillie-Noel, Virginie; Fournais, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau functional in a domain with corners for exterior magnetic field strengths near the critical field where the transition from the superconducting to the normal state occurs. We discuss and clarify the definition of this field and obtain a complete...... asymptotic expansion for it in the large $\\kappa$ regime. Furthermore, we discuss nucleation of superconductivity at the boundary....

  8. Conceptual design report: superconducting booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Superconducting Booster project includes the construction of a new high-voltage injector and buncher for the existing tandem, a magnetic transport system, an rf linac with superconducting resonators, and a rebuncher-debuncher. The booster will fit in existing space so that a new building is not required. The layout of the accelerator is given in Fig. I-1. The University of Washington is contributing approximately $1 M to this project

  9. Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of AA5182/WC Nanocomposite Fabricated by Friction Stir Welding at Different Tool Traverse Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paidar, Moslem; Asgari, Ali; Ojo, Olatunji Oladimeji; Saberi, Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Grain growth inhibition at the heat-affected zone, improved weld strength and superior tribological properties of welds are desirable attributes of modern manufacturing. With the focused on these attributes, tungsten carbide (WC) nanoparticles were employed as reinforcements for the friction stir welding of 5-mm-thick AA5182 aluminum alloy by varying tool traverse speeds. The microstructure, microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, fracture and wear behavior of the resultant WC-reinforced welds were investigated, while unreinforced AA5182 welds were employed as controls for the study. The result shows that the addition of WC nanoparticles causes substantial grain refinement within the weld nugget. A decrease in traverse speed caused additional particle fragmentation, improved hardness value and enhanced weld strength in the reinforced welds. Improved wear rate and friction coefficient of welds were attained at a reduced traverse speed of 100 mm/min in the WC-reinforced welds. This improvement is attributed to the effects of reduced grain size/grain fragmentation and homogeneous dispersion of WC nanoparticles within the WC-reinforced weld nugget.

  10. Nanocrystalline WC-Co HVAF Coatings by Utilizing Novel Powder Manufacturing Route Using Water-Soluble Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhu, Marjaana; Lagerbom, Juha; Kaunisto, Kimmo; Suhonen, Tomi; Metsäjoki, Jarkko; Turunen, Erja

    2018-01-01

    In this study, nanostructured WC-Co coatings were produced using experimental nanocrystalline WC-12Co and WC-24Co powders produced by a novel chemical synthesis route. Test coatings were produced using HVAF spraying keeping the temperature as low as possible during the deposition in order to avoid decomposition of the nanocarbides. In experimental powders, two different Co incorporation methods were used: a conventional way in which cobalt was incorporated as a metallic Co powder and a chemical synthesis way in which cobalt acetate was used as a cobalt source. When using cobalt acetate, it decomposes to metallic cobalt during the process. Experimental powders in which cobalt acetate has been used as cobalt source resulted poor deposition efficiency. With warmer parameters, powders resulted better DE, but significant WC decarburization and the dissolution into the matrix phase occurred. Powders in which Co has been introduced as Co powder showed enhanced DE enabling spraying with decreased temperature and higher particle velocity, resulting in coatings with less WC decomposition. Especially, an experimental powder in which Co has been incorporated both as Co powder and as Co-Ac results very fine nanocarbide structure with significantly less WC decomposition having a hardness value of 1201 HV0.3, even with 24% Co.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of WC-Co nanosized composite powders with in situ carbon and gas carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiumin; Yang, Jiangao; Yang, Hailin; Su, Wei; Ruan, Jianming

    2016-07-01

    This study presented nanosized WC-Co composite powders synthesized using a one-step reduction-carbonization process with a combination of CH4/H2 as a gas carbon source and soluble starch as an in situ carbon source. The results of carbon analysis and X-ray diffraction revealed that WC-Co nanocomposite powders with a pure WC and Co phase could be obtained at 1100 °C after 0.5 h. A higher gas flow ratio of CH4/H2 during the reduction-carbonization process led to a higher total carbon content of the sample. A field emission scanning electron microscope confirmed that the particles in the WC-6 wt% Co composite powders had the lowest average size of 43 nm with equiaxed shapes. A sintering neck was observed in the WC-3 wt% Co composite powders whereas faceted particles were found in the WC-12 wt% Co composite powders. Moreover, this method has advantages of simple processing, rapid synthesis and good applicability in potential industry application.

  12. Structural morphology of amorphous conducting carbon film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    in nanotubes and sp3 rich amorphous carbons for their application in field emission, device application, etc in- vestigations on sp2 rich amorphous carbon forms are very few. Though DLC films have potential application in field emission (FE) due to their low threshold voltage, the carbon centres, which are believed to play ...

  13. Towards upconversion for amorphous silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, J.; Meijerink, A.; Rath, J.K.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2010-01-01

    Upconversion of subbandgap light of thin film single junction amorphous silicon solar cells may enhance their performance in the near infrared (NIR). In this paper we report on the application of the NIR–vis upconverter β-NaYF4:Yb3+(18%) Er3+(2%) at the back of an amorphous silicon solar cell in

  14. Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    flexible triple junction, amorphous silicon solar cells. At the Malaysia Energy Centre (MEC), we fabricated triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells (up to 12⋅7% efficiency (Wang et al 2002)) and laser-interconnected modules on steel, glass and polyimide substrates. A major issue encountered is the adhesion of thin film ...

  15. Colors and the evolution of amorphous galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    UBVRI and H-alpha photometric observations are presented for 16 amorphous galaxies and a comparison sample of Magellanic irregular (Im) and Sc spiral galaxies. These data are analyzed in terms of star-formation rates and histories in amorphous galaxies. Amorphous galaxies have mean global colors and star-formation rates per unit area that are similar to those in giant Im systems, despite differences in spatial distributions of star-forming centers in these two galactic structural classes. Amorphous galaxies differ from giant Im systems in having somewhat wider scatter in relationships between B - V and U - B colors, and between U - B and L(H-alpha)/L(B). This scatter is interpreted as resulting from rapid variations in star-formation rates during the recent past, which could be a natural consequence of the concentration of star-forming activity into centrally located, supergiant young stellar complexes in many amorphous galaxies. While the unusual spatial distribution and intensity of star formation in some amorphous galaxies is due to interactions with other galaxies, several amorphous galaxies are relatively isolated and thus the processes must be internal. The ultimate evolutionary fate of rapidly evolving amorphous galaxies remains unknown. 77 references

  16. Amorphization of ice under mechanical stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonskii, G. S.; Krylov, S. D.

    2017-11-01

    The dielectric parameters of freshly produced freshwater ice in the microwave range are investigated. It is established that this kind of ice contains a noticeable amount of amorphous ice. Its production is associated with plastic deformation under mechanical stresses. An assessment of the dielectric-permeability change caused by amorphous ice in the state of a slowly flowing medium is given.

  17. Electron beam recrystallization of amorphous semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Nucleation and growth of crystalline films of silicon, germanium, and cadmium sulfide on substrates of plastic and glass were investigated. Amorphous films of germanium, silicon, and cadmium sulfide on amorphous substrates of glass and plastic were converted to the crystalline condition by electron bombardment.

  18. Photoexcitation-induced processes in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai

    2005-01-01

    Theories for the mechanism of photo-induced processes of photodarkening (PD), volume expansion (VE) in amorphous chalcogenides are presented. Rates of spontaneous emission of photons by radiative recombination of excitons in amorphous semiconductors are also calculated and applied to study the excitonic photoluminescence in a-Si:H. Results are compared with previous theories

  19. Analytical theory of noncollinear amorphous metallic magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehashi, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical theory of noncollinear magnetism in amorphous metals is proposed on the basis of the Gaussian model for the distribution of the interatomic distance and the saddle-point approximation. The theory removes the numerical difficulty in the previous theory based on the Monte-Carlo sampling method, and reasonably describes the magnetic properties of amorphous transition metals

  20. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Zarkadoula, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6138 (United States); Todorov, I. T. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 1EP (United Kingdom); Geisler, T. [Steinmann-Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Brazhkin, V. V. [Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, 142190 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  1. Locomotion of Amorphous Surface Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An amorphous robot includes a compartmented bladder containing fluid, a valve assembly, and an outer layer encapsulating the bladder and valve assembly. The valve assembly draws fluid from a compartment(s) and discharges the drawn fluid into a designated compartment to displace the designated compartment with respect to the surface. Another embodiment includes elements each having a variable property, an outer layer that encapsulates the elements, and a control unit. The control unit energizes a designated element to change its variable property, thereby moving the designated element. The elements may be electromagnetic spheres with a variable polarity or shape memory polymers with changing shape and/or size. Yet another embodiment includes an elongated flexible tube filled with ferrofluid, a moveable electromagnet, an actuator, and a control unit. The control unit energizes the electromagnet and moves the electromagnet via the actuator to magnetize the ferrofluid and lengthen the flexible tube.

  2. Responses of Bovine WC1+ γδ T Cells to Protein and Nonprotein Antigens of Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michael D.; Kennedy, Hilary E.; Smyth, Allister J.; Girvin, R. Martyn; Andersen, Peter; Pollock, John M.

    2002-01-01

    WC1+ γδ T cells of Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle are highly responsive to M. bovis sonic extract (MBSE). In mycobacterial infections of other species, γδ T cells have been shown to respond to protein and nonprotein antigens, but the bovine WC1+ γδ T-cell antigenic targets within MBSE require further definition in terms of the dominance of protein versus nonprotein components. The present study sought to characterize the WC1+ γδ T-cell antigenic targets, together with the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2), in the context of M. bovis infection. This was achieved by testing crude and defined antigens to assess protein versus nonprotein recognition by WC1+ γδ T cells in comparison with CD4+ αβ T cells. Both cell types proliferated strongly in response to MBSE, with CD4+ T cells being the major producers of gamma interferon (IFN-γ). However, enzymatic digestion of the protein in MBSE removed its ability to stimulate CD4+ T-cell responses, whereas some WC1+ γδ T-cell proliferation remained. The most antigenic protein inducing proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in WC1+ γδ T-cell cultures was found to be ESAT-6, which is a potential novel diagnostic reagent and vaccine candidate. In addition, WC1+ γδ T-cell proliferation was observed in response to stimulation with prenyl pyrophosphate antigens (isopentenyl pyrophosphate and monomethyl phosphate). High levels of cellular activation (CD25 expression) resulted from MBSE stimulation of WC1+ γδ T cells from infected animals. A similar degree of activation was induced by IL-2 alone, but for WC1+ γδ T-cell division IL-2 was found to act only as a costimulatory signal, enhancing antigen-driven responses. Overall, the data indicate that protein antigens are important stimulators of WC1+ γδ T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in M. bovis infection, with nonprotein antigens inducing significant proliferation. These findings have important implications for diagnostic and vaccine development. PMID

  3. Superconductivity in gallium-implanted silicon; Supraleitung in Gallium-implantiertem Silizium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrotzki, Richard

    2016-07-12

    The following thesis is devoted to the electrical characterization of 10 nm thin layers consisting of amorphous Ga nanoclusters embedded in Ga-doped polycrystalline Si. The preparation of the layers is realized via ion implantation in Si wafers plus subsequent thermal annealing. Electrical-transport measurements in magnetic fields of up to 50 T show that the layers undergo two structural superconductor-insulator transitions upon variation of the annealing parameters. Structural analyzes based on TEM investigations reveal an underlying transformation of the size and distance of the clusters. This influences the interplay of the superconducting cluster coupling and capacitive charging energy as well as the extent of thermal and quantum fluctuations. In the superconducting regime (Tc ∼ 7 K) a double-reentrant phenomenon is observed. Here, magnetic fields of several Tesla facilitate superconductivity in an anisotropic way. A qualitative explanation is given via a self-developed theoretical model based on phase-slip events for Josephson-junction arrays. With respect to applications regarding sensor technology and quantum logic circuits the layers are successfully micro- and nanostructured via photolithography and FIB. This allows for the first observation of the Little-Parks effect in a nanostructure of amorphous Ga.

  4. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  5. Superconducting digital logic amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a superconducting digital logic amplifier for interfacing between a Josephson junction logic circuit having output current and a higher voltage semiconductor circuit input. The amplifier comprising: an input terminal for connection to a; an output terminal for connection to a semiconductor circuit input; an input, lower critical current, Josephson junction having first and second terminals; a first series string of at least three lower critical current Josephson junctions. The first series string being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction such that the first series string is in series with the input Josephson junction to provide a series combination. The input terminal being connected to the first terminal of the input Josephson junction, and with the critical current of the lower critical current Josephson junctions of the input Josephson junction and the first series Josephson junctions being less than the output current of the low voltage Josephson junction circuit; a second series string of at least four higher critical current Josephson junctions. The second string being connected in parallel with the series combination to provide parallel strings having an upper common connection and a lower common connection. The lower common connection being connected to the second terminal of the input Josephson junction and the upper common connection being connected to the output terminal; and a pulsed DC current source connected the parallel strings at the upper common connection. The DC current source having a current at least equal to the critical current of the higher critical current Josephson junctions

  6. Superconducting magnet safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, F.; Komarek, P.

    1983-01-01

    One of the major components in a fusion reactor for which a safety analysis must be carried out is the magnet system. Most of the possible disturbances influencing the operation of superconducting magnets lead only to a quench, defined as an ''abnormal operating condition'' which causes just a temporary shut down of the magnet system without damage, if the system is well designed. More unlikely are accidental events which are associated with the generation of high power arcs. In these cases, single current arcs, e.g. at broken current leads, will lead to moderate damage only, but with the necessity of a longer shut down period for repair or replacing. Severe damage can only occur if in a multiple current arcing, starting by broken conductors, a wide-spread rupture of the winding occurs and the final high power arc burns through the coil case damaging other coils and reactor components. In a very hypothetical event the simultaneous rupture of the complete winding at two locations at least 1 m apart leads to missile generation due to the electromagnetic forces in the background field. The kinetic energy which the flying piece can get will be less than the values assumed for airplane crashes with the containment of modern fission power plants. (author)

  7. SNS superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundelin, Ronald M.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) decided in early 2000 to use superconducting RF (SRF) in the linac at energies above 185 MeV. Since the SNS duty cycle is 6%, the SRF and normal conducting approaches have capital costs which are about the same, but operating costs and future upgradability are improved by using SRF. The current status of cavity and cryomodule development and procurement, including the basis for decisions made, is discussed. The current plan includes use of 805 MHz, 6-cell cavities with geometrical betas of 0.61 and 0.81. There are 33 medium beta and 60 high beta cavities in 11 and 15 cryomodules, respectively. Each cavity (except the 93rd) is powered by a 550 kW pulsed klystron. Issues addressed include choice of peak surface gradient, optimization of cavity shape, selection of a scaled KEK input power coupler, selection of scaled TESLA higher mode couplers, and control of the effects of higher order modes on the beam. (author)

  8. Superconducting circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, B.F.; Young, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method of anodization of thin films for the fabrication of superconducting devices. An electrically conducting contact layer is formed over a substrate between an electrically conducting object layer and the substrate. Also, an electrically insulating layer is formed between the object layer and the contact layer. The contact layer is connected to a power supply and at least a preselected portion of the object layer is anodized to a predetermined thickness. This may include anodizing all of some preselected portions through the complete thickness of the object layer. A pattern of hardened photoresist on the object layer provides portions not protected by the pattern. When anodization of the electrically conducting object layer takes place, the resulting anodized portion is thicker than the thickness of the portion of the object layer that it replaces. The present invention further includes reducing the preselected portion of the object layer to be anodized by a predetermined amount before anodizing so that when anodization is complete, the resulting partially anodized partially conducting object layer is substantially planar. Alternatively, the thickness of the anodized preselected portions can be reduced after anodizing by a predetermined amount to cause the layer to be substantially planar. The same pattern of hardened photoresist can be used when reducing the thickness of portions of the object layer or anodized preselected portions

  9. The Superconducting TESLA Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, B.; Bloess, D.; Bonin, B.; Bosotti, A.; Champion, M.; Crawford, C.; Deppe, G.; Dwersteg, B.; Edwards, D.A.; Edwards, H.T.; Ferrario, M.; Fouaidy, M.; Gall, P-D.; Gamp, A.; Gössel, A.; Graber, J.; Hubert, D.; Hüning, M.; Juillard, M.; Junquera, T.; Kaiser, H.; Kreps, G.; Kuchnir, M.; Lange, R.; Leenen, M.; Liepe, M.; Lilje, L.; Matheisen, A.; Möller, W-D.; Mosnier, A.; Padamsee, H.; Pagani, C.; Pekeler, M.; Peters, H-B.; Peters, O.; Proch, D.; Rehlich, K.; Reschke, D.; Safa, H.; Schilcher, T.; Schmüser, P.; Sekutowicz, J.; Simrock, S.; Singer, W.; Tigner, M.; Trines, D.; Twarowski, K.; Weichert, G.; Weisend, J.; Wojtkiewicz, J.; Wolff, S.; Zapfe, K.

    2000-01-01

    The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron colliderTESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with anaccelerating gradient of Eacc >= 25 MV/m at a quality factor Q0 > 5E+9. Thedesign goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac was set tothe more moderate value of Eacc >= 15 MV/m. In a first series of 27industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q0 = 5E+9 wasmeasured to be 20.1 +- 6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering fromserious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTFcavities additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular aneddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusionsand stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. Theaverage gradient of these cavities at Q0 = 5E+9 amounts to 25.0 +- 3.2 MV/mwith the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only amoderate improvement in production and preparation technique...

  10. The IONORT-ISP-WC system: Inclusion of an electron collision frequency model for the D-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimi, Alessandro; Pietrella, Marco; Pezzopane, Michael; Bianchi, Cesidio

    2015-04-01

    The IONORT-ISP system (IONOspheric Ray-Tracing - IRI-SIRMUP-PROFILES) was recently developed and tested by comparing the measured oblique ionograms over the radio link between Rome (41.89°N, 12.48°E), Italy, and Chania (35.51°N, 24.02°E), Greece, with the IONORT-ISP simulated oblique ionograms (Settimi et al., 2013). The present paper describes an upgrade of the system to include: (a) electron-neutral collision have been included by using a collision frequency model that consists of a double exponential profile; (b) the ISP three dimensional (3-D) model of electron density profile grid has been extended down to the altitude of the D-layer; (c) the resolution in latitude and longitude of the ISP 3-D model of electron density profile grid has been increased from 2° × 2° to 1° × 1°. Based on these updates, a new software tool called IONORT-ISP-WC (WC means with collisions) was developed, and a database of 33 IONORT-ISP-WC synthesized oblique ionograms calculated for single (1-hop paths) and multiple (3-hop paths) ionospheric reflections. The IONORT-ISP-WC simulated oblique ionograms were compared with the IONORT-IRI-WC synthesized oblique ionograms, generated by applying IONORT in conjunction with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 3-D electron density grid, and the observed oblique ionograms over the aforementioned radio link. The results obtained show that (1) during daytime, for the lower ionospheric layers, the traces of the synthesized ionograms are cut away at low frequencies because of HF absorption; (2) during night-time, for the higher ionospheric layers, the traces of the simulated ionograms at low frequencies are not cut off (very little HF absorption); (3) the IONORT-ISP-WC MUF values are more accurate than the IONORT-IRI-WC MUF values.

  11. Modulation of immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis in cattle depleted of WC1(+) gamma delta T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Hilary E; Welsh, Michael D; Bryson, David G; Cassidy, Joseph P; Forster, Fiona I; Howard, Christopher J; Collins, Robert A; Pollock, John M

    2002-03-01

    It is accepted that cell-mediated immune responses predominate in mycobacterial infections. Many studies have shown that CD4(+) T cells produce Th1 cytokines, such as gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), in response to mycobacterial antigens and that the cytolytic activity of CD8(+) cells toward infected macrophages is important. However, the extent and manner in which gamma delta T cells participate in this response remain unclear. In ruminants, gamma delta T cells comprise a major proportion of the peripheral blood mononuclear cell population. We have previously shown that WC1(+) gamma delta T cells are involved early in Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle, but their specific functions are not well understood. Here we describe an in vivo model of bovine tuberculosis in which the WC1(+) gamma delta T cells were depleted from the peripheral circulation and respiratory tract, by infusion of WC1(+)-specific monoclonal antibody, prior to infection. While no effects on disease pathology were observed in this experiment, results indicate that WC1(+) gamma delta T cells, which become significantly activated (CD25(+)) in the circulation of control calves from 21 days postinfection, may play a role in modulating the developing immune response to M. bovis. WC1(+)-depleted animals exhibited decreased antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative response, an increased antigen-specific production of interleukin-4, and a lack of specific immunoglobulin G2 antibody. This suggests that WC1(+) gamma delta TCR(+) cells contribute, either directly or indirectly, toward the Th1 bias of the immune response in bovine tuberculosis--a hypothesis supported by the decreased innate production of IFN-gamma, which was observed in WC1(+)-depleted calves.

  12. Lamellipodia and Membrane Blebs Drive Efficient Electrotactic Migration of Rat Walker Carcinosarcoma Cells WC 256.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Jolanta; Krecioch, Izabela; Zimolag, Eliza; Lasota, Slawomir; Rak, Monika; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Borowicz, Pawel; Gajek, Marta; Madeja, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The endogenous electric field (EF) may provide an important signal for directional cell migration during wound healing, embryonic development and cancer metastasis but the mechanism of cell electrotaxis is poorly understood. Additionally, there is no research addressing the question on the difference in electrotactic motility of cells representing various strategies of cell movement-specifically blebbing vs. lamellipodial migration. In the current study we constructed a unique experimental model which allowed for the investigation of electrotactic movement of cells of the same origin but representing different modes of cell migration: weakly adherent, spontaneously blebbing (BC) and lamellipodia forming (LC) WC256 cells. We report that both BC and LC sublines show robust cathodal migration in a physiological EF (1-3 V/cm). The directionality of cell movement was completely reversible upon reversing the field polarity. However, the full reversal of cell direction after the change of EF polarity was much faster in the case of BC (10 minutes) than LC cells (30 minutes). We also investigated the distinct requirements for Rac, Cdc42 and Rho pathways and intracellular Ca2+ in electrotaxis of WC256 sublines forming different types of cell protrusions. It was found that Rac1 is required for directional movement of LC to a much greater extent than for BC, but Cdc42 and RhoA are more crucial for BC than for LC cells. The inhibition of ROCK did not affect electrotaxis of LC in contrast to BC cells. The results also showed that intracellular Ca2+ is essential only for the electrotactic reaction of BC cells. Moreover, inhibition of MLCK and myosin II did not affect the electrotaxis of LC in contrast to BC cells. In conclusion, our results revealed that both lamellipodia and membrane blebs can efficiently drive electrotactic migration of WC 256 carcinosarcoma cells, however directional migration is mediated by different signalling pathways.

  13. Lamellipodia and Membrane Blebs Drive Efficient Electrotactic Migration of Rat Walker Carcinosarcoma Cells WC 256.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Sroka

    Full Text Available The endogenous electric field (EF may provide an important signal for directional cell migration during wound healing, embryonic development and cancer metastasis but the mechanism of cell electrotaxis is poorly understood. Additionally, there is no research addressing the question on the difference in electrotactic motility of cells representing various strategies of cell movement-specifically blebbing vs. lamellipodial migration. In the current study we constructed a unique experimental model which allowed for the investigation of electrotactic movement of cells of the same origin but representing different modes of cell migration: weakly adherent, spontaneously blebbing (BC and lamellipodia forming (LC WC256 cells. We report that both BC and LC sublines show robust cathodal migration in a physiological EF (1-3 V/cm. The directionality of cell movement was completely reversible upon reversing the field polarity. However, the full reversal of cell direction after the change of EF polarity was much faster in the case of BC (10 minutes than LC cells (30 minutes. We also investigated the distinct requirements for Rac, Cdc42 and Rho pathways and intracellular Ca2+ in electrotaxis of WC256 sublines forming different types of cell protrusions. It was found that Rac1 is required for directional movement of LC to a much greater extent than for BC, but Cdc42 and RhoA are more crucial for BC than for LC cells. The inhibition of ROCK did not affect electrotaxis of LC in contrast to BC cells. The results also showed that intracellular Ca2+ is essential only for the electrotactic reaction of BC cells. Moreover, inhibition of MLCK and myosin II did not affect the electrotaxis of LC in contrast to BC cells. In conclusion, our results revealed that both lamellipodia and membrane blebs can efficiently drive electrotactic migration of WC 256 carcinosarcoma cells, however directional migration is mediated by different signalling pathways.

  14. Rate & Microstructure Influence on Fracture of WC-Co/Ni Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberson, Leslie

    2017-06-01

    Tungsten carbide metal matrix composites contain ceramic grains of tungsten carbide within a binder of cobalt (Co) or nickel (Ni), allowing the material to have advantageous properties of both metals and ceramics including higher resistance to fracture than most structural ceramics, and higher resistance to permanent deformation than most engineering metals. Due to these performance advantages, WC composites are of interest in drilling, manufacturing tools, and defense penetrator applications, to name a few. Under quasi-static conditions, these hardmetals have been shown to generally exhibit an increase in fracture toughness with an increase in mean free path in the binder phase, and an increase in hardness and wear resistance with a decrease in WC grain size; yet relatively little is known in regards to their dynamic response. Here we present the fracture behavior of WC metal matrix composites under three extreme loading conditions: (1) a single-strike acceleration loading to characterize classical dynamic crack tip energetics via stress intensity factors (SIFs) (2) the impact fatigue, or sub-catastrophic repetitive strikes to failure, and (3) the dynamic crack interactions with normal impact over 1 km/s using an in-house combustionless two-stage light-gas gun. All investigations are conducted using ultra high-speed imaging with full-field measurements from digital image correlation (DIC), and post-mortem scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary results for (1) show that the dynamic fracture toughness increases by a factor of 1.22 to 1.65 over quasi-static, regardless of the binder or grain size investigated. Supported by the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund No. 55860-ND10.

  15. Superconductivity from magnetic elements under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Katsuya [KYOKUGEN, Research Center for Materials Science at Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: shimizu@rcem.osaka-u.ac.jp; Amaya, Kiichi [Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Suzuki, Naoshi [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Onuki, Yoshichika [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2006-05-01

    Can we expect the appearance of superconductivity from magnetic elements? In general, superconductivity occurs in nonmagnetic metal at low temperature and magnetic impurities destroy superconductivity; magnetism and superconductivity are as incompatible as oil and water. Here, we present our experimental example of superconducting elements, iron and oxygen. They are magnetic at ambient pressure, however, they become nonmagnetic under high pressure, then superconductor at low temperature. What is the driving force of the superconductivity? Our understanding in the early stages was a simple scenario that the superconductive state was obtained as a consequence of an emergence of the nonmagnetic states. In both cases, we may consider another scenario for the appearance of superconductivity; the magnetic fluctuation mechanism in the same way as unconventional superconductors.

  16. Superconductivity from magnetic elements under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Katsuya; Amaya, Kiichi; Suzuki, Naoshi; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2006-01-01

    Can we expect the appearance of superconductivity from magnetic elements? In general, superconductivity occurs in nonmagnetic metal at low temperature and magnetic impurities destroy superconductivity; magnetism and superconductivity are as incompatible as oil and water. Here, we present our experimental example of superconducting elements, iron and oxygen. They are magnetic at ambient pressure, however, they become nonmagnetic under high pressure, then superconductor at low temperature. What is the driving force of the superconductivity? Our understanding in the early stages was a simple scenario that the superconductive state was obtained as a consequence of an emergence of the nonmagnetic states. In both cases, we may consider another scenario for the appearance of superconductivity; the magnetic fluctuation mechanism in the same way as unconventional superconductors

  17. Superconductivity basics and applications to magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, R G

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and applications of superconducting magnets. It explains the phenomenon of superconductivity, theories of superconductivity, type II superconductors and high-temperature cuprate superconductors. The main focus of the book is on the application to superconducting magnets to accelerators and fusion reactors and other applications of superconducting magnets. The thermal and electromagnetic stability criteria of the conductors and the present status of the fabrication techniques for future magnet applications are addressed. The book is based on the long experience of the author in studying superconducting materials, building magnets and numerous lectures delivered to scholars. A researcher and graduate student will enjoy reading the book to learn various aspects of magnet applications of superconductivity. The book provides the knowledge in the field of applied superconductivity in a comprehensive way.

  18. Superconductivity research in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsa, Miloš

    -, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-6 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : superconductivity * research to superconductivity * financial support of the research Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. Research on dynamic wear behavior at elevated temperature of HVOF sprayed nanostructured WC-17Co coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Chen Hui; Gou Guoqing; Tu Mingjing

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured WC-17Co coatings have been prepared by means of High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF) technique. The wear resistance at the elevated temperature (500 0 C) of nanostructured coatings was compared using GCr15 steel as counterpart in sliding wear tests. The results show that when at the temperature of 500 0 C, the wear failure mechanism turns from plastic deformation to fracture resulted from crack propagation and adhesive wear. With the wear going, abrasive wear dominate in the coating, then turns into adhesive wear with changes of microscope.

  20. Production and mechanical properties of sintered carbides (hard steels WC-Co)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalha, G.F.

    1987-09-01

    Densification and mechanical characteristics or WC-Co Cemented Carbides, were investigated by dilatometry, Hardness and bending tests, as a function of the two principal micro-structural parameters: the cobalt content and the particle size of carbide crystals. Vickers hardness of the studied compositions showed a linear variation with the increase of the cobalt content. By three point bending, the transverse rupture strenght increases with cobalt content, however, for larger grain size reaches a maximum, eventually reduced by brittle phases and incomplete dispersion. The results of brittle facture tests were statistically analised and fitted better to the 'Weakest Link Model' (Weibull distribution) than the 'Chain Model' (Gaussian distribution). (author) [pt

  1. Photonic crystals, amorphous materials, and quasicrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edagawa, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Photonic crystals consist of artificial periodic structures of dielectrics, which have attracted much attention because of their wide range of potential applications in the field of optics. We may also fabricate artificial amorphous or quasicrystalline structures of dielectrics, i.e. photonic amorphous materials or photonic quasicrystals. So far, both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to reveal the characteristic features of their optical properties, as compared with those of conventional photonic crystals. In this article, we review these studies and discuss various aspects of photonic amorphous materials and photonic quasicrystals, including photonic band gap formation, light propagation properties, and characteristic photonic states.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Superconductivity in CVD diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshihiko

    2009-06-01

    A beautiful jewel of diamond is insulator. However, boron doping can induce semiconductive, metallic and superconducting properties in diamond. When the boron concentration is tuned over 3 × 1020 cm-3, diamonds enter the metallic region and show superconductivity at low temperatures. The metal-insulator transition and superconductivity are analyzed using ARPES, XAS, NMR, IXS, transport and magnetic measurements and so on. This review elucidates the physical properties and mechanism of diamond superconductor as a special superconductivity that occurs in semiconductors.

  3. Exploring the potential role of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticle internalization in observed toxicity toward lung epithelial cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Armstead, Andrea L.; Arena, Christopher B.; Li, Bingyun

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) has been recognized as a workplace inhalation hazard in the manufacturing, mining and drilling industries by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Exposure to WC-Co is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” but the relationship between exposure, toxicity and development of disease remain poorly understood. To better understand this relationship, the present study examined the role of WC-Co particle size and internalization on toxicity usin...

  4. Superconducting TESLA cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aune

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron collider TESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with an accelerating gradient of E_{acc}≥25 MV/m at a quality factor Q_{0}≥5×10^{9}. The design goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF linac was set to the more moderate value of E_{acc}≥15 MV/m. In a first series of 27 industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q_{0}=5×10^{9} was measured to be 20.1±6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering from serious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTF cavities, additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular, an eddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusions and stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. The average gradient of these cavities at Q_{0}=5×10^{9} amounts to 25.0±3.2 MV/m with the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only a moderate improvement in production and preparation techniques will be needed to meet the ambitious TESLA goal with an adequate safety margin. In this paper we present a detailed description of the design, fabrication, and preparation of the TESLA Test Facility cavities and their associated components and report on cavity performance in test cryostats and with electron beam in the TTF linac. The ongoing research and development towards higher gradients is briefly addressed.

  5. On the preparation of superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topare, R.J.; Chinchure, A.D.; Shah, S.S.; Hadole, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The different methods of preparation of superconducting wires have been discussed. The powder-in-tube technique is followed for the preparation of YBCO and BISCCO superconducting wires. The results are discussed. The present status of the industries in preparing the superconducting wires having the maximum J c values is discussed. (author). 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Critical current densities in superconducting materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Critical current density; superconducting materials; magnetic-field ... As current densities are raised to higher than JC the material does not go suddenly from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state, but develops a .... to the superconducting state with liquid nitrogen, but whose commercial exploitation has.

  7. Superconducting devices at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.F.

    1978-04-01

    The various ongoing programs in applied superconductivity supported by BNL are summarized, including the development of high field ac and dc superconducting magnets for accelerators and other applications, of microwave deflecting cavities for high energy particle beam separators, and of cables for underground power transmission, and materials research on methods of fabricating new superconductors and on metallurgical properties affecting the performance of superconducting devices

  8. Superconducting Storage Cavity for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi,I.

    2009-01-02

    This document provides a top-level description of a superconducting cavity designed to store hadron beams in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It refers to more detailed documents covering the various issues in designing, constructing and operating this cavity. The superconducting storage cavity is designed to operate at a harmonic of the bunch frequency of RHIC at a relatively low frequency of 56 MHz. The current storage cavities of RHIC operate at 197 MHz and are normal-conducting. The use of a superconducting cavity allows for a high gap voltage, over 2 MV. The combination of a high voltage and low frequency provides various advantages stemming from the resulting large longitudinal acceptance bucket.

  9. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Nurbawono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  10. Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron–pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues. - Highlights: • High-temperature superconductivity is closely associated with antiferromagnetism. • Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations coexist with the superconductivity. • Neutron scattering is essential for characterising the full spectrum of spin excitations

  11. LLNL superconducting magnets test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, R; Martovetsky, N; Moller, J; Zbasnik, J

    1999-09-16

    The FENIX facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was upgraded and refurbished in 1996-1998 for testing CICC superconducting magnets. The FENIX facility was used for superconducting high current, short sample tests for fusion programs in the late 1980s--early 1990s. The new facility includes a 4-m diameter vacuum vessel, two refrigerators, a 40 kA, 42 V computer controlled power supply, a new switchyard with a dump resistor, a new helium distribution valve box, several sets of power leads, data acquisition system and other auxiliary systems, which provide a lot of flexibility in testing of a wide variety of superconducting magnets in a wide range of parameters. The detailed parameters and capabilities of this test facility and its systems are described in the paper.

  12. Genotoxicity of tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticles in vitro: mechanisms-of-action studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Hélène; Chevalier, Dany; Vezin, Hervé; Claude, Nancy; Lorge, Elisabeth; Nesslany, Fabrice

    2015-02-01

    We showed previously that tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticles (NP) can be used as a nanoparticulate positive control in some in vitro mammalian genotoxicity assays. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of action involved in WC-Co NP genotoxicity in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells and primary human lymphocytes, in vitro. Data from the micronucleus assay coupled with centromere staining and from the chromosome-aberration assay show the involvement of both clastogenic and aneugenic events. Experiments with the formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-modified comet assay showed a slight (non-significant) increase in FPG-sensitive sites in the L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells but not in the human lymphocytes. Electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping results showed the presence of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) in WC-Co NP suspensions, with or without cells, but with time-dependent production in the presence of cells. However, a significant difference in •OH production was observed between human lymphocytes from two different donors. Using H2O2, we showed that WC-Co NP can participate in Fenton-like reactions. Thus, •OH might be produced either via intrinsic generation by WC-Co NP or through a Fenton-like reaction in the presence of cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of WC-17Co Coating Combined with Shot Peening Treatment on Fatigue Behaviors of TC21 Titanium Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dongxing; Liu, Daoxin; Zhang, Xiaohua; Tang, Jingang; Meng, Baoli

    2016-10-25

    The improvement and mechanism of the fatigue resistance of TC21 high-strength titanium alloy with a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed WC-17Co coating was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the corresponding stress measurement instrument, a surface roughness tester, a micro-hardness tester, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to determine the properties of the HVOF WC-17Co coating with or without shot peening. The fatigue behavior of the TC21 titanium alloy with or without the WC-17Co coating was determined by using a rotating bending fatigue testing machine. The results revealed that the polished HVOF sprayed WC-17Co coating had almost the same fatigue resistance as the TC21 titanium alloy substrate. This resulted from the polishing-induced residual surface compressive stress and a decrease in the stress concentration on the surface of the coating. Moderate-intensity shot peening of the polished WC-17Co coatings resulted in significant improvement of the fatigue resistance of the alloy. Furthermore, the fatigue life was substantially higher than that of the substrate, owing to the deep distribution of residual stress and high compressive stress induced by shot peening. The improved surface toughness of the coating can effectively delay the initiation of fatigue crack propagation.

  14. Effect of sintering time and temperature on properties of high pressure assisted WC/Co hard metal composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, M.M.; Gomes, U.U.; Oliveira, M.P.; Filgueira, M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: WC/Co is widely used as cutting tools, because has a unique combination of high strength, hardness, toughness, and moderate stiffness, especially with fine grained WC and finely distributed cobalt. WC/Co powder mixture sinters by different methods such as vacuum sintering, microwave sintering and SPS. High pressure high temperature (HPHT) sintering is a proposed method that can results in better distribution of cobalt and avoid undesirable phases by using high pressure, high temperature and very low sintering time. In this study, a powder mixture of WC- 10 wt% Co was sintered by HPHT at 1500 to 1900 deg C under a pressure of 7.7 GPa for 2 and 3 minutes. Microstructural/structural analyses were performed by SEM/EDS and XRD. Hardness was also done to obtain the effect of sintering parameters. It was found that increasing sintering time in HPHT sintering method at a constant temperature can improve properties of WC/Co hard metal. It was also realized that both sintering temperature and time have effect on hardness and density. (author)

  15. WC-Co COATINGS AND SINTERS MODIFIED WITH NANO-SIZED TiC MICROSTRUCTURE – QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Myalska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The different concepts of WC-Co thermally sprayed coatings improvement may be considered and the application of nanoparticles, as the mechanical strengthening addition, is one of them. Nanostructured WC-Co coatings are characterized by higher hardness than the coatings formed from micrometric WC grains; whereas coatings with bimodal distribution of particles reveal greater wear resistance than the coatings obtained exclusively from nano-sized powders. Mixed effect of the matrix reinforcement by nanoparticles and strong fix of the micron-sized WC grains was proposed as a possible reason for enhanced wear resistance of bimodal coatings. In order to obtain a bimodal distribution of particles in the material standard WC-Co (83-17 powder was mixed with nanometric TiC powder (40-100 nm. The amount of TiC in powder mixtures was in the range from 1 to 7 wt.%. The mixtures were deposited on steel substrate using HVAF method and also hot pressed in vacuum. The microstructure of obtained coatings and sinters was quantitatively evaluated. Sinters revealed more homogenous distribution of the nano-sized TiC particles than the coatings. The addition of nano-sized TiC in the case of coatings has led to the decrease of its porosity. The agglomeration of nano-sized TiC particles in the coatings results in the decrease of material’s hardness.

  16. Effects of WC-17Co Coating Combined with Shot Peening Treatment on Fatigue Behaviors of TC21 Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxing Du

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The improvement and mechanism of the fatigue resistance of TC21 high-strength titanium alloy with a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF sprayed WC-17Co coating was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD and the corresponding stress measurement instrument, a surface roughness tester, a micro-hardness tester, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM were used to determine the properties of the HVOF WC-17Co coating with or without shot peening. The fatigue behavior of the TC21 titanium alloy with or without the WC-17Co coating was determined by using a rotating bending fatigue testing machine. The results revealed that the polished HVOF sprayed WC-17Co coating had almost the same fatigue resistance as the TC21 titanium alloy substrate. This resulted from the polishing-induced residual surface compressive stress and a decrease in the stress concentration on the surface of the coating. Moderate-intensity shot peening of the polished WC-17Co coatings resulted in significant improvement of the fatigue resistance of the alloy. Furthermore, the fatigue life was substantially higher than that of the substrate, owing to the deep distribution of residual stress and high compressive stress induced by shot peening. The improved surface toughness of the coating can effectively delay the initiation of fatigue crack propagation.

  17. On the Short Surface Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in a Fine-Grained WC-Co Cemented Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Mikado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the fatigue crack growth (FCG behavior of short surface cracks in a fine-grained cemented carbide with a length of less than 1 mm was investigated. The rotating bending and the four-point bending fatigue tests were carried out at stress ratios of R = −1 and R = 0.1 (R = maximum stress/minimum stress. It was found that a short surface crack had a longer stable fatigue crack growth area than a long through-thickness crack; the FCG behaviors of the two types of crack are clearly different. Furthermore, the FCG path of short surface cracks was investigated in detail to study the interaction between fatigue cracks and microstructures of the cemented carbide such as WC grains and the Co phase. At a low Kmax (Kmax = the maximum stress intensity factor, it was found that fatigue crack growth within WC grains is difficult because of a small driving force; instead, crack growth is along the brittle WC/WC interface. On the other hand, at a high Kmax, WC grain breakage often occurs, since the driving force of FCG is large, and the fatigue crack grows linearly.

  18. Effects of WC-17Co Coating Combined with Shot Peening Treatment on Fatigue Behaviors of TC21 Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dongxing; Liu, Daoxin; Zhang, Xiaohua; Tang, Jingang; Meng, Baoli

    2016-01-01

    The improvement and mechanism of the fatigue resistance of TC21 high-strength titanium alloy with a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed WC-17Co coating was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the corresponding stress measurement instrument, a surface roughness tester, a micro-hardness tester, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to determine the properties of the HVOF WC-17Co coating with or without shot peening. The fatigue behavior of the TC21 titanium alloy with or without the WC-17Co coating was determined by using a rotating bending fatigue testing machine. The results revealed that the polished HVOF sprayed WC-17Co coating had almost the same fatigue resistance as the TC21 titanium alloy substrate. This resulted from the polishing-induced residual surface compressive stress and a decrease in the stress concentration on the surface of the coating. Moderate-intensity shot peening of the polished WC-17Co coatings resulted in significant improvement of the fatigue resistance of the alloy. Furthermore, the fatigue life was substantially higher than that of the substrate, owing to the deep distribution of residual stress and high compressive stress induced by shot peening. The improved surface toughness of the coating can effectively delay the initiation of fatigue crack propagation. PMID:28773984

  19. Pressure-induced reversible amorphization and an amorphous-amorphous transition in Ge₂Sb₂Te₅ phase-change memory material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhimei; Zhou, Jian; Pan, Yuanchun; Song, Zhitang; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2011-06-28

    Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) (GST) is a technologically very important phase-change material that is used in digital versatile disks-random access memory and is currently studied for the use in phase-change random access memory devices. This type of data storage is achieved by the fast reversible phase transition between amorphous and crystalline GST upon heat pulse. Here we report pressure-induced reversible crystalline-amorphous and polymorphic amorphous transitions in NaCl structured GST by ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. We have showed that the onset amorphization of GST starts at approximately 18 GPa and the system become completely random at approximately 22 GPa. This amorphous state has a cubic framework (c-amorphous) of sixfold coordinations. With further increasing pressure, the c-amorphous transforms to a high-density amorphous structure with trigonal framework (t-amorphous) and an average coordination number of eight. The pressure-induced amorphization is investigated to be due to large displacements of Te atoms for which weak Te-Te bonds exist or vacancies are nearby. Upon decompressing to ambient conditions, the original cubic crystalline structure is restored for c-amorphous, whereas t-amorphous transforms to another amorphous phase that is similar to the melt-quenched amorphous GST.

  20. Corrosion resistant amorphous metals and methods of forming corrosion resistant amorphous metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Wong, Frank M. G. [Livermore, CA; Haslam, Jeffery J [Livermore, CA; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Lavernia, Enrique J [Davis, CA; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Graeve, Olivia A [Reno, NV; Bayles, Robert [Annandale, VA; Perepezko, John H [Madison, WI; Kaufman, Larry [Brookline, MA; Schoenung, Julie [Davis, CA; Ajdelsztajn, Leo [Walnut Creek, CA

    2009-11-17

    A system for coating a surface comprises providing a source of amorphous metal, providing ceramic particles, and applying the amorphous metal and the ceramic particles to the surface by a spray. The coating comprises a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains one or more of the following elements in the specified range of composition: yttrium (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), chromium (14 to 18 atomic %), molybdenum (.gtoreq.7 atomic %), tungsten (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), boron (.ltoreq.5 atomic %), or carbon (.gtoreq.4 atomic %).

  1. Improvement of Surface Properties of Inconel718 by HVOF Coating with WC-Metal Powder and by Laser Heat Treatment of the Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Hui Gon; Cho, Tong Yul; Yoon, Jae Hong; Lee, Gun Hwan

    2015-01-01

    High-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coating with WC-metal powder was carried out by using optimal coating process on an Inconel718 surface for improvement of the surface properties, friction, wear, and corrosion resistance. Binder metals such as Cr and Ni were completely melted and WC was decomposed partially to W2C and graphite during the high temperature (up to 3500°C) thermal spraying. The melted metals were bonded with WC and other carbides and were formed as WC-metal coating. ...

  2. Power applications for superconducting cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Hansen, Steen; Jørgensen, Preben

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables for use in electric ac power systems are under development around the world today. There are two main constructions under development: the room temperature dielectric design and the cryogenic dielectric design. However, theoretical studies have shown...... that the insertion of these cables in the network is not without problems. The network stability requirements may impose severe constraints on the actual obtainable length of superconducting cables. Load flow considerations show that it may be difficult to use these high current cables to their full extent. Short...

  3. Power applications for superconducting cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Hansen, Steen; Jørgensen, Preben

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables for use in electric ac power systems are under development around the world today. There are two main constructions under development: the room temperature dielectric design and the cryogenic dielectric design. However, theoretical studies have shown...... that the insertion of these cables in the network is not without problems. The network stability requirements may impose severe constraints on the actual obtainable length of superconducting cables. Load flow considerations show that it may be difficult to use these high current cables to their full extent. Short...... circuits in the network may require a special protection system....

  4. Superconducting magnets for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting magnets for fusion reactor applications are being developed in the U.S., Europe, Japan and the USSR. A substantial technological base already exists, but magnets for fusion face special problems and strong incentives for higher performance. In the U.S. high-field magnets for mirrors are being addressed by construction of the superconducting (NbTi) MFTF and by Nb 3 Sn conductor development. Large toroidal field magnets for tokamaks are being developed through the Large Coil Program, which involves design and construction of NbTi and Nb 3 Sn coils by six industrial teams, three in the U.S. and three in other countries

  5. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, C.G.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting augmentation consists of a superconducting coil operating in the persistent mode closely coupled magnetically with a normally conducting rail gun. A theoretical investigation of the effect of this system on a rail gun has shown that two benefits occur. Projectile velocities and launch efficiencies increase significantly depending on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation circuits. Previous work evaluated an idealized system by neglecting energy dissipation effects. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis to include the neglected terms and show improved actual launch efficiencies for the SARG configuration. In this paper, the authors discuss details of projectile design in depth and present preliminary results of rail gun performance

  6. Superconductivity gets an iron boost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, Igor I

    2010-03-11

    Superconductivity, the resistance-free flow of electrical charges, is one of the most exotic phenomena in solid-state physics. Even though it was discovered almost a century ago, many questions remain unanswered, in particular those concerning the physics of high-temperature superconductivity. The recent discovery of iron-based superconductors was arguably the most important breakthrough in this field for more than two decades and may provide new avenues for understanding this high-temperature phenomenon. Here I present my view of the recent developments in this field that have led to the current understanding of this important new class of superconductor.

  7. Diamagnetism in quasicrystalline superconducting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Niu; Nori, F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we review recent results on superconducting structures with quasicrystalline geometry. Specifically, we consider the superconducting-normal phase boundaries of a variety of wire networks and Josephson junction arrays. We have computed the mean field phase diagrams for a number of geometries and compared them to the corresponding experimental data. We have introduced an analytical approach to the analysis of the structures present in the phase boundaries. Furthermore, we have shown in great detail how the gross structure is determined by the statistical distributions of the cell areas, and how the fine structures are determined by correlations among neighboring cells in the lattices. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  8. Freely oriented portable superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmierer, Eric N [Los Alamos, NM; Prenger, F Coyne [Los Alamos, NM; Hill, Dallas D [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-01-12

    A freely oriented portable superconducting magnet is disclosed. Coolant is supplied to the superconducting magnet from a repository separate from the magnet, enabling portability of the magnet. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the magnet within a thermal shield. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the thermal shield within a vacuum vessel. The support assemblies restrain movement of the magnet resulting from energizing and cooldown, as well as from changes in orientation, enabling the magnet to be freely orientable.

  9. Surface magnetic structures in amorphous ferromagnetic microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usov, N.A.; Serebryakova, O.N.; Gudoshnikov, S.A.; Tarasov, V.P.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial period of magnetization perturbations that occur near the surface of magnetic nanotube or nanowire under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy is determined by means of numerical simulation as a function of the sample geometry and material parameters. The surface magnetization distribution obtained is then used to estimate the period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter by means of appropriate variational procedure. The period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter. - Highlights: • Magnetic structure may arise near the magnetic nanotube surface under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy. • The period of the surface magnetization pattern is calculated as a function of the sample geometry. • Similar magnetic structure may exist in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter. • The period of the surface magnetic structure in amorphous wire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter.

  10. Bulk amorphous Mg-based alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes the preparation and properties of bulk amorphous quarternary Mg-based alloys and the influence of additional elements on the ability of the alloy to form bulk amorphous. The main goal is to find a Mg-based alloy system which shows both high strength to weight ratio...... and a low glass transition temperature. The alloys were prepared by using a relatively simple technique, i.e. rapid cooling of the melt in a copper wedge mould. The essential structural changes that are achieved by going from the amorphous to the crystalline state through the supercooled liquid state...... are discussed in this paper. On the basis of these measurements phase diagrams of the different systems were constructed. Finally, it is demonstrated that when pressing the bulk amorphous alloy onto a metallic dies at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region, the alloy faithfully replicates the surface...

  11. Theoretical Considerations in Developing Amorphous Solid Dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Priemel, Petra Alexandra; Surwase, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    to their glass-forming ability and glass stability. In the main parts of this chapter, we review theoretical approaches to determine amorphous drug polymer miscibility and crystalline drug polymer solubility, as a prerequisite to develop amorphous solid dispersions (glass solutions).......Before pursuing the laborious route of amorphous solid dispersion formulation and development, which is the topic of many of the subsequent chapters in this book, the formulation scientist would benefit from a priori knowledge whether the amorphous route is a viable one for a given drug and how...... much solubility improvement, and hence increase in bioavailability, can be expected, and what forms of solid dispersion have been developed in the past. In this chapter, we therefore initially define the various forms of solid dispersions, and then go on to discuss properties of pure drugs with respect...

  12. Surface magnetic structures in amorphous ferromagnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, N.A., E-mail: usov@obninsk.ru [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 108840 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Serebryakova, O.N.; Gudoshnikov, S.A. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 108840 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tarasov, V.P. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    The spatial period of magnetization perturbations that occur near the surface of magnetic nanotube or nanowire under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy is determined by means of numerical simulation as a function of the sample geometry and material parameters. The surface magnetization distribution obtained is then used to estimate the period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter by means of appropriate variational procedure. The period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter. - Highlights: • Magnetic structure may arise near the magnetic nanotube surface under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy. • The period of the surface magnetization pattern is calculated as a function of the sample geometry. • Similar magnetic structure may exist in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter. • The period of the surface magnetic structure in amorphous wire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter.

  13. Amorphous Phases on the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Ruff, S. W.; Horgan, B.; Dehouck, E.; Achilles, C. N.; Ming, D. W.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Both primary (volcanic/impact glasses) and secondary (opal/silica, allophane, hisingerite, npOx, S-bearing) amorphous phases appear to be major components of martian surface materials based on orbital and in-situ measurements. A key observation is that whereas regional/global scale amorphous components include altered glass and npOx, local scale amorphous phases include hydrated silica/opal. This suggests widespread alteration at low water-to-rock ratios, perhaps due to snow/ice melt with variable pH, and localized alteration at high water-to-rock ratios. Orbital and in-situ measurements of the regional/global amorphous component on Mars suggests that it is made up of at least three phases: npOx, amorphous silicate (likely altered glass), and an amorphous S-bearing phase. Fundamental questions regarding the composition and the formation of the regional/global amorphous component(s) still remain: Do the phases form locally or have they been homogenized through aeolian activity and derived from the global dust? Is the parent glass volcanic, impact, or both? Are the phases separate or intimately mixed (e.g., as in palagonite)? When did the amorphous phases form? To address the question of source (local and/or global), we need to look for variations in the different phases within the amorphous component through continued modeling of the chemical composition of the amorphous phases in samples from Gale using CheMin and APXS data. If we find variations (e.g., a lack of or enrichment in amorphous silicate in some samples), this may imply a local source for some phases. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the weathering products may give insight into the formation mechanisms of the parent glass (e.g., impact glasses contain higher Al and lower Si [30], so we might expect allophane as a weathering product of impact glass). To address the question of whether these phases are separate or intimately mixed, we need to do laboratory studies of naturally altered samples made

  14. Associations between depression and different measures of obesity (BMI, WC, WHtR, WHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltink, Jörg; Michal, Matthias; Wild, Philipp S; Zwiener, Isabella; Blettner, Maria; Münzel, Thomas; Schulz, Andreas; Kirschner, Yvonne; Beutel, Manfred E

    2013-09-12

    Growing evidence suggests that abdominal obesity is a more important risk factor for the prognosis of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than BMI. Somatic-affective symptoms of depression have also been linked to cardiovascular risk. The relationship between obesity and depression, however, has remained contradictory. Our aim was therefore to relate body mass index (BMI) and different measures for abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC, waist-to-hip ratio, WHR, waist-to-height ratio, WHtR) to somatic vs. cognitive-affective symptoms of depression. In a cross-sectional population based study, data on the first N = 5000 participants enrolled in the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) are reported. To analyze the relationship between depression and obesity, we computed linear regression models with the anthropometric measure (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR) as the dependent variable and life style factors, cardiovascular risk factors and psychotropic medications as potential confounders of obesity/depression. We found that only the somatic, but not the cognitive-affective symptoms of depression are consistently positively associated with anthropometric measures of obesity. We could demonstrate that the somatic-affective symptoms of depression rather than the cognitive-affective symptoms are strongly related to anthropometric measures. This is also true for younger obese starting at the age of 35 years. Our results are in line with previous studies indicating that visceral adipose tissue plays a key role in the relationship between obesity, depression and cardiovascular disease.

  15. The influence of Si on the microstructure and sintering behavior of ultrafine WC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda Kumar, A. K.; Watabe, Masaaki; Kurokawa, Kazuya

    2012-11-01

    The microstructure of sintered nanoscale tungsten carbide powders with 1 wt % Si addition was found to be populated by an abnormally large number of elongated grains. Interrupted sintering experiments were conducted to clarify the origins of the excessive abnormal grain growth seen in the microstructure. It was observed that rapid coarsening occurred at high temperatures owing to the formation of a liquid phase. However, the grain shape evolution during this coarsening period was found to be a consequence of excessive stacking faults and micro twins on the basal planes probably generated by reaction of WC with Si. Analyses of the microstructures and the isothermal and non isothermal coarsening behaviors suggested that the platelet morphology evolved by defect-assisted nucleation and growth on faceted grains. Based on experimental evidence from samples interrupted at low temperatures and crystal growth theories, we discuss the possible mechanisms that eventually led to the rampant platelet-type morphology. Further, the influence of such rapid grain growth on the shrinkage rate during sintering is also discussed. In comparison with the cyclic coarsening-densification process of sintering in pure nanoscale WC, the addition of Si leads to only two distinct sintering stages: either densification dominated or coarsening dominated. Concurrent densification and coarsening cannot be sustained particularly in the presence of a liquid phase that significantly enhances coarsening.

  16. Arecibo and Goldstone radar images of near-Earth Asteroid (469896) 2005 WC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Ostro, Steven J.; Jao, Joseph S.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Slade, Martin A.; Jurgens, Raymond F.; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Taylor, Patrick A.

    2018-01-01

    We report radar observations of near-Earth asteroid (469896) 2005 WC1 that were obtained at Arecibo (2380 MHz, 13 cm) and Goldstone (8560 MHz, 3.5 cm) on 2005 December 14-15 during the asteroid's approach within 0.020 au The asteroid was a strong radar target. Delay-Doppler images with resolutions as fine as 15 m/pixel were obtained with 2 samples per baud giving a correlated pixel resolution of 7.5 m. The radar images reveal an angular object with 100 m-scale surface facets, radar-dark regions, and an estimated diameter of 400 ± 50 m. The rotation of the facets in the images gives a rotation period of ∼2.6 h that is consistent with the estimated period of 2.582 h ± 0.002 h from optical lightcurves reported by Miles (private communication). 2005 WC1 has a circular polarization ratio of 1.12 ± 0.05 that is one of the highest values known, suggesting a structurally-complex near-surface at centimeter to decimeter spatial scales. It is the first asteroid known with an extremely high circular polarization ratio, relatively low optical albedo, and high radar albedo.

  17. Optimization of Ni-Based WC/Co/Cr Composite Coatings Produced by Multilayer Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Angelastro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a surface coating technique, laser cladding (LC has been developed for improving wear, corrosion, and fatigue properties of mechanical components. The main advantage of this process is the capability of introducing hard particles such as SiC, TiC, and WC as reinforcements in the metallic matrix such as Ni-based alloy, Co-based alloy, and Fe-based alloy to form ceramic-metal composite coatings, which have very high hardness and good wear resistance. In this paper, Ni-based alloy (Colmonoy 227-F and Tungsten Carbides/Cobalt/Chromium (WC/Co/Cr composite coatings were fabricated by the multilayer laser cladding technique (MLC. An optimization procedure was implemented to obtain the combination of process parameters that minimizes the porosity and produces good adhesion to a stainless steel substrate. The optimization procedure was worked out with a mathematical model that was supported by an experimental analysis, which studied the shape of the clad track generated by melting coaxially fed powders with a laser. Microstructural and microhardness analysis completed the set of test performed on the coatings.

  18. The evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of sintered sub-micron WC-Co powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Izan Izura; Mohd Asri Selamat; Noraizham Mohamad Diah; Talib Ria Jaafar

    2007-01-01

    A cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) is widely used for a variety of machining, cutting, drilling and other applications. The properties of this tungsten heavy alloy are sensitive to processing and degraded by residual porosity. The sequence of high end powder metallurgy process include mixing, compacting and followed by multi-atmosphere sintering of green compact were analyzed. The sub micron (<1.0 μm) and less than 10.0 μm of WC powders are sintered with a metal binder 6% Co to provide pore-free part. The powder compacts were sintered at temperatures cycle in the range of 1200 degree Celsius-1550 degree Celsius in nitrogen-based sintering atmosphere. To date, however there have been few reported studies in the literature that the best sintering was carried out via liquid phase sintering in vacuum at approximately 1500 degree Celsius. from this study we found that in order to attain high mechanical properties, a fine grain size of powder is necessary. Therefore, the attention of this work is to develop and produce wear resistant component with better properties or comparable to the commercial ones. (author)

  19. Wear behaviors of HVOF sprayed WC-12Co coatings by laser remelting under lubricated condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejun, Kong; Tianyuan, Sheng

    2017-03-01

    A HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) sprayed WC-12Co coating was remelted with a CO2 laser. The surface-interface morphologies and phases were analyzed by means of SEM (scanning electron microscopy), and XRD (X-ray diffraction), respectively. The friction and wear behaviors of WC-12Co coating under the dry and lubricated conditions were investigated with a wear test. The morphologies and distributions of chemical elements on worn scar were analyzed with a SEM, and its configured EDS (energy diffusive spectrometer), respectively, and the effects of lubricated condition on COFs (coefficient of friction) and wear performance were also discussed. The results show that the adhesion between the coating and the substrate is stronger after laser remetling (LR), in which mechanical bonding, accompanying with metallurgical bonding, was found. At the load of 80 N, the average COF under the dry and lubricated friction conditions is 0.069, and 0.052, respectively, the latter lowers by 23.3% than the former, and the wear rate under the lubricated condition decreases by 302.3% than that under the dry condition. The wear mechanism under the dry and lubrication conditions is primarily composed of abrasive wear, cracking, and fatigue failure.

  20. Effect of Spray Parameters on the Corrosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zheng, Yugui; Wang, Bo; Gao, Wenwen; Li, Gaiye; Ying, Guobing; Lin, Jinran

    2014-04-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coatings were deposited on the substrate of AISI 1045 steel by using high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process. The Taguchi method including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to optimize the porosity and, in turn, the corrosion resistance of the coatings. The spray parameters evaluated in this study were spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. The results indicated that the important sequence of spray parameters on the porosity of the coatings was spray distance > oxygen flow > kerosene flow, and the spray distance was the only significant factor. The optimum spraying condition was 300 mm for the spray distance, 1900 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 6.0 gph for the kerosene flow. The results showed the significant influence of the microstructure on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that the WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coating obtained by the optimum spraying condition with the lowest porosity exhibits the best corrosion resistance and seems to be an alternative to hard chromium coating.

  1. An investigation on thermal residual stresses in a cylindrical functionally graded WC-Co component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvilian, L. [Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Fang, Z. Zak, E-mail: zak.fang@utah.edu [Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The thermal residual stress distribution in a functionally graded cemented tungsten carbide (FG WC-Co) hollow cylinder was examined with an emphasis on the effects of key variables, such as gradient profile and gradient thickness on the magnitude and distribution of the stress field. An analytical direct solution based on solving the governing equations of a cylinder composed of a uniform inner core and a functionally graded outer shell was developed, considering the cylindrical compound as two separate elements: a homogeneous cylinder and a functionally graded shell. Through the graded shell, material properties such as the modulus of elasticity and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), except Poisson's ratio, were considered to vary as a power function of the radius, and proper mechanical boundary conditions were imposed at the interface of the two cylinders. Practical values for the two variables, gradient profile and gradient thickness, were evaluated in the mathematical solution for the FG WC-Co compound, and their effects on the stress distribution were studied. An examination of different gradient profiles showed that with excess Co content in the graded region, compressive radial stresses were created, while with decreasing Co content through the graded region tensile stresses were generated at the interface. The effect of gradient thickness was shown to have a greater effect on radial stress, compared to hoop stress, and increasing the gradient thickness significantly increased the radial stress magnitude.

  2. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  3. Amorphization Mechanism of Icosahedral Platinum Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apra, Edoardo; Baletto, Francesca; Ferrando, Riccardo; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    The amorphization mechanism of high-symmetry pt nanoclusters is investigated by a combination of Molecular Dynamics simulations and Density Functional calculations. A general mechanism for amorphization, involving rosette-like structural transformations at fivefold vertices, is proposed. IN the tosette, a fivefold vertex is transformed into a hexagonal ring. We show that for icosahedral Pt nanoclusters, this transformation is associated with an energy gain, so that their most favorable structures have a low symmetry even at icosahedral magic numbers

  4. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  5. Conductivity and superconductivity of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, M.; Kusz, B.; Klimczuk, T.; Natali, R.; Stizza, S.

    2007-01-01

    The (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O glass-ceramics may be considered as disordered metal and superconductor. Depending on the heat treatment conditions the materials are either composed of the oval grains of the 2212 or 2201 phases embedded in the insulating matrix or they mainly contain the 2212 plate-like crystallites weakly connected one with another. The materials have large resistivity and usually large negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR). The granular and disordered character of the materials is also reflected in their superconducting properties. Both the normal-state and superconducting properties correlate one with another. The glass-ceramic samples were obtained by annealing the amorphous solid at temperatures between 840 and 860 deg. C. The measurements of the temperature dependence of resistivity in annealed samples were carried out with the conventional four-terminal method in a temperature range from 3 to 300 K

  6. Free energies of formation of WC and WzC and the thermodynamic properties of carbon in solid tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D. K.; Seigle, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    The activity of carbon in the two-phase regions - W + WC and W + W2C was obtained from the carbon content of iron rods equilibrated with mixtures of metal plus carbide powders. From this activity data the standard free energies of formation of WC and W2C were calculated. The temperature of the invariant reaction W2C = W + WC was fixed at 1570 + or - 5K. Using available solubility data for C in solid W, the partial molar free energy of C in the dilute solid solution was also calculated. The heat of solution of C in W, and the excess entropy for the interstitial solid solution, were computed, assuming that the carbon atoms reside in the octahedral interstices of bcc W.

  7. Influence of WC-Co substrate pretreatment on diamond film deposition by laser-assisted combustion synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillère, Amélie; Guillemet, Thomas; Xie, Zhi Qiang; Zuhlke, Craig A; Alexander, Dennis R; Silvain, Jean-François; Heintz, Jean-Marc; Chandra, Namas; Lu, Yong Feng

    2011-04-01

    The quality of diamond films deposited on cemented tungsten carbide substrates (WC-Co) is limited by the presence of the cobalt binder. The cobalt in the WC-Co substrates enhances the formation of nondiamond carbon on the substrate surface, resulting in a poor film adhesion and a low diamond quality. In this study, we investigated pretreatments of WC-Co substrates in three different approaches, namely, chemical etching, laser etching, and laser etching followed by acid treatment. The laser produces a periodic surface pattern, thus increasing the roughness and releasing the stress at the interfaces between the substrate and the grown diamond film. Effects of these pretreatments have been analyzed in terms of microstructure and cobalt content. Raman spectroscopy was conducted to characterize both the diamond quality and compressive residual stress in the films. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Status of superconducting power transformer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.C.; McConnell, B.W.; Mehta, S.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    Development of the superconducting transformer is arguably the most difficult of the ac power applications of superconductivity - this is because of the need for very low ac losses, adequate fault and surge performance, and the rigors of the application environment. This paper briefly summarizes the history of superconducting transformer projects, reviews the key issues for superconducting transformers, and examines the status of HTS transformer development. Both 630-kVA, three-phase and 1-MVA single phase demonstration units are expected to operate in late 1996. Both efforts will further progress toward the development of economical and performance competitive superconducting transformers.

  9. Electron mobility, conductivity, and superconductivity near the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiory, A.T.; Hebard, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The disorder parameter k/sub F/l for amorphous InO/sub x/ is measured by a novel application of the surface electric field effect and is varied by thermal annealing. The normal-state conductivity and superconducting T/sub c/ both vary as (k/sub F/l) -2 and critical disorder occurs at k/sub F/lroughly-equal3/sup 1/2/, as a result of Anderson localization in this low-carrier density material

  10. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), and disability among older adults in Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sanggon; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between WC and BMI on disability among older adults from LAC. Cross-sectional, multicenter city study of 5786 subjects aged 65 years and older from the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE) study (1999-2000). Sociodemographic variables, smoking status, medical conditions, BMI, WC, and activities of daily living (ADL) were obtained. Prevalence of high WC (HWC) (> 88 cm) in women ranged from 48.5% (Havana) to 72.7% (Mexico City), while among men (> 102 cm) it ranged from 12.5% (Bridgetown) to 32.5% (Santiago). The associations between WC and ADL disability were "J" shaped, with higher risks of ADL disability observed above 110 cm for women in Bridgetown, Santiago, Havana, and Montevideo. The association in Sao Paulo is plateau with higher risk above 100 cm, and the association in Mexico City is closer to linear. Among men the associations were "U" (Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and Havana), "J" shaped (Montevideo), plateau (Santiago), and closer to linear in Mexico City. When WC and BMI were analyzed together, we found that participants from Sao Paulo, Santiago, Havana, and Montevideo in the overweight or obese category with HWC were significantly more likely to report ADL disability after adjusting for all covariates. The findings of this study suggest that both general and abdominal adiposity are associated with disability and support the use of WC in addition to BMI to assess risk of disability in older adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct laser metal deposition of WC/Co/Cr powder by means of the functionally graded materials strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelastro, A.; Campanelli, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    One of the many applications of direct laser metal deposition (DLMD) is the realization of multilayer thick coatings having particular mechanical characteristics, such as high hardness. The objective of this work was to obtain a thick, very hard and wear resistant coating, containing a high percentage of tungsten carbide (WC), on an AISI 304 stainless steel substrate. In order to achieve this result, a tungsten carbide-cobalt-chrome (WC/Co/Cr) powder was processed by the DLMD method. WC/Co/Cr is a composite widely used as a wear-resistant material for cutting tools, molds, coatings and other severe applications. Because of its high hardness, poor ductility and low thermal expansion coefficient, depositing this material directly on the stainless steel substrate is very difficult. In order to overcome this problem, the strategy of functionally graded materials (FGM) was used. Colmonoy 227-F nickel alloy was chosen for this purpose in order to generate a mixture with the WC/Co/Cr powder. Four different materials were deposited, layer by layer, by mixing Colmonoy 227-F with an increasing amount of WC/Co/Cr powders, until obtaining a thick surface coating with a maximum amount of WC of 77.4 wt%. For each powder mixture, a mathematical model was applied to calculate optimal values of translation speed and overlap percentages. A metallographic examination was performed in order to detect macro- and micro-structures of the different materials. Finally, Vickers micro-hardness was measured at various locations along the transverse section to appreciate the gradual increase of the FGM hardness, starting from the substrate and culminating at the top surface of the last deposited material.

  12. The process of combustion synthesis of WC-Co composites under the action of an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Keqin; Xiong, Ji; Sun, Lan; Fan, Hongyuan; Zhou, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Composites of WC-Co have been synthesized and consolidated simultaneously at the ignition temperature of 794 o C by a field-assisted combustion synthesis method (EFACS), where the electric field was generated by a Gleeble thermal simulation instrument. Then, with the aid of high-temperature XRD results, the combustion synthesis process of an 88 wt% (W + C)-12 wt% Co system was studied according to quenching at different temperatures by turning off the electric field. A four-step model describing the process of combustion synthesis of WC-Co composites under an electric field, which is controlled by solid diffusion among the reactant atoms, is proposed. From the preheating period to the solid diffusion period, the solid diffusion among reactant atoms enhance with the increase of temperature. From the solid diffusion period to the combustion period, the 2W (s) + C (s) = W 2 C (s) reaction may occurs at some interfaces between W and C atoms. During combustion period, 2W (s) + C (s) = W 2 C (s) occurs firstly and follows the reaction of W 2 C (s) + C (s) = 2WC (s) . Co melts and then reacts to W, W 2 C in order to form WC and Co 3 W 3 C, with that Co 3 W 3 C carbonizes to form WC and Co. After the combustion period, the remaining phases of W 2 C and Co 3 W 3 C can be carbonized to form WC with the increase of temperature, and the morphology of tungsten carbide changes from spheroid to polyhedrons as the temperature rises.

  13. Critical Damage Analysis of WC-Co Tip of Conical Pick due to Coal Excavation in Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Dewangan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available WC-Co based tools are widely used in the field of coal and rock excavation because of their unique combination of strength, hardness, and resistance to abrasive wear. Conical pick is one of the coal cutting tools. The tip of the pick is made of WC-Co material. As coal and rock are heterogeneous elements, they pose various constraints during excavation. As a result the tools wear out during the process. Other parameters like cutting techniques, tool orientation, and environmental conditions also affect the tool significantly. The wearing phenomenon greatly reduces the service life of the tools and thereby cuts down the production rate. To prevent such wearing process, it is important to investigate the different wear mechanisms in WC-Co. Simultaneously, there has to be an ongoing endeavour for the development of better quality WC-Co. This paper focuses on different wear mechanisms in a conical pick which has been used in a continuous miner machine for coal cutting. The worn out surface has been observed by using FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy and EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The mechanisms, namely, coal/rock intermixing, cracking and crushing of WC grains, and adhesion of rock particles, have been predominantly investigated in this study. A little indication of corrosive decay in the WC grain has also been reported. The EDS has detected material concentration in a selected area or point of the worn-out surface. The spectrograph confirms the presence of coal/rock materials. Elements such as W, C, Ca, K, O, and Co have been mainly found in different concentrations at different positions.

  14. Human cell line-dependent WC-Co nanoparticle cytotoxicity and genotoxicity: a key role of ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, V; Moche, H; Kortulewski, T; Grall, R; Irbah, L; Nesslany, F; Chevillard, S

    2015-02-01

    Although tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used because of their robustness, their risk to human health remains poorly studied, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifying them as "probably carcinogenic" for humans (Group 2A) in 2006. Our current study aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of one set of commercially available 60-nm diameter WC-Co NPs on three human cell lines representative of potential target organs: A549 (lung), Hep3B (liver), and Caki-1 (kidney). The cytotoxicity of WC-Co NPs was determined by evaluating cell impedance (xCELLigence), cell survival/death, and cell cycle checkpoints. Flow cytometry was used to not only evaluate cell cycle checkpoints, but to also estimate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In addition, γ-H2Ax foci detection (confocal microscopy), considered to be the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks, was utilized to evaluate genotoxicity. As a final part of this study, we assessed the cellular incorporation of WC-Co NPs, first byflow cytometry (side scatter), and then by confocal microscopy (light reflection) to ensure that the NPs had entered cells. Overall, our current findings demonstrate that WC-Co NPs induce cell mortality, DNA double-strand breaks, and cell cycle arrest in human renal (Caki-1) and liver (Hep3B) cell lines, but do not induce significant cytotoxic effects in A549 lung cells. Interestingly, although WC-Co NPs effectively entered the cells in all 3 lines tested, ROS were detected in Caki-1 and Hep3B, but not in A549. This may explain the great differences in the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects we observed between these lines. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Superconducting wires and methods of making thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingchen; Sumption, Michael D.; Peng, Xuan

    2018-03-13

    Disclosed herein are superconducting wires. The superconducting wires can comprise a metallic matrix and at least one continuous subelement embedded in the matrix. Each subelement can comprise a non-superconducting core, a superconducting layer coaxially disposed around the non-superconducting core, and a barrier layer coaxially disposed around the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer can comprise a plurality of Nb.sub.3Sn grains stabilized by metal oxide particulates disposed therein. The Nb.sub.3Sn grains can have an average grain size of from 5 nm to 90 nm (for example, from 15 nm to 30 nm). The superconducting wire can have a high-field critical current density (J.sub.c) of at least 5,000 A/mm.sup.2 at a temperature of 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 12 T. Also described are superconducting wire precursors that can be heat treated to prepare superconducting wires, as well as methods of making superconducting wires.

  16. Superconductivity of metallic aluminum antimonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, J

    1967-02-10

    The high-pressure metallic phase of aluminunm antimnonide is super conducting [critical temperature T(c) (P approximately 125 kilobars) = 2.8 degrees +/-0.2 degrees K]. This transition temperature is significantly lower than the transition temperature of metallic germanium under an equivalent high pressure. A similar result had been previously found for superconducting indiumantimonide in comparison to tin.

  17. Superconducting cavity model for LEP

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A superconducting cavity model is being prepared for testing in a vertical cryostat.At the top of the assembly jig is H.Preis while A.Scharding adjusts some diagnostic equipment to the cavity. See also photo 7912501X.

  18. Photon-detecting superconducting resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in astronomy is observing star and planetary formation, redshifted distant galaxies and molecular spectral ‘fingerprints’ in the far-infrared spectrum of light, using highly sensitive and large cameras. In this thesis we investigate superconducting resonators for

  19. Discovering superconductivity an investigative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ireson, Gren

    2012-01-01

    The highly-illustrated text will serve as excellent introduction for students, with and without a physics background, to superconductivity. With a strong practical, experimental emphasis, it will provide readers with an overview of the topic preparing them for more advanced texts used in more advanced undergraduate and post-graduate courses.

  20. Superconducting Qubits and Quantum Resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forn-Díaz, P.

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting qubits are fabricated "loss-free" electrical circuits on a chip with size features of tens of nanometers. If cooled to cryogenic temperatures below -273 °C they behave as quantum elements, similar to atoms and molecules. Such a qubit can be manipulated by fast-oscillating magnetic

  1. Vacuum Technology for Superconducting Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chiggiato, P

    2014-01-01

    The basic notions of vacuum technology for superconducting applications are presented, with an emphasis on mass and heat transport in free molecular regimes. The working principles and practical details of turbomolecular pumps and cryopumps are introduced. The specific case of the Large Hadron Collider’s cryogenic vacuum system is briefly reviewed.

  2. ISR Superconducting High luminosity Insertion

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The picture shows two of the eight superconducting quadrupoles of the low-beta insertion at intersection I8.The increase of luminosity produced by this insertion was above a factor 7. At right one can also see the Open- Axial- Field Magnet. The person is Stephan Pichler. See also 7702690X, 8102123, 8010397, 8008332.

  3. Superconducting magnets and cryogenics: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 70 papers in these workshop proceeedings. Topics covered include: superconducting accelerator magnet research and development; superconductor development; electrical measurements; magnet design and construction methods; field correction methods; power schemes and quench protection; cryogenic systems; and magnet measurements

  4. Collaring of Po Superconducting Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The picture shows the placing of a stack of stainless steel collars around the superconducting coils.Pre-assembled collar stacks were placed under and on top of the coils,the collars interleaving as comb teeth. During the following collaring operation of compression under a press the collars were locked together by means of side wedges. See also photos 8211532X, 7903168

  5. Monolayer Superconductivity in WS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheliuk, Oleksandr; Lu, Jianming; Yang, Jie; Ye, Jianting

    Superconductivity in monolayer tungsten disulfide (2H-WS2) is achieved by strong electrostatic electron doping of an electric double-layer transistor (EDLT). Single crystals of WS2 are grown by a scalable method - chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on standard Si/SiO2 substrate. The monolayers are

  6. Topological Properties of Superconducting Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulin, D.I.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    Motivated by recent developments in the field of one-dimensional topological superconductors, we investigate the topological properties of s-matrix of generic superconducting junctions where dimension should not play any role. We argue that for a finite junction the s-matrix is always topologically

  7. Microstructure Evolution and Its Effect on the Wear Performance of HVOF-Sprayed Conventional WC-Co Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dingfa; Xiong, Haoqi; Wang, Qun

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a conventional tungsten carbide 12% cobalt (WC-12Co) coating was deposited by using a liquid fuel JP-8000 high velocity oxyfuel spray system. The properties of the coating namely phase content, microstructure, hardness, porosity, and fracture toughness were examined. The microstructure evolution and its influence on the abrasive wear behavior of the coatings were evaluated in detail by in-situ scanning electron microscopy and a comprehensive model for decarburization of WC has been established using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses.

  8. Low temperature pressureless immediate sintering of novel nanostructured WC/Co/NiCrSiB-alloy cemented carbide

    OpenAIRE

    Amel-Farzad, H.; Taheri-Nassaj, E.; Meertens, D.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Tavabi, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    A novel nanostructured cemented carbide formed from WC-5%Co-20%BNi2 brazing alloy is described. During sintering, the BNi2 alloy is infiltrated into a green compact of WC-5%Co at 1050-1100 {\\deg}C for 2-60 minutes. Perfect wetting behavior and a zero contact angle are achieved after only 40 s. Relative densities of 98.5% and 100% and microhardness values of above 1500HV1 and 1800HV1 are obtained after 2 and 30 minutes, respectively. A change in mean particle size of about 600 nm in the precur...

  9. An Investigation on the Wear and Corrosion Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed WC-12Co-Al2O3 Cermet Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Prasad, G.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Srivastava, Meenu

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop thermally sprayable WC-12Co and WC-12Co- xAl2O3 ( x = 10 and 15 wt.%) cermet coatings on steel substrate (SS 304) by high-velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) method. Influence of Al2O3 addition on the wear and corrosion behavior of WC-12Co coating has been studied. The microstructure and chemical composition of the coatings were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and phase identification was carried out using x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The morphology of the coating appears as coarse granular structure. The XRD studies revealed the presence of hexagonal WC phase along with η-Co6W6C phase. It has been observed from the microhardness measurements, that the values gradually increase from 950 to 1300 HK with the addition of Al2O3 from 0 to 15 wt.%. The wear rate of WC-12Co-15Al2O3 (3.19 × 10-6 mm3/Nm) and WC-12Co-10Al2O3 (5.26 × 10-6 mm3/Nm) coatings was seen to be one order of magnitude lower than that of WC-12Co (2.9 × 10-5 mm3/Nm) coating. The polarization studies revealed that WC-12Co-15Al2O3 cermet coating showed superior corrosion protection than that of WC-12Co-10Al2O3 and WC-12Co coatings. This has been attributed to the gradual decrease in the porosity levels with an increase in Al2O3 content which is supported by morphology studies. The microhardness and wear behavior of WC-12Co-Al2O3 coatings are equivalent to those of hard chrome suggesting the possibility of its replacement.

  10. Ab initio simulation of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, N.C.; McKenzie, D.R.; Goringe, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A first-principles Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation of amorphous silicon is presented. Density Functional Theory is used to describe the forces between the atoms in a 64 atom supercell which is periodically repeated throughout space in order to generate an infinite network of atoms (a good approximation to a real solid). A quench from the liquid phase is used to achieve a quenched amorphous structure, which is subjected to an annealing cycle to improve its stability. The final, annealed network is in better agreement with experiment than any previous simulation of amorphous silicon. Significantly, the predicted average first-coordination numbers of 3.56 and 3.84 for the quenched and annealed structures from this simulation agree very closely with the experimental values of 3.55 and 3.90 respectively, whereas all previous simulations yielded first coordination numbers greater than 4. This improved agreement in coordination numbers is important because it supports the experimental finding that dangling bonds (which are associated with under-coordinated atoms) are more prevalent than floating bonds (the strained, longer bond of a five coordinate atom) in pure amorphous silicon. Finally, the effect of adding hydrogen to amorphous silicon was investigated by specifically placing hydrogen atoms at the likely defect sites. After a structural relaxation to optimise the positions of these hydrogen atoms, the localised electronic states associated with these defects are absent. Thus hydrogen is responsible for removing these defect states (which are able to trap carriers) from the edge of the band gap of the amorphous silicon. These results confirm the widely held ideas about the effect of hydrogen in producing remarkable improvements in the electronic properties of amorphous silicon

  11. Determination and modeling of residual stress in functionally graded WC-Co

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvilian, Leila

    Gradual variations in composition and/or structure through the volume of functionally graded materials (FGMs) generally result in corresponding continuous spatial variations in mechanical/physical properties, and often in significant residual stresses that develop during processing. Due to inhomogeneous properties in these materials, residual stress measurement in FGMs can be a very challenging problem. In this study, residual stresses in functionally graded cemented tungsten carbide (FG-WC-Co) were investigated by numerical, analytical and experimental approaches by means of a layer removal technique. The numerical method consisted of finite element analysis (FEA) modeling for the FGM plate, in order to calculate residual stress distribution over the volume and to develop a method for predicting residual stress levels in closely related materials. The analytical procedure embodied a mathematical approach to determine residual stress distributions, and analytically determined values are compared with those obtained from FEA modeling and experimental results. The experimental approach consisted of fabricating and heat treating FG-WC-Co flat samples, then measuring strain changes by strain gauge after each sequential layer removal from the opposite side of the specimen from the graded region. Good agreement was found between analytical, numerical and experimental results. Furthermore, thermal residual stress distribution in FG-WC-Co hollow cylinder was examined with an emphasis on the effects of key variables, the gradient profile and the gradient thickness, on the magnitude and distribution of the stress field. An analytical direct solution based on solving the governing equations of a cylinder composed of a uniform inner core and a functionally graded outer shell was developed. The cylindrical compound was considered as two separate elements: homogeneous cylinder and functionally graded shell. Material properties, such as the elastic modulus and the coefficient of

  12. Effects of the amorphization on hysteresis loops of the amorphous spin-1/2 Ising system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Saber, M.; Miguel, J.J. de

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effects of the amorphization on the hysteresis loops of the amorphous spin-1/2 Ising system using the effective field theory within a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation functions. The magnetization, the transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities, and pyromagnetic coefficient are also studied in detail

  13. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  14. 76 FR 255 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. (P&WC) PW305A and PW305B Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Canada Corp. (P&WC) PW305A and PW305B Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The AD docket contains this AD... section of the engine maintenance manuals for Pratt & Whitney Canada (P&WC) PW305A and PW305B turbofan...

  15. Mechanical characterization of cemented carbide WC-6Co (%wt) manufactured by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boidi, G.; Tertuliano, A.J.; Machado, I.F.

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to manufacture cemented carbide (WC-6%wtCo) obtained by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering) process and to carry out the mechanical characterization by hardness and fracture toughness. The material was consolidated at 1100 deg C for different holding times (1 min, 5 min, 10 min), in order to evaluate the densification. A reference sample was also used to be compared to SPS. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to characterize the microstructural features of the samples and mechanical properties were obtained by hardness measurements (micro and macro) and instrumented indentation. The fracture toughness was calculated with the method of Palmqvist. Best results were found in the material sintered by SPS for 10 minutes of holding time, in which 97% of relative density and about 1600 HV 10 was reached. (author)

  16. Crystal orientation mapping applied to the Y-TZP/WC composite

    CERN Document Server

    Faryna, M; Sztwiertnia, K

    2002-01-01

    Crystal orientation measurements made by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and microscopic observations provided the basis for a quantitative investigation of microstructure in an yttria stabilized, tetragonal zirconia-based (Y-TZP) composite. Automatic crystal orientation mapping (ACOM) in a SEM can be preferable to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for microstructural characterization, since no sample thinning is required, extensive crystal data is already available, and the analysis area is greatly increased. A composite with a 20 vol.% tungsten carbide (WC) content was chosen since it revealed crystal relationships between the matrix and carbide phase already established by TEM analysis. However, this composite was difficult to investigate in the EBSD/ SEM since it is non-conductive, the Y-TZP grain size is of the order of the system resolution, and the sample surface, though carefully prepared, reveals a distinctive microtopography. In this paper, so...

  17. Regional mapping of photovoltaic plants ranging from 100 to 999 kWc in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    In a context of the expectation of a strong political lead, small and intermediate photovoltaic installations keep on developing. The map gives for each France's region the number of operating installations whose power output ranges between 100 and 999 kWc, and the number and the capacity of the installations that are completed but not yet connected to the grid. The sunshine level curves are also drawn. Polycrystal and monocrystal technologies are the most used 48% and 32% respectively, while the thin layer technology is used in only 5% of the installations. Concerning the type of the setting a great majority of the installations (85%) are integrated to the building while less than 1% are set on the ground. (A.C.)

  18. Machinability of Al-SiC metal matrix composites using WC, PCD and MCD inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beristain, J.; Gonzalo, O.; Sanda, A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the machinability of aluminium-silicon carbide Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) in turning operations. The cutting tools used were hard metal (WC) with and without coating, different grades and geometries of Poly-Crystalline Diamond (PCD) and Mono-Crystalline Diamond (MCD). The work piece material was AMC225xe, composed of aluminium-copper alloy AA 2124 and 25% wt of SiC, being the size of the SiC particles around 3 {mu}m. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds and cutting parameters in facing finishing operations, measuring the surface roughness, cutting forces and tool wear. The worn surface of the cutting tool was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that the Built Up Edge (BUE) and stuck material is higher in the MCD tools than in the PCD tools. The BUE acts as a protective layer against abrasive wear of the tool. (Author)

  19. Machinability of Al-SiC metal matrix composites using WC, PCD and MCD inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beristain, J.; Gonzalo, O.; Sanda, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the machinability of aluminium-silicon carbide Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) in turning operations. The cutting tools used were hard metal (WC) with and without coating, different grades and geometries of Poly-Crystalline Diamond (PCD) and Mono-Crystalline Diamond (MCD). The work piece material was AMC225xe, composed of aluminium-copper alloy AA 2124 and 25% wt of SiC, being the size of the SiC particles around 3 μm. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds and cutting parameters in facing finishing operations, measuring the surface roughness, cutting forces and tool wear. The worn surface of the cutting tool was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that the Built Up Edge (BUE) and stuck material is higher in the MCD tools than in the PCD tools. The BUE acts as a protective layer against abrasive wear of the tool. (Author)

  20. Measurement and modeling of room temperature co-deformation in WC-10 wt.%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livescu, V. [MST-8/LANSCE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: vlivescu@lanl.gov; Clausen, B. [MST-8/LANSCE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Paggett, J.W. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Krawitz, A.D. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Drake, E.F. [REEDHycalogTM/Grant Prideco, Houston, TX 77252 (United States); Bourke, M.A.M. [MST-8/LANSCE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    In situ neutron diffraction measurements were performed on a tungsten carbide (WC)-10 wt.% cobalt (Co) cemented carbide composite subjected to compressive loading. The sample was subjected to consecutive load/unload cycles to -500, -1000, -2000 and -2100 MPa. Thermal residual stresses measured before loading reflected large hydrostatic tensile stresses in the binder phase and compressive stresses in the carbide phase. The carbide phase behaved elastically at all but the highest load levels, whereas plasticity was present in the binder phase from values of applied stress as low as -500 MPa. A finite element simulation utilizing an interpenetrating microstructure model showed remarkable agreement with the complex mean phase strain response during the loading cycles despite its under-prediction of thermal residual strains.