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Sample records for amorphous ice transition

  1. Kinetically Controlled Two-Step Amorphization and Amorphous-Amorphous Transition in Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Yong, Xue; Tse, John S.; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of in situ structural characterization of the amorphization of crystalline ice Ih under compression and the relaxation of high-density amorphous (HDA) ice under decompression at temperatures between 96 and 160 K by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The results show that ice Ih transforms to an intermediate crystalline phase at 100 K prior to complete amorphization, which is supported by molecular dynamics calculations. The phase transition pathways show clear temperature dependence: direct amorphization without an intermediate phase is observed at 133 K, while at 145 K a direct Ih-to-IX transformation is observed; decompression of HDA shows a transition to low-density amorphous ice at 96 K and ˜1 Pa , to ice Ic at 135 K and to ice IX at 145 K. These observations show that the amorphization of compressed ice Ih and the recrystallization of decompressed HDA are strongly dependent on temperature and controlled by kinetic barriers. Pressure-induced amorphous ice is an intermediate state in the phase transition from the connected H-bond water network in low pressure ices to the independent and interpenetrating H-bond network of high-pressure ices.

  2. The glass transition in high-density amorphous ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerting, Thomas; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Handle, Philip H; Seidl, Markus; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Gainaru, Catalin; Böhmer, Roland

    2015-01-01

    There has been a long controversy regarding the glass transition in low-density amorphous ice (LDA). The central question is whether or not it transforms to an ultraviscous liquid state above 136 K at ambient pressure prior to crystallization. Currently, the most widespread interpretation of the experimental findings is in terms of a transformation to a superstrong liquid above 136 K. In the last decade some work has also been devoted to the study of the glass transition in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) which is in the focus of the present review. At ambient pressure HDA is metastable against both ice I and LDA, whereas at > 0.2 GPa HDA is no longer metastable against LDA, but merely against high-pressure forms of crystalline ice. The first experimental observation interpreted as the glass transition of HDA was made using in situ methods by Mishima, who reported a glass transition temperature T g of 160 K at 0.40 GPa. Soon thereafter Andersson and Inaba reported a much lower glass transition temperature of 122 K at 1.0 GPa. Based on the pressure dependence of HDA's T g measured in Innsbruck, we suggest that they were in fact probing the distinct glass transition of very high-density amorphous ice (VHDA). Very recently the glass transition in HDA was also observed at ambient pressure at 116 K. That is, LDA and HDA show two distinct glass transitions, clearly separated by about 20 K at ambient pressure. In summary, this suggests that three glass transition lines can be defined in the p-T plane for LDA, HDA, and VHDA.

  3. High density amorphous ice and its phase transition to ice XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, I.

    2001-07-01

    1998 Lobban et al. reported the neutron diffraction data of a new phase of ice, called ice XII, which formed at 260 K on compression of water within the domain of ice V at a pressure of 0.5 GPa. Surprisingly ice XII forms as an incidental product in the preparation of high-density amorphous ice (HDA) on compression of hexagonale ice (ice Ih) at 77 K up to pressures = 1.3 GPa. A decisive experimental detail is the use of an indium container: when compressing ice Ih in a pressure vessel with indium linings, then reproducibly HDA (high density amorphous ice) forms, but without indium randomly scattered relative amounts of ice XII and HDA form. Ice XII forms on compression of ice Ih at 77 K only via HDA, and not directly from ice Ih. Its formation requires a sudden pronounced apparent pressure drop of ca 0.18 GPa at pressures ca 1.1 GPa. These apparent pressure drops can be caused by buildup friction between the piston and the pressure vessel and its sudden release on further compression. I propose that shock-waves generated by apparent pressure drops cause transient local heating and that this induces nucleation and crystal growth. A specific reproducible method to prepare ice XII is heating HDA in a pressure vessel with indium linings at constant pressures (or constant volume). The ice XII (meta-)stability domain extends between ca 158 and 212 K from ca 0.7 to ca 1.5 GPa. DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and x-ray powder diffraction revealed, that on heating at atmospheric pressure ice XII transforms directly into cubic ice (ice Ic) at 154 K (heating rate 10 K min - 1) and not into an amorphous form before transition to ice Ic. The enthalpy of the ice XII - ice Ic transition is -1.21 ± 0.07 kJ mol -1 . An estimation of the Gibbs free energy at atmospheric pressure and about 140 K results that ice XII is thermodynamically more stable than ice VI. In the heating curve of ice XII a reversible endothermic step can be found at the onset temperature (heating rate

  4. Theory of amorphous ices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T; Chandler, David

    2014-07-01

    We derive a phase diagram for amorphous solids and liquid supercooled water and explain why the amorphous solids of water exist in several different forms. Application of large-deviation theory allows us to prepare such phases in computer simulations. Along with nonequilibrium transitions between the ergodic liquid and two distinct amorphous solids, we establish coexistence between these two amorphous solids. The phase diagram we predict includes a nonequilibrium triple point where two amorphous phases and the liquid coexist. Whereas the amorphous solids are long-lived and slowly aging glasses, their melting can lead quickly to the formation of crystalline ice. Further, melting of the higher density amorphous solid at low pressures takes place in steps, transitioning to the lower-density glass before accessing a nonequilibrium liquid from which ice coarsens.

  5. Amorphous ices explained in terms of nonequilibrium phase transitions in supercooled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the phase diagram of supercooled water out-of-equilibrium using concepts from space-time thermodynamics and the dynamic facilitation theory of the glass transition, together with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that when water is driven out-of-equilibrium, it can exist in multiple amorphous states. In contrast, we find that when water is at equilibrium, it can exist in only one liquid state. The amorphous non-equilibrium states are solids, distinguished from the liquid by their lack of mobility, and distinguished from each other by their different densities and local structure. This finding explains the experimentally observed polyamorphism of water as a class of nonequilibrium phenomena involving glasses of different densities. While the amorphous solids can be long lived, they are thermodynamically unstable. When allowed to relax to equilibrium, they crystallize with pathways that pass first through liquid state configurations and then to ordered ice.

  6. Experimental study of the polyamorphism of water. I. The isobaric transitions from amorphous ices to LDA at 4 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Loerting, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The existence of more than one solid amorphous state of water is an extraordinary feature. Since polyamorphism might be connected to the liquid-liquid critical point hypothesis, it is particularly important to study the relations amongst the different amorphous ices. Here we study the polyamorphic transformations of several high pressure amorphous ices to low-density amorphous ice (LDA) at 4 MPa by isobaric heating utilising in situ volumetry and ex situ X-ray diffraction. We find that very-high density amorphous ice (VHDA) and unannealed high density amorphous ice (HDA) show significant relaxation before transforming to LDA, whereby VHDA is seen to relax toward HDA. By contrast, expanded HDA shows almost no relaxation prior to the transformation. The transition to LDA itself obeys criteria for a first-order-like transition in all cases. In the case of VHDA, even macroscopic phase separation is observed. These findings suggest that HDA and LDA are two clearly distinct polyamorphs. We further present evidence that HDA reaches the metastable equilibrium at 140 K and 0.1 GPa but only comes close to that at 140 K and 0.2 GPa. The most important is the path independence of the amorphous phase reached at 140 K and 0.1 GPa.

  7. Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Fivos; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Lehmkühler, Felix; Sprung, Michael; Mariedahl, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Pathak, Harshad; Späh, Alexander; Cavalca, Filippo; Schlesinger, Daniel; Ricci, Alessandro; Jain, Avni; Massani, Bernhard; Aubree, Flora; Benmore, Chris J.; Loerting, Thomas; Grübel, Gerhard; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Nilsson, Anders

    2017-08-01

    Water exists in high- and low-density amorphous ice forms (HDA and LDA), which could correspond to the glassy states of high- (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL) in the metastable part of the phase diagram. However, the nature of both the glass transition and the high-to-low-density transition are debated and new experimental evidence is needed. Here we combine wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) with X-ray photon-correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) in the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) geometry to probe both the structural and dynamical properties during the high-to-low-density transition in amorphous ice at 1 bar. By analyzing the structure factor and the radial distribution function, the coexistence of two structurally distinct domains is observed at T = 125 K. XPCS probes the dynamics in momentum space, which in the SAXS geometry reflects structural relaxation on the nanometer length scale. The dynamics of HDA are characterized by a slow component with a large time constant, arising from viscoelastic relaxation and stress release from nanometer-sized heterogeneities. Above 110 K a faster, strongly temperature-dependent component appears, with momentum transfer dependence pointing toward nanoscale diffusion. This dynamical component slows down after transition into the low-density form at 130 K, but remains diffusive. The diffusive character of both the high- and low-density forms is discussed among different interpretations and the results are most consistent with the hypothesis of a liquid-liquid transition in the ultraviscous regime.

  8. Structure of a new dense amorphous ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, J.L.; Bowron, D.T.; Soper, A.K.; Loerting, T.; Mayer, E.; Hallbrucker, A.

    2002-01-01

    The detailed structure of a new dense amorphous ice, VHDA, is determined by isotope substitution neutron diffraction. Its structure is characterized by a doubled occupancy of the stabilizing interstitial location that was found in high density amorphous ice, HDA. As would be expected for a thermally activated unlocking of the stabilizing 'interstitial', the transition from VHDA to LDA (low-density amorphous ice) is very sharp. Although its higher density makes VHDA a better candidate than HDA for a physical manifestation of the second putative liquid phase of water, as for the HDA case, the VHDA to LDA transition also appears to be kinetically controlled

  9. Potential Energy Landscape of the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Water and the transformation between Low-Density and High-Density Amorphous Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovambattista, N.; Sciortino, F.; Starr, F. W.; Poole, P. H.

    The potential energy landscape (PEL) formalism is a valuable approach within statistical mechanics for describing supercooled liquids and glasses. We use the PEL formalism and computer simulations to study the transformation between low-density (LDL) and high-density liquid (HDL) water, and between low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). We employ the ST2 water model that exhibits a LDL-HDL first-order phase transition and a sharp LDA-HDA transformation, as observed in experiments. Our results are consistent with the view that LDA and HDA configurations are associated with two distinct regions (megabasins) of the PEL that are separated by a potential energy barrier. At higher temperature, we find that LDL configurations are located in the same megabasin as LDA, and that HDL configurations are located in the same megabasin as HDA. We show that the pressure-induced LDL-HDL and LDA-HDA transformations occur along paths that interconnect these two megabasins, but that the path followed by the liquid and the amorphous ice differ. We also study the liquid-to-ice-VII first-order phase transition. The PEL properties across this transition are qualitatively similar to the changes found during the LDA-HDA transformation, supporting the interpretation that the LDA-HDA transformation is a first-order-like phase transition between out-of-equilibrium states.

  10. Large-Scale Structure and Hyperuniformity of Amorphous Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fausto; Torquato, Salvatore; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Car, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the large-scale structure of amorphous ices and transitions between their different forms by quantifying their large-scale density fluctuations. Specifically, we simulate the isothermal compression of low-density amorphous ice (LDA) and hexagonal ice to produce high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Both HDA and LDA are nearly hyperuniform; i.e., they are characterized by an anomalous suppression of large-scale density fluctuations. By contrast, in correspondence with the nonequilibrium phase transitions to HDA, the presence of structural heterogeneities strongly suppresses the hyperuniformity and the system becomes hyposurficial (devoid of "surface-area fluctuations"). Our investigation challenges the largely accepted "frozen-liquid" picture, which views glasses as structurally arrested liquids. Beyond implications for water, our findings enrich our understanding of pressure-induced structural transformations in glasses.

  11. Peculiarities of Vibration Characteristics of Amorphous Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gets, Kirill V.; Subbotin, Oleg S.; Belosludov, Vladimir R.

    2012-03-01

    Dynamic properties of low (LDA), high (HDA) and very high (VHDA) density amorphous ices were investigated within the approach based on Lattice Dynamics simulations. In this approach, we assume that the short-range molecular order mainly determines the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of amorphous ices. Simulation cell of 512 water molecules with periodical boundary conditions and disordering allows us to study dynamical properties and dispersion curves in the Brillouin zone of pseudo-crystal. Existence of collective phenomena in amorphous ices which is usual for crystals but anomalous for disordered phase was confirmed in our simulations. Molecule amplitudes of delocalized (collective) as well as localized vibrations have been considered.

  12. Inelastic neutron scattering of amorphous ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Susumu; Suzuki, Yoshiharu

    2001-01-01

    We measured the inelastic neutron scattering from high-density amorphous (HDA) and low-density amorphous (LDA) ice produced by pressurizing and releasing the pressure. We found a clear difference between the intermolecular vibrations in HDA and those in LDA ice: LDA ice has peaks at 22 and 33 meV, which are also seen in the spectrum of lattice vibrations in ice crystal, but the spectrum of HDA ice does not have these peaks. The excitation energy of librational vibrations in HDA ice is 10 meV lower than that in LDA ice. These results imply that HDA ice includes 2- and 5-coordinated hydrogen bonds that are created by breakage of hydrogen bonds and migration of water molecules into the interstitial site, while LDA ice contains mainly 4-coordinated hydrogen bonds and large cavities. Furthermore, we report the dynamical structure factor in the amorphous ice and show that LDA ice is more closely related to the ice crystal structure than to HDA ice. (author)

  13. High-density amorphous ice: nucleation of nanosized low-density amorphous ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonauer, Christina M.; Seidl-Nigsch, Markus; Loerting, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the crystallization temperature of different forms of expanded high-density amorphous ice (eHDA) was scrutinized. Crystallization at pressures 0.05-0.30 GPa was followed using volumetry and powder x-ray diffraction. eHDA samples were prepared via isothermal decompression of very high-density amorphous ice at 140 K to different end pressures between 0.07-0.30 GPa (eHDA0.07-0.3). At 0.05-0.17 GPa the crystallization line T x (p) of all eHDA variants is the same. At pressures  >0.17 GPa, all eHDA samples decompressed to pressures  <0.20 GPa exhibit significantly lower T x values than eHDA0.2 and eHDA0.3. We rationalize our findings with the presence of nanoscaled low-density amorphous ice (LDA) seeds that nucleate in eHDA when it is decompressed to pressures  <0.20 GPa at 140 K. Below ~0.17 GPa, these nanosized LDA domains are latent within the HDA matrix, exhibiting no effect on T x of eHDA<0.2. Upon heating at pressures  ⩾0.17 GPa, these nanosized LDA nuclei transform to ice IX nuclei. They are favored sites for crystallization and, hence, lower T x . By comparing crystallization experiments of bulk LDA with the ones involving nanosized LDA we are able to estimate the Laplace pressure and radius of ~0.3-0.8 nm for the nanodomains of LDA. The nucleation of LDA in eHDA revealed here is evidence for the first-order-like nature of the HDA  →  LDA transition, supporting water’s liquid-liquid transition scenarios.

  14. Polyamorphism in Water: Amorphous Ices and their Glassy States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann-Winkel, K.; Boehmer, R.; Fujara, F.; Gainaru, C.; Geil, B.; Loerting, T.

    2015-12-01

    Water is ubiquitous and of general importance for our environment. But it is also known as the most anomalous liquid. The fundamental origin of the numerous anomalies of water is still under debate. An understanding of these anomalous properties of water is closely linked to an understanding of the phase diagram of the metastable non-crystalline states of ice. The process of pressure induced amorphization of ice was first observed by Mishima et al. [1]. The authors pressurized hexagonal ice at 77 K up to a pressure of 1.6 GPa to form high density amorphous ice (HDA). So far three distinct structural states of amorphous water are known [2], they are called low- (LDA), high- (HDA) and very high density amorphous ice (VHDA). Since the discovery of multiple distinct amorphous states it is controversy discussed whether this phenomenon of polyamorphism at high pressures is connected to the occurrence of more than one supercooled liquid phase [3]. Alternatively, amorphous ices have been suggested to be of nanocrystalline nature, unrelated to liquids. Indeed inelastic X-ray scattering measurements indicate sharp crystal-like phonons in the amorphous ices [4]. In case of LDA the connection to the low-density liquid (LDL) was inferred from several experiments including the observation of a calorimetric glass-to-liquid transition at 136 K and ambient pressure [5]. Recently also the glass transition in HDA was observed at 116 K at ambient pressure [6] and at 140 K at elevated pressure of 1 GPa [7], using calorimetric measurements as well as dielectric spectroscopy. We discuss here the general importance of amorphous ices and their liquid counterparts and present calorimetric and dielectric measurements on LDA and HDA. The good agreement between dielectric and calorimetric results convey for a clearer picture of water's vitrification phenomenon. [1] O. Mishima, L. D. Calvert, and E. Whalley, Nature 314, 76, 1985 [2] D.T. Bowron, J. L. Finney, A. Hallbrucker, et al., J. Chem

  15. Amorphous ice. A microporous solid: astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, E.; Pletzer, R.

    1987-01-01

    Vapour deposited amorphous ice, investigated by N 2 -adsorption at 77 K, was found to be a microporous solid. Micropore volumes between 0.21 and 0.12 cm 3 /g were determined by comparison plots and Dubinin-Radushkevich plots. Warming of the adsorbent to 113 K caused sintering and reduction of apparent surface area by about an order of magnitude; in the presence of adsorbed gas, large amounts of gas were enclosed in the solid. The influence of micropores on the H 2 recombination rate on amorphous ice in interstellar dust and on adsorption of volatile gases in comets is discussed briefly

  16. Reversible pressure-induced crystal-amorphous structural transformation in ice Ih

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Niall J.; Tse, John S.

    2014-08-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of depressurised high-density amorphous ice (HDA) at 80 K and at negative pressures has been performed. Over several attempts, HDA recrystallised to a form close to hexagonal ice Ih, albeit with some defects. The results support the hypothesis that compression of ice-Ih to HDA is a reversible first-order phase transition, with a large hysteresis. Therefore, it would appear that LDA is not truly amorphous. The elastic energy estimated from the area of the hysteresis loop is ca. 4.5 kJ/mol, in some way consistent with experimentally-determined accumulated successive heats of transformations from recovered HDA → ice Ih.

  17. Neutron scattering studies of the phase-transitions of ices by thermal-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Kolesnikov, A.; Li, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Inelastic incoherent neutron scattering was used to study the phase-transition process of high-density amorphous (hda) ice produced by pressurising ice-Ih at 16 kbar and 77 K to low-density amorphous (Ida) ice, ice-Ic and ice-Ih by thermobaric treatments. The results show that when annealing temperature is lower than 136 K no obvious phase-transition was observed and transformation of the hda to the lda ice occurs between 136 and 144 K which is very closed to the theoretically calculated value 135 K (1). Comparing the lda spectrum with the vapour deposited low-density amorphous ice (2) shows a number of differences in the translational and vibrational regions, such as the low energy cut off of the vibrational band. On the other hand, the recovered lda from the hda ice has a similar spectrum as ice-Ih. (author)

  18. Structures of high and low density amorphous ice by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, J.L.; Hallbrucker, A.; Kohl, I.; Soper, A.K.; Bowron, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron diffraction with isotope substitution is used to determine the structures of high (HDA) and low (LDA) density amorphous ice. Both 'phases' are fully hydrogen bonded, tetrahedral networks, with local order similarities between LDA and ice Ih, and HDA and liquid water. Moving from HDA, through liquid water and LDA to ice Ih, the second shell radial order increases at the expense of spatial order. This is linked to a fifth first neighbor 'interstitial' that restricts the orientations of first shell waters. This 'lynch pin' molecule which keeps the HDA structure intact has implications for the nature of the HDA-LDA transition that bear on the current metastable water debate

  19. High-density amorphous ice: A path-integral simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Carlos P.; Ramírez, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    Structural and thermodynamic properties of high-density amorphous (HDA) ice have been studied by path-integral molecular dynamics simulations in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Interatomic interactions were modeled by using the effective q-TIP4P/F potential for flexible water. Quantum nuclear motion is found to affect several observable properties of the amorphous solid. At low temperature (T = 50 K) the molar volume of HDA ice is found to increase by 6%, and the intramolecular O-H distance rises by 1.4% due to quantum motion. Peaks in the radial distribution function of HDA ice are broadened with respect to their classical expectancy. The bulk modulus, B, is found to rise linearly with the pressure, with a slope ∂B/∂P = 7.1. Our results are compared with those derived earlier from classical and path-integral simulations of HDA ice. We discuss similarities and discrepancies with those earlier simulations.

  20. Irradiation induced crystalline to amorphous transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgoin, J.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation of a crystalline solid with energetic heavy particles results in cascades of defects which, with increasing dose, overlap and form a continuous disordered layer. In semiconductors the physical properties of such disordered layers are found to be similar to those of amorphous layers produced by evaporation. It is shown in the case of silicon, that the transition from a disordered crystalline (X) layer to an amorphous (α) layer occurs when the Gibbs energy of the X phase and of the defects it contains becomes larger than the Gibbs energy of the α phase. (author)

  1. Short, intermediate and long range order in amorphous ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fausto; Torquato, Salvatore; Giovanbattista, Nicolas; Car, Roberto

    Water exhibits polyamorphism, i.e., it exists in more than one amorphous state. The most common forms of glassy water are the low-density amorphous (LDA) and the high-density amorphous (HDA) ices. LDA, the most abundant form of ice in the Universe, transforms into HDA upon isothermal compression. We model the transformation of LDA into HDA under isothermal compression with classical molecular dynamics simulations. We analyze the molecular structures with a recently introduced scalar order metric to measure short and intermediate range order. In addition, we rank the structures by their degree of hyperuniformity, i.e.,the extent to which long range density fluctuations are suppressed. F.M. and R.C. acknowledge support from the Department of Energy (DOE) under Grant No. DE-SC0008626.

  2. A new structural relaxation pathway of low-density amorphous ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shephard, Jacob J.; Vickers, Martin; Salzmann, Christoph G., E-mail: c.salzmann@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Klotz, Stefan [IMPMC, CNRS UMR7590, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2016-05-28

    Low-density amorphous (LDA) ice is involved in critical cosmological processes and has gained prominence as one of the at least two distinct amorphous forms of ice. Despite these accolades, we still have an incomplete understanding of the structural diversity that is encompassed within the LDA state and the dynamic processes that take place upon heating LDA. Heating the high-pressure ice VIII phase at ambient pressure is a remarkable example of temperature-induced amorphisation yielding LDA. We investigate this process in detail using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy and show that the LDA obtained from ice VIII is structurally different from the more “traditional” states of LDA which are approached upon thermal annealing. This new structural relaxation pathway involves an increase of structural order on the intermediate range length scale. In contrast with other LDA materials the local structure is more ordered initially and becomes slightly more disordered upon annealing. We also show that the cascade of phase transitions upon heating ice VIII at ambient pressure includes the formation of ice IX which may be connected with the structural peculiarities of LDA from ice VIII. Overall, this study shows that LDA is a structurally more diverse material than previously appreciated.

  3. Communication: Disorder-suppressed vibrational relaxation in vapor-deposited high-density amorphous ice

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    Shalit, Andrey; Perakis, Fivos; Hamm, Peter

    2014-04-01

    We apply two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to differentiate between the two polyamorphous forms of glassy water, low-density (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous ices, that were obtained by slow vapor deposition at 80 and 11 K, respectively. Both the vibrational lifetime and the bandwidth of the 1-2 transition of the isolated OD stretch vibration of HDO in H2O exhibit characteristic differences when comparing hexagonal (Ih), LDA, and HDA ices, which we attribute to the different local structures - in particular the presence of interstitial waters in HDA ice - that cause different delocalization lengths of intermolecular phonon degrees of freedom. Moreover, temperature dependent measurements show that the vibrational lifetime closely follows the structural transition between HDA and LDA phases.

  4. Atypical water lattices and their possible relevance to the amorphous ices: A density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anick, David J.

    2013-04-01

    Of the fifteen known crystalline forms of ice, eleven consist of a single topologically connected hydrogen bond network with four H-bonds at every O. The other four, Ices VI-VIII and XV, consist of two topologically connected networks, each with four H-bonds at every O. The networks interpenetrate but do not share H-bonds. This article presents two new periodic water lattice families whose topological connectivity is "atypical": they consist of many two-dimensional layers that share no H-bonds. Layers are held together only by dispersion forces. Within each layer there are still four H-bonds at each O. Called "Hexagonal Bilayer Water" (HBW) and "Pleated Sheet Water" (PSW), they have computed densities of about 1.1 g/mL and 1.3 g/mL respectively, and nearest neighbor O-coordination is 4.5 to 5.5 and 6 to 8 respectively. Using density functional theory (BLYP-D/TZVP), various proton ordered forms of HBW and PSW are optimized and categorized. There are simple pathways connecting Ice-Ih to HBW and HBW to PSW. Their computed properties suggest similarities to the high density and very high density amorphous ices (HDA and VHDA) respectively. It is unknown whether HDA, VHDA, and Low Density Amorphous Ice (LDA) are fully disordered glasses down to the molecular level, or whether there is some short-range local order. Based on estimated radial distribution functions (RDFs), one proton ordered form of HBW matches HDA best. The idea is explored that HDA could contain islands with this underlying structure, and likewise, that VHDA could contain regions of PSW. A "microlattice model version 1" (MLM1) is presented as a device to compare key experimental data on the amorphous ices with these atypical structures and with a microlattice form of Ice-XI for LDA. Resemblances are found with the amorphs' RDFs, densities, Raman spectra, and transition behaviors. There is not enough information in the static models to assign either a microlattice structure or a partial microlattice

  5. AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE ICES OF VINYLACETYLENE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SATURN'S SATELLITE TITAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kaiser, R. I.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory infrared spectra of amorphous and crystalline vinylacetylene ices were recorded in the range of 7000-400 cm -1 . The spectra showed several amorphous features in the ice deposited at 10 K, which were then utilized to monitor a phase transition between 93 ± 1 K to form the crystalline structure. Successive heating allows monitoring of the sublimation profile of the vinylacetylene sample in the range of 101-120 K. Considering Titan's surface temperature of 94 K, vinylacetylene ice is likely to be crystalline. Analogous studies on related planetary-bound molecules such as triaceylene and cyanoacetylene may be further warranted to gain better perspectives into the composition of the condensed phases in the Titan's atmosphere (aerosol particles) and of Titan's surface. Based on our studies, we recommend utilizing the ν 1 and ν 16 //ν 11 /ν 17 fundamentals at about 3300 and 650 cm -1 to determine if solid vinylacetylene is crystalline or amorphous on Titan.

  6. Relaxation Time of High-Density Amorphous Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Seidl, Markus; Loerting, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Amorphous water plays a fundamental role in astrophysics, cryoelectron microscopy, hydration of matter, and our understanding of anomalous liquid water properties. Yet, the characteristics of the relaxation processes taking place in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) are unknown. We here reveal that the relaxation processes in HDA at 110-135 K at 0.1-0.2 GPa are of collective and global nature, resembling the alpha relaxation in glassy material. Measured relaxation times suggest liquid-like relaxation characteristics in the vicinity of the crystallization temperature at 145 K. By carefully relaxing pressurized HDA for several hours at 135 K, we produce a state that is closer to the ideal glass state than all HDA states discussed so far in literature.

  7. Atypical water lattices and their possible relevance to the amorphous ices: A density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anick, David J. [Laboratory for Water and Surface Studies, Department of Chemistry, Pearson Lab, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Of the fifteen known crystalline forms of ice, eleven consist of a single topologically connected hydrogen bond network with four H-bonds at every O. The other four, Ices VI–VIII and XV, consist of two topologically connected networks, each with four H-bonds at every O. The networks interpenetrate but do not share H-bonds. This article presents two new periodic water lattice families whose topological connectivity is “atypical”: they consist of many two-dimensional layers that share no H-bonds. Layers are held together only by dispersion forces. Within each layer there are still four H-bonds at each O. Called “Hexagonal Bilayer Water” (HBW) and “Pleated Sheet Water” (PSW), they have computed densities of about 1.1 g/mL and 1.3 g/mL respectively, and nearest neighbor O-coordination is 4.5 to 5.5 and 6 to 8 respectively. Using density functional theory (BLYP-D/TZVP), various proton ordered forms of HBW and PSW are optimized and categorized. There are simple pathways connecting Ice-Ih to HBW and HBW to PSW. Their computed properties suggest similarities to the high density and very high density amorphous ices (HDA and VHDA) respectively. It is unknown whether HDA, VHDA, and Low Density Amorphous Ice (LDA) are fully disordered glasses down to the molecular level, or whether there is some short-range local order. Based on estimated radial distribution functions (RDFs), one proton ordered form of HBW matches HDA best. The idea is explored that HDA could contain islands with this underlying structure, and likewise, that VHDA could contain regions of PSW. A “microlattice model version 1” (MLM1) is presented as a device to compare key experimental data on the amorphous ices with these atypical structures and with a microlattice form of Ice-XI for LDA. Resemblances are found with the amorphs’ RDFs, densities, Raman spectra, and transition behaviors. There is not enough information in the static models to assign either a microlattice structure or a partial

  8. Atypical water lattices and their possible relevance to the amorphous ices: A density functional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Anick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Of the fifteen known crystalline forms of ice, eleven consist of a single topologically connected hydrogen bond network with four H-bonds at every O. The other four, Ices VI–VIII and XV, consist of two topologically connected networks, each with four H-bonds at every O. The networks interpenetrate but do not share H-bonds. This article presents two new periodic water lattice families whose topological connectivity is “atypical”: they consist of many two-dimensional layers that share no H-bonds. Layers are held together only by dispersion forces. Within each layer there are still four H-bonds at each O. Called “Hexagonal Bilayer Water” (HBW and “Pleated Sheet Water” (PSW, they have computed densities of about 1.1 g/mL and 1.3 g/mL respectively, and nearest neighbor O-coordination is 4.5 to 5.5 and 6 to 8 respectively. Using density functional theory (BLYP-D/TZVP, various proton ordered forms of HBW and PSW are optimized and categorized. There are simple pathways connecting Ice-Ih to HBW and HBW to PSW. Their computed properties suggest similarities to the high density and very high density amorphous ices (HDA and VHDA respectively. It is unknown whether HDA, VHDA, and Low Density Amorphous Ice (LDA are fully disordered glasses down to the molecular level, or whether there is some short-range local order. Based on estimated radial distribution functions (RDFs, one proton ordered form of HBW matches HDA best. The idea is explored that HDA could contain islands with this underlying structure, and likewise, that VHDA could contain regions of PSW. A “microlattice model version 1” (MLM1 is presented as a device to compare key experimental data on the amorphous ices with these atypical structures and with a microlattice form of Ice-XI for LDA. Resemblances are found with the amorphs’ RDFs, densities, Raman spectra, and transition behaviors. There is not enough information in the static models to assign either a microlattice structure

  9. Atypical water lattices and their possible relevance to the amorphous ices: A density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anick, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Of the fifteen known crystalline forms of ice, eleven consist of a single topologically connected hydrogen bond network with four H-bonds at every O. The other four, Ices VI–VIII and XV, consist of two topologically connected networks, each with four H-bonds at every O. The networks interpenetrate but do not share H-bonds. This article presents two new periodic water lattice families whose topological connectivity is “atypical”: they consist of many two-dimensional layers that share no H-bonds. Layers are held together only by dispersion forces. Within each layer there are still four H-bonds at each O. Called “Hexagonal Bilayer Water” (HBW) and “Pleated Sheet Water” (PSW), they have computed densities of about 1.1 g/mL and 1.3 g/mL respectively, and nearest neighbor O-coordination is 4.5 to 5.5 and 6 to 8 respectively. Using density functional theory (BLYP-D/TZVP), various proton ordered forms of HBW and PSW are optimized and categorized. There are simple pathways connecting Ice-Ih to HBW and HBW to PSW. Their computed properties suggest similarities to the high density and very high density amorphous ices (HDA and VHDA) respectively. It is unknown whether HDA, VHDA, and Low Density Amorphous Ice (LDA) are fully disordered glasses down to the molecular level, or whether there is some short-range local order. Based on estimated radial distribution functions (RDFs), one proton ordered form of HBW matches HDA best. The idea is explored that HDA could contain islands with this underlying structure, and likewise, that VHDA could contain regions of PSW. A “microlattice model version 1” (MLM1) is presented as a device to compare key experimental data on the amorphous ices with these atypical structures and with a microlattice form of Ice-XI for LDA. Resemblances are found with the amorphs’ RDFs, densities, Raman spectra, and transition behaviors. There is not enough information in the static models to assign either a microlattice structure or a partial

  10. Structure of high-density amorphous ice under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, S.; Hamel, G.; Loveday, J.S.; Nelmes, R.J.; Guthrie, M.; Soper, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    We report in situ neutron diffraction studies of high-density amorphous ice (HDA) at 100 K at pressures up to 2.2 GPa. We find that the compression is achieved by a strong contraction (∼20%) of the second neighbor coordination shell, so that at 2.2 GPa it closely approaches the first coordination shell, which itself remains intact in both structure and size. The hydrogen bond orientations suggest an absence of hydrogen bonding between first and second shells and that HDA has increasingly interpenetrating hydrogen bond networks under pressure

  11. Visible and ultraviolet emission from pulse irradiated amorphous and polycrystalline H2O ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.G.; Quickenden, T.I.; Litjens, R.A.J.; Sangster, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Luminescence peaking at 405 nm was observed when thin films of amorphous or polycrystalline ice at 97 K were irradiated with a pulsed beam of 0.53 MeV electrons. These emissions differed from the luminescence emitted by crystalline ice in that memory effects were not observed; the peak wavelengths were red shifted by approx.20 nm; and the half-lives were 6--9 ns instead of approx.400 ns. The emission spectra of polycrystalline ice samples produced by rapid deposition or by annealing amorphous ice were similar, but both had substantially lower intensities than amorphous ice spectra

  12. Theory of the transition temperature of superconducting amorphous transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicknagel, G.

    1979-11-01

    In the present paper first the transition temperature Tsub(c) is shown to be a local quantity, which depends on the (average) short range order, and second it is demonstrated how to calculate local electronic properties in the framework of a short range order model and the transition temperature of amorphous systems based on accepted structure models of the amorphous state. In chapter I the theoretical basis of this work is presented in brief. The model used to study the role of short range order (in periodically ordered as well as in disordered system) is described in chapter II. The results of this model for the periodically ordered case are compared in chapter III with band structure calculations. In chapter IV it is shown how to establish short range order models for disordered systems and what kind of information can be obtained with respect to the electronic properties. Finally in chapter V it is discussed to what extend the interpretation of the transition temperature Tsub(c) as being determined by short range order effects can be supported by the electronic properties, which are calculated in the chapters III and IV. (orig.) [de

  13. Amorphous-crystalline transition in thermoelectric NbO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Chen, Yen-Ting; Bliem, Pascal; Geyer, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory was employed to design enhanced amorphous NbO 2 thermoelectrics. The covalent-ionic nature of Nb–O bonding is identical in amorphous NbO 2 and its crystalline counterpart. However, the Anderson localisation occurs in amorphous NbO 2 , which may affect the transport properties. We calculate a multifold increase in the absolute Seebeck coefficient for the amorphous state. These predictions were critically appraised by measuring the Seebeck coefficient of sputtered amorphous and crystalline NbO 2 thin films with the identical short-range order. The first-order phase transition occurs at approximately 550 °C, but amorphous NbO 2 possesses enhanced transport properties at all temperatures. Amorphous NbO 2 , reaching  −173 μV K −1 , exhibits up to a 29% larger absolute Seebeck coefficient value, thereby validating the predictions. (paper)

  14. Dynamics and Structural Details of Amorphous Phases of Ice Determined by Incoherent Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klug, D.D.; Tulk, C.A.; Svensson, E.C.; Loong, C.

    1999-01-01

    Incoherent-inelastic neutron scattering data are obtained over the energy range of lattice and internal vibrations of water molecules in phases of ice prepared by pressure-induced amorphization (high-density amorphous ice, hda), by thermal annealing of hda (low-density amorphous ice, lda), and by rapidly cooling water, as well as in ice Ih and Ic . Hydrogen bonding interactions in lda differ significantly from those in the glass obtained by rapid quenching, which has hydrogen-bond interactions characteristic of highly supercooled water. Hydrogen-bond interactions in hda are weaker than in the low-density phases. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Electron transfer from electronic excited states to sub-vacuum electron traps in amorphous ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vichnevetski, E.; Bass, A.D.; Sanche, L.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the electron stimulated yield of electronically excited argon atoms (Ar * ) from monolayer quantities of Ar deposited onto thin films of amorphous ice. Two peaks of narrow width ( - electron-exciton complex into exciton states, by the transfer of an electron into a sub-vacuum electron state within the ice film. However, the 10.7 eV feature is shifted to lower energy since electron attachment to Ar occurs within small pores of amorphous ice. In this case, the excess electron is transferred into an electron trap below the conduction band of the ice layer

  16. Nonaffinity in amorphous solids close to the jamming transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arévalo Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonaffinity is known to be an integral part of the response of amorphous solids. Its role is particularly relevant in particulate systems close to their jamming transition, where it dominates the elastic response. Thus, to determine the elastic properties of amorphous solids it is essential to rationalize the features of their nonaffine response. Via numerical simulations we investigate the relation between the non affine response and the vibrational properties of model amorphous materials. We show that, contrary to previous speculations, modes below the Boson peak are those mostly responsible for the nonaffine response.

  17. Dynamics anomaly in high-density amorphous ice between 0.7 and 1.1 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Loerting, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    We studied high-density amorphous ices between 0.004 and 1.6 GPa by isobaric in situ volumetry and by subsequent ex situ x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry at 1 bar. Our observations indicate two processes, namely, relaxation in the amorphous matrix and crystallization, taking place at well-separated time scales. For this reason, we are able to report rate constants of crystallization kX and glass-transition temperatures Tg in an unprecedented pressure range. Tg's agree within ±3 K with earlier work in the small pressure range where there is overlap. Both Tg and kX show a pressure anomaly between 0.7 and 1.1 GPa, namely, a kX minimum and a Tg maximum. This anomalous pressure dependence suggests a continuous phase transition from high- (HDA) to very-high-density amorphous ice (VHDA) and faster hydrogen bond dynamics in VHDA. We speculate this phenomenology can be rationalized by invoking the crossing of a Widom line between 0.7 and 1.1 GPa emanating from a low-lying HDA-VHDA critical point. Furthermore, we interpret the volumetric relaxation of the amorphous matrix to be accompanied by viscosity change to explain the findings such that the liquid state can be accessed prior to the crystallization temperature TX at 0.8 GPa.

  18. Investigation of the intermediate- and high-density forms of amorphous ice by molecular dynamics calculations and diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, John S.; Klug, Dennis D.; Guthrie, Malcolm; Benmore, Chris J.; Urquidi, Jacob; Tulk, Chris A.

    2005-01-01

    The lack of an 'isosbestic' point in the oxygen-oxygen atom radial distribution functions (RDFs) for the HDA→LDA ice transformation at ambient pressure derived from molecular dynamics (MD) calculations show unequivocally that intermediate phases are not equilibrium mixtures of these two amorphous forms. This is supported by x-ray structure factor data, where it is found that linear combinations of the starting and end amorphous forms do not describe intermediate forms of amorphous ice formed during the transformation. This reflects the fact that the x-ray data are heavily weighted to O-O correlations and therefore sensitive to the basic structural changes that occur during the relaxation process. The ice Ih→HDA transformation is also reexamined using MD to identify its thermodynamic nature. This apparently first-order transition induced by a mechanical instability is investigated by compression followed by decompression to negative pressures. In this study we demonstrated that the full van der Waals loop for this transition can be identified

  19. Ice Ih anomalies: Thermal contraction, anomalous volume isotope effect, and pressure-induced amorphization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Michael A.; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2016-05-01

    Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D2O ice greater than that of H2O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid softening of

  20. Ice Ih anomalies: Thermal contraction, anomalous volume isotope effect, and pressure-induced amorphization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Michael A.; Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So, E-mail: sohirata@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Ice Ih displays several anomalous thermodynamic properties such as thermal contraction at low temperatures, an anomalous volume isotope effect (VIE) rendering the volume of D{sub 2}O ice greater than that of H{sub 2}O ice, and a pressure-induced transition to the high-density amorphous (HDA) phase. Furthermore, the anomalous VIE increases with temperature, despite its quantum-mechanical origin. Here, embedded-fragment ab initio second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theory in the quasiharmonic approximation (QHA) is applied to the Gibbs energy of an infinite, proton-disordered crystal of ice Ih at wide ranges of temperatures and pressures. The quantum effect of nuclei moving in anharmonic potentials is taken into account from first principles without any empirical or nonsystematic approximation to either the electronic or vibrational Hamiltonian. MP2 predicts quantitatively correctly the thermal contraction at low temperatures, which is confirmed to originate from the volume-contracting hydrogen-bond bending modes (acoustic phonons). It qualitatively reproduces (but underestimates) the thermal expansion at higher temperatures, caused by the volume-expanding hydrogen-bond stretching (and to a lesser extent librational) modes. The anomalous VIE is found to be the result of subtle cancellations among closely competing isotope effects on volume from all modes. Consequently, even ab initio MP2 with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets has difficulty reproducing this anomaly, yielding qualitatively varied predictions of the sign of the VIE depending on such computational details as the choice of the embedding field. However, the temperature growth of the anomalous VIE is reproduced robustly and is ascribed to the librational modes. These solid-state MP2 calculations, as well as MP2 Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, find a volume collapse and a loss of symmetry and long-range order in ice Ih upon pressure loading of 2.35 GPa or higher. Concomitantly, rapid

  1. Glass transition and intermixing of amorphous water and methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2004-01-01

    The diffusion of molecules in amorphous water and methanol films has been investigated on the basis of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry as a function of temperature. The glass-liquid transition of the amorphous water film occurs at 130-145 K as confirmed from the surface segregation of embedded methanol molecules. The morphology of the pure amorphous water film changes drastically at 160 K as a consequence of dewetting induced by the surface tension and the strongly decreased viscosity of the film. The morphology of the amorphous methanol film changes at 115 K following the self-diffusion onset at 80 K. The binary films of water and heavy methanol are intermixed completely at 136 K as evidenced by the occurrence of the H/D exchange

  2. The amorphous phase transition in irradiated NiTi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimhall, J.L.; Kissinger, H.E.; Pelton, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Observed supralinear dose dependence for the amorphous transformation during irradiation of NiTi is compatible with a cascade overlap model for heavy ion (2.5 MeV Ni + , 6 MeV Ta +++ ) irradiations. A model based on total defect build-up, however, is necessary to explain the amorphous transition induced by electron irradiation and can also be applied to heavy ion irradiation. The cascade effects in this latter model are manifested by non-uniform defect distribution in the lattice. The defect build-up model requires a high activation energy for interstitial migration which is not incompatible with recent findings. The form of the temperature dependence can also be rationalized using a defect build-up model (amorphous phase transition, heavy-ion irradiation, electron irradiation, NiTi, defect build-up, cascade overlap). (author)

  3. Structural models for amorphous transition metal binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, W.Y.; Lin, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    A dense random packing of 445 hard spheres with two different diameters in a concentration ratio of 3 : 1 was hand-built to simulate the structure of amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloys. By introducing appropriate pair potentials of the Lennard-Jones type, the structure is dynamically relaxed by minimizing the total energy. The radial distribution functions (RDF) for amorphous Fe 0 . 75 P 0 . 25 , Ni 0 . 75 P 0 . 25 , Co 0 . 75 P 0 . 25 are obtained and compared with the experimental data. The calculated RDF's are resolved into their partial components. The results indicate that such dynamically constructed models are capable of accounting for some subtle features in the RDF of amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloys

  4. Thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw were investigated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The study included both natural and solvent extracted wheat straw, in moist (8–9% water content) and dry conditions, and was compared to spruce samples. Under...

  5. Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Binary Amorphous Transition Metal Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Sy-Hwang

    The electrical, superconductive and magnetic properties of several binary transition metal amorphous and metastable crystalline alloys, Fe(,x)Ti(,100-x) (30 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 100), Fe(,x)Zr(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 93), Fe(,x)Hf(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 100), Fe(,x)Nb(,100 -x) (22 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 85), Ni(,x)Nb(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 80), Cu(,x)Nb(,100-x) (10 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 90) were studied over a wide composition range. Films were made using a magnetron sputtering system, and the structure of the films was investigated by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. The composition region of each amorphous alloys system was determined and found in good agreement with a model proposed by Egami and Waseda. The magnetic properties and hyperfine interactions in the films were investigated using a conventional Mossbauer spectrometer and a ('57)Co in Rh matrix source. In all Fe-early transition metal binary alloys systems, Fe does not retain its moment in the low iron concentration region and the result is that the critical concentration for magnetic order (x(,c)) is much larger than anticipated from percolation considerations. A direct comparison between crystalline alloys and their amorphous counterparts of the same composition illustrate no clear correlation between crystalline and amorphous states. Pronounced discontinuities in the magnetic properties with variation in Fe content of all Fe-early transition metal alloys at phase boundaries separating amorphous and crystalline states have been observed. This is caused by the differences in the atomic arrangement and the electronic structure between crystalline and amorphous solids. The temperature dependence of resistivity, (rho)(T), of several binary amorphous alloys of Fe-TM (where TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb etc.) has been studied from 2K to 300K. The Fe-poor (x x(,c)) samples have distinctive differences in (rho)(T) at low temperature (below 30K). All the magnetic samples

  6. In situ neutron diffraction studies of high density amorphous ice under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, Stefan; Straessle, Th; Saitta, A M; Rousse, G; Hamel, G; Nelmes, R J; Loveday, J S; Guthrie, M

    2005-01-01

    We review recent in situ neutron diffraction studies on the structural pressure dependence and the recrystallization of dense amorphous ices up to 2 GPa. Progress in high pressure techniques and data analysis methods allows the reliable determination of all three partial structure factors of amorphous ice under pressure. The strong pressure dependence of the g OO (r) correlation function shows that the isothermal compression of high density amorphous ice (HDA) at 100 K is achieved by a contraction (∼ 20%) of the second-neighbour coordination shell leading to a strong increase in coordination. The g DD (r) and g OD (r) structure factors are, in contrast, only weakly sensitive to pressure. These data allow a comparison with structural features of the recently reported 'very high density amorphous ice' (VHDA) which indicates that VHDA at ambient pressure is very similar to compressed HDA, at least up to the second-neighbour shell. The recrystallization of HDA has been investigated in the range 0.3-2 GPa. It is shown that hydrogen-disordered phases are produced which normally grow only from the liquid, such as ice XII, and in particular ice IV. These findings are in good agreement with results on quench-recovered samples

  7. Characterization of the hidden glass transition of amorphous cyclomaltoheptaose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabary, Nicolas; Mahieu, Aurélien; Willart, Jean-François; Dudognon, Emeline; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc; Bacquet, Maryse; Martel, Bernard

    2011-10-18

    An amorphous solid of cyclomaltoheptaose (β-cyclodextrin, β-CD) was formed by milling its crystalline form using a high-energy planetary mill at room temperature. The glass transition of this amorphous solid was found to occur above the thermal degradation point of the material preventing its direct observation and thus its full characterization. The corresponding glass transition temperature (T(g)) and the ΔC(p) at T(g) have, however, been estimated by extrapolation of T(g) and ΔC(p) of closely related amorphous compounds. These compounds include methylated β-CD with different degrees of substitution and molecular alloys obtained by co-milling β-CD and methylated β-CD (DS 1.8) at different ratios. The physical characterization of the amorphous states have been performed by powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while the chemical integrity of β-CD upon milling was checked by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FIRST INFRARED BAND STRENGTHS FOR AMORPHOUS CO{sub 2}, AN OVERLOOKED COMPONENT OF INTERSTELLAR ICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L., E-mail: Reggie.Hudson@NASA.gov [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Solid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has long been recognized as a component of both interstellar and solar system ices, but a recent literature search has revealed significant qualitative and quantitative discrepancies in the laboratory spectra on which the abundances of extraterrestrial CO{sub 2} are based. Here we report new infrared (IR) spectra of amorphous CO{sub 2}-ice along with band intensities (band strengths) of four mid-IR absorptions, the first such results in the literature. A possible thickness dependence for amorphous-CO{sub 2} IR band shapes and positions also is investigated, and the three discordant reports of amorphous CO{sub 2} spectra in the literature are addressed. Applications of our results are discussed with an emphasis on laboratory investigations and results from astronomical observations. A careful comparison with earlier work shows that the IR spectra calculated from several databases for CO{sub 2} ices, all ices being made near 10 K, are not for amorphous CO{sub 2}, but rather for crystalline CO{sub 2} or crystalline-amorphous mixtures.

  9. Extracellular ice phase transitions in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, T C

    2014-01-01

    At temperatures below their temperature of crystallization (Tc), the extracellular body fluids of insects undergo a phase transition from liquid to solid. Insects that survive the transition to equilibrium (complete freezing of the body fluids) are designated as freeze tolerant. Although this phenomenon has been reported and described in many Insecta, current nomenclature and theory does not clearly delineate between the process of transition (freezing) and the final solid phase itself (the frozen state). Thus freeze tolerant insects are currently, by convention, described in terms of the temperature at which the crystallization of their body fluids is initiated, Tc. In fact, the correct descriptor for insects that tolerate freezing is the temperature of equilibrium freezing, Tef. The process of freezing is itself a separate physical event with unique physiological stresses that are associated with ice growth. Correspondingly there are a number of insects whose physiological cryo-limits are very specifically delineated by this transitional envelope. The distinction also has considerable significance for our understanding of insect cryobiology: firstly, because the ability to manage endogenous ice growth is a fundamental segregator of cryotype; and secondly, because our understanding of internal ice management is still largely nascent.

  10. Water sorption and glass transition of amorphous sugars containing BSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, K.; Suzuki, T.; Tatsumichi, T.; Kirii, S.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-08-01

    Water sorption and glass transition of four amorphous sugars (lactose, maltose, sucrose, and trehalose) containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) are investigated. Freeze-dried sugar-BSA samples equilibrated at several water activities ranging from 0 to 0.43 were prepared. Moisture content and glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) were measured. For the all sugars, it is found that BSA lowers T{sub g} at low water activity, and raises it at high water activity. It is also found that the difference between T{sub g} of the sugar-BSA samples and that of the corresponding amorphous sugar samples (T{sub g0}) depends mainly on T{sub g0}. (author)

  11. Phase transitions of ferromagnetic Ising films with amorphous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, M.; Ainane, A.; Dujardin, F.; Stebe, B.

    1997-08-01

    The critical behavior of a ferromagnetic Ising film with amorphous surfaces is studied within the framework of the effective field theory. The dependence of the critical temperature on exchange interaction strength ratio, film thickness, and structural fluctuation parameter is presented. It is found that an order-disorder magnetic transition occurs by varying the thickness of the film. Such a result is in agreement with experiments performed recently on Fe-films. (author). 39 refs, 4 figs

  12. Vibrational spectra and boson-like excitations in different amorphous forms of ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnikov, A.I.; Li, J.C.; Uffindell, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Glasses are very interesting objects in the physics of condensed matter, with many universal properties, such as low-energy excitations (LEE) coexisting with the sound waves and giving an excess of vibrational modes with respect to the crystalline spectrum (the so called 'boson' peak) in Raman and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Recently it was discovered that films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon do not show such LEE, whereas films of amorphous silicon do [1]. Also, the resonant absorption by two-level systems was observed for the high-density amorphous (hda) ice but not for the low-density amorphous (lda) ice in the far infrared spectra [2]. Thus, the nature of these near universal LEE becomes rather puzzling. This report presents the results of INS studies for hda and lda ice produced by high-pressure treatment and for vapor-deposited lda ice. Clear LEE were observed in the spectra for hda and deposited lda ice unlike their crystalline analogues. (author)

  13. Transition metal carbide nanocomposite and amorphous thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Tengstrand, Olof

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores thin films of binary and ternary transition metal carbides, in the Nb-C, Ti-Si-C, Nb-Si-C, Zr-Si-C, and Nb-Ge-C systems. The electrical and mechanical properties of these systems are affected by their structure and here both nanocomposite and amorphous thin films are thus investigated. By appropriate choice of transition metal and composition the films can be designed to be multifunctional with a combination of properties, such as low electric resistivity, low contact res...

  14. Neutron Scattering Analysis of Water's Glass Transition and Micropore Collapse in Amorphous Solid Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine R; Mitterdorfer, Christian; Youngs, Tristan G A; Bowron, Daniel T; Fraser, Helen J; Loerting, Thomas

    2016-05-27

    The question of the nature of water's glass transition has continued to be disputed over many years. Here we use slow heating scans (0.4  K min^{-1}) of compact amorphous solid water deposited at 77 K and an analysis of the accompanying changes in the small-angle neutron scattering signal, to study mesoscale changes in the ice network topology. From the data we infer the onset of rotational diffusion at 115 K, a sudden switchover from nondiffusive motion and enthalpy relaxation of the network at 121  K, in excellent agreement with the glass transition onset deduced from heat capacity and dielectric measurements. This indicates that water's glass transition is linked with long-range transport of water molecules on the time scale of minutes and, thus, clarifies its nature. Furthermore, the slow heating rates combined with the high crystallization resistance of the amorphous sample allow us to identify the glass transition end point at 136 K, which is well separated from the crystallization onset at 144 K-in contrast to all earlier experiments in the field.

  15. A unified description of crystalline-to-amorphous transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Devanathan, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Meshii, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1993-07-01

    Amorphous metallic alloys can now be synthesized by a variety of solid-state processes demonstrating the need for a more general approach to crystalline-to-amorphous (c-a) transitions. By focusing on static atomic displacements as a measure of chemical and topological disorder, we show that a unified description of c-a transformations can be based on a generalization of the phenomenological melting criterion proposed by Lindemann. The generalized version assumes that melting of a defective crystal occurs whenever the sum of thermal and static mean-square displacements exceeds a critical value identical to that for melting of the defect-free crystal. This implies that chemical or topological disorder measured by static displacements is thermodynamically equivalent to heating, and therefore that the melting temperature of the defective crystal will decrease with increasing amount of disorder. This in turn implies the existence of a critical state of disorder where the melting temperature becomes equal to a glass-transition temperature below which the metastable crystal melts to a glass. The generalized Lindemann melting criterion leads naturally to an interpretation of c-a transformations as defect-induced, low-temperature melting of critically disordered crystals. Confirmation of this criterion is provided by molecular-dynamics simulations of heat-induced melting and of defect-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds caused either by the production of Frenkel pairs or anti-site defects. The thermodynamic equivalence between static atomic disorder and heating is reflected in the identical softening effects which they have on elastic properties and also in the diffraction analysis of diffuse scattering from disordered crystals, where the effect of static displacements appears as an artificially-enlarged thermal Debye-Waller factor. Predictions of this new, unified approach to melting and amorphization are compared with available experimental information.

  16. Influence of sample preparation on the transformation of low-density to high-density amorphous ice: An explanation based on the potential energy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovambattista, Nicolas; Starr, Francis W.; Poole, Peter H.

    2017-07-01

    Experiments and computer simulations of the transformations of amorphous ices display different behaviors depending on sample preparation methods and on the rates of change of temperature and pressure to which samples are subjected. In addition to these factors, simulation results also depend strongly on the chosen water model. Using computer simulations of the ST2 water model, we study how the sharpness of the compression-induced transition from low-density amorphous ice (LDA) to high-density amorphous ice (HDA) is influenced by the preparation of LDA. By studying LDA samples prepared using widely different procedures, we find that the sharpness of the LDA-to-HDA transformation is correlated with the depth of the initial LDA sample in the potential energy landscape (PEL), as characterized by the inherent structure energy. Our results show that the complex phenomenology of the amorphous ices reported in experiments and computer simulations can be understood and predicted in a unified way from knowledge of the PEL of the system.

  17. Thon rings from amorphous ice and implications of beam-induced Brownian motion in single particle electron cryo-microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullan, G., E-mail: gm2@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk; Vinothkumar, K.R.; Henderson, R.

    2015-11-15

    We have recorded dose-fractionated electron cryo-microscope images of thin films of pure flash-frozen amorphous ice and pre-irradiated amorphous carbon on a Falcon II direct electron detector using 300 keV electrons. We observe Thon rings [1] in both the power spectrum of the summed frames and the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. The Thon rings from amorphous carbon images are always more visible in the power spectrum of the summed frames whereas those of amorphous ice are more visible in the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. This difference indicates that while pre-irradiated carbon behaves like a solid during the exposure, amorphous ice behaves like a fluid with the individual water molecules undergoing beam-induced motion. Using the measured variation in the power spectra amplitude with number of electrons per image we deduce that water molecules are randomly displaced by a mean squared distance of ∼1.1 Å{sup 2} for every incident 300 keV e{sup −}/Å{sup 2}. The induced motion leads to an optimal exposure with 300 keV electrons of 4.0 e{sup −}/Å{sup 2} per image with which to observe Thon rings centred around the strong 3.7 Å scattering peak from amorphous ice. The beam-induced movement of the water molecules generates pseudo-Brownian motion of embedded macromolecules. The resulting blurring of single particle images contributes an additional term, on top of that from radiation damage, to the minimum achievable B-factor for macromolecular structure determination. - Highlights: • Thon rings can be seen from amorphous ice. • Radiation damage to amorphous ice randomly displaces water molecules. • Each incident 300 keV e{sup −}/Å{sup 2} displaces water molecules on average by ∼1 Å. • Macromolecules embedded in amorphous ice undergo beam induced Brownian motion.

  18. STICKING OF MOLECULES ON NONPOROUS AMORPHOUS WATER ICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiao; Vidali, Gianfranco [Physics Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Acharyya, Kinsuk, E-mail: gvidali@syr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Accurate modeling of physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM) requires detailed knowledge of how atoms and molecules adsorb on dust grains. However, the sticking coefficient, a number between 0 and 1 that measures the first step in the interaction of a particle with a surface, is usually assumed in simulations of ISM environments to be either 0.5 or 1. Here we report on the determination of the sticking coefficient of H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} on nonporous amorphous solid water. The sticking coefficient was measured over a wide range of surface temperatures using a highly collimated molecular beam. We showed that the standard way of measuring the sticking coefficient—the King–Wells method—leads to the underestimation of trapping events in which there is incomplete energy accommodation of the molecule on the surface. Surface scattering experiments with the use of a pulsed molecular beam are used instead to measure the sticking coefficient. Based on the values of the measured sticking coefficient, we suggest a useful general formula of the sticking coefficient as a function of grain temperature and molecule-surface binding energy. We use this formula in a simulation of ISM gas–grain chemistry to find the effect of sticking on the abundance of key molecules both on grains and in the gas phase.

  19. Crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition in irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, D.N.; Averback, R.S.; Okamoto, P.R.; Baily, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The amorphous(a)-to-crystalline (c) phase transition has been studied in electron(e - ) and/or ion irradiated silicon (Si). The irradiations were performed in situ in the Argonne High Voltage Microscope-Tandem Facility. The irradiation of Si, at 0 K, with 1-MeV e - to a fluence of 14 dpa failed to induce the c-to-a transition. Whereas an irradiation, at 0 K, with 1.0 or 1.5-MeV Kr+ ions induced the c-to-a transition by a fluence of approx.0.37 dpa. Alternatively a dual irradiation, at 10 0 K, with 1.0-MeV e - and 1.0 or 1.5-MeV Kr+ to a Kr+ fluence of 1.5 dpa - where the ratio of the displacement rates for e - to ions was approx.0.5 - resulted in the Si specimen retaining a degree of crystallinity. These results are discussed in terms of the degree of dispersion of point defects in the primary state of damage and the mobilities of point defects

  20. Athermal brittle-to-ductile transition in amorphous solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchot, Olivier; Karmakar, Smarajit; Procaccia, Itamar; Zylberg, Jacques

    2011-10-01

    Brittle materials exhibit sharp dynamical fractures when meeting Griffith's criterion, whereas ductile materials blunt a sharp crack by plastic responses. Upon continuous pulling, ductile materials exhibit a necking instability that is dominated by a plastic flow. Usually one discusses the brittle to ductile transition as a function of increasing temperature. We introduce an athermal brittle to ductile transition as a function of the cutoff length of the interparticle potential. On the basis of extensive numerical simulations of the response to pulling the material boundaries at a constant speed we offer an explanation of the onset of ductility via the increase in the density of plastic modes as a function of the potential cutoff length. Finally we can resolve an old riddle: In experiments brittle materials can be strained under grip boundary conditions and exhibit a dynamic crack when cut with a sufficiently long initial slot. Mysteriously, in molecular dynamics simulations it appeared that cracks refused to propagate dynamically under grip boundary conditions, and continuous pulling was necessary to achieve fracture. We argue that this mystery is removed when one understands the distinction between brittle and ductile athermal amorphous materials.

  1. Thermal desorption of formamide and methylamine from graphite and amorphous water ice surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabouni, H.; Diana, S.; Nguyen, T.; Dulieu, F.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Formamide (NH2CHO) and methylamine (CH3NH2) are known to be the most abundant amine-containing molecules in many astrophysical environments. The presence of these molecules in the gas phase may result from thermal desorption of interstellar ices. Aims: The aim of this work is to determine the values of the desorption energies of formamide and methylamine from analogues of interstellar dust grain surfaces and to understand their interaction with water ice. Methods: Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments of formamide and methylamine ices were performed in the sub-monolayer and monolayer regimes on graphite (HOPG) and non-porous amorphous solid water (np-ASW) ice surfaces at temperatures 40-240 K. The desorption energy distributions of these two molecules were calculated from TPD measurements using a set of independent Polanyi-Wigner equations. Results: The maximum of the desorption of formamide from both graphite and ASW ice surfaces occurs at 176 K after the desorption of H2O molecules, whereas the desorption profile of methylamine depends strongly on the substrate. Solid methylamine starts to desorb below 100 K from the graphite surface. Its desorption from the water ice surface occurs after 120 K and stops during the water ice sublimation around 150 K. It continues to desorb from the graphite surface at temperatures higher than160 K. Conclusions: More than 95% of solid NH2CHO diffuses through the np-ASW ice surface towards the graphitic substrate and is released into the gas phase with a desorption energy distribution Edes = 7460-9380 K, which is measured with the best-fit pre-exponential factor A = 1018 s-1. However, the desorption energy distribution of methylamine from the np-ASW ice surface (Edes = 3850-8420 K) is measured with the best-fit pre-exponential factor A = 1012 s-1. A fraction of solid methylamine monolayer of roughly 0.15 diffuses through the water ice surface towards the HOPG substrate. This small amount of methylamine

  2. Creep of FINEMET alloy at amorphous to nanocrystalline transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csach, K.; Miškuf, J.; Juríková, A.; Ocelík, V.

    2009-01-01

    The application of FINEMET-type materials with specific magnetic properties prepared by the crystallization of amorphous alloys is often limited by their brittleness. The structure of these materials consists of nanosized Fe-based grains surrounded with amorphous phase. Then the final macroscopic

  3. Polarized Raman spectroscopic study of relaxed high density amorphous ices under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Tominaga, Yasunori

    2010-10-28

    We have made high density amorphous ice (HDA) by the pressure-induced amorphization of hexagonal ice at 77 K and measured the volume change on isobaric heating in a pressure range between 0.1 and 1.5 GPa. The volume of HDA on heating below ∼0.35 GPa increases, while the volume of HDA on heating above ∼0.35 GPa decreases. The polarized OH-stretching Raman spectra of the relaxed HDAs are compared with that of the unannealed HDA. The relaxed HDAs are prepared at 0.2 GPa at 130 K and 1.5 GPa at 160 K. It is found that the relatively strong totally symmetric OH-stretching vibration mode around 3100 cm(-1) exists in the depolarized reduced Raman spectrum χ(VH)(") of the unannealed HDA and that its intensity rapidly decreases by relaxation. The χ(VH)(") profiles of the relaxed HDA are similar to those of liquid water. These results indicate that the HDA reaches a nearly equilibrium state by annealing and the intrinsic state of HDA relates to a liquid state. The pressure-volume curve of the relaxed HDA at 140 K seems to be smooth in the pressure range below 1.5 GPa.

  4. Amorphous and crystalline phase interaction during the Brill transition in nylon 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A prominent α' process in specifically treated nylon 66 and microcomposite samples is identified by dynamic mechanical analysis and proposed to be an amorphous phase counterpart of the Brill transition identified by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD. It is suggested that this α' process, which marks a critical free volume change and an onset of segmental chain movement in the amorphous phase, precedes and prompts the Brill transition in the crystalline phase.

  5. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and phase transition of viscous α-pinene secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, Karoliina; Kristensen, Thomas B.; Järvinen, Emma; Nichman, Leonid; Fuchs, Claudia; Gordon, Hamish; Herenz, Paul; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Baltensperger, Urs; Curtius, Joachim; Donahue, Neil M.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin; Virtanen, Annele; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    There are strong indications that particles containing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) exhibit amorphous solid or semi-solid phase states in the atmosphere. This may facilitate deposition ice nucleation and thus influence cirrus cloud properties. Global model simulations of monoterpene SOA particles suggest that viscous biogenic SOA are indeed present in regions where cirrus cloud formation takes place. Hence, they could make up an important contribution to the global ice nucleating particle (INP) budget. However, experimental ice nucleation studies of biogenic SOA are scarce. Here, we investigated the ice nucleation ability of viscous SOA particles at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) experiment at CERN (Ignatius et al., 2015, Järvinen et al., 2015). In the CLOUD chamber, the SOA particles were produced from the ozone initiated oxidation of α-pinene at temperatures in the range from -38 to -10° C at 5-15 % relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) to ensure their formation in a highly viscous phase state, i.e. semi-solid or glassy. We found that particles formed and grown in the chamber developed an asymmetric shape through coagulation. As the RHw was increased to between 35 % at -10° C and 80 % at -38° C, a transition to spherical shape was observed with a new in-situ optical method. This transition confirms previous modelling of the viscosity transition conditions. The ice nucleation ability of SOA particles was investigated with a new continuous flow diffusion chamber SPIN (Spectrometer for Ice Nuclei) for different SOA particle sizes. For the first time, we observed heterogeneous ice nucleation of viscous α-pinene SOA in the deposition mode for ice saturation ratios between 1.3 and 1.4, significantly below the homogeneous freezing limit. The maximum frozen fractions found at temperatures between -36.5 and -38.3° C ranged from 6 to 20 % and did not depend on the particle surface area. References Ignatius, K. et al., Heterogeneous ice

  6. X-Ray Absorption Spectra of Amorphous Ices from GW Quasiparticle Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingzhu; Car, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    We use a GW approach[2] to compute the x-ray absorption spectra of model low- and high-density amorphous ice structures(LDA and HDA)[3]. We include the structural effects of quantum zero point motion using colored-noise Langevin molecular dynamics[4]. The calculated spectra differences in the main and post edge region between LDA and HDA agree well with experimental observations. We attribute these differences to the presence of interstitial molecules within the first coordination shell range in HDA. This assignment is further supported by a calculation of the spectrum of ice VIII, a high-pressure structure that maximizes the number of interstitial molecules and, accordingly, shows a much weaker post-edge feature. We further rationalize the spectral similarity between HDA and liquid water, and between LDA and ice Ih in terms of the respective similarities in the H-bond network topology and bond angle distributions. Supported by grants DOE-DE-SC0005180, DOE DE-SC0008626 and NSF-CHE-0956500.

  7. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Astronomical Ices: I. Amorphous and Crystalline Acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. L.; Ferrante, R. F.; Moore, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report recent measurements on acetylene (C2H2) ices at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System and the interstellar medium. New near- and mid-infrared data, including optical constants (n, k), absorption coefficients (alpha), and absolute band strengths (A), are presented for both amorphous and crystalline phases of C2H2 that exist below 70 K. Comparisons are made to earlier work. Electronic versions of the data are made available, as is a computer routine to use our reported n and k values to simulate the observed IR spectra. Suggestions are given for the use of the data and a comparison to a spectrum of Makemake is made.

  8. Thon rings from amorphous ice and implications of beam-induced Brownian motion in single particle electron cryo-microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, G; Vinothkumar, K R; Henderson, R

    2015-11-01

    We have recorded dose-fractionated electron cryo-microscope images of thin films of pure flash-frozen amorphous ice and pre-irradiated amorphous carbon on a Falcon II direct electron detector using 300 keV electrons. We observe Thon rings [1] in both the power spectrum of the summed frames and the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. The Thon rings from amorphous carbon images are always more visible in the power spectrum of the summed frames whereas those of amorphous ice are more visible in the sum of power spectra from the individual frames. This difference indicates that while pre-irradiated carbon behaves like a solid during the exposure, amorphous ice behaves like a fluid with the individual water molecules undergoing beam-induced motion. Using the measured variation in the power spectra amplitude with number of electrons per image we deduce that water molecules are randomly displaced by a mean squared distance of ∼1.1 Å(2) for every incident 300 keV e(-)/Å(2). The induced motion leads to an optimal exposure with 300 keV electrons of 4.0 e(-)/Å(2) per image with which to observe Thon rings centred around the strong 3.7 Å scattering peak from amorphous ice. The beam-induced movement of the water molecules generates pseudo-Brownian motion of embedded macromolecules. The resulting blurring of single particle images contributes an additional term, on top of that from radiation damage, to the minimum achievable B-factor for macromolecular structure determination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Heating- and pressure-induced transformations in amorphous and hexagonal ice: A computer simulation study using the TIP4P/2005 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstler, Justin; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    We characterize the phase behavior of glassy water by performing extensive out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations using the TIP4P/2005 water model. Specifically, we study (i) the pressure-induced transformations between low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA), (ii) the pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) of hexagonal ice (Ih), (iii) the heating-induced LDA-to-HDA transformation at high pressures, (iv) the heating-induced HDA-to-LDA transformation at low and negative pressures, (v) the glass transition temperatures of LDA and HDA as a function of pressure, and (vi) the limit of stability of LDA upon isobaric heating and isothermal decompression (at negative pressures). These transformations are studied systematically, over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, allowing us to construct a P-T phase diagram for glassy TIP4P/2005 water. Our results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations and with the P-T phase diagram obtained for glassy ST2 water that exhibits a liquid-liquid phase transition and critical point. We also discuss the mechanism for PIA of ice Ih and show that this is a two-step process where first, the hydrogen-bond network (HBN) is distorted and then the HBN abruptly collapses. Remarkably, the collapse of the HB in ice Ih occurs when the average molecular orientations order, a measure of the tetrahedrality of the HBN, is of the same order as in LDA, suggesting a common mechanism for the LDA-to-HDA and Ih-to-HDA transformations.

  10. The sorption induced glass transition in amorphous glassy polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.; Briels, Willem J.

    1999-01-01

    Sorption of CO2 in both the glassy and the rubbery state of an amorphous polyethylenelike polymer was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature was chosen such that the system was in its glassy state at low solute concentrations and its rubbery state at large solute

  11. Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Ilja; Huey, Bryan D; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2013-11-13

    The nanostructure of micrometer-sized domains (bits) in phase-change materials (PCM) that undergo switching between amorphous and crystalline phases plays a key role in the performance of optical PCM-based memories. Here, we explore the dynamics of such phase transitions by mapping PCM nanostructures in three dimensions with nanoscale resolution by combining precision Ar ion beam cross-sectional polishing and nanomechanical ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) mapping. Surface and bulk phase changes of laser written submicrometer to micrometer sized amorphous-to-crystalline (SET) and crystalline-to-amorphous (RESET) bits in chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM are observed with 10-20 nm lateral and 4 nm depth resolution. UFM mapping shows that the Young's moduli of crystalline SET bits exceed the moduli of amorphous areas by 11 ± 2%, with crystalline content extending from a few nanometers to 50 nm in depth depending on the energy of the switching pulses. The RESET bits written with 50 ps pulses reveal shallower depth penetration and show 30-50 nm lateral and few nanometer vertical wavelike topography that is anticorrelated with the elastic modulus distribution. Reverse switching of amorphous RESET bits results in the full recovery of subsurface nanomechanical properties accompanied with only partial topography recovery, resulting in surface corrugations attributed to quenching. This precision sectioning and nanomechanical mapping approach could be applicable to a wide range of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and glass-forming materials for 3D nanomechanical mapping of amorphous-crystalline transitions.

  12. Tunneling measurements in amorphous layers of superconducting transition metals: molybdenum, vanadium, and niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roll, U.

    1981-01-01

    Tunneling experiments with amorphous Molybdenum and Vanadium layers are presented, showing no significant increase of the reduced energy gap 2δ(O)/kTsub(c)(δ) compared with the BCS-value, in contrast to all previous measurement on amorphous superconducting materials of simple s-p-metals, showing on enhanced electron-phonon-interaction. This fact may lead to the conclusion that the strong electron-phonon coupling is caused by the amorphous structure of the superconductor. The present results, however, indicate that the strong electron-phonon interaction cannot be explained only ba the amorphous structure of the superconductor. In the measurements of the second derivative d 2 U/dI 2 no phonon-induced structures have been observed for amorphous molybdenum, vanadium and niobium films. Apparently the phonon density of states F(#betta#) of amorphous transition metals has no structure, thus the longitudinal and transverse phonons cannot be identified in the measured (d 2 U/dI 2 )-curves. This particular behaviour of the amorphous transition metals in contrast to the simple s-p-metals may be interpreted by the strongly localized d-electrons. (orig./GG) [de

  13. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HYDROGEN ADSORBING TO AMORPHOUS WATER ICE: DEFINING ADSORPTION IN CLASSICAL MOLECULAR DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, John L.; Lewis, Steven P.; Stancil, P. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Gas–grain and gas–phase reactions dominate the formation of molecules in the interstellar medium (ISM). Gas–grain reactions require a substrate (e.g., a dust or ice grain) on which the reaction is able to occur. The formation of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the ISM is the prototypical example of a gas–grain reaction. In these reactions, an atom of hydrogen will strike a surface, stick to it, and diffuse across it. When it encounters another adsorbed hydrogen atom, the two can react to form molecular hydrogen and then be ejected from the surface by the energy released in the reaction. We perform in-depth classical molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen atoms interacting with an amorphous water-ice surface. This study focuses on the first step in the formation process; the sticking of the hydrogen atom to the substrate. We find that careful attention must be paid in dealing with the ambiguities in defining a sticking event. The technical definition of a sticking event will affect the computed sticking probabilities and coefficients. Here, using our new definition of a sticking event, we report sticking probabilities and sticking coefficients for nine different incident kinetic energies of hydrogen atoms [5–400 K] across seven different temperatures of dust grains [10–70 K]. We find that probabilities and coefficients vary both as a function of grain temperature and incident kinetic energy over the range of 0.99–0.22.

  14. Amorphous-polycrystal transition induced by laser pulse in self-ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foti, G.; Rimini, E.; Vitali, G.; Bertolotti, M.

    1977-01-01

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction has been used to investigate the amorphous to polycrystalline structure transition in silicon induced by laser pulse. The power density of the ruby laser pulse, in the free generation mode, has been maintained below the threshold to induce surface damage. Depth analysis has been carried out in silicon crystal using the channeling effect technique. (orig.) [de

  15. {sup 2}H-NMR study of amorphous and crystalline high pressure ice phases; {sup 2}H-NMR-Untersuchungen an amorphen und kristallinen Hochdruckeisphasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuermann, Marco

    2008-10-27

    The objective of this work was to produce different high pressure ice phases and measure them at ambient pressure. Temperature dependent relaxation measurements were performed for the first time. All three amorphous ices differ significantly in their temperature dependent T1-values. Applying a heating rate of 1 K/h the transformation of HDA into LDA takes place at a temperature of 105 K. By contrast, warming up VHDA to temperatures above 105 K leads to a relaxed form with relaxation times that resemble the values of HDA. This modification eventually transforms into LDA at 115 K. Our data analysis indicates that this intermediate state is not an inhomogeneous mixture of VHDA and LDA, suggesting that the VHDA/LDA transition is not of a simple first order type. In ice II relaxation measurements and stimulated echo experiments were performed for the first time. The observed temperature of the transition from ice II to cubic ice, 145 K, is consistent with literature data, considering our heating rate of about 1 K/day. The relaxation curves show a bimodal evolution. This is not due to structural heterogeneities, because additional X-ray diffraction measurements exclude a contamination of our samples with other ice phases. The slow relaxing component displays no temperature dependence. The time constant of the fast component reveals Arrhenius-like behaviour, although the activation energy is only 2 kJ/mol. Such a small value can not be attributed to reorientation dynamics as the origin of relaxation in ice II. The decay of the stimulated echo is only about one order of magnitude faster than the decay due to spin-lattice relaxation. The resulting correlation time is temperature independent. Hence, the loss of correlation can not be due to molecular dynamics. But it could stem from spin diffusion, which is known to induce frequency shifts of individual spins in deuteron systems. This interpretation is supported by the analysis of the geometry of the underlying process. The

  16. Kinetics of the high- to low-density amorphous water transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koza, M M; Schober, H; Fischer, H E; Hansen, T; Fujara, F

    2003-01-01

    In situ neutron diffraction experiments have been carried out to study the kinetics of the transformation of high-density amorphous (HDA) water into its low-density amorphous state at temperatures 87 K ≤ T ≤ 110 K. It is found that three different stages are comprised in this transformation, namely an annealing process of the high-density matrix followed by a first-order-like transition into a low-density state, which can be further annealed at higher temperatures T ≤ 127 K. The annealing kinetics of the HDA state follows the logarithm of time as found in other systems showing polyamorphism. According to the theory of transformation by nucleation and growth the apparent first-order transition follows an Avrami-Kolmogorov behaviour. An energy barrier ΔE ∼ 33 k Jmol -1 is estimated from the temperature dependence of this transition

  17. A molecular dynamics approach for predicting the glass transition temperature and plasticization effect in amorphous pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jasmine; Nunes, Cletus; Jonnalagadda, Sriramakamal

    2013-11-04

    The objectives of this study were as follows: (i) To develop an in silico technique, based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to predict glass transition temperatures (Tg) of amorphous pharmaceuticals. (ii) To computationally study the effect of plasticizer on Tg. (iii) To investigate the intermolecular interactions using radial distribution function (RDF). Amorphous sucrose and water were selected as the model compound and plasticizer, respectively. MD simulations were performed using COMPASS force field and isothermal-isobaric ensembles. The specific volumes of amorphous cells were computed in the temperature range of 440-265 K. The characteristic "kink" observed in volume-temperature curves, in conjunction with regression analysis, defined the Tg. The MD computed Tg values were 367 K, 352 K and 343 K for amorphous sucrose containing 0%, 3% and 5% w/w water, respectively. The MD technique thus effectively simulated the plasticization effect of water; and the corresponding Tg values were in reasonable agreement with theoretical models and literature reports. The RDF measurements revealed strong hydrogen bond interactions between sucrose hydroxyl oxygens and water oxygen. Steric effects led to weak interactions between sucrose acetal oxygens and water oxygen. MD is thus a powerful predictive tool for probing temperature and water effects on the stability of amorphous systems during drug development.

  18. Bonding tungsten, W–Cu-alloy and copper with amorphous Fe–W alloy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Song, E-mail: wangsongrain@163.com [Laboratory of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ling, Yunhan, E-mail: yhling@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhao, Pei [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zang, Nanzhi [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jianjun [Laboratory of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Guo, Shibin [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Jun [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Guiying [Laboratory of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2013-05-15

    W/Cu graded materials are the leading candidate materials used as the plasma facing components in a fusion reactor. However, tungsten and copper can hardly be jointed together due to their great differences in physical properties such as coefficient of thermal expansion and melting point, and the lack of solid solubility between them. To overcome those difficulties, a new amorphous Fe–W alloy transitional coating and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) method were proposed and introduced in this paper. The morphology, composition and structure of the amorphous Fe–W alloy coating and the sintering interface of the specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal shock resistance of the bonded composite was also tested. The results demonstrated that amorphous structure underwent change from amorphous to nano grains during joining process, and the joined W/Cu composite can endued plasma thermal shock resistance with energy density more than 5.33 MW/m{sup 2}. It provides a new feasible technical to join refractory tungsten to immiscible copper with amorphous Fe–W alloy coating.

  19. Magnetoconductance of amorphous Yx-Si1-x alloys near the metal-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanquer, M.; Tourbot, R.; Boucher, B.

    1989-01-01

    We have performed magnetoresistance experiments across the Metal-Insulator transition in amorphous Y x -Si 1-x alloys using very high fields (H = 40T) and very low temperatures (T = 0.05K). Different and unusual behaviours are observed and can be explained assuming that the electron-electron interaction contribution dominates at low fields and localization corrections appears at very high fields. This is the opposite situation compared to usual weak localization regime

  20. Water/ice phase transition: The role of zirconium acetate, a compound with ice-shaping properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Moreno; Fernandes, Francisco M.; Dedovets, Dmytro; Deville, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    Few compounds feature ice-shaping properties. Zirconium acetate is one of the very few inorganic compounds reported so far to have ice-shaping properties similar to that of ice-shaping proteins, encountered in many organisms living at low temperature. When a zirconium acetate solution is frozen, oriented and perfectly hexagonal ice crystals can be formed and their growth follows the temperature gradient. To shed light on the water/ice phase transition while freezing zirconium acetate solution, we carried out differential scanning calorimetry measurements. From our results, we estimate how many water molecules do not freeze because of their interaction with Zr cations. We estimate the colligative properties of the Zr acetate on the apparent critical temperature. We further show that the phase transition is unaffected by the nature of the base which is used to adjust the pH. Our results provide thus new hints on the ice-shaping mechanism of zirconium acetate.

  1. Sea ice dynamics across the Mid-Pleistocene transition in the Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlef, H; Belt, S T; Sosdian, S M; Smik, L; Lear, C H; Hall, I R; Cabedo-Sanz, P; Husum, K; Kender, S

    2018-03-05

    Sea ice and associated feedback mechanisms play an important role for both long- and short-term climate change. Our ability to predict future sea ice extent, however, hinges on a greater understanding of past sea ice dynamics. Here we investigate sea ice changes in the eastern Bering Sea prior to, across, and after the Mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT). The sea ice record, based on the Arctic sea ice biomarker IP 25 and related open water proxies from the International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1343, shows a substantial increase in sea ice extent across the MPT. The occurrence of late-glacial/deglacial sea ice maxima are consistent with sea ice/land ice hysteresis and land-glacier retreat via the temperature-precipitation feedback. We also identify interactions of sea ice with phytoplankton growth and ocean circulation patterns, which have important implications for glacial North Pacific Intermediate Water formation and potentially North Pacific abyssal carbon storage.

  2. Amorphous and crystalline aerosol particles interacting with water vapor: conceptual framework and experimental evidence for restructuring, phase transitions and kinetic limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Koop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with water are crucial for the properties, transformation and climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. Here we present a conceptual framework for the interaction of amorphous aerosol particles with water vapor, outlining characteristic features and differences in comparison to crystalline particles. We used a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA to characterize the hydration and dehydration of crystalline ammonium sulfate, amorphous oxalic acid and amorphous levoglucosan particles (diameter ~100 nm, relative humidity 5–95% at 298 K. The experimental data and accompanying Köhler model calculations provide new insights into particle microstructure, surface adsorption, bulk absorption, phase transitions and hygroscopic growth. The results of these and related investigations lead to the following conclusions:

    (1 Many organic substances, including carboxylic acids, carbohydrates and proteins, tend to form amorphous rather than crystalline phases upon drying of aqueous solution droplets. Depending on viscosity and microstructure, the amorphous phases can be classified as glasses, rubbers, gels or viscous liquids.

    (2 Amorphous organic substances tend to absorb water vapor and undergo gradual deliquescence and hygroscopic growth at lower relative humidity than their crystalline counterparts.

    (3 In the course of hydration and dehydration, certain organic substances can form rubber- or gel-like structures (supramolecular networks and undergo transitions between swollen and collapsed network structures.

    (4 Organic gels or (semi-solid amorphous shells (glassy, rubbery, ultra-viscous with low molecular diffusivity can kinetically limit the uptake and release of water and may influence the hygroscopic growth and activation of aerosol particles as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and ice nuclei (IN. Moreover, (semi-solid amorphous phases may influence the uptake of gaseous photo

  3. Pair distribution function and its relation to the glass transition in an amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, S.; Clarke, R.; Nagel, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    Data for the pair distribution function g (r) are presented as a function of temperature for amorphous Nb/sub 0.4/Ni/sub 0.6/. We show, based on a simple model, that g (r) varies linearly with T over a wide temperature range in the glass as was found empirically by Wendt and Abraham. We also find that in our glass the behavior of g (r) near the glass transition is, within experimental error, similar to what they found in their Monte Carlo calculation. We interpret the deviation from linearity at the glass transition as due to the onset of diffusive motion of the atoms

  4. On Positronium Formation in Crystalline and Amorphous Ice at Low Positron Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.

    1986-01-01

    The positronium (Ps) yield for ice, measured by Eldrup et al. using a low-energy positron beam, is discussed in terms of the spur model of Ps formation. The pronounced maxima in the Ps yield for crystalline ice at positron energies below 65 eV are well explained by effects due to energy conservat......The positronium (Ps) yield for ice, measured by Eldrup et al. using a low-energy positron beam, is discussed in terms of the spur model of Ps formation. The pronounced maxima in the Ps yield for crystalline ice at positron energies below 65 eV are well explained by effects due to energy...

  5. On the nature of amorphous polymorphism of water

    OpenAIRE

    Koza, Michael Marek; Geil, Burkhard; Winkel, Katrin; Koehler, Christian; Czeschka, Franz; Scheuermann, Marco; Schober, Helmut; Hansen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We report elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments on different amorphous ice modifications. It is shown that an amorphous structure (HDA') indiscernible from the high-density phase (HDA), obtained by compression of crystalline ice, can be formed from the very high-density phase (vHDA) as an intermediate stage of the transition of vHDA into its low-density modification (LDA'). Both, HDA and HDA' exhibit comparable small angle scattering signals characterizing them as structures he...

  6. Molecular relaxation behavior and isothermal crystallization above glass transition temperature of amorphous hesperetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shete, Ganesh; Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relaxation behavior of amorphous hesperetin (HRN), using dielectric spectroscopy, and assessment of its crystallization kinetics above glass transition temperature (Tg ). Amorphous HRN exhibited both local (β-) and global (α-) relaxations. β-Relaxation was observed below Tg , whereas α-relaxation prominently emerged above Tg . β-Relaxation was found to be of Johari-Goldstein type and was correlated with α-process by coupling model. Secondly, isothermal crystallization experiments were performed at 363 K (Tg + 16.5 K), 373 K (Tg + 26.5 K), and 383 K (Tg + 36.5 K). The kinetics of crystallization, obtained from the normalized dielectric strength, was modeled using the Avrami model. Havriliak-Negami (HN) shape parameters, αHN and αHN .βHN , were analyzed during the course of crystallization to understand the dynamics of amorphous phase during the emergence of crystallites. HN shape parameters indicated that long range (α-like) were motions affected to a greater extent than short range (β-like) motions during isothermal crystallization studies at all temperature conditions. The variable behavior of α-like motions at different isothermal crystallization temperatures was attributed to evolving crystallites with time and increase in electrical conductivity with temperature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. The crystalline-to-amorphous transition in ion-bombarded silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.; Kalbitzer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen-free, but defect-rich a-Si can be obtained by ion bombardment of c-Si. The formation of such material has been studied in detail using carrier-removal measurements in the characterization of the bombardment damage. In order to develop an overall view of the disordering process these data are discussed together with results obtained on similar films by Rutherford back-scattering, electron spin resonance, electron microscopy and optical measurements. It is concluded that amorphous material generally evolves from an intermediate crystalline phase supersaturated with point defects. The transition occurs locally at the sites of energetic ion impacts into critically predamaged crystalline material. As a consequence, an amorphous layer is built up from small clusters with dimensions typically of the order of 50 A. From the net expansion of the bombarded layers it is concluded that regions of lower atomic density are locally present, very likely a consequence of a structural mismatch between individual amorphous clusters. In this way a heterogeneous defect structure may build up in these films which determines their electronic properties. (author)

  8. Characterisation of the glass transition of an amorphous drug using modulated DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, P G; Craig, D Q; Doherty, C

    1998-07-01

    The use of modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) as a novel means of characterising the glass transition of amorphous drugs has been investigated, using the protease inhibitor saquinavir as a model compound. In particular, the effects of measuring variables (temperature cycling, scanning period, heating mode) have been examined. Saquinavir samples of known moisture content were examined using a TA Instruments 2920 MDSC at a heating rate of 2 degrees C/min and an amplitude of +/-0.159 degrees C with a period of 30 seconds. These conditions were used to examine the effects of cycling between - 50 degrees C and 150 degrees C. A range of periods between 20 and 50 seconds were then studied. Isothermal measurements were carried out between 85 degrees C and 120 degrees C using an amplitude of +/-0.159 degrees C with a period of 30 seconds. MDSC showed the glass transition of saquinavir (0.98 +/- 0.05%w/w moisture content) in isolation from the relaxation endotherm to give an apparent glass transition temperature of 107.0 degrees C +/- 0.4 degrees C. Subsequent temperature cycling gave reproducible glass transition temperatures of approximately 105 degrees C for both cooling and heating cycles. The enthalpic relaxation peak observed in the initial heating cycle had an additional contribution from a Tg "shift" effect brought about by the difference in response to the glass transition of the total and reversing heat flow signals. Isothermal studies yield a glass transition at 105.9 degrees C +/- 0.1 degrees C. MDSC has been shown to be capable of separating the glass transition of saquinavir from the relaxation endotherm, thereby facilitating measurement of this parameter without the need for temperature cycling. However, the Tg "shift" effect and the number of modulations through the transition should be taken into account to avoid drawing erroneous conclusions from the experimental data. MDSC has been shown to be an effective method of characterising the glass

  9. High-resolution electron microscopy study of electron-irradiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transition in α-SiC single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, H.; Mori, H.; Sakata, T.

    1992-01-01

    An electron-irradiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous (CA) transition in α-SiC has been studied by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The irradiation-produced damage structure was examined as a function of dose of electrons by taking high-resolution maps extending from the unirradiated crystalline region to the completely amorphized region. In the intermediate region between those two regions, that is in the CA transition region, the damage structure was essentially a mixture of crystalline and amorphous phases. The volume fraction of the amorphous phase was found to increase with increasing dose of electrons and no discrete crystalline-amorphous interface was observed in the CA transition region. These facts indicate the heterogeneous and gradual nature of the CA transition. In the transition region close to the unirradiated crystalline region, a sort of fragmentation of the crystal lattice was observed to occur, crystallites with slightly different orientations with respect to the parent crystal were formed owing to the strain around the dispersed local amorphous regions. In the transition region close to the amorphized region, these crystallites were reduced in size and were embedded in an amorphous matrix. This damage structure is the result of the increased volume fraction of the amorphous phase. In the completely amorphized region, no lattice fringes were recognized in the HREM images. The atomistic process of the CA transition is discussed on the basis of the present results and those from previous studies. (Author)

  10. The photoexcitation of crystalline ice and amorphous solid water: A molecular dynamics study of outcomes at 11 K and 125 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, J.; Loock, H.-P., E-mail: hploock@chem.queensu.ca; Cann, N. M., E-mail: ncann@chem.queensu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2015-07-21

    Photoexcitation of crystalline ice Ih and amorphous solid water at 7-9 eV is examined using molecular dynamics simulations and a fully flexible water model. The probabilities of photofragment desorption, trapping, and recombination are examined for crystalline ice at 11 K and at 125 K and for amorphous solid water at 11 K. For 11 K crystalline ice, a fully rigid water model is also employed for comparison. The kinetic energy of desorbed H atoms and the distance travelled by trapped fragments are correlated to the location and the local environment of the photoexcited water molecule. In all cases, H atom desorption is found to be the most likely outcome in the top bilayer while trapping of all photofragments is most probable deeper in the solid where the likelihood for recombination of the fragments into H{sub 2}O molecules also rises. Trajectory analysis indicates that the local hydrogen bonding network in amorphous solid water is more easily distorted by a photodissociation event compared to crystalline ice. Also, simulations indicate that desorption of OH radicals and H{sub 2}O molecules are more probable in amorphous solid water. The kinetic energy distributions for desorbed H atoms show a peak at high energy in crystalline ice, arising from photoexcited water molecules in the top monolayer. This peak is less pronounced in amorphous solid water. H atoms that are trapped may be displaced by up to ∼10 water cages, but migrate on average 3 water cages. Trapped OH fragments tend to stay near the original solvent cage.

  11. Interaction of D2 with H2O amorphous ice studied by temperature-programmed desorption experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiaud, L; Fillion, J H; Baouche, S; Dulieu, F; Momeni, A; Lemaire, J L

    2006-03-07

    The gas-surface interaction of molecular hydrogen D2 with a thin film of porous amorphous solid water (ASW) grown at 10 K by slow vapor deposition has been studied by temperature-programmed-desorption (TPD) experiments. Molecular hydrogen diffuses rapidly into the porous network of the ice. The D2 desorption occurring between 10 and 30 K is considered here as a good probe of the effective surface of ASW interacting with the gas. The desorption kinetics have been systematically measured at various coverages. A careful analysis based on the Arrhenius plot method has provided the D2 binding energies as a function of the coverage. Asymmetric and broad distributions of binding energies were found, with a maximum population peaking at low energy. We propose a model for the desorption kinetics that assumes a complete thermal equilibrium of the molecules with the ice film. The sample is characterized by a distribution of adsorption sites that are filled according to a Fermi-Dirac statistic law. The TPD curves can be simulated and fitted to provide the parameters describing the distribution of the molecules as a function of their binding energy. This approach contributes to a correct description of the interaction of molecular hydrogen with the surface of possibly porous grain mantles in the interstellar medium.

  12. Theoretical study of the localization-delocalization transition in amorphous molybdenum-germanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, K.; Andersen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations were performed for amorphous germanium and amorphous alloys of molybdenum and germanium. The calculations used Harrison's universal linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals parameters to generate one-electron Hamiltonians for structural configurations obtained from molecular-dynamics simulations. The density of states calculated for a model of a-Ge showed a distinct pseudogap, although with an appreciable density of states at the minimum. The states in the pseudogap are localized. As the concentration of Mo atoms increases, the pseudogap of the density of states is gradually filled up. The density of states at the Fermi energy calculated for our model of the alloys agrees quite well with that experimentally determined by Yoshizumi, Geballe, and co-workers. The localization index for the states at the Fermi energy is a decreasing function of Mo concentration in the range of 2--14 at. % Mo and the localization length is an increasing function of molybdenum concentration. These results are consistent with the experimental observation of an insulator-metal transition at about 10 at. % Mo

  13. Nature of amorphous polymorphism of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koza, M.M.; Schober, H.; Hansen, T.; Geil, B.; Winkel, K.; Koehler, C.; Scheuermann, M.; Czeschka, F.

    2005-01-01

    We report elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments on different amorphous ice modifications. It is shown that an amorphous structure (HDA ' ) indiscernible from the high-density phase (HDA), obtained by compression of crystalline ice, can be formed from the very high-density phase (vHDA) as an intermediate stage of the transition of vHDA into its low-density modification (LDA ' ). Both HDA and HDA ' exhibit comparable small-angle scattering signals characterizing them as structures heterogeneous on a length scale of a few nanometers. The homogeneous structures are the initial and final transition stages vHDA and LDA ' , respectively. Despite their apparent structural identity on a local scale, HDA and HDA ' differ in their transition kinetics explored by in situ experiments. The activation energy of the vHDA-to-LDA ' transition is at least 20 kJ/mol higher than the activation energy of the HDA-to-LDA transition

  14. Exact theory of dense amorphous hard spheres in high dimension. II. The high density regime and the Gardner transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchan, Jorge; Parisi, Giorgio; Urbani, Pierfrancesco; Zamponi, Francesco

    2013-10-24

    We consider the theory of the glass phase and jamming of hard spheres in the large space dimension limit. Building upon the exact expression for the free-energy functional obtained previously, we find that the random first order transition (RFOT) scenario is realized here with two thermodynamic transitions: the usual Kauzmann point associated with entropy crisis and a further transition at higher pressures in which a glassy structure of microstates is developed within each amorphous state. This kind of glass-glass transition into a phase dominating the higher densities was described years ago by Elisabeth Gardner, and may well be a generic feature of RFOT. Microstates that are small excitations of an amorphous matrix-separated by low entropic or energetic barriers-thus emerge naturally, and modify the high pressure (or low temperature) limit of the thermodynamic functions.

  15. Upper critical fields and superconducting transition temperatures of some zirconium-base amorphous transition-metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karkut, M.G.; Hake, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Superconducting upper critical fields H/sub c/2(T), transition temperatures T/sub c/, and normal-state electrical resistivities rho/sub n/ have been measured in the amorphous transition-metal alloy series Zr/sub 1-z/Co/sub x/, Zr/sub 1-x/Ni/sub x/, (Zr/sub 1-x/Ti/sub x/)/sub 0.78/Ni/sub 0.22/, and (Zr/sub 1-x/Nb/sub x/)/sub 0.78/Ni/sub 0.22/. Structural integrity of these melt-spun alloys is indicated by x-ray, density, bend-ductility, normal-state electrical resistivity, superconducting transition width, and mixed-state flux-pinning measurements. The specimens display T/sub c/ = 2.1--3.8 K, rho/sub n/ = 159--190 μΩ cm, and Vertical Bar(dH/sub c/2/dT)cVertical Bar = 28--36 kG/K. These imply electron mean free paths lroughly-equal2--6 A, zero-temperature Ginzburg-Landau coherence distances xi/sub G/0roughly-equal50--70 A, penetration depths lambda/sub G/0roughly-equal(7--10) x 10 3 A, and extremely high dirtiness parameters xi 0 /lroughly-equal300--1300. All alloys display H/sub c/2(T) curves with negative curvature and (with two exceptions) fair agreement with the standard dirty-limit theory of Werthamer, Helfand, Hohenberg, and Maki (WHHM) for physically reasonable values of spin-orbit-coupling induced, electron-spin-flip scattering time tau/sub so/. This is in contrast to the anomalously elevated H/sub c/2(T) behavior which is nearly linear in T that is observed by some, and the unphysically low-tau/sub so/ fits to WHHM theory obtained by others, for various amorphous alloys

  16. The transition from amorphous to crystalline in Al/Zr multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qi; Zhang Zhong; Ma Shuang; Qi Runze; Li Jia; Wang Zhanshan; Le Guen, Karine; André, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Al(1.0%wtSi)/Zr and Al(Pure)/Zr multilayers grown by direct-current magnetron sputtering system has been characterized over a range of Al layer thicknesses (1.0–5.0 nm) by using a series of complementary measurements including grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy, X–ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Al layer thickness transition exhibits the Si doped in Al could not only disfavor the crystallization of Al but also influence the changing trends of surface roughness and diffraction peak position of phase Al . An interesting feature of the presence of Si in Al layer is that Si could influence the transition process in Al(1%wtSi) layer, in which the critical thickness (1.6 nm) of Al(Pure) layer in Al(Pure)/Zr shifts to 1.8 nm of Al(1.0%wtSi) layer in Al(1.0%wtSi)/Zr multilayer. We also found that the Zr-on-Al interlayer is wider than the Al-on-Zr interlayer in both systems, and the Al layers do not have specific crystal orientation in the directions vertical to the layer from selected area electron diffraction patterns below the thickness (3.0 nm) of Al layers. Above the thickness (3.0 nm) of Al layers, the Al layers are highly oriented in Al , so that the transformation from asymmetrical to symmetrical interlayers can be observed. Based on the analysis of all measurements, we build up a model with four steps, which could explain the Al layer thickness transition process in terms of a critical thickness for the nucleation of Al(Pure) and Al(1%wtSi) crystallites.

  17. Radiation amorphization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Chernyaeva, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical research on radiation amorphization are presented in this analytical review. Mechanism and driving forces of radiation amorphization are described, kinetic and thermodynamic conditions of amorphization are formulated. Compositional criteria of radiation amorphization are presented, that allow to predict irradiation behaviour of materials, their tendency to radiation amorphization. Mechanism of transition from crystalline state to amorphous state are considered depending on dose, temperature, structure of primary radiation damage and flux level. (author). 134 refs., 4 tab., 25 fig

  18. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Supercooled Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2012-02-01

    We present results of a simulation study of water driven out of equilibrium. Using transition path sampling, we can probe stationary path distributions parameterize by order parameters that are extensive in space and time. We find that by coupling external fields to these parameters, we can drive water through a first order dynamical phase transition into amorphous ice. By varying the initial equilibrium distributions we can probe pathways for the creation of amorphous ices of low and high densities.

  19. An Explanation for the Arctic Sea Ice Melt Pond Fractal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, P.; Abbot, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    As Arctic sea ice melts during the summer, pools of melt water form on its surface. This decreases the ice's albedo, which signifcantly impacts its subsequent evolution. Understanding this process is essential for buiding accurate sea ice models in GCMs and using them to forecast future changes in sea ice. A feature of melt ponds that helps determine their impact on ice albedo is that they often form complex geometric shapes. One characteristic of their shape, the fractal dimension of the pond boundaries, D, has been shown to transition between the two fundamental limits of D = 1 and D = 2 at some critical pond size. Here, we provide an explanation for this behavior. First, using aerial photographs taken during the SHEBA mission, we show how this fractal transition curve changes with time, and show that there is a qualitative difference in the pond shape as ice transitions from impermeable to permeable. While ice is impermeable, the maximum fractal dimension is less than 2, whereas after it becomes permeable, the maximum fractal dimension becomes very close to 2. We then show how the fractal dimension of the boundary of a collection of overlapping circles placed randomly on a plane also transitions from D = 1 to D = 2 at a size equal to the average size of a single circle. We, therefore, conclude that this transition is a simple geometric consequence of regular shapes connecting. The one physical parameter that can be extracted from the fractal transition curve is the length scale at which transition occurs. Previously, this length scale has been associated with the typical size of snow dunes created on the ice surface during winter. We provide an alternative explanation by noting that the flexural wavelength of the ice poses a fundamental limit on the size of melt ponds on permeable ice. If this is true, melt ponds could be used as a proxy for ice thickness. Finally, we provide some remarks on how to observationally distinguish between the two ideas for what

  20. Trapping of CH4, CO, and CO2 in Amorphous Water Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrapa, R. M. E.; Brown, R. H.; Anicich, V. G.; Cohen, B. A.; Dai, W.; Lunine, J. I.

    1999-09-01

    In this study, CO, CH4, and CO2 were trapped in H2O at temperatures as low as 20 K and pressures between 10-5 and 10-8 Torr. IR spectra were taken of each sample before sublimation to confirm the presence of volatiles. The samples were then heated at rates from 0.25 K/min to 1 K/min and the escape ranges were measured with a mass spectrometer. The volatiles escaped from the ice mixtures in temperature ranges similar to those found in previous work (1, 2, 3), namely 48-52 K, 145-160 K, 170-185 K. H2O is released from 150 K to 185 K. However, the temperature range of escape is strongly dependent on deposition temperature and heating rate. If the deposition temperature is below the point where the solid volatile rapidly sublimates in the ambient environment of our experiment, then the first range of volatile escape is centered around it's sublimation point, and there is little of the volatile remaining from 170-185 K. The location of the third escape range shifts to lower temperatures with slower sublimation rate. It was determined that 0.5 K/min is the ideal sample heating rate to determine these escape ranges. In our data, the infrared spectrum of CO trapped in water ice shows a splitting of the 2145 cm-1 solid CO line into two bands at 2343 cm-1 and 2135 cm-1. These shifts are similar to those seen by Sandford, et al. (4). (1) Bar-Nun, A., G. Herman, D. Laufer, and M. L. Rappaport, (1985), Icarus, 63, 317-332. (2) Bar-Nun, A., J. Dror, E. Kochavi, and D. Laufer, (1987), Physical Review B, 35, no. 5, 2427-2435. (3) Hudson, R. L., and B. Donn, (1991), Icarus, 94, 326-332. (4) Sandford, S. A., L. J. Allamandola, A. G. G. M. Tielens, and G. J. Valero, (1988), Astrophysical Journal, 329, 498-510.

  1. A phenomenological model for the chemo-responsive shape memory effect in amorphous polymers undergoing viscoelastic transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Haibao; Huang, Wei Min

    2013-01-01

    We present a phenomenological approach to study the viscoelastic transition and working mechanism of the chemo-responsive shape memory effect (SME) in amorphous shape memory polymers (SMPs). Both the copolymerization viscosity model and Doolittle equation are initially applied to quantitatively identify the influential factors behind the chemo-responsive SME in the SMPs exposure to a right solvent. After this, the Williams–Landel–Ferry (WLF) equation is employed to couple the viscosity (η), time–temperature shift factor (α τ ) and glass transition temperature (T g ) in amorphous polymers. By means of combining the WLF and Arrhenius equations together, the inductively decreased transition temperature is confirmed as the driving force for the chemo-responsive SME. Finally, a phenomenological viscoelastic model is proposed and then verified by the available experimental data reported in the literature and then compared with the simulation results of a semi-empirical model. This phenomenological model is expected to provide a powerful simulation tool for theoretical prediction and experimental substantiation of the chemo-responsive SME in amorphous SMPs by viscoelastic transition. (paper)

  2. Theoretical Investigation of OCN(-) Charge Transfer Complexes in Condensed Phase Media: Spectroscopic Properties in Amorphous Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Woon, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of cyanate (OCN(-)) charge-transfer complexes were performed to model the "XCN" feature observed in interstellar icy grain mantles. OCN(-) charge-transfer complexes were formed from precursor combinations of HNCO or HOCN with either NH3 or H2O. Three different solvation strategies for realistically modeling the ice matrix environment were explored, including (1) continuum solvation, (2) pure DFT cluster calculations, and (3) an ONIOM DFT/PM3 cluster calculation. The model complexes were evaluated by their ability to reproduce seven spectroscopic measurements associated with XCN: the band origin of the OCN(-) asymmetric stretching mode, shifts in that frequency due to isotopic substitutions of C, N, O, and H, plus two weak features. The continuum solvent field method produced results consistent with some of the experimental data but failed to account for other behavior due to its limited capacity to describe molecular interactions with solvent. DFT cluster calculations successfully reproduced the available spectroscopic measurements very well. In particular, the deuterium shift showed excellent agreement in complexes where OCN(-) was fully solvated. Detailed studies of representative complexes including from two to twelve water molecules allowed the exploration of various possible solvation structures and provided insights into solvation trends. Moreover, complexes arising from cyanic or isocyanic acid in pure water suggested an alternative mechanism for the formation of OCN(-) charge-transfer complexes without the need for a strong base such as NH3 to be present. An extended ONIOM (B3LYP/PM3) cluster calculation was also performed to assess the impact of a more realistic environment on HNCO dissociation in pure water.

  3. Thermal conductivity at the amorphous-nanocrystalline phase transition in beech wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2014-05-01

    High-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon (BE-C) were prepared by pyrolysis at carbonization temperatures T carb = 650, 1300, and 1600°C, and their resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ were studied in the 5-300 and 80-300 K temperature intervals. The experimental results obtained were evaluated by invoking X-ray diffraction data and information on the temperature dependences ρ( T) and κ( T) for BE-C samples prepared at T carb = 800, 1000, and 2400°C, which were collected by the authors earlier. An analysis of the κ( T carb) behavior led to the conclusion that the samples under study undergo an amorphous-nanocrystalline phase transition in the interval 800°C < T carb < 1000°C. Evaluation of the electronic component of the thermal conductivity revealed that the Lorentz number of the sample prepared at T carb = 2400°C exceeds by far the classical Sommerfeld value, which is characteristic of metals and highly degenerate semiconductors.

  4. Experimental evidence of structural transition at the crystal-amorphous interphase boundary between Al and Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.Q.; He, L.L.; Zhao, S.J.; Ye, H.Q.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations on the structure of the interphase boundary between crystalline Al and amorphous Al 2 O 3 coating reveal that an interfacial melting transition of Al occurs at 833 K, which is distinctly lower than the bulk melting point of Al. The crystalline lattice planes of Al near the interface bend or small segments of crystalline Al deviated from the matrix Al grains are formed. Stand-off dislocations formed at the interphase boundary are also observed. The amorphous Al 2 O 3 coating plays an important role in retaining the evidence for structural transition at high temperature to room temperature, which makes it possible to make experimental observations. (author)

  5. Bonding at Compatible and Incompatible Amorphous Interfaces of Polystyrene and Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Below the Glass Transition Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiko, Yuri M.; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Films of high-molecular-weight amorphous polystyrene (PS, M-w = 225 kg/mol, M-w/M-n = 3, T-g-bulk = 97degreesC, where T-g-bulk is the glass transition temperature of the bulk sample) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, M-w = 87 kg/mol, M-w/M-n = 2, Tg-bulk = 109degreesC) were brought into contact...

  6. Properties of amorphous rare earth-transition metal thin films relevant to thermomagnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biesterbos, J.W.M.

    1979-01-01

    Properties of amorphous RE-(Fe, Co) thin films relevant to thermomagnetic recording are reviewed. Attention is paid to the writing-, reading- and erasure process. The advantages and disadvantages of the amorphous materials are considered. Experimental data on the writing process are given

  7. Amorphous superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missell, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    We describe briefly the strong coupling superconductivity observed in amorphous alloys based upon simple metals. For transition metal alloys we discuss the behavior of the superconducting transition temperature T c , the upper critical field H (sub)c2 and the critical current J c . A survey of current problems is presented. (author) [pt

  8. Characterisation of moisture uptake effects on the glass transitional behaviour of an amorphous drug using modulated temperature DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, P G; Craig, D Q; Doherty, C

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the depression of the glass transition temperature, T(g), of the protease inhibitor saquinavir in the first heating scan as a function of the quantity of sorbed water by the application of modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC). Samples of amorphous saquinavir were pretreated under various humidity conditions and the quantity of sorbed water measured by thermogravimetric analysis. MTDSC runs were performed using hermetically and non-hermetically sealed pans in order to determine the glass transition temperature. MTDSC allowed the separation of the glass transition from the enthalpic relaxation, thereby allowing clear visualisation of T(g) for amorphous saquinavir in the first heating scan. The plasticizing effects of water were assessed, with the depression in T(g) related to the mole fraction of water sorbed via the Gordon-Taylor relationship. An expression has been derived which allows estimation of the water content which lowers the T(g) to the storage temperature, thereby considerably increasing the risk of recrystallisation. It is argued that this model may aid prediction of the optimal storage conditions for amorphous drugs.

  9. Anisotropic phase separation through the metal-insulator transition in amorphous Mo-Ge and Fe-Ge alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, M.J.

    1993-12-01

    Since an amorphous solid is often defined as that which lacks long-range order, the atomic structure is typically characterized in terms of the high-degree of short-range order. Most descriptions of vapor-deposited amorphous alloys focus on characterizing this order, while assuming that the material is chemically homogeneous beyond a few near neighbors. By coupling traditional small-angle x-ray scattering which probes spatial variations of the electron density with anomalous dispersion which creates a species-specific contrast, one can discern cracks and voids from chemical inhomogeneity. In particular, one finds that the chemical inhomogeneities which have been previously reported in amorphous Fe x Ge 1-x and Mo x Ge 1-x are quite anisotropic, depending significantly on the direction of film growth. With the addition of small amounts of metal atoms (x 2 or MoGe 3 . Finally, by manipulating the deposited power flux and rates of growth, Fe x Ge 1-x films which have the same Fe composition x can be grown to different states of phase separation. These results may help explain the difficulty workers have had in isolating the metal/insulator transition for these and other vapor-deposited amorphous alloys

  10. Atomic-scale study of the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition mechanism in GeTe thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Mantovan, R.; Mokhles Gerami, A.; Mølholt, T. E.; Wiemer, C.; Longo, M.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Johnston, K.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Ncube, M.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Gislason, H. P.; Langouche, G.; Ólafsson, S.; Weyer, G.

    The underlying mechanism driving the structural amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Group VI chalcogenides is still a matter of debate even in the simplest GeTe system. We exploit the extreme sensitivity of 57Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy, following dilute implantation of 57Mn (T½ = 1.5 min) at ISOLDE/CERN, to study the electronic charge distribution in the immediate vicinity  of the 57Fe probe substituting Ge (FeGe), and to interrogate the local environment of FeGe over the amorphous-crystalline phase transition in GeTe thin films. Our results show that the local structure  of as-sputtered amorphous GeTe is a combination of tetrahedral and defect-octahedral sites. The main effect of the crystallization is the conversion from tetrahedral to defect-free octahedral sites.  We discover that only the tetrahedral fraction in amorphous GeTe participates to the change of the FeGe-Te chemical bond...

  11. Causes of ice age intensification across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Thomas B.; Hain, Mathis P.; Foster, Gavin L.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sexton, Philip F.; Badger, Marcus P. S.; Cherry, Soraya G.; Hasenfratz, Adam P.; Haug, Gerald H.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Pälike, Heiko; Pancost, Richard D.; Wilson, Paul A.

    2017-12-01

    During the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT; 1,200–800 kya), Earth's orbitally paced ice age cycles intensified, lengthened from ˜40,000 (˜40 ky) to ˜100 ky, and became distinctly asymmetrical. Testing hypotheses that implicate changing atmospheric CO2 levels as a driver of the MPT has proven difficult with available observations. Here, we use orbitally resolved, boron isotope CO2 data to show that the glacial to interglacial CO2 difference increased from ˜43 to ˜75 μatm across the MPT, mainly because of lower glacial CO2 levels. Through carbon cycle modeling, we attribute this decline primarily to the initiation of substantive dust-borne iron fertilization of the Southern Ocean during peak glacial stages. We also observe a twofold steepening of the relationship between sea level and CO2-related climate forcing that is suggestive of a change in the dynamics that govern ice sheet stability, such as that expected from the removal of subglacial regolith or interhemispheric ice sheet phase-locking. We argue that neither ice sheet dynamics nor CO2 change in isolation can explain the MPT. Instead, we infer that the MPT was initiated by a change in ice sheet dynamics and that longer and deeper post-MPT ice ages were sustained by carbon cycle feedbacks related to dust fertilization of the Southern Ocean as a consequence of larger ice sheets.

  12. Raman scattering study of the a-GeTe structure and possible mechanism for the amorphous to crystal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrikopoulos, K S; Yannopoulos, S N; Voyiatzis, G A; Kolobov, A V; Ribes, M; Tominaga, J

    2006-01-01

    We report on an inelastic (Raman) light scattering study of the local structure of amorphous GeTe (a-GeTe) films. A detailed analysis of the temperature-reduced Raman spectra has shown that appreciable structural changes occur as a function of temperature. These changes involve modifications of atomic arrangements such as to facilitate the rapid amorphous to crystal transformation, which is the major advantage of phase-change materials used in optical data storage media. A particular structural model, supported by polarization analysis, is proposed which is compatible with the experimental data as regards both the structure of a-GeTe and the crystallization transition. The remarkable difference between the Raman spectrum of the crystal and the glass can thus naturally be accounted for

  13. An antarctic stratigraphic record of stepwise ice growth through the eocene-oligocene transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, Sandra; Ciarletta, Daniel J.; Miriagos, Triantafilo E.; Bijl, Peter K.; Bohaty, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    Earth's current icehouse phase began ~34 m.y. ago with the onset of major Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Changes in ocean circulation and a decline in atmospheric greenhouse gas levels were associated with stepwise cooling and ice growth at southern high latitudes. The

  14. Long-Term Stability of New Co-Amorphous Drug Binary Systems: Study of Glass Transitions as a Function of Composition and Shelf Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The amorphous state is of particular interest in the pharmaceutical industry due to the higher solubility that amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients show compared to their respective crystalline forms. Due to their thermodynamic instability, drugs in the amorphous state tend to recrystallize; in order to avoid crystallization, it has been a common strategy to add a second component to hinder the crystalline state and form a thermally stable co-amorphous system, that is to say, an amorphous binary system which retains its amorphous structure. The second component can be a small molecule excipient (such as a sugar or an aminoacid or a second drug, with the advantage that a second active pharmaceutical ingredient could be used for complementary or combined therapeutic purposes. In most cases, the compositions studied are limited to 1:1, 2:1 and 1:2 molar ratios, leaving a gap of information about phase transitions and stability on the amorphous state in a wider range of compositions. In the present work, a study of novel co–amorphous formulations in which the selection of the active pharmaceutical ingredients was made according to the therapeutic effect is presented. Resistance against crystallization and behavior of glass transition temperature ( T g were studied through calorimetric measurements as a function of composition and shelf time. It was found that binary formulations with T g temperatures higher than those of pure components presented long-term thermal stability. In addition, significant increments of T g values, of as much as 15 ∘ C, were detected as a result of glass relaxation at room temperature during storage time; this behavior of glass transition has not been previously reported for co-amorphous drugs. Based on these results, it can be concluded that monitoring behavior of T g and relaxation processes during the first weeks of storage leads to a more objective evaluation of the thermomechanical stability of an amorphous

  15. Microphysical characteristics of squall-line stratiform precipitation and transition zones inferred using an ice particle property-evolving model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A. A.; Harrington, J. Y.; Morrison, H.

    2017-12-01

    A quasi-idealized 3D squall line (based on a June 2007 Oklahoma case) is simulated using a novel bulk microphysics scheme called the Ice-Spheroids Habit Model with Aspect-ratio Evolution (ISHMAEL). In ISHMAEL, the evolution of ice particle properties, such as mass, shape, maximum diameter, density, and fall speed, are tracked as these properties evolve from vapor growth, sublimation, riming, and melting. Thus, ice properties evolve from various microphysical processes without needing separate unrimed and rimed ice categories. Simulation results show that ISHMAEL produces both a squall-line transition zone and an enhanced stratiform precipitation region. The ice particle properties produced in this simulation are analyzed and compared to observations to determine the characteristics of ice that lead to the development of these squall-line features. It is shown that rimed particles advected rearward from the convective region produce the enhanced stratiform precipitation region. The development of the transition zone results from hydrometer sorting: the evolution of ice particle properties in the convective region produces specific fall speeds that favor significant ice advecting rearward of the transition zone before reaching the melting level, causing a local minimum in precipitation rate and reflectivity there. Microphysical sensitivity studies, for example turning rime splintering off, that lead to changes in ice particle properties reveal that the fall speed of ice particles largely determines both the location of the enhanced stratiform precipitation region and whether or not a transition zone forms.

  16. Scratching the surface of ice: Interfacial phase transitions and their kinetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David

    The surface structure of ice maintains a high degree of disorder down to surprisingly low temperatures. This is due to a number of underlying interfacial phase transitions that are associated with incremental changes in broken symmetry relative to the bulk crystal. In this talk I summarize recent work attempting to establish the nature and locations of these different phase transitions as well as how they depend on external conditions and nonequilibrium driving. The implications of this surface disorder is discussed in the context of simple kinetic processes that occur at these interfaces. Recent experimental work on the roughening transition is highlighted.

  17. Evidence for a dynamic East Antarctic ice sheet during the mid-Miocene climate transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Elizabeth L.; van de Flierdt, Tina; Williams, Trevor; Hemming, Sidney R.; Cook, Carys P.; Passchier, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The East Antarctic ice sheet underwent a major expansion during the Mid-Miocene Climate Transition, around 14 Ma, lowering sea level by ∼60 m. However, direct or indirect evidence of where changes in the ice sheet occurred is limited. Here we present new insights on timing and locations of ice sheet change from two drill sites offshore East Antarctica. IODP Site U1356, Wilkes Land, and ODP Site 1165, Prydz Bay are located adjacent to two major ice drainage areas, the Wilkes Subglacial Basin and the Lambert Graben. Ice-rafted detritus (IRD), including dropstones, was deposited in concentrations far exceeding those known in the rest of the Miocene succession at both sites between 14.1 and 13.8 Ma, indicating that large amounts of IRD-bearing icebergs were calved from independent drainage basins during this relatively short interval. At Site U1356, the IRD was delivered in distinct pulses, suggesting that the overall ice advance was punctuated by short periods of ice retreat in the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. Provenance analysis of the mid-Miocene IRD and fine-grained sediments provides additional insights on the movement of the ice margin and subglacial geology. At Site U1356, the dominant 40Ar/39Ar thermochronological age of the ice-rafted hornblende grains is 1400-1550 Ma, differing from the majority of recent IRD in the area, from which we infer an inland source area of this thermochronological age extending along the eastern part of the Adélie Craton, which forms the western side of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin. Neodymium isotopic compositions from the terrigenous fine fraction at Site U1356 imply that the ice margin periodically expanded from high ground well into the Wilkes Subglacial Basin during periods of MMCT ice growth. At Site 1165, MMCT pebble-sized IRD are sourced from both the local Lambert Graben and the distant Aurora Subglacial Basin drainage area. Together, the occurrence and provenance of the IRD and glacially-eroded sediment at these two marine

  18. Phénomène de la transition vitreuse appliquée aux glucides alimentaires amorphes à l'état de poudre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deroanne C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass transition phenomena applied to powdered amorphous food carbohydrates. During these last fifteen years, some food technologists and scientists have become aware of the importance of the glass transition, a thermal property of glassy or amorphous material, in food preparation processes. Recent studies have successfully correlated this fundamental notion to technofunctional changes within the powder. The aim of this paper is to present in a non exhaustive manner the relationship between glass transition characteristics and applications in food technology (caking, alterations, etc..

  19. Phase transitions of amorphous solid acetone in confined geometry investigated by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kang, Hani; Kim, Jun Soo; Kang, Heon

    2014-11-26

    We investigated the phase transformations of amorphous solid acetone under confined geometry by preparing acetone films trapped in amorphous solid water (ASW) or CCl4. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to monitor the phase changes of the acetone sample with increasing temperature. An acetone film trapped in ASW shows an abrupt change in the RAIRS features of the acetone vibrational bands during heating from 80 to 100 K, which indicates the transformation of amorphous solid acetone to a molecularly aligned crystalline phase. Further heating of the sample to 140 K produces an isotropic solid phase, and eventually a fluid phase near 157 K, at which the acetone sample is probably trapped in a pressurized, superheated condition inside the ASW matrix. Inside a CCl4 matrix, amorphous solid acetone crystallizes into a different, isotropic structure at ca. 90 K. We propose that the molecularly aligned crystalline phase formed in ASW is created by heterogeneous nucleation at the acetone-water interface, with resultant crystal growth, whereas the isotropic crystalline phase in CCl4 is formed by homogeneous crystal growth starting from the bulk region of the acetone sample.

  20. The evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick; Dumas, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that the Middle to Late Eocene has witnessed the waxing and waning of relatively small ephemeral ice sheets. These alternating episodes culminated in the Eocene-Oligocene transition (34 - 33.5 Ma) during which a sudden and massive glaciation occurred over Antarctica. Data studies have demonstrated that this glacial event is constituted of two 50 kyr-long steps, the first of modest (10 - 30 m of equivalent sea level) and the second of major (50 - 90 m esl) glacial amplitude, and separated by 200 kyrs. Since a decade, modeling studies have put forward the primary role of CO2 in the initiation of this glaciation, in doing so marginalizing the original "gateway hypothesis". Here, we investigate the impacts of CO2 and orbital parameters on the evolution of the ice sheet during the 500 kyrs of the EO transition using a tri-dimensional interpolation method. The latter allows precise orbital variations, CO2 evolution and ice sheet feedbacks (including the albedo) to be accounted for. Our results show that orbital variations are instrumental in initiating the first step of the EO glaciation but that the primary driver of the major second step is the atmospheric pCO2 crossing a modelled glacial threshold of 900 ppm. Although model-dependant, this higher glacial threshold makes a stronger case for ephemeral Middle-Late Eocene ice sheets. In addition, sensitivity tests demonstrate that the small first step only exists if the absolute pCO2 value remains within 100 ppm higher than the glacial threshold during the first 250 kyrs of the transition. Thereby, the pCO2 sufficiently counterbalances the strong insolation minima occurring at 33.9 and 33.8 Ma but is low enough to allow the ice sheet to nucleate. Nevertheless, questions remain as to what may cause this pCO2 drop.

  1. The peculiar behavior of the glass transition temperature of amorphous drug-polymer films coated on inert sugar spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereymaker, Aswin; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2015-05-01

    Fluid bed coating has been proposed in the past as an alternative technology for manufacturing of drug-polymer amorphous solid dispersions, or so-called glass solutions. It has the advantage of being a one-step process, and thus omitting separate drying steps, addition of excipients, or manipulation of the dosage form. In search of an adequate sample preparation method for modulated differential scanning calorimetry analysis of beads coated with glass solutions, glass transition broadening and decrease of the glass transition temperature (Tg ) were observed with increasing particle size of crushed coated beads and crushed isolated films of indomethacin (INDO) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Substituting INDO with naproxen gave comparable results. When ketoconazole was probed or the solvent in INDO-PVP films was switched to dichloromethane (DCM) or a methanol-DCM mixture, two distinct Tg regions were observed. Small particle sizes had a glass transition in the high Tg region, and large particle sizes had a glass transition in the low Tg region. This particle size-dependent glass transition was ascribed to different residual solvent amounts in the bulk and at the surface of the particles. A correlation was observed between the deviation of the Tg from that calculated from the Gordon-Taylor equation and the amount of residual solvent at the Tg of particles with different sizes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Adsorption Energies of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen Atoms on the Low-temperature Amorphous Water Ice: A Systematic Estimation from Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Nakatani, Naoki; Furuya, Kenji; Hama, Tetsuya

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new simple computational model to estimate the adsorption energies of atoms and molecules to low-temperature amorphous water ice, and we present the adsorption energies of carbon (3 P), nitrogen (4 S), and oxygen (3 P) atoms based on quantum chemistry calculations. The adsorption energies were estimated to be 14,100 ± 420 K for carbon, 400 ± 30 K for nitrogen, and 1440 ± 160 K for oxygen. The adsorption energy of oxygen is consistent with experimentally reported values. We found that the binding of a nitrogen atom is purely physisorption, while that of a carbon atom is chemisorption, in which a chemical bond to an O atom of a water molecule is formed. That of an oxygen atom has a dual character, with both physisorption and chemisorption. The chemisorption of atomic carbon also implies the possibility of further chemical reactions to produce molecules bearing a C–O bond, though this may hinder the formation of methane on water ice via sequential hydrogenation of carbon atoms. These properties would have a large impact on the chemical evolution of carbon species in interstellar environments. We also investigated the effects of newly calculated adsorption energies on the chemical compositions of cold dense molecular clouds with the aid of gas-ice astrochemical simulations. We found that abundances of major nitrogen-bearing molecules, such as N2 and NH3, are significantly altered by applying the calculated adsorption energy, because nitrogen atoms can thermally diffuse on surfaces, even at 10 K.

  3. Biogeochemical Cycling and Sea Ice Dynamics in the Bering Sea across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlef, H.; Sosdian, S. M.; Belt, S. T.; Smik, L.; Lear, C. H.; Hall, I. R.; Kender, S.; Leng, M. J.; Husum, K.; Cabedo-Sanz, P.

    2017-12-01

    Today the Bering Sea is characterized by high primary productivity (PP) along the eastern shelf, maintained by CO2 and nutrient rich upwelled deep waters and nutrient release during spring sea ice melting. As such, low oxygen concentrations are pervasive in mid-depth waters. Changes in ventilation and export productivity in the past have been shown to impact this oxygen minimum zone. On glacial/interglacial (G/IG) timescales sea ice formation plays a pivotal role on intermediate water ventilation with evidence pointing to the formation of North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) in the Bering Sea during Pleistocene glacial intervals. In addition, sea ice plays a significant role in both long- and short-term climate change via associated feedback mechanisms. Thus, records of sea ice dynamics and biogeochemical cycling in the Bering Sea are necessary to fully understand the interaction between PP, circulation patterns, and past G/IG climates with potential implications for the North Pacific carbon cycle. Here we use a multi-proxy approach to study sea ice dynamics and bottom water oxygenation, across three intervals prior to, across, and after the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT, 1.2-0.7 Ma) from International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1343. The MPT, most likely driven by internal climate mechanisms, is ideal to study changes in sea ice dynamics and sedimentary redox conditions on orbital timescales and to investigate the implications for associated feedback mechanisms. The sea ice record, based on various biomarkers, including IP25, shows substantial increase in sea ice extent across the MPT and the occurrence of a late-glacial/deglacial sea ice spike, with consequences for glacial NPIW formation and land glacier retreat via the temperature-precipitation feedback. U/Mn of foraminiferal authigenic coatings, a novel proxy for bottom water oxygenation, also shows distinct variability on G/IG timescales across the MPT, most likely a result of PP and water mass

  4. Amorphous-crystalline transition studied in hydrated MoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho-Lopez, M.A.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Lartundo-Rojas, L.; Livage, J.; Julien, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we study the thermal behavior of hydrated MoO 3 synthesized via acidification of sodium molybdate. MoO 3 .nH 2 O (n = 1.4) amorphous compound was heated in air at increasing temperatures in order to obtain the crystalline MoO 3 phase. We have studied the structural changes as a function of annealing temperature by Raman spectroscopy. A statistical study to determine the average size of the crystallites at each annealing step has been realized by scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the hydrated MoO 3 .1.4H 2 O glass transforms in an amorphous MoO 3 .0.7H 2 O phase prior to its crystallization, while the sample heated at 500 deg. C crystallizes into the orthorhombic α-MoO 3 phase with micro-crystallites having an average size of 6.8 μm

  5. Scaling behaviors of magnetoconductivity in amorphous indium oxide near the metal-insulator transition

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y J; Kim, Y S

    2000-01-01

    Magnetoconductivity is measured in an amorphous indium-oxide sample which is in the microscopic region. Two different scaling behaviors are observed for the magnetoconductivity The scaling behavior is determined by either the localization or the electron correlation effects, whichever becomes stronger more rapidly at a given temperature and magnetic field. Qualitative explanations are given for the observed scaling behaviors. A curve of a function of H/T sup 2 sup / sup 3 exists on which all our magnetoconductivity data lie.

  6. The possibility of using dc conductivity for investigating phase transition in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mously, M.K.; Mina, N.K.

    1985-07-01

    Different formulas have been applied to deduce the effective or the generalized electrical conductivity of double phase systems. These formulas have been revised and fitted to the experimental data of the binary systems amorphous-crystal (a-c) and liquid-crystal (l-c) for pure elementary selenium and selenium doped by different other elements. Both connected medium and statistical mixture theories can be applied depending on the nature of the system under investigation. (author)

  7. Integer Quantum Magnon Hall Plateau-Plateau Transition in a Spin Ice Model

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Baolong; Ohtsuki, Tomi; Shindou, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy magnon bands in a two-dimensional spin ice model become integer quantum magnon Hall bands. By calculating the localization length and the two-terminal conductance of magnon transport, we show that the magnon bands with disorders undergo a quantum phase transition from an integer quantum magnon Hall regime to a conventional magnon localized regime. Finite size scaling analysis as well as a critical conductance distribution shows that the quantum critical point belongs to the same un...

  8. Solubility of crystalline organic compounds in high and low molecular weight amorphous matrices above and below the glass transition by zero enthalpy extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amharar, Youness; Curtin, Vincent; Gallagher, Kieran H; Healy, Anne Marie

    2014-09-10

    Pharmaceutical applications which require knowledge of the solubility of a crystalline compound in an amorphous matrix are abundant in the literature. Several methods that allow the determination of such data have been reported, but so far have only been applicable to amorphous polymers above the glass transition of the resulting composites. The current work presents, for the first time, a reliable method for the determination of the solubility of crystalline pharmaceutical compounds in high and low molecular weight amorphous matrices at the glass transition and at room temperature (i.e. below the glass transition temperature), respectively. The solubilities of mannitol and indomethacin in polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) K15 and PVP K25, respectively were measured at different temperatures. Mixtures of undissolved crystalline solute and saturated amorphous phase were obtained by annealing at a given temperature. The solubility at this temperature was then obtained by measuring the melting enthalpy of the crystalline phase, plotting it as a function of composition and extrapolating to zero enthalpy. This new method yielded results in accordance with the predictions reported in the literature. The method was also adapted for the measurement of the solubility of crystalline low molecular weight excipients in amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The solubility of mannitol, glutaric acid and adipic acid in both indomethacin and sulfadimidine was experimentally determined and successfully compared with the difference between their respective calculated Hildebrand solubility parameters. As expected from the calculations, the dicarboxylic acids exhibited a high solubility in both amorphous indomethacin and sulfadimidine, whereas mannitol was almost insoluble in the same amorphous phases at room temperature. This work constitutes the first report of the methodology for determining an experimentally measured solubility for a low molecular weight crystalline solute

  9. Physisorption and desorption of H2, HD and D2 on amorphous solid water ice. Effect on mixing isotopologue on statistical population of adsorption sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiaud, Lionel; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Dulieu, François; Momeni, Anouchah; Lemaire, Jean-Louis

    2015-11-28

    We study the adsorption and desorption of three isotopologues of molecular hydrogen mixed on 10 ML of porous amorphous water ice (ASW) deposited at 10 K. Thermally programmed desorption (TPD) of H2, D2 and HD adsorbed at 10 K have been performed with different mixings. Various coverages of H2, HD and D2 have been explored and a model taking into account all species adsorbed on the surface is presented in detail. The model we propose allows to extract the parameters required to fully reproduce the desorption of H2, HD and D2 for various coverages and mixtures in the sub-monolayer regime. The model is based on a statistical description of the process in a grand-canonical ensemble where adsorbed molecules are described following a Fermi-Dirac distribution.

  10. Impact of surface impurity on phase transitions in amorphous micro silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Yu, Donghong; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study three types of spherically shaped micron and submicron sized amorphous micro silica (MS) as common raw material for production of porous calcium silicate products used for insulation, which are selected on basis of chemical composition and production method. Two of them have...... silica content of 96% (from silicon production) and one has that of 92% (from ferro-silicon production). In order to achieve high quality calcium silicate products, which strongly depends on the characteristics of the raw MS, it is crucial to study the chemical and physical properties of the raw MS...

  11. Longitudinal sound velocities, elastic anisotropy, and phase transition of high-pressure cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Maju; Raetz, Samuel; Hu, Qing Miao; Nikitin, Sergey M.; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Bulou, Alain; Lomonosov, Alexey; Djemia, Philippe; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Zerr, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Water ice is a molecular solid whose behavior under compression reveals the interplay of covalent bonding in molecules and forces acting between them. This interplay determines high-pressure phase transitions, the elastic and plastic behavior of H2O ice, which are the properties needed for modeling the convection and internal structure of the giant planets and moons of the solar system as well as H2O -rich exoplanets. We investigated experimentally and theoretically elastic properties and phase transitions of cubic H2O ice at room temperature and high pressures between 10 and 82 GPa. The time-domain Brillouin scattering (TDBS) technique was used to measure longitudinal sound velocities (VL) in polycrystalline ice samples compressed in a diamond anvil cell. The high spatial resolution of the TDBS technique revealed variations of VL caused by elastic anisotropy, allowing us to reliably determine the fastest and the slowest sound velocity in a single crystal of cubic H2O ice and thus to evaluate existing equations of state. Pressure dependencies of the single-crystal elastic moduli Ci j(P ) of cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa have been obtained which indicate its hardness and brittleness. These results were compared with ab initio calculations. It is suggested that the transition from molecular ice VII to ionic ice X occurs at much higher pressures than proposed earlier, probably above 80 GPa.

  12. Amorphous-crystalline transition studied in hydrated MoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Lopez, M.A. [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Colon y Tollocan, Toluca Edo. de Mexico 50110 (Mexico); Haro-Poniatowski, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Cuantica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Lartundo-Rojas, L. [Laboratorio de Microscopia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Livage, J. [Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Julien, C.M. [Institut des Nano-Sciences de Paris, UMR 7588, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)]. E-mail: Christian.Julien@insp.jussieu.fr

    2006-11-25

    In this work we study the thermal behavior of hydrated MoO{sub 3} synthesized via acidification of sodium molybdate. MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (n = 1.4) amorphous compound was heated in air at increasing temperatures in order to obtain the crystalline MoO{sub 3} phase. We have studied the structural changes as a function of annealing temperature by Raman spectroscopy. A statistical study to determine the average size of the crystallites at each annealing step has been realized by scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the hydrated MoO{sub 3}.1.4H{sub 2}O glass transforms in an amorphous MoO{sub 3}.0.7H{sub 2}O phase prior to its crystallization, while the sample heated at 500 deg. C crystallizes into the orthorhombic {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} phase with micro-crystallites having an average size of 6.8 {mu}m.

  13. Microscopic and macroscopic inhomogeneity of magnetization and anistropy in amorphous rare earth/transition metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafner, D.; Hoffmann, H.

    1979-01-01

    Amorphous Gd/Co and Gd/Co/Mo-films are investigated by measuring the field dependence of the susceptibility. This allows a determination of the value and sign of the perpendicular uniaxial anisotropy as well as the value of the effective ripple stray field. The measurements are made at spots of 50 to 100 μm diameter, allowing one to scan the film surface. Measurements from a spot on the film surface and at the opposing spot on the film-glass substrate interface are performed simultaneously. In this way the anisotropy at two related points on both surfaces of the film can be compared. In general the results show the existence of a ripple stray field which can be accounted for by inhomogeneities in the amorphous films. The perpendicular anisotropy at the free film surface is always lower than the perpendicular anisotropy at the film-substrate interface. In some cases the magnetization at the film surface is in-plane, while at the substrate the magnetization is out-of-plane. The reduction of the perpendicular anisotropy is an ageing effect due to oxidation. (author)

  14. Amorphous to crystalline phase transition in carbon induced by intense femtosecond x-ray free-electron laser pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaudin, J.; Peyrusse, O.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Toufarová, Martina; Vyšín, Luděk; Hájková, Věra; Sobierajski, R.; Burian, Tomáš; Dastjani-Farahani, S.; Graf, A.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, L.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Hoffmann, G.; Juha, Libor; Krzywinski, J.; London, R.A.; Moeller, S.; Sinn, H.; Schorb, S.; Störmer, M.; Tschentscher, T.; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Vu, H.; Bozek, J.; Bostedt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2012), "024103-1"-"024103-7" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA ČR GAP205/11/0571; GA ČR GAP208/10/2302; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087 Grant - others:OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : amorphous carbon * phase transition * graphitization * x-ray laser * free-electron laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012

  15. Time resolved reflectivity measurements of the amorphous-to-gamma and gamma-to-alpha phase transitions in ion-implanted Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.; Simpson, T.W.; Mitchell, I.V.

    1994-01-01

    Time resolved optical reflectivity (TRR) has been used to measure the growth kinetics associated with the amorphous-to-gamma and gamma-to-alpha phase transitions in ion-beam amorphised c-axis oriented α-Al 2 O 3 . The optical reflectivity technique allows the recrystallisation behaviour to be monitored dynamically during regrowth so that the growth kinetics associated with the two phase transitions can be measured simply and accurately from a relatively small number of samples. The amorphous-to-gamma and gamma-to-alpha phase transitions were studied over the temperature ranges of 670-770 C and 900-1070 C, respectively. The growth kinetics obtained for the two transitions are compared to previous work. ((orig.))

  16. Kinetic boundaries and phase transformations of ice i at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Huichao; Yang, Xue; Jiang, Shuqing; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy in diamond anvil cells has been employed to study phase boundaries and transformation kinetics of H2O ice at high pressures up to 16 GPa and temperatures down to 15 K. Ice i formed at nearly isobaric cooling of liquid water transforms on compression to high-density amorphous (HDA) ice at 1.1-3 GPa at 15-100 K and then crystallizes in ice vii with the frozen-in disorder (ice vii') which remains stable up to 14.1 GPa at 80 K and 15.9 GPa at 100 K. Unexpectedly, on decompression of ice vii', it transforms to ice viii in its domain of metastability, and then it relaxes into low-density amorphous (LDA) ice on a subsequent pressure release and warming up. On compression of ice i at 150-170 K, ice ix is crystallized and no HDA ice is found; further compression of ice ix results in the sequential phase transitions to stable ices vi and viii. Cooling ice i to 210 K at 0.3 GPa transforms it to a stable ice ii. Our extensive investigations provide previously missing information on the phase diagram of water, especially on the kinetic paths that result in formation of phases which otherwise are not accessible; these results are keys for understanding the phase relations including the formation of metastable phases. Our observations inform on the ice modifications that can occur naturally in planetary environments and are not accessible for direct observations.

  17. Radiation-Induced Fluidity and Glass-Liquid Transition in Irradiated Amorphous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the fluidity behaviour of continuously irradiated glasses using the Congruent Bond Lattice model in which broken bonds 'configurons' facilitate the flow. Irradiation breaks the bonds creating configurons which at high concentrations provide the transition of material from the glassy to liquid state. An explicit equation of viscosity has been derived which gives results in agreement with experimental data. This equation provides correct viscosity data for non-irradiated materials and shows a significant increase of fluidity in radiation fields. It demonstrates a decrease of activation energy of flow for irradiated glasses. A simple equation for glass-transition temperature was also obtained which shows that irradiated glasses have lower glass transition temperatures and are readily transformed from glassy to liquid state e.g. fluidized in strong radiation fields. (authors)

  18. Radiation effects in ice: New results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Fama, M.; Loeffler, M.J.; Raut, U.; Shi, J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of radiation effects in ice are motivated by intrinsic interest and by applications in astronomy. Here we report on new and recent results on radiation effects induced by energetic ions in ice: amorphization of crystalline ice, compaction of microporous amorphous ice, electrostatic charging and dielectric breakdown and correlated structural/chemical changes in the irradiation of water-ammonia ices

  19. Ginzburg-Landau theory and the superconducting transition in thin, amorphous bismuth films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vechten, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Aslamasov-Larkin (AL) theory can be derived from a classical treatment of the conductivity due to short-lived statistical fluctuations into the superconducting state if one truncates the Ginzburg-Landau free energy density expression to read F[psi] = α 0 vertical barpsi vertical bar 2 + c 0 vertical bar del psi vertical bar 2 , where psi is the superconducting order parameter. The next largest term in the GL free energy is (b/2) (vertical bar psi vertical bar 2 ) 2 and is conventionally interpreted as representing the energy associated with interactions between the fluctuations. My dissertation consists of the calculation of the effect of this term on the fluctuation conductivity in three different approximations and the comparison of my predictions to the data of R.E. Glover III and M.K. Chien on thin amorphous bismuth films. The first approximation calculates the contribution to the fluctuations' self energy of the ''tadpole'' diagrams. This approximation yields a 4 parameter equation. Its fits were particularly outstanding for the films deposited on quartz or roughened glass substrates and only for two smooth glass substrates were there non-isolated data points that were not fit at the lowest temperatures measured. (The equation runs into trouble for these films at approximately R(T)/R/sub o/ =.08.) The values of the theoretical equation's fitting parameters were determined by a least squares method and turns out to depend on film thickness in the manner predicted by the theory. The next calculation improves the self energy approximation by including all the ''ring'' diagrams

  20. Decompression-induced melting of ice IV and the liquid-liquid transition in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Osamu; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1998-03-01

    Although liquid water has been the focus of intensive research for over 100 years, a coherent physical picture that unifies all of the known anomalies of this liquid, is still lacking. Some of these anomalies occur in the supercooled region, and have been rationalized on the grounds of a possible retracing of the liquid-gas spinodal (metastability limit) line into the supercooled liquid region, or alternatively the presence of a line of first-order liquid-liquid phase transitions in this region which ends in a critical point,. But these ideas remain untested experimentally, in part because supercooled water can be probed only above the homogeneous nucleation temperature TH at which water spontaneously crystallizes. Here we report an experimental approach that is not restricted by the barrier imposed by TH, involving measurement of the decompression-induced melting curves of several high-pressure phases of ice in small emulsified droplets. We find that the melting curve for ice IV seems to undergo a discontinuity at precisely the location proposed for the line of liquid-liquid phase transitions. This is consistent with, but does not prove, the coexistence of two different phases of (supercooled) liquid water. From the experimental data we calculate a possible Gibbs potential surface and a corresponding equation of state for water, from the forms of which we estimate the coordinates of the liquid-liquid critical point to be at pressure Pc ~ 0.1GPa and temperature Tc ~ 220K.

  1. Observed microphysical changes in Arctic mixed-phase clouds when transitioning from sea ice to open ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Young

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In situ airborne observations of cloud microphysics, aerosol properties, and thermodynamic structure over the transition from sea ice to ocean are presented from the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling And Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA campaign. A case study from 23 March 2013 provides a unique view of the cloud microphysical changes over this transition under cold-air outbreak conditions. Cloud base lifted and cloud depth increased over the transition from sea ice to ocean. Mean droplet number concentrations, Ndrop, also increased from 110 ± 36 cm−3 over the sea ice to 145 ± 54 cm−3 over the marginal ice zone (MIZ. Downstream over the ocean, Ndrop decreased to 63 ± 30 cm−3. This reduction was attributed to enhanced collision-coalescence of droplets within the deep ocean cloud layer. The liquid water content increased almost four fold over the transition and this, in conjunction with the deeper cloud layer, allowed rimed snowflakes to develop and precipitate out of cloud base downstream over the ocean. The ice properties of the cloud remained approximately constant over the transition. Observed ice crystal number concentrations averaged approximately 0.5–1.5 L−1, suggesting only primary ice nucleation was active; however, there was evidence of crystal fragmentation at cloud base over the ocean. Little variation in aerosol particle number concentrations was observed between the different surface conditions; however, some variability with altitude was observed, with notably greater concentrations measured at higher altitudes ( >  800 m over the sea ice. Near-surface boundary layer temperatures increased by 13 °C from sea ice to ocean, with corresponding increases in surface heat fluxes and turbulent kinetic energy. These significant thermodynamic changes were concluded to be the primary driver of the microphysical evolution of the cloud. This study represents the first investigation, using in situ

  2. Dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics associated with the glass transition of amorphous trehalose-water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lindong; Elliott, Gloria D

    2014-06-21

    The glass transition temperature Tg of biopreservative formulations is important for predicting the long-term storage of biological specimens. As a complementary tool to thermal analysis techniques, which are the mainstay for determining Tg, molecular dynamics simulations have been successfully applied to predict the Tg of several protectants and their mixtures with water. These molecular analyses, however, rarely focused on the glass transition behavior of aqueous trehalose solutions, a subject that has attracted wide scientific attention via experimental approaches. Important behavior, such as hydrogen-bonding dynamics and self-aggregation has yet to be explored in detail, particularly below, or in the vicinity of, Tg. Using molecular dynamics simulations of several dynamic and thermodynamic properties, this study reproduced the supplemented phase diagram of trehalose-water mixtures (i.e., Tg as a function of the solution composition) based on experimental data. The structure and dynamics of the hydrogen-bonding network in the trehalose-water systems were also analyzed. The hydrogen-bonding lifetime was determined to be an order of magnitude higher in the glassy state than in the liquid state, while the constitution of the hydrogen-bonding network exhibited no noticeable change through the glass transition. It was also found that trehalose molecules preferred to form small, scattered clusters above Tg, but self-aggregation was substantially increased below Tg. The average cluster size in the glassy state was observed to be dependent on the trehalose concentration. Our findings provided insights into the glass transition characteristics of aqueous trehalose solutions as they relate to biopreservation.

  3. Self-bonding in an amorphous polymer below the glass transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiko, Yuri M.; Bach, Anders; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    was found to develop with (th)1/2 at Th = Tg-bulk - 33 °C (where Tg-bulk is the glass-transition temperature of the bulk sample), and log G was found to develop with 1/Th at Tg-bulk - 43 °C Th Tg-bulk - 23 °C. The smallest measured value of G = 1.4 J/m2 was at least one order of magnitude larger than...

  4. Effect of aging time on a glass transition of amorphous polymers at heating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadač, J.; Říha, Pavel; Slobodian, P.; Saha, P.; Kubát, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 108, special issue 1 (2014), s. 59-65 ISSN 0009-2770 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0104; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : physical aging * glass transition * PMMA * relaxation function Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.272, year: 2014 http://www.chemicke-listy.cz/docs/full/2014_s1_s59-s65.pdf

  5. High-throughput exploration of thermoelectric and mechanical properties of amorphous NbO{sub 2} with transition metal additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Music, Denis, E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Geyer, Richard W.; Hans, Marcus [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-28

    To increase the thermoelectric efficiency and reduce the thermal fatigue upon cyclic heat loading, alloying of amorphous NbO{sub 2} with all 3d and 5d transition metals has systematically been investigated using density functional theory. It was found that Ta fulfills the key design criteria, namely, enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient and positive Cauchy pressure (ductility gauge). These quantum mechanical predictions were validated by assessing the thermoelectric and elastic properties on combinatorial thin films, which is a high-throughput approach. The maximum power factor is 2813 μW m{sup −1} K{sup −2} for the Ta/Nb ratio of 0.25, which is a hundredfold increment compared to pure NbO{sub 2} and exceeds many oxide thermoelectrics. Based on the elasticity measurements, the consistency between theory and experiment for the Cauchy pressure was attained within 2%. On the basis of the electronic structure analysis, these configurations can be perceived as metallic, which is consistent with low electrical resistivity and ductile behavior. Furthermore, a pronounced quantum confinement effect occurs, which is identified as the physical origin for the Seebeck coefficient enhancement.

  6. High-throughput exploration of thermoelectric and mechanical properties of amorphous NbO_2 with transition metal additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Geyer, Richard W.; Hans, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    To increase the thermoelectric efficiency and reduce the thermal fatigue upon cyclic heat loading, alloying of amorphous NbO_2 with all 3d and 5d transition metals has systematically been investigated using density functional theory. It was found that Ta fulfills the key design criteria, namely, enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient and positive Cauchy pressure (ductility gauge). These quantum mechanical predictions were validated by assessing the thermoelectric and elastic properties on combinatorial thin films, which is a high-throughput approach. The maximum power factor is 2813 μW m"−"1 K"−"2 for the Ta/Nb ratio of 0.25, which is a hundredfold increment compared to pure NbO_2 and exceeds many oxide thermoelectrics. Based on the elasticity measurements, the consistency between theory and experiment for the Cauchy pressure was attained within 2%. On the basis of the electronic structure analysis, these configurations can be perceived as metallic, which is consistent with low electrical resistivity and ductile behavior. Furthermore, a pronounced quantum confinement effect occurs, which is identified as the physical origin for the Seebeck coefficient enhancement.

  7. Frequency-dependent complex modulus at the glass transition in Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 bulk amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.L.; Li, Y.; Feng, Y.P.; Carter, W.C.

    2003-01-01

    We report frequency-dependent measurements of the dynamic elastic modulus of a Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 bulk amorphous phase near its glass transition temperature. The storage and loss moduli exhibit a structural relaxation similar to those observed by other characterization techniques. Parameters obtained by fitting to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation and the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts model exhibit similar behaviors to those other methods

  8. Sudden disintegration of ice in the glacial-proglacial transition zone of the largest glacier in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Avian, Michael; Hirschmann, Simon; Lieb, Gerhard Karl; Seier, Gernot; Sulzer, Wolfgang; Wakonigg, Herwig

    2017-04-01

    Rapid deglaciation does not only reveal a landscape which is prone to rapid geomorphic changes and sediment reworking but also the glacier ice itself might be in a state of disintegration by ice melting, pressure relief, crevasse formation, ice collapse or changes in the glacier's hydrology. In this study we considered the sudden disintegration of glacier ice in the glacial-proglacial transition zone of Pasterze Glacier. Pasterze Glacier is a typical alpine valley glacier and covers currently some 16.5 km2 making it to the largest glacier in Austria. This glacier is an important site for alpine mass tourism in Austria related to a public high alpine road and a cable car which enable access to the glacier rather easily also for unexperienced mountaineers. Spatial focus in our research is given on two particular study areas where several ice-mass movement events occurred during the 2015- and 2016-melting seasons. The first study area is a crevasse field at the lower third of the glacier tongue. This lateral crevasse field has been substantially modified during the last two melting seasons particularly because of thermo-erosional effects of a glacial stream which changed at this site from subglacial (until 2015) to glacier-lateral revealing a several tens of meters high unstable ice cliff prone to ice falls of different magnitudes. The second study area is located at the proglacial area. At Pasterze Glacier the proglacial area is widely influenced by dead-ice bodies of various dimensions making this area prone to slow to sudden geomorphic changes caused by ice mass changes. A particular ice-mass movement event took place on 20.09.2016. Within less than one hour the surface of the proglacial area changed substantially by tilting, lateral shifting, and subsidence of the ground accompanied by complete ice disintegration of once-debris covered ice. To understand acting processes at both areas of interest and to quantify mass changes we used field observations, terrain

  9. Effects of dopants on the amorphous-to-fcc transition in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privitera, S. [R and D Department, Micro, Power, Analog (MPA) Group, STMicroelectronics, MP8, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: stefania.privitera@st.com; Rimini, E. [Istituto di Microelettronica e Microsistemi (IMM), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); Bongiorno, C. [Istituto di Microelettronica e Microsistemi (IMM), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); Pirovano, A. [FTM, Advanced R and D, NVMTD, STMicroelectronics, Via Olivetti 2, 20041, Agrate Brianza (Italy); Bez, R. [FTM, Advanced R and D, NVMTD, STMicroelectronics, Via Olivetti 2, 20041, Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    The amorphous-to-crystal transition has been studied through in situ resistance measurements in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films doped by ion implantation with nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine at different concentrations. Enhancement of the thermal stability has been observed in O and N amorphous doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}. Larger effects have been found in the case of nitrogen doping. On the contrary, doping with Fluorine produced a decrease in the crystallization temperature. The electrical properties have been related to the structural phase change through in situ transmission electron microscopy analysis. The comparison between undoped and doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} shows that the introduction of oxygen or nitrogen modifies in a different way the kinetics of the amorphous-to-fcc transition and gives new insight on the effects of doping with light elements in GeSbTe alloys.

  10. Nature of phase transitions in crystalline and amorphous GeTe-Sb2Te3 phase change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, B; Sen, S; Clark, S M

    2011-09-28

    The thermodynamic nature of phase stabilities and transformations are investigated in crystalline and amorphous Ge(1)Sb(2)Te(4) (GST124) phase change materials as a function of pressure and temperature using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell. The phase transformation sequences upon compression, for cubic and hexagonal GST124 phases are found to be: cubic → amorphous → orthorhombic → bcc and hexagonal → orthorhombic → bcc. The Clapeyron slopes for melting of the hexagonal and bcc phases are negative and positive, respectively, resulting in a pressure dependent minimum in the liquidus. When taken together, the phase equilibria relations are consistent with the presence of polyamorphism in this system with the as-deposited amorphous GST phase being the low entropy low-density amorphous phase and the laser melt-quenched and high-pressure amorphized GST being the high entropy high-density amorphous phase. The metastable phase boundary between these two polyamorphic phases is expected to have a negative Clapeyron slope. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  11. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D., E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, FS-PE group, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-01-14

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O{sub 2} atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO{sub 2} at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds.

  12. Effect of Si additions on thermal stability and the phase transition sequence of sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolvardi, H.; Baben, M. to; Nahif, F.; Music, D.; Schnabel, V.; Shaha, K. P.; Mráz, S.; Schneider, J. M.; Bednarcik, J.; Michalikova, J.

    2015-01-01

    Si-alloyed amorphous alumina coatings having a silicon concentration of 0 to 2.7 at. % were deposited by combinatorial reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of Al and Al-Si (90-10 at. %) split segments in Ar/O 2 atmosphere. The effect of Si alloying on thermal stability of the as-deposited amorphous alumina thin films and the phase formation sequence was evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability window of the amorphous phase containing 2.7 at. % of Si was increased by more than 100 °C compared to that of the unalloyed phase. A similar retarding effect of Si alloying was also observed for the α-Al 2 O 3 formation temperature, which increased by more than 120 °C. While for the latter retardation, the evidence for the presence of SiO 2 at the grain boundaries was presented previously, this obviously cannot explain the stability enhancement reported here for the amorphous phase. Based on density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments for amorphous Al 2 O 3 with and without Si incorporation, we suggest that the experimentally identified enhanced thermal stability of amorphous alumina with addition of Si is due to the formation of shorter and stronger Si–O bonds as compared to Al–O bonds

  13. Study of the pressure-time-temperature transformation of amorphous La6Ni5Al89 by the energy dispersive method for phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, B.; Rossi-Albertini, V.; Sikorski, M.

    2005-01-01

    An energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method to observe phase transitions is applied to follow the crystallization of an amorphous alloy (La6Ni5Al89) in isothermal conditions. In this way, the diffraction-based configurational entropy (DCE) of the system undergoing the phase transformations...... was measured and the curves describing the transitions, qualitatively equivalent to a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, could be drawn. Finally, the analysis of such curves allowed calculation of some points of the alloy pressure-time-temperature transformation (PTTT) diagram. More...... importantly, the present work shows that the DCE method can be successfully applied even when DSC can no longer be used. As a consequence, regions of the phase diagram that could not be reached up to now become accessible, opening the way to the study of transition phenomena under extreme conditions....

  14. Thermal expansion of amorphous Zr65Al7.5Cu17.5Ni10 in the vicinity of the glass transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, N.; Weiss, M.; Moske, M.; Samwer, K.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal expansion of non-crystalline Zr 65 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 has been studied in the range of the glass transition and in the undercooled liquid using a dilatometric device. The measuring technique used permits reliable experimental results up to 40 K above the glass transition temperature. The linear thermal expansion coefficient obtained is almost constant in the glassy state with a value of 8.0 x 10 -6 K -1 . It discontinuously increases at the glass transition temperature yielding a value of 20.0 x 10 -6 K -1 in the undercooled liquid. The results are compared with specific heat measurements of the amorphous material in this temperature range and are interpreted in the framework of a cluster model. (orig.)

  15. Formation of ice XII at low temperatures and high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, H.; Koza, M.; Toelle, A.; Fujara, F.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Solid water features a large variety of crystalline as well as two amorphous phases. The versatility of water's behavior has been reinforced recently by the identification of still another form of crystalline ice [1]. Ice XII was obtained by cooling liquid water to 260 K at a pressure of 5.5 kbar. Ice XII could be produced in a completely different region of water's phase diagram [2]. Using a. piston-cylinder apparatus ice XII was formed during the production of high-density amorphous ice (HDA) at 77 K as described previously [3]. The amount of crystalline ice XII contamination within the HDA sample varies in a so far unpredictable way with both extremes, i.e. pure HDA as well as pure ice XII. realized. Our results indicate that water's phase diagram needs modification in the region assigned to HDA. Ice XII is characterized as well as its transition towards cubic ice by elastic and inelastic neutron scattering. (author)

  16. Structural and electronic properties of binary amorphous aluminum alloys with transition metals and rare earth metals; Strukturelle und elektronische Eigenschaften binaerer amorpher Aluminiumlegierungen mit Uebergangsmetallen und Metallen der Seltenen Erden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiehler, Martin

    2012-02-03

    The influence of the d-states of the transition metals on the structure formation in amorphous alloys has so far only been inadequately understood. The present work aims to elaborate additional contributions to the understanding of binary amorphous aluminum alloys with transition metals. Special emphasis was placed on alloys with a subgroup of the transition metals, the rare earth metals. Within the scope of the present work, layers of Al-Ce in the region of 15at% Ce-80at% Ce were produced by sequential flash evaporation at 4.2K in the high vacuum, and characterized electronically by electrical resistance and Hall effect measurements as well as structurally by transmission electron diffraction. In addition, studies of plasma resonance were carried out by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy. In the range of 25at% Ce-60at% Ce, homogeneous amorphous samples were obtained. Especially the structural investigations were made difficult by oxidation of the material. The influence of the Ce-4f electrons manifests itself mainly in the low-temperature and magnetoresistance, both of which are dominated by the Kondo effect. The Hall effect in Al-Ce is dominated by anomalous components over the entire temperature range (2K-320K), which are attributed to skew-scattering effects, also due to Ce-4f electrons. Down to 2K there was no macroscopic magnetic order. In the region 2K-20K, the existence of clusters of ordered magnetic moments is concluded. For T> 20K, paramagnetic behavior occurs. With regard to the structural and electronic properties, a-Al-Ce can be classified as a group with a-Al- (Sc, Y, La). In the sense of plasma resonance, a-Al-Ce is excellently arranged in a system known from other Al transition metal alloys. Furthermore, by increasing the results of binary amorphous Al transition metal alloys from the literature, it has been found that the structure formation in these systems is closely linked to a known but still unexplained structure-forming effect that

  17. Application of a Salt Coformer in a Co-Amorphous Drug System Dramatically Enhances the Glass Transition Temperature: A Case Study of the Ternary System Carbamazepine, Citric Acid, and l-Arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Wu, Wenqi; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Müllertz, Anette; Rades, Thomas

    2018-04-13

    The use of co-amorphous systems containing a combination of low molecular weight drugs and excipients is a relatively new technology in the pharmaceutical field to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, some co-amorphous systems show a lower glass transition temperature ( T g ) than many of their polymeric solid dispersion counterparts. In this study, we aimed at designing a stable co-amorphous system with an elevated T g . Carbamazepine (CBM) and citric acid (CA) were employed as the model drug and the coformer, respectively. co-amorphous CBM-CA at a 1:1 molar ratio was formed by ball milling, but a transition from the glassy to the supercooled melt state was observed under ambient conditions, due to the relatively low T g of 38.8 °C of the co-amorphous system and moisture absorption. To improve the T g of the coformer, salt formation of a combination of l-arginine (ARG) with CA was studied. First, ball milling of CA-ARG at molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 forming co-amorphous systems was performed and led to a dramatic enhancement of the T g , depending on the CA-ARG ratio. Salt formation between CA and ARG was observed by infrared spectroscopy. Next, ball milling of CBM-CA-ARG at molar ratios of 1:1:1, 1:1:2, and 1:1:3 resulted in co-amorphous blends, which had a single T g at 77.8, 105.3, and 127.8 °C, respectively. These ternary co-amorphous samples remained in a solid amorphous form for 2 months at 40 °C. From these results, it can be concluded that blending of the salt coformer with a drug is a promising strategy to design stable co-amorphous formulations.

  18. Production of amorphous alloys by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, W.A.; Chadderton, L.T.; Johnson, E.

    1978-01-01

    Recent data are reported on the use of ion implantation to produce amorphous metallic alloys. In particular data on the dose dependence of the crystalline to amorphous transition induced by P + implantation of nickel is presented. (Auth.)

  19. New Insights into Lamellar Structure Development and SAXS/WAXD Sequence Appearance During Uniaxial Stretching of Amorphous Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Above Glass Transition Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami,D.; Burger, C.; Ran, S.; Avila-Orta, C.; Sics, I.; Chu, B.; Chiao, S.; Hsiao, B.; Kikutani, T.

    2008-01-01

    An in situ study of structure formation in amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) during uniaxial stretching at a temperature 30 C above glass transition temperature was carried out using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) techniques. Three major deformation-induced structure transitions were confirmed. (1) At small strains, the applied load increased initially but leveled off afterward. Sporadic isotropic crystallization without preferred orientation was observed by WAXD, where no hierarchical structure was seen by SAXS. (2) At intermediate strains, strain hardening took place. Although WAXD showed persistent progression of isotropic crystallization, SAXS indicated formation of a layered structure as well as a fibrillar domain in large scale. This behavior is not consistent with the mechanisms for shish-kebab or spinodal-assisted structure formation. Instead, it can be explained by flow-induced demixing of crystal and amorphous phases through layerlike flocking motion perpendicular to the stretching direction. (3) At high strains, the ratio between the applied load and strain was about constant. In this stage, crystal reorientation and lateral crystal growth took place. The corresponding structure changes could be categorized into three subregions. In the first region, the (010) crystalline plane began to orient. In the second region, the (100) crystalline plane began to orient. In the last region, the structure change became stable and the sample eventually broke apart.

  20. Boron-implantation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transition in nickel: An experimental assessment of the generalized Lindemann melting criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.C.; Okamoto, P.R.; Zaluzec, N.J.; Meshii, M.

    1999-01-01

    The generalized Lindemann melting hypothesis has recently been used to develop a unified thermodynamic criterion for melting applicable to both heat-induced melting and disorder-induced crystalline-to-amorphous (c-a) transformation. The hypothesis stipulates that the sum left-angle μ 2 right-angle Total of the static and dynamic root-mean-square (rms) atomic displacements is a constant fraction of the nearest-neighbor distance along the melting curve of a solid. To test this hypothesis, energy-filtered selected area electron-diffraction intensity measurements were used to determine the generalized Lindemann parameter δ=√ (left-angle μ 2 right-angle Total ) /d nn , in which d nn represents the nearest-neighbor distance, as a function of boron concentration during implantation of 50-keV ampersand hthinsp;B + into polycrystalline Ni at 77 K. The onset of amorphization was found to occur close to 10 at.ampersand hthinsp;% boron, which is in good agreement with the value predicted by T o curve calculated using the generalized Lindemann hypothesis. Moreover, the critical value of the generalized Lindemann parameter for amorphization, δ Critical =0.115±0.01, is within experimental error, identical to that for Ni just below its thermodynamic melting temperature of T=1728 ampersand hthinsp;K, hence providing a direct confirmation for the generalized Lindemann melting hypothesis. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  1. Near-Surface Profiles of Water Stable Isotope Components and Indicated Transitional History of Ice-Wedge Polygons Near Barrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahana, G.; Wilson, C.; Newman, B. D.; Heikoop, J. M.; Busey, R.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands associated with ice-wedge polygons are commonly distributed across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, a region underlain by continuous permafrost. Micro-topography of the ice-wedge polygons controls local hydrology, and the micro-topography could be altered due to factors such like surface vegetation, wetness, freeze-thaw cycles, and permafrost degradation/aggradation under climate change. Understanding status of the wetlands in the near future is important because it determines biogeochemical cycle, which drives release of greenhouse gases from the ground. However, transitional regime of the ice-wedge polygons under the changing climate is not fully understood. In this study, we analyzed geochemistry of water extracted from frozen soil cores sampled down to about 1m depth in 2014 March at NGEE-Arctic sites in the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The cores were sampled from troughs/rims/centers of five different low-centered or flat-centered polygons. The frozen cores are divided into 5-10cm cores for each location, thawed in sealed plastic bags, and then extracted water was stored in vials. Comparison between the profiles of geochemistry indicated connection of soil water in the active layer at different location in a polygon, while it revealed that distinctly different water has been stored in permafrost layer at troughs/rims/centers of some polygons. Profiles of volumetric water content (VWC) showed clear signals of freeze-up desiccation in the middle of saturated active layers as low VWC anomalies at most sampling points. Water in the active layer and near-surface permafrost was classified into four categories: ice wedge / fresh meteoric / transitional / highly fractionated water. The overall results suggested prolonged separation of water in the active layer at the center of low-centered polygons without lateral connection in water path in the past.

  2. Moessbauer study of the amorphous Pd70Fe10Si20 alloy upon transition to the crystalline state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Prejsa, M.; Cirak, J.; Hucl, M.; Lipka, J.

    1978-01-01

    Foils of the amorphous alloy Pd 70 Fe 10 Si 20 were investigated after isothermal heating at the temperature range 350-450 0 C with a heating period from 15 min to 4 h. At 350 0 C no changes were observed in the shape of the Moessbauer spectra. At 400 0 C and at 450 0 C up to 30 min only the parameters of Moessbauer spectra consisting of two quadrupole doublets corresponding to palladium and silicon vicinities of iron atoms were changed. After further heating at 450 0 C crystalline phases of Pd 3 Fe and Fe 3 Si appeared on the Moessbauer spectra. (Auth.)

  3. Structure of amorphous sulfur

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eichinger, BE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The lambda-transition of elemental sulfur occurring at about 159°C has long been associated with the conversion of cyclic S8 rings (c-S8) to amorphous polymer (a-S) via a ring opening polymerization. It is demonstrated, with the use of both density...

  4. Anelastic and viscoelastic behaviour of amorphous Zr65Cu17.5Ni10Al7.5 in the range of the glass transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulfert, W.; Kronmueller, H.

    1996-01-01

    Reversible (anelasticity) and the irreversible (viscosity) relaxations in the amorphous alloy Zr 65 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 Al 7.5 have been investigated by means of creep and mechanic after-effect measurements of the shear strain, which were performed in an inverted torsion pendulum. For the evaluation of the measurements a new relaxation model is proposed which takes into account that in the range of the glass-transition temperature T g the local atomic arrangement is steadely changing. By introducing a finite mean life time τ l of local structure units we are able to trace the origin of the anelasticity and the viscosity to the same atomic relaxation processes. The temperature dependence of the viscosity η measured between 560 K and 668 K shows a jump in the activation energy at T g = 606 K from 2.1 eV below T g to 5.6 eV above T g . (orig.)

  5. The effect of sputter-deposition conditions on the coercive force in amorphous rare-earth - transition-metal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, C.F.; Somekh, R.E.; Evetts, J.E.; Storey, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The origins of the coercive force in amorphous rare earth - transition metal films have been investigated, the results being discussed in terms of how the growth conditions of the sputter-deposited films determine the pinning features which cause the coercive force. The authors have studied the variation of coercive force with film thickness and developed a model which enables a local pinning force per unit area to be deduced. This suggests that it should be possible to increase the coercive force by breaking up the microstructure with a multi-layered structure. An increase in coercive force obtained by making such structures with tungsten is described. They also report on the reduction in coercive force obtained when the films are deposited in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field

  6. Calorimetric study of water's two glass transitions in the presence of LiCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Guadalupe N.; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Bove, Livia E.; Corti, Horacio R.

    2018-01-01

    A DSC study of dilute glassy LiCl aqueous solutions in the water-dominated regime provides direct evidence of a glass-to-liquid transition in expanded high density amorphous (eHDA)-type solutions. Similarly, low density amorphous ice (LDA) exhibits a glass transition prior to crystallization to ice Ic. Both glass transition temperatures are independent of the salt concentration, whereas the magnitude of the heat capacity increase differs. By contrast to pure water, the glass transition endpoint for LDA can be accessed in LiCl aqueous solutions above 0.01 mole fraction. Furthermore, we also reveal the endpoint for HDA's glass transition, solving the question on the width of both glass transitions. This suggests that both equilibrated HDL and LDL can be accessed in dilute LiCl solutions, supporting the liquid–liquid transition scenario to understand water's anomalies. PMID:29442107

  7. The effect of polymeric excipients on the physical properties and performance of amorphous dispersions: Part I, free volume and glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinjiang; Zhao, Junshu; Tao, Li; Wang, Jennifer; Waknis, Vrushali; Pan, Duohai; Hubert, Mario; Raghavan, Krishnaswamy; Patel, Jatin

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the structural effect of polymeric excipients on the behavior of free volume of drug-polymer dispersions in relation to glass transition. Two drugs (indomethacin and ketoconazole) were selected to prepare amorphous dispersions with PVP, PVPVA, HPC, and HPMCAS through spray drying. The physical attributes of the dispersions were characterized using SEM and PXRD. The free volume (hole-size) of the dispersions along with drugs and polymers was measured using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). Their glass transition temperatures (Tgs) were determined using DSC and DMA. FTIR spectra were recorded to identify hydrogen bonding in the dispersions. The chain structural difference-flexible (PVP and PVPVA) vs. inflexible (HPC and HPMCAS)-significantly impacts the free volume and Tgs of the dispersions as well as their deviation from ideality. Relative to Tg, free volume seems to be a better measure of hydrogen bonding interaction for the dispersions of PVP, HPC, and HPMCAS. The free volume of polymers and their dispersions in general appears to be related to their conformations in solution. Both the backbone chain rigidity of polymers as well as drug-polymer interaction can impact the free volume and glass transition behaviors of the dispersions.

  8. A ‘frozen volume’ transition model and working mechanism for the shape memory effect in amorphous polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haibao; Wang, Xiaodong; Yao, Yongtao; Qing Fu, Yong

    2018-06-01

    Phenomenological models based on frozen volume parameters could well predict shape recovery behavior of shape memory polymers (SMPs), but the physical meaning of using the frozen volume parameters to describe thermomechanical properties has not been well-established. In this study, the fundamental working mechanisms of the shape memory effect (SME) in amorphous SMPs, whose temperature-dependent viscoelastic behavior follows the Eyring equation, have been established with the considerations of both internal stress and its resulted frozen volume. The stress-strain constitutive relation was initially modeled to quantitatively describe effects of internal stresses at the macromolecular scale based on the transient network theory. A phenomenological ‘frozen volume’ model was then established to characterize the macromolecule structure and SME of amorphous SMPs based on a two-site stress-relaxation model. Effects of the internal stress, frozen volume and strain rate on shape memory behavior and thermomechanical properties of the SMP were investigated. Finally, the simulation results were compared with the experimental results reported in the literature, and good agreements between the theoretical and experimental results were achieved. The novelty and key differences of our newly proposed model with respect to the previous reports are (1). The ‘frozen volume’ in our study is caused by the internal stress and governed by the two-site model theory, thus has a good physical meaning. (2). The model can be applied to characterize and predict both the thermal and thermomechanical behaviors of SMPs based on the constitutive relationship with internal stress parameters. It is expected to provide a power tool to investigate the thermomechanical behavior of the SMPs, of which both the macromolecular structure characteristics and SME could be predicted using this ‘frozen volume’ model.

  9. Dynamics of sea-ice biogeochemistry in the coastal Antarctica during transition from summer to winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Shetye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonality of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2, air-sea CO2 fluxes and associated environmental parameters were investigated in the Antarctic coastal waters. The in-situ survey was carried out from the austral summer till the onset of winter (January 2012, February 2010 and March 2009 in the Enderby Basin. Rapid decrease in pCO2 was evident under the sea-ice cover in January, when both water column and sea-ice algal activity resulted in the removal of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and increase in pH. The major highlight of this study is the shift in the dominant biogeochemical factors from summer to early winter. Nutrient limitation (low Si/N, sea-ice cover, low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, deep mixed layer and high upwelling velocity contributed towards higher pCO2 during March (early winter. CO2 fluxes suggest that the Enderby Basin acts as a strong CO2 sink during January (−81 mmol m−2 d−1, however it acts as a weak sink of CO2 with −2.4 and −1.7 mmol m−2 d−1 during February and March, respectively. The present work, concludes that sea ice plays a dual role towards climate change, by decreasing sea surface pCO2 in summer and enhancing in early winter. Our observations emphasize the need to address seasonal sea-ice driven CO2 flux dynamics in assessing Antarctic contributions to the global oceanic CO2 budget.

  10. Bottom Fixed Platform Dynamics Models Assessing Surface Ice Interactions for Transitional Depth Structures in the Great Lakes: FAST8 – IceDyn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, Dale G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yu, Bingbin [Principle Power, Inc., Emeryville, CA (United States); Sirnivas, Senu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    To create long-term solutions for offshore wind turbines in a variety of environmental conditions, CAE tools are needed to model the design-driving loads that interact with an offshore wind turbine system during operation. This report describes our efforts in augmenting existing CAE tools used for offshore wind turbine analysis with a new module that can provide simulation capabilities for ice loading on the system. This augmentation was accomplished by creating an ice-loading module coupled to FAST8, the CAE tool maintained by the NREL for simulating land-based and offshore wind turbine dynamics. The new module includes both static and dynamic ice loading that can be applied during a dynamic simulation of the response of an offshore wind turbine. The ice forces can be prescribed, or influenced by the structure’s compliant response, or by the dynamics of both the structure and the ice floe. The new module covers ice failure modes of spalling, buckling, crushing, splitting, and bending. The supporting structure of wind turbines can be modeled as a vertical or sloping form at the waterline. The Inward Battered Guide Structure (IBGS) foundation designed by Keystone Engineering for the Great Lakes was used to study the ice models coupled to FAST8. The IBGS foundation ice loading simulations in FAST8 were compared to the baseline simulation case without ice loading. The ice conditions reflecting those from Lake Huron at Port Huron and Lake Michigan at North Manitou were studied under near rated wind speed of 12 m/s for the NREL 5-MW reference turbine. Simulations were performed on ice loading models 1 through 4 and ice model 6 with their respective sub-models. The purpose of ice model 5 is to investigate ice loading on sloping structures such as ice-cones on a monopile and is not suitable for multi-membered jacketed structures like the IBGS foundation. The key response parameters from the simulations, shear forces and moments from the tower base and IBGS foundation

  11. Water’s second glass transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Gainaru, Catalin; Handle, Philip H.; Seidl, Markus; Nelson, Helge; Böhmer, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The glassy states of water are of common interest as the majority of H2O in space is in the glassy state and especially because a proper description of this phenomenon is considered to be the key to our understanding why liquid water shows exceptional properties, different from all other liquids. The occurrence of water’s calorimetric glass transition of low-density amorphous ice at 136 K has been discussed controversially for many years because its calorimetric signature is very feeble. Here, we report that high-density amorphous ice at ambient pressure shows a distinct calorimetric glass transitions at 116 K and present evidence that this second glass transition involves liquid-like translational mobility of water molecules. This “double Tg scenario” is related to the coexistence of two liquid phases. The calorimetric signature of the second glass transition is much less feeble, with a heat capacity increase at Tg,2 about five times as large as at Tg,1. By using broadband-dielectric spectroscopy we resolve loss peaks yielding relaxation times near 100 s at 126 K for low-density amorphous ice and at 110 K for high-density amorphous ice as signatures of these two distinct glass transitions. Temperature-dependent dielectric data and heating-rate–dependent calorimetric data allow us to construct the relaxation map for the two distinct phases of water and to extract fragility indices m = 14 for the low-density and m = 20–25 for the high-density liquid. Thus, low-density liquid is classified as the strongest of all liquids known (“superstrong”), and also high-density liquid is classified as a strong liquid. PMID:24101518

  12. Semiconductor to metallic transition in bulk accumulated amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide dual gate thin-film transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyu Chun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of top gate voltage (VTG and temperature (in the range of 25 to 70 oC on dual-gate (DG back-channel-etched (BCE amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs characteristics. The increment of VTG from -20V to +20V, decreases the threshold voltage (VTH from 19.6V to 3.8V and increases the electron density to 8.8 x 1018cm−3. Temperature dependent field-effect mobility in saturation regime, extracted from bottom gate sweep, show a critical dependency on VTG. At VTG of 20V, the mobility decreases from 19.1 to 15.4 cm2/V ⋅ s with increasing temperature, showing a metallic conduction. On the other hand, at VTG of - 20V, the mobility increases from 6.4 to 7.5cm2/V ⋅ s with increasing temperature. Since the top gate bias controls the position of Fermi level, the temperature dependent mobility shows metallic conduction when the Fermi level is above the conduction band edge, by applying high positive bias to the top gate.

  13. Semiconductor to metallic transition in bulk accumulated amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide dual gate thin-film transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Minkyu; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr [Advanced Display Research Center and Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    We investigated the effects of top gate voltage (V{sub TG}) and temperature (in the range of 25 to 70 {sup o}C) on dual-gate (DG) back-channel-etched (BCE) amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) characteristics. The increment of V{sub TG} from -20V to +20V, decreases the threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) from 19.6V to 3.8V and increases the electron density to 8.8 x 10{sup 18}cm{sup −3}. Temperature dependent field-effect mobility in saturation regime, extracted from bottom gate sweep, show a critical dependency on V{sub TG}. At V{sub TG} of 20V, the mobility decreases from 19.1 to 15.4 cm{sup 2}/V ⋅ s with increasing temperature, showing a metallic conduction. On the other hand, at V{sub TG} of - 20V, the mobility increases from 6.4 to 7.5cm{sup 2}/V ⋅ s with increasing temperature. Since the top gate bias controls the position of Fermi level, the temperature dependent mobility shows metallic conduction when the Fermi level is above the conduction band edge, by applying high positive bias to the top gate.

  14. Amorphous nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Scharf, Toralf

    2013-01-01

    This book represents the first comprehensive overview over amorphous nano-optical and nano-photonic systems. Nanophotonics is a burgeoning branch of optics that enables many applications by steering the mould of light on length scales smaller than the wavelength with devoted nanostructures. Amorphous nanophotonics exploits self-organization mechanisms based on bottom-up approaches to fabricate nanooptical systems. The resulting structures presented in the book are characterized by a deterministic unit cell with tailored geometries; but their spatial arrangement is not controlled. Instead of periodic, the structures appear either amorphous or random. The aim of this book is to discuss all aspects related to observable effects in amorphous nanophotonic material and aspects related to their design, fabrication, characterization and integration into applications. The book has an interdisciplinary nature with contributions from scientists in physics, chemistry and materials sciences and sheds light on the topic fr...

  15. Long-Term Observations of Atmospheric CO2, O3 and BrO over the Transitioning Arctic Ocean Pack-ice: The O-Buoy Chemical Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrai, P.

    2016-02-01

    Autonomous, sea ice-tethered O-Buoys have been deployed (2009-2016) across the Arctic sea ice for long-term atmospheric measurements (http://www.o-buoy.org). O-Buoys (15) provide in-situ concentrations of three sentinel atmospheric chemicals, ozone, CO2 and BrO, as well as meteorological parameters and imagery, over the frozen ocean. O-Buoys were designed to transmit daily data over a period of 2 years while deployed in sea ice, as part of automated ice-drifting stations that include snow/ice measurement systems (e.g. Ice Mass Balance buoys) and oceanographic measurements (e.g. Ice Tethered Profilers). Seasonal changes in Arctic atmospheric chemistry are influenced by changes in the characteristics and presence of the sea ice vs. open water as well as air mass trajectories, especially during the winter-spring and summer-fall transitions when sea ice is melting and freezing, respectively. The O-Buoy Chemical Network provides the unique opportunity to observe these transition periods in real-time with high temporal resolution, and to compare them with those collected on land-based monitoring stations located. Due to the logistical challenges of measurements over the Arctic Ocean region, most long term, in-situ observations of atmospheric chemistry have been made at coastal or island sites around the periphery of the Arctic Ocean, leaving large spatial and temporal gaps that O-Buoys overcome. Advances in floatation, communications, power management, and sensor hardware have been made to overcome the challenges of diminished Arctic sea ice. O-Buoy data provide insights into enhanced seasonal, interannual and spatial variability in atmospheric composition, atmospheric boundary layer control on the amount of halogen activation, enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 signal over the more variable and porous pack ice, and to develop an integrated picture of the coupled ocean/ice/atmosphere system. As part of the Arctic Observing Network, we provide data to the community (www.aoncadis.org).

  16. Experimental study of the polyamorphism of water. II. The isobaric transitions between HDA and VHDA at intermediate and high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Loerting, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Since the first report of very-high density amorphous ice (VHDA) in 2001 [T. Loerting et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3, 5355-5357 (2001)], the status of VHDA as a distinct amorphous ice has been debated. We here study VHDA and its relation to expanded high density amorphous ice (eHDA) on the basis of isobaric heating experiments. VHDA was heated at 0.1 ≤ p ≤ 0.7 GPa, and eHDA was heated at 1.1 ≤ p ≤ 1.6 GPa to achieve interconversion. The behavior upon heating is monitored using in situ volumetry as well as ex situ X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. We do not observe a sharp transition for any of the isobaric experiments. Instead, a continuous expansion (VHDA) or densification (eHDA) marks the interconversion. This suggests that a continuum of states exists between VHDA and HDA, at least in the temperature range studied here. This further suggests that VHDA is the most relaxed amorphous ice at high pressures and eHDA is the most relaxed amorphous ice at intermediate pressures. It remains unclear whether or not HDA and VHDA experience a sharp transition upon isothermal compression/decompression at low temperature.

  17. Magneto-optical measurement of anisotropy energy constant(s) for amorphous rare earth, transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uber, R.E.; Mansuripur, M.

    1988-01-01

    Optical investigation of magneto-optical films is complementary to conventional torque and VSM magnetometry. In the authors' laboratory, they are now measuring anisotropy energy constants of RE-TM thin films at temperatures from ambient to 150 0 C. An in-plane magnetic field (up to 16.5 KOe) is applied to a saturated sample with perpendicular magnetization. The movement away from the perpendicular direction is monitored using the polar Kerr effect. At the HeNe wavelength, the Kerr effect is principally due to the top 500 angstroms of the transition metal subnetwork in the films

  18. PHOTOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF H{sub 2}O ICE CRYSTALLINITY ON TRANS-NEPTUNIAN OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terai, Tsuyoshi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A‘ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Itoh, Yoichi [Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Oasa, Yumiko [Faculty of Education, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Furusho, Reiko; Watanabe, Junichi, E-mail: tsuyoshi.terai@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-08-10

    We present a measurement of H{sub 2}O ice crystallinity on the surface of trans-neptunian objects with near-infrared narrow-band imaging. The newly developed photometric technique allows us to efficiently determine the strength of a 1.65 μ m absorption feature in crystalline H{sub 2}O ice. Our data for three large objects—Haumea, Quaoar, and Orcus—which are known to contain crystalline H{sub 2}O ice on the surfaces, show a reasonable result with high fractions of the crystalline phase. It can also be pointed out that if the grain size of H{sub 2}O ice is larger than ∼20 μ m, the crystallinities of these objects are obviously below 1.0, which suggests the presence of the amorphous phase. In particular, Orcus exhibits a high abundance of amorphous H{sub 2}O ice compared to Haumea and Quaoar, possibly indicating a correlation between the bulk density of the bodies and the degree of surface crystallization. We also found the presence of crystalline H{sub 2}O ice on Typhon and 2008 AP{sub 129}, both of which are smaller than the minimum size limit for inducing cryovolcanism as well as a transition from amorphous to crystalline phase through thermal evolution due to the decay of long-lived isotopes.

  19. Seasonally asymmetric transition of the Asian monsoon in response to ice age boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Hiroaki; Kuroki, Harumitsu; Kamae, Youichi [University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohba, Masamichi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Abiko (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Modulation of a monsoon under glacial forcing is examined using an atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model (AOGCM) following the specifications established by Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PMIP2) to understand the air-sea-land interaction under different climate forcing. Several sensitivity experiments are performed in response to individual changes in the continental ice sheet, orbital parameters, and sea surface temperature (SST) in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ka) to evaluate the driving mechanisms for the anomalous seasonal evolution of the monsoon. Comparison of the model results in the LGM with the pre-industrial (PI) simulation shows that the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal are characterized by enhancement of pre-monsoon convection despite a drop in the SST encompassing the globe, while the rainfall is considerably suppressed in the subsequent monsoon period. In the LGM winter relative to the PI, anomalies in the meridional temperature gradient (MTG) between the Asian continents minus the tropical oceans become positive and are consistent with the intensified pre-monsoon circulation. The enhanced MTG anomalies can be explained by a decrease in the condensation heating relevant to the suppressed tropical convection as well as positive insolation anomalies in the higher latitude, showing an opposing view to a warmer future climate. It is also evident that a latitudinal gradient in the SST across the equator plays an important role in the enhancement of pre-monsoon rainfall. As for the summer, the sensitivity experiments imply that two ice sheets over the northern hemisphere cools the air temperature over the Asian continent, which is consistent with the reduction of MTG involved in the attenuated monsoon. The surplus pre-monsoon convection causes a decrease in the SST through increased heat loss from the ocean surface; in other words, negative ocean feedback is also responsible for the subsequent weakening of summer

  20. Well-posedness of an extended model for water-ice phase transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Rocca, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2013), s. 439-460 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : phase transitions * nonlocal problems * uniqueness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=7900

  1. Structural changes in transition economies: breaking the news or breaking the ice?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Égert, B.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, R.; Kočenda, Evžen; Morales-Zumaquero, A.

    -, č. 16 (2006), s. 1-15 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : transition countries * structural break * volatility Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/41234/1/IPC-working-paper-016-Kocenda.pdf

  2. Contributions of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation, Large-Scale Circulation, and Shallow Cumulus Detrainment to Cloud Phase Transition in Mixed-Phase Clouds with NCAR CAM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, D.; Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Mixed-phase clouds consisting of both liquid and ice water occur frequently at high-latitudes and in mid-latitude storm track regions. This type of clouds has been shown to play a critical role in the surface energy balance, surface air temperature, and sea ice melting in the Arctic. Cloud phase partitioning between liquid and ice water determines the cloud optical depth of mixed-phase clouds because of distinct optical properties of liquid and ice hydrometeors. The representation and simulation of cloud phase partitioning in state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) are associated with large biases. In this study, the cloud phase partition in mixed-phase clouds simulated from the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) is evaluated against satellite observations. Observation-based supercooled liquid fraction (SLF) is calculated from CloudSat, MODIS and CPR radar detected liquid and ice water paths for clouds with cloud-top temperatures between -40 and 0°C. Sensitivity tests with CAM5 are conducted for different heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations with respect to aerosol influence (Wang et al., 2014), different phase transition temperatures for detrained cloud water from shallow convection (Kay et al., 2016), and different CAM5 model configurations (free-run versus nudged winds and temperature, Zhang et al., 2015). A classical nucleation theory-based ice nucleation parameterization in mixed-phase clouds increases the SLF especially at temperatures colder than -20°C, and significantly improves the model agreement with observations in the Arctic. The change of transition temperature for detrained cloud water increases the SLF at higher temperatures and improves the SLF mostly over the Southern Ocean. Even with the improved SLF from the ice nucleation and shallow cumulus detrainment, the low SLF biases in some regions can only be improved through the improved circulation with the nudging technique. Our study highlights the challenges of

  3. Influence of isotopic disorder on solid state amorphization and polyamorphism in solid H2O -D2O solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromnitskaya, E. L.; Danilov, I. V.; Lyapin, A. G.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a low-temperature and high-pressure ultrasonic study of elastic properties of isotopic H2O-D2O solid solutions, comparing their properties with those of the isotopically pure H2O and D2O ices. Measurements were carried out for solid state amorphization (SSA) from 1h to high-density amorphous (HDA) ice upon compression up to 1.8 GPa at 77 K and for the temperature-induced (77 -190 K ) u-HDA (unrelaxed HDA) → e-HDA (expanded HDA) → low-density amorphous (LDA )→1 c cascade of ice transformations near room pressure. There are many similarities in the elasticity behaviour of H2O ,D2O , and H2O-D2O solid solutions, including the softening of the shear elastic modulus as a precursor of SSA and the HDA →LDA transition. We have found significant isotopic effects during H/D substitution, including elastic softening of H2O -D2O solid solutions with respect to the isotopically pure ices in the case of the bulk moduli of ices 1c and 1h and for both bulk and shear elastic moduli of HDA ice at high pressures (>1 GPa ) . This softening is related to the configurational isotopic disorder in the solid solutions. At low pressures, the isotope concentration dependence of the elastic moduli of u-HDA ice changes remarkably and becomes monotonic with pronounced change of the bulk modulus (≈20 %) .

  4. Amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Ge8Sb(2-x)BixTe11 phase-change materials for data recording

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, R.; Karabyn, V.; Málek, J.; Frumar, M.; Beneš, L.; Vlček, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 674, July (2016), s. 63-72 ISSN 0925-8388 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : amorphous materials * calorimetry * data strorage materials Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.133, year: 2016

  5. Analytical theory of noncollinear amorphous metallic magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehashi, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical theory of noncollinear magnetism in amorphous metals is proposed on the basis of the Gaussian model for the distribution of the interatomic distance and the saddle-point approximation. The theory removes the numerical difficulty in the previous theory based on the Monte-Carlo sampling method, and reasonably describes the magnetic properties of amorphous transition metals

  6. A liquid-liquid transition in supercooled aqueous solution related to the HDA-LDA transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Sander; Ensing, Bernd; Hilbers, Michiel; Zhao, Zuofeng; Angell, C. Austen

    2018-03-01

    Simulations and theory suggest that the thermodynamic anomalies of water may be related to a phase transition between two supercooled liquid states, but so far this phase transition has not been observed experimentally because of preemptive ice crystallization. We used calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate a water-rich hydrazinium trifluoroacetate solution in which the local hydrogen bond structure surrounding a water molecule resembles that in neat water at elevated pressure, but which does not crystallize upon cooling. Instead, this solution underwent a sharp, reversible phase transition between two homogeneous liquid states. The hydrogen-bond structures of these two states are similar to those established for high- and low-density amorphous (HDA and LDA) water. Such structural similarity supports theories that predict a similar sharp transition in pure water under pressure if ice crystallization could be suppressed.

  7. Measuring stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in ice by means of laser spectrometry : The Bolling transition in the Dye-3 (south Greenland) ice core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trigt, R. van; Meijer, H.A.J.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A.E.; Johnsen, S.J.; Kerstel, E.R.Th.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the first application of a new technique in ice-core research, based on direct absorption infrared laser spectrometry (LS), for measuring H-2 O-17 and O-18 isotope ratios. The data are used to calculate the deuterium excess d (defined as delta(2)H - 8delta(18)O) for a section of the

  8. Fracture Phenomena in Amorphous Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard-Andersen, Asger; Dahle, Birgit

    1966-01-01

    Fracture surfaces of amorphous selenium broken in flexure at room temperature have been studied. The fracture velocity was found to vary in different regions of the fracture surface. Peculiar features were observed in a transition zone between fast and slower fracture. In this zone cleavage steps...

  9. Melting and Pressure-Induced Amorphization of Quartz

    OpenAIRE

    Badro, James; Gillet, Philippe; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    1997-01-01

    It has recently been shown that amorphization and melting of ice were intimately linked. In this letter, we infer from molecular dynamics simulations on the SiO2 system that the extension of the quartz melting line in the metastable pressure-temperature domain is the pressure-induced amorphization line. It seems therefore likely that melting is the physical phenomenon responsible for pressure induced amorphization. Moreover, we show that the structure of a "pressure glass" is similar to that ...

  10. Observing the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} non-volatile memory materials from ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.H.; Elliott, S.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, CB2 1EW Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Phase-change memory is a promising candidate for the next generation of non-volatile memory devices. This technology utilizes reversible phase transitions between amorphous and crystalline phases of a recording material, and has been successfully used in rewritable optical data storage, revealing its feasibility. In spite of the importance of understanding the nucleation and growth processes that play a critical role in the phase transition, this understanding is still incomplete. Here, we present observations of the early stages of crystallization in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} materials through ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. Planar structures, including fourfold rings and planes, play an important role in the formation and growth of crystalline clusters in the amorphous matrix. At the same time, vacancies facilitate crystallization by providing space at the glass-crystalline interface for atomic diffusion, which results in fast crystal growth, as observed in simulations and experiments. The microscopic mechanism of crystallization presented here may deepen our understanding of the phase transition occurring in real devices, providing an opportunity to optimize the memory performance of phase-change materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Amorphous metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, M.A.; Lupinski, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    This patent discloses an improved amorphous metal composite and process of making the composite. The amorphous metal composite comprises amorphous metal (e.g. iron) and a low molecular weight thermosetting polymer binder. The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite

  12. Glass-to-cryogenic-liquid transitions in aqueous solutions suggested by crack healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un; Tate, Mark W; Gruner, Sol M

    2015-09-22

    Observation of theorized glass-to-liquid transitions between low-density amorphous (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) water states had been stymied by rapid crystallization below the homogeneous water nucleation temperature (∼235 K at 0.1 MPa). We report optical and X-ray observations suggestive of glass-to-liquid transitions in these states. Crack healing, indicative of liquid, occurs when LDA ice transforms to cubic ice at 160 K, and when HDA ice transforms to the LDA state at temperatures as low as 120 K. X-ray diffraction study of the HDA to LDA transition clearly shows the characteristics of a first-order transition. Study of the glass-to-liquid transitions in nanoconfined aqueous solutions shows them to be independent of the solute concentrations, suggesting that they represent an intrinsic property of water. These findings support theories that LDA and HDA ice are thermodynamically distinct and that they are continuously connected to two different liquid states of water.

  13. Glass-to-cryogenic-liquid transitions in aqueous solutions suggested by crack healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2015-01-01

    Observation of theorized glass-to-liquid transitions between low-density amorphous (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) water states had been stymied by rapid crystallization below the homogeneous water nucleation temperature (∼235 K at 0.1 MPa). We report optical and X-ray observations suggestive of glass-to-liquid transitions in these states. Crack healing, indicative of liquid, occurs when LDA ice transforms to cubic ice at 160 K, and when HDA ice transforms to the LDA state at temperatures as low as 120 K. X-ray diffraction study of the HDA to LDA transition clearly shows the characteristics of a first-order transition. Study of the glass-to-liquid transitions in nanoconfined aqueous solutions shows them to be independent of the solute concentrations, suggesting that they represent an intrinsic property of water. These findings support theories that LDA and HDA ice are thermodynamically distinct and that they are continuously connected to two different liquid states of water. PMID:26351671

  14. Structure, thermodynamics, and crystallization of amorphous hafnia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xuhui; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically amorphous hafnia using the first principles melt and quench method. We identify two types of amorphous structures of hafnia. Type I and type II are related to tetragonal and monoclinic hafnia, respectively. We find type II structure to show stronger disorder than type I. Using the phonon density of states, we calculate the specific heat capacity for type II amorphous hafnia. Using the nudged elastic band method, we show that the averaged transition barrier between the type II amorphous hafnia and monoclinic phase is approximately 0.09 eV/HfO 2 . The crystallization temperature is estimated to be 421 K. The calculations suggest an explanation for the low thermal stability of amorphous hafnia

  15. Younger-Dryas cooling and sea-ice feedbacks were prominent features of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Wooller, Matthew J.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Wiles, Gregory C.; Groves, Pamela; Kunz, Michael L.; Baughman, Carson A.; Reanier, Richard E.

    2017-08-01

    Declining sea-ice extent is currently amplifying climate warming in the Arctic. Instrumental records at high latitudes are too short-term to provide sufficient historical context for these trends, so paleoclimate archives are needed to better understand the functioning of the sea ice-albedo feedback. Here we use the oxygen isotope values of wood cellulose in living and sub-fossil willow shrubs (δ18Owc) (Salix spp.) that have been radiocarbon-dated (14C) to produce a multi-millennial record of climatic change on Alaska's North Slope during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (13,500-7500 calibrated 14C years before present; 13.5-7.5 ka). We first analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of δ18Owc in living willows growing at upland sites and found that over the last 30 years δ18Owc values in individual growth rings correlate with local summer temperature and inter-annual variations in summer sea-ice extent. Deglacial δ18Owc values from 145 samples of subfossil willows clearly record the Allerød warm period (∼13.2 ka), the Younger Dryas cold period (12.9-11.7 ka), and the Holocene Thermal Maximum (11.7-9.0 ka). The magnitudes of isotopic changes over these rapid climate oscillations were ∼4.5‰, which is about 60% of the differences in δ18Owc between those willows growing during the last glacial period and today. Modeling of isotope-precipitation relationships based on Rayleigh distillation processes suggests that during the Younger Dryas these large shifts in δ18Owc values were caused by interactions between local temperature and changes in evaporative moisture sources, the latter controlled by sea ice extent in the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. Based on these results and on the effects that sea-ice have on climate today, we infer that ocean-derived feedbacks amplified temperature changes and enhanced precipitation in coastal regions of Arctic Alaska during warm times in the past. Today, isotope values in willows on the North Slope of Alaska are similar

  16. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.

    2014-06-01

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  17. The length and time scales of water's glass transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T

    2014-06-07

    Using a general model for the equilibrium dynamics of supercooled liquids, I compute from molecular properties the emergent length and time scales that govern the nonequilibrium relaxation behavior of amorphous ice prepared by rapid cooling. Upon cooling, the liquid water falls out of equilibrium whereby the temperature dependence of its relaxation time is predicted to change from super-Arrhenius to Arrhenius. A consequence of this crossover is that the location of the apparent glass transition temperature depends logarithmically on cooling rate. Accompanying vitrification is the emergence of a dynamical length-scale, the size of which depends on the cooling rate and varies between angstroms and tens of nanometers. While this protocol dependence clarifies a number of previous experimental observations for amorphous ice, the arguments are general and can be extended to other glass forming liquids.

  18. Cell viability, pigments and photosynthetic performance of Arctic phytoplankton in contrasting ice-covered and open-water conditions during the spring-summer transition

    KAUST Repository

    Alou-Font, E

    2015-12-02

    © Inter-Research 2016. We examined phytoplankton biomass and community composition (mostly based on pigments) as well as cell viability with the cell digestion assay in surface waters of the Canadian Beaufort Sea during the spring-summer transition. Our aim was to understand phytoplankton responses to the large environmental changes (irradiance, temperature and nutrients) occurring during this period. Two categories of stations were visited in May and June 2008: ice-covered (IC), exposed to low irradiances, and open-water (OW), exposed to higher irradiances. We observed a large variation in the percentage of living cells (%LC) relative to the total community. No relationship was found between %LC and nitrate concentration (the nutrient potentially limiting in this environment). The in situ irradiance influenced the status of the cells at OW stations. Mean surface mixed layer irradiances >600 μmol photons m-2 s-1 were associated with low cell viability and a decline in photosynthetic performance (Fv/Fm). For IC stations, %LC declined at temperatures above 0°C, whereas for OW stations, it increased, suggesting that ice melting resulted in the release into surface waters of unhealthy cells from the bottom ice in one case, and that seasonal warming favored the communities present in open waters. A chlorophyll degradation pigment tentatively identified as pyropheophorbide a-\\'like\\' showed a significant negative relationship between its concentration (relative to chlorophyll a) and the %LC and Fv/Fm. Our results suggest that the melting conditions influence the distribution of this pigment and that it may be useful as a marker for low cell viability of ice algae being released into surface waters.

  19. Cell viability, pigments and photosynthetic performance of Arctic phytoplankton in contrasting ice-covered and open-water conditions during the spring-summer transition

    KAUST Repository

    Alou-Font, E; Roy, S; Agusti, Susana; Gosselin, M

    2015-01-01

    © Inter-Research 2016. We examined phytoplankton biomass and community composition (mostly based on pigments) as well as cell viability with the cell digestion assay in surface waters of the Canadian Beaufort Sea during the spring-summer transition. Our aim was to understand phytoplankton responses to the large environmental changes (irradiance, temperature and nutrients) occurring during this period. Two categories of stations were visited in May and June 2008: ice-covered (IC), exposed to low irradiances, and open-water (OW), exposed to higher irradiances. We observed a large variation in the percentage of living cells (%LC) relative to the total community. No relationship was found between %LC and nitrate concentration (the nutrient potentially limiting in this environment). The in situ irradiance influenced the status of the cells at OW stations. Mean surface mixed layer irradiances >600 μmol photons m-2 s-1 were associated with low cell viability and a decline in photosynthetic performance (Fv/Fm). For IC stations, %LC declined at temperatures above 0°C, whereas for OW stations, it increased, suggesting that ice melting resulted in the release into surface waters of unhealthy cells from the bottom ice in one case, and that seasonal warming favored the communities present in open waters. A chlorophyll degradation pigment tentatively identified as pyropheophorbide a-'like' showed a significant negative relationship between its concentration (relative to chlorophyll a) and the %LC and Fv/Fm. Our results suggest that the melting conditions influence the distribution of this pigment and that it may be useful as a marker for low cell viability of ice algae being released into surface waters.

  20. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  1. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E.; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10 -4 Pa to 10 2 Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  2. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.escribano.salazar@gmail.co [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2010-04-02

    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  3. Younger-Dryas cooling and sea-ice feedbacks were prominent features of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Wooller, Matthew J.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Wiles, Gregory C.; Groves, Pamela; Kunz, Michael L.; Baughman, Carson; Reanier, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Declining sea-ice extent is currently amplifying climate warming in the Arctic. Instrumental records at high latitudes are too short-term to provide sufficient historical context for these trends, so paleoclimate archives are needed to better understand the functioning of the sea ice-albedo feedback. Here we use the oxygen isotope values of wood cellulose in living and sub-fossil willow shrubs (δ18Owc) (Salix spp.) that have been radiocarbon-dated (14C) to produce a multi-millennial record of climatic change on Alaska's North Slope during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (13,500–7500 calibrated 14C years before present; 13.5–7.5 ka). We first analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of δ18Owc in living willows growing at upland sites and found that over the last 30 years δ18Owc values in individual growth rings correlate with local summer temperature and inter-annual variations in summer sea-ice extent. Deglacial δ18Owcvalues from 145 samples of subfossil willows clearly record the Allerød warm period (∼13.2 ka), the Younger Dryas cold period (12.9–11.7 ka), and the Holocene Thermal Maximum (11.7–9.0 ka). The magnitudes of isotopic changes over these rapid climate oscillations were ∼4.5‰, which is about 60% of the differences in δ18Owc between those willows growing during the last glacial period and today. Modeling of isotope-precipitation relationships based on Rayleigh distillation processes suggests that during the Younger Dryas these large shifts in δ18Owc values were caused by interactions between local temperature and changes in evaporative moisture sources, the latter controlled by seaice extent in the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. Based on these results and on the effects that sea-ice have on climate today, we infer that ocean-derived feedbacks amplified temperature changes and enhanced precipitation in coastal regions of Arctic Alaska during warm times in the past. Today, isotope values in willows on the North Slope of Alaska are

  4. Quaternary redox transitions in deep crystalline rock fractures at the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, Henrik; Suksi, Juhani; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Lahaye, Yann

    2017-01-01

    When planning for long term deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel knowledge of processes that will influence and change the sub-surface environment is crucial. For repositories in northern Europe and similar areas, influence from advancing and retreating continental ice sheets must be planned for. Rapid transport of meltwater into the bedrock may introduce oxic conditions at great depth, which may affect the copper canisters planned to encapsulate the spent fuel. The lack of direct observations has led to simplified modelling assumptions not reflecting the complexity of natural systems. As part of a unique field and modelling study, The Greenland Analogue Project, of a continental ice sheet and related sub-surface conditions, we here present mineralogical and U-series data unravelling the Quaternary redox history in the deep bedrock fracture system close to the margin of the Greenland ice sheet. The aim was to increase the understanding of circulation of potentially oxygenated glacial meltwater from the surface down to 650 m depth. Secondary mineral coatings were sampled from open fractures in cored boreholes down to 650 m, within and below the current permafrost. Despite continental ice sheet coverage and/or prevailing permafrost during large parts of the last 1 Ma, measured disequilibrium in the 238 U- 234 U- 230 Th system shows that water has circulated in the bedrock fracture system at various occasions during this time span. In fractures of the upper 60 m, infiltration of oxygenated surface water has resulted in a prominent near-surface ”oxidised zone” with abundant FeOOH precipitation. However, this zone must be relict because it is currently within permafrost and the U-series disequilibrium signatures of most fracture coatings show evidence of deposition of U prior to the Holocene and even prior to the last glaciation maximum which occurred less than 100 ka ago. This U deposition is found both within and below the near surface

  5. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  6. Synchronous γ (Co60) photons and thermal processing induced insulator metal transition in amorphous chalcogenide As4Se3Te3 composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, S. A.; Morsy, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Amorphous chalcogenide composition AS4Se3Te3 is prepared by conventional quenching technique. The separate annealing or γ quanta irradiation not effect on the dc conductivity properties of the prepared composition. When the prepared samples are subjected to simultaneous annealing at temperature 413 K and γ quanta irradiation the dc conductivity increases. The dark dc conductivity increases by increasing the time of exposure to γ irradiation. At irradiation dose 1.47 × 104 Gy the dc conductivity starts to have metallic like conductivity character. These samples could be used as high temperature γ quanta dosimeter. By applying scaling theory on the samples irradiated with different dose of γ irradiation the critical exponents are determined and found to be temperature tends to zero. The steric value is low in the insulator side of conductivity, but high and almost saturated in the metallic side of conductivity.

  7. Ice, Ice, Baby!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  8. Transient photoconductivity in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mpawenayo, P.

    1997-07-01

    Localized states in amorphous semiconductors are divided in disorder induced shallow trap levels and dangling bonds deep states. Dangling bonds are assumed here to be either neutral or charged and their energy distribution is a single gaussian. Here, it is shown analytically that transient photocurrent in amorphous semiconductors is fully controlled by charge carriers transitions between localized states for one part and tunneling hopping carriers on the other. Localized dangling bonds deep states act as non radiative recombination centres, while hopping tunnelling is assisted by the Coulomb interaction between defects sites. The half-width of defects distribution is the disorder parameter that determines the carrier hopping time between defects sites. The macroscopic time that explains the long decay response times observed will all types of amorphous semiconductors is duly thought to be temperature dependent. Basic equations developed by Longeaud and Kleider are solved for the general case of a semiconductor after photo-generation. It turns out that the transient photoconductivity decay has two components; one with short response times from carriers trap-release transitions between shallow levels and extended states and a hopping component made of inter-dependent exponentials whose time constants span in larger ranges depending on disorder. The photoconductivity hopping component appears as an additional term to be added to photocurrents derived from existing models. The results of the present study explain and complete the power law decay derived in the multiple trapping models developed 20 years ago only in the approximation of the short response time regime. The long response time regime is described by the hopping macroscopic time. The present model is verified for all samples of amorphous semiconductors known so far. Finally, it is proposed to improved the modulated photoconductivity calculation techniques by including the long-lasting hopping dark documents

  9. Glass transition and the rigid amorphous phase in semicrystalline blends of bacterial polyhydroxybutyrate PHB with low molecular mass atactic R,S-PHB-diol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoehne, G.W.H.

    2004-01-01

    The glass transition and the crystallinity of blends of isotactic bacterial PHB and low molecular mass atactic R, S-PHB-diols was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature-modulated DSC and dielectric spectroscopy. It was found that (i) Tg of crystallized blends

  10. Interplay of the Glass Transition and the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovambattista, Nicolas; Loerting, Thomas; Lukanov, Boris R.; Starr, Francis W.

    2012-01-01

    Water has multiple glassy states, often called amorphous ices. Low-density (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous ice are separated by a dramatic, first-order like phase transition. It has been argued that the LDA-HDA transformation connects to a first-order liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) above the glass transition temperature Tg. Direct experimental evidence of the LLPT is challenging to obtain, since the LLPT occurs at conditions where water rapidly crystallizes. In this work, we explore the implications of a LLPT on the pressure dependence of Tg(P) for LDA and HDA by performing computer simulations of two water models – one with a LLPT, and one without. In the absence of a LLPT, Tg(P) for all glasses nearly coincide. When there is a LLPT, different glasses exhibit dramatically different Tg(P) which are directly linked with the LLPT. Available experimental data for Tg(P) are only consistent with the scenario including a LLPT. PMID:22550566

  11. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  12. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Im Jeong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the vapor pressure of crystalline Al near its melting temperature, 873 K. Our results strongly suggest the possibility of fabricating nanocrystallites or thin films by evaporation at low temperatures.

  13. Differences between pressure-induced densification of LiCl-H{sub 2}O glass and polyamorphic transition of H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Mishima, Osamu [Polyamorphism Group, Advanced Nano Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0044 (Japan)], E-mail: SUZUKI.Yoshiharu@nims.go.jp

    2009-04-15

    We perform volumetric measurements of LiCl aqueous solution up to 1.00 GPa in the 100-170 K range, examine the pressure-induced vitrification and densification, and draw the pressure-temperature-volume surface. The pressure-induced vitrification of the solution corresponds to the cooling-induced vitrification of the liquid. We found that the volumetric decrease of glassy solution during the densification is continuous and this behavior depends on the glassy state before the compression. Raman profiles of the glassy solutions before and after the densification are similar. In contrast, the polyamorphic transition from low-density amorphous ice (LDA) to high-density amorphous ice (HDA) is discontinuous and their Raman profile before and after the transition is distinct. These results suggest that the densification relates to the structural relaxation and differs intrinsically from the polyamorphic transition. Furthermore, the densification of HDA is observed under high pressure, suggesting that very high-density amorphous ice (VHDA) may be the densified HDA. In order to recognize a polyamorphic transition under a non-equilibrium condition correctly, evidence of not only large volume change but also some distinct structural changes in glassy state is necessary.

  14. Differences between pressure-induced densification of LiCl-H2O glass and polyamorphic transition of H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Mishima, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    We perform volumetric measurements of LiCl aqueous solution up to 1.00 GPa in the 100-170 K range, examine the pressure-induced vitrification and densification, and draw the pressure-temperature-volume surface. The pressure-induced vitrification of the solution corresponds to the cooling-induced vitrification of the liquid. We found that the volumetric decrease of glassy solution during the densification is continuous and this behavior depends on the glassy state before the compression. Raman profiles of the glassy solutions before and after the densification are similar. In contrast, the polyamorphic transition from low-density amorphous ice (LDA) to high-density amorphous ice (HDA) is discontinuous and their Raman profile before and after the transition is distinct. These results suggest that the densification relates to the structural relaxation and differs intrinsically from the polyamorphic transition. Furthermore, the densification of HDA is observed under high pressure, suggesting that very high-density amorphous ice (VHDA) may be the densified HDA. In order to recognize a polyamorphic transition under a non-equilibrium condition correctly, evidence of not only large volume change but also some distinct structural changes in glassy state is necessary.

  15. Numerical simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition – Part 2: Impact of initial ice crystal number, radiation, stratification, secondary nucleation and layer depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Unterstrasser

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition were performed with an LES model. In Part 1 the impact of relative humidity, temperature and vertical wind shear was explored in a detailed parametric study. Here, we study atmospheric parameters like stratification and depth of the supersaturated layer and processes which may affect the contrail evolution. We consider contrails in various radiation scenarios herein defined by the season, time of day and the presence of lower-level cloudiness which controls the radiance incident on the contrail layer. Under suitable conditions, controlled by the radiation scenario and stratification, radiative heating lifts the contrail-cirrus and prolongs its lifetime. The potential of contrail-driven secondary nucleation is investigated. We consider homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores released from sublimated contrail ice crystals. In our model the contrail dynamics triggered by radiative heating does not suffice to force homogeneous freezing of ambient liquid aerosol particles. Furthermore, our model results suggest that heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores is unimportant. Contrail evolution is not controlled by the depth of the supersaturated layer as long as it exceeds roughly 500 m. Deep fallstreaks however need thicker layers. A variation of the initial ice crystal number is effective during the whole evolution of a contrail. A cut of the soot particle emission by two orders of magnitude can reduce the contrail timescale by one hour and the optical thickness by a factor of 5. Hence future engines with lower soot particle emissions could potentially lead to a reduction of the climate impact of aviation.

  16. Atomistic modeling of ion beam induced amorphization in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaz, Lourdes; Marques, Luis A.; Lopez, Pedro; Santos, Ivan; Aboy, Maria; Barbolla, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam induced amorphization in Si has attracted significant interest since the beginning of the use of ion implantation for the fabrication of Si devices. Nowadays, a renewed interest in the modeling of amorphization mechanisms at atomic level has arisen due to the use of preamorphizing implants and high dopant implantation doses for the fabrication of nanometric-scale Si devices. In this work, we briefly describe the existing phenomenological and defect-based amorphization models. We focus on the atomistic model we have developed to describe ion beam induced amorphization in Si. In our model, the building block for the amorphous phase is the bond defect or IV pair, whose stability increases with the number of surrounding IV pairs. This feature explains the regrowth behavior of different damage topologies and the kinetics of the crystalline to amorphous transition. The model provides excellent quantitative agreement with experimental results

  17. Magnetic Properties of Nanometer-sized Crystalline and Amorphous Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Bødker, Franz; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    1997-01-01

    Amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloy particles can be prepared by chemical preparation techniques. We discuss the preparation of transition metal-boron and iron-carbon particles and their magnetic properties. Nanometer-sized particles of both crystalline and amorphous magnetic materials...... are superparamagnetic at finite temperatures. The temperature dependence of the superparamagnetic relaxation time and the influence of inter-particle interactions is discussed. Finally, some examples of studies of surface magnetization of alpha-Fe particles are presented....

  18. Analysis of water sorption isotherms of amorphous food materials by solution thermodynamics with relevance to glass transition: evaluation of plasticizing effect of water by the thermodynamic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Eriko; Tashiro, Akiko; Kumagai, Hitomi; Kumagai, Hitoshi

    2017-04-01

    Relation between the thermodynamic parameters obtained from water sorption isotherms and the degree of reduction in the glass transition temperature (T g ), accompanied by water sorption, was quantitatively studied. Two well-known glassy food materials namely, wheat gluten and maltodextrin were used as samples. The difference between the chemical potential of water in a solution and that of pure water ([Formula: see text]), the difference between the chemical potential of solid in a solution and that of a pure solid ([Formula: see text]), and the change in the integral Gibbs free energy ([Formula: see text]) were obtained by analyzing the water sorption isotherms using solution thermodynamics. The parameter [Formula: see text] correlated well with ΔT g (≡T g  - T g0 ; where T g0 is the glass transition temperature of dry material), which had been taken to be an index of plasticizing effect. This indicates that plasticizing effect of water on foods can be evaluated through the parameter [Formula: see text].

  19. Amorphous iron (II) carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sel, Ozlem; Radha, A.V.; Dideriksen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis, characterization and crystallization energetics of amorphous iron (II) carbonate (AFC) are reported. AFC may form as a precursor for siderite (FeCO3). The enthalpy of crystallization (DHcrys) of AFC is similar to that of amorphous magnesium carbonate (AMC) and more...

  20. Pressure-induced transformations in amorphous silicon: A computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, K. M. S., E-mail: kmgarcez@ufma.br [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65700-000 Bacabal, Maranhão (Brazil); Antonelli, A., E-mail: aantone@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-02-14

    We study the transformations between amorphous phases of Si through molecular simulations using the environment dependent interatomic potential (EDIP) for Si. Our results show that upon pressure, the material undergoes a transformation from the low density amorphous (LDA) Si to the high density amorphous (HDA) Si. This transformation can be reversed by decompressing the material. This process, however, exhibits clear hysteresis, suggesting that the transformation LDA ↔ HDA is first-order like. The HDA phase is predominantly five-fold coordinated, whereas the LDA phase is the normal tetrahedrally bonded amorphous Si. The HDA phase at 400 K and 20 GPa was submitted to an isobaric annealing up to 800 K, resulting in a denser amorphous phase, which is structurally distinct from the HDA phase. Our results also show that the atomic volume and structure of this new amorphous phase are identical to those of the glass obtained by an isobaric quenching of the liquid in equilibrium at 2000 K and 20 GPa down to 400 K. The similarities between our results and those for amorphous ices suggest that this new phase is the very high density amorphous Si.

  1. Pressure-induced transformations in amorphous silicon: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, K. M. S.; Antonelli, A.

    2014-02-01

    We study the transformations between amorphous phases of Si through molecular simulations using the environment dependent interatomic potential (EDIP) for Si. Our results show that upon pressure, the material undergoes a transformation from the low density amorphous (LDA) Si to the high density amorphous (HDA) Si. This transformation can be reversed by decompressing the material. This process, however, exhibits clear hysteresis, suggesting that the transformation LDA ↔ HDA is first-order like. The HDA phase is predominantly five-fold coordinated, whereas the LDA phase is the normal tetrahedrally bonded amorphous Si. The HDA phase at 400 K and 20 GPa was submitted to an isobaric annealing up to 800 K, resulting in a denser amorphous phase, which is structurally distinct from the HDA phase. Our results also show that the atomic volume and structure of this new amorphous phase are identical to those of the glass obtained by an isobaric quenching of the liquid in equilibrium at 2000 K and 20 GPa down to 400 K. The similarities between our results and those for amorphous ices suggest that this new phase is the very high density amorphous Si.

  2. Canted spin structure and the first order magnetic transition in CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles coated by amorphous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubutin, I.S. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Starchikov, S.S., E-mail: sergey.s.starchikov@gmail.com [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Gervits, N.E.; Korotkov, N.Yu.; Dmitrieva, T.V. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Lin, Chun-Rong, E-mail: crlinspin@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University, Pingtung County 90003, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Yaw-Teng [Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University, Pingtung County 90003, Taiwan (China); Shih, Kun-Yauh [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Pingtung University, Pingtung County 90003, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jiann-Shing [Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University, Pingtung County 90003, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Chien [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan 710, Taiwan (China)

    2016-10-01

    The functional polymer (PMA-co-MAA) latex microspheres were used as a core template to prepare magnetic hollow spheres consisting of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} composites. The spinel type crystal structure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite is formed under annealing, whereas the polymer cores are completely removed after annealing at 450 °C. Magnetic and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements reveal very interesting magnetic properties of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres strongly dependent on the particle size which can be tuned by the annealing temperature. In the ground state of low temperatures, the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are in antiferromagnetic state due to the canted magnetic structure. Under heating in the applied field, the magnetic structure gradually transforms from canted to collinear, which increases the magnetization. The Mössbauer data revealed that the small size CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} particles (2.2–4.3 nm) do not show superparamagnetic behavior but transit from the magnetic to the paramagnetic state by a jump-like magnetic transition of the first order This effect is a specific property of the magnetic nanoparticles isolated by inert material, and can be initiated by internal pressure creating at the particle surface. The suggested method of synthesis can be modified with various bio-ligands on the silane surface, and such materials can find many applications in diagnostics and bio-separation. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites in shell of hollow microcapsules designed for biomedical applications • The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particle size and magnetic properties can be tuned by thermal treatment • Canted spin structure in the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles coated by SiO{sub 2} • The first order magnetic transition in the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles coated by silica.

  3. Hydrogen in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peercy, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The structural aspects of amorphous silicon and the role of hydrogen in this structure are reviewed with emphasis on ion implantation studies. In amorphous silicon produced by Si ion implantation of crystalline silicon, the material reconstructs into a metastable amorphous structure which has optical and electrical properties qualitatively similar to the corresponding properties in high-purity evaporated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen studies further indicate that these structures will accomodate less than or equal to 5 at.% hydrogen and this hydrogen is bonded predominantly in a monohydride (SiH 1 ) site. Larger hydrogen concentrations than this can be achieved under certain conditions, but the excess hydrogen may be attributed to defects and voids in the material. Similarly, glow discharge or sputter deposited amorphous silicon has more desirable electrical and optical properties when the material is prepared with low hydrogen concentration and monohydride bonding. Results of structural studies and hydrogen incorporation in amorphous silicon were discussed relative to the different models proposed for amorphous silicon

  4. Experimental evidence of a liquid-liquid transition in interfacial water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, J.-M.; Bellissent-Funel, M.-C.; Chen, S.-H.

    2005-07-01

    At ambient pressure, bulk liquid water shows an anomalous increase of thermodynamic quantities and apparent divergences of dynamic properties on approaching a temperature Ts of 228 K. At normal pressure, supercooled water spontaneously freezes below the homogeneous nucleation temperature, TH = 235 K. Upon heating, the two forms of Amorphous Solid Water (ASW), LDA (Low Density Amorphous Ice) and HDA (High Density Amorphous Ice), crystallise above TX = 150 K. As a consequence, up to now no experiment has been able to explore the properties of liquid water in this very interesting temperature range between 150 and 235 K. We present nanosecond-time-scale measurements of local rotational and translational dynamics of interfacial, non-crystalline, water from 77 to 280 K. These experimental dynamic results are combined with calorimetric and diffraction data to show that after exhibiting a glass transition at 165 K, interfacial water experiences a first-order liquid-liquid transition at 240 K from a low-density to a high-density liquid. This is the first direct evidence of the existence of a liquid-liquid transition involving water.

  5. Amorphization within the tablet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doreth, Maria; Hussein, Murtadha Abdul; Priemel, Petra A.

    2017-01-01

    , the feasibility of microwave irradiation to prepare amorphous solid dispersions (glass solutions) in situ was investigated. Indomethacin (IND) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K12 (PVP) were tableted at a 1:2 (w/w) ratio. In order to study the influence of moisture content and energy input on the degree of amorphization......, tablet formulations were stored at different relative humidity (32, 43 and 54% RH) and subsequently microwaved using nine different power-time combinations up to a maximum energy input of 90 kJ. XRPD results showed that up to 80% (w/w) of IND could be amorphized within the tablet. mDSC measurements...

  6. Physics of amorphous metals

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalenko, Nikolai P; Krey, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of bulk metallic glasses has led to a large increase in the industrial importance of amorphous metals, and this is expected to continue. This book is the first to describe the theoretical physics of amorphous metals, including the important theoretical development of the last 20 years.The renowned authors stress the universal aspects in their description of the phonon or magnon low-energy excitations in the amorphous metals, e.g. concerning the remarkable consequences of the properties of these excitations for the thermodynamics at low and intermediate temperatures. Tunneling

  7. Effects of sea-ice and biogeochemical processes and storms on under-ice water fCO2 during the winter-spring transition in the high Arctic Ocean: Implications for sea-air CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Olsen, Are; Assmy, Philipp; Peterson, Algot K.; Spreen, Gunnar; Ward, Brian

    2017-07-01

    We performed measurements of carbon dioxide fugacity (fCO2) in the surface water under Arctic sea ice from January to June 2015 during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition. Over this period, the ship drifted with four different ice floes and covered the deep Nansen Basin, the slopes north of Svalbard, and the Yermak Plateau. This unique winter-to-spring data set includes the first winter-time under-ice water fCO2 observations in this region. The observed under-ice fCO2 ranged between 315 µatm in winter and 153 µatm in spring, hence was undersaturated relative to the atmospheric fCO2. Although the sea ice partly prevented direct CO2 exchange between ocean and atmosphere, frequently occurring leads and breakup of the ice sheet promoted sea-air CO2 fluxes. The CO2 sink varied between 0.3 and 86 mmol C m-2 d-1, depending strongly on the open-water fractions (OW) and storm events. The maximum sea-air CO2 fluxes occurred during storm events in February and June. In winter, the main drivers of the change in under-ice water fCO2 were dissolution of CaCO3 (ikaite) and vertical mixing. In June, in addition to these processes, primary production and sea-air CO2 fluxes were important. The cumulative loss due to CaCO3 dissolution of 0.7 mol C m-2 in the upper 10 m played a major role in sustaining the undersaturation of fCO2 during the entire study. The relative effects of the total fCO2 change due to CaCO3 dissolution was 38%, primary production 26%, vertical mixing 16%, sea-air CO2 fluxes 16%, and temperature and salinity insignificant.

  8. The Effect of Volcanic Ash Composition on Ice Nucleation Affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K. D.; Cloer, S.; Primm, K.; Woods, T.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the role that volcanic ash plays in ice nucleation is important for knowledge of lightning generation in both volcanic plumes and in clouds developing downwind from active volcanoes. Volcanic ash has long been suggested to influence heterogeneous ice nucleation following explosive eruptions, but determining precisely how composition and mineralogy affects ice nucleation affinity (INA) is poorly constrained. For the study presented here, volcanic ash samples with different compositions and mineral/glass contents were tested in both the deposition and immersion modes, following the methods presented in Schill et al. (2015). Bulk composition was determined with X-ray fluorescence (XRF), grain size distribution was determined with laser diffraction particle size analysis (LDPSA), and mineralogy was determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of the deposition-mode experiments reveal that there is no relationship between ice saturation ratios (Sice) and either mineralogy or bulk ash composition, as all samples have similar Sice ratios. In the immersion-mode experiments, frozen fractions were determined from -20 °C to -50 °C using three different amounts of ash (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt% of slurry). Results from the immersion freezing reveal that the rhyolitic samples (73 wt% SiO2) nucleate ice at higher temperatures compared to the basaltic samples (49 wt% SiO2). There is no observed correlation between frozen fractions and mineral content of ash samples, but the two most efficient ice nuclei are rhyolites that contain the greatest proportion of amorphous glass (> 90 %), and are enriched in K2O relative to transition metals (MnO and TiO2), the latter of which show a negative correlation with frozen fraction. Higher ash abundance in water droplets increases the frozen fraction at all temperatures, indicating that ash amount plays the biggest role in ice nucleation. If volcanic ash can reach sufficient abundance (

  9. Positrons in amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Pierre.

    1981-07-01

    Positron annihilation techniques give interesting informations about ''empty spaces'' in amorphous alloys. The results of an extensive research work on the properties of either pre-existing or irradiation induced ''empty spaces'' in four amorphous alloys are presented. The pre-existing empty spaces appear to be small vacancy-like defects. The irradiation induced defects are ''close pairs'' with widely distributed configurations. There is a strong interaction between vacancy like and interstitial like components. A model is proposed, which explains the radiation resistance mechanism of the amorphous alloys. An extensive joint research work to study four amorphous alloys, Fe 80 B 20 ,Fe 40 Ni 40 P 14 B 6 , Cu 50 Ti 50 , Pd 80 Si 20 , is summarized

  10. Pressure induced Amorphization of Ln1/3(Nb,Ta)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchior, A.; Noked, O.; Sterer, E.; Shuker, R.

    2014-01-01

    The research focuses on the phenomenon of pressure induced amorphization (PIA) in Ln1/3MO3, Ln - La,Pr,Nd and M-Nb,Ta. In most pressure induced phase transitions the material changes from a crystalline phase to another crystalline phase. However, if this transition is kinetically hindered, the increased free energy due to the applied pressure will result in a structural collapse to an amorphous intermediate phase. This phenomenon is known as pressure induced amorphization

  11. Superplasticity of amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Yu.B.; Likhachev, V.L.; Sen'kov, O.N.

    1988-01-01

    Results of mechanical tests of Co 57 Ni 10 Fe 5 Si 11 B 17 amorphous alloy are presented and the effect of crystallization, occurring during deformation process, on plastic low characteristics is investiagted. Superplasticity of amorphous tape is investigated. It is shown, that this effect occurs only when during deformation the crystallization takes place. Process model, based on the usage disclination concepts about glass nature, is suggested

  12. Autonomous Ice Mass Balance Buoys for Seasonal Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, J. D.; Planck, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Parno, J. T.; Elder, B. C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Polashenski, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The ice mass-balance represents the integration of all surface and ocean heat fluxes and attributing the impact of these forcing fluxes on the ice cover can be accomplished by increasing temporal and spatial measurements. Mass balance information can be used to understand the ongoing changes in the Arctic sea ice cover and to improve predictions of future ice conditions. Thinner seasonal ice in the Arctic necessitates the deployment of Autonomous Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB's) capable of long-term, in situ data collection in both ice and open ocean. Seasonal IMB's (SIMB's) are free floating IMB's that allow data collection in thick ice, thin ice, during times of transition, and even open water. The newest generation of SIMB aims to increase the number of reliable IMB's in the Arctic by leveraging inexpensive commercial-grade instrumentation when combined with specially developed monitoring hardware. Monitoring tasks are handled by a custom, expandable data logger that provides low-cost flexibility for integrating a large range of instrumentation. The SIMB features ultrasonic sensors for direct measurement of both snow depth and ice thickness and a digital temperature chain (DTC) for temperature measurements every 2cm through both snow and ice. Air temperature and pressure, along with GPS data complete the Arctic picture. Additionally, the new SIMB is more compact to maximize deployment opportunities from multiple types of platforms.

  13. On the origin of the ice ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1984-01-01

    Ice sheet dynamics provide a possible explanation for the 100 kyr power in climatic records. Some numerical experiments presented here show that even the transition from an essentially ice-free earth to a glacial can be produced by a northern hemisphere ice-sheet model, provided that a

  14. submitter Observation of viscosity transition in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol

    CERN Document Server

    Järvinen, Emma; Nichman, Leonid; Kristensen, Thomas B; Fuchs, Claudia; Hoyle, Christopher R; Höppel, Niko; Corbin, Joel C; Craven, Jill; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; El Haddad, Imad; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Jokinen, Tuija; Kallinger, Peter; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiselev, Alexei; Naumann, Karl-Heinz; Petäjä, Tuukka; Pinterich, Tamara; Prevot, Andre S H; Saathoff, Harald; Schiebel, Thea; Sengupta, Kamalika; Simon, Mario; Slowik, Jay G; Tröstl, Jasmin; Virtanen, Annele; Vochezer, Paul; Vogt, Steffen; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Robert; Williamson, Christina; Winkler, Paul M; Yan, Chao; Baltensperger, Urs; Donahue, Neil M; Flagan, Rick C; Gallagher, Martin; Hansel, Armin; Kulmala, Markku; Stratmann, Frank; Worsnop, Douglas R; Möhler, Ottmar; Leisner, Thomas; Schnaiter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Under certain conditions, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles can exist in the atmosphere in an amorphous solid or semi-solid state. To determine their relevance to processes such as ice nucleation or chemistry occurring within particles requires knowledge of the temperature and relative humidity (RH) range for SOA to exist in these states. In the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment at The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), we deployed a new in situ optical method to detect the viscous state of α-pinene SOA particles and measured their transition from the amorphous highly viscous state to states of lower viscosity. The method is based on the depolarising properties of laboratory-produced non-spherical SOA particles and their transformation to non-depolarising spherical particles at relative humidities near the deliquescence point. We found that particles formed and grown in the chamber developed an asymmetric shape through coagulation. A transition to a spherical shape w...

  15. Observed degradation stages of ring-mold craters (RMC): Geomorphic evidence for modification of ice-rich deposits in the transitions zone between Elysium and Utopia Basin, Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gro Birkefeldt Møller

    Deposits with pits, depressions and RMCs observed north of Elysium rise are interpreted as degraded mixtures of ice and clastic material (CCF, LVF and LDA). Degradation stages of RMCs are an important tool for mapping dusty, deflated ice-rich units....

  16. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  17. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  18. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  19. Coulombic charge ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClarty, P. A.; O'Brien, A.; Pollmann, F.

    2014-05-01

    We consider a classical model of charges ±q on a pyrochlore lattice in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. This model first appeared in the early literature on charge order in magnetite [P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 102, 1008 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1008]. In the limit where the interactions become short ranged, the model has a ground state with an extensive entropy and dipolar charge-charge correlations. When long-range interactions are introduced, the exact degeneracy is broken. We study the thermodynamics of the model and show the presence of a correlated charge liquid within a temperature window in which the physics is well described as a liquid of screened charged defects. The structure factor in this phase, which has smeared pinch points at the reciprocal lattice points, may be used to detect charge ice experimentally. In addition, the model exhibits fractionally charged excitations ±q/2 which are shown to interact via a 1/r potential. At lower temperatures, the model exhibits a transition to a long-range ordered phase. We are able to treat the Coulombic charge ice model and the dipolar spin ice model on an equal footing by mapping both to a constrained charge model on the diamond lattice. We find that states of the two ice models are related by a staggering field which is reflected in the energetics of these two models. From this perspective, we can understand the origin of the spin ice and charge ice ground states as coming from a dipolar model on a diamond lattice. We study the properties of charge ice in an external electric field, finding that the correlated liquid is robust to the presence of a field in contrast to the case of spin ice in a magnetic field. Finally, we comment on the transport properties of Coulombic charge ice in the correlated liquid phase.

  20. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Elusive Amorphous Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2015-01-01

    New and accurate laboratory results are reported for amorphous methane (CH4) ice near 10 K for the study of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the outer Solar System. Near- and mid-infrared (IR) data, including spectra, band strengths, absorption coefficients, and optical constants, are presented for the first time for this seldom-studied amorphous solid. The apparent IR band strength near 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) for amorphous CH4 is found to be about 33% higher than the value long used by IR astronomers to convert spectral observations of interstellar CH4 into CH4 abundances. Although CH4 is most likely to be found in an amorphous phase in the ISM, a comparison of results from various laboratory groups shows that the earlier CH4 band strength at 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) was derived from IR spectra of ices that were either partially or entirely crystalline CH4 Applications of the new amorphous-CH4 results are discussed, and all optical constants are made available in electronic form.

  1. Transformation processes during annealing of Al-amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, N.; Petrescu, M.; Calin, M.; Jianu, A.D.; Fecioru, M.

    1993-01-01

    As the amorphous aluminum alloys represent the newest achievement in rapid solidification of Al-based high strength heat resistent materials, a study was undertaken on the amorphous alloys in the Al-RE-TM system, the rare-earth metal being a lanthanide mixture and the transition metal a Ni-Fe substitution in definite proportions. The decomposition on heating of the most highly alloyed amorphous alloy in the investigated series is characterized by differential thermal analysis, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. (orig.)

  2. Transformation processes during annealing of Al-amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrescu, N. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)); Petrescu, M. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)); Calin, M. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)); Jianu, A.D. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania) IFTM-Bucharest (Romania)); Fecioru, M. (Polytechnic Inst. Bucharest, Faculty Materials Science and Engineering, Bucharest (Romania) DACIA Enterprise-Bucharest (Romania))

    1993-11-01

    As the amorphous aluminum alloys represent the newest achievement in rapid solidification of Al-based high strength heat resistent materials, a study was undertaken on the amorphous alloys in the Al-RE-TM system, the rare-earth metal being a lanthanide mixture and the transition metal a Ni-Fe substitution in definite proportions. The decomposition on heating of the most highly alloyed amorphous alloy in the investigated series is characterized by differential thermal analysis, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. (orig.).

  3. Structural amorphous steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.P.; Liu, C.T.; Porter, W.D.; Thompson, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist's dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed

  4. Interaction of ice sheets and climate on geological time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    Since the inception of the Antarctic ice sheet at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (~34 Myr ago), land ice plays a crucial role in Earth’s climate. Through the ice-albedo and surface-height-temperature feedbacks, land ice variability strengthens atmospheric temperature changes induced by orbital and

  5. Coordinated Mapping of Sea Ice Deformation Features with Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, T.; Williams, G. D.; Singh, H.; Weissling, B.; Anderson, J.; Maki, T.; Ackley, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Decreases in summer sea ice extent in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas has lead to a transition from a largely perennial ice cover, to a seasonal ice cover. This drives shifts in sea ice production, dynamics, ice types, and thickness distribution. To examine how the processes driving ice advance might also impact the morphology of the ice cover, a coordinated ice mapping effort was undertaken during a field campaign in the Beaufort Sea in October, 2015. Here, we present observations of sea ice draft topography from six missions of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle run under different ice types and deformation features observed during autumn freeze-up. Ice surface features were also mapped during coordinated drone photogrammetric missions over each site. We present preliminary results of a comparison between sea ice surface topography and ice underside morphology for a range of sample ice types, including hummocked multiyear ice, rubble fields, young ice ridges and rafts, and consolidated pancake ice. These data are compared to prior observations of ice morphological features from deformed Antarctic sea ice. Such data will be useful for improving parameterizations of sea ice redistribution during deformation, and for better constraining estimates of airborne or satellite sea ice thickness.

  6. Upper ocean stratification and sea ice growth rates during the summer-fall transition, as revealed by Elephant seal foraging in the Adélie Depression, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Williams

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina, fitted with Conductivity-Temperature-Depth sensors at Macquarie Island in January 2005 and 2010, collected unique oceanographic observations of the Adélie and George V Land continental shelf (140–148° E during the summer-fall transition (late February through April. This is a key region of dense shelf water formation from enhanced sea ice growth/brine rejection in the local coastal polynyas. In 2005, two seals occupied the continental shelf break near the grounded icebergs at the northern end of the Mertz Glacier Tongue for several weeks from the end of February. One of the seals migrated west to the Dibble Ice Tongue, apparently utilising the Antarctic Slope Front current near the continental shelf break. In 2010, immediately after that year's calving of the Mertz Glacier Tongue, two seals migrated to the same region but penetrated much further southwest across the Adélie Depression and sampled the Commonwealth Bay polynya from March through April. Here we present observations of the regional oceanography during the summer-fall transition, in particular (i the zonal distribution of modified Circumpolar Deep Water exchange across the shelf break, (ii the upper ocean stratification across the Adélie Depression, including alongside iceberg C-28 that calved from the Mertz Glacier and (iii the convective overturning of the deep remnant seasonal mixed layer in Commonwealth Bay from sea ice growth. Heat and freshwater budgets to 200–300 m are used to estimate the ocean heat content (400→50 MJ m−2, flux (50–200 W m−2 loss and sea ice growth rates (maximum of 7.5–12.5 cm day−1. Mean seal-derived sea ice growth rates were within the range of satellite-derived estimates from 1992–2007 using ERA-Interim data. We speculate that the continuous foraging by the seals within Commonwealth Bay during the summer/fall transition was due to favorable feeding

  7. Upper ocean stratification and sea ice growth rates during the summer-fall transition, as revealed by Elephant seal foraging in the Adélie Depression, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. D.; Hindell, M.; Houssais, M.-N.; Tamura, T.; Field, I. C.

    2011-03-01

    Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), fitted with Conductivity-Temperature-Depth sensors at Macquarie Island in January 2005 and 2010, collected unique oceanographic observations of the Adélie and George V Land continental shelf (140-148° E) during the summer-fall transition (late February through April). This is a key region of dense shelf water formation from enhanced sea ice growth/brine rejection in the local coastal polynyas. In 2005, two seals occupied the continental shelf break near the grounded icebergs at the northern end of the Mertz Glacier Tongue for several weeks from the end of February. One of the seals migrated west to the Dibble Ice Tongue, apparently utilising the Antarctic Slope Front current near the continental shelf break. In 2010, immediately after that year's calving of the Mertz Glacier Tongue, two seals migrated to the same region but penetrated much further southwest across the Adélie Depression and sampled the Commonwealth Bay polynya from March through April. Here we present observations of the regional oceanography during the summer-fall transition, in particular (i) the zonal distribution of modified Circumpolar Deep Water exchange across the shelf break, (ii) the upper ocean stratification across the Adélie Depression, including alongside iceberg C-28 that calved from the Mertz Glacier and (iii) the convective overturning of the deep remnant seasonal mixed layer in Commonwealth Bay from sea ice growth. Heat and freshwater budgets to 200-300 m are used to estimate the ocean heat content (400→50 MJ m-2), flux (50-200 W m-2 loss) and sea ice growth rates (maximum of 7.5-12.5 cm day-1). Mean seal-derived sea ice growth rates were within the range of satellite-derived estimates from 1992-2007 using ERA-Interim data. We speculate that the continuous foraging by the seals within Commonwealth Bay during the summer/fall transition was due to favorable feeding conditions resulting from the convective overturning of the deep

  8. Defect hydrogen vibrations in various phases deuterium ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.C.; Wang, Y.; Dong, S.L.; Zhang, P.; Kolesnikov, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    The inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectra of D 2 O mixed with a small amount of H 2 O (5% by weight) high density amorphous (hda) ice, ice-VIII, and ice-II have been measured on HET spectrometer at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). The hydrogen atom in D 2 O ice lattice has three distinguished vibrations: two modes normal to the O---H bond at lower frequency and a stretching mode along the O-H bond at higher frequency. For different ice phases these frequencies are different, it was found that the lower defect mode is at ∼97 meV for ice-II, at about 95 meV for hda-ice and ice-VIII, and they are all lower than the value of 105 meV for ice-Ih. The O-H stretching modes are at 415 meV for ice-II, at 418 meV for hda-ice, and at 425 meV for ice-VIII, which all are much larger than the value for ice-Ih, 406 meV. It was also found that O-D stretching modes in D 2 O ice-VIII is centered at ∼320 meV which is significantly higher than the corresponding value of ∼305 meV for ice-Ih

  9. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  10. Infrared Spectra and Band Strengths of Amorphous and Crystalline N2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. L.; Loeffler, M. J.; Gerakines, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared transmission spectra from 4000 to 400 cm (exp -1), and associated band strengths and absorption coefficients, are presented for the first time for both amorphous and crystalline N2O. Changes in the spectra as a function of ice thickness and ice temperature are shown. New measurements of density, refractive index, and specific refraction are reported for amorphous and crystalline N2O. Comparisons are made to published results, and the most-likely reason for some recent disagreements in the literature is discussed. As with CO2, its isoelectronic congener, the formation of amorphous N2O is found to require greater care than the formation of amorphous solids from more-polar molecules.

  11. The making of salty ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bove, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is widely accepted that ice, no matter what phase, is unable to incorporate large amount of salt into its structure. This conclusion is based on the observation that upon freezing of saltwater, ice expels the salt almost entirely into brine, a fact which can be exploited to desalinate seawater. Here we show, by neutron diffraction under high pressure, that this behaviour is not an intrinsic physico-chemical property of ice phases. We demonstrate that substantial am mounts of dissolved LiCl can be built homogeneously into the ice VII structure if it is produced by recrystallisation of its glassy state under pressure [1]. Such highly doped or alloyed ice VII has significantly different structural properties compared to pure ice VII, such as a 8% larger unit cell volume, 5 times larger displacement factors, an absence of a transition to an ordered ice VIII structure, plasticity, and most likely ionic conductivity. Our study suggests that there could be a whole new class of salty ices based on various kinds of solutes and high pressure ice forms. (author)

  12. Low-temperature crystallization of amorphous silicon and amorphous germanium by soft X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heya, Akira, E-mail: heya@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671–2280 (Japan); Kanda, Kazuhiro [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan); Toko, Kaoru; Sadoh, Taizoh [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Nishi-ku, Motooka, Fukuoka 819–0395 (Japan); Amano, Sho [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan); Matsuo, Naoto [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671–2280 (Japan); Miyamoto, Shuji [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan); Miyao, Masanobu [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Nishi-ku, Motooka, Fukuoka 819–0395 (Japan); Mochizuki, Takayasu [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry (LASTI), University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678–1205 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    The low-temperature-crystallization effects of soft X-ray irradiation on the structural properties of amorphous Si and amorphous Ge films were investigated. From the differences in crystallization between Si and Ge, it was found that the effects of soft X-ray irradiation on the crystallization strongly depended on the energy band gap and energy level. The crystallization temperatures of the amorphous Si and amorphous Ge films decreased from 953 K to 853 K and 773 K to 663 K, respectively. The decrease in crystallization temperature was also related to atoms transitioning into a quasi-nucleic phase in the films. The ratio of electron excitation and migration effects to thermal effects was controlled using the storage-ring current (photon flux density). Therefore, we believe that low-temperature crystallization can be realized by controlling atomic migration through electron excitation. - Highlights: • This work investigates the crystallization mechanism for soft X-ray irradiation. • The soft X-ray crystallization depended on the energy band gap and energy level. • The decrease in the crystallization temperature for Si and Ge films was 100 K. • This decrement was related to atoms transitioning into a quasi-nucleic phase.

  13. Recent Progress in Some Amorphous Materials for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Xu, Yuxia; Zheng, Shasha; Guo, Xiaotian; Xue, Huaiguo; Pang, Huan

    2018-05-14

    A breakthrough in technologies having "green" and sustainable energy storage conversion is urgent, and supercapacitors play a crucial role in this area of research. Owing to their unique porous structure, amorphous materials are considered one of the best active materials for high-performance supercapacitors due to their high specific capacity, excellent cycling stability, and fast charging rate. This Review summarizes the synthesis of amorphous materials (transition metal oxides, carbon-based materials, transition metal sulfides, phosphates, hydroxides, and their complexes) to highlight their electrochemical performance in supercapacitors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Interplay of the Glass Transition and the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Most liquids can form a single glass or amorphous state when cooled sufficiently fast (in order to prevent crystallization). However, there are a few substances that are relevant to scientific and technological applications which can exist in at least two different amorphous states, a property known as polyamorphism. Examples include silicon, silica, and in particular, water. In the case of water, experiments show the existence of a low-density (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous ice that are separated by a dramatic, first-order like phase transition. It has been argued that the LDA-HDA transformation evolves into a first-order liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) at temperatures above the glass transition temperature Tg. However, obtaining direct experimental evidence of the LLPT has been challenging since the LLPT occurs at conditions where water rapidly crystallizes. In this talk, I will (i) discuss the general phenomenology of polyamorphism in water and its implications, and (ii) explore the effects of a LLPT on the pressure dependence of Tg(P) for LDA and HDA. Our study is based on computer simulations of two water models - one with a LLPT (ST2 model), and one without (SPC/E model). In the absence of a LLPT, Tg(P) for all glasses nearly coincide. Instead, when there is a LLPT, different glasses exhibit dramatically different Tg(P) loci which are directly linked with the LLPT. Available experimental data for Tg(P) are only consistent with the scenario that includes a LLPT (ST2 model) and hence, our results support the view that a LLPT may exist for the case of water.

  15. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  16. Polyamorphism in tetrahedral substances: Similarities between silicon and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, K. M. S.; Antonelli, A.

    2015-07-01

    Tetrahedral substances, such as silicon, water, germanium, and silica, share various unusual phase behaviors. Among them, the so-called polyamorphism, i.e., the existence of more than one amorphous form, has been intensively investigated in the last three decades. In this work, we study the metastable relations between amorphous states of silicon in a wide range of pressures, using Monte Carlo simulations. Our results indicate that the two amorphous forms of silicon at high pressures, the high density amorphous (HDA) and the very high density amorphous (VHDA), can be decompressed from high pressure (˜20 GPa) down to the tensile regime, where both convert into the same low density amorphous. Such behavior is also observed in ice. While at high pressure (˜20 GPa), HDA is less stable than VHDA, at the pressure of 10 GPa both forms exhibit similar stability. On the other hand, at much lower pressure (˜5 GPa), HDA and VHDA are no longer the most stable forms, and, upon isobaric annealing, an even less dense form of amorphous silicon emerges, the expanded high density amorphous, again in close similarity to what occurs in ice.

  17. DETECTIONS OF TRANS-NEPTUNIAN ICE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Bergin, E.; Cleeves, L. I. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, 830 Dennison Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Espaillat, C. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); D' Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad NacionalAUtónoma de México, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Sargent, B., E-mail: melisma@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: ebergin@umich.edu, E-mail: cleeves@umich.edu, E-mail: cce@bu.edu, E-mail: p.dalessio@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: manoj.puravankara@tifr.res.in, E-mail: baspci@rit.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of T Tauri stars, in which we detect amorphous and crystalline water ice features. Using irradiated accretion disk models, we determine the disk structure and ice abundance in each of the systems. Combining a model-independent comparison of the ice feature strength and disk size with a detailed analysis of the model ice location, we estimate that the ice emitting region is at disk radii >30 AU, consistent with a proto-Kuiper belt. Vertically, the ice emits most below the photodesorption zone, consistent with Herschel observations of cold water vapor. The presence of crystallized water ice at a disk location (1) colder than its crystallization temperature and (2) where it should have been re-amorphized in ∼1 Myr suggests that localized generation is occurring; the most likely cause appears to be micrometeorite impact or planetesimal collisions. Based on simple tests with UV models and different ice distributions, we suggest that the SED shape from 20 to 50 μm may probe the location of the water ice snowline in the disk upper layers. This project represents one of the first extra-solar probes of the spatial structure of the cometary ice reservoir thought to deliver water to terrestrial planets.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Hydrogenation on Ice Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahata, Kazuaki; Ohno, Kaoru

    2018-03-14

    We have performed density functional calculations to investigate the carbon monoxide hydrogenation reaction (H+CO→HCO), which is important in interstellar clouds. We found that the activation energy of the reaction on amorphous ice is lower than that on crystalline ice. In the course of this study, we demonstrated that it is roughly possible to use the excitation energy of the reactant molecule (CO) in place of the activation energy. This relationship holds also for small water clusters at the CCSD level of calculation and the two-layer-level ONIOM (CCSD : X3LYP) calculation. Generally, since it is computationally demanding to estimate activation energies of chemical reactions in a circumstance of many water molecules, this relationship enables one to determine the activation energy of this reaction on ice surfaces from the knowledge of the excitation energy of CO only. Incorporating quantum-tunneling effects, we discuss the reaction rate on ice surfaces. Our estimate that the reaction rate on amorphous ice is almost twice as large as that on crystalline ice is qualitatively consistent with the experimental evidence reported by Hidaka et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett., 2008, 456, 36.]. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Description of Pyramimonas diskoicola sp. nov. and the importance of the flagellate Pyramimonas (Prasinophyceae) in Greenland sea ice during the winter–spring transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara; Lundholm, Nina; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    Pyramimonas Schmarda is a genus of unicellular green flagellates, recorded in marine water and sea ice samples. Pyramimonas is within the prey size range of the most important protozoan grazers in Disko Bay, West Greenland, where this study took place. Despite the potential ecological importance...

  20. ELABORATION OF AMORPHOUS METALS AND GLASS TRANSITIONFORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMORPHOUS METALS

    OpenAIRE

    Giessen , B.; Whang , S.

    1980-01-01

    This review deals with the definition of amorphous and glassy metals ; the principal methods for their preparation by atom-by-atom deposition, rapid liquid quenching and particle bombardment ; criteria for their formation, especially ready glass formation (RGF) and its alloy chemical foundations ; and their classification. This is followed by a discussion of their elastic and plastic properties (Young's modulus and microhardness) and thermal stability (glass transition and crystallization tem...

  1. Observation of viscosity transition in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Järvinen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Under certain conditions, secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles can exist in the atmosphere in an amorphous solid or semi-solid state. To determine their relevance to processes such as ice nucleation or chemistry occurring within particles requires knowledge of the temperature and relative humidity (RH range for SOA to exist in these states. In the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD experiment at The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN, we deployed a new in situ optical method to detect the viscous state of α-pinene SOA particles and measured their transition from the amorphous highly viscous state to states of lower viscosity. The method is based on the depolarising properties of laboratory-produced non-spherical SOA particles and their transformation to non-depolarising spherical particles at relative humidities near the deliquescence point. We found that particles formed and grown in the chamber developed an asymmetric shape through coagulation. A transition to a spherical shape was observed as the RH was increased to between 35 % at −10 °C and 80 % at −38 °C, confirming previous calculations of the viscosity-transition conditions. Consequently, α-pinene SOA particles exist in a viscous state over a wide range of ambient conditions, including the cirrus region of the free troposphere. This has implications for the physical, chemical, and ice-nucleation properties of SOA and SOA-coated particles in the atmosphere.

  2. Tropospheric characteristics over sea ice during N-ICE2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Markus; Maturilli, Marion; Graham, Robert; Hudson, Stephen; Cohen, Lana; Rinke, Annette; Kim, Joo-Hong; Park, Sang-Jong; Moon, Woosok; Granskog, Mats

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, the Arctic Ocean region has shifted towards a younger and thinner sea-ice regime. The Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition was designed to investigate the atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean interactions in this new ice regime north of Svalbard. Here we analyze upper-air measurements made by radiosondes launched twice daily together with surface meteorology observations during N-ICE2015 from January to June 2015. We study the multiple cyclonic events observed during N-ICE2015 with respect to changes in the vertical thermodynamic structure, sudden increases in moisture content and temperature, temperature inversions and boundary layer dynamics. The influence of synoptic cyclones is strongest under polar night conditions, when radiative cooling is most effective and the moisture content is low. We find that transitions between the radiatively clear and opaque state are the largest drivers of changes to temperature inversion and stability characteristics in the boundary layer during winter. In spring radiative fluxes warm the surface leading to lifted temperature inversions and a statically unstable boundary layer. The unique N-ICE2015 dataset is used for case studies investigating changes in the vertical structure of the atmosphere under varying synoptic conditions. The goal is to deepen our understanding of synoptic interactions within the Arctic climate system, to improve model performance, as well as to identify gaps in instrumentation, which precludes further investigations.

  3. A rapid transition from ice covered CO2–rich waters to a biologically mediated CO2 sink in the eastern Weddell Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Geibert

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW, locally called Warm Deep Water (WDW, enters the Weddell Gyre in the southeast, roughly at 25° E to 30° E. In December 2002 and January 2003 we studied the effect of entrainment of WDW on the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC in Weddell Sea surface waters. Ultimately the fCO2 difference across the sea surface drives air-sea fluxes of CO2. Deep CTD sections and surface transects of fCO2 were made along the Prime Meridian, a northwest-southeast section, and along 17° E to 23° E during cruise ANT XX/2 on FS Polarstern. Upward movement and entrainment of WDW into the winter mixed layer had significantly increased DIC and fCO2 below the sea ice along 0° W and 17° E to 23° E, notably in the southern Weddell Gyre. Nonetheless, the ice cover largely prevented outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere. During and upon melting of the ice, biological activity rapidly reduced surface water fCO2 by up to 100 μatm, thus creating a sink for atmospheric CO2. Despite the tendency of the surfacing WDW to cause CO2 supersaturation, the Weddell Gyre may well be a CO2 sink on an annual basis due to this effective mechanism involving ice cover and ensuing biological fCO2 reduction. Dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 in melting sea ice may play a minor role in this rapid reduction of surface water fCO2.

  4. Methods of amorphization and investigation of the amorphous state

    OpenAIRE

    EINFALT, TOMAŽ; PLANINŠEK, ODON; HROVAT, KLEMEN

    2013-01-01

    The amorphous form of pharmaceutical materials represents the most energetic solid state of a material. It provides advantages in terms of dissolution rate and bioavailability. This review presents the methods of solid-state amorphization described in literature (supercooling of liquids, milling, lyophilization, spray drying, dehydration of crystalline hydrates), with the emphasis on milling. Furthermore, we describe how amorphous state of pharmaceuticals differ depending on method of prepara...

  5. Reversible devitrification in amorphous As2 Se3 under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Azkar Saeed; Lou, Hong Bo; Lin, Chuan Long

    2016-01-01

    as compared to the virgin amorphous phase and that the structural recovery to the virgin amorphous phase is a consequence of an enhancement in covalent bonding character over interlayer forces upon complete decompression. Furthermore, we observed a two-dimensional to three-dimensional network transition under...

  6. The effect of surfactants on the dissolution behavior of amorphous formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mah, Pei T; Peltonen, Leena; Novakovic, Dunja

    2016-01-01

    The optimal design of oral amorphous formulations benefits from the use of excipients to maintain drug supersaturation and thus ensures adequate absorption during intestinal transit. The use of surfactants for the maintenance of supersaturation in amorphous formulations has not been investigated ...

  7. The Stabilization of Amorphous Zopiclone in an Amorphous Solid Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Marnus; Liebenberg, Wilna; Aucamp, Marique

    2015-10-01

    Zopiclone is a poorly soluble psychotherapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize an amorphous form of zopiclone as well as the characterization and performance of a stable amorphous solid dispersion. The amorphous form was prepared by the well-known method of quench-cooling of the melt. The solid dispersion was prepared by a solvent evaporation method of zopiclone, polyvinylpyrrolidone-25 (PVP-25), and methanol, followed by freeze-drying. The physico-chemical properties and stability of amorphous zopiclone and the solid dispersion was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hot-stage microscopy (HSM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), solubility, and dissolution studies. The zopiclone amorphous solid-state form was determined to be a fragile glass; it was concluded that the stability of the amorphous form is influenced by both temperature and water. Exposure of amorphous zopiclone to moisture results in rapid transformation of the amorphous form to the crystalline dihydrated form. In comparison, the amorphous solid dispersion proved to be more stable with increased aqueous solubility.

  8. Ion implantation and amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmuth, K.; Rauschenbach, B.

    1981-01-01

    This review deals with ion implantation of metals in the high concentration range for preparing amorphous layers (>= 10 at%, implantation doses > 10 16 ions/cm 2 ). Different models are described concerning formation of amorphous phases of metals by ion implantation and experimental results are given. The study of amorphous phases has been carried out by the aid of Rutherford backscattering combined with the channeling technique and using transmission electron microscopy. The structure of amorphous metals prepared by ion implantation has been discussed. It was concluded that amorphous metal-metalloid compounds can be described by a dense-random-packing structure with a great portion of metal atoms. Ion implantation has been compared with other techniques for preparing amorphous metals and the adventages have been outlined

  9. Origins of amorphous interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of amorphous interstellar grains has been suggested from infrared observations. Some carbon stars show the far infrared emission with a lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Far infrared emission supposed to be due to silicate grains often show the lambda -1 wavelength dependence. Mid infrared spectra around 10 μm have broad structure. These may be due to the amorphous silicate grains. The condition that the condensed grains from the cosmic gas are amorphous is discussed. (author)

  10. Amorphous silicon based particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, N.; Franco, A.; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Dunand, S.; Powolny, F.; Jarron, P.; Ballif, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hard monolithic particle sensors can be fabricated by a vertical integration of amorphous silicon particle sensors on top of CMOS readout chip. Two types of such particle sensors are presented here using either thick diodes or microchannel plates. The first type based on amorphous silicon diodes exhibits high spatial resolution due to the short lateral carrier collection. Combination of an amorphous silicon thick diode with microstrip detector geometries permits to achieve micromete...

  11. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New...... formulation principles are needed to ensure the stability of amorphous drug forms. The formation of solid dispersions is still the most investigated approach, but additional approaches are desirable to overcome the shortcomings of solid dispersions. Spatial separation by either coating or the use of micro-containers...... before single molecules are available for the formation of crystal nuclei, thus stabilizing the amorphous form....

  12. On the origin of the ice ages

    OpenAIRE

    Oerlemans, J.

    1984-01-01

    Ice sheet dynamics provide a possible explanation for the 100 kyr power in climatic records. Some numerical experiments presented here show that even the transition from an essentially ice-free earth to a glacial can be produced by a northern hemisphere ice-sheet model, provided that a slow general cooling on the northern hemisphere continents is imposed. Such a cooling could for example be the result of continental drift.

  13. Small-angle neutron scattering study of micropore collapse in amorphous solid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterdorfer, Christian; Bauer, Marion; Youngs, Tristan G A; Bowron, Daniel T; Hill, Catherine R; Fraser, Helen J; Finney, John L; Loerting, Thomas

    2014-08-14

    Vapor-deposited amorphous solid water (ASW) is the most abundant solid molecular material in space, where it plays a direct role in both the formation of more complex chemical species and the aggregation of icy materials in the earliest stages of planet formation. Nevertheless, some of its low temperature physics such as the collapse of the micropore network upon heating are still far from being understood. Here we characterize the nature of the micropores and their collapse using neutron scattering of gram-quantities of D2O-ASW of internal surface areas up to 230 ± 10 m(2) g(-1) prepared at 77 K. The model-free interpretation of the small-angle scattering data suggests micropores, which remain stable up to 120-140 K and then experience a sudden collapse. The exact onset temperature to pore collapse depends on the type of flow conditions employed in the preparation of ASW and, thus, the specific surface area of the initial deposit, whereas the onset of crystallization to cubic ice is unaffected by the flow conditions. Analysis of the small-angle neutron scattering signal using the Guinier-Porod model suggests that a sudden transition from three-dimensional cylindrical pores with 15 Å radius of gyration to two-dimensional lamellae is the mechanism underlying the pore collapse. The rather high temperature of about 120-140 K of micropore collapse and the 3D-to-2D type of the transition unraveled in this study have implications for our understanding of the processing and evolution of ices in various astrophysical environments.

  14. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  15. Search for the first-order liquid-to-liquid phase transition in low-temperature confined water by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Wang, Zhe; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Kao-Hsiang

    2013-02-01

    It has been conjectured that a 1st order liquid-to-liquid (L-L) phase transition (LLPT) between high density liquid (HDL) and low density liquid (LDL) in supercooled water may exist, as a thermodynamic extension to the liquid phase of the 1st order transition established between the two bulk solid phases of amorphous ice, the high density amorphous ice (HDA) and the low density amorphous ice (LDA). In this paper, we first recall our previous attempts to establish the existence of the 1st order L-L phase transition through the use of two neutron scattering techniques: a constant Q elastic diffraction study of isobaric temperature scan of the D2O density, namely, the equation of state (EOS) measurements. A pronounced density hysteresis phenomenon in the temperature scan of the density above P = 1500 bar is observed which gives a plausible evidence of crossing the 1st order L-L phase transition line above this pressure; an incoherent quasi-elastic scattering measurements of temperature-dependence of the α-relaxation time of H2O at a series of pressures, namely, the study of the Fragile-to-Strong dynamic crossover (FSC) phenomenon as a function of pressure which we interpreted as the results of crossing the Widom line in the one-phase region. In this new experiment, we used incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) to measure the density of states (DOS) of H atoms in H2O molecules in confined water as function of temperature and pressure, through which we may be able to follow the emergence of the LDL and HDL phases at supercooled temperature and high pressures. We here report for the first time the differences of librational and translational DOSs between the hypothetical HDL and LDL phases, which are similar to the corresponding differences between the well-established HDA and LDA ices. This is plausible evidence that the HDL and LDL phases are the thermodynamic extensions of the corresponding amorphous solid water HDA and LDA ices.

  16. Evidence for middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from diatoms and ice-rafted debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Catherine E; St John, Kristen; Koç, Nalân; Jordan, Richard W; Passchier, Sandra; Pearce, Richard B; Kearns, Lance E

    2009-07-16

    Oceanic sediments from long cores drilled on the Lomonosov ridge, in the central Arctic, contain ice-rafted debris (IRD) back to the middle Eocene epoch, prompting recent suggestions that ice appeared in the Arctic about 46 million years (Myr) ago. However, because IRD can be transported by icebergs (derived from land-based ice) and also by sea ice, IRD records are restricted to providing a history of general ice-rafting only. It is critical to differentiate sea ice from glacial (land-based) ice as climate feedback mechanisms vary and global impacts differ between these systems: sea ice directly affects ocean-atmosphere exchanges, whereas land-based ice affects sea level and consequently ocean acidity. An earlier report assumed that sea ice was prevalent in the middle Eocene Arctic on the basis of IRD, and although somewhat preliminary supportive evidence exists, these data are neither comprehensive nor quantified. Here we show the presence of middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from an extraordinary abundance of a group of sea-ice-dependent fossil diatoms (Synedropsis spp.). Analysis of quartz grain textural characteristics further supports sea ice as the dominant transporter of IRD at this time. Together with new information on cosmopolitan diatoms and existing IRD records, our data strongly suggest a two-phase establishment of sea ice: initial episodic formation in marginal shelf areas approximately 47.5 Myr ago, followed approximately 0.5 Myr later by the onset of seasonally paced sea-ice formation in offshore areas of the central Arctic. Our data establish a 2-Myr record of sea ice, documenting the transition from a warm, ice-free environment to one dominated by winter sea ice at the start of the middle Eocene climatic cooling phase.

  17. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  18. Self-preservation and structural transition of gas hydrates during dissociation below the ice point: an in situ study using Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Rong Zhong; Xin-Yang Zeng; Feng-He Zhou; Qi-Dong Ran; Chang-Yu Sun; Rui-Qin Zhong; Lan-Ying Yang; Guang-Jin Chen; Carolyn A. Koh

    2016-01-01

    The hydrate structure type and dissociation behavior for pure methane and methane-ethane hydrates at temperatures below the ice point and atmospheric pressure were investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopic analysis. The self-preservation effect of sI methane hydrate is significant at lower temperatures (268.15 to 270.15?K), as determined by the stable C-H region Raman peaks and A L/A S value (Ratio of total peak area corresponding to occupancies of guest molecules in large cavities to sm...

  19. Relating C-band Microwave and Optical Satellite Observations as A Function of Snow Thickness on First-Year Sea Ice during the Winter to Summer Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Yackel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice and its snow cover have a direct impact on both the Arctic and global climate system through their ability to moderate heat exchange across the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere (OSA) interface. Snow cover plays a key role in the OSA interface radiation and energy exchange, as it controls the growth and decay of first-year sea ice (FYI). However, meteoric accumulation and redistribution of snow on FYI is highly stochastic over space and time, which makes it poorly understood. Previous studies have estimated local-scale snow thickness distributions using in-situ technique and modelling but it is spatially limited and challenging due to logistic difficulties. Moreover, snow albedo is also critical for determining the surface energy balance of the OSA during the critical summer ablation season. Even then, due to persistent and widespread cloud cover in the Arctic at various spatio-temporal scales, it is difficult and unreliable to remotely measure albedo of snow cover on FYI in the optical spectrum. Previous studies demonstrate that only large-scale sea ice albedo was successfully estimated using optical-satellite sensors. However, space-borne microwave sensors, with their capability of all-weather and 24-hour imaging, can provide enhanced information about snow cover on FYI. Daily spaceborne C-band scatterometer data (ASCAT) and MODIS data are used to investigate the the seasonal co-evolution of the microwave backscatter coefficient and optical albedo as a function of snow thickness on smooth FYI. The research focuses on snow-covered FYI near Cambridge Bay, Nunavut (Fig.1) during the winter to advanced-melt period (April-June, 2014). The ACSAT time series (Fig.2) show distinct increase in scattering at melt onset indicating the first occurrence of melt water in the snow cover. The corresponding albedo exhibits no decrease at this stage. We show how the standard deviation of ASCAT backscatter on FYI during winter can be used as a proxy for surface roughness

  20. ICE AND DUST IN THE PRESTELLAR DARK CLOUD LYNDS 183: PREPLANETARY MATTER AT THE LOWEST TEMPERATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Poteet, C. A.; Bajaj, V. M.; Horne, D. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy and New York Center for Astrobiology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Chiar, J. E. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Pagani, L. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Shenoy, S. S. [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Adamson, A. J. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2013-09-10

    Dust grains are nucleation centers and catalysts for the growth of icy mantles in quiescent interstellar clouds, the products of which may accumulate into preplanetary matter when new stars and solar systems form within the clouds. In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic detections of silicate dust and the molecular ices H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} in the vicinity of the prestellar core L183 (L134N). An infrared photometric survey of the cloud was used to identify reddened background stars, and we present spectra covering solid-state absorption features in the wavelength range 2-20 {mu}m for nine of them. The mean composition of the ices in the best-studied line of sight (toward J15542044-0254073) is H{sub 2}O:CO:CO{sub 2} Almost-Equal-To 100:40:24. The ices are amorphous in structure, indicating that they have been maintained at low temperature ({approx}< 15 K) since formation. The ice column density N(H{sub 2}O) correlates with reddening by dust, exhibiting a threshold effect that corresponds to the transition from unmantled grains in the outer layers of the cloud to ice-mantled grains within, analogous to that observed in other dark clouds. A comparison of results for L183 and the Taurus and IC 5146 dark clouds suggests common behavior, with mantles first appearing in each case at a dust column corresponding to a peak optical depth {tau}{sub 9.7} = 0.15 {+-} 0.03 in the silicate feature. Our results support a previous conclusion that the color excess E{sub J-K} does not obey a simple linear correlation with the total dust column in lines of sight that intercept dense clouds. The most likely explanation is a systematic change in the optical properties of the dust as the density increases.

  1. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  2. Properties of amorphous and microcrystalline superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Poon, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    Results of x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, critical field(H/sub c2/) and transport measurements are presented and discussed for bulk amorphous and microcrystalline transition metal alloys (Au--La, Nb--Rh, Nb--Ni--Rh, and Pd--Zr) obtained by liquid quenching. The transition temperature of the alloys is in the range 1.5 to 4.7 0 K. The J/sub c/--H/sub c2/--T/sub c/ relations are rather simple for this class of material and are compared with the theories of type II superconductors. The high resistance of bulk metallic glass to radiation damage might render them suitable for magnetic field applications in high radiation environments

  3. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO2 nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanjun Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO2 nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO2 nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO2 phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B0 = 158 GPa of the anatase TiO2 nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa. We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO2 nanotubes.

  4. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  5. IR-spectroscopy of environmental relevant ice-aerosols: Analysis of phase transitions; IR-Spektrometrie umweltrelevanter Eisaerosole: Untersuchung von Phasenuebergaengen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, T. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kuestenforschung

    2002-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the transition area of water from the monomer to nanoparticles. To achieve the ambient temperature range from 130 K to 300 K in a collisional cooling cell a cooled gas plant was established. With the given parameters a transition temperature of 167 K was found. This temperature appeared to be a bifurcation point: small fluctuations of the temperature - due to the fuzzy control of the cell heating - caused distinct changes of the spectra. Slight increments of the temperature extend the transition period monomer/nanoparticle and let significant deviations to the typical particle spectrum occur (appearance and width of the band, respectively). The H{sub 2}O (D{sub 2}O)/He sample gas mixtures were generated by a reliable dew-point technique and were injected into the collisional cooling cell at the corresponding temperature. (orig.)

  6. Neutron irradiation and high temperature effects on amorphous Fe-based nano-coatings on steel - A macroscopic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, N.; Zhong, Z.; Dooryhee, E.; Ghose, S.; Gill, S.; Camino, F.; Şavklıyıldız, İ.; Akdoğan, E. K.

    2017-06-01

    The study revealed that loss of ductility in an amorphous Fe-alloy coating on a steel substrate composite structure was essentially prevented from occurring, following radiation with modest neutron doses of ∼2 × 1018 n/cm2. At the higher neutron dose of ∼2 × 1019, macroscopic stress-strain analysis showed that the amorphous Fe-alloy nanostructured coating, while still amorphous, experienced radiation-induced embrittlement, no longer offering protection against ductility loss in the coating-substrate composite structure. Neutron irradiation in a corrosive environment revealed exemplary oxidation/corrosion resistance of the amorphous Fe-alloy coating, which is attributed to the formation of the Fe2B phase in the coating. To establish the impact of elevated temperatures on the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in the amorphous Fe-alloy, electron microscopy was carried out which confirmed the radiation-induced suppression of crystallization in the amorphous Fe-alloy nanostructured coating.

  7. Neutron irradiation and high temperature effects on amorphous Fe-based nano-coatings on steel – A macroscopic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.; Zhong, Z.; Dooryhee, E.; Ghose, S.; Gill, S.

    2017-01-01

    Here, this study revealed that loss of ductility in an amorphous Fe-alloy coating on a steel substrate composite structure was essentially prevented from occurring, following radiation with modest neutron doses of ~2 x 10 18 n/cm 2 . At the higher neutron dose of ~2 x 10 19 , macroscopic stress-strain analysis showed that the amorphous Fe-alloy nanostructured coating, while still amorphous, experienced radiation-induced embrittlement, no longer offering protection against ductility loss in the coating-substrate composite structure. Neutron irradiation in a corrosive environment revealed exemplary oxidation/corrosion resistance of the amorphous Fe-alloy coating, which is attributed to the formation of the Fe 2 B phase in the coating. To establish the impact of elevated temperatures on the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in the amorphous Fe-alloy, electron microscopy was carried out which confirmed the radiation-induced suppression of crystallization in the amorphous Fe-alloy nanostructured coating.

  8. Ice Ages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the precession of the earth's orbit caused ice ages. The precession of the earth's orbit leads to changes in the time of the year at which ... than in the southern hemisphere. ..... small increase in ocean temperature implies a large increase in.

  9. Crystallization inhibitors for amorphous oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznitskij, L.A.; Filippova, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    Data for the last 10 years, in which experimental results of studying the temperature stabilization of x-ray amorphous oxides (including R 3 Fe 5 O 12 R-rare earths, ZrO 2 , In 2 O 3 , Sc 2 O 3 ) and their solid solution are presented, are generalized. Processes of amorphous oxide crystallization with the production of simple oxides, solid solutions and chemical compounds with different polyhedral structure, are investigated. Energy and crystallochemical criteria for selecting the doping inhibitor-components stabilizing the amorphous state are ascertained, temperatures and enthalpies of amorpous oxide crystallization are determined, examination of certain provisions of iso,orphous miscibility theory is conducted

  10. Crystalline and amorphous H2O on Charon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Grundy, Will M.; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Catherine B.; Stern, S. Alan; Young, Leslie A.; Weaver, Harold A.

    2015-11-01

    Charon, the largest satellite of Pluto, is a gray-colored icy world covered mostly in H2O ice, with spectral evidence for NH3, as previously reported (Cook et al. 2007, Astrophys. J. 663, 1406-1419 Merlin, et al. 2010, Icarus, 210, 930; Cook, et al. 2014, AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts, 46, #401.04). Images from the New Horizons spacecraft reveal a surface with terrains of widely different ages and a moderate degree of localized coloration. The presence of H2O ice in its crystalline form (Brown & Calvin 2000 Science 287, 107-109; Buie & Grundy 2000 Icarus 148, 324-339; Merlin et al, 2010) along with NH3 is consistent with a fresh surface.The phase of H2O ice is a key tracer of variations in temperature and physical conditions on the surface of outer Solar System objects. At Charon’s surface temperature H2O is expected to be amorphous, but ground-based observations (e.g., Merlin et al. 2010) show a clearly crystalline signature. From laboratory experiments it is known that amorphous H2O ice becomes crystalline at temperatures of ~130 K. Other mechanisms that can change the phase of the ice from amorphous to crystalline include micro-meteoritic bombardment (Porter et al. 2010, Icarus, 208, 492) or resurfacing processes such as cryovolcanism.New Horizons observed Charon with the LEISA imaging spectrometer, part of the Ralph instrument (Reuter, D.C., Stern, S.A., Scherrer, J., et al. 2008, Space Science Reviews, 140, 129). Making use of high spatial resolution (better than 10 km/px) and spectral resolving power of 240 in the wavelength range 1.25-2.5 µm, and 560 in the range 2.1-2.25 µm, we report on an analysis of the phase of H2O ice on parts of Charon’s surface with a view to investigate the recent history and evolution of this small but intriguing object.This work was supported by NASA’s New Horizons project.

  11. Amorphous Cu-Ag films with high stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, I.M.; Hafner, J.; Pongratz, P.; Wagendristel, A.; Bangert, H.; Bhat, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    Films produced by quenching Cu-Ag vapour onto cooled substrates at liquid nitrogen temperature have been investigated using electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. In the composition range from 30 to 70 at% Cu the as quenched films are amorphous, and within the range of 35 to 63 at% Cu the amorphous phase is stable above room temperature with a maximum crystallization temperature Tsub(c)=381 K at 47.5 at% Cu. Crystallization results in the formation of a supersaturated fcc solid solution which decomposes in a second crystallization step. The effect of deposition rate, film thickness, temperature and surface of the substrate, and most importantly of the composition on the transition temperatures has been investigated. A comparative study of the formation of amorphous phases in a wide variety of Cu-based alloys is presented. (author)

  12. Ethane Ices in the Outer Solar System: Spectroscopy and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Raines, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    We report recent experiments on ethane ices made at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System. New near- and mid-infrared data for crystalline and amorphous ethane, including new spectra for a seldom-studied solid phase that exists at 35-55 K, are presented along with radiation-chemical experiments showing the formation of more-complex hydrocarbons

  13. Eulerian Method for Ice Crystal Icing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen; van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    In this study, an ice accretion method aimed at ice crystal icing in turbofan engines is developed and demonstrated for glaciated as well as mixed-phase icing conditions. The particle trajectories are computed by an Eulerian trajectory method. The effects of heat transfer and phase change on the

  14. Amorphous Ti-Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinkin, A.; Liebermann, H.; Pounds, S.; Taylor, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is the first report on processing, properties and potential application of amorphous titanium/zirconium-base alloys produced in the form of a good quality continuous and ductile ribbon having up to 12.5 mm width. To date, the majority of titanium brazing is accomplished using cooper and aluminum-base brazing filler metals. The brazements produced with these filler metals have rather low (∼300 degrees C) service temperature, thus impeding progress in aircraft and other technologies and industries. The attempt to develop a generation of high temperature brazing filler metals was made in the late sixties-early seventies studies in detail were a large number of Ti-, Zr-Ti-Zr, Ti-V and Zr-V-Ti based alloys. The majority of these alloys has copper and nickel as melting temperature depressants. The presence of nickel and copper converts them into eutectic alloys having [Ti(Zr)] [Cu(Ni)], intermetallic phases as major structural constituents. This, in turn, results in high alloy brittleness and poor, if any, processability by means of conventional, i.e. melting-ingot casting-deformation technology. In spite of good wettability and high joint strength achieved in dozens of promising alloys, only Ti-15Cu-15Ni is now widely used as a brazing filler metal for high service temperature. Up until now this material could not be produced as a homogeneous foil and is instead applied as a clad strip consisting of three separate metallic layers

  15. Anomalous magnetoresistance in amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'menko, V.M.; Vladychkin, A.N.; Mel'nikov, V.I.; Sudovtsev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetoresistance of amorphous Bi, Ca, V and Yb films is investigated in fields up to 4 T at low temperatures. For all metals the magnetoresistance is positive, sharply decreases with growth of temperature and depends anomalously on the magnetic field strength. For amorphous superconductors the results agree satisfactorily with the theory of anomalous magnetoresistance in which allowance is made for scattering of electrons by the superconducting fluctuations

  16. Pressure-induced amorphization of NaVO/sub 3 at room temperature and its re-crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Z.X.; Ong, C.W.; Tang, S.H.; Kuok, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure-induced amorphization is the subject of intense study for the past few years because of its importance in material science and in solid state physics. We reported a crystalline-amorphous phase transition at ca 60kbar in NaVO1/3, which is the lowest pressure for such transitions in ionic crystals. The transition is marked by the sudden appearance of very broad bands at the 800 and 350 cm/sup -1 regions. The amorphization includes the complete breaking up of the infinite chains of corner-linked tetrahedral VO/sub 4, most likely into VO/sup -/sub 3. On decompression, the amorphous phase transforms to another phase, probably also amorphous at ca 40 kbar. It reverts to the stable ambient condition α-phase upon heating. Here we report on the details of the transtitional region and the re-linking of the VO/sub 4 chains upon heating. (authors)

  17. Generalized melting criterion for beam-induced amorphization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N. Q.; Okamoto, Paul R.

    1993-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that the mean-square static atomic displacements provide a generic measure of the enthalpy stored in the lattice in the form of chemical and topological disorder, and that the effect of the displacements on the softening of shear elastic constants is identical to that of heating. This finding lends support to a generalized form of the Lindemann phenomenological melting criterion and leads to a natural interpretion of crystalline-to-amorphous transformations as defect-induced melting of metastable crystals driven beyond a critical state of disorder where the melting temperature falls below the glass-transition temperature. Application of the generalized Lindemann criterion to both the crystalline and amorphous phases indicates that the enthalpies of the two phases become identical when their shear moduli become equal. This thermo-elastic rule provides a basis for predicting the relative susceptibility of compounds to amorphization in terms of their elastic properties as measured by Debye temperatures. The present approach can explain many of the basic findings on beam-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds as well as amorphous phase formation associated with ion implantation, ion-beam mixing and other solid-state processes

  18. Heavy ion irradiation of crystalline water ice. Cosmic ray amorphisation cross-section and sputtering yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartois, E.; Augé, B.; Boduch, P.; Brunetto, R.; Chabot, M.; Domaracka, A.; Ding, J. J.; Kamalou, O.; Lv, X. Y.; Rothard, H.; da Silveira, E. F.; Thomas, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Under cosmic irradiation, the interstellar water ice mantles evolve towards a compact amorphous state. Crystalline ice amorphisation was previously monitored mainly in the keV to hundreds of keV ion energies. Aims: We experimentally investigate heavy ion irradiation amorphisation of crystalline ice, at high energies closer to true cosmic rays, and explore the water-ice sputtering yield. Methods: We irradiated thin crystalline ice films with MeV to GeV swift ion beams, produced at the GANIL accelerator. The ice infrared spectral evolution as a function of fluence is monitored with in-situ infrared spectroscopy (induced amorphisation of the initial crystalline state into a compact amorphous phase). Results: The crystalline ice amorphisation cross-section is measured in the high electronic stopping-power range for different temperatures. At large fluence, the ice sputtering is measured on the infrared spectra, and the fitted sputtering-yield dependence, combined with previous measurements, is quadratic over three decades of electronic stopping power. Conclusions: The final state of cosmic ray irradiation for porous amorphous and crystalline ice, as monitored by infrared spectroscopy, is the same, but with a large difference in cross-section, hence in time scale in an astrophysical context. The cosmic ray water-ice sputtering rates compete with the UV photodesorption yields reported in the literature. The prevalence of direct cosmic ray sputtering over cosmic-ray induced photons photodesorption may be particularly true for ices strongly bonded to the ice mantles surfaces, such as hydrogen-bonded ice structures or more generally the so-called polar ices. Experiments performed at the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) Caen, France. Part of this work has been financed by the French INSU-CNRS programme "Physique et Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire" (PCMI) and the ANR IGLIAS.

  19. Sea ice - Multiyear cycles and white ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The multiyear thickness cycles represent one of the interesting features of the sea ice studies performed by Semtner (1976) and Washington et al. (1976) with simple thermodynamic models of sea ice. In the present article, a description is given of results which show that the insulating effect of snow on the surface of the sea ice is important in producing these multiyear cycles given the physics included in the model. However, when the formation of white ice is included, the cycles almost disappear. White ice is the ice which forms at the snow-ice interface when the snow layer becomes thick enough to depress the ice below the water level. Water infiltrates the snow by coming through the ice at leads and generally freezes there, forming white ice.

  20. Nature of metastable amorphous-to-crystalline reversible phase transformations in GaSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkan, B. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 20015 (United States); Edwards, T. G.; Sen, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Raoux, S. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2013-08-28

    The structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic aspects of the transformations between the metastable amorphous and crystalline phases of GaSb are investigated as a function of pressure at ambient temperature using synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments in a diamond anvil cell. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the pressure induced crystallization of amorphous GaSb into the β-Sn crystal structure near ∼5 GPa is possibly a manifestation of an underlying polyamorphic phase transition between a semiconducting, low density and a metallic, high density amorphous (LDA and HDA, respectively) phases. In this scenario, the large differences in the thermal crystallization kinetics between amorphous GaSb deposited in thin film form by sputtering and that prepared by laser melt quenching may be related to the relative location of the glass transition temperature of the latter in the pressure-temperature (P-T) space with respect to the location of the critical point that terminate the LDA ↔ HDA transition. The amorphous →β-Sn phase transition is found to be hysteretically reversible as the β-Sn phase undergoes decompressive amorphization near ∼2 GPa due to the lattice instabilities that give rise to density fluctuations in the crystal upon decompression.

  1. Nature of metastable amorphous-to-crystalline reversible phase transformations in GaSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, B.; Edwards, T. G.; Raoux, S.; Sen, S.

    2013-08-01

    The structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic aspects of the transformations between the metastable amorphous and crystalline phases of GaSb are investigated as a function of pressure at ambient temperature using synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments in a diamond anvil cell. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the pressure induced crystallization of amorphous GaSb into the β-Sn crystal structure near ˜5 GPa is possibly a manifestation of an underlying polyamorphic phase transition between a semiconducting, low density and a metallic, high density amorphous (LDA and HDA, respectively) phases. In this scenario, the large differences in the thermal crystallization kinetics between amorphous GaSb deposited in thin film form by sputtering and that prepared by laser melt quenching may be related to the relative location of the glass transition temperature of the latter in the pressure-temperature (P-T) space with respect to the location of the critical point that terminate the LDA ↔ HDA transition. The amorphous → β-Sn phase transition is found to be hysteretically reversible as the β-Sn phase undergoes decompressive amorphization near ˜2 GPa due to the lattice instabilities that give rise to density fluctuations in the crystal upon decompression.

  2. Nature of metastable amorphous-to-crystalline reversible phase transformations in GaSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkan, B.; Edwards, T. G.; Sen, S.; Raoux, S.

    2013-01-01

    The structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic aspects of the transformations between the metastable amorphous and crystalline phases of GaSb are investigated as a function of pressure at ambient temperature using synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments in a diamond anvil cell. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the pressure induced crystallization of amorphous GaSb into the β-Sn crystal structure near ∼5 GPa is possibly a manifestation of an underlying polyamorphic phase transition between a semiconducting, low density and a metallic, high density amorphous (LDA and HDA, respectively) phases. In this scenario, the large differences in the thermal crystallization kinetics between amorphous GaSb deposited in thin film form by sputtering and that prepared by laser melt quenching may be related to the relative location of the glass transition temperature of the latter in the pressure-temperature (P-T) space with respect to the location of the critical point that terminate the LDA ↔ HDA transition. The amorphous →β-Sn phase transition is found to be hysteretically reversible as the β-Sn phase undergoes decompressive amorphization near ∼2 GPa due to the lattice instabilities that give rise to density fluctuations in the crystal upon decompression

  3. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...

  4. Ice Caps and Ice Belts: The Effects of Obliquity on Ice−Albedo Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Brian E. J. [Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany (State University of New York), 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Cronin, Timothy W. [Program in Atmospheres, Oceans, and Climate, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bitz, Cecilia M., E-mail: brose@albany.edu [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, MS 351640, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1640 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Planetary obliquity determines the meridional distribution of the annual mean insolation. For obliquity exceeding 55°, the weakest insolation occurs at the equator. Stable partial snow and ice cover on such a planet would be in the form of a belt about the equator rather than polar caps. An analytical model of planetary climate is used to investigate the stability of ice caps and ice belts over the widest possible range of parameters. The model is a non-dimensional diffusive Energy Balance Model, representing insolation, heat transport, and ice−albedo feedback on a spherical planet. A complete analytical solution for any obliquity is given and validated against numerical solutions of a seasonal model in the “deep-water” regime of weak seasonal ice line migration. Multiple equilibria and unstable transitions between climate states (ice-free, Snowball, or ice cap/belt) are found over wide swaths of parameter space, including a “Large Ice-Belt Instability” and “Small Ice-Belt Instability” at high obliquity. The Snowball catastrophe is avoided at weak radiative forcing in two different scenarios: weak albedo feedback and inefficient heat transport (favoring stable partial ice cover), or efficient transport at high obliquity (favoring ice-free conditions). From speculative assumptions about distributions of planetary parameters, three-fourths to four-fifths of all planets with stable partial ice cover should be in the form of Earth-like polar caps.

  5. Interface-mediated amorphization of coesite by 200 keV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, W.L.; Wang, L.M.; Ewing, R.C.; Xie, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    Electron-induced amorphization of coesite was studied as a function of irradiation temperature by in situ transmission electron microscopy at an incident energy of 200 keV. Electron-induced amorphization of coesite is induced by an ionization mechanism and is mainly dominated by an interface-mediated, heterogeneous nucleation-and-growth controlled process. Amorphous domains nucleate at surfaces, crystalline-amorphous (c-a) interfaces, and grain boundaries. This is the same process as the interface-mediated vitrification of coesite by isothermal annealing above the thermodynamic melting temperature (875 K), but below the glass transition temperature (1480 K). The interface-mediated amorphization of coesite by electron irradiation is morphologically similar to interface-mediated thermodynamic melting. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Neutron diffraction and thermal studies of amorphous CS2 realised by low-temperature vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, O.; Matsuo, T.; Onoda-Yamamuro, N.; Takeda, K.; Munemura, H.; Tanaka, S.; Misawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    We have succeeded in preparing amorphous carbon disulphide (CS 2 ) by depositing its vapour on a cold substrate at 10 K. Complete formation of the amorphous state has been confirmed by neutron diffraction and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The amorphous sample crystallized at ca. 70 K, which is lower than the hypothetical glass transition temperature (92 K) estimated from the DTA data of the (CS 2 ) x (S 2 Cl 2 ) 1-x binary mixture. CS 2 , a symmetric linear tri-atomic molecule, is the simplest of the amorphized molecular substances whose structural and thermal information has been reported so far. Comparison of the static structure factors S(Q) has shown that the orientational correlation of CS 2 molecules may be much stronger in the amorphous state than in the liquid state at higher temperature. (authors)

  7. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  8. Experiments indicating a second hydrogen ordered phase of ice VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Tobias M; Thoeny, Alexander V; Plaga, Lucie J; Köster, Karsten W; Etter, Martin; Böhmer, Roland; Loerting, Thomas

    2018-05-14

    In the last twelve years five new ice phases were experimentally prepared. Two of them are empty clathrate hydrates and three of them represent hydrogen ordered counterparts of previously known disordered ice phases. Here, we report on hydrogen ordering in ice VI samples produced by cooling at pressures up to 2.00 GPa. Based on results from calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction the existence of a second hydrogen ordered polymorph related to ice VI is suggested. Powder X-ray data show the oxygen network to be the one of ice VI. For the 1.80 GPa sample the activation energy from dielectric spectroscopy is 45 kJ mol -1 , which is much larger than for the known hydrogen ordered proxy of ice VI, ice XV. Raman spectroscopy indicates the 1.80 GPa sample to be more ordered than ice XV. It is further distinct from ice XV in that it experiences hydrogen disordering above ≈103 K which is 26 K below the ice XV to ice VI disordering transition. Consequently, below 103 K it is thermodynamically more stable than ice XV, adding a stability region to the phase diagram of water. For the time being we suggest to call this new phase ice β-XV and to relabel it ice XVIII once its crystal structure is known.

  9. Nonlinear threshold behavior during the loss of Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, I; Wettlaufer, J S

    2009-01-06

    In light of the rapid recent retreat of Arctic sea ice, a number of studies have discussed the possibility of a critical threshold (or "tipping point") beyond which the ice-albedo feedback causes the ice cover to melt away in an irreversible process. The focus has typically been centered on the annual minimum (September) ice cover, which is often seen as particularly susceptible to destabilization by the ice-albedo feedback. Here, we examine the central physical processes associated with the transition from ice-covered to ice-free Arctic Ocean conditions. We show that although the ice-albedo feedback promotes the existence of multiple ice-cover states, the stabilizing thermodynamic effects of sea ice mitigate this when the Arctic Ocean is ice covered during a sufficiently large fraction of the year. These results suggest that critical threshold behavior is unlikely during the approach from current perennial sea-ice conditions to seasonally ice-free conditions. In a further warmed climate, however, we find that a critical threshold associated with the sudden loss of the remaining wintertime-only sea ice cover may be likely.

  10. ICE AND DUST IN THE PRESTELLAR DARK CLOUD LYNDS 183: PREPLANETARY MATTER AT THE LOWEST TEMPERATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Poteet, C. A.; Bajaj, V. M.; Horne, D.; Chiar, J. E.; Pagani, L.; Shenoy, S. S.; Adamson, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Dust grains are nucleation centers and catalysts for the growth of icy mantles in quiescent interstellar clouds, the products of which may accumulate into preplanetary matter when new stars and solar systems form within the clouds. In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic detections of silicate dust and the molecular ices H 2 O, CO, and CO 2 in the vicinity of the prestellar core L183 (L134N). An infrared photometric survey of the cloud was used to identify reddened background stars, and we present spectra covering solid-state absorption features in the wavelength range 2-20 μm for nine of them. The mean composition of the ices in the best-studied line of sight (toward J15542044–0254073) is H 2 O:CO:CO 2 ≈ 100:40:24. The ices are amorphous in structure, indicating that they have been maintained at low temperature (∼ 2 O) correlates with reddening by dust, exhibiting a threshold effect that corresponds to the transition from unmantled grains in the outer layers of the cloud to ice-mantled grains within, analogous to that observed in other dark clouds. A comparison of results for L183 and the Taurus and IC 5146 dark clouds suggests common behavior, with mantles first appearing in each case at a dust column corresponding to a peak optical depth τ 9.7 = 0.15 ± 0.03 in the silicate feature. Our results support a previous conclusion that the color excess E J–K does not obey a simple linear correlation with the total dust column in lines of sight that intercept dense clouds. The most likely explanation is a systematic change in the optical properties of the dust as the density increases

  11. Ice cloud processing of ultra-viscous/glassy aerosol particles leads to enhanced ice nucleation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation potential of airborne glassy aqueous aerosol particles has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 247 and 216 K. Four different solutes were used as proxies for oxygenated organic matter found in the atmosphere: raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA, levoglucosan, and a multi-component mixture of raffinose with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate. Similar to previous experiments with citric acid aerosols, all particles were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously before reaching the homogeneous freezing threshold provided that the freezing cycles were started well below the respective glass transition temperatures of the compounds; this is discussed in detail in a separate article. In this contribution, we identify a further mechanism by which glassy aerosols can promote ice nucleation below the homogeneous freezing limit. If the glassy aerosol particles are probed in freezing cycles started only a few degrees below their respective glass transition temperatures, they enter the liquid regime of the state diagram upon increasing relative humidity (moisture-induced glass-to-liquid transition before being able to act as heterogeneous ice nuclei. Ice formation then only occurs by homogeneous freezing at elevated supersaturation levels. When ice forms the remaining solution freeze concentrates and re-vitrifies. If these ice cloud processed glassy aerosol particles are then probed in a second freezing cycle at the same temperature, they catalyse ice formation at a supersaturation threshold between 5 and 30% with respect to ice. By analogy with the enhanced ice nucleation ability of insoluble ice nuclei like mineral dusts after they nucleate ice once, we refer to this phenomenon as pre-activation. We propose a number of possible explanations for why glassy aerosol particles that have re

  12. Classification of new-ice in the Greenland Sea using Satellite SSM/I radiometer and SeaWinds scatterometer data and comparison with ice model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonboe, Rasmus; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2005-01-01

    In the ice covered waters of the Greenland Sea the polarisation ratio of QuikSCAT SeaWinds Ku-band (13.4 GHz) scatterometer measurements and the polarisation ratio of DMSP-SSM/I 19 GHz radiometer measurements are used in combination to classify new-ice and mature ice. In particular, the formation...... to the physical transition of the ice cover from pancake ice to a consolidated young-ice sheet. The classification of each pixel into ice or water is done using two scatterometer parameters, namely the polarisation ratio and the daily standard deviation of the backscatter. (C) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights...

  13. Reconciling records of ice streaming and ice margin retreat to produce a palaeogeographic reconstruction of the deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margold, Martin; Stokes, Chris R.; Clark, Chris D.

    2018-06-01

    rates markedly increased after the YD and the ice sheet became limited to the Canadian Shield. This hard-bed substrate brought a change in the character of ice streaming, which became less frequent but generated much broader terrestrial ice streams. The final collapse of the ice sheet saw a series of small ephemeral ice streams that resulted from the rapidly changing ice sheet geometry in and around Hudson Bay. Our reconstruction indicates that the LIS underwent a transition from a topographically-controlled ice drainage network at the LGM to an ice drainage network characterised by less frequent, broad ice streams during the later stages of deglaciation. These deglacial ice streams are mostly interpreted as a reaction to localised ice-dynamical forcing (flotation and calving of the ice front in glacial lakes and transgressing sea; basal de-coupling due to large amount of meltwater reaching the bed, debuttressing due to rapid changes in ice sheet geometry) rather than as conveyors of excess mass from the accumulation area of the ice sheet. At an ice sheet scale, the ice stream drainage network became less widespread and less efficient with the decreasing size of the deglaciating ice sheet, the final elimination of which was mostly driven by surface melt.

  14. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  15. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  16. Fundamentals of amorphous solids structure and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Stachurski, Zbigniew H

    2014-01-01

    Long awaited, this textbook fills the gap for convincing concepts to describe amorphous solids. Adopting a unique approach, the author develops a framework that lays the foundations for a theory of amorphousness. He unravels the scientific mysteries surrounding the topic, replacing rather vague notions of amorphous materials as disordered crystalline solids with the well-founded concept of ideal amorphous solids. A classification of amorphous materials into inorganic glasses, organic glasses, glassy metallic alloys, and thin films sets the scene for the development of the model of ideal amorph

  17. Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-06-04

    Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by

  18. Critical behavior in a random field classical Heisenberg model for amorphous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Douglas F. de; Alves, Sandro Roberto L.; Arruda, Alberto S. de

    2005-01-01

    By using the differential operator technique and the effective field theory scheme, the critical behavior of amorphous classical Heisenberg ferromagnet of spin-1/2 in a random field is studied. The phase diagram in the T-H and T-α planes on a simple cubic lattice for a cluster with two spins is obtained. Tricritical points, reentrant phenomena and influence of the random field and amorphization on the transition temperature are discussed

  19. Wave-Ice interaction in the Marginal Ice Zone: Toward a Wave-Ocean-Ice Coupled Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    as the ship encountered smaller ice floes. The first spectra is shown in dark blue and later spectra transitioning to aqua. SWAN spectra at this time...with no ice representation, is shown in black for reference. Figure 2 below shows the dissipation rate as a function of frequency by several...shown with the black lines. These estimates are created using large numbers of inexpensive simulations for Beaufort and Chukchi Seas in 2012, to

  20. Molecular simulation of freestanding amorphous nickel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, T.Q. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France); Hoang, V.V., E-mail: vvhoang2002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of Ho Chi Minh City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lauriat, G. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-10-31

    Size effects on glass formation in freestanding Ni thin films have been studied via molecular dynamics simulation with the n-body Gupta interatomic potential. Atomic mechanism of glass formation in the films is determined via analysis of the spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms occurred upon cooling from the melt. Solid-like atoms are detected via the Lindemann ratio. We find that solid-like atoms initiate and grow mainly in the interior of the film and grow outward. Their number increases with decreasing temperature and at a glass transition temperature they dominate in the system to form a relatively rigid glassy state of a thin film shape. We find the existence of a mobile surface layer in both liquid and glassy states which can play an important role in various surface properties of amorphous Ni thin films. We find that glass formation is size independent for models containing 4000 to 108,000 atoms. Moreover, structure of amorphous Ni thin films has been studied in details via coordination number, Honeycutt–Andersen analysis, and density profile which reveal that amorphous thin films exhibit two different parts: interior and surface layer. The former exhibits almost the same structure like that found for the bulk while the latter behaves a more porous structure containing a large amount of undercoordinated sites which are the origin of various surface behaviors of the amorphous Ni or Ni-based thin films found in practice. - Highlights: • Glass formation is analyzed via spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms. • Amorphous Ni thin film exhibits two different parts: surface and interior. • Mobile surface layer enhances various surface properties of the amorphous Ni thin films. • Undercoordinated sites play an important role in various surface activities.

  1. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of water ice porosity: extrapolations of deposition parameters from the laboratory to interstellar space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Aspen R.; Berk, Brandon; Cooke, Ilsa R.; Garrod, Robin T.

    2018-02-01

    Using an off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo model we reproduce experimental laboratory trends in the density of amorphous solid water (ASW) for varied deposition angle, rate and surface temperature. Extrapolation of the model to conditions appropriate to protoplanetary disks and interstellar dark clouds indicate that these ices may be less porous than laboratory ices.

  2. Amorphous titanium-oxide supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    The electric capacitance of an amorphous TiO2-x surface increases proportionally to the negative sixth power of the convex diameter d. This occurs because of the van der Waals attraction on the amorphous surface of up to 7?mF/cm2, accompanied by extreme enhanced electron trapping resulting from both the quantum-size effect and an offset effect from positive charges at oxygen-vacancy sites. Here we show that a supercapacitor, constructed with a distributed constant-equipment circuit of large r...

  3. Changes on the ice plain of Ice Stream B and Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtaie, Sion

    1993-01-01

    During the 1970's and 1980's, nearly 200 stations from which accurate, three dimensional position fixes have been obtained from TRANSIT satellites were occupied throughout the Ross Ice Shelf. We have transformed the elevations obtained by satellite altimetry to the same geodetic datum, and then applied a second transformation to reduce the geodetic heights to elevations above mean sea level using the GEM-10C geoidal height. On the IGY Ross Ice Shelf traverse between Oct. 1957 and Feb. 1958, an accurate method of barometric altimetry was used on a loop around the ice shelf that was directly tied to the sea at both ends of the travel route, thus providing absolute elevations. Comparisons of the two sets of data at 32 station pairs on floating ice show a mean difference of 0 +/- 1 m. The elevation data were also compared with theoretical values of elevations for a hydrostatically floating ice shelf. The mean difference between theoretical and measured values of elevations is -2 +/- 1 m.

  4. Amorphous nanoparticles — Experiments and computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Vo Van; Ganguli, Dibyendu

    2012-01-01

    The data obtained by both experiments and computer simulations concerning the amorphous nanoparticles for decades including methods of synthesis, characterization, structural properties, atomic mechanism of a glass formation in nanoparticles, crystallization of the amorphous nanoparticles, physico-chemical properties (i.e. catalytic, optical, thermodynamic, magnetic, bioactivity and other properties) and various applications in science and technology have been reviewed. Amorphous nanoparticles coated with different surfactants are also reviewed as an extension in this direction. Much attention is paid to the pressure-induced polyamorphism of the amorphous nanoparticles or amorphization of the nanocrystalline counterparts. We also introduce here nanocomposites and nanofluids containing amorphous nanoparticles. Overall, amorphous nanoparticles exhibit a disordered structure different from that of corresponding bulks or from that of the nanocrystalline counterparts. Therefore, amorphous nanoparticles can have unique physico-chemical properties differed from those of the crystalline counterparts leading to their potential applications in science and technology.

  5. Inception of the Laurentide Ice Sheet using asynchronous coupling of a regional atmospheric model and an ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L.; Cronin, T.; Tziperman, E.

    2017-12-01

    The climate over the past 0.8 million years has been dominated by ice ages. Ice sheets have grown about every 100 kyrs, starting from warm interglacials, until they spanned continents. State-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) have difficulty simulating glacial inception, or the transition of Earth's climate from an interglacial to a glacial state. It has been suggested that this failure may be related to their poorly resolved local mountain topography, due to their coarse spatial resolution. We examine this idea as well as the possible role of ice flow dynamics missing in GCMs. We investigate the growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at 115 kya by focusing on the mountain glaciers of Canada's Baffin Island, where geologic evidence indicates the last inception occurred. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) in a regional, cloud-resolving configuration with resolved mountain terrain to explore how quickly Baffin Island could become glaciated with the favorable yet realizable conditions of 115 kya insolation, cool summers, and wet winters. Using the model-derived mountain glacier mass balance, we force an ice sheet model based on the shallow-ice approximation, capturing the ice flow that may be critical to the spread of ice sheets away from mountain ice caps. The ice sheet model calculates the surface area newly covered by ice and the change in the ice surface elevation, which we then use to run WRF again. Through this type of iterated asynchronous coupling, we investigate how the regional climate responds to both larger areas of ice cover and changes in ice surface elevation. In addition, we use the NOAH-MP Land model to characterize the importance of land processes, like refreezing. We find that initial ice growth on the Penny Ice Cap causes regional cooling that increases the accumulation on the Barnes Ice Cap. We investigate how ice and topography changes on Baffin Island may impact both the regional climate and the large-scale circulation.

  6. Amorphous titanium-oxide supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko

    2016-10-01

    The electric capacitance of an amorphous TiO2-x surface increases proportionally to the negative sixth power of the convex diameter d. This occurs because of the van der Waals attraction on the amorphous surface of up to 7 mF/cm2, accompanied by extreme enhanced electron trapping resulting from both the quantum-size effect and an offset effect from positive charges at oxygen-vacancy sites. Here we show that a supercapacitor, constructed with a distributed constant-equipment circuit of large resistance and small capacitance on the amorphous TiO2-x surface, illuminated a red LED for 37 ms after it was charged with 1 mA at 10 V. The fabricated device showed no dielectric breakdown up to 1,100 V. Based on this approach, further advances in the development of amorphous titanium-dioxide supercapacitors might be attained by integrating oxide ribbons with a micro-electro mechanical system.

  7. Radiation tolerance of amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaides, R.V.; DeFeo, S.; Doremus, L.W.

    1976-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the threshold radiation damage in amorphous semiconductors, radiation tests were performed on amorphous semiconductor thin film materials and on threshold and memory devices. The influence of flash x-rays and neutron radiation upon the switching voltages, on- and off-state characteristics, dielectric response, optical transmission, absorption band edge and photoconductivity were measured prior to, during and following irradiation. These extensive tests showed the high radiation tolerance of amorphous semiconductor materials. Electrical and optical properties, other than photoconductivity, have a neutron radiation tolerance threshold above 10 17 nvt in the steady state and 10 14 nvt in short (50 μsec to 16 msec) pulses. Photoconductivity increases by 1 1 / 2 orders of magnitude at the level of 10 14 nvt (short pulses of 50 μsec). Super flash x-rays up to 5000 rads (Si), 20 nsec, do not initiate switching in off-state samples which are voltage biased up to 90 percent of the threshold voltage. Both memory and threshold amorphous devices are capable of switching on and off during nuclear radiation transients at least as high as 2 x 10 14 nvt in 50 μsec pulses

  8. Amorphous metal matrix composite ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barczy, P.; Szigeti, F.

    1998-01-01

    Composite ribbons with amorphous matrix and ceramic (SiC, WC, MoB) particles were produced by modified planar melt flow casting methods. Weldability, abrasive wear and wood sanding examinations were carried out in order to find optimal material and technology for elevated wear resistance and sanding durability. The correlation between structure and composite properties is discussed. (author)

  9. Model for amorphous aggregation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranks, Samuel D.; Ecroyd, Heath; van Sluyter, Steven; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Carver, John A.; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2009-11-01

    The amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with many phenomena, ranging from the formation of protein wine haze to the development of cataract in the eye lens and the precipitation of recombinant proteins during their expression and purification. While much literature exists describing models for linear protein aggregation, such as amyloid fibril formation, there are few reports of models which address amorphous aggregation. Here, we propose a model to describe the amorphous aggregation of proteins which is also more widely applicable to other situations where a similar process occurs, such as in the formation of colloids and nanoclusters. As first applications of the model, we have tested it against experimental turbidimetry data of three proteins relevant to the wine industry and biochemistry, namely, thaumatin, a thaumatinlike protein, and α -lactalbumin. The model is very robust and describes amorphous experimental data to a high degree of accuracy. Details about the aggregation process, such as shape parameters of the aggregates and rate constants, can also be extracted.

  10. Production and properties of light-metal base amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Masumoto, Tsuyoshi

    1993-01-01

    Light-metal base alloys with high specific strength and good corrosion resistance were produced through amorphization of Al and Mg-based alloys. The amorphous phase is formed in rapidly solidified Al-TM-Ln and Mg-TM-Ln (TM=transition metal, Ln=lanthanide metal) alloys. The highest tensile strength (σ f ) reaches 1,330 MPa for the Al base and 830 MPa for the Mg base. Furthermore, the Mg-based alloys have a large glass-forming capacity which enables to produce an amorphous phase by a metallic mold casting method. The extrusion of the Al-based amorphous powders at temperatures above crystallization temperature caused the formation of high strength materials with finely mixed structure consisting of dispersed intermetallic compounds in an Al matrix. The highest values of σ f and fatigue limit are as high as 940 and 313 MPa, respectively, at room temperature and 520 and 165 MPa at 473 K. The extruded Al-Ni-Mm alloy has already been used as machine parts and subsequent further development as practical materials is expected by taking these advantages

  11. TEM study of amorphous alloys produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Grant, W.A.; Wohlenberg, P.; Hansen, P.; Chadderton, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    Ion implantation is a technique for introducing foreign elements into surface layers of solids. Ions, as a suitably accelerated beam, penetrate the surface, slow down by collisions with target atoms to produce a doped layer. This non-equilibrium technique can provide a wide range of alloys without the restrictions imposed by equilibrium phase diagrams. This paper reports on the production of some amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloys by implantation. Thinned foils of Ni, Fe and stainless steel were implanted at room temperature with Dy + and P + ions at doses between 10 13 - 10 17 ions/cm 2 at energies of 20 and 40 keV respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction analysis were used to investigate the implanted specimens. Radial diffracted intensity measurements confirmed the presence of an amorphous implanted layer. The peak positions of the maxima are in good agreement with data for similar alloys produced by conventional techniques. Only certain ion/target combinations produce these amorphous layers. Implantations at doses lower than those needed for amorphization often result in formation of new crystalline phases such as an h.c.p. phase in nickel and a b.c.c. phase in stainless steel. (Auth.)

  12. Superconducting properties of amorphous Zr-Ge binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Toyota, N.; Fukase, T.; Masumoto, T.

    1982-01-01

    A new type of refractory metal-metalloid amorphous alloys exhibiting superconductivity has been found in a binary Zr-Ge system by a modified melt-spinning technique. Specimens are in the form of continuous ribbons 1 to 2 mm wide and 0.02 to 0.03 mm thick. The germanium content in the amorphous alloys is limited to the range of 13 to 21 at%. These amorphous alloys are so ductile that no cracks are observed even after closely contacted bending test. Data are reported for various alloy compositions for the Vickers hardness and crystallization temperature, the tensile fracture strength, superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c), upper critical magnetic field, critical current density in the absence of an applied field, upper critical field gradient at Tsub(c) and the electrical resistivity at 4.2 K. The Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter and the GL coherence length were estimated to be 72 to 111 and about 7.9 nm, respectively, from these experimental values by using the Ginzburg-Landau-Abrikosov-Gorkov theory and hence it is concluded that the Zr-Ge amorphous alloys are extremely 'soft' type-II superconductor with high degree of dirtiness which possesses the Tsub(c) values higher than zirconium metal, in addition to high strength combined with good ductility. (author)

  13. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...

  14. The influence of ice sheets on temperature during the past 38 million years inferred from a one-dimensional ice sheet-climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, Lennert B.; Van De Wal, Roderik S.W.; De Boer, Bas; Bintanja, Richard; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the inception of the Antarctic ice sheet at the Eocene-Oligocene transition ( ~34 Myr ago), land ice has played a crucial role in Earth's climate. Through feedbacks in the climate system, land ice variability modifies atmospheric temperature changes induced by orbital, topographical, and

  15. Rate of ice accumulation during ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The rate of glaze ice accumulation is the result of a complex process dependent on numerous meteorological and physical factors. The aim of this paper was to estimate the distribution rate of glaze ice accumulation on conductors in southern Quebec for use in the design of mechanical and electrical de-icing devices. The analysis was based on direct observations of ice accumulation collected on passive ice meters. The historical database of Hydro-Quebec, which contains observations at over 140 stations over period of 25 years, was used to compute accumulation rates. Data was processed so that each glaze ice event was numbered in a chronological sequence. Each event consisted of the time series of ice accumulations on each of the 8 cylinders of the ice meters, as well as on 5 of its surfaces. Observed rates were converted to represent the average ice on a 30 mm diameter conductor at 30 m above ground with a span of 300 m. Observations were corrected to account for the water content of the glaze ice as evidenced by the presence of icicles. Results indicated that despite significant spatial variations in the expected severity of ice storms as a function of location, the distribution function for rates of accumulation were fairly similar and could be assumed to be independent of location. It was concluded that the observations from several sites could be combined in order to obtain better estimates of the distribution of hourly rates of ice accumulation. However, the rates were highly variable. For de-icing strategies, it was suggested that average accumulation rates over 12 hour periods were preferable, and that analyses should be performed for other time intervals to account for the variability in ice accumulation rates over time. In addition, accumulation rates did not appear to be highly correlated with average wind speed for maximum hourly accumulation rates. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. Strain sensors for civil engineering application based on CoFeCrSiB amorphous ribbons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bydžovský, J.; Kollár, M.; Jančárik, V.; Švec, P.; Kraus, Luděk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, Suppl. A (2002), s. A117-A120 ISSN 0011-4626. [Czech and Slovak Conference on Magnetism. Košice, 20.08.2001-23.08.2001] Grant - others:NATO(XX) SfP973649; VEGA(XX) 1/7609/20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetic amorphous ribbon * stress-induced anisotropy * strain sensor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  17. Crystallization process and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phu, N D; Luong, N H; Chau, N; Hai, N H; Ngo, D T; Hoang, L H

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied the crystallization process, phase transition and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by the microwave heating technique. Thermal analysis and magnetodynamics studies revealed many interesting aspects of the amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles. The as-prepared sample was amorphous. Crystallization of the maghemite γ-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.71 eV) and the hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.97 eV) phase occurred at around 300 deg. C and 350 deg. C, respectively. A transition from the maghemite to the hematite occurred at 500 deg. C with an activation energy of 1.32 eV. A study of the temperature dependence of magnetization supported the crystallization and the phase transformation. Raman shift at 660 cm -1 and absorption band in the infrared spectra at 690 cm -1 showed the presence of disorder in the hematite phase on the nanoscale which is supposed to be the origin of the ferromagnetic behaviour of that antiferromagnetic phase.

  18. Transportation properties of amorphous state InSb and its metastable middle phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaowen

    1990-09-01

    The variation of the substrate temperature induces the metal-semiconductor transition in the condensation InSb films at low temperatrue. The electron conduction is dominant in the metal-type amorphous InSb and the hole in semiconductor-type one. In the metal-type amorphous InSb the electron-electron is correlated under the field above 0.1T in the temperature region of liquid nitrogen. The structure relaxation leads to not only the increase of the short range order but also the change of electron structure in metal-type amorphous InSb. The first conductance jump originates mainly from the increase of Hall mobility of the carrier, i.e. the increase of the short range order, and the system relaxes from the liquid-like to the lattice-like amorphous state. The three types of the crystallization phase transition for the metal-type amorphous InSb present obviously different transportation behaviours. Both metal-type amorphous state and metastable middle phase of InSb all are one of superconducting system with the lowest carrier concentration (n 0 ∼10 18 cm -3 ). Superconducting T c of the metastable middle phase is related to the state density near Fermi surface, i.e. the higher T c corresponds to the higher state density. The quasi-two-dimensional structure is favourable to superconductivity

  19. Pressure-jump induced rapid solidification of melt: a method of preparing amorphous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuru; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Doudou; Yuan, Chaosheng; Shao, Chunguang; Hong, Shiming

    2018-04-01

    By using a self-designed pressure-jump apparatus, we investigated the melt solidification behavior in rapid compression process for several kinds of materials, such as elementary sulfur, polymer polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and poly-ethylene-terephthalate, alloy La68Al10Cu20Co2 and Nd60Cu20Ni10Al10. Experimental results clearly show that their melts could be solidified to be amorphous states through the rapid compression process. Bulk amorphous PEEK with 24 mm in diameter and 12 mm in height was prepared, which exceeds the size obtained by melt quenching method. The bulk amorphous sulfur thus obtained exhibited extraordinarily high thermal stability, and an abnormal exothermic transition to liquid sulfur was observed at around 396 K for the first time. Furthermore, it is suggested that the glass transition pressure and critical compression rate exist to form the amorphous phase. This approach of rapid compression is very attractive not only because it is a new technique of make bulk amorphous materials, but also because novel properties are expected in the amorphous materials solidified by the pressure-jump within milliseconds or microseconds.

  20. Amorphous/crystal and polymer/filler interphases in biocomposites from poly(butylene succinate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signori, Francesca [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (CNR-IPCF), Via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Pelagaggi, Martina [Universita di Pisa - Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Risorgimento 35, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Bronco, Simona [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (CNR-IPCF), Via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Righetti, Maria Cristina, E-mail: righetti@ipcf.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici (CNR-IPCF), Via G. Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of intermolecular interactions between poly(butylene succinate) and hemp fibres was proved from specific heat capacities data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different degrees of mobility of the poly(butylene succinate) amorphous segments were evidenced at the amorphous/crystal interphase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Devitrification of the rigid amorphous fraction in poly(butylene succinate) was found to occur before and simultaneously with the fusion. - Abstract: Poly(butylene succinate)-hemp composites (PBS-hemp), with hemp content in the range 0-40 wt.%, were prepared in the melt and characterized. This paper focuses on the detailed analysis of the thermal behaviour of the PBS-hemp composites, investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), to enlighten the polymer/fibre interphase features. The occurrence of specific intermolecular interactions between PBS and hemp was assessed from specific heat capacity data. Different degrees of mobility of the PBS amorphous segments were found at the amorphous/crystal interphases. A broadening of the bulk glass transition was observed, and attributed to the presence of polymer segments slightly constrained. Moreover, a rigid amorphous fraction that devitrifies at temperatures higher than the bulk glass transition, partly before the melting region and partly simultaneously with the fusion, was observed and quantified, and attributed to the presence of major constraints probably occurring in geometrically restricted areas.

  1. Evolution of optical properties and band structure from amorphous to crystalline Ga2O3 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabi Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties and band structure evolution from amorphous to crystalline Ga2O3 films was investigated in this work. Amorphous and crystalline Ga2O3 films were obtained by changing the growth substrate temperatures of pulsed laser deposition and the crystallinity increase with the rising of substrate temperature. The bandgap value and ultraviolet emission intensity of the films increase with the rising of crystallinity as observed by means of spectrophotometer and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Abrupt bandgap value and CL emission variations were observed when amorphous to crystalline transition took place. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy core level spectra reveal that more oxygen vacancies and disorders exist in amorphous Ga2O3 film grown at lower substrate temperature. The valence band spectra of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy present the main contribution from Ga 4sp for crystalline film deposited at substrate temperature of 500 oC, while extra subgap states has been observed in amorphous film deposited at 300 oC. The oxygen vacancy and the extra subgap density of states are suggested to be the parts of origin of bandgap and CL spectra variations. The experimental data above yields a realistic picture of optical properties and band structure variation for the amorphous to crystalline transition of Ga2O3 films.

  2. Evolution of optical properties and band structure from amorphous to crystalline Ga2O3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fabi; Li, Haiou; Cui, Yi-Tao; Li, Guo-Ling; Guo, Qixin

    2018-04-01

    The optical properties and band structure evolution from amorphous to crystalline Ga2O3 films was investigated in this work. Amorphous and crystalline Ga2O3 films were obtained by changing the growth substrate temperatures of pulsed laser deposition and the crystallinity increase with the rising of substrate temperature. The bandgap value and ultraviolet emission intensity of the films increase with the rising of crystallinity as observed by means of spectrophotometer and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Abrupt bandgap value and CL emission variations were observed when amorphous to crystalline transition took place. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy core level spectra reveal that more oxygen vacancies and disorders exist in amorphous Ga2O3 film grown at lower substrate temperature. The valence band spectra of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy present the main contribution from Ga 4sp for crystalline film deposited at substrate temperature of 500 oC, while extra subgap states has been observed in amorphous film deposited at 300 oC. The oxygen vacancy and the extra subgap density of states are suggested to be the parts of origin of bandgap and CL spectra variations. The experimental data above yields a realistic picture of optical properties and band structure variation for the amorphous to crystalline transition of Ga2O3 films.

  3. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Amorphous Metallic Alloys: Pathways for Enhanced Wear and Corrosion Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Ayyagari; Felix Wu, H.; Arora, Harpreet; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-11-01

    Amorphous metallic alloys are widely used in bulk form and as coatings for their desirable corrosion and wear behavior. Nevertheless, the effects of heat treatment and thermal cycling on these surface properties are not well understood. In this study, the corrosion and wear behavior of two Zr-based bulk metallic glasses were evaluated in as-cast and thermally relaxed states. Significant improvement in wear rate, friction coefficient, and corrosion penetration rate was seen for both alloys after thermal relaxation. A fully amorphous structure was retained with thermal relaxation below the glass transition. There was an increase in surface hardness and elastic modulus for both alloys after relaxation. The improvement in surface properties was explained based on annihilation of free volume.

  6. Crystallization of amorphous phase in niobium alloys with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekanenko, V.M.; Samojlenko, Z.A.; Revyakin, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Crystallization and subsequent phase transformations of amorphous phase during annealings in the system Nb-O are studied. It is shown that quenching from liquid state of niobium alloys with oxygen with a rate of 10 5 -10 6 K/s results in partial crystallization of the melt. Phase transition from amorphous to crystal state at 670 K in all probability takes place without the change of chemical composition. After crystallization the decomposition of oversaturated solid solution on the basis of NbO takes place with the separation of low- temperature modification, γ-Nb 2 O 5 . Niobium pentoxide of both modifications during prolong annealings at 770 K and short- time annealings higher 1070 K disappears completely [ru

  7. Properties of amorphous FeCoB alloy particles (abstract)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charles, S. W.; Wells, S.; Meagher, A.

    1988-01-01

    -ray diffraction. Magnetic measurements of the saturation magnetization, coercivity, and remanence of the particles have been measured. The transition from the amorphous-to-crystalline state has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermomagnetometry up to a temperature of 450 °C (see Fig......Amorphous and crystalline alloy particles (0.05–0.5 nm) of FexCoyBz in which the ratio x:y ranges from 0 to 1 have been prepared by the borohydride reduction of iron and cobalt salts in aqueous solution. The structure of the particles has been studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy and x....... 1). It has been shown that the fraction of boron in the alloys (10–35 at. %) is dependent upon the rate of addition of salts to borohydride and the concentration of cobalt present; this in turn influences the crystallinity and magnetic properties . Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted...

  8. Ice Thickness, Melting Rates and Styles of Activity in Ice-Volcano Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2005-12-01

    In most cases when eruptions occur within glaciers they lead to rapid ice melting, jokulhlaups and/or lahars. Many parameters influence the style of activity and its impact on the environment. These include ice thickness (size of glacier), bedrock geometry, magma flow rate and magma composition. The eruptions that have been observed can roughly be divided into: (1) eruptions under several hundred meters thick ice on a relatively flat bedrock, (2) eruptions on flat or sloping bed through relatively thin ice, and (3) volcanism where effects are limitied to confinement of lava flows or melting of ice by pyroclastic flows or surges. This last category (ice-contact volcanism) need not cause much ice melting. Many of the deposits formed by Pleistocene volcanism in Iceland, British Columbia and Antarctica belong to the first category. An important difference between this type of activity and submarine activity (where pressure is hydrostatic) is that pressure at vents may in many cases be much lower than glaciostatic due to partial support of ice cover over vents by the surrounding glacier. Reduced pressure favours explosive activity. Thus the effusive/explosive transition may occur several hundred metres underneath the ice surface. Explosive fragmentation of magma leads to much higher rates of heat transfer than does effusive eruption of pillow lavas, and hence much higher melting rates. This effect of reduced pressure at vents will be less pronounced in a large ice sheet than in a smaller glacier or ice cap, since the hydraulic gradient that drives water away from an eruption site will be lower in the large glacier. This may have implications for form and type of eruption deposits and their relationship with ice thickness and glacier size.

  9. Magnetic excitations in amorphous ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continentino, M.A.

    The propagation of magnetic excitations in amorphous ferromagnets is studied from the point of view of the theory of random frequency modulation. It is shown that the spin waves in the hydrodynamic limit are well described by perturbation theory while the roton-like magnetic excitations with wavevector about the peak in the structure factor are not. A criterion of validity of perturbation theory is found which is identical to a narrowing condition in magnetic resonance. (author) [pt

  10. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-09

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  11. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  12. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  13. Amorphization of thiamine chloride hydrochloride: A study of the crystallization inhibitor properties of different polymers in thiamine chloride hydrochloride amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioglu-Tuncil, Seda; Bhardwaj, Vivekanand; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2017-09-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions of thiamine chloride hydrochloride (THCl) were created using a variety of polymers with different physicochemical properties in order to investigate how effective the various polymers were as THCl crystallization inhibitors. THCl:polymer dispersions were prepared by lyophilizing solutions of THCl and amorphous polymers (guar gum, pectin, κ-carrageenan, gelatin, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)). These dispersions were stored at select temperature (25 and 40°C) and relative humidity (0, 23, 32, 54, 75, and 85% RH) conditions and monitored at different time points using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moisture sorption isotherms of all samples were also obtained. Initially amorphous THCl was produced in the presence of ≥40% w/w pectin, κ-carrageenan, gelatin, and guar gum or ≥60% w/w PVP. Trends in polymer THCl crystallization inhibition (pectin≥κ-carrageenan>gelatin>guar gum≫PVP) were primarily based on the ability of the polymer to interact with THCl via hydrogen bonding and/or ionic interactions. The onset of THCl crystallization from the amorphous dispersions was also related to storage conditions. THCl remained amorphous at low RH conditions (0 and 23% RH) in all 1:1 dispersions except THCl:PVP. THCl crystallized in some dispersions below the glass transition temperature (T g ) but remained amorphous in others at T~T g . At high RHs (75 and 85% RH), THCl crystallized within one day in all samples. Given the ease of THCl amorphization in the presence of a variety of polymers, even at higher vitamin concentrations than would be found in foods, it is likely that THCl is amorphous in many low moisture foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE COMPOSITION OF INTERSTELLAR GRAINS TOWARD ζ OPHIUCHI: CONSTRAINING THE ELEMENTAL BUDGET NEAR THE DIFFUSE-DENSE CLOUD TRANSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteet, Charles A.; Whittet, Douglas C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Draine, Bruce T., E-mail: charles.poteet@gmail.com [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    We investigate the composition of interstellar grains along the line of sight toward ζ Ophiuchi, a well-studied environment near the diffuse-dense cloud transition. A spectral decomposition analysis of the solid-state absorbers is performed using archival spectroscopic observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope and Infrared Space Observatory. We find strong evidence for the presence of sub-micron-sized amorphous silicate grains, principally comprised of olivine-like composition, with no convincing evidence of H{sub 2}O ice mantles. However, tentative evidence for thick H{sub 2}O ice mantles on large (a ≈ 2.8 μm) grains is presented. Solid-state abundances of elemental Mg, Si, Fe, and O are inferred from our analysis and compared to standard reference abundances. We find that nearly all of the Mg and Si atoms along the line of sight reside in amorphous silicate grains, while a substantial fraction of the elemental Fe resides in compounds other than silicates. Moreover, we find that the total abundance of elemental O is largely inconsistent with the adopted reference abundances, indicating that as much as ∼156 ppm of interstellar O is missing along the line of sight. After taking into account additional limits on the abundance of elemental O in other O-bearing solids, we conclude that any missing reservoir of elemental O must reside on large grains that are nearly opaque to infrared radiation.

  15. Amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub (2-x)}Bi{sub x}Te{sub 11} phase-change materials for data recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, Roman, E-mail: roman.svoboda@upce.cz [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Karabyn, Vasyl [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Málek, Jiří [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Frumar, Miloslav [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Beneš, Ludvík; Vlček, Milan [Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry of Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i. and the University of Pardubice 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-25

    Structural and thermokinetic analyses were used to study the crystallization behavior of Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub (2-x)}Bi{sub x}Te{sub 11}thin films, promising materials for phase-change memory recording applications. By exploring the full compositional range, it was found that the Sb→Bi substitution leads to a decrease of crystallization enthalpy and activation energy of the main crystallization phase-change process. These trends were explained in terms of the changing structural ordering within the recently proposed new phase-change atomic switching mechanism. All of the compositions exhibited very similar transformation kinetics, confirming the uniformity of the phase-change mechanisms involved. It was further shown that rapid energy delivery achieved during heating, in the case of all investigated materials, leads to a transition from the classical nucleation/growth-based formation of 3D crystallites towards an autocatalytic phase-change process with an enormously increased speed of crystallization. Rapidity of the crystallization process was quantified for all of the studied compositions based on a novel Index of Crystallization Rapidity criterion – the results provided by this criterion showed that the highest crystallization speed was produced by the Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 0.8}Bi{sub 1.2}Te{sub 11} composition, which therefore from this point of view appears to be a suitable candidate for the new generation of phase-change memory recording devices. - Highlights: • Crystallization behavior of Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub (2-x)}Bi{sub x}Te{sub 11} thin films was studied by DSC. • Sb → Bi substitution leads to a decrease of crystallization enthalpy and activation energy. • All compositions exhibited very similar transformation kinetics. • Rapidity of the crystallization process was quantified for the studied compositions. • Highest crystallization speed was produced by the Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 0.8}Bi{sub 1.2}Te{sub 11} composition.

  16. Amorphous Semiconductors Characteristics and Their Modern Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshazly, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Chalcogenide glasses are a recognized group of inorganic glassy materials which always contain one or more of the chalcogenide elements S, Se or Te but not O, in conjunction with more electro positive elements as As, Sb, etc. Chalcogenide glasses are generally less robust, more weakly bonded materials than oxide glasses. Glasses were prepared from Sb, Se, Bi and In elements with purity 99.999%. These glasses are reactive at high temperature with oxygen. Therefore, synthesis was accomplished in evacuated clean silica tubes. The tubes were washed by distilled water, and then dried in a furnace whose temperature was about 100 degree C . The weighted materials were introduced into the cleaned silica tubes and then evacuated to about 10-4 torr and sealed. The sealed tubes were placed inside the furnace and the temperature of the furnace was raised gradually up to 90 C within 1 hour and kept constant for 10 hours. Moreover, shaking of the constituent materials inside the tube in the furnace was necessary for realizing the homogeneity of the composition. After synthesis, the tube was quenched into ice water. The glassy ingots could be obtained by drastic quenching. Then materials were removed from the tubes and kept in dry atmosphere. The proper ingot was confirmed to be completely amorphous using x-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. Thin films of the selected compositions were prepared by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum 10-4 torr with constant thickness 100 nm. The effect of radiation, optical and some other effects on composition were studied.

  17. Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, Methods Of Making Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, And Methods Of Using Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2015-04-09

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.

  18. Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, Methods Of Making Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, And Methods Of Using Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Saharoui; Mughal, Asad Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.

  19. On the potential for abrupt Arctic winter sea-ice loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathiany, S.; Notz, Dirk; Mauritsen, T.; Raedel, G.; Brovkin, V.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the transition from a seasonally ice-covered Arctic to an Arctic Ocean that is sea ice free all year round under increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. It is shown that in comprehensive climate models, such loss of Arctic winter sea ice area is faster than the preceding loss of

  20. A natural ice boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, H.R. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    Planning for ice jams and ice movements are critical on the Nelson River in northern Manitoba in designing cofferdams. Experience on the St. Lawrence River demonstrated the possibility of exercising some control over ice action by judicious placement of log booms or ice control structures. The success of experiments with man-made controls led to field tests in which an ice sheet of sufficient magnitude and competence was introduced into the open water stream of the Nelson River. The ice sheet was subsequently jammed in a narrow channel, thereby creating a natural ice bridge or boom upstream of a proposed hydro development. Under favourable conditions, this boom would initiate the progression of the ice cover from its location upstream, cutting off the downstream reach from the ice producing potential of the upstream reach. Although ice would still be generated downstream, the length of the reach between the ice boom and the development site would be short enough that ice jamming at the development site would never occur. Although problems in blasting prevented the introduction of a competent ice sheet into the main stream of the river at the location chosen, sufficient confidence in the theory was gained to warrant further consideration. 4 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  1. Neutron diffraction and thermal studies of amorphous CS{sub 2} realised by low-temperature vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamuro, O.; Matsuo, T. [Osaka Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences (Japan); Onoda-Yamamuro, N. [Tokyo Denki Univ., College of Sciences and Technology (Japan); Takeda, K. [Naruto Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Tokushima (Japan); Munemura, H.; Tanaka, S.; Misawa, M. [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science

    2003-08-01

    We have succeeded in preparing amorphous carbon disulphide (CS{sub 2}) by depositing its vapour on a cold substrate at 10 K. Complete formation of the amorphous state has been confirmed by neutron diffraction and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The amorphous sample crystallized at ca. 70 K, which is lower than the hypothetical glass transition temperature (92 K) estimated from the DTA data of the (CS{sub 2}){sub x}(S{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}){sub 1-x} binary mixture. CS{sub 2}, a symmetric linear tri-atomic molecule, is the simplest of the amorphized molecular substances whose structural and thermal information has been reported so far. Comparison of the static structure factors S(Q) has shown that the orientational correlation of CS{sub 2} molecules may be much stronger in the amorphous state than in the liquid state at higher temperature. (authors)

  2. A possible mechanism of ultrafast amorphization in phase-change memory alloys: an ion slingshot from the crystalline to amorphous position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobov, A V; Mishchenko, A S; Fons, P; Yakubenya, S M; Tominaga, J

    2007-01-01

    We propose that the driving force of the ultrafast crystalline-to-amorphous transition in phase-change memory alloys is caused by strained bonds existing in the (metastable) crystalline phase. For the prototypical example of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , we demonstrate that upon breaking of the longer Ge-Te bond by photoexcitation, a Ge ion is shot from an octahedral crystalline to a tetrahedral amorphous position by the uncompensated force of strained short bonds. Subsequent lattice relaxation stabilizes the tetrahedral surroundings of the Ge atoms and ensures the long-term stability of the optically induced phase

  3. Amorphization of ceramics by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.; Williams, J.M.; Appleton, B.R.; Naramoto, H.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of the implantation parameters fluence, substrate temperature, and chemical species on the formation of amorphous phases in Al 2 O 3 and α-SiC was studied. At 300 0 K, fluences in excess of 10 17 ions.cm -2 were generally required to amorphize Al 2 O 3 ; however, implantation of zirconium formed the amorphous phase at a fluence of 4 x 10 16 Zr.cm -2 . At 77 0 K, the threshold fluence was lowered to about 2 x 10 15 Cr.cm -2 . Single crystals of α-SiC were amorphized at 300 0 K by a fluence of 2 x 10 14 Cr.cm -2 or 1 x 10 15 N.cm -2 . Implantation at 1023 0 K did not produce the amorphous phase in SiC. The micro-indentation hardness of the amorphous material was about 60% of that of the crystalline counterpart

  4. Hydrogen in disordered and amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambakidis, G; Bowman, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topoics: elements of the theory of amorphous semiconductors; electronic structure of alpha-SiH; fluctuation induced gap states in amorphous hydrogenated silicon; hydrogen on semiconductor surfaces; the influence of hydrogen on the defects and instabilities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon; deuteron magnetic resonance in some amorphous semiconductors; formation of amorphous metals by solid state reactions of hydrogen with an intermetallic compound; NMR studies of the hydrides of disordered and amorphous alloys; neutron vibrational spectroscopy of disordered metal-hydrogen system; dynamical disorder of hydrogen in LaNi /SUB 5-y/ M /SUB y/ hydrides studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering; recent studies of intermetallic hydrides; tritium in Pd and Pd /SUB 0.80/ Sg /SUB 0.20/ ; and determination of hydrogen concentration in thin films of absorbing materials

  5. On the Arctic Ocean ice thickness response to changes in the external forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranne, Christian; Bjoerk, Goeran [University of Gothenburg, Department of Earth Sciences, Box 460, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Submarine and satellite observations show that the Arctic Ocean ice cover has undergone a large thickness reduction and a decrease in the areal extent during the last decades. Here the response of the Arctic Ocean ice cover to changes in the poleward atmospheric energy transport, F{sub wall}, is investigated using coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean column models. Two models with highly different complexity are used in order to illustrate the importance of different internal processes and the results highlight the dramatic effects of the negative ice thickness - ice volume export feedback and the positive surface albedo feedback. The steady state ice thickness as a function of F{sub wall} is determined for various model setups and defines what we call ice thickness response curves. When a variable surface albedo and snow precipitation is included, a complex response curve appears with two distinct regimes: a perennial ice cover regime with a fairly linear response and a less responsive seasonal ice cover regime. The two regimes are separated by a steep transition associated with surface albedo feedback. The associated hysteresis is however small, indicating that the Arctic climate system does not have an irreversible tipping point behaviour related to the surface albedo feedback. The results are discussed in the context of the recent reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover. A new mechanism related to regional and temporal variations of the ice divergence within the Arctic Ocean is presented as an explanation for the observed regional variation of the ice thickness reduction. Our results further suggest that the recent reduction in areal ice extent and loss of multiyear ice is related to the albedo dependent transition between seasonal and perennial ice i.e. large areas of the Arctic Ocean that has previously been dominated by multiyear ice might have been pushed below a critical mean ice thickness, corresponding to the above mentioned transition, and into a state dominated

  6. Forecast Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Forecast Icing Product (FIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The FIP algorithm uses...

  7. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  8. Ground-State Structures of Ice at High-Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    \\textit{Ab initio} random structure searching based on density functional theory is used to determine the ground-state structures of ice at high pressures. Including estimates of lattice zero-point energies, ice is found to adopt three novel crystal phases. The underlying sub-lattice of O atoms remains similar among them, and the transitions can be characterized by reorganizations of the hydrogen bonds. The symmetric hydrogen bonds of ice X and $Pbcm$ are initially lost as ice transforms to s...

  9. Thermal conductivity of the cryoprotective cocktail DP6 in cryogenic temperatures, in the presence and absence of synthetic ice modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Lili E; Malen, Jonathan A; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    The thermal conductivity of the cryoprotective agent (CPA) cocktail DP6 in combination with synthetic ice modulators (SIMs) is measured in this study, using a transient hot-wire method. DP6 is a mixture of 3 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 3 M propylene glycol, which received significant attention in the cryobiology community in recent years. Tested SIMs include 6% 1,3Cyclohexanediol, 6% 2,3Butanediol, and 12% PEG400 (percentage by volume). This study integrates the scanning cryomacroscope for visual verification of crystallization and vitrification events. It is demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of the vitrifying CPA cocktail decreases monotonically with the decreasing temperature down to -180 °C. By contrast, the thermal conductivity of the crystalline material increases with decreasing temperature in the same temperature range. Results of this study demonstrate that the thermal conductivity may vary by three fold between the amorphous and crystalline phases of DP6 below the glass transition temperature of DP6 (Tg = -119 °C). The selected SIMs demonstrate the ability to inhibit crystallization in DP6, even at subcritical cooling rates. An additional ice suppression capability is observed by the Euro-Collins as a vehicle solution, disproportionate to its volume ratio in the cocktail. The implication of the observed thermal conductivity differences between the amorphous and crystalline phases of the same cocktail on cryopreservation simulations is significant in some cases and must be taken into account in thermal analyses of cryopreservation protocols. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Sputtering of water ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.; Schou, J.; Shi, M.; Bahr, D.A.; Atteberrry, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from the decay of H(2p) atoms sputtered by heavy ion impact, but not bulk ice luminescence. Radiolyzed ice does not sputter under 3.7 eV laser irradiation

  11. Particle-induced amorphization of complex ceramics. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The crystalline-to-amorphous (c-a) phase transition is of fundamental importance. Particle irradiations provide an important, highly controlled means of investigating this phase transformation and the structure of the amorphous state. The interaction of heavy-particles with ceramics is complex because these materials have a wide range of structure types, complex compositions, and because chemical bonding is variable. Radiation damage and annealing can produce diverse results, but most commonly, single crystals become aperiodic or break down into a polycrystalline aggregate. The authors continued the studies of the transition from the periodic-to-aperiodic state in natural materials that have been damaged by α-recoil nuclei in the uranium and thorium decay series and in synthetic, analogous structures. The transition from the periodic to aperiodic state was followed by detailed x-ray diffraction analysis, in-situ irradiation/transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy/x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy and other spectroscopic techniques. These studies were completed in conjunction with bulk irradiations that can be completed at Los Alamos National Laboratory or Sandia National Laboratories. Principal questions addressed in this research program included: (1) What is the process at the atomic level by which a ceramic material is transformed into a disordered or aperiodic state? (2) What are the controlling effects of structural topology, bond-type, dose rate, and irradiation temperature on the final state of the irradiated material? (3) What is the structure of the damaged material? (4) What are the mechanisms and kinetics for the annealing of interstitial and aggregate defects in these irradiated ceramic materials? (5) What general criteria may be applied to the prediction of amorphization in complex ceramics?

  12. A fiber-optic ice detection system for large-scale wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-gil; Sampath, Umesh; Kim, Hyunjin; Song, Minho

    2017-09-01

    Icing causes substantial problems in the integrity of large-scale wind turbines. In this work, a fiber-optic sensor system for detection of icing with an arrayed waveguide grating is presented. The sensor system detects Fresnel reflections from the ends of the fibers. The transition in Fresnel reflection due to icing gives peculiar intensity variations, which categorizes the ice, the water, and the air medium on the wind turbine blades. From the experimental results, with the proposed sensor system, the formation of icing conditions and thickness of ice were identified successfully in real time.

  13. Phase Field Theory and Analysis of Pressure-Shear Induced Amorphization and Failure in Boron Carbide Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Clayton

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear continuum phase field theory is developed to describe amorphization of crystalline elastic solids under shear and/or pressure loading. An order parameter describes the local degree of crystallinity. Elastic coefficients can depend on the order parameter, inelastic volume change may accompany the transition from crystal to amorphous phase, and transitional regions parallel to bands of amorphous material are penalized by interfacial surface energy. Analytical and simple numerical solutions are obtained for an idealized isotropic version of the general theory, for an element of material subjected to compressive and/or shear loading. Solutions compare favorably with experimental evidence and atomic simulations of amorphization in boron carbide, demonstrating the tendency for structural collapse and strength loss with increasing shear deformation and superposed pressure.

  14. Amorphous silicon based radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Qureshi, S.; Wildermuth, D.; Fujieda, I.; Street, R.A.

    1991-07-01

    We describe the characteristics of thin(1 μm) and thick (>30μm) hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes which are optimized for detecting and recording the spatial distribution of charged particles, x-rays and γ rays. For x-ray, γ ray, and charged particle detection we can use thin p-i-n photosensitive diode arrays coupled to evaporated layers of suitable scintillators. For direct detection of charged particles with high resistance to radiation damage, we use the thick p-i-n diode arrays. 13 refs., 7 figs

  15. Inelastic scattering from amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.

    1985-08-01

    The potential of inelastic neutron scattering techniques for surveying various aspects of the dynamics of amorphous solids is briefly reviewed. The recent use of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source to provide detailed information on the optical vibrations of glasses is discussed in more detail. The density of states represents an averaged quantity which gives information about the general characteristics of the structure and bonding. More extensive information can be obtained by studying the detailed wavevector dependence of the dynamic structure factor. 15 refs., 7 figs

  16. Dynamics of viscoplastic deformation in amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, M.L.; Langer, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a dynamical theory of low-temperature shear deformation in amorphous solids. Our analysis is based on molecular-dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional, two-component noncrystalline system. These numerical simulations reveal behavior typical of metallic glasses and other viscoplastic materials, specifically, reversible elastic deformation at small applied stresses, irreversible plastic deformation at larger stresses, a stress threshold above which unbounded plastic flow occurs, and a strong dependence of the state of the system on the history of past deformations. Microscopic observations suggest that a dynamically complete description of the macroscopic state of this deforming body requires specifying, in addition to stress and strain, certain average features of a population of two-state shear transformation zones. Our introduction of these state variables into the constitutive equations for this system is an extension of earlier models of creep in metallic glasses. In the treatment presented here, we specialize to temperatures far below the glass transition and postulate that irreversible motions are governed by local entropic fluctuations in the volumes of the transformation zones. In most respects, our theory is in good quantitative agreement with the rich variety of phenomena seen in the simulations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  17. Ion irradiation enhanced crystal nucleation in amorphous Si thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, J.S.; Atwater, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleation kinetics of the amorphous-to-crystal transition of Si films under 1.5 MeV Xe + irradiation have been investigated by means of in situ transmission electron microscopy in the temperature range T=500--580 degree C. After an incubation period during which negligible nucleation occurs, a constant nucleation rate was observed in steady state, suggesting that homogeneous nucleation occurred. Compared to thermal crystallization, a significant enhancement in the nucleation rate during high-energy ion irradiation (five to seven orders of magnitude) was observed with an apparent activation energy of 3.9±0.75 eV

  18. Polarization of positronium in amorphous polar polymers: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consolati, G., E-mail: giovanni.consolati@polimi.it; Quasso, F. [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa, 34, Milano 20156 (Italy)

    2013-11-28

    The features of positronium in an amorphous copolymer (polyvinyl acetate-crotonic acid) in a range of temperatures including the glass transition were investigated by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. In particular, para-positronium lifetime was found to be longer than in a vacuum and to decrease with the temperature. This was attributed to the electron density at the positron (contact density), which is lower than in vacuo due to the presence of polar groups in the copolymer. A three quantum yield experiment confirmed the lifetime results.

  19. Superconducting state parameters of monovalent and polyvalent amorphous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonvane, Y. A., E-mail: yas@ashd.svnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Patel, H. P., E-mail: patel.harshal2@gmail.com; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakor@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2015-08-28

    In the present study deals, we have calculated superconducting state parameter (SSP) like electron-phonon coupling strength λ, coulomb pseudo potential, μ*, transition temperature Tc, isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength N{sub 0}V of monovalent (Li), divalent (Zn), trivalent (In) and tetravalent (Pb) amorphous. To carry out this work we have used our newly constructed model pseudo potential to describe electron ion interaction along with three different local field correction functions like Hartree, Taylor and Sarkar et al. The present results are found in good agreement with other available theoretical as well as experimental data.

  20. Heat capacity of amorphous and disordered Nb3Ge thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.A.H.K.

    1979-06-01

    Heat capacity measurements on 1000 to 1500A thick amorphous Nb 3 Ge and granular Al films have been carried out using an ac technique. The major goal of the experiment was to study the effect of thermal fluctuations, both above and below the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/, in dirty, short meanfree path materials

  1. Crystallization of amorphous pseudobinary alloys of the type (Fe1-x Nix)80 B20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.A.Z.; Baibich, M.N.

    1984-01-01

    It was studied the crystallization of amorphous metallic ribbons of Fe 1-x Ni x 80 B 2 0 using the method of isochronous heating at variable slopes. The crystallization temperatures were determined from the transition observed in the electrical resistivity. (M.W.O.) [pt

  2. Physical stability of API/polymer-blend amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkemper, Kristin; Kyeremateng, Samuel O; Bartels, Mareike; Degenhardt, Matthias; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2018-03-01

    The preparation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) is a well-established strategy for formulating active pharmaceutical ingredients by embedding them in excipients, usually amorphous polymers. Different polymers can be combined for designing ASDs with desired properties like an optimized dissolution behavior. One important criterion for the development of ASD compositions is the physical stability. In this work, the physical stability of API/polymer-blend ASDs was investigated by thermodynamic modeling and stability studies. Amorphous naproxen (NAP) and acetaminophen (APAP) were embedded in blends of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and either poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) or poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64). Parameters for modeling the API solubility in the blends and the glass-transition temperature curves of the water-free systems with Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory and Kwei equation, respectively, were correlated to experimental data. The phase behavior for standardized storage conditions (0%, 60% and 75% relative humidity (RH)) was predicted and compared to six months-long stability studies. According to modeling and experimental results, the physical stability was reduced with increasing HPMCAS content and increasing RH. This trend was observed for all investigated systems, with both APIs (NAP and APAP) and both polymer blends (PVP/HPMCAS and PVPVA64/HPMCAS). PC-SAFT and the Kwei equation turned out to be suitable tools for modeling and predicting the physical stability of the investigated API/polymer-blends ASDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Universal amorphous-amorphous transition in GexSe100-x glasses under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Can; Micoulaut, Matthieu; Boolchand, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Pressure induced structural modifications in vitreous GexSe100−x (where 10 ≤ x ≤ 25) are investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) along with supplementary X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Universal changes in distances and angle......–20 GPa, depending on the composition. This increase is attributed to the metallization event that can be traced with the red shift in Ge K edge energy which is also identified by the principal peak position of the structure factor. The densification mechanisms are studied in details by means of AIMD...... simulations and compared to the experimental results. The evolution of bond angle distributions, interatomic distances and coordination numbers are examined and lead to similar pressure-induced structural changes for any composition....

  4. Helicopter Icing Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    helicopter (i.e. in an icing tunnel or engine test cell ) and therefore can be subjected to controlled icing where spe- cific problems can be safely...evaluation. 69 2.2.5.2 Ice Protection Systems Demonstration Many of the systems noted in 2.2.5.1 can be evaluated in icing test cells or icing wind tunnels...Figure 2-32 illustrates a typical rotor deice system control arrangement. 104 (N >4 A.dO INaH -E- C4) uo U En 9 E-1 H m I ~z O 04 04iH U 0 El4 E-f C E

  5. Effects of thermal relaxation on an amorphous superconducting Zr--Rh alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drehman, A.J.; Johnson, W.L.

    1978-05-01

    The electronic and superconducting properties of an amorphous transition metal alloy are used to evaluate the effects of low temperature annealing. It is observed that the superconducting transition temperature and the electrical resistivity relax exponentially in time from their initial value to a final relaxed value. From this an activation energy for the relaxation process is derived and an explanation is suggested which involves internal stress

  6. Studies of pulsed laser melting and rapid solidification using amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Wood, R.F.

    1984-06-01

    Pulsed-laser melting of ion implantation-amorphized silicon layers, and subsequent solidification were studied. Measurements of the onset of melting of amorphous silicon layers and of the duration of melting, and modified melting model calculations demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, K/sub a/, of amorphous silicon is very low (K/sub a/ approx. = 0.02 W/cm-K). K/sub a/ is also the dominant parameter determining the dynamical response of amorphous silicon to pulsed laser radiation. TEM indicates that bulk (volume) nucleation occurs directly from the highly undercooled liquid silicon that can be prepared by pulsed laser melting of amorphous silicon layers at low laser energy densities. A modified thermal melting model is presented. The model calculations demonstrate that the release of latent heat by bulk nucleation occurring during the melt-in process is essential to obtaining agreement with observed depths of melting. These calculations also show that this release of latent heat accompanying bulk nucleation can result in the existence of buried molten layers of silicon in the interior of the sample after the surface has solidified. The bulk nucleation implies that the liquid-to-amorphous phase transition (produced using picosecond or uv nanosecond laser pulses) cannot be explained using purely thermodynamic considerations

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research and development of amorphous solar cells (Theoretical research on amorphous silicon electronic states by computer-aided simulation); 1984 nendo amorphous taiyo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Keisanki simulation ni yoru amorphous silicon no denshi jotai no rironteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-04-01

    Research on the basic physical properties of amorphous silicon materials and for the development of materials for thermally stable amorphous silicon is conducted through theoretical reasoning and computer-aided simulation. In the effort at achieving a high conversion efficiency using an amorphous silicon alloy, a process of realizing desired photoabsorption becomes possible when the correlation between the atomic structure and the photoabsorption coefficient is clearly established and the atomic structure is manipulated. In this connection, analytical studies are conducted to determine how microscopic structures are reflected on macroscopic absorption coefficients. In the computer-aided simulation, various liquid structures and amorphous structures are worked out, which is for the atom-level characterization of structures with topological disturbances, such as amorphous structures. Glass transition is simulated using a molecular kinetic method, in particular, and the melting of crystals, crystallization of liquids, and vitrification (conversion into the amorphous state) are successfully realized, though in a computer-aided simulation, for the first time in the world. (NEDO)

  8. Unipolar time-differential charge sensing in non-dispersive amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldan, A. H.; Rowlands, J. A.; Tousignant, O.; Karim, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of high resistivity amorphous solids as photodetectors, especially amorphous selenium, is currently of great interest because they are readily produced over large area at substantially lower cost compared to grown crystalline solids. However, amorphous solids have been ruled out as viable radiation detection media for high frame-rate applications, such as single-photon-counting imaging, because of low carrier mobilities, transit-time-limited photoresponse, and consequently, poor time resolution. To circumvent the problem of poor charge transport in amorphous solids, we propose unipolar time-differential charge sensing by establishing a strong near-field effect using an electrostatic shield within the material. For the first time, we have fabricated a true Frisch grid inside a solid-state detector by evaporating amorphous selenium over photolithographically prepared multi-well substrates. The fabricated devices are characterized with optical, x-ray, and gamma-ray impulse-like excitations. Results prove the proposed unipolar time-differential property and show that time resolution in non-dispersive amorphous solids can be improved substantially to reach the theoretical limit set by spatial spreading of the collected Gaussian carrier cloud.

  9. In situ observation of shear-driven amorphization in silicon crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang; Zhong, Li; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Chongmin; Zhu, Ting; Mao, Scott X.

    2016-09-19

    Amorphous materials have attracted great interest in the scientific and technological fields. An amorphous solid usually forms under the externally driven conditions of melt-quenching, irradiation and severe mechanical deformation. However, its dynamic formation process remains elusive. Here we report the in situ atomic-scale observation of dynamic amorphization processes during mechanical straining of nanoscale silicon crystals by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We observe the shear-driven amorphization (SDA) occurring in a dominant shear band. The SDA involves a sequence of processes starting with the shear-induced diamond-cubic to diamond-hexagonal phase transition that is followed by dislocation nucleation and accumulation in the newly formed phase, leading to the formation of amorphous silicon. The SDA formation through diamond-hexagonal phase is rationalized by its structural conformity with the order in the paracrystalline amorphous silicon, which maybe widely applied to diamond-cubic materials. Besides, the activation of SDA is orientation-dependent through the competition between full dislocation nucleation and partial gliding.

  10. Preparation of an amorphous sodium furosemide salt improves solubility and dissolution rate and leads to a faster Tmax after oral dosing to rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Gordon, Sarah; Holm, René

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous forms of furosemide sodium salt and furosemide free acid were prepared by spray drying. For the preparation of the amorphous free acid, methanol was utilised as the solvent, whereas the amorphous sodium salt was formed from a sodium hydroxide-containing aqueous solvent in equimolar...... amounts of NaOH and furosemide. Information about the structural differences between the two amorphous forms was obtained by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and glass transition temperature (Tg) was determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The stability and devitrification...... tendency of the two amorphous forms were investigated by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD). The apparent solubility of the two amorphous forms and the crystalline free acid form of furosemide in various gastric and intestinal stimulated media was determined. Moreover, the dissolution characteristics...

  11. OPTICAL CONSTANTS AND LAB SPECTRA OF WATER ICE V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Transmission spectra of amorphous and crystalline H2O-ice at temperatures from 20-150 K for a wavelength range from 1.11 to 2.63 microns. These spectra have not been...

  12. OPTICAL CONSTANTS AND LAB SPECTRA OF WATER ICE V1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Transmission spectra of amorphous and crystalline H2O-ice at temperatures from 20-150 K for a wavelength range from 1.11 to 2.63 microns. These spectra have not been...

  13. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  14. A Comparison of Photo-Induced Hysteresis Between Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon and Amorphous IGZO Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae-Jun; Cho, Won-Ju; Chung, Hong-Bay; Koo, Sang-Mo

    2015-09-01

    We investigate photo-induced instability in thin-film transistors (TFTs) consisting of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) as active semiconducting layers by comparing with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). An a-IGZO TFT exhibits a large hysteresis window in the illuminated measuring condition but no hysteresis window in the dark condition. On the contrary, a large hysteresis window measured in the dark condition in a-Si:H was not observed in the illuminated condition. Even though such materials possess the structure of amorphous phase, optical responses or photo instability in TFTs looks different from each other. Photo-induced hysteresis results from initially trapped charges at the interface between semiconductor and dielectric films or in the gate dielectric which possess absorption energy to interact with deep trap-states and affect the movement of Fermi energy level. In order to support our claim, we also perform CV characteristics in photo-induced hysteresis and demonstrate thermal-activated hysteresis. We believe that this work can provide important information to understand different material systems for optical engineering which includes charge transport and band transition.

  15. Autonomous Aerial Ice Observation for Ice Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Haugen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the tasks in ice defense is to gather information about the surrounding ice environment using various sensor platforms. In this manuscript we identify two monitoring tasks known in literature, namely dynamic coverage and target tracking, and motivate how these tasks are relevant in ice defense using RPAS. An optimization-based path planning concept is outlined for solving these tasks. A path planner for the target tracking problem is elaborated in more detail and a hybrid experiment, which consists of both a real fixed-wing aircraft and simulated objects, is included to show the applicability of the proposed framework.

  16. Arctic landfast sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Christof S.

    Landfast ice is sea ice which forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is attached either to the shore, or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. Landfast ice fundamentally modifies the momentum exchange between atmosphere and ocean, as compared to pack ice. It thus affects the heat and freshwater exchange between air and ocean and impacts on the location of ocean upwelling and downwelling zones. Further, the landfast ice edge is essential for numerous Arctic mammals and Inupiat who depend on them for their subsistence. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of landfast ice formation, maintenance, and disintegration even when the spatial resolution would be sufficient to resolve such features. In my work I develop a new ice model that permits the existence of landfast sea ice even in the presence of offshore winds, as is observed in mature. Based on viscous-plastic as well as elastic-viscous-plastic ice dynamics I add tensile strength to the ice rheology and re-derive the equations as well as numerical methods to solve them. Through numerical experiments on simplified domains, the effects of those changes are demonstrated. It is found that the modifications enable landfast ice modeling, as desired. The elastic-viscous-plastic rheology leads to initial velocity fluctuations within the landfast ice that weaken the ice sheet and break it up much faster than theoretically predicted. Solving the viscous-plastic rheology using an implicit numerical method avoids those waves and comes much closer to theoretical predictions. Improvements in landfast ice modeling can only verified in comparison to observed data. I have extracted landfast sea ice data of several decades from several sources to create a landfast sea ice climatology that can be used for that purpose. Statistical analysis of the data shows several factors that significantly influence landfast ice distribution: distance from the coastline, ocean depth, as

  17. Photoexcitation-induced processes in amorphous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and Logistics, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)]. E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au

    2005-07-30

    Theories for the mechanism of photo-induced processes of photodarkening (PD), volume expansion (VE) in amorphous chalcogenides are presented. Rates of spontaneous emission of photons by radiative recombination of excitons in amorphous semiconductors are also calculated and applied to study the excitonic photoluminescence in a-Si:H. Results are compared with previous theories.

  18. Challenges in amorphous silicon solar cell technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaij, van R.A.C.M.M.; Zeman, M.; Korevaar, B.A.; Smit, C.; Metselaar, J.W.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is nowadays extensively used for a range of devices, amongst others solar cells, Solar cell technology has matured over the last two decades and resulted in conversion efficiencies in excess of 15%. In this paper the operation of amorphous silicon solar cells is

  19. Photoconductivity of amorphous silicon-rigorous modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brada, P.; Schauer, F.

    1991-01-01

    It is our great pleasure to express our gratitude to Prof. Grigorovici, the pioneer of the exciting field of amorphous state by our modest contribution to this area. In this paper are presented the outline of the rigorous modelling program of the steady-state photoconductivity in amorphous silicon and related materials. (Author)

  20. Colors and the evolution of amorphous galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    UBVRI and H-alpha photometric observations are presented for 16 amorphous galaxies and a comparison sample of Magellanic irregular (Im) and Sc spiral galaxies. These data are analyzed in terms of star-formation rates and histories in amorphous galaxies. Amorphous galaxies have mean global colors and star-formation rates per unit area that are similar to those in giant Im systems, despite differences in spatial distributions of star-forming centers in these two galactic structural classes. Amorphous galaxies differ from giant Im systems in having somewhat wider scatter in relationships between B - V and U - B colors, and between U - B and L(H-alpha)/L(B). This scatter is interpreted as resulting from rapid variations in star-formation rates during the recent past, which could be a natural consequence of the concentration of star-forming activity into centrally located, supergiant young stellar complexes in many amorphous galaxies. While the unusual spatial distribution and intensity of star formation in some amorphous galaxies is due to interactions with other galaxies, several amorphous galaxies are relatively isolated and thus the processes must be internal. The ultimate evolutionary fate of rapidly evolving amorphous galaxies remains unknown. 77 references

  1. Photoexcitation-induced processes in amorphous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai

    2005-01-01

    Theories for the mechanism of photo-induced processes of photodarkening (PD), volume expansion (VE) in amorphous chalcogenides are presented. Rates of spontaneous emission of photons by radiative recombination of excitons in amorphous semiconductors are also calculated and applied to study the excitonic photoluminescence in a-Si:H. Results are compared with previous theories

  2. Thermal stability study of crystalline and novel spray-dried amorphous nilotinib hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrink, Maikel; Vromans, Herman; Schellens, Jan; Beijnen, Jos; Nuijen, Bastiaan

    2018-01-30

    The thermal characteristics and the thermal degradation of crystalline and amorphous nilotinib hydrochloride (NH) were studied. The spray drying technique was successfully utilized for the amorphization of NH and was evaluated by spectroscopic techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ethanolic spray drying process yielded amorphous NH with a glass transition temperature (T g ) of 147°C. Thermal characterization of the amorphous phase was performed by heat capacity measurements using modulated DSC (mDSC). Thermal degradation was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The derived thermodynamic properties of the amorphous NH indicate fragile behaviour and a low crystallization tendency. NH was found to be molecularly stable up to 193°C. After which, the thermal degradation displayed two phases. The values of the thermal degradation parameters were estimated using the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Friedman non-isothermal, model-free, isoconversional methods The results indicate the two phases to be single-step reactions. The examination of the physical stability of amorphous NH during storage and at elevated temperatures showed stability at 180°C for at least 5h and at 20-25°C/60% RH for at least 6 months. During these periods, no crystallization was observed. This study is the first to report the thermal characteristics of NH. Additionally, it is also the first to describe the full thermal analysis of a spray-dried amorphous drug. The thermal data may be used in the projection of future production processes and storage conditions of amorphous NH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ice sheets on plastically-yielding beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Many fast flowing regions of ice sheets are underlain by a layer of water-saturated sediments, or till. The rheology of the till has been the subject of some controversy, with laboratory tests suggesting almost perfectly plastic behaviour (stress independent of strain rate), but many models adopting a pseudo-viscous description. In this work, we consider the behaviour of glaciers underlain by a plastic bed. The ice is treated as a viscous gravity current, on a bed that allows unconstrained slip above a critical yield stress. This simplified description allows rapid sliding, and aims to investigate 'worst-case' scenarios of possible ice-sheet disintegration. The plastic bed results in an approximate ice-sheet geometry that is primarily controlled by force balance, whilst ice velocity is determined from mass conservation (rather than the other way around, as standard models would hold). The stability of various states is considered, and particular attention is given to the pace at which transitions between unstable states can occur. Finally, we observe that the strength of basal tills depends strongly on pore pressure, and combine the model with a description of subglacial hydrology. Implications for the present-day ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica will be discussed. Funding: ERC Marie Curie FP7 Career Integration Grant.

  4. Magnetotransport in Artificial Kagome Spin Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Gia-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic nanoarrays with special geometries exhibit nontrivial collective behaviors similar to those observed in spin-ice materials. Here, we present a circuit model to describe the complex magnetotransport phenomena in artificial kagome spin ice. In this picture, the system can be viewed as a resistor network driven by voltage sources that are located at vertices of the honeycomb array. The differential voltages across different terminals of these sources are related to the ice rules that govern the local magnetization ordering. The circuit model relates the transverse Hall voltage of kagome ice to the underlying spin correlations. Treating the magnetic nanoarray as metamaterials, we present a mesoscopic constitutive equation relating the Hall resistance to magnetization components of the system. We further show that the Hall signal is significantly enhanced when the kagome ice undergoes a magnetic-charge-ordering transition. Our analysis can be readily generalized to other lattice geometries, providing a quantitative method for the design of magnetoresistance devices based on artificial spin ice.

  5. Glass Transition Kinetics of 2714A amorphous alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker Rao, T.; Lilly Shanker Rao, T.; Shaker, A. M.; Venkataraman, K.

    2018-03-01

    The present study is related to the kinetics of onset crystallization, Tx and peak crystallization Tp of cobalt based metallic glass 2714A (Co65Si15B14Fe4Ni2) using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Non-isothermal measurements were performed at different heating rates (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 K/min).The experimental results of the crystallization were studied by two most frequently used methods, i.e., Moynihan and Kissinger. The onset crystallization was also studied by VFT and Lasock’s approaches in addition to the above two methods. The activation energy of crystallization Ec was found to be 622.86 and 638.28 kJ/mol and Ex the activation energy of onset crystallization to be 676.34 and 688.93 kJ/mol respectively. Here Tx is used as a substitution of Tg to calculate the fragility index m of the cobalt based metallic glass in the absence of Tg. The fragility index, m which is a measure of glass forming ability (GFA) is also calculated and the value falls between 20 and 60. This indicates the studied metallic glass is an intermediate strong glass.

  6. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Hay, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides the first known observation of silicon carbide fully amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60 C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 x 10 25 n/m 2 . Amorphization was seen in both materials, as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density (-10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique (-45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation (-45%), and standard Vickers hardness (-24%). Similar property changes are observed for the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than 130 C

  7. Removable cruciform for ice condenser ice basket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrabis, C.M.; Mazza, G.E.; Golick, L.R.; Pomaibo, P.

    1987-01-01

    A removable cruciform for use in an ice basket having a generally cylindrical sidewall defining a central, vertical axis of the ice basket and plural, generally annular retaining rings secured to the interior of the cylindrical sidewall of the ice basket at predetermined, spaced elevations throughout the axial height of the ice basket is described comprising: a pair of brackets, each comprising a central, base portion having parallel longitudinal edges and a pair of integral legs extending at corresponding angles relative to the base portion from the perspective parallel longitudinal edges thereof; a pair of support plate assemblies secured to and extending in parallel, spaced relationship from one of the pair of brackets; a pair of slide support plates secured to the other of the pair of brackets and extending therefrom in spaced, parallel relationship; and spring means received within the housing and engaging the base portions of the brackets and applying a resilient biasing force thereto for maintaining the spaced relationship thereof

  8. Ice cream structure modification by ice-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleda, Aleksei; Tsanev, Robert; Klesment, Tiina; Vilu, Raivo; Laos, Katrin

    2018-04-25

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), also known as antifreeze proteins, were added to ice cream to investigate their effect on structure and texture. Ice recrystallization inhibition was assessed in the ice cream mixes using a novel accelerated microscope assay and the ice cream microstructure was studied using an ice crystal dispersion method. It was found that adding recombinantly produced fish type III IBPs at a concentration 3 mg·L -1 made ice cream hard and crystalline with improved shape preservation during melting. Ice creams made with IBPs (both from winter rye, and type III IBP) had aggregates of ice crystals that entrapped pockets of the ice cream mixture in a rigid network. Larger individual ice crystals and no entrapment in control ice creams was observed. Based on these results a model of ice crystals aggregates formation in the presence of IBPs was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron stimulated reactions of methyl iodide coadsorbed with amorphous solid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, C. C.; Faradzhev, N. S.; Madey, T. E.; Fairbrother, D. H.

    2007-01-01

    The electron stimulated reactions of methyl iodide (MeI) adsorbed on and suspended within amorphous solid water (ice) were studied using a combination of postirradiation temperature programmed desorption and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy. For MeI adsorbed on top of amorphous solid water (ice), electron beam irradiation is responsible for both structural and chemical transformations within the overlayer. Electron stimulated reactions of MeI result principally in the formation of methyl radicals and solvated iodide anions. The cross section for electron stimulated decomposition of MeI is comparable to the gas phase value and is only weakly dependent upon the local environment. For both adsorbed MeI and suspended MeI, reactions of methyl radicals within MeI clusters lead to the formation of ethane, ethyl iodide, and diiodomethane. In contrast, reactions between the products of methyl iodide and water dissociation are responsible for the formation of methanol and carbon dioxide. Methane, formed as a result of reactions between methyl radicals and either parent MeI molecules or hydrogen atoms, is also observed. The product distribution is found to depend on the film's initial chemical composition as well as the electron fluence. Results from this study highlight the similarities in the carbon-containing products formed when monohalomethanes coadsorbed with amorphous solid water are irradiated by either electrons or photons

  10. Comparison of ice particle morphology crushed from ice chunk and directly solidified from droplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.H.; Yoon, Y.S.; Bang, S.Y. [Dongguk Univ., Pil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    In order to investigate the transition kinetics of ice to hydrate and to produce standard specimens of hydrate pellet from prepared hydrate powders, fine ice beads with uniform diameters must be fabricated. This paper discussed the construction of several experimental setups for the fabrication of fine ice particle generation. The ultrasonic nozzle was used to produce fine mist which solidified near the free surface of liquid nitrogen bath. The shape and population distribution of ice bead diameters was analyzed. The study also compared ice particles produced by crushing. The surface morphology of ice particles produced with a ball mill was also examined. Experimental results were obtained for an ice shaver, ball mill, bowl for grinding medicine, and ultrasonic nozzle. It was concluded that the information generated from the study was useful in estimating the macroscopic flow characteristics such as permeability of bulk powder and in determining mean effective diameter of irregular shaped particles. Future work was also noted as being underway with different experiments for other cases with different operating conditions. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Locomotion of Amorphous Surface Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An amorphous robot includes a compartmented bladder containing fluid, a valve assembly, and an outer layer encapsulating the bladder and valve assembly. The valve assembly draws fluid from a compartment(s) and discharges the drawn fluid into a designated compartment to displace the designated compartment with respect to the surface. Another embodiment includes elements each having a variable property, an outer layer that encapsulates the elements, and a control unit. The control unit energizes a designated element to change its variable property, thereby moving the designated element. The elements may be electromagnetic spheres with a variable polarity or shape memory polymers with changing shape and/or size. Yet another embodiment includes an elongated flexible tube filled with ferrofluid, a moveable electromagnet, an actuator, and a control unit. The control unit energizes the electromagnet and moves the electromagnet via the actuator to magnetize the ferrofluid and lengthen the flexible tube.

  12. Spectroscopic and mechanical studies on the Fe-based amorphous alloy 2605SA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral P, A.; Garcia S, I.; Contreras V, J. A.; Garcia S, F.; Nava, N.

    2010-01-01

    The Vickers micro-hardness of this alloy was unusually dependent on the heat treatment from 300 to 634 K, inferring important micro-structural changes and the presence of amorphous grains before its phase transition. Once the alloy is crystallized, the micro-hardness is characteristic of a brittle alloy, the main problem of these alloys. Within the amorphous state, other properties like free-volume, magnetic states and Fe-Fe distances were followed by Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy, respectively, to analyze those micro-structural changes, thermally induced, which are of paramount interest to understand their brittleness problem. (Author)

  13. The crystallization of amorphous Fe2MnGe powder prepared by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Brueck, E.; Tegus, O.; Buschow, K.H.J.; Boer, F.R. de

    2003-01-01

    We synthesized for the first time the intermetallic compound Fe 2 MnGe. To avoid preferential evaporation of volatile components we exploited mechanical alloying. Amorphous Fe 2 MnGe alloy powder was prepared by planetary ball milling elemental starting materials. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A cubic D0 3 phase is formed at low temperature and transforms to a high-temperature hexagonal D0 19 phase. The apparent activation energy was determined by means of the Kissinger method

  14. Spectroscopic and mechanical studies on the Fe-based amorphous alloy 2605SA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral P, A.; Garcia S, I. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Contreras V, J. A.; Garcia S, F. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Ciencias, El Cerrillo Piedras Blancas, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Nava, N., E-mail: agustin.cabral@inin.gob.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The Vickers micro-hardness of this alloy was unusually dependent on the heat treatment from 300 to 634 K, inferring important micro-structural changes and the presence of amorphous grains before its phase transition. Once the alloy is crystallized, the micro-hardness is characteristic of a brittle alloy, the main problem of these alloys. Within the amorphous state, other properties like free-volume, magnetic states and Fe-Fe distances were followed by Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy, respectively, to analyze those micro-structural changes, thermally induced, which are of paramount interest to understand their brittleness problem. (Author)

  15. Ice stratigraphy at the Pakitsoq ice margin, West Greenland, derived from gas records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, H.; Petrenko, V. V.; Brook, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    at Pakitsoq. Sections containing ice from every distinct climatic interval during Termination I, including Last Glacial Maximum, Bolling/Allerod, Younger Dryas and the early Holocene, are identified. In the early Holocene, we find evidence for climatic fluctuations similar to signals found in deep ice cores...... from Greenland. A second glacial-interglacial transition exposed at the extreme margin of the ice is identified as another outcrop of Termination I (rather than the onset of the Eemian interglacial as postulated in earlier work). Consequently, the main structural feature at Pakitsoq is a large......-scale anticline with accordion-type folding in both exposed sequences of the glacial-Holocene transition, leading to multiple layer duplications and age reversals....

  16. Quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, S.

    1999-01-01

    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)

  17. CO ICE PHOTODESORPTION: A WAVELENGTH-DEPENDENT STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Linnartz, Harold; Bertin, Mathieu; Romanzin, Claire; Michaut, Xavier; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Oeberg, Karin I.

    2011-01-01

    UV-induced photodesorption of ice is a non-thermal evaporation process that can explain the presence of cold molecular gas in a range of interstellar regions. Information on the average UV photodesorption yield of astrophysically important ices exists for broadband UV lamp experiments. UV fields around low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, around shocks and in many other astrophysical environments are however often dominated by discrete atomic and molecular emission lines. It is therefore crucial to consider the wavelength dependence of photodesorption yields and mechanisms. In this work, for the first time, the wavelength-dependent photodesorption of pure CO ice is explored between 90 and 170 nm. The experiments are performed under ultra high vacuum conditions using tunable synchrotron radiation. Ice photodesorption is simultaneously probed by infrared absorption spectroscopy in reflection mode of the ice and by quadrupole mass spectrometry of the gas phase. The experimental results for CO reveal a strong wavelength dependence directly linked to the vibronic transition strengths of CO ice, implying that photodesorption is induced by electronic transition (DIET). The observed dependence on the ice absorption spectra implies relatively low photodesorption yields at 121.6 nm (Lyα), where CO barely absorbs, compared to the high yields found at wavelengths coinciding with transitions into the first electronic state of CO (A 1 Π at 150 nm); the CO photodesorption rates depend strongly on the UV profiles encountered in different star formation environments.

  18. Pressure-induced amorphization of La1/3TaO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noked, O.; Melchior, A.; Shuker, R.; Livneh, T.; Steininger, R.; Kennedy, B.J.; Sterer, E.

    2013-01-01

    La 1/3 TaO 3 , an A-site cation deficient perovskite, has been studied under pressure by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It undergoes irreversible pressure induced amorphization at P=18.5 GPa. An almost linear unit cell volume decrease vs. pressure is observed from ambient pressure up to the phase transition. The Raman spectroscopy also shows amorphization at the same pressure, with positive shifts of all modes as a function of pressure. The pressure dependence of the E g and A 1g Raman modes arising from the octahedral oxygen network is discussed. - Graphical abstract: La 1/3 Tao 3 exhibits linear pressure–volume relation until irreversible pressure induced amorphization at 18.5 Gpa. - Highlights: • La 1/3 TaO 3 has been studied under pressure by synchrotron XRD and Raman spectroscopy. • La 1/3 TaO 3 undergoes irreversible pressure induced amorphization around 18.5 GPa. • The transition is manifested in both XRD and Raman measurements. • A linear P–V relation is observed from ambient pressure up to the phase transition

  19. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Quanjun; Liu, Ran; Wang, Tianyi; Xu, Ke; Dong, Qing; Liu, Bo; Liu, Bingbing, E-mail: liubb@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu, Jing [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA) form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO{sub 2} phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B{sub 0} = 158 GPa) of the anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa). We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes.

  20. Atomic scale insight into the amorphous structure of Cu doped GeTe phase-change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Linchuan; Sa, Baisheng; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Zhimei; Song, Zhitang

    2014-01-01

    GeTe shows promising application as a recording material for phase-change nonvolatile memory due to its fast crystallization speed and extraordinary amorphous stability. To further improve the performance of GeTe, various transition metals, such as copper, have been doped in GeTe in recent works. However, the effect of the doped transition metals on the stability of amorphous GeTe is not known. Here, we shed light on this problem for the system of Cu doped GeTe by means of ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. Our results show that the doped Cu atoms tend to agglomerate in amorphous GeTe. Further, base on analyzing the pair correlation functions, coordination numbers and bond angle distributions, remarkable changes in the local structure of amorphous GeTe induced by Cu are obviously seen. The present work may provide some clues for understanding the effect of early transition metals on the local structure of amorphous phase-change compounds, and hence should be helpful for optimizing the structure and performance of phase-change materials by doping transition metals.

  1. Aircraft Icing Handbook. (Update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological Commentary of D (air) 1209, Icing,* Germany, Reichsamt fur...Wetterdienst, Forschungs-und Krfahrungsberichte, Ser. a, No. 29, 1943. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological-Physical Limitations of Icing on the Atmosphere...Apparatus for Measurement,’ Harvard - Mt. Washington Icing Research Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676.. Findeisen , W., "The

  2. Crystalline to amorphous transformation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheruvu, S.M.

    1982-09-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt was made to understand the fundamental mechanism of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in arsenic implanted silicon using high resolution electron microscopy. A comparison of the gradual disappearance of simulated lattice fringes with increasing Frenkel pair concentration with the experimental observation of sharp interfaces between crystalline and amorphous regions was carried out leading to the conclusion that when the defect concentration reaches a critical value, the crystal does relax to an amorphous state. Optical diffraction experiments using atomic models also supported this hypothesis. Both crystalline and amorphous zones were found to co-exist with sharp interfaces at the atomic level. Growth of the amorphous fraction depends on the temperature, dose rate and the mass of the implanted ion. Preliminary results of high energy electron irradiation experiments at 1.2 MeV also suggested that clustering of point defects occurs near room temperature. An observation in a high resolution image of a small amorphous zone centered at the core of a dislocation is presented as evidence that the nucleation of an amorphous phase is heterogeneous in nature involving clustering or segregation of point defects near existing defects

  3. Controllable Fabrication of Amorphous Co-Ni Pyrophosphates for Tuning Electrochemical Performance in Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Ning; He, Yulu; Liang, Bo; Ma, Renzhi; Liu, Xiaohe

    2016-09-07

    Incorporation of two transition metals offers an effective method to enhance the electrochemical performance in supercapacitors for transition metal compound based electrodes. However, such a configuration is seldom concerned in pyrophosphates. Here, amorphous phase Co-Ni pyrophosphates are fabricated as electrodes in supercapacitors. Through controllably adjusting the ratios of Co and Ni as well as the calcination temperature, the electrochemical performance can be tuned. An optimized amorphous Ni-Co pyrophosphate exhibits much higher specific capacitance than monometallic Ni and Co pyrophosphates and shows excellent cycling ability. When employing Ni-Co pyrophosphates as positive electrode and activated carbon as a negative electrode, the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor cell exhibits favorable capacitance and cycling ability. This study provides facile methods to improve the transition metal pyrophosphate electrodes for efficient electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices.

  4. Spectroscopic features of dimer and dangling bond E' centres in amorphous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Sushko, Peter V; Mashkov, Vladimir A; Shluger, Alexander L

    2005-01-01

    We performed first-principle embedded cluster calculations of the hyperfine parameters, g-tensors and optical excitation energies for the dimer and back-projected configurations of the E' centre in amorphous silica. The optical transition energies of these defects are calculated for the first time. We predict a strong optical transition at about 6.3 eV for the dimer configuration and a relatively weak transition at 5.6 eV for the back-projected configuration of the E' centre. These predictions could be used for further experimental identification of these centres. Our results support the dimer model of the E' δ centre, and for the first time provide a full range of spectroscopic parameters for the back-projected configuration of the E' centre in amorphous silica

  5. Broadband luminescence in liquid-solid transition

    CERN Document Server

    Achilov, M F; Trunilina, O V

    2002-01-01

    Broadband luminescence (BBL) intensity behavior in liquid-solid transition in polyethyleneglycol-600 has been established. Oscillation of BBL intensity observed in liquid-polycrystal transition are not found to observed in liquid-amorphous solid transition. It is shown that application of the theory of electron state tails to interpretation of BBL spectral properties in liquids demands restriction. BBL spectroscopy may be applied for optimization of preparation of polymers with determined properties. (author)

  6. Safe Loads on Ice Sheets (Ice Engineering. Number 13)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haynes, F. D; Carey, Kevin L; Cattabriga, Gioia

    1996-01-01

    Every winter, ice sheets that grow on lakes and rivers in northern states are used for ice roads, ice bridges, construction platforms, airstrips, and recreational activities, It becomes very important...

  7. Calculations of the magnetic entropy change in amorphous through a microscopic anisotropic model: Applications to Dy{sub 70}Zr{sub 30} and DyCo{sub 3.4} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P. J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br; Nóbrega, E. P.; Ribeiro, P. O.; Alvarenga, T. S. T.; Lopes, P. H. O.; Sousa, V. S. R. de; Oliveira, N. A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Caldas, A. [Sociedade Unificada de Ensino Superior e Cultura, SUESC, 20211-351 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Alho, B. P. [Instituto de Aplicação Fernando Rodrigues da Silveira, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Santa Alexandrina, 288, 20260-232 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho, G. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincroton—LNLS, 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Magnus, A.

    2014-10-14

    We report theoretical investigations on the magnetocaloric effect, described by the magnetic entropy change in rare earth—transition metal amorphous systems. The model includes the local anisotropy on the rare earth ions in Harris-Plischke-Zuckermann assumptions. The transition metals ions are treated in terms of itinerant electron ferromagnetism and the magnetic moment of rare earth ions is coupled to the polarized d-band by a local exchange interaction. The magnetocaloric effect was calculated in DyCo{sub 3.4} system, which presents amorphous sperimagnetic configuration. The calculations predict higher refrigerant capacity in the amorphous DyCo{sub 3.4} than in DyCo{sub 2} crystal, highlighting the importance of amorphous magnetocaloric materials. Our calculation of the magnetocaloric effect in Dy{sub 70}Zr{sub 30}, which presents amorphous asperomagnetic configuration, is in good agreement with the experimental result. Furthermore, magnetic entropy changes associated with crystal-amorphous configurations change are estimated.

  8. Photonic crystals, amorphous materials, and quasicrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edagawa, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Photonic crystals consist of artificial periodic structures of dielectrics, which have attracted much attention because of their wide range of potential applications in the field of optics. We may also fabricate artificial amorphous or quasicrystalline structures of dielectrics, i.e. photonic amorphous materials or photonic quasicrystals. So far, both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to reveal the characteristic features of their optical properties, as compared with those of conventional photonic crystals. In this article, we review these studies and discuss various aspects of photonic amorphous materials and photonic quasicrystals, including photonic band gap formation, light propagation properties, and characteristic photonic states.

  9. Synthesis of amorphous acid iron phosphate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Leret, P.; Fernández, J. F.; Aza, A. H. De; Rodríguez, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple method to precipitate nanoparticles of iron phosphate with acid character has been developed in which the control of pH allows to obtain amorphous nanoparticles. The acid aging of the precipitated amorphous nanoparticles favored the P–O bond strength that contributes to the surface reordering, the surface roughness and the increase of the phosphate acid character. The thermal behavior of the acid iron phosphate nanoparticles has been also studied and the phosphate polymerization at 400 °C produces strong compacts of amorphous nanoparticles with interconnected porosity.

  10. Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia T. Cole

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations

  11. Performance comparison between crystalline and co-amorphous salts of indomethacin-lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Georgia; Nouri, Khatera; Grohganz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of a highly water soluble amino acid as co-amorphous co-former has previously been shown to significantly improve the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. In this work, dry ball milling (DBM) and liquid assisted grinding (LAG) were used to prepare different physical...... forms of salts of indomethacin (IND) with the amino acid lysine (LYS), allowing the direct comparison of their solid-state properties to their in vitro performance. X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy showed that DBM experiments led to the formation of a fully co......-amorphous salt, while LAG resulted in a crystalline salt. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the samples prepared by DBM had a single glass transition temperature (Tg) of approx. 100°C for the co-amorphous salt, while a new melting point (223°C) was obtained for the crystalline salt prepared by LAG...

  12. Solid-state amorphization of SmFe{sub 3} by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.H.; Kubis, M.; Handstein, A.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2000-05-10

    Hydrogen-induced amorphization (HIA) has received much attention as a method for the preparation of amorphous compounds since its discovery by Yeh et al. Meanwhile it has been observed for a large number of intermetallic compounds with C15, C23, B8{sub 2}, DO{sub 19} and L1{sub 2} structures. E.G. the C15 Laves-type compounds (MgCu{sub 2}-type structure) of rare earth (R) - transition metal (T) compounds RT{sub 2} show HIA for R = Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er. Aoki et al. postulated that new amorphizing compounds can be expected at high hydrogen pressures. In this work, the structural changes of SmFe{sub 3} (PuNi{sub 3}-type structure) during heating in high hydrogen pressures are reported.

  13. Solid-state amorphization of SmFe3 by hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.; Kubis, M.; Handstein, A.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen-induced amorphization (HIA) has received much attention as a method for the preparation of amorphous compounds since its discovery by Yeh et al. Meanwhile it has been observed for a large number of intermetallic compounds with C15, C23, B8 2 , DO 19 and L1 2 structures. E.G. the C15 Laves-type compounds (MgCu 2 -type structure) of rare earth (R) - transition metal (T) compounds RT 2 show HIA for R = Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and Er. Aoki et al. postulated that new amorphizing compounds can be expected at high hydrogen pressures. In this work, the structural changes of SmFe 3 (PuNi 3 -type structure) during heating in high hydrogen pressures are reported

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation-induced amorphization of the ordered compound NiZr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanathan, R.; Meshii, M.

    1992-12-01

    We have studied the electron irradiation-induced amorphization of the ordered intermetallic compound NiZr 2 by molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with embedded-atom potentials. Randomly chosen Frenkel pairs and chemical disorder were introduced into the system in separate processes. In both cases, the energy and volume of the system rose above the corresponding levels of a quenched liquid and the calculated diffraction patterns indicated the occurrence of a crystalline-to-amorphous transition. In addition, the average shear elastic constant fell to about 50% of its value in the perfect crystal and the system became elastically isotropic. These results indicate that NiZr 2 can be amorphized by chemical disorder as well as Frenkel pairs and are in good agreement with experimental observations

  15. How Will Sea Ice Loss Affect the Greenland Ice Sheet? On the Puzzling Features of Greenland Ice-Core Isotopic Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Roberts, William H. G.

    2016-01-01

    The modern cryosphere, Earth's frozen water regime, is in fast transition. Greenland ice cores show how fast theses changes can be, presenting evidence of up to 15 C warming events over timescales of less than a decade. These events, called Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events, are believed to be associated with rapid changes in Arctic sea ice, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The modern demise of Arctic sea ice may, in turn, instigate abrupt changes on the Greenland Ice Sheet. The Arctic Sea Ice and Greenland Ice Sheet Sensitivity (Ice2Ice Chttps://ice2ice.b.uib.noD) initiative, sponsored by the European Research Council, seeks to quantify these past rapid changes to improve our understanding of what the future may hold for the Arctic. Twenty scientists gathered in Copenhagen as part of this initiative to discuss the most recent observational, technological, and model developments toward quantifying the mechanisms behind past climate changes in Greenland. Much of the discussion focused on the causes behind the changes in stable water isotopes recorded in ice cores. The participants discussed sources of variability for stable water isotopes and framed ways that new studies could improve understanding of modern climate. The participants also discussed how climate models could provide insights into the relative roles of local and nonlocal processes in affecting stable water isotopes within the Greenland Ice Sheet. Presentations of modeling results showed how a change in the source or seasonality of precipitation could occur not only between glacial and modern climates but also between abrupt events. Recent fieldwork campaigns illustrate an important role of stable isotopes in atmospheric vapor and diffusion in the final stable isotope signal in ice. Further, indications from recent fieldwork campaigns illustrate an important role of stable isotopes in atmospheric vapor and diffusion in the final stable isotope signal in ice. This feature complicates

  16. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  17. Amorphous GaP produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, T.; Kato, Y.; Shiraki, Y.; Komatsubara, K.F.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of non-crystalline states ('disordered' and 'amorphous') of GaP were produced by using ion implantation and post annealing. A structural-phase-transition-like annealing behaviour from the 'disordered' state to the 'amorphous' state was observed. The ion dose dependence and the annealing behaviour of the atomic structure of GaP implanted with 200 keV -N + ions were studied by using electron diffraction, backscattering and volume change measurements. The electronic structure was also investigated by measuring optical absorption and electrical conductivity. The implanted layer gradually loses the crystalline order with the increase of the nitrogen dose. The optical absorption coefficient α and electric conductivity sigma of GaP crystals implanted with 200 keV -N + ions of 1 x 10 16 cm -2 were expressed as αhν = C(hν - E 0 )sup(n) and log sigma = A -BTsup(-1/4), respectively. Moreover, the volume of the implanted layer increased about three percent and the electron diffraction pattern was diffused halo whose intensity monotonically decreases along the radial direction. These results indicate that the as-implanted layer has neither a long range order or short range order ('disordered state'). In the sample implanted at 1 x 10 16 cm -2 , a structural phase-transition-like annealing stage was observed at around 400 0 C. That is, the optical absorption coefficient abruptly fell off from 6 x 10 4 to 7 x 10 3 cm -1 and the volume of the implanted layer decreased about 2% within an increase of less than 10 degrees in the anneal temperature. Moreover, the short range order of the lattice structure appeared in the electron diffraction pattern. According to the backscattering experiment, the heavily implanted GaP was still in the non-crystalline state even after annealing. These facts suggest that heavily implanted GaP, followed by annealing at around 400 0 C, is in the 'amorphous' state, although as-implanted GaP is not in the 'amorphous' state but in the

  18. Regular network model for the sea ice-albedo feedback in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Stoffels, Marc; Wackerbauer, Renate

    2011-03-01

    The Arctic Ocean and sea ice form a feedback system that plays an important role in the global climate. The complexity of highly parameterized global circulation (climate) models makes it very difficult to assess feedback processes in climate without the concurrent use of simple models where the physics is understood. We introduce a two-dimensional energy-based regular network model to investigate feedback processes in an Arctic ice-ocean layer. The model includes the nonlinear aspect of the ice-water phase transition, a nonlinear diffusive energy transport within a heterogeneous ice-ocean lattice, and spatiotemporal atmospheric and oceanic forcing at the surfaces. First results for a horizontally homogeneous ice-ocean layer show bistability and related hysteresis between perennial ice and perennial open water for varying atmospheric heat influx. Seasonal ice cover exists as a transient phenomenon. We also find that ocean heat fluxes are more efficient than atmospheric heat fluxes to melt Arctic sea ice.

  19. Corrosion resistant amorphous metals and methods of forming corrosion resistant amorphous metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Wong, Frank M. G. [Livermore, CA; Haslam, Jeffery J [Livermore, CA; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Lavernia, Enrique J [Davis, CA; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Graeve, Olivia A [Reno, NV; Bayles, Robert [Annandale, VA; Perepezko, John H [Madison, WI; Kaufman, Larry [Brookline, MA; Schoenung, Julie [Davis, CA; Ajdelsztajn, Leo [Walnut Creek, CA

    2009-11-17

    A system for coating a surface comprises providing a source of amorphous metal, providing ceramic particles, and applying the amorphous metal and the ceramic particles to the surface by a spray. The coating comprises a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains one or more of the following elements in the specified range of composition: yttrium (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), chromium (14 to 18 atomic %), molybdenum (.gtoreq.7 atomic %), tungsten (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), boron (.ltoreq.5 atomic %), or carbon (.gtoreq.4 atomic %).

  20. Solid and gaseous inclusions in the EDML deep ice core: origins and implications for the physical properties of polar ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, S. H.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Garbe, C. S.; Bendel, V.; Weikusat, C.; Weikusat, I.

    2010-12-01

    The great value of polar deep ice cores stems mainly from two essential features of polar ice: its crystalline structure and its impurities. They determine the physical properties of the ice matrix and provide proxies for the investigation of past climates. Experience shows that these two essential features of polar ice manifest themselves in a multiscale diversity of dynamic structures, including dislocations, grain boundaries, solid particles, air bubbles, clathrate hydrates and cloudy bands, among others. The fact that these structures are dynamic implies that they evolve with time through intricate interactions between the crystalline structure, impurities, and the ice flow. Records of these interactions have been carefully investigated in samples of the EPICA deep ice core drilled in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (75°S, 0°E, 2882 m elevation, 2774.15 m core length). Here we show how the distributions of sizes and shapes of air bubbles correlate with impurities and the crystalline structure, how the interaction between moving grain boundaries and micro-inclusions changes with ice depth and temperature, as well as the possible causes for the abrupt change in ice rheology observed in the MIS6-MIS5e transition. We also discuss how these observations may affect the flow of the ice sheet and the interpretation of paleoclimate records. Micrograph of an EDML sample from 555m depth. One can identify air bubbles (dark, round objects), microinclusions (tiny defocused spots), and a grain boundary pinned by a bubble. The width of the image is 700 micrometers.

  1. Bacterial communities from Arctic seasonal sea ice are more compositionally variable than those from multi-year sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Ido; Lange, Benjamin; Beckers, Justin; Haas, Christian; Lanoil, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Arctic sea ice can be classified into two types: seasonal ice (first-year ice, FYI) and multi-year ice (MYI). Despite striking differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of FYI and MYI, and the key role sea ice bacteria play in biogeochemical cycles of the Arctic Ocean, there are a limited number of studies comparing the bacterial communities from these two ice types. Here, we compare the membership and composition of bacterial communities from FYI and MYI sampled north of Ellesmere Island, Canada. Our results show that communities from both ice types were dominated by similar class-level phylogenetic groups. However, at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, communities from MYI and FYI differed in both membership and composition. Communities from MYI sites had consistent structure, with similar membership (presence/absence) and composition (OTU abundance) independent of location and year of sample. By contrast, communities from FYI were more variable. Although FYI bacterial communities from different locations and different years shared similar membership, they varied significantly in composition. Should these findings apply to sea ice across the Arctic, we predict increased compositional variability in sea ice bacterial communities resulting from the ongoing transition from predominantly MYI to FYI, which may impact nutrient dynamics in the Arctic Ocean.

  2. Evidence for ephemeral middle Eocene to early Oligocene Greenland glacial ice and pan-Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna; Darby, Dennis

    2018-03-12

    Earth's modern climate is defined by the presence of ice at both poles, but that ice is now disappearing. Therefore understanding the origin and causes of polar ice stability is more critical than ever. Here we provide novel geochemical data that constrain past dynamics of glacial ice on Greenland and Arctic sea ice. Based on accurate source determinations of individual ice-rafted Fe-oxide grains, we find evidence for episodic glaciation of distinct source regions on Greenland as far-ranging as ~68°N and ~80°N synchronous with ice-rafting from circum-Arctic sources, beginning in the middle Eocene. Glacial intervals broadly coincide with reduced CO 2 , with a potential threshold for glacial ice stability near ~500 p.p.m.v. The middle Eocene represents the Cenozoic onset of a dynamic cryosphere, with ice in both hemispheres during transient glacials and substantial regional climate heterogeneity. A more stable cryosphere developed at the Eocene-Oligocene transition, and is now threatened by anthropogenic emissions.

  3. Moessbauer and transport studies of amorphous and icosahedral Zr-Ni-Cu-Ag-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadnik, Z.M.; Rapp, O.; Srinivas, V.; Saida, J.; Inoue, A.

    2002-01-01

    The alloy Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.3 Fe 0.2 Ag 10 in the amorphous and icosahedral states, and the bulk amorphous alloy Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.5 Ag 10 , have been studied with 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, electrical resistance and magnetoresistance techniques. The average quadrupole splitting in both alloys decreases with temperature as T 3/2 . The average quadrupole splitting in the icosahedral alloy is the largest ever reported for a metallic system. The lattice vibrations of the Fe atoms in the amorphous and icosahedral alloys are well described by a simple Debye model, with the characteristic Moessbauer temperatures of 379(29) and 439(28) K, respectively. Amorphous alloys Zr 65 Al 7. )5Ni 10 Cu 7.5 Ag 10 and Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.3 Fe 0.2 Ag 10 have been found to be superconducting with the transition temperature, T c , of about 1.7 K. The magnitude of Tc and the critical field slope at Tc are in agreement with previous work on Zr-based amorphous superconductors, while the low-temperature normal state resistivity is larger than typical results for binary and ternary Zr-based alloys. The resistivity of icosahedral Zr 65 Al 7.5 Ni 10 Cu 7.3 Fe 0.2 Ag 10 is larger than that for the amorphous ribbon of the same composition, as inferred both from direct measurements on the ribbons and from the observed magnetoresistance. However the icosahedral sample is non-superconducting in the measurement range down to 1.5 K. The results for the resistivity and the superconducting T c both suggest a stronger electronic disorder in the icosahedral phase than in the amorphous phase. (author)

  4. Surface magnetic structures in amorphous ferromagnetic microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, N.A., E-mail: usov@obninsk.ru [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 108840 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Serebryakova, O.N.; Gudoshnikov, S.A. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 108840 Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tarasov, V.P. [National University of Science and Technology «MISIS», 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    The spatial period of magnetization perturbations that occur near the surface of magnetic nanotube or nanowire under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy is determined by means of numerical simulation as a function of the sample geometry and material parameters. The surface magnetization distribution obtained is then used to estimate the period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter by means of appropriate variational procedure. The period of the surface magnetic texture in amorphous microwire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter. - Highlights: • Magnetic structure may arise near the magnetic nanotube surface under the influence of surface magnetic anisotropy. • The period of the surface magnetization pattern is calculated as a function of the sample geometry. • Similar magnetic structure may exist in amorphous microwire of several micrometers in diameter. • The period of the surface magnetic structure in amorphous wire is found to be significantly smaller than the wire diameter.

  5. Amorphous uranium alloy and use thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, R.J.; McElfresh, M.W.; McGuire, T.R.; Plaskett, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    An amorphous alloy containing uranium and a member selected from the group N, P, As, Sb, Bi, S, Se, Te, Po and mixtures thereof; and use thereof for storage medium, light modulator or optical isolator. (author) figs

  6. Magnetomechanical coupling in thermal amorphous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, H. George E.; Ilyin, Valery; Mondal, Chandana; Procaccia, Itamar

    2018-05-01

    Standard approaches to magnetomechanical interactions in thermal magnetic crystalline solids involve Landau functionals in which the lattice anisotropy and the resulting magnetization easy axes are taken explicitly into account. In glassy systems one needs to develop a theory in which the amorphous structure precludes the existence of an easy axis, and in which the constituent particles are free to respond to their local amorphous surroundings and the resulting forces. We present a theory of all the mixed responses of an amorphous solid to mechanical strains and magnetic fields. Atomistic models are proposed in which we test the predictions of magnetostriction for both bulk and nanofilm amorphous samples in the paramagnetic phase. The application to nanofilms with emergent self-affine free interfaces requires a careful definition of the film "width" and its change due to the magnetostriction effect.

  7. Glassy formation ability, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingwei; Xu, Chi; Yuan, Ye; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have fabricated the Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon with good glassy formation ability by melt-spinning technology. A broad paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition (second ordered) together with a large reversible magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon was observed around the Curie temperature TC ∼ 11 K. Under the magnetic field change (ΔH of 0-7 T, the values of MCE parameter of the maximum magnetic entropy change (-ΔSMmax) and refrigerant capacity (RC) for Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon reach 21.4 J/kg K and 599 J/kg, respectively. The outstanding glass forming ability as well as the excellent magneto-caloric properties indicate that Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous could be a good candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  8. Glass solution formation in water - In situ amorphization of naproxen and ibuprofen with Eudragit® E PO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doreth, Maria; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    is applicable to other drugs. Compacts of drug and Eudragit® E were compressed at a 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 drug-to-polymer ratio (w/w) and immersed in water for 1 h. Physicochemical characteristics, potential interactions and dissolution behavior were analyzed and compared to non-immersed compacts. Both drugs formed...... a glass solution with Eudragit® E when immersed into water. In XRPD, reflections of the respective drugs decreased or disappeared completely. All samples showed a single glass transition temperature in the DSC, suggesting the formation of single phase amorphous systems. Ionic interactions between drug...... and polymer were identified by infrared spectroscopy. In the dissolution study (pH 4.1), especially the 1:1 (w/w) in situ amorphized samples showed an improved dissolution behavior compared to their non-immersed counterparts. It can be concluded that in situ amorphization is a promising method to amorphize...

  9. Radiation Effects in Hydrogen-Laden Porous Water Ice Films: Implications for Interstellar Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Ujjwal; Baragiola, Raul; Mitchell, Emma; Shi, Jianming

    H _{2} is the dominant gas in the dense clouds of the interstellar medium (ISM). At densities of 10 (5) cm (-3) , an H _{2} molecule arrives at the surface of a 0.1 mum-sized, ice-covered dust grain once every few seconds [1]. At 10 K, H _{2} can diffuse into the pores of the ice mantle and adsorb at high-energy binding sites, loading the ice with hydrogen over the lifetime of the cloud. These icy grains are also impacted by galactic cosmic rays and stellar winds (in clouds with embedded protostar). Based on the available cosmic proton flux spectrum [2], we estimate a small impact rate of nearly 1 hit per year on a 0.1 μm sized grain, or 10 (-7) times the impact frequency of the neutral H _{2}. The energy deposited by such impacts can release the adsorbed H _{2} into the gas phase (impact desorption or sputtering). Recently, we have reported on a new process of ion-induced enhanced adsorption, where molecules from the gas phase are incorporated into the film when irradiation is performed in the presence of ambient gas [3]. The interplay between ion-induced ejection and adsorption can be important in determining the gas-solid balance in the ISM. To understand the effects of cosmic rays/stellar winds impacts on interstellar ice immersed in H _{2} gas, we have performed irradiation of porous amorphous ice films loaded with H _{2} through co-deposition or adsorption following growth. The irradiations were performed with 100 keV H (+) using fluxes of 10 (10) -10 (12) H (+) cm (-2) s (-1) at 7 K, in presence of ambient H _{2} at pressures ranging from 10 (-5) to 10 (-8) Torr. Our initial results show a net loss in adsorbed H _{2} during irradiation, from competing ion-induced ejection and adsorption. The H _{2} loss per ion decreases exponentially with fluence, with a cross-section of 10 (-13) cm (2) . In addition to hydrogen removal, irradiation also leads to trapping of H _{2} in the ice film, from closing of the pores during irradiation [4]. As a result, 2.6 percent

  10. Sputtering of water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from...

  11. Turning into Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Hanlon, Regina; Bohland, Cynthia; Schmale, David G., III

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary unit in which students explore biological "ice nucleation"--by particles that cause water to freeze at temperatures above -38°C--through the lens of the microbial ice nucleator "Pseudomonas syringae." Such This activity, which aligns with the "Next Generation Science…

  12. Continuous methane measurements from a late Holocene Greenland ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, R.H.; Mitchell, L.E.; Brook, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient air trapped inside bubbles in ice cores can now be analysed for methane concentration utilising a laser spectrometer coupled to a continuous melter system. We present a new ultra-high resolution record of atmospheric methane variability over the last 1800yr obtained from continuous analysis...... of a shallow ice core from the North Greenland Eemian project (NEEM-2011-S1) during a 4-week laboratory-based measurement campaign. Our record faithfully replicates the form and amplitudes of multi-decadal oscillations previously observed in other ice cores and demonstrates the detailed depth resolution (5.3cm......), rapid acquisition time (30mday) and good long-term reproducibility (2.6%, 2s) of the continuous measurement technique.In addition, we report the detection of high frequency ice core methane signals of non-atmospheric origin. Firstly, measurements of air from the firn-ice transition region...

  13. Using containerless methods to develop amorphous pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J K R; Benmore, C J; Suthar, K J; Tamalonis, A J; Alderman, O L G; Sendelbach, S; Kondev, V; Yarger, J; Rey, C A; Byrn, S R

    2017-01-01

    Many pipeline drugs have low solubility in their crystalline state and require compounding in special dosage forms to increase bioavailability for oral administration. The use of amorphous formulations increases solubility and uptake of active pharmaceutical ingredients. These forms are rapidly gaining commercial importance for both pre-clinical and clinical use. Synthesis of amorphous drugs was performed using an acoustic levitation containerless processing method and spray drying. The structure of the products was investigated using in-situ high energy X-ray diffraction. Selected solvents for processing drugs were investigated using acoustic levitation. The stability of amorphous samples was measured using X-ray diffraction. Samples processed using both spray drying and containerless synthesis were compared. We review methods for making amorphous pharmaceuticals and present data on materials made by containerless processing and spray drying. It was shown that containerless processing using acoustic levitation can be used to make phase-pure forms of drugs that are known to be difficult to amorphize. The stability and structure of the materials was investigated in the context of developing and making clinically useful formulations. Amorphous compounds are emerging as an important component of drug development and for the oral delivery of drugs with low solubility. Containerless techniques can be used to efficiently synthesize small quantities of pure amorphous forms that are potentially useful in pre-clinical trials and for use in the optimization of clinical products. Developing new pharmaceutical products is an essential enterprise to improve patient outcomes. The development and application of amorphous pharmaceuticals to increase absorption is rapidly gaining importance and it provides opportunities for breakthrough research on new drugs. There is an urgent need to solve problems associated with making formulations that are both stable and that provide high

  14. Amorphization Mechanism of Icosahedral Platinum Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apra, Edoardo; Baletto, Francesca; Ferrando, Riccardo; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    The amorphization mechanism of high-symmetry pt nanoclusters is investigated by a combination of Molecular Dynamics simulations and Density Functional calculations. A general mechanism for amorphization, involving rosette-like structural transformations at fivefold vertices, is proposed. IN the tosette, a fivefold vertex is transformed into a hexagonal ring. We show that for icosahedral Pt nanoclusters, this transformation is associated with an energy gain, so that their most favorable structures have a low symmetry even at icosahedral magic numbers

  15. Immobilization technology for krypton in amorphous zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takusagawa, Atsushi; Ishiyama, Keiichi

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive krypton recovered from the offgas of a reprocessing plant requires long-term storage on the order of 100 years. Immobilization technology for krypton into amorphous zeolite 5A is considered one of the best methods for long-term storage. In this report, conditions for immobilization treatment and stability of amorphous zeolite 5A loaded krypton against heat, radiation and water are discussed, and a treatment system using this technology is described. (author)

  16. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  17. Stability of (Fe-Tm-B) amorphous alloys: relaxation and crystallization phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemcik, T.

    1994-01-01

    Fe-Tm-B base (TM = transition metal) amorphous alloys (metallic glasses) are thermodynamically metastable. This limits their use as otherwise favourable materials, e.g. magnetically soft, corrosion resistant and mechanically firm. By analogy of the mechanical strain-stress dependence, at a certain degree of thermal activation the amorphous structure reaches its limiting state where it changes its character and physical properties. Relaxation and early crystallization processes in amorphous alloys, starting already around 100 C, are reviewed involving subsequently stress relief, free volume shrinking, topological and chemical ordering, pre-crystallization phenomena up to partial (primary) crystallization. Two diametrically different examples are demonstrated from among the soft magnetic materials: relaxation and early crystallization processes in the Fe-Co-B metallic glasses and controlled crystallization of amorphous ribbons yielding rather modern nanocrystalline ''Finemet'' alloys where late relaxation and pre-crystallization phenomena overlap when forming extremely dispersive and fine-grained nanocrystals-in-amorphous-sauce structure. Moessbauer spectroscopy seems to be unique for magnetic and phase analysis of such complicated systems. (orig.)

  18. Characterization of Two Distinct Amorphous Forms of Valsartan by Solid-State NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicki, Marcin; Apperley, David C; Aguilar, Juan A; Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Pyda, Marek; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2016-01-04

    Valsartan (VAL) is an antihypertensive drug marketed in an amorphous form. Amorphous materials can have different physicochemical properties depending on preparation method, thermal history, etc., but the nature of such materials is difficult to study by diffraction techniques. This study characterizes two different amorphous forms of valsartan (AR and AM) using solid-state NMR (SSNMR) as a primary investigation tool, supported by solution-state NMR, FT-IR, TMDSC, and dissolution tests. The two forms are found to be clearly distinct, with a significantly higher level of structural arrangement in the AR form, as observed in (13)C, (15)N, and (1)H SSNMR. (13)C and (15)N NMR indicates that the fully amorphous material (AM) contains an approximately equal ratio of cis-trans conformers about the amide bond, whereas the AR form exists mainly as one conformer, with minor conformational "defects". (1)H ultrafast MAS NMR shows significant differences in the hydrogen bonding involving the tetrazole and acid hydrogens between the two materials, while (15)N NMR shows that both forms exist as a 1,2,3,4-tetrazole tautomer. NMR relaxation times show subtle differences in local and bulk molecular mobility, which can be connected with the glass transition, the stability of the glassy material, and its response to aging. Counterintuitively the fully amorphous material is found to have a significantly lower dissolution rate than the apparently more ordered AR material.

  19. Lithium implantation at low temperature in silicon for sharp buried amorphous layer formation and defect engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliviero, E.; David, M. L.; Beaufort, M. F.; Barbot, J. F.; Fichtner, P. F. P.

    2013-01-01

    The crystalline-to-amorphous transformation induced by lithium ion implantation at low temperature has been investigated. The resulting damage structure and its thermal evolution have been studied by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy channelling (RBS/C) and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Lithium low-fluence implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature is shown to produce a three layers structure: an amorphous layer surrounded by two highly damaged layers. A thermal treatment at 400 °C leads to the formation of a sharp amorphous/crystalline interfacial transition and defect annihilation of the front heavily damaged layer. After 600 °C annealing, complete recrystallization takes place and no extended defects are left. Anomalous recrystallization rate is observed with different motion velocities of the a/c interfaces and is ascribed to lithium acting as a surfactant. Moreover, the sharp buried amorphous layer is shown to be an efficient sink for interstitials impeding interstitial supersaturation and {311} defect formation in case of subsequent neon implantation. This study shows that lithium implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature can be suitable to form a sharp buried amorphous layer with a well-defined crystalline front layer, thus having potential applications for defects engineering in the improvement of post-implantation layers quality and for shallow junction formation.

  20. Inhibition of Recrystallization of Amorphous Lactose in Nanocomposites Formed by Spray-Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellrup, Joel; Alderborn, Göran; Mahlin, Denny

    2015-11-01

    This study aims at investigating the recrystallization of amorphous lactose in nanocomposites. In particular, the focus is on the influence of the nano- to micrometer length scale nanofiller arrangement on the amorphous to crystalline transition. Further, the relative significance of formulation composition and manufacturing process parameters for the properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Nanocomposites of amorphous lactose and fumed silica were produced by co-spray-drying. Solid-state transformation of the lactose was studied at 43%, 84%, and 94% relative humidity using X-ray powder diffraction and microcalorimetry. Design of experiments was used to analyze spray-drying process parameters and nanocomposite composition as factors influencing the time to 50% recrystallization. The spray-drying process parameters showed no significant influence. However, the recrystallization of the lactose in the nanocomposites was affected by the composition (fraction silica). The recrystallization rate constant decreased as a function of silica content. The lowered recrystallization rate of the lactose in the nanocomposites could be explained by three mechanisms: (1) separation of the amorphous lactose into discrete compartments on a micrometer length scale (compartmentalization), (2) lowered molecular mobility caused by molecular interactions between the lactose molecules and the surface of the silica (rigidification), and/or (3) intraparticle confinement of the amorphous lactose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. Amorphization of Ge and InP studied using nuclear hyperfine methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.P.; Bezakova, E.; Glover, C.J.; Ridgway, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    The ion beam amorphization of InP and Ge has been studied using the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique. Semiconductor samples were preimplanted with the radioisotope 111 In using a direct production-recoil implantation method and beams from the ANU Heavy-ion Facility. Following annealing samples were amorphized using Ge beams with doses between 2 x 10 12 ion/cm 2 and 5000 x 10 12 ion/cm 2 . For InP the PAC spectra identified three distinct regimes, crystalline, disordered and amorphous environments, with a smooth transition observed as a function of dose. The dose dependence of the relative fractions of the individual probe environments has been determined. A direct amorphization process consistent with the overlap model was quantified and evidence for a second amorphization process via the overlap of disordered regions was observed. The PAC method compares favorably with other methods used in its ability to differentiate changes at high dose. The results for InP will be compared with those in Ge. The implantation method will be discussed, as will developments in the establishment of a dedicated facility for the implantation of radioisotopes

  2. Experimental Analysis of Sublimation Dynamics for Buried Glacier Ice in Beacon Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeucht, S.; Dennis, D. P.; Marchant, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The age of the oldest known buried ice in Beacon Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) Antarctica is a topic of active debate due to its implications for the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Published age estimates range from as young as 300 ka to as old as 8.1 Ma. In the upland MDV, ablation occurs predominantly via sublimation. The relict ice in question (ancient ice from Taylor Glacier) lies buried beneath a thin ( 30-70 cm) layer of sublimation till, which forms as a lag deposit as underlying debris-rich ice sublimes. As the ice sublimates, the debris held within the ice accumulates slowly on the surface, creating a porous boundary between the buried-ice surface and the atmosphere, which in turn influences gas exchange between the ice and the atmosphere. Additionally, englacial debris adds several salt species that are ultimately concentrated on the ice surface. It is well documented the rate of ice sublimation varies as a function of overlying till thickness. However, the rate-limiting dynamics under varying environmental conditions, including the threshold thicknesses at which sublimation is strongly retarded, are not yet defined. To better understand the relationships between sublimation rate, till thickness, and long-term surface evolution, we build on previous studies by Lamp and Marchant (2017) and evaluate the role of till thickness as a control on ice loss in an environmental chamber capable of replicating the extreme cold desert conditions observed in the MDV. Previous work has shown that this relationship exhibits exponential decay behavior, with sublimation rate significantly dampened under less than 10 cm of till. In our experiments we pay particular attention to the effect of the first several cm of till in order to quantify the dynamics that govern the transition from bare ice to debris-covered ice. We also examine this transition for various forms of glacier ice, including ice with various salt species.

  3. Arctic sea ice melt pond fractal dimension - explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Predrag

    As Arctic sea ice starts to melt in the summer, pools of melt water quickly form on its surface, significantly changing its albedo, and impacting its subsequent evolution. These melt ponds often form complex geometric shapes. One characteristic of their shape, the fractal dimension of the pond boundaries, D, when plotted as a function of pond size, has been shown to transition between the two fundamental limits of D = 1 and D = 2 at some critical pond size. Here, we provide an explanation for this behavior. First, using aerial photographs, we show how this fractal transition curve changes with time, and show that there is a qualitative difference in the pond shape as ice transitions from impermeable to permeable. Namely, while ice is impermeable, maximum fractal dimension is less than 2, whereas after it becomes permeable, maximum fractal dimension becomes very close to 2. We then show how the fractal dimension of a collection of overlapping circles placed randomly on a plane also transitions from D = 1 to D = 2 at a size equal to the average size of a single circle. We, therefore, conclude that this transition is a simple geometric consequence of regular shapes connecting. The one physical parameter that can be extracted from the fractal transition curve is the length scale at which transition occurs. We provide a possible explanation for this length scale by noting that the flexural wavelength of the ice poses a fundamental limit on the size of melt ponds on permeable ice. If this is true, melt ponds could be used as a proxy for ice thickness.

  4. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of amorphous Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nóbrega, E.P., E-mail: pilad@cbpf.br; Costa, S.S.; Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Alho, B.P.; Caldas, A.; Ribeiro, P.O.; Sousa, V.S.R de; Oliveira, N.A. de; Ranke, P.J. von

    2017-01-15

    We report a theoretical model formed by two coupled magnetic sublattices of localized spins in the presence of an applied magnetic field to investigate the magnetic characteristics and magnetocaloric properties of amorphous yttrium iron garnet. The magnetic state equation is based on Handrich–Kobe´s theory, where the amorphization is taken into account by introducing fluctuations in the exchange parameters. Experimental results report that Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} presents a structural phase transition from crystalline to amorphous caused by a variation of external pressure. This phase transition on Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} leads to interesting results in the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric quantities. - Highlights: • Study of magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of amorphous Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} compound. • Theoretical model formed by two coupled magnetic sublattices of localized spins in the presence of an applied magnetic field. • The influence of crystalline/amorphous transition on the magnetocaloric effect.

  5. GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in...

  6. Torque and Axial Loading Physics for Measuring Atmospheric Icing Load and Icing Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Mughal, Umair Najeeb; Virk, Muhammad Shakeel

    2015-01-01

    Measuring icing load and icing rate are important parameters for an atmospheric icing sensor. A new icing sensor has recently been designed and developed at Narvik University College for measuring atmospheric icing rate, icing load and icing type. Unlike the existing atmospheric icing sensors commercially available in market, which uses the axial loading for measuring icing load and icing rate, this new sensory system measures icing load and icing rate using the torque loading physics. The pe...

  7. Modelling snow ice and superimposed ice on landfast sea ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Snow ice and superimposed ice formation on landfast sea ice in a Svalbard fjord, Kongsfjorden, was investigated with a high-resolution thermodynamic snow and sea-ice model, applying meteorological weather station data as external forcing. The model shows that sea-ice formation occurs both at the ice bottom and at the snow/ice interface. Modelling results indicated that the total snow ice and superimposed ice, which formed at the snow/ice interface, was about 14 cm during the simulation period, accounting for about 15% of the total ice mass and 35% of the total ice growth. Introducing a time-dependent snow density improved the modelled results, and a time-dependent oceanic heat flux parameterization yielded reasonable ice growth at the ice bottom. Model results suggest that weather conditions, in particular air temperature and precipitation, as well as snow thermal properties and surface albedo are the most critical factors for the development of snow ice and superimposed ice in Kongsfjorden. While both warming air and higher precipitation led to increased snow ice and superimposed ice forming in Kongsfjorden in the model runs, the processes were more sensitive to precipitation than to air temperature.

  8. Quantifying atom addition reactions on amorphous solid water: a review of recent laboratory advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiao; Vidali, Gianfranco

    2018-06-01

    Complex organic molecules found in space are mostly formed on and in the ice mantle covering interstellar dust grains. In clouds where ionizing irradiation is insignificant, chemical reactions on the ice mantle are dominated by thermal processes. Modeling of grain surface chemistry requires detailed information from the laboratory, including sticking coefficients, binding energies, diffusion energy barriers, mechanism of reaction, and chemical desorption rates. In this talk, recent laboratory advances in obtaining these information would be reviewed. Specifically, this talk will focus on the efforts in our group in: 1) Determining the mechanism of atomic hydrogen addition reactions on amorphous solid water (ASW); 2) Measuring the chemical desorption coefficient of H+O3-->O2+OH using the time-resolved scattering technique; and 3) Measuring the diffusion energy barrier of volatile molecules on ASW. Further laboratory studies will be suggested.This research was supported by NSF Astronomy & Astrophysics Research Grant #1615897.

  9. Long-Endurance, Ice-capable Autonomous Seagliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Craig; Gobat, Jason; Shilling, Geoff; Curry, Beth

    2013-04-01

    . The first successful section across the ice-covered Davis Strait occurred in 2006, while the first full mission took place September - February 2008. Mission duration was 25 weeks, with over 800 km of under-ice transit over 51 days. The glider was able to identify and surface through leads 10 times during under-ice operations. Most recently, a pair of successful missions collected continuous sections across Davis Strait from October 2010 through June 2011, including operations between January and June, when the strait was nearly entirely ice-covered and the glider rarely gained access to the surface. These missions provide the first year-round time series of high-resolution sections across Davis Strait. In the Antarctic, ice-capable Seagliders successfully transited beneath a 40-km ice bridge and self-extracted after being carried beneath the Ross ice shelf during missions conducted without the support of an acoustic navigation array. Ice-capable Seagliders can provide sustainable, continuous occupation of critical sections in ice-covered regions, including the marginal ice zone, with typical horizontal resolution of 3 km and routine sampling of the important, but hazardous, region near the ice-ocean interface. Future directions include development of basin-scale acoustic navigation ('underwater GPS' for the Arctic) and use of existing high-frequency acoustic communications for short-range data transfer.

  10. Effects of the amorphization on hysteresis loops of the amorphous spin-1/2 Ising system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Saber, M.; Miguel, J.J. de

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effects of the amorphization on the hysteresis loops of the amorphous spin-1/2 Ising system using the effective field theory within a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation functions. The magnetization, the transverse and longitudinal susceptibilities, and pyromagnetic coefficient are also studied in detail

  11. Ab initio simulation of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, N.C.; McKenzie, D.R.; Goringe, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A first-principles Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation of amorphous silicon is presented. Density Functional Theory is used to describe the forces between the atoms in a 64 atom supercell which is periodically repeated throughout space in order to generate an infinite network of atoms (a good approximation to a real solid). A quench from the liquid phase is used to achieve a quenched amorphous structure, which is subjected to an annealing cycle to improve its stability. The final, annealed network is in better agreement with experiment than any previous simulation of amorphous silicon. Significantly, the predicted average first-coordination numbers of 3.56 and 3.84 for the quenched and annealed structures from this simulation agree very closely with the experimental values of 3.55 and 3.90 respectively, whereas all previous simulations yielded first coordination numbers greater than 4. This improved agreement in coordination numbers is important because it supports the experimental finding that dangling bonds (which are associated with under-coordinated atoms) are more prevalent than floating bonds (the strained, longer bond of a five coordinate atom) in pure amorphous silicon. Finally, the effect of adding hydrogen to amorphous silicon was investigated by specifically placing hydrogen atoms at the likely defect sites. After a structural relaxation to optimise the positions of these hydrogen atoms, the localised electronic states associated with these defects are absent. Thus hydrogen is responsible for removing these defect states (which are able to trap carriers) from the edge of the band gap of the amorphous silicon. These results confirm the widely held ideas about the effect of hydrogen in producing remarkable improvements in the electronic properties of amorphous silicon

  12. Determination of a Critical Sea Ice Thickness Threshold for the Central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, V.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Nowotarski, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    While sea ice extent is readily measurable from satellite observations and can be used to assess the overall survivability of the Arctic sea ice pack, determining the spatial variability of sea ice thickness remains a challenge. Turbulent and conductive heat fluxes are extremely sensitive to ice thickness but are dominated by the sensible heat flux, with energy exchange expected to increase with thinner ice cover. Fluxes over open water are strongest and have the greatest influence on the atmosphere, while fluxes over thick sea ice are minimal as heat conduction from the ocean through thick ice cannot reach the atmosphere. We know that turbulent energy fluxes are strongest over open ocean, but is there a "critical thickness of ice" where fluxes are considered non-negligible? Through polar-optimized Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations, this study assesses how the wintertime Arctic surface boundary layer, via sensible heat flux exchange and surface air temperature, responds to sea ice thinning. The region immediately north of Franz Josef Land is characterized by a thickness gradient where sea ice transitions from the thickest multi-year ice to the very thin marginal ice seas. This provides an ideal location to simulate how the diminishing Arctic sea ice interacts with a warming atmosphere. Scenarios include both fixed sea surface temperature domains for idealized thickness variability, and fixed ice fields to detect changes in the ocean-ice-atmosphere energy exchange. Results indicate that a critical thickness threshold exists below 1 meter. The threshold is between 0.4-1 meters thinner than the critical thickness for melt season survival - the difference between first year and multi-year ice. Turbulent heat fluxes and surface air temperature increase as sea ice thickness transitions from perennial ice to seasonal ice. While models predict a sea ice free Arctic at the end of the warm season in future decades, sea ice will continue to transform

  13. Amorphous formulations of indomethacin and griseofulvin prepared by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Felipe L; Shearman, Gemma C; Gaisford, Simon; Williams, Gareth R

    2014-12-01

    Following an array of optimization experiments, two series of electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) fibers were prepared. One set of fibers contained various loadings of indomethacin, known to form stable glasses, and the other griseofulvin (a poor glass former). Drug loadings of up to 33% w/w were achieved. Electron microscopy data showed the fibers largely to comprise smooth and uniform cylinders, with evidence for solvent droplets in some samples. In all cases, the drug was found to exist in the amorphous physical state in the fibers on the basis of X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Modulated temperature DSC showed that the relationship between a formulation's glass transition temperature (Tg) and the drug loading follows the Gordon-Taylor equation, but not the Fox equation. The results of Gordon-Taylor analysis indicated that the drug/polymer interactions were stronger with indomethacin. The interactions between drug and polymer were explored in more detail using molecular modeling simulations and again found to be stronger with indomethacin; the presence of significant intermolecular forces was further confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The amorphous form of both drugs was found to be stable after storage of the fibers for 8 months in a desiccator (relative humidity <25%). Finally, the functional performance of the fibers was studied; in all cases, the drug-loaded fibers released their drug cargo very rapidly, offering accelerated dissolution over the pure drug.

  14. Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Peterson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In sea ice, interconnected pockets and channels of brine are surrounded by fresh ice. Over time, brine is lost by gravity drainage and flushing. The timing of salt release and its interaction with the underlying water can impact subsequent sea ice melt. Turbulence measurements 1 m below melting sea ice north of Svalbard reveal anticorrelated heat and salt fluxes. From the observations, 131 salty plumes descending from the warm sea ice are identified, confirming previous observations from a Svalbard fjord. The plumes are likely triggered by oceanic heat through bottom melt. Calculated over a composite plume, oceanic heat and salt fluxes during the plumes account for 6 and 9 % of the total fluxes, respectively, while only lasting in total 0.5 % of the time. The observed salt flux accumulates to 7.6 kg m−2, indicating nearly full desalination of the ice. Bulk salinity reduction between two nearby ice cores agrees with accumulated salt fluxes to within a factor of 2. The increasing fraction of younger, more saline ice in the Arctic suggests an increase in desalination processes with the transition to the new Arctic.

  15. Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Algot K.

    2018-02-01

    In sea ice, interconnected pockets and channels of brine are surrounded by fresh ice. Over time, brine is lost by gravity drainage and flushing. The timing of salt release and its interaction with the underlying water can impact subsequent sea ice melt. Turbulence measurements 1 m below melting sea ice north of Svalbard reveal anticorrelated heat and salt fluxes. From the observations, 131 salty plumes descending from the warm sea ice are identified, confirming previous observations from a Svalbard fjord. The plumes are likely triggered by oceanic heat through bottom melt. Calculated over a composite plume, oceanic heat and salt fluxes during the plumes account for 6 and 9 % of the total fluxes, respectively, while only lasting in total 0.5 % of the time. The observed salt flux accumulates to 7.6 kg m-2, indicating nearly full desalination of the ice. Bulk salinity reduction between two nearby ice cores agrees with accumulated salt fluxes to within a factor of 2. The increasing fraction of younger, more saline ice in the Arctic suggests an increase in desalination processes with the transition to the new Arctic.

  16. Iron-based amorphous alloys and methods of synthesizing iron-based amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng Kiong; Bauer, William A.; Choi, Jor-Shan; Day, Dan; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-05-03

    A method according to one embodiment includes combining an amorphous iron-based alloy and at least one metal selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, boron, gadolinium, nickel phosphorous, yttrium, and alloys thereof to form a mixture, wherein the at least one metal is present in the mixture from about 5 atomic percent (at %) to about 55 at %; and ball milling the mixture at least until an amorphous alloy of the iron-based alloy and the at least one metal is formed. Several amorphous iron-based metal alloys are also presented, including corrosion-resistant amorphous iron-based metal alloys and radiation-shielding amorphous iron-based metal alloys.

  17. Creep of ice: further studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, H.C.; Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed studies have been done of ice creep as related to the icy satellites, Ganymede and Callisto. Included were: (1) the flow of high-pressure water ices II, III, and V, and (2) frictional sliding of ice I sub h. Work was also begun on the study of the effects of impurities on the flow of ice. Test results are summarized

  18. The effects of methanol on the trapping of volatile ice components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Daren J.; Brown, Wendy A.

    2015-04-01

    The evaporation of icy mantles, which have been formed on the surface of dust grains, is acknowledged to give rise to the rich chemistry that has been observed in the vicinity of hot cores and corinos. It has long been established that water ice is the dominant species within many astrophysical ices. However, other molecules found within astrophysical ices, particularly methanol, can influence the desorption of volatile species from the ice. Here we present a detailed investigation of the adsorption and desorption of methanol-containing ices, showing the effect that methanol has on the trapping and release of volatiles from model interstellar ices. OCS and CO2 have been used as probe molecules since they have been suggested to reside in water-rich and methanol-rich environments. Experiments show that methanol fundamentally changes the desorption characteristics of both OCS and CO2, leading to the observation of mainly codesorption of both species with bulk water ice for the tertiary ices and causing a lowering of the temperature of the volcano component of the desorption. In contrast, binary ices are dominated by standard volcano desorption. This observation clearly shows that codepositing astrophysically relevant impurities with water ice, such as methanol, can alter the desorption dynamics of volatiles that become trapped in the pores of the amorphous water ice during the sublimation process. Incorporating experimental data into a simple model to simulate these processes on astrophysical timescales shows that the additional methanol component releases larger amounts of OCS from the ice mantle at lower temperatures and earlier times. These results are of interest to astronomers as they can be used to model the star formation process, hence giving information about the evolution of our Universe.

  19. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  20. The Structure of Liquid and Amorphous Hafnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leighanne C. Gallington

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the atomic structure of amorphous solids is important in predicting and tuning their macroscopic behavior. Here, we use a combination of high-energy X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and molecular dynamics simulations to benchmark the atomic interactions in the high temperature stable liquid and low-density amorphous solid states of hafnia. The diffraction results reveal an average Hf–O coordination number of ~7 exists in both the liquid and amorphous nanoparticle forms studied. The measured pair distribution functions are compared to those generated from several simulation models in the literature. We have also performed ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations that show density has a strong effect on the polyhedral connectivity. The liquid shows a broad distribution of Hf–Hf interactions, while the formation of low-density amorphous nanoclusters can reproduce the sharp split peak in the Hf–Hf partial pair distribution function observed in experiment. The agglomeration of amorphous nanoparticles condensed from the gas phase is associated with the formation of both edge-sharing and corner-sharing HfO6,7 polyhedra resembling that observed in the monoclinic phase.

  1. Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Perez-Mendez, V. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters {epsilon}{sup 2}{tau}'s are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs.

  2. Amorphous silicon detectors in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1989-12-01

    The physics of the detection process is studied and the performances of different Positron Emission Tomography (PET) system are evaluated by theoretical calculation and/or Monte Carlo Simulation (using the EGS code) in this paper, whose table of contents can be summarized as follows: a brief introduction to amorphous silicon detectors and some useful equation is presented; a Tantalum/Amorphous Silicon PET project is studied and the efficiency of the systems is studied by Monte Carlo Simulation; two similar CsI/Amorphous Silicon PET projects are presented and their efficiency and spatial resolution are studied by Monte Carlo Simulation, light yield and time characteristics of the scintillation light are discussed for different scintillators; some experimental result on light yield measurements are presented; a Xenon/Amorphous Silicon PET is presented, the physical mechanism of scintillation in Xenon is explained, a theoretical estimation of total light yield in Xenon and the resulting efficiency is discussed altogether with some consideration of the time resolution of the system; the amorphous silicon integrated electronics is presented, total noise and time resolution are evaluated in each of our applications; the merit parameters ε 2 τ's are evaluated and compared with other PET systems and conclusions are drawn; and a complete reference list for Xenon scintillation light physics and its applications is presented altogether with the listing of the developed simulation programs

  3. Amorphous Diamond MEMS and Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, JOHN P.; FRIEDMANN, THOMAS A.; ASHBY, CAROL I.; DE BOER, MAARTEN P.; SCHUBERT, W. KENT; SHUL, RANDY J.; HOHLFELDER, ROBERT J.; LAVAN, D.A.

    2002-06-01

    This report describes a new microsystems technology for the creation of microsensors and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using stress-free amorphous diamond (aD) films. Stress-free aD is a new material that has mechanical properties close to that of crystalline diamond, and the material is particularly promising for the development of high sensitivity microsensors and rugged and reliable MEMS. Some of the unique properties of aD include the ability to easily tailor film stress from compressive to slightly tensile, hardness and stiffness 80-90% that of crystalline diamond, very high wear resistance, a hydrophobic surface, extreme chemical inertness, chemical compatibility with silicon, controllable electrical conductivity from insulating to conducting, and biocompatibility. A variety of MEMS structures were fabricated from this material and evaluated. These structures included electrostatically-actuated comb drives, micro-tensile test structures, singly- and doubly-clamped beams, and friction and wear test structures. It was found that surface micromachined MEMS could be fabricated in this material easily and that the hydrophobic surface of the film enabled the release of structures without the need for special drying procedures or the use of applied hydrophobic coatings. Measurements using these structures revealed that aD has a Young's modulus of {approx}650 GPa, a tensile fracture strength of 8 GPa, and a fracture toughness of 8 MPa{center_dot}m {sup 1/2}. These results suggest that this material may be suitable in applications where stiction or wear is an issue. Flexural plate wave (FPW) microsensors were also fabricated from aD. These devices use membranes of aD as thin as {approx}100 nm. The performance of the aD FPW sensors was evaluated for the detection of volatile organic compounds using ethyl cellulose as the sensor coating. For comparable membrane thicknesses, the aD sensors showed better performance than silicon nitride based sensors. Greater

  4. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  5. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  6. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  7. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  8. Structural transformations of Fe81B13Si4C2 amorphous alloy induced by heating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minić, Dragica M.; Minić, Dušan M.; Žák, Tomáš; Roupcová, Pavla; David, Bohumil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 323, č. 5 (2011), s. 400-404 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Amorphous material * Metallic glass * Metal and alloy * Phase transition * Thermal analysis * Mössbauer spectrum * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2011

  9. Phenomenology of the plastic flow of amorphous solids induced by heavy-ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaumuenzer, S.; Benyagoub, A.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous solids exhibit at temperatures far below the glass transition plastic flow when bombarded with fast heavy ions (kinetic energy ∼1 MeV/u). The dimensions perpendicular to the ion beam grow whereas the sample dimension parallel to the ion beam shrinks. The strain tensor describing phenomenologically these dimensional changes is derived from symmetry considerations and compared with experiment. Particular attention is devoted to angular changes, which have not been discussed in this context so far

  10. Directional and short-range ordering kinetics in metallic alloys, crystalline and amorphous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillairet, J.

    1985-01-01

    This presentation describes the methods (resistometric and anelastic) based on analysis of stress-induced directional ordering and short-range ordering and their application to the study of metallic alloys, crystalline and amorphous. It focuses on the determination of the atomic mobility and point defect properties. It discusses also the structural information which can be gained by Zener relaxation studies about the order-disorder transition and self-induced directional ordering phenomena

  11. Chemical Evolution of Interstellar Methanol Ice Analogs upon Ultraviolet Irradiation: The Role of the Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaravella, A.; Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Cosentino, G.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Peres, G.; Candia, R.; Collura, A.; Barbera, M.; Di Cicca, G.; Varisco, S.; Venezia, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    An important issue in the chemistry of interstellar ices is the role of dust materials. In this work, we study the effect of an amorphous water-rich magnesium silicate deposited onto ZnSe windows on the chemical evolution of ultraviolet-irradiated methanol ices. For comparison, we also irradiate similar ices deposited onto bare ZnSe windows. Silicates are produced at relatively low temperatures exploiting a sol–gel technique. The chemical composition of the synthesized material reflects the forsterite stoichiometry. Si–OH groups and magnesium carbonates are incorporated during the process. The results show that the substrate material does affect the chemical evolution of the ice. In particular, the CO2/CO ratio within the ice is larger for methanol ices deposited onto the silicate substrate as a result of concurrent effects: the photolysis of carbonates present in the adopted substrate as a source of CO2, CO, and carbon and oxygen atoms; reactions of water molecules and hydroxyl radicals released from the substrate with the CO formed in the ice by the photolysis of the methanol ice; and changes in the structure and energy of the silicate surface by ultraviolet irradiation, leading to more favorable conditions for chemical reactions or catalysis at the grain surface. The results of our experiments allow such chemical effects contributed by the various substrate material components to be disentangled.

  12. On the nature of the sea ice albedo feedback in simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, W; Wettlaufer, J S

    2014-08-01

    We examine the nature of the ice-albedo feedback in a long-standing approach used in the dynamic-thermodynamic modeling of sea ice. The central issue examined is how the evolution of the ice area is treated when modeling a partial ice cover using a two-category-thickness scheme; thin sea ice and open water in one category and "thick" sea ice in the second. The problem with the scheme is that the area evolution is handled in a manner that violates the basic rules of calculus, which leads to a neglected area evolution term that is equivalent to neglecting a leading-order latent heat flux. We demonstrate the consequences by constructing energy balance models with a fractional ice cover and studying them under the influence of increased radiative forcing. It is shown that the neglected flux is particularly important in a decaying ice cover approaching the transitions to seasonal or ice-free conditions. Clearly, a mishandling of the evolution of the ice area has leading-order effects on the ice-albedo feedback. Accordingly, it may be of considerable importance to reexamine the relevant climate model schemes and to begin the process of converting them to fully resolve the sea ice thickness distribution in a manner such as remapping, which does not in principle suffer from the pathology we describe.

  13. Fabrication and application of amorphous semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumurdjian, Pierre.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns the design and manufacture of elecric switching or memorisation components with amorphous semiconductors. As is known some compounds, particularly the chalcogenides, have a resistivity of the semiconductor type in the amorphous solid state. These materials are obtained by the high temperature homogeneisation of several single elements such as tellurium, arsenic, germanium and sulphur, followed by water or air quenching. In particular these compounds have useful switching and memorisation properties. In particular they have the characteristic of not suffering deterioration when placed in an environment subjected to nuclear radiations. In order to know more about the nature and properties of these amorphous semiconductors the French patent No. 71 28048 of 30 June 1971 may be consulted with advantage [fr

  14. Relaxation processes during amorphous metal alloys heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinochka, E.Ya.; Durachenko, A.M.; Borisov, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    Behaviour of Te+15 at.%Ge and Fe+13 at.%P+7 at.%C amorphous metal alloys during heating has been studied using the method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the most convenient one for determination of the value of heat effects, activation energies, temperature ranges of relaxation processes. Thermal effects corresponding to high-temperature relaxation processes taking place during amorphous metal alloys (AMA) heating are detected. The change of ratio of relaxation peaks values on DSC curves as a result of AMA heat treatment can be explained by the presence of a number of levels of inner energy in amorphous system, separated with potential barriers, the heights of which correspond to certain activation energies of relaxation processes

  15. Heavy ions amorphous semiconductors irradiation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmalek, M.

    1978-01-01

    The behavior of amorphous semiconductors (germanium and germanium and arsenic tellurides) under ion bombardment at energies up to 2 MeV was studied. The irradiation induced modifications were followed using electrical parameter changes (resistivity and activation energy) and by means of the transmission electron microscopy observations. The electrical conductivity enhancement of the irradiated samples was interpreted using the late conduction theories in amorphous compounds. In amorphous germanium, Electron Microscopy showed the formations of 'globules', these defects are similar to voids observed in irradiated metals. The displacement cascade theory was used for the interpretation of the irradiation induced defects formation and a coalescence mechanism of growth was pointed out for the vacancy agglomeration [fr

  16. Formation of amorphous layers by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgoin, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    When an ordered solid is irradiated with heavy energy particles, disorder is produced. When the irradiation dose exceeds a so-called critical dose, the irradiated area of the solid becomes uniformly disordered. Mention is first made of the nature, concentration and distribution of the defects created by a heavy energy particle. The description is then given -solely with respect to semiconductors- of the effect of the various parameters on the critical dose energy and nature of the ion, nature and temperature of the solid, irradiation flux. The physical properties (electronic and thermodynamic types) and the uniformly disordered areas are briefly discussed and these properties are compared with those of amorphous semiconductor layers fabricated by evaporation. It is concluded that the evaporated and irradiated layers are similar in nature. It is suggested that the transformation of an irradiated crystalline area into an amorphous one occurs when the Gibbs energy of the crystal become greater than the Gibbs energy of the amorphous one [fr

  17. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  18. Degradation of L-Ascorbic Acid in the Amorphous Solid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan O; Ismail, Yahya; Christina, Belinda; Mauer, Lisa J

    2018-03-01

    Ascorbic acid degradation in amorphous solid dispersions was compared to its degradation in the crystalline state. Physical blends and lyophiles of ascorbic acid and polymers (pectins and polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP]) were prepared initially at 50:50 (w/w), with further studies using the polymer that best inhibited ascorbic acid crystallization in the lyophiles in 14 vitamin : PVP ratios. Samples were stored in controlled environments (25 to 60 °C, 0% to 23% RH) for 1 mo and analyzed periodically to track the physical appearance, change in moisture content, physical state (powder x-ray diffraction and polarized light microscopy), and vitamin loss (high performance liquid chromatography) over time. The glass transition temperatures of select samples were determined using differential scanning calorimetry, and moisture sorption profiles were generated. Ascorbic acid in the amorphous form, even in the glassy amorphous state, was more labile than in the crystalline form in some formulations at the highest storage temperature. Lyophiles stored at 25 and 40 °C and those in which ascorbic acid had crystallized at 60 °C (≥70% ascorbic acid : PVP) had no significant difference in vitamin loss (P > 0.05) relative to physical blend controls, and the length of storage had little effect. At 60 °C, amorphous ascorbic acid lyophiles (≤60% ascorbic acid : PVP) lost significantly more vitamin (P vitamin loss significantly increased over time. In these lyophiles, vitamin degradation also significantly increased (P vitamins are naturally present or added at low concentrations and production practices may promote amorphization of the vitamin. Vitamin C is one of the most unstable vitamins in foods. This study documents that amorphous ascorbic acid is less stable than crystalline ascorbic acid in some environments (for example, higher temperatures within 1 wk), especially when the vitamin is present at low concentrations in a product. These findings increase the understanding of

  19. Method for maintenance of ice beds of ice condenser containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrabis, C.M.; Hardin, R.T. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a method of maintaining ice baskets associated with a nuclear reactor system and disposed in an array of plural such ice baskets, supported in generally vertically oriented and parallel relationship by a lattice support structure which extends between the individual ice baskets and includes lateral supports adjacent the tops of the comprising: selecting an ice basket of the array requiring replenishment of the ice therewithin due to sublimation voids within the ice charges in the basket; isolating the selected ice basket; drilling a hole downwardly through the ice charges in the ice basket in general parallel axial relationship with respect to the cylindrical sidewall of the ice basket, utilizing a rotary drill bit connected through an auger to a rotary drive means; maintaining the rotary drive means in a fixed axial position and reversing the direction of rotation thereof for driving the auger in reverse rotation; and supplying ice in particulate form to the vicinity of the auger and conveying the particulate ice through the drilled hole by continued, reverse rotation of the auger so as to fill the sublimated voids in communication with the drilled hole, from the lowest and through successively higher such voids in the ice charges within the ice basket, and withdrawing the auger from the drilled hole as the voids are filled

  20. Anti-biofouling function of amorphous nano-Ta2O5 coating for VO2-based intelligent windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Guo, Geyong; Wang, Jiaxing; Zhou, Huaijuan; Shen, Hao; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.

    2017-04-01

    From environmental and health perspectives, the acquisition of a surface anti-biofouling property holds important significance for the usability of VO2 intelligent windows. Herein, we firstly deposited amorphous Ta2O5 nanoparticles on VO2 film by the magnetron sputtering method. It was found that the amorphous nano-Ta2O5 coating possessed a favorable anti-biofouling capability against Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an environmental microorganism model, behind which lay the mechanism that the amorphous nano-Ta2O5 could interrupt the microbial membrane electron transport chain and significantly elevate the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. A plausible relationship was established between the anti-biofouling activity and physicochemical nature of amorphous Ta2O5 nanoparticles from the perspective of defect chemistry. ROS-induced oxidative damage gave rise to microbial viability loss. In addition, the amorphous nano-Ta2O5 coating can endow VO2 with favorable cytocompatibility with human skin fibroblasts. This study may provide new insights into understanding the anti-biofouling and antimicrobial actions of amorphous transition metal oxide nanoparticles, which is conducive to expanding their potential applications in environmental fields.