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Sample records for amoco cba process

  1. 工业PTA氧化过程中4-CBA浓度的模糊神经网络模型%Fuzzy Neural Network Model of 4-CBA Concentration for Industrial Purified Terephthalic Acid Oxidation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞兰; 苏宏业; 牟盛静; 贾涛; 陈渭泉; 褚健

    2004-01-01

    A fuzzy neural network (FNN) model is developed to predict the 4-CBA concentration of the oxidation unit in purified terephthalic acid process. Several technologies are used to deal with the process data before modeling.First, a set of preliminary input variables is selected according to prior knowledge and experience. Secondly, a method based on the maximum correlation coefficient is proposed to detect the dead time between the process variables and response variables. Finally, the fuzzy curve method is used to reduce the unimportant input variables. The simulation results based on industrial data show that the relative error range of the FNN model is narrower than that of the American Oil Company (AMOCO) model. Furthermore, the FNN model can predict the trend of the 4-CBA concentration more accurately.

  2. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten, the Proctor Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites, for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A separate Appendix provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. 26 figs., 121 tabs.

  3. Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, A.J.

    1978-05-01

    This report gives a preliminary account of the events surrounding the wreck of the Amoco Cadiz on the Brittany coast in March, which caused the most massive oil pollution on record. The sequence of events is outlined. Also reported are details of clean-up of beaches as well as appearance and biological effects of oil. Further studies which will continue for years include: population dynamics (species of Littorina); feeding, reproduction, settlement of Spirorbis sp; surveillance of echinoderm and crustacean populations; changes in growth and development of species of red algae; changes in concentrations of bacteria, meiofauna, chlorophyll and organic material. There are indications of problems likely to arise in: sheltered areas (sediments, salt marsh vegetation); sandy shores; upper shore vegetation (higher plants, lichens); algae (temporary loss of algal cover); intertidal macrofauna; seabirds (mortality); economy (fishing, tourism, seaweed used for fertilizer).

  4. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  5. 4-CBA Soft Sensor Based on Fuzzy CMAC Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文莉; 钱锋; 刘漫丹; 张凯

    2005-01-01

    Soft sensor is attractive in dealing with online product quality measurement by virtue of other easily measured variables. In AMOCO PTA (purified terephthalic acid) production process, the unavailability of real-time measurement of 4-CBA makes it impossible for timely adjustment and thereby influences the product quality and the plant economy benefit. In this paper, a kind of FCMAC (fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller) method is presented to solve the online measurement problem. Different from the conventional CMAC (cerebellar model articulation controller) networks, which has inferior smoothing ability because of its table look-up based technology. Integrating fuzzy model into CMAC networks, it becomes more accurate in functional mapping without weakening its generalization ability. Numerical example and industrial application results show the method proposed here is satisfactory and feasible.

  6. 基于模糊CMAC神经网络的4-CBA软测量%4-CBA Soft Sensor Based on Fuzzy CMAC Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文莉; 钱锋; 刘漫丹; 张凯

    2005-01-01

    Soft sensor is attractive in dealing with online product quality measurement by virtue of other easily measured variables. In AMOCO PTA (purified terephthalic acid) production process, the unavailability of real-time measurement of 4-CBA makes it impossible for timely adjustment and thereby influences the product quality and the plant economy benefit. In this paper, a kind of FCMAC (fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller) method is presented to solve the online measurement problem. Different from the conventional CMAC (cerebellar model articulation controller) networks, which has inferior smoothing ability because of its table look-up based technology.Integrating fuzzy model into CMAC networks, it becomes more accurate in functional mapping without weakening its generalization ability. Numerical example and industrial application results show the method proposed here is satisfactory and feasible.

  7. EFNEP Programs CBA Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Lambur, Michael Thomas; Cox, Ruby Hurley

    2009-01-01

    In 1996, the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture (CSREES, USDA) issued a national Request for Proposals (RFP) to conduct a cost benefit analysis (CBA) of nutrition education programs, with emphasis on the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP).

  8. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Project peer review. Report of the Peer Review Committee of the Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project at the Yorktown, Virginia refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project involved a number of representatives from federal and Virginia regulatory agencies, and Amoco's refining business. Participants believed that the Project could benefit from a broader perspective than these organizations along might provide. The Project Work Group selected an independent Peer Review Process which was conducted by Resource for the Future (RFF), a Washington DC think tank. A group of technical, policy and environmental experts from diverse backgrounds served as Peer Review members. The Peer Review Committee met on three occasions to discuss (1) the Project Work Plan (2) sampling data and interpretation and (3) project conclusions and recommendations. The focus of the meeting was on the general scope and content of the project

  9. Effects of the ``Amoco Cadiz'' oil spill on zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samain, J. F.; Moal, J.; Coum, A.; Le Coz, J. R.; Daniel, J. Y.

    1980-03-01

    A survey of zooplankton physiology on the northern coast of Brittany (France) was carried out over a one-year period by comparing two estuarine areas, one oil-polluted area (Aber Benoit) following the oil spill by the tanker “Amoco Cadiz” and one non-oil-polluted area (Rade de Brest). A new approach to an ecological survey was made by describing trophic relationships using analysis of digestive enzyme equipment (amylase and trypsin) of zooplankton organisms, mesoplankton populations and some selected species. These measurements allowed determination of (a) groups of populations with homogeneous trophic and faunistic characteristics and (b) groups of species with homogeneous trophic characteristics. The study of the appearance of these groups over a one-year period revealed the succession of populations and their adaptation to the environment on the basis of biochemical analysis. These phenomena observed in the compared areas showed marked differences in the most polluted areas during the productive spring period. Specific treatment of the data using unusual correlations between digestive enzymes is discussed in terms of the immediate effect on the whole population and on a copepod ( Anomalocera patersoni) living in the upper 10 cm.

  10. Biocide leaching from CBA treated wood — A mechanistic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treated wood is frequently used for construction. However, there is a need to ensure that biocides used for the treatment are not a threat for people or environment. The paper focused on Pinus sylvestris treated with copper–boron–azole (CBA), containing tebuconazole as organic biocide and monoethanolamine (Mea). This study investigates chemical mechanisms of fixation and mobilisation involved in the leaching process of the used inorganic and organic biocides in CBA. A pH dependent leaching test was performed, followed by a set of complementary analysis methods in order to identify and quantify the species released from wood. The main findings of this study are: -Organic compounds are released from untreated and treated wood; the quantity of released total organic carbon, carboxylic and phenolic functions increasing with the pH. -Nitrogen containing compounds, i.e. mainly Mea and its reaction products with extractives, are released in important quantities from CBA treated wood, especially at low pH. -The release of copper is the result of competitive reactions: fixation via complexation reactions and complexation with extractives in the liquid phase. The specific pH dependency of Cu leaching is explained by the competition of ligands for protonation and complexation. -Tebuconazole is released to a lesser extent relative to its initial content. Its fixation on solid wood structure seems to be influenced by pH, suggesting interactions with -OH groups on wood. Boron release appears to be pH independent and very high. This confirms its weak fixation on wood and also no or weak interaction with the extractives. - Highlights: ► A pH dependent leaching mechanism for CBA treated wood is described. ► The fixation and mobilisation of inorganic and organic biocides was investigated. ► Extractives' quantity and nature depend on pH. ► Competition of ligands for protonation and complexation explains Cu behaviour. ► Tebuconazole seems to interact with -OH groups on

  11. The Cognitive Behavioral Assessment (CBA Project: Presentation and Proposal for International Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Sanavio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main aim of this paper is to describe almost 30 years of work on psychological assessment using CBA, a research team, and to propose collaboration with Latin countries. Methods: The acronym CBA stands for Cognitive Behavioural Assessment and indicates both an overall approach to clinical assessment and a series of tests. Five general principles formed the basis on which the team developed their questionnaires: (1 assessment is not a passive collection of information, but an active process similar to problem-solving; (2 horizontal integration of questionnaires with other assessment methods; (3 vertical integration and hierarchical structure of assessment questionnaires; (4 idiographic perspective; (5 computer support. Results: The paper briefly presents the most important tests: CBA-2.0, a broad-spectrum Battery for patients who need counselling and/or psychotherapy; CBA-H (Hospital for both in-patients and out-patients suffering from physical illnesses; CBA-SPORT for professional athletes; CBA-Y (young people for adolescents and young adults; CBD-VE (treatment benefits to assess the effectiveness of psychological treatment. Conclusion: These questionnaires have produced over 100 research works, published in Italian journals or presented in conferences. In the near future, we expect important, radical changes and hope to create an international research milieu.

  12. Abnormal development of Dentalium due to the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.SJ.; Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between the development of Dentalium eggs, spawned by animals, collected before and after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Development of eggs from animals collected before the oil spill was significantly better than development of eggs from animals collected after the oil spill. It

  13. Influence of chondroitin 6-sulfate oligosaccharide unit addition on the immunopathogenicity of human thyroglobulin in cba/j(h-2k) mice. Multiple effects on antigen processing and t cell responses

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Marisa

    2006-01-01

    The site of type D (chondroitin 6-sulfate) oligosaccharide unit addition to human thyroglobulin (hTg) was localized. Furthermore, hTg and its fractions endowed with chondroitin 6-sulfate oligosaccaride units (hTg-CS) and devoid of it (hTg-CS-), were compared, with respect to their ability to induce experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in CBA/J(H-2k) mice, by subcutaneous administration, in the presence of complete adjuvant. HTg was chromatographically separated into hTg-CS and hTg-CS-...

  14. Comparison of outcomes obtained in murine local lymph node assays using CBA/J or CBA/Ca mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yosuke; Hirosaki, Haruka; Yakata, Naoaki; Takeyoshi, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice are the recommended strains for local lymph node assays (LLNAs). Here, we report quantitative and qualitative comparisons between both mouse strains to provide useful information for the strain selection of sensitization testing. LLNA was conducted, in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline No. 429, with CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice using five chemicals including typical contact sensitizers and non-sensitizers: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), isoeugenol, α-hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA), propylene glycol (PG), and hexane; then outcomes were compared based on the raw data (disintegrations per minute, DPM), stimulation index (SI) values, EC3 values and positive/negative decisions. Although a significant difference was noted between DPM values derived from each strain of mice, SI values exhibited no considerable difference. The EC3 values for DNCB in CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice were 0.04 and 0.03, those for isoeugenol were 1.4 and 0.9, and those for HCA were 7.7 and 6.0, respectively. All EC values derived from each test system were almost equivalent and were within the range of acceptance criteria of the ICCVAM performance standard for LLNA. Positive/negative outcomes for all test chemicals were consistent. In conclusion, no considerable differences were observed in the final outcomes derived from CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice in LLNA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26456381

  15. Comparison of outcomes obtained in murine local lymph node assays using CBA/J or CBA/Ca mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yosuke; Hirosaki, Haruka; Yakata, Naoaki; Takeyoshi, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice are the recommended strains for local lymph node assays (LLNAs). Here, we report quantitative and qualitative comparisons between both mouse strains to provide useful information for the strain selection of sensitization testing. LLNA was conducted, in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline No. 429, with CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice using five chemicals including typical contact sensitizers and non-sensitizers: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), isoeugenol, α-hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA), propylene glycol (PG), and hexane; then outcomes were compared based on the raw data (disintegrations per minute, DPM), stimulation index (SI) values, EC3 values and positive/negative decisions. Although a significant difference was noted between DPM values derived from each strain of mice, SI values exhibited no considerable difference. The EC3 values for DNCB in CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice were 0.04 and 0.03, those for isoeugenol were 1.4 and 0.9, and those for HCA were 7.7 and 6.0, respectively. All EC values derived from each test system were almost equivalent and were within the range of acceptance criteria of the ICCVAM performance standard for LLNA. Positive/negative outcomes for all test chemicals were consistent. In conclusion, no considerable differences were observed in the final outcomes derived from CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice in LLNA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. CBA main magnet power supply ripple reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagley, G.; Edwards, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The preliminary results of a development program to minimize beam perturbation resulting from ripple current generated by the CBA Main Magnet Power Supply are presented. The assessment of the magnitude and causes of the ripple generated led to a modification of the SCR Gate Driver and the addition of a bandpass amplifier correction loop which gave significant improvement. A description of the changes made and the results obtained are included. A second design approach was developed in which the timing of the SCR gate pulses is directly determined by a VCO. The results reported with this VCO Loop indicate superior performance particularly at frequencies below 60 Hz. A shunt transistor regulator design is proposed to minimize higher SCR switching frequency harmonics.

  17. Degradation of DEET and DEP by Ozonation using pCBA as a Hydroxyl Radicals Probe Compound

    OpenAIRE

    Migowska, Aleksandra Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to examine and describe the process of ozonation of two chosen micopollutants present in grey water. These micropollutants are: n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). In order to assess the fraction of the compound removed by hydroxyl radicals, degradation of one more compound was studied. This compound is para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) which is known for its specific way of reacting with ozone. Namely, pCBA reacts only with hydroxyl radic...

  18. Bridging the gap between LCA, LCC and CBA as sustainability assessment tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing interest in sustainability has led to the development of sustainability assessment tools such as Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA). Due to methodological disparity of these three tools, conflicting assessment results generate confusion for many policy and business decisions. In order to interpret and integrate assessment results, the paper provides a framework that clarifies the connections and coherence between the included assessment methodologies. Building on this framework, the paper further focuses on key aspects to adapt any of the methodologies to full sustainability assessments. Aspects dealt with in the review are for example the reported metrics, the scope, data requirements, discounting, product- or project-related and approaches with respect to scarcity and labor requirements. In addition to these key aspects, the review shows that important connections exist: (i) the three tools can cope with social inequality, (ii) processes such as valuation techniques for LCC and CBA are common, (iii) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is used as input in both LCA and CBA and (iv) LCA can be used in parallel with LCC. Furthermore, the most integrated sustainability approach combines elements of LCA and LCC to achieve the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA). The key aspects and the connections referred to in the review are illustrated with a case study on the treatment of end-of-life automotive glass. - Highlights: • Proliferation of assessment tools creates ambiguity and confusion. • The developed assessment framework clarifies connections between assessment tools. • Broadening LCA, key aspects are metric and data requirements. • Broadening LCC, key aspects are scope, time frame and discounting. • Broadening CBA, focus point, timespan, references, labor and scarcity are key

  19. Bridging the gap between LCA, LCC and CBA as sustainability assessment tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogmartens, Rob, E-mail: rob.hoogmartens@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Acker, Karel, E-mail: karel.vanacker@lrd.kuleuven.be [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dubois, Maarten, E-mail: maarten.dubois@kuleuven.be [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Policy Research Centre for Sustainable Materials, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-09-15

    Increasing interest in sustainability has led to the development of sustainability assessment tools such as Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and Cost–Benefit Analysis (CBA). Due to methodological disparity of these three tools, conflicting assessment results generate confusion for many policy and business decisions. In order to interpret and integrate assessment results, the paper provides a framework that clarifies the connections and coherence between the included assessment methodologies. Building on this framework, the paper further focuses on key aspects to adapt any of the methodologies to full sustainability assessments. Aspects dealt with in the review are for example the reported metrics, the scope, data requirements, discounting, product- or project-related and approaches with respect to scarcity and labor requirements. In addition to these key aspects, the review shows that important connections exist: (i) the three tools can cope with social inequality, (ii) processes such as valuation techniques for LCC and CBA are common, (iii) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is used as input in both LCA and CBA and (iv) LCA can be used in parallel with LCC. Furthermore, the most integrated sustainability approach combines elements of LCA and LCC to achieve the Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA). The key aspects and the connections referred to in the review are illustrated with a case study on the treatment of end-of-life automotive glass. - Highlights: • Proliferation of assessment tools creates ambiguity and confusion. • The developed assessment framework clarifies connections between assessment tools. • Broadening LCA, key aspects are metric and data requirements. • Broadening LCC, key aspects are scope, time frame and discounting. • Broadening CBA, focus point, timespan, references, labor and scarcity are key.

  20. Ultra-relativistic heavy ions and the CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of ultra-relativistic heavy ions at an accelerator such as the CBA provides a unique glimpse of matter as it may have appeared in the early universe. This hot dense matter very probably appears as a quark-gluon plasma which expands and cools into hadronic matter. The CBA would provide data at the very highest energies, and produce matter at the highest energy densities. The possibility of using a cyclotron to inject very heavy ions into the AGS and then into the CBA would also allow the production of quark-gluon matter at higher energy densities than would light ions, and would make the matter in a larger volume where surface effects are minimized. At the highest energies with very heavy ions, there is great flexibility in the experimental signals which might be studied, as well as the nature of the matter which is produced. Some of the possibilities are discussed

  1. Using OSL-SVM for the concentration prediction of 4-CBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yugang; Wang, Hua; Wu, Jiande

    2011-10-01

    To track the dynamics of nonlinear time-varying systems, a new adaptive model based nonlinear function estimation is proposed for online monitoring of nonlinear processes. After Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) was trained offline, the model is regulated online by the Kalman filter. The online regulated LS-SVM(OLS-SVM) is suitable for real time system recognition and time series prediction. Time series prediction can be a very useful tool in the field of process chemo metrics to forecast and to study the behavior of key process parameters in time. This creates the possibility to give early warnings of possible process malfunctioning. In this paper, OLS-SVM is applied to predict the concentration of 4-Carboxybenzaldchydc (4-CBA) in purified terephthalic acid (PTA) oxidation process. Results indicate that the proposed method is effective and its accuracy is very high.

  2. Using of CBA Method for Evaluation of the Investments in the Link with Social Responsible Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrvová, Ľubica; Vaňová, Jaromíra

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents knowledge from the area of economic efficiency assessment of the environmental investments, in the link with environmental management with context of social responsible business and their mutual connection, on the base of CBA method. CBA method creates basis for the software CBA1.1, which was created for the needs of business practise for the small and medium enterprises in the Slovak Republic.

  3. Active suppression of host-vs-graft reaction in pregnant mice. VII. Spontaneous abortion of allogeneic CBA/J x DBA/2 fetuses in the uterus of CBA/J mice correlates with deficient non-T suppressor cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mammalian fetus has been viewed as an unusually successful type of allograft and unexplained spontaneous abortion as a possible example of maternal rejection. Previous studies have shown the presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the murine decidua which block the generation and reactivation of anti-paternal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) by elaborating a factor that inhibits the response to interleukin 2 (IL 2). A deficiency of these suppressor cells was associated with implants of xenogeneic Mus caroli embryos in the Mus musculus uterus which are infiltrated by maternal lymphoid cells and aborted. A deficiency of such suppressor cells in the lymph nodes draining the uterus of CBA/J females in the process of aborting their semi-allogeneic CBA x DBA/2 F1 progeny has also been shown. CBA/J females possess significantly lower levels of decidua-associated non-T suppressor cells on day 8.5 to 10.5 of allopregnancy than do mothers that will produce large litters of live babies. The F1 embryos are infiltrated by maternal lymphocytes prior to abortion, and the infiltration and abortion rate appears to be augmented by pre-immunization with paternal DBA/2 spleen cells. The CBA/J x DBA/2J mating combination provides a model of spontaneous abortion in which immunologic factors play an important role and demonstrates that the association between deficiency of decidua-associated suppressor cells and xenopregnancy failure also holds true for the failure of allopregnancies resulting from natural within-species mating

  4. Expression of chemokine receptors CCR3,CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4+ T cells in CBA/JxDBA/2 mouse model,selectively induced by IL-4 and IL-10,regulates the embryo resorption rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Pei-juan; ZHAO Ai-min; BAO Shi-min; XIAO Shi-jin; XIONG Miao

    2009-01-01

    Background Chemokines and their receptors have been a research focus in transplantation immunology.Chemokines and their receptors play a role in lymphocyte recruitment and differentiation process.This study aimed to observe whether IL-4 and IL-10 may regulate the expression of chemokine receptors CCR3,CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4+ T cells in CBA/JxDBA/2 mouse model and to explore the role of CCR3,CCR5,CXCR3 in immune tolerance in pregnancy.Methods The mouse model of spontaneous abortion (CBA/JxDBA/2) and the normal pregnant mouse model (CBA/JxBALB/c) were used.CBA/JxDBA/2 mice were injected with IL-4 (CBA/JxDBA/2-1L-4),IL-4 and IL-10 (CBA/JxDBA/2-1L-4+IL-10),or normal saline (CBA/JxDBA/2-NS) as a control.The expression of CCR3,CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4+ T cells from mouse peripheral blood was measured by the double-labelled FCM method,and the embryo resorption rate was also examined.Results The embryo resorption rate in the CBA/JxDBA/2 group without any treatment was significantly higher than that in the CBA/JxBALB/c group (17.9% vs 3.7%,P<0.01).The embryo resorption rate in the CBA/JxDBA/2 group immunized with IL-4 or IL-4 together with IL-10 was significantly decreased,compared with that in the control and NS groups respectively.CCR3 expression on CD4+ T cells in the CBA/JxDBA/2 group without any treatment was significantly lower than that in the CBA/JxBALB/c group (0.3738±0.3575 vs 1.2190±0.2772,P<0.01 );both CCR5 (3.0900±1.5603 vs 1.2390±0.6361,P <0.01)and CXCR3 (2.4715±0.9074 vs 0.9200±0.5585,P <0.01 ) expressions on CD4+ T cells of the CBA/JxDBA/2 group without any treatment were significantly higher than those of the CBA/JxBALB/c group.Significant up-regulation of CCR3 and down-regulation of CXCR3 were found in the CBA/JxDBA/2 group treated with IL-4 (CCR3:2.0360±0.6944,CXCR3:1.3510±0.5263,P <0.01) or IL-4 and IL-10 (CCR3:1.8160±1.0947,CXCR3:1.0940±0.7168,P<0.01).Because of the CCR5,IL-4 and IL-10 (1.9400±0.8504 vs 3.0900±1.5603,P <0.05),but

  5. Antigen-primed helper T cell function in CBA/N mice is radiosensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CBA/N mice have an X-linked immunodeficiency that includes a deficient humoral response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). In order to study the cellular mechanisms of this deficiency we have examined helper T cell function to SRBC in an adoptive transfer system by using 2 different sources of helper T cells. When thymocytes were used as the source of helper T cell precursors in an adoptive transfer system, CBA/N thymocytes were as effective as CBA/Ca thymocytes in inducing CBA/Ca bone marrow cells to develop into both direct and indirect anti-SRBC plaque-forming cells (PFC). However, when SRBC-primed, irradiated recipient mice were used as the source of helper T cells, primed and irradiated CBA/N recipiets developed significantly fewer direct and indirect anti-SRBC PFC than similarly treated CBA/CA recipients when reconstituted with CBA/Ca bone marrow cells and challenged with SRBC. We conclude that antigen-primed helper T cell function in CBA/N mice is radiosensitive. Possible reasons for this are evaluated and discussed

  6. Effect of NGBFS and CBA as fine aggregate on the chloride permeability of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsa Yüksel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation which was about influence of non-ground Coal Bottom Ash (CBA and Non-Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (NGBFS as fine aggregate on rapid chloride permeability of concrete. Series of Rapid Chloride Permeability Test (RCPT were conducted with concrete specimens containing NGBFS and CBA in varying percentages from 10 to 50% with the step of 10% of fine aggregate by weight. Two basic series concrete specimens were prepared in laboratory. The first series (G was contained NGBFS, the second series (B was contained CBA as fine aggregate. Test results indicated that NGBFS or CBA improves the resistance to chloride ion penetration tosome extent. 30% and 10% replacement ratios were selected as optimum replacement ratios for G and B series. It was concluded that GBFS was more impressive then CBA for blocking chloride ion movements.

  7. Simplified CBA Concept and Express Choice Method for Integrated Network Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al Rawajbeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of choosing and integrating a network management system (NMS to an existing computer network became a big question due to the complexity of used technologies and the variety of NMS options. Most of computer networks are being developed according to their internal rules in cloud environments. The use of NMS requires not only infrastructural changes, consequently increasing the cost of integration and maintenance, but also increases the risk of potential failures. In this paper, conception and method of express choice to implement and integrate a network management system are presented. Review of basic methods of cost analysis for IT systems is presented. The simplified conception of cost benefits analysis (CBA is utilized as a basis of the offered method. A final estimation is based on three groups of parameters: parameters of expected integration risk evaluation, expected effect and level of completed management tasks. The explanation of the method is provided via example.

  8. Transport appraisal and Monte Carlo simulation by use of the CBA-DK model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Danish CBA-DK software model for assessment of transport infrastructure projects. The assessment model is based on both a deterministic calculation following the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) methodology in a Danish manual from the Ministry of Transport and on a stochastic......, is explained. Furthermore, comprehensive assessments based on the set of distributions are made and implemented by use of a Danish case example. Finally, conclusions and a perspective are presented....

  9. Bending magnets for the CBA beam-transport line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thern, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The beam-transport line from the AGS to CBA requires 68 large bending magnets, consisting of pure dipoles and two types of combined function gradient magnets. All three types were designed with magnetic-field calculation program POISSON, using the same exterior dimensions and coil package. The design goal of +-1% momentum acceptance for the transport line required a wide horizontal aperture, with a much-smaller vertical aperture for economy. Two prototypes of one gradient magnet were built, and a facility constructed to measure them and the later production magnets. Measurements were done using both a long coil and a point coil (Rawson-Lush gaussmeter). Preliminary results show ..delta..B/B < 0.2 x 10/sup -3/, ..delta..G/G < 0.3 x 10/sup -2/, and ..delta..B/sub 2//B < 0.3 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -2/ over the beam aperture. Due to end effects, the actual gradient differs from the design gradient by 1%, which has been compensated for in the beam-line design.

  10. Preliminary observations of pollution of the sea bed and disturbance of sub-littoral communities in northern Brittany by oil from the Amoco Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabioch, L.; Dauvin, J.; Gentil, F.

    1978-11-01

    One of the peculiarities of the Amoco Cadiz oil spill was the rapid penetration of a considerable amount of oil into the sea bed. Important factors governing the logistics of the oil spill penetration are reviewed. The distribution of benthic communities in the area under consideration is described. It is concluded that the final development of the disruption produced by hydrocarbons in sublittoral benthic communities will depend largely on two general conditions: the natural capacity of the various types of habitat present to speed up or hinder their own cleansing; and the proximity of large reserves for recolonization. (1 graph, 2 maps, 6 references, 1 table)

  11. Assessment of Large Transport Infrastructure Projects: The CBA-DK Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Banister, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a newly developed decision support model to assess transport infrastructure projects: CBA-DK. The model combines use of conventional cost–benefit analysis to produce aggregated single point estimates, with quantitative risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation to produce...... interval results. The embedded uncertainties within traditional CBA such as ex-ante based investment costs and travel time savings are of particular concern. The paper investigates these two impacts in terms of the Optimism Bias principle which is used to take account of the underestimation of construction...

  12. Assessment of Large Transport Infrastructure Projects: the CBA-DK model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Banister, David

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to present a newly developed decision support model to assess transport infrastructure projects: CBA-DK. The model makes use of conventional cost-benefit analysis resulting in aggregated single point estimates and quantitative risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation...... resulting in interval results. The embedded uncertainties within traditional CBA such as ex-ante based investment costs and travel time savings are of particular concern. The methodological approach has been to apply suitable probability distribution functions on the uncertain parameters, thus resulting...

  13. Assessment of Transport Infrastructure Projects by the use of Monte Carlo Simulation: The CBA-DK Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the Danish CBA-DK software model for assessment of transport infrastructure projects. The as-sessment model is based on both a deterministic calcula-tion following the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) methodol-ogy in a Danish manual from the Ministry of Transport and on a stochastic...

  14. The Amoco CadizOil Spill: Evolution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Ile Grande Salt Marshes (Brittany) after a 13-year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, G.; Munoz, D.; Jacquot, F.; Rivet, L.; Bertrand, J.-C.

    1998-11-01

    The Ile Grande salt marshes (Brittany coast) were polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons after theAmoco Cadizgrounding in 1978. Thirteen years after the oil spill, sediments were analysed for residual hydrocarbons in order to monitor the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon signatures and to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively the changes in composition of theAmoco Cadizoil. Six stations were selected in the Ile Grande salt marshes and sediments were sampled to a depth of 20 cm. For each sample, the hydrocarbon compositions were determined for alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and biomarkers (terpanes, steranes, diasteranes). Hydrocarbon levels drastically decreased between 1978 and 1991, but to different extents according to the initial degree of contamination. In 1991, hydrocarbon concentrations never exceeded 1·7 g kg-1sediment dry weight, and in most cases were less than 0·1 g kg-1sediment dry weight. Even though petroleum hydrocarbons are still present, natural hydrocarbons were also detected at several stations. Changes in some biomarker distributions were observed 13 years after the oil spill. Nevertheless, most of the biomarkers are very stable in the salt marsh environment and remain unaltered even after a 13-year period.

  15. Effets de la marée noire de l' ''Amoco Cadiz '' sur le benthos sublittoral du nord de la Bretagne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabioch, L.; Dauvin, J. C.; Mora Bermudez, J.; Rodriguez Babio, C.

    1980-03-01

    Effects of the “Amoco Cadiz ” oil spill on the sublittoral benthos, north of Brittany. Effects of hydrocarbons on the sublittoral macrobenthic communities have been observed through (1) studies of population dynamics of selected communities, conducted prior to the spill by the tanker “Amoco Cadiz ” in spring 1978 and (2) comparisons between the situation in summer 1978 with that in earlier years, with continuation of the observations in some selected sites. The effect of the spill has been selective, involving a limited number of species, mainly crustaceans, molluscs and the sand-urchin Echinocardium cordatum. The spill mainly affected communities on fine sediments and, to a lesser degree, those on mixed sediments. Notably, the destruction of the dominant populations of Ampelisca, in areas of fine sands in the Bay of Morlaix, has led to a marked decrease of biomass and production. Moreover, repopulation will be difficult because of the isolation of such communities on the southern side of the English Channel. The effects evolved with time; after a phase of sharp and selective mortality, which did not last more than a few weeks, secondary effects on the recruitment of the remaining species do not seem to have occurred on a large scale. Nevertheless, a proliferation of polychaetes has been noticed.

  16. A Composite Modelling Approach to Decision Support by the Use of the CBA-DK Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a decision support system for assessment of transport infrastructure projects. The composite modelling approach, COSIMA, combines a cost-benefit analysis by use of the CBA-DK model with multi-criteria analysis applying the AHP and SMARTER techniques. The modelling uncertaintie...

  17. Feasibility Risk Assessment of Transport Infrastructure Projects: The CBA-DK Decision Support Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Banister, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the final version of the CBA-DK decision support model for assessment of transport projects. The model makes use of conventional cost-benefit analysis resulting in aggregated single point estimates and quantitative risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation resulting in interval...... results. Two special concerns in this paper is firstly the treatment of feasibility risk assessment adopted for evaluation of transport infrastructure projects, and secondly whether this can provide a more robust decision support model. This means moving away from a single point estimate to an interval...... result, and the determination of suitable probability distributions. Use is made of the reference class forecasting information, such as that developed in Optimism Bias for adjustments to investment decisions that relate to all modes of transport. The CBA-DK decision support model results in more...

  18. Examination of decision support systems for composite CBA & MCDA assessments of transport infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    This paper examines decision support systems (DSS) for composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects comprising both cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Two DSS are in this context examined and compared using a case study dealing with alternatives for a new...... high-speed railway line between the two cities, Norrköping and Bäckeby, in Sweden. Both systems are based on additive value functions and makes use of pair wise comparisons. The first system examined, which is widely used and based on acknowledged methods, comprises the REMBRANDT technique using pair...... wise comparisons for rating of the alternatives and swing weights for the determination of criteria weights. The results of the CBA are in this system converted into value function scores, assigned with a weight and included as an additional criterion in the MCA appraisal. Hence, the result...

  19. Examination of decision support systems for composite CBA & MCDA assessments of transport infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines decision support systems (DSS) for composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects comprising both cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Two DSS, REMBRANDT and COSIMA, are in this context examined and compared using a case study...... dealing with alternatives for a new high-speed railway line in Sweden. The REMBRANDT system is based on multiplicative value functions and makes use of pair wise comparisons on both attribute and criteria level. The COSIMA system is based on additive value functions and makes use of the REMBRANDT...... technique using pair wise comparisons on attribute level and swing weights on criteria level. One difference between the two approaches is the focus the COSIMA system puts on combining the CBA and MCDA results influencing, among other things, the way that the final results are expressed. Finally...

  20. Examination of Decision Support Systems for Composite CBA and MCDA Assessments of Transport Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines decision support systems (DSS) for composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects comprising both cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Two DSS, REMBRANDT and COSIMA, are in this context examined and compared using a case study...... dealing with alternatives for a new high-speed railway line in Sweden. The REMBRANDT system is based on multiplicative value functions and makes use of pair wise comparisons on both attribute and criteria level. The COSIMA system is based on additive value functions and makes use of the REMBRANDT...... technique using pair wise comparisons on attribute level and swing weights on criteria level. One difference between the two approaches is the focus the COSIMA system puts on combining the CBA and MCDA results influencing, among other things, the way that the final results are expressed. Finally...

  1. Cost Benefit Analysis with Applications to Animal Health Programmes: Basics of CBA

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Steve

    1996-01-01

    This discussion paper is one of a series of six papers which brings together both cost-benefit analysis methodology and the problems and issues in evaluation of regional and national animal health programs. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a powerful economic technique for evaluating public sector investments, evaluating proposed research projects and programs, estimating the economic impact of new regulations, predicting the economic impacts of resource exploitation and conservation programs, ...

  2. Sex differences in distortion product otoacoustic emissions as a function of age in CBA mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Patricia; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Cannon, Trinitia; Kim, SungHee; Frisina, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss--presbycusis--is the number one communication problem of the aged. A major contributor to presbycusis is the progressive degeneration of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are effective in vivo, physiological measures of hearing, assessing the health and functioning of the OHCs in mammals. We and others have previously demonstrated that DPOAE amplitudes decline with age in humans and mice. The present study's objective was to measure age-related declines in the OHCs in CBA mice (slow, progressive age-related hearing loss) by comparing DPOAEs and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) generated from females and males. Young adult (2.1-2.9 months) and middle-aged CBA (14.0-16.4 months) mice were tested, as well as old CBAs (24.3-29.0 months). DPOAE-grams were obtained with L1 = 65 and L2 = 50 dB SPL, f1/f2 = 1.25, using eight points per octave covering a frequency range from 5.6 to 44.8 kHz (geometric mean frequency). ABRs ranged from 3 to 48 kHz. Analyses revealed that DPOAE levels decreased with age for middle-aged and old male CBAs, but for female CBAs, declines did not occur until old age - after menopause. In contrast, ABR amplitudes for female and male young adult and middle-aged CBAs were the same. Female ABR thresholds were lower than males for old CBAs. In conclusion, we discovered that pre-menopausal CBA female mice have healthier OHCs relative to middle-aged males, but much of this relative advantage is lost post-menopause. Understanding sex differences in age-related sensory disorders will be quite helpful for the goals of preventing, slowing or curing sensory problems in old age for both women and men.

  3. A polymorphic and hypervariable locus in the pseudoautosomal region of the CBA/H mouse sex chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennelly, J.; Laval, S.; Wright, E.; Plumb, M. [MRC Radiation and Genomic Stability Unit, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    We have identified a genomic locus (DXYH1) that is polymorphic and hypervariable within the CBA/H colony. Using a panel of C57BL/6 x Mus spretus backcross offspring, it was mapped to the distal end of the X chromosome. Pseudoautosomal inheritance was demonstrated through three generations of CBA/H x CBA/H and CBA/H x C57BL/6 crosses and confirmed through linkage to the Sxr locus in X/Y Sxr x 3H1 crosses. Meiotic recombination frequencies place DXYH1 {approximately}28% into the pseudoautosomal region from the boundary. The de novo generation of CBA/H variant DXYH1 restriction fragment length polymorphisms during spermatogenesis is suggestive of the germline instability associated with hypermutable human minisatellites. The absence of DXY1-related sequences in Mus spretus provides DNA sequence evidence to support the observed failure of X-Y pairing during meiosis and consequent hybrid infertility in C57BL/6 x Mus spretus male F1 offspring. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Activation of cell death pathways in the inner ear of the aging CBA/J mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Su-Hua; CHEN, FU-QUAN; Schacht, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that oxidative stress increases in the inner ear of aging CBA/J mice and might contribute to the loss of function of the sensory system. We now investigate the activation of cell death pathways in the cochlea of these animals. Middle-aged (12 months) and old (18-26 months) mice with hearing deficits displayed outer hair cell nuclei with apoptotic and, to a lesser extent, necrotic features. Both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways were activated by trans...

  5. The fluid dynamics of a downer fluidised bed using a cluster-based approach (CBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán González Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The fluid dynamics of a downer reactor were numerically resolved by adapting a mathematical conservation model. The mathematical model was based on the solid and fluid properties and physical characteristics using a cluster-based approach (CBA. Comparing the numerical results to the experimental data found in the literature indicated that the mathematical model could satisfactorily predict the experimental data. The mathematical simulation determined that there were three fluid dynamic areas in the downer reactor which were characterized by accelerated, slowed-down and fully-developed flow. The fully developed flow area in the downer decreased with increased gas surface speed keeping solid flux constant.

  6. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zagato

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula. We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium. Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system.

  7. Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 metabolic products and fermented milk for infant formula have anti-inflammatory activity on dendritic cells in vitro and protective effects against colitis and an enteric pathogen in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagato, Elena; Mileti, Erika; Massimiliano, Lucia; Fasano, Francesca; Budelli, Andrea; Penna, Giuseppe; Rescigno, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of commercially available fermented food products raises important safety issues particularly when infant food is concerned. In many cases, the activity of the microorganisms used for fermentation as well as what will be the immunological outcome of fermented food intake is not known. In this manuscript we used complex in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems to study the immunomodulatory properties of probiotic-fermented products (culture supernatant and fermented milk without live bacteria to be used in infant formula). We found in vitro and ex-vivo that fermented products of Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 act via the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release leaving anti-inflammatory cytokines either unaffected or even increased in response to Salmonella typhimurium. These activities are not dependent on the inactivated bacteria but to metabolic products released during the fermentation process. We also show that our in vitro systems are predictive of an in vivo efficacy by the fermented products. Indeed CBA L74 fermented products (both culture medium and fermented milk) could protect against colitis and against an enteric pathogen infection (Salmonella typhimurium). Hence we found that fermented products can act via the inhibition of immune cell inflammation and can protect the host from pathobionts and enteric pathogens. These results open new perspectives in infant nutrition and suggest that L. paracasei CBA L74 fermented formula can provide immune benefits to formula-fed infants, without carrying live bacteria that may be potentially dangerous to an immature infant immune system. PMID:24520333

  8. Long-Term Dietary Folate Deficiency Accelerates Progressive Hearing Loss on CBA/Ca Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Partearroyo, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Pajares, María A.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after 2-months, corroborates the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation. Systemic changes included decreased serum folate levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and signs of anemia in the group fed with folate-deficient (FD) diet. Initial signs of hearing loss were detected in this strain after 8-months of vitamin deficiency, and correlated with histological damage in the cochleae. In conclusion, the data presented reinforce the importance of adequate folic acid levels for the auditory system and suggest that the impact of dietary deficiencies may depend on the genetic background. PMID:27630560

  9. Long-Term Dietary Folate Deficiency Accelerates Progressive Hearing Loss on CBA/Ca Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Partearroyo, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Pajares, María A.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after 2-months, corroborates the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation. Systemic changes included decreased serum folate levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and signs of anemia in the group fed with folate-deficient (FD) diet. Initial signs of hearing loss were detected in this strain after 8-months of vitamin deficiency, and correlated with histological damage in the cochleae. In conclusion, the data presented reinforce the importance of adequate folic acid levels for the auditory system and suggest that the impact of dietary deficiencies may depend on the genetic background.

  10. Long-Term Dietary Folate Deficiency Accelerates Progressive Hearing Loss On CBA/Ca Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martinez-Vega

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after two-months, corroborating the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation. Systemic changes included decreased serum folate levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and signs of anemia in the group fed the folate-deficient diet. Initial signs of hearing loss were detected in this strain after 8-months of vitamin deficiency, and correlated with histological damage in the cochleae. In conclusion, the data presented reinforce the importance of adequate folic acid levels for the auditory system and suggest that the impact of dietary deficiencies may depend on the genetic background.

  11. Foreign Player's Influence on China's CBA League and the Confusion%中国 CBA 联赛外援影响与困惑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      当今职业篮球运动是以一种文化的形态呈现给世人的,作为文化它是没有固定国界的,可以在世界各地任意地健康发展、传播与交流。中国职业篮球外援的引进,是中国篮球发展的必然趋势,引进国外高水平球员不仅提高了联赛水平和质量,同时也很大程度上满足了人们的欣赏需要。我国的 CBA 联赛自1995年创办以来,至今已是第17个年头了,期间来到中国打球的国外球员已有三百多人。在场上,外援们用自己积极的态度、不服输的精神为自己的球队取得一场场的胜利,获得优异的成绩,是球队发展的重要因素。%Today professional basketball sport is a kind of cultural form presented to the world, as a culture, it has not fixed borders and can be arbitrarily healthy develop disseminate and communicate around the world. Chinese Professional basketball association introduces foreign players as aid, which is the inevitable trend, introducing the foreign high level players not only improves the level of the league and quality, but also meets the needs to greatly satisfy the people's appreciation. China's CBA league founded in 1995, today is already 17th year, more than three hundred foreign players came to China to play during the period. On the court, the foreign aids with their positive attitude and indomitable spirit for his team win a series of honors, they are the important factors of team development.

  12. Hepatoprotective Effects of Met-enkephalin on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Lesions in Male CBA Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roko Martinić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent histopathological investigations in patients with hepatitis suggested possible involvement of Met-enkephalin and its receptors in the pathophysiology of hepatitis. Consequently, we evaluated the potential hepatoprotective effects of this endogenous opioid pentapeptide in the experimental model of acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in male CBA mice. Met-enkephalin exhibited strong hepatoprotective effects in a dose of 7.5 mg/kg, which corresponds to the protective dose reported for several different animal disease models. In this group plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities, as well as liver necrosis score were significantly reduced in comparison to control animals treated with physiological saline (p > 0.01. The specificity of the peptide hepatoprotection was investigated from the standpoint of the receptor and peptide blockade. It was concluded that Met-enkephalin effects on the liver were mediated via δ and ζ opioid receptors. Genotoxic testing of Met-enkephalin confirmed the safety of the peptide.

  13. Genomic Analysis of the Extremely Halophilic Archaeon Halobacterium noricense CBA1132 Isolated from Solar Salt That Is an Essential Material for Fermented Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Joon Yong; Song, Hye Seon; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Jieun; Oh, Young Jun; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Lee, Dong-Gi; Choi, Jong-Soon; Yoon, Changmann; Sohn, Eunju; Rahman, Md Arif-Ur; Roh, Seong Woon; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2016-08-28

    The extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense is a member of the genus Halobacterium. Strain CBA1132 (= KCCM 43183, JCM 31150) was isolated from solar salt. The genome of strain CBA1132 assembled with 4 contigs, including three rRNA genes, 44 tRNA genes, and 3,208 open reading frames. Strain CBA1132 had nine putative CRISPRs and the genome contained genes encoding metal resistance determinants: copper-translocating P-type ATPase (CtpA), arsenical pump-driving ATPase (ArsA), arsenate reductase (ArsC), and arsenical resistance operon repressor (ArsR). Strain CBA1132 was related to Halobacterium noricense, with 99.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Based on the comparative genomic analysis, strain CBA1132 has distinctly evolved; moreover, essential genes related to nitrogen metabolism were only detected in the genome of strain CBA1132 among the reported genomes in the genus Halobacterium. This genome sequence of Halobacterium noricense CBA1132 may be of use in future molecular biological studies.

  14. Content of stromal precursor cells in heterotopic transplants of bone marrow in CBA mice of various ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Kuralesova, A I; Shuklina, E Yu; Nesterenko, V G

    2002-02-01

    Efficiency of colony formation of stromal precursor cells in cultured bone marrow transplants from old (24 month) CBA mice implanted to young (2-month-old) mice almost 3-fold surpassed that in cultured transplants implanted to old recipients. The content of nucleated cells in bone marrow transplants from senescence accelerated mice SAMP increased more than 2-fold, if SAMR mice with normal aging rate were used as the recipients instead of SAMP mice. Bone marrow taken from old and young CBA mice endured the same number of transplantations if the recipient mice were of the same age (5 month). It was concluded that stromal tissue considerably changes with age and is under strict control of the body. PMID:12432868

  15. Project evaluation, sustainability and accountability: combining cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sijtsma, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    General abstract Decision-makers in governments and businesses must choose among different project alternatives which, in varying degrees, contribute to sustainability. Decision-makers also have to account for their choices to a large audience or a broad range of stakeholders. This thesis is about the positive and negative aspects of using the main judgement-oriented evaluation tools of Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) together in the context of sustainability and...

  16. Toxicological Assessment of P-9801091 Plant Mixture Extract after Chronic Administration in CBA/HZg Mice – A Biochemical and Histological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Petlevski, Roberta; Hadžija, Mirko; Slijepčević, Milivoj; Juretić, Dubravka

    2008-01-01

    Acute, subchronic and chronic effects of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass were assessed in serum of healthy CBA/HZg mice at 24 hours, 7 days, 3 months and 6 months of treatment (experimental group), and compared with the values obtained in the control group of untreated healthy CBA/HZg mice. The P-9801091 plant mixture extract is an antihyperglycemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum offici...

  17. Relative biological effectiveness of tritium for induction of myeloid leukemia in CBA/H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.R. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Health Protection Branch, Health Div., Richland, WA (United States); Myers, D.K.; Jackson, J.S.; Dunford, D.W.; Gragtmans, N.J.; Wyatt, H.M.; Jones, A.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontairo (Canada); Percy, D.H. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-07-01

    To help resolve uncertainties as to the most appropriate weighting factor for tritium {beta} rays, a large experiment was carried out to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water compared to X rays for the induction of myeloid leukemia in male mice of the CBA/H strain. The study was designed to estimate the lifetime incidence of myeloid leukemia in seven groups of about 750 mice each; radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2 and 3 Gy both for tritiated water and for X rays. The lifetime incidence of leukemia in these mice increased from 0.13% in the control group to 6-8% in groups exposed to higher radiation doses. The results were fitted to various equations relating leukemia incidence to radiation dose, using both the raw data and data corrected for cumulative mouse-days at risk. The calculated RBE values for tritium 13 rays compared to X rays ranged from 1.0 {+-} 0.5 to 1.3 {+-} 0.3. A best estimate of the RBE for this experiment was about 1.2 {+-} 0.3. A w{sub R} value of 1 would thus appear to be more appropriate than a W{sub R} of 2 for tritium {beta} rays. (author)

  18. Relative biological effectiveness of tritium for induction of myeloid leukemia in CBA/H mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R; Myers, D K; Jackson, J S; Dunford, D W; Gragtmans, N J; Wyatt, H M; Jones, A R; Percy, D H

    1995-10-01

    To help resolve uncertainties as to the most appropriate weighting factor for tritium beta rays, a large experiment was carried out to measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water compared to X rays for the induction of myeloid leukemia in male mice of the CBA/H strain. The study was designed to estimate the lifetime incidence of myeloid leukemia in seven groups of about 750 mice each; radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2 and 3 Gy both for tritiated water and for X rays. The lifetime incidence of leukemia in these mice increased from 0.13% in the control group to 6-8% in groups exposed to higher radiation doses. The results were fitted to various equations relating leukemia incidence to radiation dose, using both the raw data and data corrected for cumulative mouse-days at risk. The calculated RBE values for tritium beta rays compared to X rays ranged from 1.0 +/- 0.5 to 1.3 +/- 0.3. A best estimate of the RBE for this experiment was about 1.2 +/- 0.3. A wR value of 1 would thus appear to be more appropriate than a wR of 2 for tritium beta rays.

  19. Structures of homologous composite transposons carrying cbaABC genes from Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, D; Peel, M; Fava, F; Wyndham, R C

    1998-05-01

    IS1071 is a class II transposable element carrying a tnpA gene related to the transposase genes of the Tn3 family. Copies of IS1071 that are conserved with more than 99% nucleotide sequence identity have been found as direct repeats flanking a remarkable variety of catabolic gene sequences worldwide. The sequences of chlorobenzoate catabolic transposons found on pBRC60 (Tn5271) in Niagara Falls, N.Y., and on pCPE3 in Bologna, Italy, show that these transposons were formed from highly homologous IS1071 and cbaABC components (levels of identity, > 99.5 and > 99.3%, respectively). Nevertheless, the junction sequences between the IS1071L and IS1071R elements and the internal DNA differ by 41 and 927 bp, respectively, suggesting that these transposons were assembled independently on the two plasmids. The formation of the right junction in both transposons truncated an open reading frame for a putative aryl-coenzyme A ligase with sequence similarity to benzoate- and p-hydroxybenzoate-coenzyme A ligases of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. PMID:9572977

  20. Sex hormones modulate the immune response to Plasmodium berghei ANKA in CBA/Ca mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mosqueda-Romo, Néstor Aarón; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; Morales-Rodríguez, Ana Laura; Buendía-González, Fidel Orlando; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility to malaria differs between females and males, and this sexual dimorphism may have important implications for the effects of vaccines and drugs. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating these sexual differences. Because the main differences between sexes are dictated by sex hormones, we studied the effect of gonadal steroids on immune responses to malaria in CBA/Ca mice. We decreased sex hormones levels by gonadectomy and evaluated the splenic index and the cells involved in the immune response, including T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK(+)), B cells and macrophages (Mac-3(+)) in the spleens of female and male mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. In addition, we measured antibody and cytokine levels in blood. Gonadectomy increased T(+) and B(+) splenic cells in both sexes but increased Mac-3(+) cells only in male mice. By contrast, gonadectomy decreased the NK(+) cell population only in male mice. In general, female mice developed higher antibody levels than males. Contrary to our expectations, gonadectomy increased the synthesis of IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and total IgG in female mice, indicating negative regulation of antibody production by female sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased the synthesis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) only in female mice, suggesting that female sex hormones have anti-inflammatory properties. This work demonstrates that the levels of sex hormones affect the immune response and should be considered when designing malaria vaccines.

  1. Effect of whole body gamma irradiation on delayed hypersensitivity to dinitrofluorobenzene in CBA mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of whole body γ-irradiation of CBA mice on the subsequent development of delayed hypersensitivity (DH) response to 2,4 dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) was studied. Mice were irradiated with 60Co-γrays 24 hr prior to the first epicutaneous sensitization with DNFB. Mice irradiated at doses up to 1.08 Gy showed unaltered DH response. Increasing doses resulted in progressive suppression of DH response and the D50 was 3.86 Gy. Marked reduction in the number of lymph node cells was observed in irradiated, sensitized as well as unsensitized mice. This could be due to interphase death of precursor cells (antigen-sensitive cells), resulting in lower number of effector lymphocytes for DH(Tsub(DH)). Furthermore, the maximum DH response in irradiated, sensitized mice was obtained later on in comparison with the controls. The effector lymphocytes from irradiated sensitized mice were, however, functionally unimpaired. It was observed that the radiation-induced suppression of DH to DNFB in these mice could be partly due to the damage to antigen sensitive cells and also to the cells other than effector lymphocytes which participated in the inflammatory reaction. (author)

  2. Analysis on Causes for Defeat of Guangdong Team---Taking CBA Semi Final of 2014 -2015 Season as an Example%广东队失利原因分析--以2014-2015赛季 CBA 半决赛为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金华丽; 陈胜龙

    2015-01-01

    Adopting methods of video observation,statistical analysis and literature,the paper conducts a statistical analysis on data of matches between Guangdong team and Beijing team in CBA semi final of 2014 -2015 session and compares and explores the gap between the two teams in attacking and defense.It was found that, theoretically,the strength of the Guangdong team should be higher than Beijing team.But analyzing from the process of the game and technical statistics gained after the game,causes like Coach Du Feng’s failure of arranging players well,players’poor ability of grasping key balls and instable performance of core players are revealed.%采用录像观察法、统计分析法、文献资料法等对2014-2015赛季 CBA 半决赛广东队与北京队的各项比赛数据进行统计、分析和比较探寻两队在攻守层面上存在的差距。结果发现广东队理论上实力应高于北京队,但是从比赛的过程和赛后的技术统计来分析,体现出广东队主教练杜峰在球员安排上处于下风,队员对关键球的能力把握较差,核心球员发挥不稳定等原因。

  3. CBA 裁判判罚引起球场观众攻击行为的社会文化学因素%The Culture Factors of CBA Spectators’Aggressive Behavior Caused by the Penalization of Referees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏建军

    2015-01-01

    Taking the events resulting from referees during the development of CBA matches for ex-ample,the paper suggests some countermeasures for the establishment of a sound referee balance man-agement system,referee team operation,and the treatment of the whole and details of the match with human oriented methods,etc.to provide reference for the design of the referee team that can meet the needs of CAB matches development on the basis of analyzing the conflicts between host sentry culture and impartial competitive sports culture because of referees’misjudgment,leaking judgment,counter judgment and penalizing inclination,together with referees'lower professional competence and referees’ false whistles,black whistle and official whistles.%以 CBA 赛事发展中出现的裁判问题为例,在分析裁判主场哨文化与公平、公正的竞技体育文化相冲突;裁判尺度上的误、漏、反判、判罚倾向;裁判在业务水平、假哨、黑哨和官哨上的基础上,提出建立健全裁判管理均衡机制、建立裁判团队化运作、人性化处理比赛整体与细节问题等对策,为设计与 CBA 赛事发展相适应的优秀裁判团队提供参考。

  4. Vocal development and auditory perception in CBA/CaJ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwon, Kelly E.

    Mice are useful laboratory subjects because of their small size, their modest cost, and the fact that researchers have created many different strains to study a variety of disorders. In particular, researchers have found nearly 100 naturally occurring mouse mutations with hearing impairments. For these reasons, mice have become an important model for studies of human deafness. Although much is known about the genetic makeup and physiology of the laboratory mouse, far less is known about mouse auditory behavior. To fully understand the effects of genetic mutations on hearing, it is necessary to determine the hearing abilities of these mice. Two experiments here examined various aspects of mouse auditory perception using CBA/CaJ mice, a commonly used mouse strain. The frequency difference limens experiment tested the mouse's ability to discriminate one tone from another based solely on the frequency of the tone. The mice had similar thresholds as wild mice and gerbils but needed a larger change in frequency than humans and cats. The second psychoacoustic experiment sought to determine which cue, frequency or duration, was more salient when the mice had to identify various tones. In this identification task, the mice overwhelmingly classified the tones based on frequency instead of duration, suggesting that mice are using frequency when differentiating one mouse vocalization from another. The other two experiments were more naturalistic and involved both auditory perception and mouse vocal production. Interest in mouse vocalizations is growing because of the potential for mice to become a model of human speech disorders. These experiments traced mouse vocal development from infant to adult, and they tested the mouse's preference for various vocalizations. This was the first known study to analyze the vocalizations of individual mice across development. Results showed large variation in calling rates among the three cages of adult mice but results were highly

  5. The Analysis On Winning Factors Of The Championship Beijing Team In CBA 2011~ 2012 Season%CBA2011~2012赛季总冠军北京队制胜因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高铖; 卢春根; 许斌; 王荣臻

    2012-01-01

    Acoording to the 5 games of Beijing Jinyu to Guangdong Dongguan Bank Team in CBA finals of 2011~2012 season, we use the methods of documentation, video observation and statistics methods and so on to do a statistical research, and analyze on both sides cxmching, abilities to use techniques, tactics and foreign aid influence factors. The results show that the Beijing team has a reasonable arrangement, two points and free throws get high hit rate, the team has more score points, foreign aid has an obvious effect, the team is both offensive and defensive, which are the main factors that make Baijing team win.%运用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法等研究方法对CBA20112012赛季总决赛北京队对广东队5场比赛进行统计研究,并对双方教练指导、技战术运用能力、外援影响等因素进行分析比较。结果表明:北京队阵容安排合理、2分和罚篮命中率高、球队得分点多、外援作用明显,教练员指挥得当,这些都是北京队获胜的主要因素。

  6. Synthesis, structural characterization and luminescent properties of a novel europium ternary complex Eu(2-A-4-CBA)3phen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of a novel europium ternary complex with the formula of Eu(2-A-4-CBA)3phen (where, 2-A-4-CBA = 2-amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) under solvothermal condition is described. The composition and structure of the resulting complex were investigated by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The complex is polycrystalline, and the morphology is clean and regular as revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The luminescent and thermal properties of the complex were researched by fluorescence spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Of importance here is that, the room-temperature luminescence spectra of the complex show strong characteristic emission of the corresponding Eu3+, which is attributed to the energy transfer from ligands to Eu3+ via an Antenna effect. It is also found that the complex exhibits pure red light and high color purity. In addition, the complex does not decompose until 300 °C, so it exhibits good thermal stability. - Highlights: • A novel Eu(III) complex was synthesized by solvothermal synthesis method. • The structure and properties of complex were studied. • The complex can emits pure red light and has a high color purity. • The complex does not decompose until 300 °C and it has a good thermal stability

  7. On the Meaning,Principles and Access of CBA Brand Positioning%论CBA品牌定位的意义、原则及路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高治

    2012-01-01

    through analysis of the CBA brand positioning is to create the brand's core values,establish a solid long-term customer relationship,guide CBA product development and marketing significance,put forward CBA brand positioning brand conscious principle,aimed at consumers,principle of difference competition principle,from the products and consumers in two aspects,form the brand positioning of the two channel,thereby establishing the brand CBA path.%通过分析CBA品牌定位具有创造品牌的核心价值、建立长期稳固的顾客关系、引导CBA产品开发与营销的意义,提出CBA品牌定位具有品牌意识原则、针对消费者原则、差异性竞争原则,从产品和消费者两个方面出发,形成品牌定位的两条通道,从而建立CBA品牌定位的路径。

  8. Selection of clc, cba, and fcb chlorobenzoate-catabolic genotypes from groundwater and surface waters adjacent to the Hyde park, Niagara Falls, chemical landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, M C; Wyndham, R C

    1999-04-01

    The frequency of isolation of three nonhomologous chlorobenzoate catabolic genotypes (clc, cba, and fcb) was determined for 464 isolates from freshwater sediments and groundwater in the vicinity of the Hyde Park industrial landfill site in the Niagara watershed. Samples were collected from both contaminated and noncontaminated sites during spring, summer, and fall and enriched at 4, 22, or 32 degrees C with micromolar to millimolar concentrations of chlorobenzoates and 3-chlorobiphenyl (M. C. Peel and R. C. Wyndham, Microb. Ecol: 33:59-68, 1997). Hybridization at moderate stringency to restriction-digested genomic DNA with DNA probes revealed the chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase operon (clcABD), the 3-chlorobenzoate 3,4-(4,5)-dioxygenase operon (cbaABC), and the 4-chlorobenzoate dehalogenase (fcbB) gene in isolates enriched from all contaminated sites in the vicinity of the industrial landfill. Nevertheless, the known genes were found in less than 10% of the isolates from the contaminated sites, indicating a high level of genetic diversity in the microbial community. The known genotypes were not enriched from the noncontaminated control sites nearby. The clc, cba, and fcb isolates were distributed across five phenotypically distinct groups based on Biolog carbon source utilization, with the breadth of the host range decreasing in the order clc > cba > fcb. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns showed that the cba genes were conserved in all isolates whereas the clc and fcb genes exhibited variation in RFLP patterns. These observations are consistent with the recent spread of the cba genes by horizontal transfer as part of transposon Tn5271 in response to contaminant exposure at Hyde Park. Consistent with this hypothesis, IS1071, the flanking element in Tn5271, was found in all isolates that carried the cba genes. Interestingly, IS1071 was also found in a high proportion of isolates from Hyde Park carrying the clc and fcb genes, as well as in type

  9. RBE of tritium beta rays for causes of death other than myeloid leukemia in male CBA/H mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causes of death were examined for 5,206 male CBA/H mice which had previously been treated with tritiated water or with X rays at comparable doses and comparable dose rates. Data on induced myeloid leukemia had been examined in detail in a previous report. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative biological effectiveness of tritium beta rays for causes of death other than mye-loid leukemia. However, no consistent values for the tritium relative biological effectiveness were obtained. The values were spread over a wide range for different endpoints and were generally less reliable than those for induction of myeloid leukemia. A surprising decrease in time to death of animals without tumours was observed in the irradiated groups of mice. This observation suggests that a detailed review of recent data on non-specific life shortening in irradiated animals and humans might be useful

  10. Auditory efferent activation in CBA mice exceeds that of C57s for varying levels of noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Newman, S R; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2007-01-01

    The medial olivocochlear efferent (MOC) system enhances signals in noise and helps mediate auditory attention. Contralateral suppression (CS) of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) has revealed age-related MOC declines. Here, differences in CS as a function of contralateral noise intensity (43-67 dB sound pressure level) were measured; 2f1-f2 DPOAE grams were recorded for young adult CBA and C57 mice. In CBAs, CS was a monotonic function of contralateral noise level. The C57s showed normal hearing, measured with DPOAE amplitudes and auditory brainstem response thresholds, but showed little CS, suggesting a loss of efferent dynamics preceding any deficiencies of the afferent auditory system.

  11. Knowledge discovery and sequence-based prediction of pandemic influenza using an integrated classification and association rule mining (CBA) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Fatemeh; Sami, Ashkan; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-10-01

    Pandemic influenza is a major concern worldwide. Availability of advanced technologies and the nucleotide sequences of a large number of pandemic and non-pandemic influenza viruses in 2009 provide a great opportunity to investigate the underlying rules of pandemic induction through data mining tools. Here, for the first time, an integrated classification and association rule mining algorithm (CBA) was used to discover the rules underpinning alteration of non-pandemic sequences to pandemic ones. We hypothesized that the extracted rules can lead to the development of an efficient expert system for prediction of influenza pandemics. To this end, we used a large dataset containing 5373 HA (hemagglutinin) segments of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and non-pandemic influenza sequences. The analysis was carried out for both nucleotide and protein sequences. We found a number of new rules which potentially present the undiscovered antigenic sites at influenza structure. At the nucleotide level, alteration of thymine (T) at position 260 was the key discriminating feature in distinguishing non-pandemic from pandemic sequences. At the protein level, rules including I233K, M334L were the differentiating features. CBA efficiently classifies pandemic and non-pandemic sequences with high accuracy at both the nucleotide and protein level. Finding hotspots in influenza sequences is a significant finding as they represent the regions with low antibody reactivity. We argue that the virus breaks host immunity response by mutation at these spots. Based on the discovered rules, we developed the software, "Prediction of Pandemic Influenza" for discrimination of pandemic from non-pandemic sequences. This study opens a new vista in discovery of association rules between mutation points during evolution of pandemic influenza.

  12. Age-related declines in distortion product otoacoustic emissions utilizing pure tone contralateral stimulation in CBA/CaJ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, George I; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Frisina, Robert D

    2005-11-01

    One role of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) auditory efferent system is to suppress cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) responses when presented with a contralateral sound. Using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), the effects of active changes in OHC responses due to the MOC as a function of age can be observed when contralateral stimulation with a pure tone is applied. Previous studies have shown that there are age-related declines of the MOC when broad band noise is presented to the contralateral ear. In this study, we measured age-related changes in CBA/CaJ mice by comparing DPOAE generation with and without a contralateral pure tone at three different frequencies (12, 22, and 37 kHz). Young (n = 16), middle (n = 10) and old-aged (n = 10) CBA mice were tested. DPOAE-grams were obtained using L1 = 65 and L2 = 50 dB SPL, F1/F2 = 1.25, using eight points per octave covering a frequency range from 5.6-44.8 kHz. The pure tone was presented contralaterally at 55 dB SPL. DPOAE-grams and ABR levels indicated age-related hearing loss in the old mice. In addition, there was an overall change in DPOAEs in the middle-aged and old groups relative to the young. Pure tone stimulation was not as effective as a suppressor compared to broadband noise. An increase in pure tone frequency from 12 to 22 kHz induced greater suppression of DPOAEs, but the 37 kHz was least effective. These results indicate that as the mouse ages, there are significant changes in the efficiency of the suppression mechanism as elicited by contralateral narrowband stimuli. These findings reinforce the idea that age-related changes in the MOC or the operating points of OHCs play a role in the progression of presbycusis - age-related hearing loss in mammals.

  13. The effects of early bilateral deafening on calretinin expression in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of aged CBA/CaJ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettel, Martha L; O'Neill, William E; Trang, Tung T; Frisina, Robert D

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calretinin (CR) levels in the aged mouse auditory brainstem depend upon hearing ability. Old animals with good hearing, and thus higher sound-evoked activity levels, were predicted to have higher levels of CR immunoreactivity than old animals with hearing loss. CR immunoreactivity was analyzed in the deep layer (layer III) of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in CBA/CaJ mice that were bilaterally deafened at 3 months of age with kanamycin, and then aged until 24 months. This manipulation partially mimics the lack of sound-evoked auditory activity experienced by old C57BL/6J mice, who are deaf at 24 months of age (but show residual hearing at 15 months) and have lower levels of CR immunoreactivity than old CBA mice with normal hearing [Hear. Res. 158 (2001) 131]. Cell counts revealed that the density of CR+ cells in DCN layer III of the deafened CBA mice was statistically different from old intact CBA mice raised under identical conditions. Old deafened CBAs showed a decline of 47% in the mean density of CR+ cells compared to old hearing CBAs, thus supporting the hypothesis. Interestingly, while there tended to be fewer CR+ cells in the old deaf C57s as compared to young C57s and young and old CBAs with normal hearing, the difference was not statistically significant. It is possible that the residual hearing of C57 mice at 15 months may provide sufficient auditory input to maintain CR at levels higher than CBA mice that are deafened completely at 3 months of age, and are profoundly deaf for a much longer time (21 months).

  14. Interactions of hearing loss and diabetes mellitus in the middle age CBA/CaJ mouse model of presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Olga N; Frisina, Susan T; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D

    2009-03-01

    Recently, we characterized the more severe nature of hearing loss in aged Type 2 diabetic human subjects [Frisina, S.T., Mapes, F., Kim, S., Frisina, D.R., Frisina, R.D., 2006. Characterization of hearing loss in aged type II diabetics. Hear. Res. 211, 103-113]. The current study prospectively assessed hearing abilities in middle age CBA/CaJ mice with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (STZ injection) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (high fat diet), for a period of 6 months. Blood glucose, body weight and auditory tests (Auditory Brainstem Response-ABR, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions-DPOAE) were evaluated at baseline and every 2 months. Tone and broad-band noise-burst responses in the inferior colliculus were obtained at 6 months. Body weights of controls did not change over 6 months (approximately 32 g), but there was a significant (approximately 5 g) decline in the T1DM, while T2DM exhibited approximately 10 g weight gain. Blood glucose levels significantly increased: 3-fold for T1DM, 1.3-fold for T2DM; with no significant changes in controls. ABR threshold elevations were found for both types of diabetes, but were most pronounced in the T2DM, starting as early as 2 months after induction of diabetes. A decline of mean DPOAE amplitudes was observed in both diabetic groups at high frequencies, and for the T2DM at low frequencies. In contrast to ABR thresholds, tone and noise thresholds in the inferior colliculus were lower for both diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes in middle-aged CBA/CaJ mice promotes amplification of age-related peripheral hearing loss which makes it a suitable model for studying the interaction of age-related hearing loss and diabetes. On the other hand, initial results of effects from very high blood glucose level (T1DM) on the auditory midbrain showed disruption of central inhibition, increased response synchrony or enhanced excitation in the inferior colliculus.

  15. Crystallization and X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of the Adhesive SpaC Pilin Subunit in the SpaCBA Pilus of Gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Abhiruchi; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Palva, Airi; Krishnan, Vengadesan

    2016-01-01

    Gram-positive Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, a gut-adapted commensalic (and probiotic) strain, is known to express sortase-assembled pili on its cell surface. These SpaCBA-called pili consist of three different types of building blocks; the SpaA backbone-pilin subunit and the SpaB and SpaC ancillary pilins. SpaC is a relatively large (~90kDa) multi-domain fimbrial adhesin, and while it is located primarily at the SpaCBA pilus tip, occasionally, it can also be detected throughout the length of pilus backbone. Functionally, SpaC mainly accounts for SpaCBA pilus-mediated interactions with intestinal mucus, collagen, and human gut epithelial cells. Moreover, SpaC adhesiveness is also perceived to have a causal relationship with SpaCBA pilus-induced host-cell immune responses. In order to improve the mechanistic understanding of SpaC and its adhesive properties by structural investigation, we purified and successfully crystallized a recombinant construct of the near full-length SpaC protein (residues 36-856) in the presence of magnesium ions. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution. The SpaC crystal belongs to the space group P21212 with unit cell parameters a = 116.5, b = 128.3, c = 136.5 Å and contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Presence of conserved metal ion-dependent adhesion site containing von Willebrand factor type A domain suggests its likely role in the function of SpaC. PMID:26732247

  16. Age-related morphometric changes in the pineal gland. A comparative study between C57BLI6J and CBA mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cernuda-Cernuda, R.; Huerta, J.J.; Muñoz Llamosas, M.; Alvarez-Uría, M.; García-Fernández, J.M. (José Manuel)

    2000-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the effects of melatonin on the aging of the pineal, the organ which is the main place for synthesis of this hormone. Using simple morphometric methods, some parameters of the pineal gland, such as total volume, number of pinealocytes and pinealocyte volume were estimated in two mice strains: normal CBA and melatonin-deficient C57BLl6J. Two age groups, 6 weeks and 10 months, were studied in order to evaluate possible differentia...

  17. Mixtures of Uncaria and Tabebuia extracts are potentially chemopreventive in CBA/Ca mice: a long-term experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budán, Ferenc; Szabó, István; Varjas, Tímea; Nowrasteh, Ghodratollah; Dávid, Tamás; Gergely, Péter; Varga, Zsuzsa; Molnár, Kornélia; Kádár, Balázs; Orsós, Zsuzsa; Kiss, István; Ember, István

    2011-04-01

    A long-term experimental animal model was developed by our research group for the evaluation of potential chemopreventive effects. The inhibitory effects of agents on carcinogen (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced molecular epidemiological biomarkers, in this case the expression of key onco/suppressor genes were investigated. The expression pattern of c-myc, Ha-ras, Bcl-2, K-ras protooncogene and p53 tumour suppressor gene were studied to elucidate early carcinogenic and potential chemopreventive effects. The consumption of so-called Claw of Dragon tea (CoD™ tea) containing the bark of Uncaria guianensis, Cat's Claw (Uncaria sp. U. tomentosa) and Palmer trumpet-tree (Tabebuia sp. T. avellanedae) was able to decrease the DMBA-induced onco/suppressor gene overexpression in a short-term animal experiment. In a following study CBA/Ca mice were treated with 20 mg/kg bw DMBA intraperitoneally (i.p.) and the expression patterns of onco/suppressor genes were examined at several time intervals. According to the examined gene expression patterns in this long-term experiment the chemopreventive effect of CoD™ tea consumption could be confirmed.

  18. Auditory sensitivity and the outer hair cell system in the CBA mouse model of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2010-06-01

    Age-related hearing loss is a highly prevalent sensory disorder, from both the clinical and animal model perspectives. Understanding of the neurophysiologic, structural, and molecular biologic bases of age-related hearing loss will facilitate development of biomedical therapeutic interventions to prevent, slow, or reverse its progression. Thus, increased understanding of relationships between aging of the cochlear (auditory portion of the inner ear) hair cell system and decline in overall hearing ability is necessary. The goal of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that there would be correlations between physiologic measures of outer hair cell function (otoacoustic emission levels) and hearing sensitivity (auditory brainstem response thresholds), starting in middle age. For the CBA mouse, a useful animal model of age-related hearing loss, it was found that correlations between these two hearing measures occurred only for high sound frequencies in middle age. However, in old age, a correlation was observed across the entire mouse range of hearing. These findings have implications for improved early detection of progression of age-related hearing loss in middle-aged mammals, including mice and humans, and distinguishing peripheral etiologies from central auditory system decline.

  19. Cultural Analysis of Naming and Logo Design of CBA Clubs%CBA俱乐部命名及标识设计的文化探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 陶国栋

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料法和比较研究法,对CBA俱乐部物质层文化的重要组成部分——俱乐部(球队)的命名和标识设计进行分析。结果显示:CBA俱乐部命名方式及标识存在设计过于单一,缺乏特色和文化内涵;俱乐部及球队名称商业色彩过浓;俱乐部标识设计不够简洁美观等问题。建议:俱乐部命名及标识设计应突显特色、深化内涵;俱乐部及球队命名应改变传统模式,减少商业色彩;俱乐部标识设计应简洁精致、符合美学原理等。%Analyses the important constituent parts of physical culture of the CBA clubs--naming and logo de sign by using the methods of documentation and comparative research, and puts forward some suggestions in allu sion to the deficiency, so as to provide reference for the culture construction of the CBA clubs. Conclusion : The naming and logo design of CBA clubs are too oncfold, and lack of features and cultural connotation; The com mercial colour of the names of clubs and teams is too thick ; The logo design is not concise and elegant, etc. Sug gestion: The naming and logo design of the clubs should be highlighted characteristic and deepend connotation; The clubs should change the traditional pattern of naming, and reduce commercial colour; The logo design should be more concise and delicate, and accord with aesthetics principle, etc.

  20. 新赛季CBA各俱乐部外援引进使用的新思考%New Thinking of CBA Club Introduction of External Aid in the New Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玺

    2012-01-01

    CBA17 years' history of external aid policy has been changed,the main considerations to take into account the improvement of the domestic players and team achievements.CBA is a professional sports league goal of the direction of the development of our foreign aid is the introduction of the policy should be a new way of thinking,more respect for the club the right to better reflect the expectations of the majority of fans for the club.National team in international competitions achievement is one of the development goals of CBA,not all,should modern enterprise management methods to manage the CBA.%CBA17年历史外援政策几经变更,主要考虑的是国内球员的提高和国家队成绩。在CBA以职业竞技联赛为方向发展的目标下,我们外援引进使用政策应有新的思维方式,更加尊重俱乐部权利,更加体现广大球迷对于俱乐部的期待。国家队国际比赛成绩是CBA发展的目标之一不是全部,更应以现代企业管理方式管理CBA。

  1. The t(14,15) in Mouse Strain CBA/CaH-T(14;15)6Ca/J Causes a Break in the ADAMTS12 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Acar-Perk, Bengi; Bräutigam, Karen; Grunewald, Regina; Schmutzler, Andreas; Schem, Christian; Arnold, Norbert K; Jonat, Walter; Weimer, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The mouse strain CBA/CaH-T(14;15)6Ca/J carries a homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation between mouse chromosomes 14 and 15, but the break points of this translocation have not previously been examined in detail. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we assigned the break point in 14qE3 to a 200-kb region devoid of any known gene. We similarly defined the break point in 15qA1 to a 27-kb region containing involving ADAMTS12. The chromosomal break likely is between exons 2 and 3 of ADA...

  2. Developing a CBA Methodology for the Scenario-Based Land-Use Impact Assessment of Proposed Rail Investments in the Leipzig Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ustaoglu, Eda; Williams, Brndan; Petrov, Laura Oana

    2012-01-01

    Model applications. The land-use scenarios considered in this research are a baseline scenario of dispersed development and an alternative scenario of more compact urban developments associated with potential rapid rail provisions in the Leipzig Region. The appraisal of transport-land-use relationships...... is subject to the use of economic indicators and can be evaluated based on alternative land development scenarios developed for the Leipzig Area. In this context, key elements of a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) approach will be developed for the evaluation of potential costs of urban rail provisions with its...

  3. CBA联赛人文环境优化问题探析%Analysis of CBA League Matches Human Environment Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程利群

    2009-01-01

    CBA联赛正处于职业化发展的快速成长期,其人文环境主要表现在球队均有各自的主场,设置方式各有特点;主场观众主人意识强烈;主场氛围浓厚,规范科学的竞赛机制以及独具特色的管理体制等方面.同时,也存在着硬件设施建设不足;球员、观众、裁判的不和谐行为时有发生;联赛管理制度尚未完善等问题.其产生的主要根源与我国的文化传统和人的文化素质差异有关.优化的主要措施包括加强主场硬件设施建设,尽快与国际标准接轨;制定联赛法规,严惩违规行为;高度重视媒体对联赛的影响力,营造良好舆论氛围;加强国家队建设,提高国家队的比赛成绩;打造联赛的明星效应,扩大联赛的吸引力等.%CBA league matches are in the fast growth stage of professional development, its humane environment mainly displays its own home court in the team, the set up way has its characteristic; Audience has strong consciousness of master home court; The atmosphere of home court is strong, norm the scientific contest mechanism and distinctive management system,etc. Meanwhile, there is insufficient of hard environmental construction; The disharmonious behavior of the player, audience, referee happens occasionally; the management system of the league matches has not been improved well. Its main origin reference with cultural tradition and people′s cutural dynamics difference. The main optimized measure includes strengthening the the hardware of home court, integrate with the international standard as soon as possible; Make the regulation of league matches, punish the unlawful behavior severely; pay more attention on the media influence, build the good public opinion; Strengthen the construction of national team, improve the results of the national team; Make the star′s appeal of the league matches, expand appeal of the league matches,etc..

  4. Toxicological assessment of P-9801091 plant mixture extract after chronic administration in CBA/HZg mice--a biochemical and histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlevski, Roberta; Hadzija, Mirko; Slijepcević, Milivoj; Juretić, Dubravka

    2008-06-01

    Acute, subchronic and chronic effects of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass were assessed in serum of healthy CBA/HZg mice at 24 hours, 7 days, 3 months and 6 months of treatment (experimental group), and compared with the values obtained in the control group of untreated healthy CBA/HZg mice. The P-9801091 plant mixture extract is an antihyperglycemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.), Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.), Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli fructus sine semine (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Millefolii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana officinalis L.) and Urticae herba et radix (Urtica dioica L). Toxic effect of the P-9801091 plant mixture extract was assessed by the following biochemical parameters: urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and cholesterol. Also, histopathological examination of the kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, testes and lungs was performed. Results of biochemical testing performed at specified time points generally showed no statistically significant differences from control values, with the only exception of the catalytic concentration of AST in the experimental group measured on day 7, which was significantly increased as compared with the control group (p<0.05). Pathohistological examination including characteristic organ and tissue structure, and parenchyma relationship to the adjacent blood vessels and connective tissue in the examined organs revealed no major pathologic changes. PMID:18756913

  5. Influence of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice line CBA/Ca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhenkovska, Iryna V; Pidchenko, Vitalii T; Bychkova, Nina G; Bisko, Nina A; Rodnichenko, Angela Y; Kozyko, Natalya O

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the results of the investigation of the effect of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice CBA/Ca. Delayed-type hypersensitivity assay was used. Experimental immunodeficiency was established with intraperitoneal injection of the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 150 mg/kg on the first day of the experiment. Results of the study show that the administration of biomass powder of Ganoderma lucidum in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg orally for 10 days increases the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in normal mice CBA/Ca. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum for 10 days blocked the development of the T-cell-mediated immunosuppression, induced by administration of cyclophosphamide and restored the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in immunosuppressed mice. Key words: fungus Ganoderma lucidum cyclophosphamide immunodeficiency T-cell-mediated immunity delayed-type hypersensitivity.

  6. Influence of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice line CBA/Ca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhenkovska, Iryna V; Pidchenko, Vitalii T; Bychkova, Nina G; Bisko, Nina A; Rodnichenko, Angela Y; Kozyko, Natalya O

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the results of the investigation of the effect of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice CBA/Ca. Delayed-type hypersensitivity assay was used. Experimental immunodeficiency was established with intraperitoneal injection of the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 150 mg/kg on the first day of the experiment. Results of the study show that the administration of biomass powder of Ganoderma lucidum in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg orally for 10 days increases the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in normal mice CBA/Ca. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum for 10 days blocked the development of the T-cell-mediated immunosuppression, induced by administration of cyclophosphamide and restored the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in immunosuppressed mice. Key words: fungus Ganoderma lucidum cyclophosphamide immunodeficiency T-cell-mediated immunity delayed-type hypersensitivity. PMID:26459128

  7. NBA与CBA比赛跳跃步法的对比分析%Comparison of Jumping Footwork in NBA and CBA Matches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远; 阮棉芳; 任峰

    2012-01-01

    通过录像分析了NBA与CBA各8场比赛,对比CBA与NBA比赛中各个位置队员使用各种跳跃步法的差异。将跳跃步法按原地起跳、一步助跑起跳、两步以上单脚起跳、两步以上双脚起跳、后撤步起跳、连续起跳、横向移动急停起跳等7种方式进行了归类和统计。结果发现CBA队员比NBA队员更多地采用了原地起跳,而在一步助跑起跳与两步以上助跑双脚起跳的使用频率上比NBA低。相差最大的是横向移动急停起跳,NBA的控球后卫、得分后卫、小前锋使用该步法的频率分别是CBA相同队员的1.6倍、2.1倍、3.9倍。提示:CBA队员应该增加运动中起跳的次数,尤其要加强对横向移动急停起跳的训练与应用。同时要加强对横向移动急停起跳的生物力学研究,为提高训练效果、预防损伤、研发符合篮球运动特点的篮球鞋提供理论依据。%Through video analysis,the author analyzed 8 matches each in NBA and CBA so as to compare the difference of the different jumping footwork of of the different position players in CBA and NBA matches.The jumping footwork is classified into 7 types,i.e.,standing jump,one-step jump,over two steps one-foot jump,over two steps two-feet jump,backward step jump,continuous jump and lateral movement abrupt stop jump.The result shows that compared to NBA players,more CBA players use standing jump and the frequency of using one-step jump and over two steps two-feet jump is lower.Great different can be found in lateral movement abrupt stop jump.The frequency of using this footwork by NBA's point guard,shooting guard and small forward is 1.6 times,2.1 times and 3.9 times separately than the CBA players.This suggests that CBA players should increase jumping times in movement and strengthen the training and application of lateral movement abrupt stop jumping.At the same time,more attention should be paid to the biomechanical study of lateral movement abrupt stop jump

  8. Modelling inorganic and organic biocide leaching from CBA-amine (Copper–Boron–Azole) treated wood based on characterisation leaching tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupsea, Maria [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F–31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environment and Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 Rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F–31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environment and Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 Rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Schoknecht, Ute [BAM — Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.1, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Numerical simulation of the leaching behaviour of treated wood is the most pertinent and less expensive method for the prediction of biocides' release in water. Few studies based on mechanistic leaching models have been carried out so far. In this work, a coupled chemistry-mass transport model is developed for simulating the leaching behaviour of inorganic (Cu, B) and organic (Tebuconazole) biocides from CBA-amine treated wood. The model is based on experimental investigations (lab-scale leaching tests coupled with chemical and structural analysis). It considers biocides' interactions with wood solid components and with extractives (literature confirmed reactions), as well as transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection) in different compartments. Simulation results helped at identifying the main fixation mechanisms, like (i) direct complexation of Cu by wood-phenolic and -carboxylic sites (and not via monoethanolamine; complex) on lignin and hemicellulose and strong dependence on extractives' nature, (ii) pH dependent binding of tebuconazole on polarized -OH moieties on wood. The role of monoethanolamine is to provide a pore-solution pH of about 7.5, when copper solubility is found to be weakest. The capability of the developed model to simulate the chemical and transport behaviour is the main result of this study. Moreover, it proved that characterization leaching tests (pH dependency and dynamic tests), combined with appropriate analytical methods are useful experimental tools. Due to its flexibility for representing and simulating various leaching conditions, chemical-transport model developed could be used to further simulate the leaching behaviour of CBA treated wood at larger scales. - Highlights: • Biocide and extractives leaching from ammonia-CBA treated wood were modelled. • The chemical-transport model identifies the main fixation/solubilisation mechanisms. • The model describes well the results of equilibrium and dynamic leaching

  9. Kinetics of reparative DNA replication induced in CBA and C57BL/6 mouse spleen cells by urethane and influenza virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the reparative replication of DNA, induced by urethane and influenza virus in C57BL/6 and CBA mice which have marked differences in tumor formation. Reparative DNA replication, induced by urethane and influenza virus was investigated by a liquid scintillation method based on measuring incorporation of 3H-thymidine into the total mass of mouse spleen cells, when replicative DNA synthesis was inhibited by hydroxyurea. The intensity of reparative DNA replication was judged from the value of the stimulation index which is the ratio of the radioactivity in the spleen cells of the experimental animals to the corresponding parameters in cells of intact animals. The phenomenon of the stimulating and inhibitory effects of influenza virus on reparative DNA replication in cells depending on their genotype and sensitivity to virus is established

  10. The influence of sex on life shortening and tumor induction in CBA/Cne mice exposed to x rays or fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of male and female CBA/Cne mice was set up at Casaccia primarily to investigate the influence of sex on long-term survival and tumor induction after exposure to high- and low-LET radiation. Mice were whole-body-irradiated at 3 months of age with fission-neutron doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.8 Gy at the RSV-TAPIRO reactor (mean neutron energy 0.4 MeV, in terms of kerma, yD = 51.5 KeV/μm), or with 250 KVp X-ray doses of 1, 3, 5 and 7 Gy. Control and irradiated animals were then followed for their entire life span. As a general finding, male CBA/Cne mice appear more susceptible to tumori-genesis than females. In particular, the incidences of induced acute myeloid leukemia and malignant lymphomas are significant only in male mice. Benign and malignant solid tumors of many types are observed in mice of both sexes, the most frequent being in the lung, liver and ovary. However, evidence for a radiation response is limited to the case of Harderian gland neoplasms. In addition, a comparison of the observed frequency of all irradiated compared to unirradiated animals bearing solid tumors shows that the total tumor occurrence is not altered markedly by radiation exposure. A decrease in survival time is observed for both sexes and radiation types and correlates well with increasing dose. Moreover, both sex and radiation quality appear to influence the life shortening. A similar dose dependence of survival time is found when tumor-free animals alone are considered, suggesting a non-specific component of life-shortening. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  11. 美国职业篮球联赛对中国职业篮球联赛的冲击和影响%A Discussion on the Impact and Influence of the NBA to CBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雨

    2013-01-01

    The NBA provides many useful development patterns and the precious experience for the CBA, However, it has brought many impacts and influences to the CBA as well. The NBA is a powerful rival for Chinese occupation basketball in the basketball market and star players, occupied most of the Chinese basketball market;The NBA has established cooperative relations with China through a variety of media, and attracted a large number of fans of audience, weaken the influence of CBA; restricted the development of CBA via promoting sports products, plundering predatory advertising revenue;and the dross of NBA culture also have a lot of negative effects on CBA.%美国职业篮球联赛为中国职业篮球联赛提供了许多可借鉴的发展模式和宝贵经验,同时也给中国职业篮球联赛带来了许多冲击和影响。美国职业篮球联赛在篮球市场和明星球员方面是中国职业篮球联赛的强有力竞争对手,占据了中国的大部分篮球市场;美职篮通过与中国的各种媒体建立了合作关系,吸引了大量球迷观众,削弱了中职篮的影响力;推广体育产品,通过合作伙伴掠夺广告收入,限制了中职篮的发展;美国职业篮球联赛文化中的糟粕对中职篮职业联赛的也存在着负面影响。

  12. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CBA/N,NUDE AND SCID MICE HEPATOCARCINOMA MODEL AND EXPRESSION OF APOPTOTIC RELATED GENE%CBA/N、nude和SCID小鼠肝癌模型的建立及凋亡相关基因的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佐庆; 张志培

    2002-01-01

    目的研究CBA/N、nude和SCID小鼠人肝癌模型制作、凋亡相关基因的表达和意义.方法将人肝癌细胞系HHCC-9724-P种于动物不同部位,观察肿瘤的生长特点.免疫组织化学SP法研究肝内肿瘤组织中的Bcl-2、Bax、VEGF和P53的表达.结果除CBA/N小鼠皮下接种无法成活外其它小鼠在各部位均可成活,在同时间的肿瘤组织体积和重量SCID小鼠最大,3种小鼠肝内肿瘤组织从第一周开始4种基因的表达明显增强,三周时阳性细胞率达最高水平,而Bcl-2和VEGF的阳性细胞率高于Bax和P53.结论由于较高的肿瘤成活率和凋亡相关基因表达的敏感性,SCID小鼠在人肝癌模制作中是较好的实验动物.

  13. 2013~2014赛季CBA总决赛北京队夺冠制胜因素分析%The 2013~2014 season CBA finals Beijing team winning factor analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康喜来; 李威

    2015-01-01

    采用文献资料法、数理统计法、录像观察法、比较分析法等,对2013~2014赛季CBA总决赛6场比赛中北京队与新疆队攻守相关数据进行对比分析,找出北京队取得总冠军的制胜因素,旨在为其他CBA俱乐部的训练和比赛提供参考。%By using the methods of literature, statistics, video observation and comparative analysis on 2013-2014 season CBA Finals in six games in Beijing and Xinjiang team offensive and defensive team-related data were analyzed, looking for Beijing team won the championship winning factors to help other CBA club training and competition.

  14. 2011-2012 CBA Finals in Both the Position Players Comparative Analysis%2011~2012赛季CBA总决赛双方技术对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 王冬慧

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the use of literature,the method of video observation and mathematical statistical method,comparative analysis of all five games of the teams CBA2011-2012 Finals,forward.the center and guard position players,comparative analysis,which reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the two teams provide a valuable theoretical basis for future training and competition of the two teams.%运用文献资料法、录像观察法和数理统计法等方法,对CBA2011~2012赛季总决赛北京队和广东队两队前锋、中锋和后卫的技术进行对比分析,从中揭示两队的优势与不足,为两队今后的训练和比赛提供有价值的理论依据。

  15. Anti-tumor effects of B lymphocytes on immunoreconstituted SCID mice%CBA/N小鼠肝癌移植瘤的建立及重建SCID免疫的B淋巴细胞抗癌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江逊; 张志培; 曾耀英; 王文亮; 黄立军; 施新猷

    2004-01-01

    目的: 研究CBA/N,nude,SCID小鼠建立人肝癌模型和重建SCID免疫的特点,初步探讨B淋巴细胞及其抗体对肝癌细胞生长的排斥作用.方法: 将体外培养的人肝癌细胞接种到B细胞缺陷的CBA/N,T细胞缺陷的BALB/c-nu,T,B细胞缺陷的SCID小鼠及免疫重建的SCID小鼠中,观察瘤细胞生长特点;取实验小鼠血清,测定荷瘤鼠抗体Ig含量的变化,取小鼠血清与肝癌细胞作抗原抗体凝集试验.结果: CBA/N和用BALB/c小鼠外周血淋巴细胞重建的SCID(B-PBL-SCID)小鼠不成瘤,nude,SCID和用CBA/N外周血淋巴细胞重建的SCID (C-PBL-SCID)小鼠100%成瘤;有B淋巴细胞的实验鼠(包括B-PBL-SCID)测到的Ig达到mg/mL水平,血清能与肝癌产生凝集反应.结论: SCID小鼠是建立肿瘤模型和免疫重建及其肿瘤免疫研究的理想的实验动物;B淋巴细胞及其产生的抗体在抗肿瘤中起着重要的作用.

  16. NaCl-preferring NZB/B1NJ Mice and NaCl-avoiding CBA/J Mice Have Similar Amiloride Inhibition of Chorda Tympani Responses to NaCl

    OpenAIRE

    Ninomiya, Yuzo; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Yatabe, Akira; Gary K Beauchamp

    1998-01-01

    Integrated chorda tympani nerve responses to NaCl were studied in two mouse strains, an NaCl-preferring NZB/B1NJ and an NaCl-avoiding CBA/J. The NaCl responses of both strains had similar magnitude and were suppressed by amiloride to a similar extent. This suggests that peripheral gustatory responsiveness to NaCl is not the only mechanism underlying mouse strain variation in NaCl acceptance.

  17. Pretreatment with Cry1Ac Protoxin Modulates the Immune Response, and Increases the Survival of Plasmodium-Infected CBA/Ca Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Legorreta-Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major global health problem that kills 1-2 million people each year. Despite exhaustive research, naturally acquired immunity is poorly understood. Cry1A proteins are potent immunogens with adjuvant properties and are able to induce strong cellular and humoral responses. In fact, it has been shown that administration of Cry1Ac protoxin alone or with amoebic lysates induces protection against the lethal infection caused by the protozoa Naegleria fowleri. In this work, we studied whether Cry1Ac is able to activate the innate immune response to induce protection against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (lethal and P. chabaudi AS (nonlethal parasites in CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with Cry1Ac induced protection against both Plasmodium species in terms of reduced parasitaemia, longer survival time, modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and increased levels of specific antibodies against Plasmodium. Understanding how to boost innate immunity to Plasmodium infection should lead to immunologically based intervention strategies.

  18. CBA Development Opportunity and Challenge Caused by NBA Labor Dispute%NBA劳资纠纷对CBA发展的机遇与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海晨

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the CBA problems caused by the infusion of high level foreign basketball players after the NBA stopped because of the labor dispute in 2011-2012 seasons. The recruitment of NBA players promotes the sponsor development and the basketball fan market establishment and it also helps improve the tactic and skills of the Chinese basketball players, the recruitment of NBA players also imposes challenges to the management of the clubs and leagues, training and guiding ability of the coach teams and the fringe player development.%对由于2011-2012赛季NBA劳资纠纷停摆导致高水平外援涌入CBA后,对CBA产生的一系列问题进行了探讨。研究认为:NBA球员的引进对赞助商的发展大为有利,对球迷市场的构建起到了良好的促进作用,对大部分球员的技战术水平提高及观念转变有较好的示范作用;NBA球员的引入,对俱乐部及联盟的管理水平、球队教练组指导训练及比赛能力、边缘球员的发展等问题提出了挑战。

  19. Pretreatment with Cry1Ac Protoxin Modulates the Immune Response, and Increases the Survival of Plasmodium-Infected CBA/Ca Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Oviedo Meza, Rodrigo; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem that kills 1-2 million people each year. Despite exhaustive research, naturally acquired immunity is poorly understood. Cry1A proteins are potent immunogens with adjuvant properties and are able to induce strong cellular and humoral responses. In fact, it has been shown that administration of Cry1Ac protoxin alone or with amoebic lysates induces protection against the lethal infection caused by the protozoa Naegleria fowleri. In this work, we studied whether Cry1Ac is able to activate the innate immune response to induce protection against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (lethal) and P. chabaudi AS (nonlethal) parasites in CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with Cry1Ac induced protection against both Plasmodium species in terms of reduced parasitaemia, longer survival time, modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and increased levels of specific antibodies against Plasmodium. Understanding how to boost innate immunity to Plasmodium infection should lead to immunologically based intervention strategies. PMID:20300584

  20. Certification-Based Process Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Space mission architects are often challenged with knowing which investment in technology infusion will have the highest return. Certification-based analysis (CBA) gives architects and technologists a means to communicate the risks and advantages of infusing technologies at various points in a process. Various alternatives can be compared, and requirements based on supporting streamlining or automation can be derived and levied on candidate technologies. CBA is a technique for analyzing a process and identifying potential areas of improvement. The process and analysis products are used to communicate between technologists and architects. Process means any of the standard representations of a production flow; in this case, any individual steps leading to products, which feed into other steps, until the final product is produced at the end. This sort of process is common for space mission operations, where a set of goals is reduced eventually to a fully vetted command sequence to be sent to the spacecraft. Fully vetting a product is synonymous with certification. For some types of products, this is referred to as verification and validation, and for others it is referred to as checking. Fundamentally, certification is the step in the process where one insures that a product works as intended, and contains no flaws.

  1. Crystal structure of ORF210 from E. coli O157:H1 phage CBA120 (TSP1, a putative tailspike protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage tailspike proteins act as primary receptors, often possessing endoglycosidase activity toward bacterial lipopolysaccharides or other exopolysaccharides, which enable phage absorption and subsequent DNA injection into the host. Phage CBA120, a contractile long-tailed Viunalikevirus phage infects the virulent Escherichia coli O157:H7. This phage encodes four putative tailspike proteins exhibiting little amino acid sequence identity, whose biological roles and substrate specificities are unknown. Here we focus on the first tailspike, TSP1, encoded by the orf210 gene. We have discovered that TSP1 is resistant to protease degradation, exhibits high thermal stability, but does not cleave the O157 antigen. An immune-dot blot has shown that TSP1 binds strongly to non-O157:H7 E. coli cells and more weakly to K. pneumoniae cells, but exhibits little binding to E. coli O157:H7 strains. To facilitate structure-function studies, we have determined the crystal structure of TSP1 to a resolution limit of 1.8 Å. Similar to other tailspikes proteins, TSP1 assembles into elongated homotrimers. The receptor binding region of each subunit adopts a right-handed parallel β helix, reminiscent yet not identical to several known tailspike structures. The structure of the N-terminal domain that binds to the virion particle has not been seen previously. Potential endoglycosidase catalytic sites at the three subunit interfaces contain two adjacent glutamic acids, unlike any catalytic machinery observed in other tailspikes. To identify potential sugar binding sites, the crystal structures of TSP1 in complexes with glucose, α-maltose, or α-lactose were determined. These structures revealed that each sugar binds in a different location and none of the environments appears consistent with an endoglycosidase catalytic site. Such sites may serve to bind sugar units of a yet to be identified bacterial exopolysaccharide.

  2. CBA小鼠内耳感觉上皮的参考数据%Reference data of sensory epithelium in the inner ear in CBA mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪; 丁大连; 孙虹; 蒋海燕; RichardSalvi

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide useful reference data of sensory epithelium in the inner ear, the cochlear and vestibular system were carefully measured in CBA mice. Methods Six young CBA mice at three months of age were used for this study. The surface preparations of cochlear basilar membrane and vestibular end-organs were measured under light microscope. The length and the width of basilar membrane and organ of Corti were examined along the cochlear basilar membrane. In addition, the total number and the density of cochlear hair cell along the basilar membrane were also calculated. To evaluate the vestibular end-organs, the total amount of hair cells in macula of saccule and utricle were counted. The hair cell density of striola region and marginal region in saccule and utricle were calculated respectively, and the density of hair cells in cristae in membranous ampulla of three semicircular canals were also counted. Results The total length of the cochlear basilar membrane was 5.76 ±0.196 mm in CBA mice. The width of basilar membrane was 339.1 ±9.87 μm at 1.5 mm, 304.5 ± 11.82 μm at 3 mm, and 300.1 ±7.22μm at 5 mm from the cochlear base respectively. This indicated that the width of cochlear basilar membrane was gradually narrowing from base to apex. In contrast, the width of organ of Corti was 37.80±2.24 μm at 1.5 mm, 45.00±2.67μm at 3 mm, and 52.20 ± 3.16 fun at 5 mm from the base respectively, which demonstrated that the width of organ of Corti was gradually increasing from base to apex. The total number of cochlear hair cells in CBA mice was 3116.41 ± 151.91, which included 680.67 ± 17.50 inner hair cells and 2435.8 ± 143.46 outer hair cells. The density of cochlear hair cells was similar across the entire length of the cochlea with a density of 541.1 ± 9.36/mm. The density of inner hair cells and outer hair cells were 118.3±2.68/mm and 422.8 ± 11.87/mm respectively. The total number of hair cells in macula of utricle and saccule were 3300 ± 177

  3. An Analysis of Current Situation and Countermeasure of the CBA Professional League Sponsorship%对CBA职业联赛赞助现状的分析与策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪超

    2012-01-01

    通过文献资料法等对CBA联赛赞助现状进行分析得出,CBA职业联赛的收入主要是赞助商的投入,在融资单一的情况下,各俱乐部以出售冠名权来充实资金。对赞助商的类型以及在保护赞助商的权益上进行了分析,其中赞助商的类型包括:官方合作伙伴、官方赞助商和官方供应商三类,在保护赞助商权益上主要以:赛场广告发布、门票、联赛专用服装装备、联赛指定用品这四种措施实施。最后提出对策:要构建稳定,资金财力大的赞助商群体和赢得国外赞助商的青睐来投入赞助,从而不断推动CBA联赛市场的开发。%Through literature,etc.,the analysis of the CBA League sponsored shows:CBA Professional League's income is mainly from sponsors' invests,and with this single and simple model of financing,clubs try to sell naming rights to enrich funding.And it also analyzed the CBA league sponsor types and the protection of the interests of sponsors,and the sponsor types included three types which are authorities cooperation colleague,authorities sponsor company and the authorized suppliers.And the protection for sponsor companies' rights could be mainly cited as match field advertisement release,admission ticket,league match appropriation clothing material,league match things appointed.Finally,it put forward a constructive proposal to build stable,large financial resources sponsor fund groups,win the favor of foreign sponsors to actively invest,and continue to promote market development CBA league.

  4. CBA Being as Regulation Tool:Taking the American Theory and Practice for Example%作为规制工具的成本收益分析*--以美国的理论与实践为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘权

    2015-01-01

    成本收益分析是美国行政法上一项行之有效的规制影响分析工具。在当代行政法中有效运用成本收益分析,不仅可以起到提高资源配置效率、优化行政规制的作用,而且还能提升现代行政的合法性。通过考察相关案例可以发现,美国司法审查对成本收益分析的态度是一个从否定到肯定的渐进过程,经历了从“如果国会法律没有明确规定,行政机关就不能使用”,到“如果国会法律没有明确规定,行政机关可以不使用”,再到“如果国会法律没有明确禁止,行政机关就能使用”的变化过程。成本与收益的计算可以通过市场评估法和非市场评估法予以确定。美国行政法上的成本收益分析在质疑与批判中不断发展完善。%The CBA is an effective tool of regulation inlfuence analysis in the American administrative law. In contemporary administrative law, the effective usage of it brings much, not only the improvement of resource allocation efficiency and the optimization of administrative regulation function, but also the enhancement of modern administrative legitimacy. By reviewing related cases, it is found that the attitude of CBA by the American judicial review transferred from negation to affirmation, i.e. from ‘without clear definition by the Congress, the administrative body should not use it’, to ‘without clear definition by the Congress, the administrative body can choose to use it or not’, then to ‘without clear prohibition by the Congress, the administrative body can use it’. The calculation of CBA can be carried out in ways of market evaluation method and non-market evaluation method. The CBA in the American administrative law develops constantly in questioning and criticism.

  5. USAGE OF ACB-MININD SOFTWARE IN THE CBA ANALYSIS FOR FINANCING INVESTMENT PROJECTS THROUGH EUROPEAN FUNDING IN CORRELATION WITH THE FINANCING FROM THE BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droj Gabriela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of the European Union with the first “wave” of new members in 2004 and later with the second “wave” of members in 2007 brought new opportunities for the countries in Eastern Europe, being obvious that “effective utilisation of EU support can foster the success of their economic performance”. Financing investment projects proposed by the SMEs can be realized through several financial sources internal and external, from which two of the most common external sources constitute from subsidies-grants and through banking system. One of the most important financing programme present in Romania, available for SMEs is SOP IEC, which awards grants for investments proposed by production companies. This financing program encourages its beneficiaries to combine the European grant with private funds mostly provided through the banking system. The paper analyzed the methodology used in Cost Benefit Analysis and also The ACB-MININD software which is compulsory to be used for the CBA analysis of these investment projects links for the first time elements of analysis used by the European Commission with elements of analysis used by the banking system. In this context the present article tries to analyze how the ACB-MININD software links the main elements of Cost-Benefit analysis such as NPV or IRR with elements of the bankability software which are mainly used by the banking system such as: cash-flow analysis, loan/interest payment and financial sustainability. Also are presented the links between the banking sector and the external financing sector in the field on investment projects. As final conclusions of this paper we will demonstrate the theoretical and practical role of cost-benefit analysis - financial component to select the best applications that will be proposed for funding under the European grant programs and to link them to the banking system in order to ensure a proper co-financing for these

  6. Induction of Chronic Inflammation and Altered Levels of DNA Hydroxymethylation in Somatic and Germinal Tissues of CBA/CaJ Mice Exposed to (48)Ti Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Jangiam, Witawat; Tungjai, Montree; Gordon, Chris; Honikel, Louise; Whorton, Elbert B

    2016-01-01

    Although the lung is one of the target organs at risk for cancer induction from exposure to heavy ions found in space, information is insufficient on cellular/molecular responses linked to increased cancer risk. Knowledge of such events may aid in the development of new preventive measures. Furthermore, although it is known that germinal cells are sensitive to X- or γ-rays, there is little information on the effects of heavy ions on germinal cells. Our goal was to investigate in vivo effects of 1 GeV/n (48)Ti ions (one of the important heavy ions found in the space environment) on somatic (lung) and germinal (testis) tissues collected at various times after a whole body irradiation of CBA/CaJ mice (0, 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy, delivered at 1 cGy/min). We hypothesized that (48)Ti-ion-exposure induced damage in both tissues. Lung tissue was collected from each mouse from each treatment group at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months postirradiation. For the testis, we collected samples at 6 months postirradiation. Hence, only late-occurring effects of (48)Ti ions in the testis were studied. There were five mice per treatment group at each harvest time. We investigated inflammatory responses after exposure to (48)Ti ions by measuring the levels of activated nuclear factor kappa B and selected pro-inflammatory cytokines in both tissues of the same mouse. These measurements were coupled with the quantitation of the levels of global 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Our data clearly showed the induction of chronic inflammation in both tissues of exposed mice. A dose-dependent reduction in global 5hmC was found in the lung at all time-points and in testes collected at 6 months postirradiation. In contrast, significant increases in global 5mC were found only in lung and testes collected at 6 months postirradiation from mice exposed to 0.5 Gy of 1 GeV/n (48)Ti ions. Overall, our data showed that (48)Ti ions may create health risks in both

  7. Analysis on winning reason of Beijing basketball team in 2013-2014 season CBA finals%2013-2014赛季CBA总决赛北京队获胜因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安迪

    2014-01-01

    Through making comparative analysis on the 2013-2014 CBA finals that all six games technical index and video between Beijing team and Xinjiang team,the reasons of Beijing team won the CBA finals champion was found in this paper.The results showed that Beijing winning the finals mainly depend on the powerful whole style of play,with both offensive and defensive strategies,good teamwork,balanced scoring ability in all positions,the key of winning are more fast attack and fewer errors.%通过对2013-2014赛季CBA总决赛北京队与新疆队6场比赛的各项技术指标和比赛录像进行统计与分析,找到了北京队最终获得总决赛冠军的原因。结果显示:北京队赢得总冠军主要靠的是强大的整体打法,战术运动灵活,攻守兼备,队员之间配合默契,不同位置的得分能力相对均衡,快攻多、失误少。

  8. Comparative Analysis On Quick Attack Among The CBA Finals Participating Teams In 2011~ 2012 Season%2011~2012赛季CBA总决赛参赛球队快攻的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂成; 任明

    2012-01-01

    The paper makes contrastive analysis of fast break technical indicators between the two teams through statistical analysis of fast break in five games during CBA finals in 2011~2012 season, and general- izes their fast break features as well as find out the influence that fast break has on wins and failures. The aim is to provide salutary references concerning competitions and trainings to CBA or other teams.%通过对2011~2012赛季CBA总决赛5场比赛的快攻情况进行统计,对2队快攻技术指标进行对比分析,总结出2队快攻特点,并找出快攻对2队比赛胜负的影响,旨在为其以后训练比赛以及其他CBA球队比赛与训练提供有益的参考。

  9. Evidence that radio-sensitive cells are central to skin-phase protective immunity in CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni as well as in naive mice protected with vaccine serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, V.S.; McLaren, D.J. (National Inst. for Medical Research, London (UK))

    1990-02-01

    Naive CBA/Ca mice and CBA/ca mice vaccinated 4 weeks previously with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were subjected to 550 rad of whole body (gamma) irradiation and then challenged 3 days later with normal cercariae. The perfusion recovery data showed that this procedure reduced the primary worm burden in naive mice by 22% and the challence worm burden in vaccinated mice by 82%. Irradiation also ablated the peripheral blood leucocytes of both mouse groups by 90-100% at the time of challenge. Histological data revealed that such treatment caused a dramatic change in number, size and leucocyte composition of cutaneous inflammatory skin reactions that characterize challenged vacccinated mice and are known to entrap invading larvae; cutaneous eosinophils were preferentially abolished by this treatment. Polyvaccine mouse serum that conferred protection passively upon naive recipient mice, failed to protect naive/irradiated mice when administered by the same protocol. Distraction of macrophages by treatment of mice with silica did not affect the establishment of a primary worm burden and reduced the protection exhibited by vaccinated mice by only 16%. These data indicade that radio-sensitive cells are important to both innate and specific acquired resistance in this mouse model and that macrophages contribute only marginally to the expression of vaccine immunity. (author).

  10. Research the Causes and Control of Violence-prone CBA Arena%CBA赛场暴力冲突频发成因及管控对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冲; 史曙生

    2015-01-01

    CBA league after 20 years of development,and increasingly perfect, professional degree level enhances unceasingly, at the same time, along with competition fierce increase,fans mood rising,and the influx of foreign aid,more violence in China become a problem that allow to ignore. by the methods of literature,logic analysis each of the past 10 seasons CBA China men’s basketball pro-fessional league frequent violence,through the case analy-sis method in this paper, the CBA stadium violence in several prominent forms and new characteristics of vio-lence,and analyzes the cause of the incident and the root cause. Based on the analysis of the cause of violence,the comparative analysis of NBA professional basketball league related management system, and analysis from the specification and perfect management system audience stand culture remolding four aspects for the effective strat-egies for the control and prevention of violence,in order to ensure the CBA competition in a fair,fair and healthy en-vironment in order to carry out, and provide Suggestions for the healthy development of CBA league.%CBA联赛经过20年的不断发展,职业化程度日趋完善,水平不断提高,与此同时,伴随着比赛激烈程度加大,球迷情绪的不断高涨,以及更多外援的涌入,CBA赛场暴力冲突成为一个不容忽视的问题。采用文献资料法、逻辑分析法对近10各赛季CBA中国男子篮球职业联赛频繁发生暴力冲突事件进行研究。研究结果表明:执法裁判现场判罚问题,球员职业道德缺失,外籍球员涌入、约束力较差,观众素质偏低,缺乏正确引导,惩罚体系不完善,处罚力度不够,联赛职业化带来的利益冲突,竞技水平提高,比赛对抗性增强,是导致近年来CBA赛场火药味越演越烈的主要原因。针对这些原因,通过比较分析美国NBA职业篮球联赛相关管理制度,提出如下应对措施:规范与完善CBA赛场管理制度、CBA裁判的职业化管

  11. Research on the Uncertainty of CBA Teams' Competition Power in the 2005-2015 Seasons%2005-2015年CBA各球队竞争实力的不确定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永峰; 刘连红; 徐昶楠; 张铭鑫

    2015-01-01

    Taking CBA teams in the last 10 seasons (2005~2015) as a case, and applying HHI method in Econom-ics to the analysis of the data in cross section, time sequence and panel, the author measures and reveals the uncertainty of CBA teams' competition power and explores the uncertainty' s relation to audience, winning per-centage in home and away competitions and net scores. Results demonstrate that the CBA HHI value gradually decreases in the past 10 seasons, which indicates that the CBA teams' competition power is developing towards a balanced state, while the competitive gap between the teams is still significant;The gap between home and a-way winning percentage is quite significant (P< 0. 01), and the CBA spectator attendance rate is negatively correlated with HHI value (P<0. 05), that is, the more uncertain the result is, the higher is the rate of at-tendance, the gap in net score between home and away teams in the past 10 years is gradually narrowing, and the champion and the runner up are becoming close in their strength, but both champion and runner up is sig-nificantly stronger than the rest teams in strength.%以近10届(2005-2015)CBA各球队为案例,采集横截面、时间序列、面板3个层面的数据,基于经济学HHI方法衡量和揭示CBA各球队竞争实力的不确定性,探寻CBA各球队竞争实力不确定性与现场观众人数、主客场胜率和净胜分等之间的关系,结果表明:近10届CBA联赛HHI值呈下降趋势,说明CBA各球队竞争力正向着均衡方向发展,但赛季内部球队之间竞争力差距依然明显;主场和客场胜率之间差距存在高度显著性( P<0.01);CBA观众上座率与HHI之间呈高度负相关(P<0.05),即比赛结果的不确定性越强,上座率就越高;近10届CBA联赛主、客场净胜分差值在逐渐缩小,冠亚军球队实力正趋于平衡,但与其它队伍之间的差距存在显著性。

  12. A Novel Method for Shelf Life Detection of Processed Cheese Using Cascade Single and Multi Layer Artificial Neural Network Computing Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Goyal; Gyanendra Kumar Goyal

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the potential of Cascade Backpropagation algorithm based ANN models in detecting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 30o C. Processed cheese is a dairy product made from ripened Cheddar cheese and sometimes a part of ripened cheese is replaced by fresh cheese; plus emulsifiers, extra salt, spices and food colorings. The cascade backpropagation algorithm (CBA) is the basis of a conceptual design for accelerating learning in ANNs. In this research input parameters w...

  13. NBA全明星赛研究——兼谈CBA全明星赛不足%Research of NBA All Stars Games——On the lack of the CBA All-Star Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娇

    2012-01-01

    简析了NBA全明星赛获得成功的各种因素,其中包括夺目的明星基础、成熟的包装设计、全球化的发展策略和不断创新的明星表演思维;剖析了NBA全明星赛的文化内涵,具体包括NBA全明星赛是NBA职业联盟发展的历史驱动,是美国好莱坞娱乐精神的体现,是美国商业文化的体现,是美国多元文化、青少年和残疾人人文关怀的综合体现。指出了我国CBA全明星赛存在的不足,主要有模仿过度、创新不足,只见比赛、娱乐不足,场馆软硬件服务不足,主办方运营困难重重。最后,指出了NBA全明星赛对CBA全明星的若干启示。%The paper analyses various factors of the success of NBA All Star Games,including the dazzling stars basis、mature packaging and design、global development strategy and innovative performance thinking.The paper also analyses the cultural connotations of NBA All Star Games,including that NBA All Star Games is the historical drive of the development of NBA and points out that the NBA All Star Games is the embodiment of American Hollywood entertainment spirit,the American commercial culture and the American multi-culture and humanistic care of teenagers and the disabled.The paper also points out the shortages of CBA All Star Games,such as excessive copy、the lack of innovation,games only、the lack of entertainments,the insufficient tangible and intangible services of venues,the troubled operations of the organizers.The paper proposes some suggestions to the CBA All Star Games.

  14. 2011—2012赛季CBA总决赛北京队与广东队技术指标统计分析%Statistical analysis of 2011-2012 season CBA finals between Beijing and Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾远生

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料、录像观察、数理统计等研究方法,对2011—2012赛季CBA总决赛北京队与广东队5场比赛进行统计研究,并对双方技术指标数据进行分析比较,总结交战双方各技术指标的特点,从中发现他们的优势及不足,期望可以给球队建设和参赛战绩以有益参考。%With literature, video observation, mathematical statistics and other research methods, 5 matches of the 2011 -2012 season CBA finals between Beijing and Guangdong teams were used for statistical research on both sides, and the technical data were analyzed. It summarized both sides of each technical index of characteristics, found their advantages and disadvantages to give the team construction and team record for reference.

  15. 2014-2015赛季CBA总决赛北京队和辽宁队技术分析%CBA 2014-2015 Season Finals Beijing and Liaoning Technical Indicators Statistical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥龙

    2015-01-01

    通过2014-2015赛季CBA总决赛北京队和辽宁队两队全部六场比赛的数据技术统计对比与研究,结果表明:北京队在得失分、命中率、助攻等技术数据统计中占优势,辽宁队在篮板球、场均出手次数等方面有优势;北京队在外援引进上更合理,外援和球队的融合性更好;北京队本土球员总决赛中表现更为突出,国内球员的发挥直接影响着比赛的结果。%By comparison of data and research of CBA2014-2014 NBA Finals Beijing and Liaoning team two teams all six games of technical statistical, it shows that: the Beijing team dominated the pros and cons of points, shooting, assists and other technical data statistics, the Liaoning team rebounds, averaging shots and so have the advantage; Beijing team in the introduction of foreign aid is more reasonable, foreign aid and the team is of better integration; Beijing team of local players in the finals was more prominent and domestic players play a key role in direct impact outcome of the game.

  16. Analysis of technical statistics 2013—2014 season CBA semifinals Beijing jinyu and Guangdong dongguan%2013—2014赛季CBA半决赛北京金隅与广东东莞的技术统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施冰兵

    2015-01-01

    以2013—2014赛季CBA半决赛北京金隅与广东东莞的5场比赛作为研究对象,采用文献资料、录像观察、数理统计以及对比分析等科研方法,对半决赛中北京金隅和广东东莞的技术统计数据进行对比与分析,为今后国家队的选材与训练提供参考.%Take the 2013—2014 season CBA semifinals Beijing jinyu and Guangdong dongguan five games as the research object.Compare and analyse the technical statistics of the semifinals Beijing jinyu and Guangdong dongguan by using of literature data,video observation,mathematical statistics,comparative analysis and other research methods,provide a reference for future national team selection and training.

  17. A Novel Method for Shelf Life Detection of Processed Cheese Using Cascade Single and Multi Layer Artificial Neural Network Computing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goyal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the potential of Cascade Backpropagation algorithm based ANN models in detecting the shelf life of processed cheese stored at 30o C. Processed cheese is a dairy product made from ripened Cheddar cheese and sometimes a part of ripened cheese is replaced by fresh cheese; plus emulsifiers, extra salt, spices and food colorings. The cascade backpropagation algorithm (CBA is the basis of a conceptual design for accelerating learning in ANNs. In this research input parameters were texture, aroma and flavour, moisture, free fatty acids.Sensory score was taken as output parameter. Bayesian regularization algorithm was used for training the network. Neurons in each hidden layers varied from 1 to 50. The network was trained with 200 epochs with single and multiple hidden layers. Transfer function for hidden layers was tangent sigmoid and pure linear was output function. Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, Coefficient of Determination and Nash - Sutcliffo Coefficient performance measures were used to test the prediction potential of the developed CBA model. CBA model detected 29.13 daysshelf life which is quite close to experimentally obtained shelf life of 30 days suggesting that the product is acceptable.

  18. Successive Administration of Streptococcus Type 5 Group A Antigens and S. typhimurium Antigenic Complex Corrects Elevation of Serum Cytokine Concentration and Number of Bone Marrow Stromal Pluripotent Cells in CBA Mice Induced by Each Antigen Separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Danilova, T A; Grabko, V I; Nesterenko, V G

    2015-12-01

    Administration of bacterial antigens to CBA mice induced an increase in serum concentration of virtually all cytokines with a peak in 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens and in 7 h after administration of streptococcus antigens. In 20 h, cytokine concentrations returned to the control level or were slightly below it. In 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, we observed a significant decrease in serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, GM-CSF, IL-12, and TNF-α, in comparison with injection S. typhimurium antigens alone and IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF, and TNF-α in comparison with injection of streptococcus antigens alone; the concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ, in contrast, increased by 1.5 times in this case. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens, the number of multipotential stromal cells (MSC) in the bone marrow and their cloning efficiency (ECF-MSC) increased by 4.8 and 4.4 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, while after administration of streptococcus antigens by 2.6 and 2.4 times, respectively. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, these parameters increased by 3.2 and 2.9 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, i.e. the observed increase in the level of MSC count and ECF-MSC is more consistent with the response of the stromal tissue to streptococcus antigens. Thus, successive administration of two bacterial antigens corrected both serum cytokine profiles and MSC response to administration of each antigen separately, which indicates changeability of the stromal tissue in response to changes in the immune response.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Fe3O4/P(St-CBA) Core-shell Magnetic Composite Microspheres%Fe3O4/P(St-CBA)核壳磁性复合微球的制备及性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱广亮; 邱广明; 胡玲; 柯云玲

    2001-01-01

    运用分散聚合法制备出Fe3O4/P(St-CBA)核壳磁性复合微球。该微球粒径为0.075~0.700 μm、w(Fe3O4)=0.05%~0. 90%,呈规整球型,表面光滑,在0.05 T磁场中的磁响应性为3.0 cm/min。制备微球的最佳条件为:w(磁流体)=0.5%~3.0%、w(马来酸酐)=0.0%~2.0%、w(无水乙醇)=30.0%~70.0%。%Fe3O4/P(St-CBA)core-shell composite microspheres,having diameters of 0.075-0.700 μm,containing 0.05%-0.90% magnetite,surface carboxyl groups,and anhydride groups in magnetic composite microspheres,were synthesized by dispersion polymerization of styrene(St) and cis-butenedioic anhydride(CBA) with magnetic fluid dispersing in alcohol/water.In present study,the amount of magnetite(0.05%-0.90%) in magnetic composite microspheres was determined by atomic absorbing spectrum.Size and magnetite content of composite microspheres were highly dependent on the amounts of magnetic fluid,cis-butenedioic anhydride(CBA) and alcohol.Under the optimum conditions,the amount of magnetic fluid,CBA and alcohol were 0.5%-3.0% ,0.0%-2.0% and 30.0%-70.0% respectively.

  20. CBA裁判“主场哨”问题的诊断、防范与救治%Diagnosis,Prevention and Treatment of“Home Court Whistles”in CBA Officiating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚健

    2015-01-01

    为保证CBA裁判公信力,提高比赛和服务球迷、媒体和赞助商质量,促进联赛健康有序发展,深入落实“推进体育产业发展国家战略”中打造一批高水平优质赛事的战略部署,采用文献资料调研、录像观察、专家访谈等对CBA裁判“主场哨”问题进行研究,研究结果:1)“主场哨”归因诊断:主场观众威胁性言行、中国特有人情世故、专属裁判管理部门缺位、裁判多“兼职”身份;2)“主场哨”预防策略:建立裁判评价体系、推进裁判职业化改革、发展壮大国际级裁判队伍、关键场次引入高水平外籍裁判、多种手段引导球迷文明观赛、升级录像调取和回放技术;3)“主场哨”救治措施:增加录像回放申请使用范围、允许少部分技术误判;裁判通过媒体解释判罚依据、对“黑哨”严格司法介入。%The present study looks at“home court whistles”in CBA officiating. 1)Diagnosis:“home court whistles”are mainly caused by pressure from the spectators,guanxi( relationships) ,the lack of a special department in charge of referees,and the part-time identity of the majority of referees;2 ) Prevention:setting up the evaluation system for referees,promoting the professionalization of referees,training more international-level referees,introducing high-lev-el foreign referees in key matches,improving the spectators’ behavior,and upgrading video playback technology;3) Treatment:increasing the use of video playback technology,tolerating refereeing mistakes,referees explaining their calls through media,and requiring judicial involvement in“black whistles”.

  1. Theoretical and experimental study of foaming process with chain extended recycled PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental study of a thermoplastic polymer foaming process is presented. Industrial scraps of PET were used for the production of foamed sheets. The process was performed by making use of a chemical blowing agent (CBA in the extrusion process. Due to the low intrinsic viscosity of the recycled PET, a chain extender was also used in order to increase the molecular weight of the polymer matrix. Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA and Hydrocerol CT 534 were chosen as chain extender and CBA, respectively. The reactive extrusion and foaming were performed in a two step process. Rheological characterization was carried out on PET samples previously treated with PMDA, as well as the morphological study was performed to define the cellular structure of the foams produced. Moreover, in order to predict the morphology of the foam, a non isothermal model was developed by taking into account both mass transfer phenomenon and viscous forces effect. Model results were compared with experimental data obtained analyzing the foamed samples. The model was validated in relation to working conditions, chemical blowing agent percentage and initial rheological properties of recycled polymer. A pretty good agreement between experimental and calculated data was achieved.

  2. Comparative Analysis on CBA Teams Offense and Defense Strength in 2013-2014 Season%2013-2014赛季CBA联赛各参赛球队攻防竞技实力的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建华; 王建刚

    2015-01-01

    运用秩和比综合评价法与录像观察等方法,对2013—2014赛季中国男子职业篮球联赛(CBA )各参赛球队的竞技攻防实力给予综合等级评价分析,并将4强球队的攻防技术指标进行比较分析。研究结果表明,在进攻端,18支球队的进攻 RSR值中,广东东莞队、浙江广厦队、福建队、山西队4支球队处于B级水平;在防守端,浙江队的防守 RS R值最高为0.71,属于B级水平,广东队、八一队、新疆队、广东佛山队、山东青岛队、辽宁队6支球队防守RSR值分别为0.64、0.64、0.62、0.62、0.62、0.60,同样属于B级水平;在攻防端,四川队的攻防 RSR值最高,为0.83,属于 A级水平,但是与球队实际排名不大相符,浙江广厦队与上海队攻防RSR值分别为0.61与0.60,这两支球队属于B级水平的球队,其相关系数 r=0.476( P<0.05),两者之间具有显著性差异,说明球队在攻防端表现出的实力水平高。本赛季4强球队在进攻端,广东东莞队的进攻实力较为突出,除了场均得分数高之外,其余各项指标与其3支球队之间存在显著性差异;在防守端,北京队的防守能力较为突出,4强球队在各项防守指标上都存在显著性差异。%By using the method of RSR ,comprehensive evaluation and video observation ,this paper makes a comprehensive evaluation for each participating team ’ s offensive and defensive strength in 2013—2014 season Chinese Basketball Association (CBA ) ,as well as top four teams’ offensive and defensive technical indicators .The result shows that in the offensive ,RSR value of 18 offensive teams can be divided into four levels ,Dongguan ,Guangsha ,Fujian , Shanxi teams in B grade level ;in the defensive ,the Zhejiang team 's defense RSR the highest value was 0 .71 ,which belongs to B grade level ,Guangdong ,Xinjiang ,Foshan ,Qingdao ,Lia-oning team defense RSR

  3. Catalyst activity maintenance study for the liquid phase dimethyl ether process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, X.D.; Toseland, B.A.; Underwood, R.P. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The co-production of dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol from syngas is a process of considerable commercial attractiveness. DME coproduction can double the productivity of a LPMEOH process when using coal-derived syngas. This in itself may offer chemical producers and power companies increased flexibility and more profitable operation. DME is also known as a clean burning liquid fuel; Amoco and Haldor-Topsoe have recently announced the use of DME as an alternative diesel fuel. Moreover, DME can be an interesting intermediate in the production of chemicals such as olefins and vinyl acetate. The current APCl liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) process utilizes a physical mixture of a commercial methanol synthesis catalyst and a dehydration catalyst (e.g., {gamma}-alumina). While this arrangement provides a synergy that results in much higher syngas conversion per pass compared to the methanol-only process, the stability of the catalyst system suffers. The present project is aimed at reducing catalyst deactivation both by understanding the cause(s) of catalyst deactivation and by developing modified catalyst systems. This paper describes the current understanding of the deactivation mechanism.

  4. Preparation for commercial demonstration of biomass-to-ethanol conversion technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this program was to complete the development of a commercially viable process to produce fuel ethanol from renewable cellulosic biomass. The program focused on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation technologies where Amoco has a unique proprietary position. Assured access to low-cost feedstock is a cornerstone of attractive economics for cellulose to ethanol conversion in the 1990s. Most of Amoco`s efforts in converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol before 1994 focused on using paper from municipal solid waste as the feed. However, while many municipalities and MSW haulers expressed interest in Amoco`s technology, none were willing to commit funding to process development. In May, 1994 several large agricultural products companies showed interest in Amoco`s technology, particularly for application to corn fiber. Amoco`s initial work with corn fiber was encouraging. The project work plan was designed to provide sufficient data on corn fiber conversion to convince a major agriculture products company to participate in the construction of a commercial demonstration facility.

  5. CBA赛事中球迷参与度、球队认同感及广告态度对赞助效益的影响——基于江、浙、沪现场观众的实证研究%The Fan Involvement, Team Identity and Advertisement Attitude on the Impact of Sponsorship Benefits in CBA --An Empirical Research Based on the On-field Fans of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁志强; 张军

    2012-01-01

    通过对球迷参与度、球队认同感、广告态度和赞助效益等文献资料分析的基础上,利用CBA赛事中对现场观众球迷调查所获得数据,运用SPSS16.0和AMOS16.0软件对数据进行处理,检验了球迷参与度、球队认同感、广告态度对赞助效益的影响路径。实证研究的结果显示,球迷参与度、球队认同感和广告态度都会对赞助效益产生正向显著的影响,此外,球迷参与度和球队认同感会通过广告态度来正向显著地影响赞助效益。即现场球迷对赞助事件的参与度或对支持球队的认同感愈高,对赞助广告的态度也会会愈正面,进而放太赞助效益。%Based on the literature analysis on the documents about fan involvement, team identity, advertisement atti- tude and sponsorship benefit and the data from on-field CBA fans investigation , the paper used SPSS16.0 & AMO616.0 software for data processing to explore the influencing path of fan involvement, team identity and advertise- ment attitude on the sponsorship benefit. The empirical research indicates that the sponsorstip benefit is significantly greater for those most highly involvmaent, identity and attitude in an activity; Moreover, fan involvmaent and team i- dentity can indirectly affect sponsorship benefit through imervening variable (advertisement attimde). That is to say, more involvement in the sponsored events or higher reception on their supporting team, more positive attitude on the sponsots' advertismaent will they have and therefore the sponsor effect will be tmgnified.

  6. Technical Analysis of Basketball Skills Between Chinese Domestic Guards and Foreign Aids——A Case Study of CBA 2010-2011 Season%国内后卫与外援后卫技术指标比较分析——以2010~2011 CBA联赛为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥军; 贾美凤

    2012-01-01

    By means of on-the-spot observation as well as video replay,a logic analysis is made of the CBA statistics(published by the official CBA website) of the 2011-12 season to make a comparison between domestic guards and their foreign peers in skills associated with their position.The result shows that,the domestic players,compared with their foreign peers of approximate weight and height,are found to have a rather big gap in the weight/height index as well as in age.Furthermore,they generally played fewer games,had less time on the court,and are lacking in abilities of scoring and drawing fouls.%通过现场观摩和录像观察等研究方法,结合2010-2011年CBA联赛官方网站公布的数据并进行逻辑分析,对CBA联赛常规赛阶段国内后卫与外援后卫各项技术指标进行比较,反映出国内后卫与外援后卫身高、体重相当,年龄较小,体重/身高指数存在差距;参赛场数与上场时间均少于外援后卫;国内后卫造犯规次数、得分能力均不及外援后卫,得分手段较为单一.

  7. 对2010-2011赛季CBA总决赛外援和本土球员比赛情况的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Outside Help and Local Players Competition in CBA Finals in 2010-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑义

    2012-01-01

    本文运用文献法、视频法和统计法对2010-2011赛季CBA总决赛广东队与新疆队的6场比赛进行分析,得出两队外援的竞技状态整体好于本土球员;球队过分的依赖外援,他们是球队的战术核心,外援的竞技状态直接决定着球队的成绩;本土球员能担当主力的人太少等。%This paper uses literature, video and statistical laws in six games in the 2010-2011 CBA Finals, analyzed the six gemes between Guangdong and Xinjiang team, obtained the competitive state of the two teams of outside help are better than the local players; team overly dependent on outside help, they are the core of the team's tactics, the competitive state of the outside help directly determines the team's record; too few people of local players can play the main.

  8. Aspen Process Flowsheet Simulation Model of a Battelle Biomass-Based Gasification, Fischer-Tropsch Liquefaction and Combined-Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-10-30

    This study was done to support the research and development program of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels using current state-of-the-art technology. The Mitretek study investigated the use of two biomass gasifiers; the RENUGAS gasifier being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology, and the indirectly heated gasifier being developed by Battelle Columbus. The Battelle Memorial Institute of Columbus, Ohio indirectly heated biomass gasifier was selected for this model development because the syngas produced by it is better suited for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with an iron-based catalyst for which a large amount of experimental data are available. Bechtel with Amoco as a subcontractor developed a conceptual baseline design and several alternative designs for indirect coal liquefaction facilities. In addition, ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation models were developed for each of designs. These models were used to perform several parametric studies to investigate various alternatives for improving the economics of indirect coal liquefaction.

  9. Analysis on Causes of Beijing Team Winning in CBA Finals in 2011-2012 Season%2011-2012赛季CBA总决赛北京队夺冠的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开银; 谢茜

    2012-01-01

    通过对北京队与广东队在赛前实力和总决赛五场比赛的分析,结果发现北京队整体实力应低于广东队,但是从比赛的过程和赛后的技术统计来看,北京队的技术统计几乎全面占优,球队表现出敢打敢拼的精神面貌,特别是核心球员的稳定发挥,成为其夺冠的主要因素.%Analysis of Beijing team and Guangdong team in strength before competition and five finals shows that Beijing overall strength is below that of Guangdong,but process of competition and technology statistics show that Beijing team takes advantage over Guangdong in technology statistics.Beijing struggling to win with the core players stable performance helps to take the first place.

  10. A CBA model of a hydro project in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Risako; Hope, C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Judge Inst. of Management

    2004-07-01

    This study demonstrates an empirical application of a cost benefit analysis for hydro projects, which includes social and environmental as well as economic aspects. The model treats uncertain inputs by specifying them as probability distributions. A proposed hydro project in Sri Lanka is used as a case study. The study uses time variable discount rates related to economic growth and investigates the sensitivity of the net present value to the choice of a discount rate. (author)

  11. 我国优秀篮球中锋运动员唐正东背身持球进攻技术分析研究——以2010-2011赛季CBA江苏队比赛为例%The analysis on China best basketball center Tang Zhengdong's turning around and attacking the ball technique——To 2010-2011 season CBA competition in Jiangsu example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振翠

    2011-01-01

    以2010-2011赛季CBA江苏队唐正东参与的32场比赛为研究对象,对其不同区域的背身持球进攻瞬间脚步落位情况与其转身方向和进攻方式之间的关系进行研究与分析,结果发现:不同区域其进攻脚步落位情况的选择存在较大差异,同一区域、不同的落位形式与特定的转身方向存在显著联系,不同区域进攻方式的选择各有不同。%With 2010-2011 CBA competition which Jiangsu's Tang Zhengdong in 32 games as the research object,to research and analysis the moment of turn around and attack the ball in different regions that between his settled down of the pace and turn direction and attack mode,the results show that,there are quite differences on his offensive settled down of the pace in different regions,there is significant link in the sane region,different of settled down and Specific turn direction,there are varies on choose the attack mode in different region.

  12. Planning for high performance project teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both industry-wide research and corporate benchmarking studies confirm the significant savings in cost and time that result from early planning of a project. Amoco's Team Planning Workshop combines long-term strategic project planning and short-term tactical planning with team building to provide the basis for high performing project teams, better project planning, and effective implementation of the Amoco Common Process for managing projects

  13. Characterization of natural organic matter treated by iron oxide nanoparticle incorporated ceramic membrane-ozonation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hosik; Kim, Yohan; An, Byungryul; Choi, Heechul

    2012-11-15

    In this study, changes in the physical and structural properties of natural organic matter (NOM) were observed during hybrid ceramic membrane processes that combined ozonation with ultrafiltration ceramic membrane (CM) or with a reactive ceramic membrane (RM), namely, an iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) incorporated-CM. NOM from feed water and NOM from permeate treated with hybrid ceramic membrane processes were analyzed by employing several NOM characterization techniques. Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and fractionation analyses showed that the hybrid ceramic membrane process effectively removed and transformed relatively high contents of aromatic, high molecular weight and hydrophobic NOM fractions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 3-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that this process caused a significant decrease of the aromaticity of humic-like structures and an increase in electron withdrawing groups. The highest removal efficiency (46%) of hydroxyl radical probe compound (i.e., para-Chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)) in RM-ozonation process compared with that in CM without ozonation process (8%) revealed the hydroxyl radical formation by the surface-catalyzed reaction between ozone and IONs on the surface of RM. In addition, experimental results on flux decline showed that fouling of RM-ozonation process (15%) was reduced compared with that of CM without ozonation process (30%). These results indicated that the RM-ozonation process enhanced the destruction of NOM and reduced the fouling by generating hydroxyl radicals from the catalytic ozonation in the RM-ozonation process. PMID:22944203

  14. Out with the Old and in with the New--Is Backward Inhibition a Domain-Specific Process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Foti

    Full Text Available Effective task switching is supported by the inhibition of the just executed task, so that potential interference from previously executed tasks is adaptively counteracted. This inhibitory mechanism, named Backward Inhibition (BI, has been inferred from the finding that switching back to a recently executed task (A-B-A task sequence is harder than switching back to a less recently executed task (C-B-A task sequence. Despite the fact that BI effects do impact performance on everyday life activities, up to now it is still not clear whether the BI represents an amodal and material-independent process or whether it interacts with the task material. To address this issue, a group of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS characterized by specific difficulties in maintaining and processing visuo-spatial, but not verbal, information, and a mental age- and gender-matched group of typically developing (TD children were subjected to three task-switching experiments requiring verbal or visuo-spatial material to be processed. Results showed that individuals with WS exhibited a normal BI effect during verbal task-switching, but a clear deficit during visuo-spatial task-switching. Overall, our findings demonstrating that the BI is a material-specific process have important implications for theoretical models of cognitive control and its architecture.

  15. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  16. Photodegradation and toxicity changes of antibiotics in UV and UV/H2O2 process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photodegradation of three antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DTC), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in UV and UV/H2O2 process was investigated with a low-pressure UV lamp system. Experiments were performed in buffered ultrapure water (UW), local surface water (SW), and treated water from local municipal drinking water treatment plant (DW) and wastewater treatment plant (WW). The efficiency of UV/H2O2 process was affected by water quality. For all of the three selected antibiotics, the fastest degradation was observed in DW, and the slowest degradation occurred in WW. This phenomenon can be explained by ROH,UV, defined as the experimentally determined ·OH radical exposure per UV fluence. The ROH,UV values represent the background ·OH radical scavenging in water matrix, obtained by the degradation of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), a probe compound. In natural water, the indirect degradation of CIP did not significantly increase with the addition of H2O2 due to its effective degradation by UV direct photolysis. Moreover, the formation of several photoproducts and oxidation products of antibiotics in UV/H2O2 process was identified using GC-MS. Toxicity assessed by Vibrio fischer (V. fischer), was increased in UV photolysis, for the photoproducts still preserving the characteristic structure of the parent compounds. While in UV/H2O2 process, toxicity increased first, and then decreased; nontoxic products were formed by the oxidation of ·OH radical. In this process, detoxification was much easier than mineralization for the tested antibiotics, and the optimal time for the degradation of pollutants in UV/H2O2 process would be determined by parent compound degradation and toxicity changes.

  17. Primary Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Carre, P.; Kamm, B.; Schoenicke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Primary processing of oil-containing material involves pre-treatment processes, oil recovery processes and the extraction and valorisation of valuable compounds from waste streams. Pre-treatment processes, e.g. thermal, enzymatic, electrical and radio frequency, have an important effect on the oil r

  18. Economic valuation through cost-benefit analysis--possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansjürgens, Bernd

    2004-12-15

    The economic approach used to evaluate effects on human health and the environment centres around cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Thus, for most economists, economic valuation and CBA are one and the same. However, the question of the possibilities and limitations of cost-benefit analysis is one of the most controversial aspects of environmental research. In this paper, the possibilities and limitations of CBA are analysed. This is done not only by explaining the central elements of CBA, but also by commenting on criticism of it. What becomes clear is that CBA is not only a mere mechanism of monetarisation, but a heuristic model for the whole process of valuation. It can serve as a guideline for collecting the necessary data in a systematic way. The limits of CBA can be mainly seen in the non-substitutability of essential goods, irreversibility, long-term effects and inter-generational fairness.

  19. Elektrokemiske Processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals.......Electrochemical processes in: Power sources, Electrosynthesis, Corrosion.Pourbaix-diagrams.Decontamination of industrial waste water for heavy metals....

  20. Anaerobic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Ju, Mei-Ting; Li, Wei-Zun; Liu, Le; Wang, Yan-Nan; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on the focus of Anaerobic Process. It is divided into the following sections. Pretreatment Organic waste Multiple-stage co-digestion Process Methodology and Technology. PMID:27620085

  1. Photodegradation and toxicity changes of antibiotics in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu Chun, E-mail: huchun@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Hu Xuexiang; Wei Dongbin; Chen Yong; Qu Jiuhui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2011-01-30

    The photodegradation of three antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DTC), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in UV and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was investigated with a low-pressure UV lamp system. Experiments were performed in buffered ultrapure water (UW), local surface water (SW), and treated water from local municipal drinking water treatment plant (DW) and wastewater treatment plant (WW). The efficiency of UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was affected by water quality. For all of the three selected antibiotics, the fastest degradation was observed in DW, and the slowest degradation occurred in WW. This phenomenon can be explained by R{sub OH,UV}, defined as the experimentally determined {center_dot}OH radical exposure per UV fluence. The R{sub OH,UV} values represent the background {center_dot}OH radical scavenging in water matrix, obtained by the degradation of para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), a probe compound. In natural water, the indirect degradation of CIP did not significantly increase with the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} due to its effective degradation by UV direct photolysis. Moreover, the formation of several photoproducts and oxidation products of antibiotics in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was identified using GC-MS. Toxicity assessed by Vibrio fischer (V. fischer), was increased in UV photolysis, for the photoproducts still preserving the characteristic structure of the parent compounds. While in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process, toxicity increased first, and then decreased; nontoxic products were formed by the oxidation of {center_dot}OH radical. In this process, detoxification was much easier than mineralization for the tested antibiotics, and the optimal time for the degradation of pollutants in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process would be determined by parent compound degradation and toxicity changes.

  2. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  3. Data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing discusses the principles, practices, and associated tools in data processing. The book is comprised of 17 chapters that are organized into three parts. The first part covers the characteristics, systems, and methods of data processing. Part 2 deals with the data processing practice; this part discusses the data input, output, and storage. The last part discusses topics related to systems and software in data processing, which include checks and controls, computer language and programs, and program elements and structures. The text will be useful to practitioners of computer-rel

  4. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  5. Data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the Data Processing laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory research fields are: the semantics, the tests and the semantic analysis of the codes, the formal calculus, the software applications, the algorithms, the neuron networks and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). The investigations concerning the polynomial rings are performed by means of the standard basis approach. Among the research topics, the Pascal codes, the parallel processing, the combinatorial, statistical and asymptotic properties of the fundamental data processing tools, the signal processing and the pattern recognition. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are also included

  6. Kreative processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoch, Odilo

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the way of understanding processes and the development of visionary goals - linked to the daily business in archtiectural practise.......Explaining the way of understanding processes and the development of visionary goals - linked to the daily business in archtiectural practise....

  7. Peat Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  8. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  9. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through intervie...

  10. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  11. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...

  12. Grants Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  13. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Sadler, Mary E; Greiner, Anthony D; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Min, Kyungnan; Zhang, Kai; Arabi, Sara; Burbano, Marie S; Kent, Fraser; Shoaf, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2014, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:26420079

  14. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Burbano, Marie S; Sadler, Mary E; Diamond, Jason; Baker, Simon; Greiner, Anthony D; Arabi, Sara; Wong, Joseph; Doody, Alexandra; Padhye, Lokesh P; Sears, Keith; Kistenmacher, Peter; Kent, Fraser; Tootchi, Leila; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Saddredini, Sara; Schilling, Bill; Min, Kyungnan; McCandless, Robert; Danker, Bryce; Gamage, Neranga P; Wang, Sunny; Aerts, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2015, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:27620084

  15. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...

  16. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    microbial and chemical processes and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied for the design, operation, and the maintenance of wastewater collection systems. The authors add chemical and microbial dimensions to the design and management of sewer networks with an overall aim of improved sustainability......Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... by hydrogen sulfide and other volatile organic compounds, as well as other potential health issues, have caused environmental concerns to rise. Reflecting the most current developments, Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, offers the reader updated...

  17. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    Processing proteases are proteases which proteolytically activate proteins and peptides into their biologically active form. Processing proteases play an important role in biotechnology as tools in protein fusion technology. Fusion strategies where helper proteins or peptide tags are fused...... to the protein of interest are an elaborate method to optimize expression or purification systems. It is however critical that fusion proteins can be removed and processing proteases can facilitate this in a highly specific manner. The commonly used proteases all have substrate specificities to the N...... of few known proteases to have substrate specificity for the C-terminal side of the scissile bond. LysN exhibits specificity for lysine, and has primarily been used to complement trypsin in to proteomic studies. A working hypothesis during this study was the potential of LysN as a processing protease...

  18. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  19. Show me the money: cost-benefit analysis in the work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Charles; Dunn, Mary Lee

    2005-01-01

    During the last several decades, Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has become a widely used technique in public policy-making. This review examines CBA from perspectives of both advocates and critics; it looks at its theory and practice, its purported advantages and shortcomings in application. It also proposes several ways in which the process can be made more accountable.

  20. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  1. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform......The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...

  2. BENTONITE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Kutlić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  3. Causticizing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engdal, H.

    1987-03-10

    This invention seeks to provide a method in which the soda lye obtained as a result of cellulose cooking process and unslaked lime are used for producing white liquor which can be re-used in the cooking process. In this method, the heat released by the slaking of lime with soda lye is recovered by a high pressure slaking process wherein the heat is transferred, either to the steam separating from the lye, which steam is then led to the desired application, or to some other medium to be heated. The invention is characterized in that the soda lye to be causticized is divided into two parts, one of which is used for the slaking of lime by adding to it all the unslaked lime needed for the causticizing process, and that, following slaking, the two volumes are brought together for the actual causticizing reaction involving the total amount of lye needed. This invention provides the advantage that the amount of lye needed is smaller, and so the temperature can be increased.

  4. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, econom...

  5. Boolean process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵应骅; 李忠诚; 赵著行

    1997-01-01

    Boolean algebra successfully describes the logical behavior of a digital circuit, and has been widely used in electronic circuit design and test With the development of high speed VLSIs it is a drawback for Boolean algebra to be unable to describe circuit timing behavior. Therefore a Boolean process is defined as a family of Boolean van ables relevant to the time parameter t. A real-valued sample of a Boolean process is a waveform. Waveform functions can be manipulated formally by using mathematical tools. The distance, difference and limit of a waveform polynomial are defined, and a sufficient and necessary condition of the limit existence is presented. Based on this, the concept of sensitization is redefined precisely to demonstrate the potential and wide application possibility The new definition is very different from the traditional one, and has an impact on determining the sensitizable paths with maximum or minimum length, and false paths, and then designing and testing high performance circuits

  6. Restoration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  7. Ceramic Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  8. Sweet Lake geopressured-geothermal project, Magma Gulf-Technadril/DOE Amoco fee. Volume III. Final report. Annual report, February 1982-March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, C.O. Jr.; O' Brien, F.D.; Rodgers, R.W. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of the testing of Sand 3 (15,245 to 15,280 feet in depth) which occurred from November 1983 to March 1984 and evaluates these new data in comparison to results from the testing of Sand 5 (15,385 to 15,415 feet in depth) which occurred from June 1981 to February 1982. It also describes the reworking of the production and salt water disposal wells preparatory to the Sand 3 testing as well as the plug and abandon procedures requested to terminate the project. The volume contains two parts: Part 1 includes the text and accompanying plates, figures and tables; Part 2 consists of the appendixes including auxiliary reports and tabulations.

  9. FIELD DEPLOYMENT EVALUATION OF THE FREEZE-THAW/EVAPORATION (FTE) PROCESS TO TREAT OIL AND GAS PRODUCED WATERS. Task 45. Final topical report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    wastes are generated by the FTE process. and the U. S. Department of Energy has been conducted since 1992 to develop a commercial FTE purification process for produced waters. Numeric process and economic modeling, as well as the laboratory-scale process simulation that confirmed the technical and economic feasibility of the process, was performed by B. C. Technologies, Ltd., and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) from 1992 to 1995. They then conducted a field evaluation from 1995 to 1997 in New Mexico's San Juan Basin at a conventional evaporation facility operated by Amoco Production Company. The results of this evaluation confirmed that the FTE process has significant commercial economic potential. A new facility was designed in 1998, and its construction is expected to begin in 1999

  10. Lithospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldridge, W. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  11. Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  12. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  13. Welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a process for making a large number of weld beads as separate contours, spaced out from each other, by means of an automatic welding head. Under this invention, after striking the arc in the prescribed manner and positioning the torch on the first contour to be welded and having made the first weld bead, the torch current is reduced to bring about a part fade out of the arc. The torch is then moved to the starting position on a second contour to be welded where a static timed pre-fusion is effected by resumption of the welding current to carry out the second weld bead by following the second welding contour in the same manner and so forth. The invention particularly applies to the welding of tube ends to a tube plate

  14. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  15. Estimating the robustness of composite CBA & MCA assessments by variation of criteria importance order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    This paper discusses the concept of using rank variation concerning the stake-holder prioritising of importance criteria for exploring the sensitivity of criteria weights in multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Thereby the robustness of the MCA-based decision support can be tested. The analysis described...... is based on the fact that when using MCA as a decision-support tool, questions often arise about the weighting (or prioritising) of the included criteria. This part of the MCA is seen as the most subjective part and could give reasons for discussion among the decision makers or stakeholders. Furthermore......, the relative weights can make a large difference in the resulting assessment of alternatives [1]. Therefore it is highly relevant to introduce a procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating the robustness of weights used in additive utility...

  16. Estimating the Robustness of Composite CBA and MCDA Assessments by Variation of Criteria Importance Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses the concept of using rank variation concerning the stakeholder prioritising of importance criteria for exploring the sensitivity of criteria weights in multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Thereby the robustness of the MCA-based decision support can be tested. The analysis...... described is based on the fact that when using MCA as a decision-support tool, questions often arise about the weighting (or prioritising) of the included criteria. This part of the MCA is seen as the most subjective part and could give reasons for discussion among the decision makers or stakeholders....... Furthermore, the relative weights can make a large difference in the resulting assessment of alternatives (Hobbs and Meier 2000). Therefore it is highly relevant to introduce a procedure for estimating the importance of criteria weights. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating the robustness...

  17. Structures of Homologous Composite Transposons Carrying cbaABC Genes from Europe and North America

    OpenAIRE

    Di Gioia, Diana; Peel, Michelle; Fava, Fabio; Wyndham, R. Campbell

    1998-01-01

    IS1071 is a class II transposable element carrying a tnpA gene related to the transposase genes of the Tn3 family. Copies of IS1071 that are conserved with more than 99% nucleotide sequence identity have been found as direct repeats flanking a remarkable variety of catabolic gene sequences worldwide. The sequences of chlorobenzoate catabolic transposons found on pBRC60 (Tn5271) in Niagara Falls, N.Y., and on pCPE3 in Bologna, Italy, show that these transposons were formed from highly homologo...

  18. Characterization of the SpaCBA Pilus Fibers in the Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reunanen, J.; Ossowski, von I.; Hendrickx, A.P.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a human intestinal isolate that has been studied intensively because of its probiotic properties. We have previously shown that L. rhamnosus GG produces proteinaceous pili that earlier had been observed only in Gram-positive pathogens (M. Kankainen et al., Proc. Natl. A

  19. Effects of α-Melanocortin Enantiomers on Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in CBA Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Dražen Vikić-Topić; Biserka Pokrić; Saša Kazazić; Paško Konjevoda; Tomislav Kelava; Nikola Štambuk; Karlo Houra; Petra Turčić; Mirna Bradamante

    2009-01-01

    Proteins and peptides in mammals are based exclusively on L-amino acids. Recent investigations show that D-amino acids exhibit physiological effects in vivo, despite of their very small quantities. We have investigated the hepatoprotective effects of the Land D-enantiomers of α-melanocortin peptide (α-MSH). The results showed that peptideenantiomerism is related to the protective effects of melanocortin peptides in vivo. L-α-MSH exhibited potent hepatoprotective effect in the experimental mod...

  20. Development of Tinnitus in CBA/CaJ Mice Following Sound Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Longenecker, Ryan J.; Galazyuk, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of a sound without an external acoustic source, is a complex perceptual phenomenon affecting the quality of life in 17% of the adult population. Despite its ubiquity and morbidity, the pathophysiology of tinnitus is a work in progress, and there is no generally accepted cure or treatment. Development of a reliable common animal model is crucial for tinnitus research and may advance this field. The goal of this study was to develop a tinnitus mouse model. Tinnitus was ...

  1. Photodegradation of emerging micropollutants using the medium-pressure UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; El Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2013-05-15

    A medium-pressure (MP) ultraviolet (UV) process has been applied to investigate the direct UV photolysis and UV/H2O2 oxidation of selected model micropollutants (naproxen, carbamazepine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, caffeine, 2,4-D, 2,4-DCP, and mecoprop). The quantum yields were found to be between 0.0010 and 0.13 at pH = 7. In the MP UV/H2O2 oxidation, the pseudo first-order rate constants for the selected compounds were found to be dependent on their initial concentrations (at mg/L levels) and on the H2O2 concentration. The UV doses required for 50% and 90% removal at various H2O2 levels varied widely among the compounds tested. Second-order rate constants (ranging from 4.1 × 10(9) to 1.4 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1)) for the reaction between the selected compounds and hydroxyl radicals were determined using a competition-kinetics approach, where para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) was chosen as the reference compound. Further, as an evaluation of electrical energy efficiency, the Figure-of-Merit, Electrical Energy per Order (EEO) was determined for the selected compounds using a batch reactor at 25 and 50 mg/L H2O2 concentrations. The electrical energy (in kWh) required to reduce a pollutant concentration by 90% ranged from 1.3 to 7.1 kWh m(-3). PMID:23517874

  2. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  3. AN ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS : FENTON PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÜRTEKİN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple and cost effective and also reaction occurs in a short time period. Fenton process is applied for many different proposes. In this study, Fenton process was evaluated as an advanced oxidation process in wastewater treatment.

  4. AN ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS : FENTON PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Engin GÜRTEKİN; Nusret ŞEKERDAĞ

    2008-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment is not effective treatment method if raw wastewater contains toxic and refractory organics. Advanced oxidation processes are applied before or after biological treatment for the detoxification and reclamation of this kind of wastewaters. The advanced oxidation processes are based on the formation of powerful hydroxyl radicals. Among advanced oxidation processes Fenton process is one of the most promising methods. Because application of Fenton process is simple ...

  5. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  6. Extensible packet processing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  7. A six step approach for developing computer based assessment in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Mohammed Ahmed; Al-Hayani, Abdulmoneam; Abu-Kamer, Rasha; Almazrooa, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Assessment, which entails the systematic evaluation of student learning, is an integral part of any educational process. Computer-based assessment (CBA) techniques provide a valuable resource to students seeking to evaluate their academic progress through instantaneous, personalized feedback. CBA reduces examination, grading and reviewing workloads and facilitates training. This paper describes a six step approach for developing CBA in higher education and evaluates student perceptions of computer-based summative assessment at the College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University. A set of questionnaires were distributed to 341 third year medical students (161 female and 180 male) immediately after examinations in order to assess the adequacy of the system for the exam program. The respondents expressed high satisfaction with the first Saudi experience of CBA for final examinations. However, about 50% of them preferred the use of a pilot CBA before its formal application; hence, many did not recommend its use for future examinations. Both male and female respondents reported that the range of advantages offered by CBA outweighed any disadvantages. Further studies are required to monitor the extended employment of CBA technology for larger classes and for a variety of subjects at universities. PMID:23581891

  8. Refactoring Process Models in Large Process Repositories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Reichert, M.U.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of process-aware information systems (PAIS), large process model repositories have emerged. Over time respective models have to be re-aligned to the real-world business processes through customization or adaptation. This bears the risk that model redundancies are introdu

  9. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    2010-01-01

    are identified, and where we simulate backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and...

  10. Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik

    , and where one simulates backwards and forwards in order to obtain the thinned process. In the case of a Cox process, a simple independent thinning technique is proposed. In both cases, the thinning results in a Poisson process if and only if the true Papangelou conditional intensity is used, and thus can...

  11. Elimination de solutés organiques polluants d'effluents liquides par plasma non thermique : comparaison des processus mis en jeu à l'interface liquide-plasma dans les procédés Glidarc et DBD

    OpenAIRE

    Djakaou, Iya-Sou

    2012-01-01

    The role of oxidant species created in the gas phase has been investigated in two non-thermal plasma processes applied for the water treatment: Gliding Arc and falling film Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) processes. Three different model organic pollutants have been treated in the two discharge reactors. The obtained results, from easier to more difficult to remove, are as follows: phenol>> Heptanol> pCBA> for the Glidarc reactor and 1-Heptanol >> Phenol> pCBA for DBD falling film reactor....

  12. Process Intensification: A Perspective on Process Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Gani, Rafiqul; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    process options is presented. For each step, different tools and methods will be needed. In this paper, a knowledge base tool storing and retrieving necessary information/data about intensified processes/equipments has been highlighted including metrics for performance evaluation. The application......In recent years, process intensification (PI) has attracted considerable academic interest as a potential means for process improvement, to meet the increasing demands for sustainable production. A variety of intensified operations developed in academia and industry creates a large number...... of options to potentially improve the process but to identify the set of feasible solutions for PI in which the optimal can be found takes considerable resources. Hence, a process synthesis tool to achieve PI would potentially assist in the generation and evaluation of PI options. Currently, several process...

  13. The permanental process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCullagh, Peter; Møller, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second to an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension i called a permanental...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanental process are also studied. Extensions of the fermion process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinantal processes, are discussed....

  14. Modelingof the Biotransformation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Vrsalovic Presecki, A.; Findrik, Z.; Zelic, B.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of biotransformation processes have a large potential in searching for optimal process conditions, development and process design, control, scale-up, identifying of the process cost structure, and comparing process alternatives. Modeling and simulation leads to better understanding and quantification of the investigated process and could lead to significant material and costs savings especially in the early phases of the process development. In this review modeling and...

  15. Food Processing and Allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.; Vissers, Y.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Fleys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, van der Nieke; Wichers, H.J.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed.

    In this review the impact of processing (heat and non

  16. Special parallel processing workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  17. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of disaster risk management in a development context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Daniel; Mechler, Reinhard; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    Limited studies have shown that disaster risk management (DRM) can be cost-efficient in a development context. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is an evaluation tool to analyse economic efficiency. This research introduces quantitative, stochastic CBA frameworks and applies them in case studies of flood and drought risk reduction in India and Pakistan, while also incorporating projected climate change impacts. DRM interventions are shown to be economically efficient, with integrated approaches more cost-effective and robust than singular interventions. The paper highlights that CBA can be a useful tool if certain issues are considered properly, including: complexities in estimating risk; data dependency of results; negative effects of interventions; and distributional aspects. The design and process of CBA must take into account specific objectives, available information, resources, and the perceptions and needs of stakeholders as transparently as possible. Intervention design and uncertainties should be qualified through dialogue, indicating that process is as important as numerical results.

  18. Contracting process innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    Process innovation pertains to making dramatic improvements in performance of enterprise processes. Stemming from total quality management, business process reengineering and other widely-accepted approaches to performance improvement in the business enterprise, process innovation has largely been practiced without a systematic method and required expertise only possessed by a few, highly-talented people. Now, as the result of research in this area, the process of process innovation now has a...

  19. Product Development Process Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The use of Concurrent Engineering and other modern methods of product development and maintenance require that a large number of time-overlapped "processes" be performed by many people. However, successfully describing and optimizing these processes are becoming even more difficult to achieve. The perspective of industrial process theory (the definition of process) and the perspective of process implementation (process transition, accumulation, and inter-operations between processes) are used to survey the method used to build one base model (multi-view) process model.

  20. Integrated Process Capability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; H; T; Huang; M; L; Hung; Y; H; Chen; K; S

    2002-01-01

    Process Capability Analysis (PCA) is a powerful too l to assess the ability of a process for manufacturing product that meets specific ations. The larger process capability index implies the higher process yield, a nd the larger process capability index also indicates the lower process expected loss. Chen et al. (2001) has applied indices C pu, C pl, and C pk for evaluating the process capability for a multi-process product wi th smaller-the-better, larger-the-better, and nominal-the-best spec...

  1. From Process Understanding to Process Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefland, M.

    2010-01-01

    A licensed pharmaceutical process is required to be executed within the validated ranges throughout the lifetime of product manufacturing. Changes to the process usually require the manufacturer to demonstrate that the safety and efficacy of the product remains unchanged. Recent changes in the regul

  2. Business Process Customization using Process Merging Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulanov, Pavel; Lazovik, Alexander; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    One of the important application of service composition techniques lies in the field of business process management. Essentially a business process can be considered as a composition of services, which is usually prepared by domain experts, and many tasks still have to be performed manually. These i

  3. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  4. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  5. The practice of cost benefit analysis in the transport sector: A Mexican perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Soberanis, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Mexico's public investment process is strengthened by an institutional framework that ensures that projects with a high social return are given preference. The Federal Law of Budget and Financial Responsibility establishes as prerequisite for federal investments the obligation to present a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA), and to get the Investment Unit approval. This paper describes the use of CBA for the social and economic evaluation of transport infrastructure in Mexico and is made from the po...

  6. Computer-Based Assessment: Sounds Easy, is it Really?

    OpenAIRE

    Margarida Amaral; Hugo Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing project on the University of Porto (U.PORTO) that aims the association of two didactical tools of information and communication technologies: e-learning and computer-based assessment (CBA). Implementing CBA at an institutional level raises several issues. Supporting staff, if existing, have to address and solve some hard challenges: pedagogical training in new assessment methods, technical problems in the implementation process and organizational problems. These last are p...

  7. Spatial Process Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Kroese, Dirk P.; Botev, Zdravko I.

    2013-01-01

    The generation of random spatial data on a computer is an important tool for understanding the behavior of spatial processes. In this paper we describe how to generate realizations from the main types of spatial processes, including Gaussian and Markov random fields, point processes, spatial Wiener processes, and Levy fields. Concrete MATLAB code is provided.

  8. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  9. Hyperspectral processing in graphical processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Michael E.; Winter, Edwin M.

    2011-06-01

    With the advent of the commercial 3D video card in the mid 1990s, we have seen an order of magnitude performance increase with each generation of new video cards. While these cards were designed primarily for visualization and video games, it became apparent after a short while that they could be used for scientific purposes. These Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) are rapidly being incorporated into data processing tasks usually reserved for general purpose computers. It has been found that many image processing problems scale well to modern GPU systems. We have implemented four popular hyperspectral processing algorithms (N-FINDR, linear unmixing, Principal Components, and the RX anomaly detection algorithm). These algorithms show an across the board speedup of at least a factor of 10, with some special cases showing extreme speedups of a hundred times or more.

  10. Community-based adaptation to climate change: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Jessica; Huq, Saleemul

    2009-06-15

    Over a billion people - the world's poorest and most bulnerable communities – will bear the brunt of climate change. For them, building local capacity to cope is a vital step towards resilience. Community-based adaptation (CBA) is emerging as a key response to this challenge. Tailored to local cultures and conditions, CBA supports and builds on autonomous adaptations to climate variability, such as the traditional baira or floating gardens of Bangladesh, which help small farmers' crops survive climate-driven floods. Above all, CBA is participatory – a process involving both local stakeholders, and development and disaster risk reduction practitioners. As such, it builds on existing cultural norms while addressing local development issues that contribute to climate vulnerability. CBA is now gaining ground in many regions, and is ripe for the reassessment offered here.

  11. Process innovation laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Most organizations today are required not only to operate effective business processes but also to allow for changing business conditions at an increasing rate. Today nearly every business relies on their enterprise information systems (EIS) for process integration and future generations of EIS...... will increasingly be driven by business process models. Consequently business process modelling and improvement is becoming a serious challenge. The aim of this paper is to establish a conceptual framework for business process innovation (BPI) in the supply chain based on advanced EIS. The challenge is thus...... to create a new methodology for developing and exploring process models and applications. The paper outlines the process innovation laboratory as a new approach to BPI. The process innovation laboratory is a comprehensive framework and a collaborative workspace for experimenting with process models...

  12. Digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Euclid

    2004-01-01

    Digital image processing is now commonplace in radiology, nuclear medicine and sonography. This article outlines underlying principles and concepts of digital image processing. After completing this article, readers should be able to: List the limitations of film-based imaging. Identify major components of a digital imaging system. Describe the history and application areas of digital image processing. Discuss image representation and the fundamentals of digital image processing. Outline digital image processing techniques and processing operations used in selected imaging modalities. Explain the basic concepts and visualization tools used in 3-D and virtual reality imaging. Recognize medical imaging informatics as a new area of specialization for radiologic technologists. PMID:15352557

  13. Metallurgical process engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ruiyu [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    ''Metallurgical Process Engineering'' discusses large-scale integrated theory on the level of manufacturing production processes, putting forward concepts for exploring non-equilibrium and irreversible complex system. It emphasizes the dynamic and orderly operation of the steel plant manufacturing process, the major elements of which are the flow, process network and program. The book aims at establishing a quasi-continuous and continuous process system for improving several techno-economic indices, minimizing dissipation and enhancing the market competitiveness and sustainability of steel plants. The book is intended for engineers, researchers and managers in the fields of metallurgical engineering, industrial design, and process engineering. (orig.)

  14. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). When applied for home renovation, the Integrated Renovation Process...

  15. Towards better process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matero, Sanni Elina; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J; Poutiainen, Sami;

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of tablets involves many unit operations that possess multivariate and complex characteristics. The interactions between the material characteristics and process related variation are presently not comprehensively analyzed due to univariate detection methods. As a consequence......, current best practice to control a typical process is to not allow process-related factors to vary i.e. lock the production parameters. The problem related to the lack of sufficient process understanding is still there: the variation within process and material properties is an intrinsic feature...... and cannot be compensated for with constant process parameters. Instead, a more comprehensive approach based on the use of multivariate tools for investigating processes should be applied. In the pharmaceutical field these methods are referred to as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools that aim...

  16. Infrared processing of foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  17. News: Process intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of materials and energy is a major objective to the philosophy of sustainability. Where production processes can be intensified to assist these objectives, significant advances have been developed to assist conservation as well as cost. Process intensification (PI) h...

  18. Dairy processing, Improving quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    This book discusses raw milk composition, production and quality, and reviews developments in processing from hygiene and HACCP systems to automation, high-pressure processing and modified atmosphere packaging.

  19. Flavor changing lepton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flavor changing lepton processes, or in another words the lepton flavor changing processes, are described with emphasis on the updated theoretical motivations and the on-going experimental progress on a new high-intense muon source. (author)

  20. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  1. Modeling Design Process

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEDA, Hideaki; Veerkamp, Paul; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses building a computable design process model, which is a prerequisite for realizing intelligent computer-aided design systems. First, we introduce general design theory, from which a descriptive model of design processes is derived. In this model, the concept of metamodels plays a crucial role in describing the evolutionary nature of design. Second, we show a cognitive design process model obtained by observing design processes using a protocol analysis method. We then di...

  2. Modeling multiphase materials processes

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    ""Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems"" describes the methodology and application of physical and mathematical modeling to multi-phase flow phenomena in materials processing. The book focuses on systems involving gas-liquid interaction, the most prevalent in current metallurgical processes. The performance characteristics of these processes are largely dependent on transport phenomena. This volume covers the inherent characteristics that complicate the modeling of transport phenomena in such systems, including complex multiphase structure, intense turbulence, opacity of

  3. Grind hardening process

    CERN Document Server

    Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the grind-hardening process and the main studies published since it was introduced in 1990s.  The modelling of the various aspects of the process, such as the process forces, temperature profile developed, hardness profiles, residual stresses etc. are described in detail. The book is of interest to the research community working with mathematical modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  4. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  5. Business Process Modeling Notation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Flowers; Charles Edeki

    2013-01-01

    Models as representations of real world entities may appear to the novice to be an unnecessary abstraction. Indeed, in small organizations where there are relatively few processes, there is little need to abstract activities. When it comes to large organizations, with hundreds or thousands of processes, thecreation of models becomes an essential activity. Even if the process itself does not change in the form of new process re-engineering efforts or new applications, there are new employees a...

  6. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  7. Hawkes processes in finance

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Bacry; Iacopo Mastromatteo; Jean-Fran\\c{c}ois Muzy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an overview of the recent academic literature devoted to the applications of Hawkes processes in finance. Hawkes processes constitute a particular class of multivariate point processes that has become very popular in empirical high frequency finance this last decade. After a reminder of the main definitions and properties that characterize Hawkes processes, we review their main empirical applications to address many different problems in high frequency finance. Becaus...

  8. Stochastic Processes in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Madan, Dilip B.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic processes arising in the description of the risk-neutral evolution of equity prices are reviewed. Starting with Brownian motion, I review extensions to Lévy and Sato processes. These processes have independent increments; the former are homogeneous in time, whereas the latter are inhomogeneous. One-dimensional Markov processes such as local volatility and local Lévy are discussed next. Finally, I take up two forms of stochastic volatility that are due to either space scaling or tim...

  9. Mining processes in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. Mans; Reijers, H.A.; Genuchten, van, MJIM Michiel; Wismeijer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Business processes in dentistry are quickly evolving towards "digital dentistry". This means that many steps in the dental process will increasingly deal with computerized information or computerized half products. A complicating factor in the improvement of process performance in dentistry, however, is the large number of independent dental professionals that are involved in the entire process. In order to reap the benefits of digital dentistry, it is essential to obtain an accurate view on ...

  10. Lithography process control

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, Harry J

    1999-01-01

    This text covers lithography process control at several levels, from fundamental through advanced topics. The book is a self-contained tutorial that works both as an introduction to the technology and as a reference for the experienced lithographer. It reviews the foundations of statistical process control as background for advanced topics such as complex processes and feedback. In addition, it presents control methodologies that may be applied to process development pilot lines.

  11. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  12. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  13. Auditory processing models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will pr...

  14. How yogurt is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s Processing column on the theme of “How Is It Processed?” focuses on yogurt. Yogurt is known for its health-promoting properties. This column will provide a brief overview of the history of yogurt and the current market. It will also unveil both traditional and modern yogurt processing t...

  15. Silicon production process evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  16. Characterization of concurrent processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utku, S.; Melosh, R.; Salama, M.

    1985-01-01

    Computer architectures designed for concurrent processing are characterized by the number of processing elements, ensemble speed, random access memory, input/output routes, and modes of operation. The important attributes of processing tasks are then identified, and some processing stratagems are examined. It is shown that the greater the complexity of a given task, the wider the range of possible stratagems which can accomplish the task. For relatively simple tasks, the optimum stratagem can be found by analytical reasoning. For more complex tasks, however, optimum scheduling techniques may have to be employed for the assignment of segments of the task to the available processing elements.

  17. Biomass process handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  18. Data processing made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  19. Evaluation of steelmaking processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

  20. Colloid process engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peukert, Wolfgang; Rehage, Heinz; Schuchmann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.

  1. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  2. Theory of Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, E B

    1960-01-01

    Theory of Markov Processes provides information pertinent to the logical foundations of the theory of Markov random processes. This book discusses the properties of the trajectories of Markov processes and their infinitesimal operators.Organized into six chapters, this book begins with an overview of the necessary concepts and theorems from measure theory. This text then provides a general definition of Markov process and investigates the operations that make possible an inspection of the class of Markov processes corresponding to a given transition function. Other chapters consider the more c

  3. Dynamical laser spike processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, Bhavin J; Tait, Alexander N; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Novel materials and devices in photonics have the potential to revolutionize optical information processing, beyond conventional binary-logic approaches. Laser systems offer a rich repertoire of useful dynamical behaviors, including the excitable dynamics also found in the time-resolved "spiking" of neurons. Spiking reconciles the expressiveness and efficiency of analog processing with the robustness and scalability of digital processing. We demonstrate that graphene-coupled laser systems offer a unified low-level spike optical processing paradigm that goes well beyond previously studied laser dynamics. We show that this platform can simultaneously exhibit logic-level restoration, cascadability and input-output isolation---fundamental challenges in optical information processing. We also implement low-level spike-processing tasks that are critical for higher level processing: temporal pattern detection and stable recurrent memory. We study these properties in the context of a fiber laser system, but the addit...

  4. A comparative study on the youth women's basketball centers in the 3rd CBA and CUBA duel meet%第3届CBA-CUBA青年对抗赛女篮中锋的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 李向军

    2008-01-01

    运用观察、数理统计等方法,对CBA青年队和CUBA大学生联赛女篮中锋的年龄、身高、体重以及得分、投篮、篮板球等方面进行比较研究,结果显示:CBA青年队中锋与CUBA大学生联赛队伍的中锋在年龄与身体条件方面存在着较大差距;各队伍中锋发展空间广阔,但仍需要科学的训练和大赛的锻炼.

  5. Process monitor gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, T. A.; Ausschnitt, C. P.

    2007-03-01

    Despite the increasing use of advanced imaging methods to pattern chip features, process windows continue to shrink with decreasing critical dimensions. Controlling the manufacturing process within these shrinking windows requires monitor structures designed to maximize both sensitivity and robustness. In particular, monitor structures must exhibit a large, measurable response to dose and focus changes over the entire range of the critical features process window. Any process variations present fundamental challenges to the effectiveness of OPC methods, since the shape compensation assumes a repeatable process. One particular process parameter which is under increasing scrutiny is focus blur, e.g. from finite laser bandwidth, which can cause such OPC instability, and thereby damage pattern fidelity. We introduce a new type of test target called the Process Monitor Grating (PMG) which is designed for extreme sensitivity to process variation. The PMG design principle is to use assist features to zero out higher diffraction orders. We show via simulation and experiment that such structures are indeed very sensitive to process variation. In addition, PMG targets have other desirable attributes such as mask manufacturability, robustness to pattern collapse, and compatibility with standard CD metrology methods such as scatterometry. PMG targets are applicable to the accurate determination of dose and focus deviations, and in combination with an isofocal grating target, allow the accurate determination of focus blur. The methods shown in this paper are broadly applicable to the characterization of process deviations using test wafers or to the control of product using kerf structures.

  6. Future Steelmaking Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. R. J. Fruehan

    2004-09-20

    There is an increasing demand for an ironmaking process with lower capital cost, energy consumption and emissions than a blast furnace. It is the hypothesis of the present work that an optimized combination of two reasonable proven technologies will greatly enhance the overall process. An example is a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) linked to a smelter (e.g., AISI, HIsmelt). The objective of this research is to select promising process combinations, develop energy, materials balance and productivity models for the individual processes, conduct a limited amount of basic research on the processes and evaluate the process combinations. Three process combinations were selected with input from the industrial partners. The energy-materials and productivity models for the RHF, smelter, submerged arc furnace and CIRCOFER were developed. Since utilization of volatiles in coal is critical for energy and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, basic research on this topic was also conducted. The process models developed are a major product developed in this research. These models can be used for process evaluation by the industry. The process combinations of an RHF-Smelter and a simplified CIRCOFER-Smelter appear to be promising. Energy consumption is reduced and productivity increased. Work on this project is continuing using funds from other sources.

  7. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) for analysis of DNA aptamer:β-conglutin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauset Rubio, Miriam; Svobodová, Markéta; Mairal, Teresa; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2016-03-15

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is a label-free detection method that offers a suitable and reliable platform for the real time monitoring of biomolecular interactions. In the work reported here, SPRi was used to evaluate the affinity and specificity of three different aptamers selected against the Lup an 1 anaphylactic allergen β-conglutin (β-conglutin binding aptamers I and II (β-CBA I and β-CBA II)), as well as an 11-mer truncated version of β-CBA I. Thiol modified aptamers were immobilised on a gold substrate through a self-assembling process and the use of different blocking strategies to prevent non-specific binding were evaluated. Dissociation constants of 20, 13 and 1 nM were determined for β-CBA I, β-CBA II and the 11-mer truncated aptamer, respectively. The three aptamers were then studied in various different sandwich formats and the β-CBA I/11-mer and β-CBA II were observed to bind to different aptatopes on the target protein. Each of the aptamers were then used either as surface immobilised aptamer, or as reporter aptamer, and added with the protein target β-conglutin in either a sequential of simultaneous manner, and the changes in SPR signal monitored. The preferred approach for formation of a sandwich aptacomplex was with immobilised β-CBA II, followed by addition of pre-incubated β-conglutin and 11-mer, whilst addition of the 11-mer following addition of the β-conglutin, resulted in displacement of the bound target. The ability to provide parallel qualitative and quantitative detection establishes SPRi as a powerful tool for the study of immobilised aptamer-target interactions. PMID:26515644

  8. Badge Office Process Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dinehart, Timothy Grant [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Robert Young [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  9. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  10. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open-map bisi......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation.......The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open...

  11. Multimodal Processes Rescheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Banaszak, Zbigniew A.; Nielsen, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe-cuted in the......Cyclic scheduling problems concerning multimodal processes are usually observed in FMSs producing multi-type parts where the Automated Guided Vehicles System (AGVS) plays a role of a material handling system. Schedulability analysis of concurrently flowing cyclic processes (SCCP) exe......-cuted in these kinds of systems can be considered using a declarative modeling framework. Proposed representation provides a unified way for performance evaluation of local cyclic as well as supported by them multimodal processes. The main question regards of reachability of a SCCP cyclic behavior. In this context......, the sufficient conditions guarantee the reachability of both local and multimodal processes cyclic steady state spaces are discussed....

  12. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  13. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  14. Jointly Poisson processes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, D H

    2009-01-01

    What constitutes jointly Poisson processes remains an unresolved issue. This report reviews the current state of the theory and indicates how the accepted but unproven model equals that resulting from the small time-interval limit of jointly Bernoulli processes. One intriguing consequence of these models is that jointly Poisson processes can only be positively correlated as measured by the correlation coefficient defined by cumulants of the probability generating functional.

  15. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  16. Hierarchical Dirichlet Scaling Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongwoo; Oh, Alice

    2014-01-01

    We present the \\textit{hierarchical Dirichlet scaling process} (HDSP), a Bayesian nonparametric mixed membership model. The HDSP generalizes the hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP) to model the correlation structure between metadata in the corpus and mixture components. We construct the HDSP based on the normalized gamma representation of the Dirichlet process, and this construction allows incorporating a scaling function that controls the membership probabilities of the mixture components. ...

  17. Operating System Process Schedulers

    OpenAIRE

    ŠEKORANJA, MATEJ

    2016-01-01

    Process scheduling is one of the key tasks of every operating system. Proper implementation of a scheduler reflects itself in a system responsiveness, especially when processes require execution in real-time. Multimedia playback is one of these processes, also being one of the most common operating system tasks nowadays. In the beginning of this thesis, I present theoretical basics of scheduling: its goals, different scheduling types and basics algorithms. I cover scheduling in single-proces...

  18. Polygon mesh processing

    CERN Document Server

    Botsch, Mario; Pauly, Mark; Alliez, Pierre; Levy, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Geometry processing, or mesh processing, is a fast-growing area of research that uses concepts from applied mathematics, computer science, and engineering to design efficient algorithms for the acquisition, reconstruction, analysis, manipulation, simulation, and transmission of complex 3D models. Applications of geometry processing algorithms already cover a wide range of areas from multimedia, entertainment, and classical computer-aided design, to biomedical computing, reverse engineering, and scientific computing. Over the last several years, triangle meshes have become increasingly popular,

  19. Business process transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  20. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  1. Study on the Factors of CBA Violence%CBA球场暴力构成因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴畏; 闫永生

    2012-01-01

    以CBA职业篮球联赛中的球场暴力现象为研究对象,运用文献资料法、专家访谈法、个案分析法、数理统计法、逻辑推理法等研究方法进行研究.对CBA职业篮球联赛的球场暴力现象的特点、暴力的形式和球场暴力产生后果的影响进行论述.从3个方面分析形成CBA职业篮球联赛场暴力的成因.

  2. Gonadal Steroids Negatively Modulate Oxidative Stress in CBA/Ca Female Mice Infected with P. berghei ANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Aarón Mosqueda-Romo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We decreased the level of gonadal steroids in female and male mice by gonadectomy. We infected these mice with P. berghei ANKA and observed the subsequent impact on the oxidative stress response. Intact females developed lower levels of parasitaemia and lost weight faster than intact males. Gonadectomised female mice displayed increased levels of parasitaemia, increased body mass, and increased anaemia compared with their male counterparts. In addition, gonadectomised females exhibited lower specific catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in their blood and spleen tissues compared with gonadectomised males. To further study the oxidative stress response in P. berghei ANKA-infected gonadectomised mice, nitric oxide levels were assessed in the blood and spleen, and MDA levels were assessed in the spleen. Intact, sham-operated, and gonadectomised female mice exhibited higher levels of nitric oxide in the blood and spleen compared with male mice. MDA levels were higher in all of the female groups. Finally, gonadectomy significantly increased the oxidative stress levels in females but not in males. These data suggest that differential oxidative stress is influenced by oestrogens that may contribute to sexual dimorphism in malaria.

  3. Mixture of Uncaria and Tabebuia Extracts are Potentially Chemopreventive in CBA/Ca Mice - A Long-term Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Budán, Ferenc; Szabo, István; Varjas, Timea; Nowrasteh, Ghodratollah; Dávid, Tamás; Gergely, Péter; Varga, Zsuzsa; Molnár, Kornélia; Kádár, Balázs; Orsos, Zsuzsa; Kiss, István; Ember, István

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A long-term experimental animal model was developed by our research group for the evaluation of potential chemopreventive effects. The inhibitory effects of agents on carcinogen (7,12-Dimetilbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)) induced molecular epidemiological biomarkers, in this case the expression of key onco/suppressor genes were investigated. Expression pattern of c-myc, Ha-ras, Bcl-2, K-ras protoonco and p53 tumoursuppressor genes were studied to elucidate early carcinogenic...

  4. A comparison of the distribution of 239-Pu and calcein in the ilium of the female CBA mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well recognised that plutonium 239 and certain vital stains such as calcein behave similarly when injected i.v. into experimental animals. Both are rapidly cleared from blood, and concentrate on bone surfaces. Certain differences of behaviour are also known, such as the competitive concentration of plutonium in liver and other soft tissues; and differences in the distribution of site of location of the substances on bone surface. Plutonium tends to concentrate evenly on all bone surfaces in proportion to the blood supply to that region, leading to higher concentrations on endosteal than periosteal surfaces. Calcein deposits at sites of mineralisation, which occur on both endosteum and periosteum in response to the demands of growth and remodelling. Subsequent behaviour of both substances would appear to depend entirely on the growth and remodelling activities of the bone, the deposits remaining fixed in position until the containing bone is resorbed or buried by freshly formed bone. Many studies of the distribution and dosimetry of plutonium in experimental animals, mainly dogs, and mice have been recorded. There is however, a lack of information concerning the behaviour of the radionuclide in man. More information is available on the behaviour in man and experimental animals of the vital stains, some of which are well known anti-biotics. Consequently, there is much to be gained if a knowledge of the behaviour of vital stains such as calcein can be used to predict the distribution of plutonium in the human skeleton. (orig.)

  5. Interaction of α-Melanocortin and Its Pentapeptide Antisense LVKAT: Effects on Hepatoprotection in Male CBA Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paško Konjevoda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic code defines nucleotide patterns that code for individual amino acids and their complementary, i.e., antisense, pairs. Peptides specified by the complementary mRNAs often bind to each other with a higher specificity and efficacy. Applications of this genetic code property in biomedicine are related to the modulation of peptide and hormone biological function, selective immunomodulation, modeling of discontinuous and linear epitopes, modeling of mimotopes, paratopes and antibody mimetics, peptide vaccine development, peptidomimetic and drug design. We have investigated sense-antisense peptide interactions and related modulation of the peptide function by modulating the effects of a-MSH on hepatoprotection with its antisense peptide LVKAT. First, transcription of complementary mRNA sequence of a-MSH in 3’→5’ direction was used to design antisense peptide to the central motif that serves as a-MSH pharmacophore for melanocortin receptors. Second, tryptophan spectrofluorometric titration was applied to evaluate the binding of a-MSH and its central pharmacophore motif to the antisense peptide, and it was concluded that this procedure represents a simple and efficient method to evaluate sense-antisense peptide interaction in vitro. Third, we showed that antisense peptide LVKAT abolished potent hepatoprotective effects of a-MSH in vivo.

  6. Project evaluation, sustainability and accountability : combining cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    General abstract Decision-makers in governments and businesses must choose among different project alternatives which, in varying degrees, contribute to sustainability. Decision-makers also have to account for their choices to a large audience or a broad range of stakeholders. This thesis is about t

  7. Gonadal Steroids Negatively Modulate Oxidative Stress in CBA/Ca Female Mice Infected with P. berghei ANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Aarón Mosqueda-Romo; Ana Laura Rodríguez-Morales; Fidel Orlando Buendía-González; Margarita Aguilar-Sánchez; Jorge Morales-Montor; Martha Legorreta-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    We decreased the level of gonadal steroids in female and male mice by gonadectomy. We infected these mice with P. berghei ANKA and observed the subsequent impact on the oxidative stress response. Intact females developed lower levels of parasitaemia and lost weight faster than intact males. Gonadectomised female mice displayed increased levels of parasitaemia, increased body mass, and increased anaemia compared with their male counterparts. In addition, gonadectomised females exhibited lower ...

  8. Mucosal adhesion properties of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG SpaCBA and SpaFED pilin subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Satokari, R.M.; Vesterlund, S.; Kankainen, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Tynkkynen, S.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.; Palva, A.

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a well-established Gram-positive probiotic strain, whose health-benefiting properties are in part dependent upon a prolonged residency in the gastrointestinal tract and likely dictated by an adherence to the intestinal mucosa. Previously, we identified two pilus gene cl

  9. The Recruitment Process:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna

    The aim of this research was to determine whether the introduction of e-recruitment has an impact on the process and underlying tasks, subtasks and activities of recruitment. Three large organizations with well-established e-recruitment practices were included in the study. The three case studies......, which were carried out in Denmark in 2008-2009 using qualitative research methods, revealed changes in the sequence, divisibility and repetitiveness of a number of recruitment tasks and subtasks. The new recruitment process design was identified and presented in the paper. The study concluded...... that the main task of the process shifted from processing applications to communicating with candidates....

  10. The Critical Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    within Danish tradition of architecture and construction. The objective of the research presented in this paper, is to compare the different design processes behind the making of passive houses in a Danish context. We evaluated the process with regard to the integrated and traditional design process....... Data analysis showed that the majority of the consortiums worked in an integrated manner; though there was room for improvment. Additionally, the paper discusses the challanges of implementing the integrated design process in practice and suggests ways of overcomming some of the barriers . In doing so...

  11. Living olefin polymerization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  12. Financial information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo BAI; Shouyang WANG; Lean YU; Aoying ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    @@ The rapid growth in financial data volume has made financial information processing more and more difficult due to the increase in complexity, which has forced businesses and academics alike to turn to sophisticated information processing technologies for better solutions. A typical feature is that high-performance computers and advanced computational techniques play ever-increasingly important roles for business and industries to have competitive advantages. Accordingly, financial information processing has emerged as a new cross-disciplinary field integrating computer science, mathematics, financial economics, intelligent techniques, and computer simulations to make different decisions based on processed financial information.

  13. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  14. Acoustic Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  15. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  16. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  17. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  18. EARSEC SAR processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Mark; Sloggett, David R.; Sieber, Alois J.

    1994-12-01

    Traditionally, the production of high quality Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery has been an area where a potential user would have to expend large amounts of money in either the bespoke development of a processing chain dedicated to his requirements or in the purchase of a dedicated hardware platform adapted using accelerator boards and enhanced memory management. Whichever option the user adopted there were limitations based on the desire for a realistic throughput in data load and time. The user had a choice, made early in the purchase, for either a system that adopted innovative algorithmic manipulation, to limit the processing time of the purchase of expensive hardware. The former limits the quality of the product, while the latter excludes the user from any visibility into the processing chain. Clearly there was a need for a SAR processing architecture that gave the user a choice into the methodology to be adopted for a particular processing sequence, allowing him to decide on either a quick (lower quality) product or a detailed slower (high quality) product, without having to change the algorithmic base of his processor or the hardware platform. The European Commission, through the Advanced Techniques unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Institute for Remote Sensing at Ispra in Italy, realizing the limitations on current processing abilities, initiated its own program to build airborne SAR and Electro-Optical (EO) sensor systems. This program is called the European Airborne Remote Sensing Capabilities (EARSEC) program. This paper describes the processing system developed for the airborne SAR sensor system. The paper considers the requirements for the system and the design of the EARSEC Airborne SAR Processing System. It highlights the development of an open SAR processing architecture where users have full access to intermediate products that arise from each of the major processing stages. It also describes the main processing stages in the overall

  19. Facilitated exclusion process and Pfaffian Schur processes

    OpenAIRE

    Baik, Jinho; Barraquand, Guillaume; Corwin, Ivan; Suidan, Toufic

    2016-01-01

    We study the Facilitated TASEP, an interacting particle system on the one dimensional integer lattice. We prove that starting from step initial condition, the position of the rightmost particle has Tracy Widom GSE statistics on a cube root time scale, while the statistics in the bulk of the rarefaction fan are GUE. This uses a mapping with last-passage percolation in a half-quadrant, which we study using the formalism of Pfaffian Schur processes. For the model with exponential weights, we pro...

  20. Modeling soil processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereecken, H.; Schnepf, A.; Hopmans, J.W.; Javaux, M.; Or, D.; Roose, T.; Vanderborght, J.; Young, M.H.; Amelung, W.; Aitkenhead, M.; Allison, S.D.; Assouline, S.; Baveye, P.; Berli, M.; Brüggemann, N.; Finke, P.; Flury, M.; Gaiser, T.; Govers, G.; Ghezzehei, T.; Hallett, P.; Hendricks Franssen, H.J.; Heppell, J.; Horn, R.; Huisman, J.A.; Jacques, D.; Jonard, F.; Kollet, S.; Lafolie, F.; Lamorski, K.; Leitner, D.; Mcbratney, A.; Minasny, B.; Montzka, C.; Nowak, W.; Pachepsky, Y.; Padarian, J.; Romano, N.; Roth, K.; Rothfuss, Y.; Rowe, E.C.; Schwen, A.; Šimůnek, J.; Tiktak, A.; Dam, van Jos; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Vogel, H.J.; Vrugt, J.A.; Wöhling, T.; Wöhling, T.; Young, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable complexity of soil and its importance to a wide range of ecosystem services presents major challenges to the modeling of soil processes. Although major progress in soil models has occurred in the last decades, models of soil processes remain disjointed between disciplines or ecosys

  1. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  2. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Explains Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) model which is based on a constructivist view of learning and provides a framework for school library media specialists for the design of information services and instruction. Highlights include a shift from library skills to information skills; attitudes; process approach; and an interview with…

  3. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, an hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi...

  4. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  5. Dosimetry in process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of absorbed dose and dose distribution in irradiated medical products relies on the use of quality dosimetry systems, trained personnel and a thorough understanding of the energy deposition process. The interrelationship of these factors will be discussed with emphasis on the current and future practices of process control dosimetry. (author)

  6. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234Th, 234Pa, 137Cs, 239Pu (trace), 60Co, U, 99Tc, and 237Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  7. Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-09-01

    This document represents the roadmap for Processing Technology Research in the US Mining Industry. It was developed based on the results of a Processing Technology Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held January 24 - 25, 2000.

  8. Food processing and allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity.

  9. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  10. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  11. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-01

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  12. Image processing mini manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Christine G.; Posenau, Mary-Anne; Leonard, Desiree M.; Avis, Elizabeth L.; Debure, Kelly R.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vonofenheim, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The intent is to provide an introduction to the image processing capabilities available at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Central Scientific Computing Complex (CSCC). Various image processing software components are described. Information is given concerning the use of these components in the Data Visualization and Animation Laboratory at LaRC.

  13. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  14. Technologies for Optical Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    The article consists of a Powerpoint presentation on technologies for optical processing. The paper concludes that the nonlinear elements based on SOA, fibers and waveguide structures have capabilities of simple processing at data rates of 100-600 Gb/s. Switching powers comparable to electronics...

  15. Uranium processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  16. Microsystem process networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2006-10-24

    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  17. Laser processing of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Peter A.

    1995-03-01

    CO2-laser processing of plastics has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Welding of cylindrical parts made from polycarbonate and polypropylene, cutting of polymethyl-methacrylate plates, and drilling holes in polypropylene are presented as examples. A good coincidence between theoretical and experimental results in case of laser welding has been found. Some practical aspects of laser processing of plastics has been given.

  18. Brief: Information technology outsourcing -- one company's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address the pressures of the 1990's business climate, Amoco Canada Petroleum Co. Ltd. went through an aggressive evaluation and restructuring of its business operations. This precipitated a critical review of its information technology (IT) strategy with a goal of maintaining effectiveness while reducing overall costs. To meet the challenge of substantially reducing expenses while continuing to maintain effective service levels, the company entered a 5-year agreement to outsource its data center and network operations. this paper discusses the business forces that brought Amoco Canada to consider outsourcing, the processes surrounding the outsourcing decision, and the results to date. The authors demonstrate that by understanding the role of IT in its business plans, the company successfully met its outsourcing objectives

  19. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  20. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormones with important functions in the brain and the gut. Gastrin is the main regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth, whereas cholecystokinin regulates gall bladder emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion and besides acts...... processing progastrin is often greatly disturbed in neoplastic cells.The posttranslational phase of the biogenesis of gastrin and the various progastrin products in gastrin gene-expressing tissues is now reviewed here. In addition, the individual contributions of the processing enzymes are discussed......, as are structural features of progastrin that are involved in the precursor activation process. Thus, the review describes how the processing depends on the cell-specific expression of the processing enzymes and kinetics in the secretory pathway....

  1. Business process support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, Adriana; Fiducia, Daniel [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    This paper is about the own development of business support software. The developed applications are used to support two business processes: one of them is the process of gas transportation and the other is the natural gas processing. This software has interphases with the ERP SAP, software SCADA and on line gas transportation simulation software. The main functionalities of the applications are: entrance on line real time of clients transport nominations, transport programming, allocation of the clients transport nominations, transport control, measurements, balanced pipeline, allocation of gas volume to the gas processing plants, calculate of product tons processed in each plant and tons of product distributed to clients. All the developed software generates information to the internal staff, regulatory authorities and clients. (author)

  2. Beryllium chemistry and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces beryllium; its history, its chemical, mechanical, and physical properties including nuclear properties. The 29 chapters include the mineralogy of beryllium and the preferred global sources of ore bodies. The identification and specifics of the industrial metallurgical processes used to form oxide from the ore and then metal from the oxide are thoroughly described. The special features of beryllium chemistry are introduced, including analytical chemical practices. Beryllium compounds of industrial interest are identified and discussed. Alloying, casting, powder processing, forming, metal removal, joining and other manufacturing processes are covered. The effect of composition and process on the mechanical and physical properties of beryllium alloys assists the reader in material selection. The physical metallurgy chapter brings conformity between chemical and physical metallurgical processing of beryllium, metal, alloys, and compounds. The environmental degradation of beryllium and its all...

  3. Managing Software Process Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book focuses on the design, development, management, governance and application of evolving software processes that are aligned with changing business objectives, such as expansion to new domains or shifting to global production. In the context of an evolving business world, it examines...... the complete software process lifecycle, from the initial definition of a product to its systematic improvement. In doing so, it addresses difficult problems, such as how to implement processes in highly regulated domains or where to find a suitable notation system for documenting processes, and provides...... essential insights and tips to help readers manage process evolutions. And last but not least, it provides a wealth of examples and cases on how to deal with software evolution in practice. Reflecting these topics, the book is divided into three parts. Part 1 focuses on software business transformation...

  4. Organic food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander;

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria....... These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product...... to evaluate processing methods. Therefore the goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the topic of organic food processing to make it operational. A conceptual background for organic food processing is given by verifying the underlying paradigms and principles of organic farming and organic food as well...

  5. Food Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Risum, Jørgen

    introduced make it possible to get an overview of processes. We have included a chapter on how to make block-dia¬grams and material balances. This should help in analysing a production and to isolate the most important processing steps. Most processes in a food production are of physical nature, thus we have...... included a chapter on relevant physical properties of foods and especially a part on rheological properties of food products. The remaining text is focused on the processes transport of fluids, transport of heat and transport of energy. The textbook ends with a chapter on heat exchangers and how...... to calculate the requirements of heat processing. Our goal is to put food engineering into a production context. Other courses teach food chemistry, food microbiology and food technology. Topics of great importance and all have to be seen in a broader context of producing good and safe food in a large scale...

  6. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com; Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fan Shen [Computer and Information School, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function {lambda}(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t)

  7. New Processes for Annulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hsing-Jang

    2004-01-01

    Making use of the high propensity of 2-cyano-2-cycloalkenones to undergo conjugate addition with various carbanions and the high reactivity of the ensuing α -cyano ketone system, a number of new annulation processes have been developed recently in our laboratories. As shown in Eq. 1 (n=1) with a specific example, one such process involves the addition of 3-butenylmagnesium bromide, followed by a palladium (Ⅱ) acetate mediated oxidative cyclization, to facilitate methylenecyclopentane ring formation. This annulation process could be readily extended to effect methylenecyclohexane ring formation (Eq. 1, n=2), using 4-pentenylmagnesinm bromide as the initial reagent, and to install the carbomethoxy-substituted methylenecyclopentane and methylenecyclohexane rings, using the carbanions derived from methyl 4-pentenoate and methyl 5-hexenoate, respectively (Eq. 2). In another annulation process, the addition of the enolate of methyl 5-chloropentanoate is involved initially, and the ring formation is readily effected by an intramolecular alkylation process. A specific example is given in Eq. 3.

  8. Logistics Innovation Process Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan; Yang, Su-Lan

    2011-01-01

    that was triggered by the practical needs of new ways of handling material flows of a hospital. This approach made it possible to revisit theory on logistics innovation process. Findings – Apart from the tangible benefits reported to the case hospital, five findings can be extracted from this study: the logistics...... on internal stakeholders as on external relationships; and logistics innovation process may start out as a dialectic, conflict ridden process and end up in a well-ordered goal-oriented teleological process. Research limitations/implications – In general, the study contributes to the knowledge base...... on an existing model by methodological triangulation in order to learn more about the qualities of actual processes and their implications for theory and practice....

  9. Manufacturing processes 4 forming

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    This book provides essential information on metal forming, utilizing a practical distinction between bulk and sheet metal forming. In the field of bulk forming, it examines processes of cold, warm and hot bulk forming, as well as rolling and a new addition, the process of thixoforming. As for the field of sheet metal working, on the one hand it deals with sheet metal forming processes (deep drawing, flange forming, stretch drawing, metal spinning and bending). In terms of special processes, the chapters on internal high-pressure forming and high rate forming have been revised and refined. On the other, the book elucidates and presents the state of the art in sheet metal separation processes (shearing and fineblanking). Furthermore, joining by forming has been added to the new edition as a new chapter describing mechanical methods for joining sheet metals. The new chapter “Basic Principles” addresses both sheet metal and bulk forming, in addition to metal physics, plastomechanics and computational basics; ...

  10. In Process Beam Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, W. M.; Weerasinghe, V. M.

    1986-11-01

    The industrial future of lasers in material processing lies in the combination of the laser with automatic machinery. One possible form of such a combination is an intelligent workstation which monitors the process as it occurs and adjusts itself accordingly, either by self teaching or by comparison to a process data bank or algorithm. In order to achieve this attractive goal in-process signals are required. Two devices are described in this paper. One is the Laser Beam Analyser which is now maturing into a second generation with computerised output. The other is the Acoustic Mirror, a totally novel analytic technique, not yet fully understood, but which nevertheless can act as a very effective process monitor.

  11. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  12. Beyond the search process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings from a longitudinal case study exploring Kuhlthau's information search process (ISP)-model in a group based academic setting. The research focus is on group members' activities and cognitive and emotional experiences during the task process of writing an assignm......This paper reports on the findings from a longitudinal case study exploring Kuhlthau's information search process (ISP)-model in a group based academic setting. The research focus is on group members' activities and cognitive and emotional experiences during the task process of writing....... It is concluded that the ISP-model does not fully comply with group members' problem solving process and the involved information seeking behavior. Further, complex academic problem solving seems to be even more complex when it is performed in a group based setting. The study contributes with a new conceptual...

  13. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  14. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  15. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  16. Welding processes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Weman, Klas

    2003-01-01

    Deals with the main commercially significant and commonly used welding processes. This title takes the student or novice welder through the individual steps involved in each process in an easily understood way. It covers many of the requirements referred to in European Standards including EN719, EN 729, EN 729 and EN 287.$bWelding processes handbook is a concise, explanatory guide to the main commercially significant and commonly-used welding processes. It takes the novice welder or student through the individual steps involved in each process in a clear and easily understood way. It is intended to provide an up-to-date reference to the major applications of welding as they are used in industry. The contents have been arranged so that it can be used as a textbook for European welding courses in accordance with guidelines from the European Welding Federation. Welding processes and equipment necessary for each process are described so that they can be applied to all instruction levels required by the EWF and th...

  17. Monitoring of Microalgal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlik, Ivo; Scheper, Thomas; Reardon, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Process monitoring, which can be defined as the measurement of process variables with the smallest possible delay, is combined with process models to form the basis for successful process control. Minimizing the measurement delay leads inevitably to employing online, in situ sensors where possible, preferably using noninvasive measurement methods with stable, low-cost sensors. Microalgal processes have similarities to traditional bioprocesses but also have unique monitoring requirements. In general, variables to be monitored in microalgal processes can be categorized as physical, chemical, and biological, and they are measured in gaseous, liquid, and solid (biological) phases. Physical and chemical process variables can be usually monitored online using standard industrial sensors. The monitoring of biological process variables, however, relies mostly on sensors developed and validated using laboratory-scale systems or uses offline methods because of difficulties in developing suitable online sensors. Here, we review current technologies for online, in situ monitoring of all types of process parameters of microalgal cultivations, with a focus on monitoring of biological parameters. We discuss newly introduced methods for measuring biological parameters that could be possibly adapted for routine online use, should be preferably noninvasive, and are based on approaches that have been proven in other bioprocesses. New sensor types for measuring physicochemical parameters using optical methods or ion-specific field effect transistor (ISFET) sensors are also discussed. Reviewed methods with online implementation or online potential include measurement of irradiance, biomass concentration by optical density and image analysis, cell count, chlorophyll fluorescence, growth rate, lipid concentration by infrared spectrophotometry, dielectric scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Future perspectives are discussed, especially in the field of image analysis using in situ

  18. Getting Started with Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2010-01-01

    Learn computer programming the easy way with Processing, a simple language that lets you use code to create drawings, animation, and interactive graphics. Programming courses usually start with theory, but this book lets you jump right into creative and fun projects. It's ideal for anyone who wants to learn basic programming, and serves as a simple introduction to graphics for people with some programming skills. Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch wi

  19. Transnational Learning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    This paper analyses and compares the transnational learning processes in the employment field in the European Union and among the Nordic countries. Based theoretically on a social constructivist model of learning and methodologically on a questionnaire distributed to the relevant participants......, a number of hypotheses concerning transnational learning processes are tested. The paper closes with a number of suggestions regarding an optimal institutional setting for facilitating transnational learning processes.Key words: Transnational learning, Open Method of Coordination, Learning, Employment......, European Employment Strategy, European Union, Nordic countries....

  20. Lasers in chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  1. Digital Differential Geometry Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Guo Liu; Hu-Jun Bao; Qun-Sheng Peng

    2006-01-01

    The theory and methods of digital geometry processing has been a hot research area in computer graphics, as geometric models serves as the core data for 3D graphics applications. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some recent advances in digital geometry processing, particularly mesh fairing, surface parameterization and mesh editing, that heavily use differential geometry quantities. Some related concepts from differential geometry, such as normal, curvature, gradient,Laplacian and their counterparts on digital geometry are also reviewed for understanding the strength and weakness of various digital geometry processing methods.

  2. Lapis SOI Pixel Process

    OpenAIRE

    Okihara, Masao; Kasai, Hiroki; Miura, Noriyuki; Kuriyama, Naoya; Nagatomo, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    0.2 um fully-depleted SOI technology has been developed a for X-ray pixel detectors. To improve the detector performance, some advanced process technologies are developing continuously. To utilize the high resistivity FZ-SOI, slow ramp up and ramp down recipes are applied for the thermal processes in both of SOI wafer fabrication and pixel detector process. The suitable backside treatment is also applied to prevent increase of leakage current at backside damaged layer in the case of full depl...

  3. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  4. Quantum Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Leuchs, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions

  5. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  6. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  7. Process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment is the process used to evaluate the environmental consequences of disposal of radioactive waste in the biosphere. An introductory review of the subject is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which are discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment is addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the system/site/technology issues as the focal point of this symposium are reviewed

  8. Advanced uranium enrichment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features of the processes constitutes a major part of the report. If further presents comparisons with existing industrially used enrichment technologies, gives information on actual development programmes and budgets and ends with a chapter on perspectives and conclusions. An extensive bibliography of the relevant open literature is added to the different subjects discussed. The report was drawn up by the nuclear research Centre (CEA) Saclay on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities

  9. Study on Glulam Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Limin; WANG Haiqing; HE Weili

    2006-01-01

    This paper selected lumbers of Manchurian ash (Fraxinus rnandshurica), Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshuricd) and Spruce (Picea jezoensis vai.kornamvii) for manufacturing glulam with water-borne polymeric-isocyanate adhesive to determine process variables. The process variables that include specific pressure, pressing time and adhesive application amount influencing the shear strength of the glulam, were investigated through the orthogonal test. The results indicated that optimum process variables for glulam manufacturing were as follows: Specific pressure of 1.5 MPa for Spruce and 2,0 MPa both for Manchurian ash and Manchurian walnut, pressing time of 60 min and adhesive application amount of 250 g/m2.

  10. The image processing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Russ, John C

    2006-01-01

    Now in its fifth edition, John C. Russ's monumental image processing reference is an even more complete, modern, and hands-on tool than ever before. The Image Processing Handbook, Fifth Edition is fully updated and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field. Written by an expert with unequalled experience and authority, it offers clear guidance on how to create, select, and use the most appropriate algorithms for a specific application. What's new in the Fifth Edition? ·       A new chapter on the human visual process that explains which visual cues elicit a response from the vie

  11. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  12. Semi-Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabski

    2014-01-01

    Semi-Markov Processes: Applications in System Reliability and Maintenance is a modern view of discrete state space and continuous time semi-Markov processes and their applications in reliability and maintenance. The book explains how to construct semi-Markov models and discusses the different reliability parameters and characteristics that can be obtained from those models. The book is a useful resource for mathematicians, engineering practitioners, and PhD and MSc students who want to understand the basic concepts and results of semi-Markov process theory. Clearly defines the properties and

  13. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  14. Business Model Process Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Nielsen, Christian; Thomsen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    strategic preference, as part of their business model innovation activity planned. Practical implications – This paper aimed at strengthening researchers and, particularly, practitioner’s perspectives into the field of business model process configurations. By insuring an [abstracted] alignment between......Purpose – The paper aims: 1) To develop systematically a structural list of various business model process configuration and to group (deductively) these selected configurations in a structured typological categorization list. 2) To facilitate companies in the process of BM innovation......, by developing (inductively) an ontological classification framework, in view of the BM process configurations typology developed. Design/methodology/approach – Given the inconsistencies found in the business model studies (e.g. definitions, configurations, classifications) we adopted the analytical induction...

  15. IT Project Prioritization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shollo, Arisa; Constantiou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    In most of the large companies IT project prioritization process is designed based on principles of evidencebased management. We investigate a case of IT project prioritization in a financial institution, and in particular, how managers practice evidence-based management during this process. We use...... a rich dataset built from a longitudinal study of the prioritization process for the IT projects. Our findings indicate that managers reach a decision not only by using evidence but from the interplay between the evidence and the judgment devices that managers employ. The interplay between evidence...... and judgment devices is manifested in three ways: supplementing, substituting, and interpreting evidence. We show that while evidence does not fully determine the decision, it plays a central role in discussions, reflections, and negotiations during the IT prioritization process....

  16. Assessing Process and Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques......The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises...... the question how to include this in assessments. Traditional assessments (e.g. oral, written, or multiple choice) are unsuitable to test the programming process. We describe and evaluate a practical lab examination that assesses the students' programming process as well as the developed programs...

  17. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  18. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of high-energy ultrasonic vibration in metals and alloys generates oscillating strain and stress fields in solids, and introduces nonlinear effects such as cavitation, acoustic streaming, and radiation pressure in molten materials. These nonlinear effects can be utilized to assist conventional material processing processes. This article describes recent research at Oak Ridge National Labs and Purdue University on using high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations for degassing molten aluminum, processing particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites, refining metals and alloys during solidification process and welding, and producing bulk nanostructures in solid metals and alloys. Research results suggest that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration is capable of degassing and dispersing small particles in molten alloys, reducing grain size during alloy solidification, and inducing nanostructures in solid metals.

  19. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  20. Organ Donation: The Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Plan Your Finances After Your Transplant Contact Your Donor Family Organ Donation: The Process Enrolling as a Donor : The ...

  1. Radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  2. Catalyzing alignment processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how environmental management systems (EMS) spur the circulation of processes that support the constitution of environmental issues as specific environ¬mental objects and objectives. EMS catalyzes alignmentprocesses that produce coherence among the different elements involved ...

  3. Processing NOAA Spectroradiometric Data

    OpenAIRE

    Broenkow, William W.; Greene, Nancy, T.; Feinholz, Michael, E.

    1993-01-01

    This report outlines the NOAA spectroradiometer data processing system implemented by the MLML_DBASE programs. This is done by presenting the algorithms and graphs showing the effects of each step in the algorithms. [PDF contains 32 pages

  4. George: Gaussian Process regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    George is a fast and flexible library, implemented in C++ with Python bindings, for Gaussian Process regression useful for accounting for correlated noise in astronomical datasets, including those for transiting exoplanet discovery and characterization and stellar population modeling.

  5. Enrichment: centrifuge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short course is divided into three sections devoted respectively to the physics of the process, some practical problems raised by the design of a centrifuge and the present situation of centrifugation in the World. 31 figs., 18 refs

  6. Technology or Process First?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur Henryk; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    Enterprise Systems Management (ESM) and Business Pro- cess Management (BPM), although highly correlated, have evolved as alternative and mutually exclusive approaches to corporate infrastruc- ture. As a result, companies struggle to nd the right balance between technology and process factors...

  7. Processer i undervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    Undersøgelsen har fokus på processer i undervisningen – og derigennem på hvordan digitale læremidler kan understøtte eller integreres i typiske processer. Undersøgelsen hviler på deltagende observation på Abildgårdskolen i Odense. Gennem observationerne er der identificeret en række eksempler på ...... udfordringer for at gennemføre de undervisningsmæssige processer og givet bud på digitale læremidler der forventes at kunne understøtte processerne. Undersøgelsen viser samtidig hvordan fokus på processer kan fungere som en metode til brugerdreven innovation....

  8. Desalination processes and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasons of the development of desalination processes, the modern desalination technologies, such as multi-stage flash evaporation, multi-effect distillation, reverse osmosis, and the prospects of using nuclear power for desalination purposes are discussed. 9 refs

  9. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  10. Reconfigurable network processing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachris, C.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents our investigation on how to efficiently exploit reconfigurable hardware to design flexible, high performance, and power efficient network devices capable to adapt to varying processing requirements of network applications and traffic. The proposed reconfigurable network pr

  11. Markovian risk process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Han-xing; YAN Yun-zhi; ZHAO Fei; FANG Da-fan

    2007-01-01

    A Markovian risk process is considered in this paper, which is the generalization of the classical risk model. It is proper that a risk process with large claims is modelled as the Markovian risk model. In such a model, the occurrence of claims is described by a point process {N(t)}t≥o with N(t) being the number of jumps during the interval (0, t] for a Markov jump process. The ruin probability Ψ(u) of a company facing such a risk model is mainly studied. An integral equation satisfied by the ruin probability function Ψ(u) is obtained and the bounds for the convergence rate of the ruin probability Ψ(u) are given by using a generalized renewal technique developed in the paper.

  12. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-10-22

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  13. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  14. Biomedical signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Akay, Metin

    1994-01-01

    Sophisticated techniques for signal processing are now available to the biomedical specialist! Written in an easy-to-read, straightforward style, Biomedical Signal Processing presents techniques to eliminate background noise, enhance signal detection, and analyze computer data, making results easy to comprehend and apply. In addition to examining techniques for electrical signal analysis, filtering, and transforms, the author supplies an extensive appendix with several computer programs that demonstrate techniques presented in the text.

  15. Hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I2/H2O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  16. Radiopharmaceutical drug review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure proper radioactive drug use (such as quality, diagnostic improvement, and minimal radioactive exposure), the Food and Drug Administration evaluates new drugs with respect to safety, effectiveness, and accuracy and adequacy of the labeling. The IND or NDA process is used for this purpose. A brief description of the process, including the Chemical Classification System and the therapeutic potential classification, is presented as it applies to radiopharmaceuticals. Also, the status of the IND or NDA review of radiopharmaceuticals is given

  17. Reward Processing in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; DAPRETTO, MIRELLA; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2010-01-01

    The social motivation hypothesis of autism posits that infants with autism do not experience social stimuli as rewarding, thereby leading to a cascade of potentially negative consequences for later development. While possible downstream effects of this hypothesis such as altered face and voice processing have been examined, there has not been a direct investigation of social reward processing in autism. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine social and monetary rewarded ...

  18. Processing chicken at slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    POŽÁRKOVÁ, Radka

    2012-01-01

    Composition of poultry flesh and its purpose on human nutrition is described in this work. The quality and factors which affects quality are described further. HACCP system takes also important role. The end of this thesis is focused on poultry meat markets. The aim of this thesis was to study and describe chicken slaughtering process and processing of chicken carcass and determine the major share of the fleshy parts of broiler chicken carcass which means shares of breast muscles and tight mu...

  19. Digital signal processing: Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, L. M.; Matiushkin, B. D.; Poliak, M. N.

    The fundamentals of the theory and design of systems and devices for the digital processing of signals are presented. Particular attention is given to algorithmic methods of synthesis and digital processing equipment in communication systems (e.g., selective digital filtering, spectral analysis, and variation of the signal discretization frequency). Programs for the computer-aided analysis of digital filters are described. Computational examples are presented, along with tables of transfer function coefficients for recursive and nonrecursive digital filters.

  20. Poststroke neuroplasticity processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Damulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different aspects of neuroplasticity in patients with stroke. It underlines the dynamism of this process and the ambiguity of involvement of the structures of the contralateral cerebral hemisphere in the restorative process. It considers the periods after onset of stroke and the activation of different brain regions (of both the involved and intact hemisphere in the poststroke period. Particular emphasis is placed on the issues of neurorehabilitation in this category of patients. Delay in rehabilitation measures leads to a worse outcome, the patients must be at hospital longer. It is emphasized that the neurorehabilitaton measures should use strategies aimed at improving plasticity processes at the level of synaptic transmission and neuronal communications. At the same time, of great importance are the processes of structural and functional remodeling of neuronal communications with the involvement of surviving neurons that are located in the peri-infarct area and partially damaged during ischemia. To recover stroke-induced lost motor functions, measures are implemented to modulate the ipsilateral motor cortex, contralateral motor cortex, and sensory afferentation. Remodeling processes, one of the manifestations of neuroplasticity, vary with the size and location of an ischemic focus. The specific features of this process with subcortical and cortical foci are considered. It is stressed that there are genetically determined neurotrophic factors that may enhance remodeling processes in the peri-infarct area, as well as factors that inhibit these processes. The sensory system is noted to have a high potential of compensation, which is appreciably associated with the considerable extent of sensory fibers even at the level of the cerebral cortex.

  1. Differentially Private Gaussian Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael Thomas; Zwiessele, Max; Lawrence, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for machine learning is increasing the availability of data while respecting the privacy of individuals. Differential privacy is a framework which allows algorithms to have provable privacy guarantees. Gaussian processes are a widely used approach for dealing with uncertainty in functions. This paper explores differentially private mechanisms for Gaussian processes. We compare binning and adding noise before regression with adding noise post-regression. For the former we dev...

  2. Compactifications for Dual Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Glover, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    We develop a general theory of duality for Markov processes satisfying Meyer's hypothesis (L) and possessing an excessive reference measure. We make use of a compactification introduced by Walsh which allows a right process and its moderate dual to have strong Markov versions on an enlarged state space. The representation theory for potentials of additive functionals due to Revuz and Sharpe can be extended to this setting. Using this theory, we show that the conatural additive functionals int...

  3. Cognitive Processes in Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2009-01-01

    Writing has become one of important topic to discuss in the new age.Its theories could be generally learnt,but its nature needs to handle in specific contents.In another words,every one who can write must generate his/her thinking or cognitive processes.Because writing thinking is to do meaningful activities,how to solove writing problems could be managed through cognitive process.

  4. Bank Record Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  5. Language and Speech Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Mariani, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Speech processing addresses various scientific and technological areas. It includes speech analysis and variable rate coding, in order to store or transmit speech. It also covers speech synthesis, especially from text, speech recognition, including speaker and language identification, and spoken language understanding. This book covers the following topics: how to realize speech production and perception systems, how to synthesize and understand speech using state-of-the-art methods in signal processing, pattern recognition, stochastic modelling computational linguistics and human factor studi

  6. Analyzing business process management

    OpenAIRE

    Skjæveland, Børge

    2013-01-01

    Within the Oil & Gas Industry, the market is constantly growing more competitive, forcing companies to continually adapt to changes. Companies need to cut costs and improve the business efficiency. One way of successfully managing these challenges is to implement business process management in the organization. This thesis will analyze how Oceaneering Asset Integrity AS handled the implementation of a Business Process Management System and the effects it had on the employees. The main goal...

  7. Novel food processing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that a...

  8. Image Processing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    To convert raw data into environmental products, the National Weather Service and other organizations use the Global 9000 image processing system marketed by Global Imaging, Inc. The company's GAE software package is an enhanced version of the TAE, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center to support remote sensing and image processing applications. The system can be operated in three modes and is combined with HP Apollo workstation hardware.

  9. Catalytic Processes in Biorefinery

    OpenAIRE

    Vitiello, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The biorefinery is a system that uses as feedstocks biomasses and recover from these energy, fuel and chemicals. There are many processes considered in the biorefinery system, but in this thesis the biorefinery that uses as feedstock oil, in particular dedicated crops and waste vegetable oils were considered. In the first part of this thesis the biodiesel production process was studied. One possible route to produce biodiesel from waste oils (carachetrized by high concentrations of Fr...

  10. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

    2010-01-01

    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  11. Apple Image Processing Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  12. Granger Independent Martingale Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Cherubini, Umberto; Gobbi, Fabio; Mulinacci, Sabrina; Romagnoli, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new class of processes for the evaluation of multivariate equity derivatives. The proposed setting is well suited for the application of the standard copula function theory to processes, rather than variables, and easily enables to enforce the martingale pricing requirement. The martingale condition is imposed in a general multidimensional Markov setting to which we only add the restriction of no-Granger-causality of the increments (Granger-independent increments). We call this...

  13. Helium process cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  14. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2007-01-01

    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been on diffe......Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been...... on different types of organisational setup to the product development model and process. The globalization and enhanced competitive markets are however changing the innovation game and the challenge to innovation leadership Excellent product development innovation and leadership seems not any longer to enough...... another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  15. Helium process cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  16. Fabrication of 80-nm T-gate high indium In0.7Ga0.3As/In0.6Ga0.4As composite channels mHEMT on GaAs substrate with simple technological process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ji; Xiaodong, Zhang; Weihua, Kang; Zhili, Zhang; Jiahui, Zhou; Wenjun, Xu; Qi, Li; Gongli, Xiao; Zhijun, Yin; Yong, Cai; Baoshun, Zhang; Haiou, Li

    2016-02-01

    An 80-nm gate length metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (mHEMT) on a GaAs substrate with high indium composite compound-channels In0.7Ga0.3 As/In0.6Ga0.4 As and an optimized grade buffer scheme is presented. High 2-DEG Hall mobility values of 10200 cm2/(V·s) and a sheet density of 3.5 × 1012 cm-2 at 300 K have been achieved. The device's T-shaped gate was made by utilizing a simple three layers electron beam resist, instead of employing a passivation layer for the T-share gate, which is beneficial to decreasing parasitic capacitance and parasitic resistance of the gate and simplifying the device manufacturing process. The ohmic contact resistance Rc is 0.2 ω·mm when using the same metal system with the gate (Pt/Ti/Pt/Au), which reduces the manufacturing cycle of the device. The mHEMT device demonstrates excellent DC and RF characteristics. The peak extrinsic transconductance of 1.1 S/mm and the maximum drain current density of 0.86 A/mm are obtained. The unity current gain cut-off frequency (fT) and the maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) are 246 and 301 GHz, respectively. Project supported by the Key Laboratory of Nano-Devices and Applications, Nano-Fabrication Facility of SINANO, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61274077, 61474031, 61464003), the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 2013GXNSFGA019003, 2013GXNSFAA019335), the National Basic Research Program of China (Nos. 2011CBA00605, 2010CB327501), the Project (No. 9140C140101140C14069), and the Innovation Project of GUET Graduate Education (Nos. GDYCSZ201448, GDYCSZ201449, YJCXS201529).

  17. Information-computational system for storage, search and analytical processing of environmental datasets based on the Semantic Web technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, A.; Gordov, E.; Okladnikov, I.

    2009-04-01

    a step in the process of development of a distributed collaborative information-computational environment to support multidisciplinary investigations of Earth regional environment [4]. Partial support of this work by SB RAS Integration Project 34, SB RAS Basic Program Project 4.5.2.2, APN Project CBA2007-08NSY and FP6 Enviro-RISKS project (INCO-CT-2004-013427) is acknowledged. References 1. E.P. Gordov, V.N. Lykosov, and A.Z. Fazliev. Web portal on environmental sciences "ATMOS" // Advances in Geosciences. 2006. Vol. 8. p. 33 - 38. 2. Gordov E.P., Okladnikov I.G., Titov A.G. Development of elements of web based information-computational system supporting regional environment processes investigations // Journal of Computational Technologies, Vol. 12, Special Issue #3, 2007, pp. 20 - 28. 3. Okladnikov I.G., Titov A.G. Melnikova V.N., Shulgina T.M. Web-system for processing and visualization of meteorological and climatic data // Journal of Computational Technologies, Vol. 13, Special Issue #3, 2008, pp. 64 - 69. 4. Gordov E.P., Lykosov V.N. Development of information-computational infrastructure for integrated study of Siberia environment // Journal of Computational Technologies, Vol. 12, Special Issue #2, 2007, pp. 19 - 30.

  18. Radiation processing of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in polymeric materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic polymers can be attributed to two reasons namely, their ease of processing in various shapes and sizes, and secondly, most of these polymers undergo crosslinking reaction upon exposure to radiation. In recent years, natural polymers are being looked at with renewed interest because of their unique characteristics, such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and easy availability. Traditionally, the commercial exploitation of natural polymers like carrageenans, alginates or starch etc. has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge - demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology, which is acting as a locomotive for further scientific research in their structure-function relationship. Selected success stories concerning radiation processed natural polymers and application of their derivatives in the health care products industries and agriculture are reported. This publication will be of interest to individuals at nuclear institutions worldwide that have programmes of R and D and applications in radiation processing technologies. New developments in radiation processing of polymers and other natural raw materials give insight into converting them into useful products for every day life, human health and environmental remediation. The book will also be of interest to other field specialists, readers including managers and decision makers in industry (health care, food and agriculture) helping them to understand the important role of radiation processing technology in polysaccharides

  19. Novel food processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Lelas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of investigations have been focused on development of the novel mild food processing techniques with the aim to obtain the high quality food products. It is presumed also that they could substitute some of the traditional processes in the food industry. The investigations are primarily directed to usage of high hydrostatic pressure, ultrasound, tribomechanical micronization, microwaves, pulsed electrical fields. The results of the scientific researches refer to the fact that application of some of these processes in particular food industry can result in lots of benefits. A significant energy savings, shortening of process duration, mild thermal conditions, food products with better sensory characteristics and with higher nutritional values can be achieved. As some of these techniques act also on the molecular level changing the conformation, structure and electrical potential of organic as well as inorganic materials, the improvement of some functional properties of these components may occur. Common characteristics of all of these techniques are treatment at ambient or insignificant higher temperatures and short time of processing (1 to 10 minutes. High hydrostatic pressure applied to various foodstuffs can destroy some microorganisms, successfully modify molecule conformation and consequently improve functional properties of foods. At the same time it acts positively on the food products intend for freezing. Tribomechanical treatment causes micronization of various solid materials that results in nanoparticles and changes in structure and electrical potential of molecules. Therefore, the significant improvement of some rheological and functional properties of materials occurred. Ultrasound treatment proved to be potentially very successful technique of food processing. It can be used as a pretreatment to drying (decreases drying time and improves functional properties of food, as extraction process of various components

  20. Process Correlation Analysis Model for Process Improvement Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Su-jin Choi; Dae-Kyoo Kim; Sooyong Park

    2014-01-01

    Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practice...

  1. Carbon dioxide reducing processes; Koldioxidreducerande processer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    This thesis discusses different technologies to reduce or eliminate the carbon dioxide emissions, when a fossil fuel is used for energy production. Emission reduction can be accomplished by separating the carbon dioxide for storage or reuse. There are three different ways of doing the separation. The carbon dioxide can be separated before the combustion, the process can be designed so that the carbon dioxide can be separated without any energy consumption and costly systems or the carbon dioxide can be separated from the flue gas stream. Two different concepts of separating the carbon dioxide from a combined cycle are compared, from the performance and the economical point of view, with a standard natural gas fired combined cycle where no attempts are made to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. One concept is to use absorption technologies to separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas stream. The other concept is based on a semi-closed gas turbine cycle using carbon dioxide as working fluid and combustion with pure oxygen, generated in an air-separating unit. The calculations show that the efficiency (power) drop is smaller for the first concept than for the second, 8.7 % points compared to 13.7 % points, when power is produced. When both heat and power are produced, the relation concerning the efficiency (power) remains. Regarding the overall efficiency (heat and power) the opposite relation is present. A possible carbon dioxide tax must exceed 0.21 SEK/kg CO{sub 2} for it to be profitable to separate carbon dioxide with any of these technologies.

  2. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  3. Sweet lake geopressured-geothermal project, Magma Gulf-Technadril/DOE Amoco Fee. Annual report, December 1, 1979-February 27, 1981. Volume I. Drilling and completion test well and disposal well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, R.W. (ed.)

    1982-06-01

    The Sweet lake site is located approximately 15 miles southeast of Lake Charles in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. A geological study showed that the major structure in this area is a graben. The dip of the beds is northwesterly into the basin. A well drilled into the deep basin would find the target sand below 18,000', at high pressures and temperatures. However, since there is no well control in the basin, the specific site was chosen on the 15,000' contour of the target sand in the eastern, more narrow part of the garben. Those key control wells are present within one mile of the test well. The information acquired by drilling the test well confirmed the earlier geologic study. The target sand was reached at 15,065', had a porosity of over 20% and a permeability to water of 300 md. The original reservoir pressure was 12,060 psi and the bottom hole temperature 299{sup 0}F. There are approximately 250 net feet of sand available for the perforation. The disposal well was drilled to a total depth of 7440'.

  4. Cantilever epitaxial process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Carol I.; Follstaedt, David M.; Mitchell, Christine C.; Han, Jung

    2003-07-29

    A process of growing a material on a substrate, particularly growing a Group II-VI or Group III-V material, by a vapor-phase growth technique where the growth process eliminates the need for utilization of a mask or removal of the substrate from the reactor at any time during the processing. A nucleation layer is first grown upon which a middle layer is grown to provide surfaces for subsequent lateral cantilever growth. The lateral growth rate is controlled by altering the reactor temperature, pressure, reactant concentrations or reactant flow rates. Semiconductor materials, such as GaN, can be produced with dislocation densities less than 10.sup.7 /cm.sup.2.

  5. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  6. Cryogenic process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining accurate fluid property databases with a commercial equation-solving software package running on a desktop computer allows simulation of cryogenic processes without extensive computer programming. Computer simulation can be a powerful tool for process development or optimization. Most engineering simulations to date have required extensive programming skills in languages such as Fortran, Pascal, etc. Authors of simulation code have also usually been responsible for choosing and writing the particular solution algorithm. This paper describes a method of simulating cryogenic processes with a commercial software package on a desktop personal computer that does not require these traditional programming tasks. Applications include modeling of cryogenic refrigerators, heat exchangers, vapor-cooled power leads, vapor pressure thermometers, and various other engineering problems

  7. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models....... These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety...... of process industries. The book builds on the extensive modelling experience of the authors, who have developed models for both research and industrial purposes. It complements existing books by the authors in the modelling area. Those areas include the traditional petroleum and petrochemical industries...

  8. Processes for xanthomonas biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelskirchen, K.; Stein, W.; Bahn, M.; Schieferstein, L.; Schindler, J.

    1984-03-27

    A process is described for producing xanthan gum in which the use of a stable, water-in-oil emulsion in the fermentation medium markedly lowers the viscosity of the medium, resulting in lower energy requirements for the process, and also resulting in enhanced yields of the biopolymer. In such an emulsion, the aqueous fermentation phase, with its microbial growth and metabolic processes, takes place in a finely dispersed homogeneous oil phase. The viscosity increase in each droplet of the aqueous nutrient solution will not noticeably affect this mixture in the fermenter because the viscosity of the reaction mixture in the fermenter is determined primarily by the viscosity of the oil phase. 45 claims

  9. Process window metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Chu, William; Hadel, Linda M.; Ho, Hok; Talvi, Peter

    2000-06-01

    This paper is the third of a series that defines a new approach to in-line lithography control. The first paper described the use of optically measurable line-shortening targets to enhance signal-to-noise and reduce measurement time. The second described the dual-tone optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement and analysis necessary to distinguish dose and defocus. Here we describe the marriage of dual-tone OCD to SEM-CD metrology that comprises what we call 'process window metrology' (PWM), the means to locate each measured site in dose and focus space relative to the allowed process window. PWM provides in-line process tracking and control essential to the successful implementation of low-k lithography.

  10. Business Process Requirement Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsa Etoundi Roger,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirement engineering is as an increasingly important discipline for supporting business process and workflow modeling, as these are designed to satisfy diverse customer needs, and increase the productivity of enterprise. Moreover, most customers hesitate to adopt a given product or service if the added value is not conformed to their desires. Dealing with customers, with a wide range of perspective, within an enterprise, is very complex. These perspectives are grounded in differences in skills, responsibility, knowledge and expertise of stakeholders. This holds more in the domain of business processes and workflows where the satisfaction of the customers is the must if these enterprises wish to deal with the pressure of the network economy. Based on the requirement engineering, we present in this paper an integration of RE approach in the modeling of business process and workflows. (Abstract

  11. Lapis SOI Pixel Process

    CERN Document Server

    Okihara, Masao; Miura, Noriyuki; Kuriyama, Naoya; Nagatomo, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    0.2 um fully-depleted SOI technology has been developed a for X-ray pixel detectors. To improve the detector performance, some advanced process technologies are developing continuously. To utilize the high resistivity FZ-SOI, slow ramp up and ramp down recipes are applied for the thermal processes in both of SOI wafer fabrication and pixel detector process. The suitable backside treatment is also applied to prevent increase of leakage current at backside damaged layer in the case of full depletion of substrate. Large detector chip about 66mm width and 30mm height can be obtained by stitching exposure technique for large detector chip. To improve cross-talk and radiation tolerance, the nested well structure and double- SOI wafer are now under investigation for advanced pixel structure.

  12. Foundations of signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Vetterli, Martin; Goyal, Vivek K

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression. The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localisation, the limitations of uncertainty and computational costs. Standard engineering notation is used throughout, making mathematical examples easy for students to follow, understand and apply. It includes over 150 homework problems and over 180 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, ...

  13. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  14. Topological signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing is the discipline of extracting information from collections of measurements. To be effective, the measurements must be organized and then filtered, detected, or transformed to expose the desired information.  Distortions caused by uncertainty, noise, and clutter degrade the performance of practical signal processing systems. In aggressively uncertain situations, the full truth about an underlying signal cannot be known.  This book develops the theory and practice of signal processing systems for these situations that extract useful, qualitative information using the mathematics of topology -- the study of spaces under continuous transformations.  Since the collection of continuous transformations is large and varied, tools which are topologically-motivated are automatically insensitive to substantial distortion. The target audience comprises practitioners as well as researchers, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  15. Stochastic processes inference theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Malempati M

    2014-01-01

    This is the revised and enlarged 2nd edition of the authors’ original text, which was intended to be a modest complement to Grenander's fundamental memoir on stochastic processes and related inference theory. The present volume gives a substantial account of regression analysis, both for stochastic processes and measures, and includes recent material on Ridge regression with some unexpected applications, for example in econometrics. The first three chapters can be used for a quarter or semester graduate course on inference on stochastic processes. The remaining chapters provide more advanced material on stochastic analysis suitable for graduate seminars and discussions, leading to dissertation or research work. In general, the book will be of interest to researchers in probability theory, mathematical statistics and electrical and information theory.

  16. Modern coating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Articles collected in this volume explain both the present state of technique and current developments and problems in the environment of the following coating processes: - Hardfacing welding and soldering; - Thermal spraying; - Thin film technique (CVD, PVD); - Galvanising. Apart from basic representation of the conventional use of the different processes, both the new technological and material developments are to the fore. In this context, the purposeful post-treatment of coatings and the combination of different processes to achieve special coating properties should be mentioned. Examples of this show the hot isostatic pressing or laser melting of sprayed coatings, the simultaneous spraying and shot-blasting and the combination of galvanic and thin film techniques for the manufacture of hybrid systems. A further important group of subjects concerns the testing of various coatings. (orig.)

  17. AERONET Version 3 processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) database has evolved in measurement accuracy, data quality products, availability to the scientific community over the course of 21 years with the support of NASA, PHOTONS and all federated partners. This evolution is periodically manifested as a new data version release by carefully reprocessing the entire database with the most current algorithms that fundamentally change the database and ultimately the data products used by the community. The newest processing, Version 3, will be released in 2015 after the entire database is reprocessed and real-time data processing becomes operational. All V 3 algorithms have been developed, individually vetted and represent four main categories: aerosol optical depth (AOD) processing, inversion processing, database management and new products. The primary trigger for release of V 3 lies with cloud screening of the direct sun observations and computation of AOD that will fundamentally change all data available for analysis and all subsequent retrieval products. This presentation will illustrate the innovative approach used for cloud screening and assesses the elements of V3 AOD relative to the current version. We will also present the advances in the inversion product processing with emphasis on the random and systematic uncertainty estimates. This processing will be applied to the new hybrid measurement scenario intended to provide inversion retrievals for all solar zenith angles. We will introduce automatic quality assurance criteria that will allow near real time quality assured aerosol products necessary for real time satellite and model validation and assimilation. Last we will introduce the new management structure that will improve access to the data database. The current version 2 will be supported for at least two years after the initial release of V3 to maintain continuity for on going investigations.

  18. NTP comparison process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  19. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  20. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin

    2011-01-01

    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  1. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  2. Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) is using a digital image processing system which employs NASA-developed technology. MIR's computer system is the largest radiology system in the world. It is used in diagnostic imaging. Blood vessels are injected with x-ray dye, and the images which are produced indicate whether arteries are hardened or blocked. A computer program developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory known as Mini-VICAR/IBIS was supplied to MIR by COSMIC. The program provides the basis for developing the computer imaging routines for data processing, contrast enhancement and picture display.

  3. Semantic and Process Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Oscar Fernández Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management systems support education at different levels of the education. This is very important for the process in which the higher education of Cuba is involved. Structural transformations of teaching are focused on supporting the foundation of the information society in the country. This paper describes technical aspects of the designing of a model for the integration of multiple knowledgemanagement tools supporting teaching. The proposal is based on the definition of an ontology for the explicit formal description of the semantic of motivations of students and teachers in the learning process. Its target is to facilitate knowledge spreading.

  4. Genomic signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    2007-01-01

    Genomic signal processing (GSP) can be defined as the analysis, processing, and use of genomic signals to gain biological knowledge, and the translation of that knowledge into systems-based applications that can be used to diagnose and treat genetic diseases. Situated at the crossroads of engineering, biology, mathematics, statistics, and computer science, GSP requires the development of both nonlinear dynamical models that adequately represent genomic regulation, and diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on these models. This book facilitates these developments by providing rigorous mathema

  5. An Integrated Desgin Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Present paper is placed in the discussion about how sustainable measures are integrated in the design process by architectural offices. It presents results from interviews with four leading Danish architectural offices working with sustainable architecture and their experiences with it, as well...... as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...

  6. An Integrated Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Present paper is placed in the discussion about how sustainable measures are integrated in the design process by architectural offices. It presents results from interviews with four leading Danish architectural offices working with sustainable architecture and their experiences with it, as well...... as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...

  7. Research Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  8. Mutually Testing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Giovanni; Hennessy, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In the standard testing theory of DeNicola-Hennessy one process is considered to be a refinement of another if every test guaranteed by the former is also guaranteed by the latter. In the domain of web services this has been recast, with processes viewed as servers and tests as clients. In this way the standard refinement preorder between servers is determined by their ability to satisfy clients. But in this setting there is also a natural refinement preorder between clients, determined by th...

  9. Food irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international symposium on food irradiation processing dealing with issues which affect the commercial introduction of the food irradiation process was held in Vienna in 1985. The symposium, which attracted close to 300 participants, was planned to interest not only scientists and food technologists, but also representatives of government agencies, the food industry, trade associations and consumer organizations. The symposium included a discussion of the technological and economic feasibility of applying ionizing energy for the preservation of food, and focused on the specific needs of developing countries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various presentations at this meeting

  10. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    investigated individually, with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding before the final integrated model is setup. In the sub-process investigations focus is addressed especially at aeration by bottom mounted diffusers and mechanical mixing of the activated sludge suspension via slowly rotating...... zones in mind, its special construction poses strict demands to the hydrodynamic model. In case study three the model is extended to a three-phase model where also the injection of air bubbles during the aeration process is modeled. The aeration of sludge is controlled through a simple expression...

  11. Reversible brazing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  12. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  13. Solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  14. Thermal stir welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A welding method is provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  15. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  16. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  17. The process of entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle

    2003-01-01

    between organisational growth and managerial role transformation in technology-based new ventures. The chapter begins by reviewing existing literature on organisational growth patterns and establishing a link to managerial roles in order to elucidate the basic premises of the study. The chapter...... for understanding the link between organisational growth and managerial role transformation.......Growing a technology-based new venture is a complex process because these ventures are embedded in turbulent environments that require fast organisational and managerial transformation. This chapter addresses the evolutionary process of such ventures. It seeks to provide insight into the link...

  18. Statecharts Via Process Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

    1999-01-01

    Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

  19. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  20. Exoplanet atmospheres physical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, astronomers have identified hundreds of extrasolar planets--planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Recent research in this burgeoning field has made it possible to observe and measure the atmospheres of these exoplanets. This is the first textbook to describe the basic physical processes--including radiative transfer, molecular absorption, and chemical processes--common to all planetary atmospheres, as well as the transit, eclipse, and thermal phase variation observations that are unique to exoplanets. In each chapter, Sara Seager offers a conceptual introdu

  1. Total Process Surveillance (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to operate a plant safely and economically, an operator requires a complete knowledge of the plant's operating state. Only a limited amount of information is generally available regarding the plant's current state, this being determined by a finite number of transducers measuring key process parameters. It is the responsibility of the operator to assimilate and interpret this, possibly conflicting, raw measurement data. An operator accomplishes this data interpretation task by utilising his knowledge of the operation of the process and his experience of its behaviour under certain well defined conditions. Under normal operating conditions the operator may use only a fairly basic mental model of the process to facilitate his understanding. However under off-normal plant conditions and especially those associated with a severe accident, this mental model may not be sufficient to understand the behaviour of the process. This is highly likely to be the case where the process system has undergone a structural change as a result of a severe accident. As with any management task, the prime components of dealing with a severe accident condition are monitoring and control. This implies the need to obtain information on the process state, assimilate this information, interpret and understand what it means in the context of the process, leading to a control decision and thus a control action. A key task here is the gathering and assimilation of all the available plant data. The transducers installed on a plant represent a diverse range of information sources. Traditionally these are considered individually or in functional groups, such as fuel channel outlet temperatures. However each transducer measurement is almost invariably linked to other different transducer measurements via the physics of the process. This leads to the concept of analytical redundancy among a given set of diverse transducers. In an off-normal plant condition, the ability to exploit this

  2. Conceptualizing operations strategy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present insights into operations strategy (OS) in practice. It outlines a conceptualization and model of OS processes and, based on findings from an in-depth and longitudinal case study, contributes to further development of extant OS models and methods...

  3. Information Processing of Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Carol R.; Burgess, Ann W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a neuropsychosocial model of information processing to explain a victimization experience, specifically child sexual abuse. It surveys the relation of sensation, perception, and cognition as a systematic way to provide a framework for studying human behavior and describing human response to traumatic events. (Author/JDD)

  4. Advanced Biosignal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Nait-Ali, Amine

    2009-01-01

    Presents the principle of many advanced biosignal processing techniques. This title introduces the main biosignal properties and the acquisition techniques. It concerns one of the most intensively used biosignals in the clinical routine, namely the Electrocardiogram, the Elektroenzephalogram, the Electromyogram and the Evoked Potential

  5. Uranium recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process of recovering uranium from an aqueous medium containing both it and sulfuric acid which comprises contacting the medium with an anion exchange resin having tertiary amine groups, said resin being the product of (a) the reaction of polyethyleneimine and a dihaloalkane and (b) the subsequent reductive alkylation of the product of (a)

  6. Pattern evaporation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the process of thermal evaporation of a foundry pattern. At several research-development centres, studies have been carried out to examine the physico-chemical phenomena that take place in foundry mould filled with polystyrene pattern when it is poured with molten metal. In the technique of evaporative patterns, the process of mould filling with molten metal (the said mould holding inside a polystyrene pattern is interrelated with the process of thermal decomposition of this pattern. The transformation of an evaporative pattern (e.g. made from foamed polystyrene from the solid into liquid and then gaseous state occurs as a result of the thermal effect that the liquid metal exerts onto this pattern. Consequently, at the liquid metal-pattern-mould phase boundary some physico-chemical phenomena take place, which until now have not been fully explained. When the pattern is evaporating, some solid and gaseous products are evolved, e.g. CO, CO2, H2, N2, and hydrocarbons, e.g. styrene, toluene, ethane, methane, benzene [16, 23]. The process of polystyrene pattern evaporation in foundry mould under the effect of molten metal is of a very complex nature and depends on many different factors, still not fully investigated. The kinetics of pattern evaporation is also affected by the technological properties of foundry mould, e.g. permeability, thermophysical properties, parameters of the gating system, temperature of pouring, properties of pattern material, and the size of pattern-liquid metal contact surface.

  7. Instruction sequence processing operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; C.A. Middelburg

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns instruction sequences whose execution involves the processing of instructions by an execution environment that offers a family of services and may yield a Boolean value at termination. We introduce a composition operator for families of services and three operators that have a di

  8. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  9. The Serendipitous Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Ryder, Phyllis Mentzell

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study asking faculty in the first-year writing program and instruction librarians about their research process focusing on results specifically related to serendipity. Steps to prepare for serendipity are highlighted as well as a model for incorporating serendipity into a first-year writing…

  10. Automated process planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, W.

    1978-01-01

    Program helps process engineers set up manufacturing plans for machined parts. System allows one to develop and store library of similar parts characteristics, as related to particular facility. Information is then used in interactive system to help develop manufacturing plans that meet required standards.

  11. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  12. Ultrahigh bandwidth signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-04-01

    Optical time lenses have proven to be very versatile for advanced optical signal processing. Based on a controlled interplay between dispersion and phase-modulation by e.g. four-wave mixing, the processing is phase-preserving, and hence useful for all types of data signals including coherent multi-level modulation formats. This has enabled processing of phase-modulated spectrally efficient data signals, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) signals. In that case, a spectral telescope system was used, using two time lenses with different focal lengths (chirp rates), yielding a spectral magnification of the OFDM signal. Utilising such telescopic arrangements, it has become possible to perform a number of interesting functionalities, which will be described in the presentation. This includes conversion from OFDM to Nyquist WDM, compression of WDM channels to a single Nyquist channel and WDM regeneration. These operations require a broad bandwidth nonlinear platform, and novel photonic integrated nonlinear platforms like aluminum gallium arsenide nano-waveguides used for 1.28 Tbaud optical signal processing will be described.

  13. Diasporic Relationships and Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    How does moving across the geographical borders affect the relationships of diaspora members both here – in the country of residence and there- in the country of origin? The article delineates some of the processes through gendered experiences of the young adults perceived as active actors based...

  14. Stochastic conditional intensity processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauwens, Luc; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    model allows for a wide range of (cross-)autocorrelation structures in multivariate point processes. The model is estimated by simulated maximum likelihood (SML) using the efficient importance sampling (EIS) technique. By modeling price intensities based on NYSE trading, we provide significant evidence...

  15. Authenticizing the Research Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Elizondo-Schmelkes, MA, Ph.D. Candidate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the main concern of students (national and international who are trying to get a postgraduate degree in a third world (or “in means of development” country. The emergent problem found is that students have to finish their thesis or dissertation but they do not really know how to accomplish this goal. They resolve this problem by authenticizing the process as their own. The theory of authenticizing involves compassing their way to solve the problem of advancing in the research process. Compassing allows the student to authenticize his/her research process, making it a personal and „owned. process. The main categories of compassing are the intellectual, physical and emotional dimension patterns that the student has, learns and follows in order to finish the project and get a degree. Authenticizing implies to author with authenticity their thesis or dissertation. Compassing allows them to do this in their own way, at their own pace or time and with their own internal resources, strengths and weaknesses.

  16. Self-normalized processes

    CERN Document Server

    Heyde, C C

    2008-01-01

    Self-normalized processes are of common occurrence in probabilistic and statistical studies. This volume covers developments in the area, including self-normalized large and moderate deviations, and laws of the iterated logarithms for self-normalized martingales. It treats the theory and applications of self-normalization.

  17. Cascaded Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kuniaki; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin Carl

    1982-12-01

    We investigate the counting statistics for stationary and nonstationary cascaded Poisson processes. A simple equation is obtained for the variance-to-mean ratio in the limit of long counting times. Explicit expressions for the forward-recurrence and inter-event-time probability density functions are also obtained. The results are expected to be of use in a number of areas of physics.

  18. Sustainability of abrasive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of research on sustainability of abrasive processes. It incorporates results from a round robin study on ‘‘energy-efficiency of abrasive processes’’ which has been carried out within the scientific technical committee ‘‘abrasive processes’’ (STC G) of CIRP...

  19. Perspective of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of the applications of radiation techniques is very wide. This paper only relates to the applications of radiation techniques in industries including radiation chemical industry, radiation processing of foods and environmental protection by radiation, but the nuclear instruments and the instrumentations of radiation are out-side of our study. (author)

  20. Electrochemical Discharge Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali V. Kulkarni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical discharge machining process is evolving as a promising micromachiningprocess. The experimental investigations in the present work substantiate this trend. In the presentwork, in situ, synchronised, transient temperature and current measurements have been carriedout. The need for the transient measurements arose due to the time-varying nature of the dischargeformation and time varying circuit current. Synchronised and transient measurements revealedthe discrete nature of the process. It also helped in formulating the basic mechanism for thedischarge formation and the material removal in the process. Temperature profile on workpieceand in electrochemical discharge machining cell is experimentally measured using pyrometer,and two varieties of K-type thermocouples. Surface topography of the discharge-affected zoneson the workpiece has been carried out using scanning electron microscope. Measurements andsurface topographical studies reveal the potential use of this process for machining in micronregime. With careful experimental set-up design, suitable supply voltage and its polarity, theprocess can be applied for both micromachining and micro-deposition. It can be extended formachining and or deposition of wide range of materials.

  1. Industrial Information Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates, how cross-functional business processes may be aligned with product specification systems in an intra-organizational environment by integrating planning systems and expert systems, thereby providing an end-to-end integrated and an automated solution to the “build-to-order...

  2. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena LUCA (DEDIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering determines the change of organizational functions from an orientation focused on operations through a multidimensional approach. Former employees who were mere executors are now determined to take their own decisions and as a result the functional departments lose their reason to exist. Managers do not act anymore as supervisors, but mainly as mentors, while the employees focus more attention on customer needs and less than the head’s. Under these conditions, new organizational paradigms are required, the most important being that of learning organizations. In order to implement a reengineering of the economic processes and promoting a new organizational paradigm the information technology plays a decisive role. The article presents some results obtained in a research theme ANSTI funded by contract no. 501/2000. Economic and financial analysis is performed in order to know the current situation to achieve better results in the future. One of its objectives is the production analyzed as a labour process and the interaction elements of this process. The indicators investigated in the analysis of financial and economic activity of production reflect the development directions, the means and resources to accomplish predetermined objectives and express the results and effectiveness of what is expected.

  3. Food processing in action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  4. Revitalizing stagnated policy processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Kessener, B.

    2007-01-01

    Many complex policy processes face stagnations. People involved sense that continuing along existing paths will not produce those outcomes that are desired and deemed necessary. But changing and developing new action strategies is difficult. This article presents the results of an action research th

  5. Udfordringer for transkulturelle processer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    at indskrænke mulighedsrummet for transkulturelle processer og for det at lære fra en terra nullius position. Der er fokus på empiriske undersøgelser af kultursyn i lovgivning om opholdstilladelse fra 2010, lovgivning om statsborgerskab fra 2006 samt kultursyn i den i 2003 indførte obligatoriske...

  6. Antecedents of institutional process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Díez de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to advance the understanding of why organizations are responsive to the institutionalization process. To this end, we describe key elements that help explain the origin of this process. Furthermore, this research has followed a qualitative research methodology, using the ‘concept mapping’ technique, and grouping the different constructs items that act as motivating factors in the transformation of organizations to institutions. Methodologically we have tried to overlook the differentiation between old and new institutionalism, this approach follows the ideas of those researchers that question the suitability of drawing a line between the “old” and the “new” theory. We consider that the role of the CEO is essential in driving the institutionalization process, though usually their decisions are supported or have passed through the filter of the organization governance staff or the board of directors. Any progress that the organization makes depends fundamentally on the capabilities, perceptions, training and mindset of the CEO. The research results reinforce several key topics suggested in the literature on institutional theory. Particularly, we have proposed a classification with the motives that give rise to institutional initiatives: institutional authority; advantage in management; and, social involvement. This classification is consistent, to a larger extend, to the pillars of institutionalization that have been defined in the institutional theory literature, helping to understand, in more detail, the origin of the business processes and the background or motivations that generates and guide them.

  7. Thermal radiation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.; Paerels, F.; Durret, F.; Schindler, S.; Richter, P.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the different physical processes that are important to understand the thermal X-ray emission and absorption spectra of the diffuse gas in clusters of galaxies and the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The ionisation balance, line and continuum emission and absorption properties are reviewed

  8. Supplier Evaluation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Ellegaard, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illuminate how supplier evaluation practices are linked to supplier performance improvements. Specifically, the paper investigates how performance information travelling between the evaluating buyer and the evaluated suppliers is shaped and reshaped in th...... supplier evaluation process as its unit of analysis....

  9. Process in Humanistic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Adrian

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the themes and purposes of humanistic education in the instruction of English-as-a-Second-Language, from the perspective of teacher, trainer, student, colleague, parent, and observer, focusing on the processes, values, and attitudes that underpin humanistic education and that are drawn from humanistic psychology. (Author/CB)

  10. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina;

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...

  11. Pragmatics and Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Lynn Sebestyen; Downey, Doris C.

    1983-01-01

    Findings from studies of attention, semantic memory, and the pragmatics of language are reviewed and implications for intervention with children whose language is disordered are discussed. Selectivity and resource allocation are the attention topics considered while schemata, frames, inferences, and narrative discourse processing are addressed…

  12. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  13. Image-Processing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

  14. Image Processing for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Image Processing for Teaching project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional teaching. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including…

  15. Matchmaking for business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Fankhauser, Peter; Mahleko, Bendick; Neuhold, Erich

    2003-01-01

    Web services have a potential to enhance B2B ecommerce over the Internet by allowing companies and organizations to publish their business processes on service directories where potential trading partners can find them. This can give rise to new business paradigms based on ad-hoc trading relations a

  16. Asymmetric inclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2011-10-01

    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites’ occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  17. Rethinking lessons learned processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttler, T.; Lukosch, S.G.; Kolfschoten, G.L.; Verbraeck, A.

    2012-01-01

    Lessons learned are one way to retain experience and knowledge in project-based organizations, helping them to prevent reinventin,g the wheel or to repeat past mistakes. However, there are several challenges that make these lessonts learned processes a challenging endeavor. These include capturing k

  18. Behavioural hybrid process calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, H.; Krilavicius, T.

    2005-01-01

    Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in th

  19. Gaia Data Processing Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    O'Mullane, W; Bailer-Jones, C; Bastian, U; Brown, A; Drimmel, R; Eyer, L; Huc, C; Jansen, F; Katz, D; Lindegren, L; Pourbaix, D; Luri, X; Mignard, F; Torra, J; van Leeuwen, F

    2006-01-01

    Gaia is ESA's ambitious space astrometry mission the main objective of which is to astrometrically and spectro-photometrically map 1000 Million celestial objects (mostly in our galaxy) with unprecedented accuracy. The announcement of opportunity for the data processing will be issued by ESA late in 2006. The Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been formed recently and is preparing an answer. The satellite will downlink close to 100 TB of raw telemetry data over 5 years. To achieve its required accuracy of a few 10s of Microarcsecond astrometry, a highly involved processing of this data is required. In addition to the main astrometric instrument Gaia will host a Radial Velocity instrument, two low-resolution dispersers for multi-color photometry and two Star Mappers. Gaia is a flying Giga Pixel camera. The various instruments each require relatively complex processing while at the same time being interdependent. We describe the overall composition of the DPAC and the envisaged overall archi...

  20. A visual analysis of the process of process modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, J Jan; Vanderfeesten, ITP Irene; Pinggera, J.; Reijers, HA Hajo; Weber, B.; Poels, G

    2015-01-01

    The construction of business process models has become an important requisite in the analysis and optimization of processes. The success of the analysis and optimization efforts heavily depends on the quality of the models. Therefore, a research domain emerged that studies the process of process modeling. This paper contributes to this research by presenting a way of visualizing the different steps a modeler undertakes to construct a process model, in a so-called process of process modeling C...

  1. Visualizing the Process of Process Modeling with PPMCharts

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, Jan; Vanderfeesten, Irene; Pinggera, Jakob; Reijers, Hajo A.; Weber, Barbara; Poels, Geert

    2015-01-01

    In the quest for knowledge about how to make good process models, recent research focus is shifting from studying the quality of process models to studying the process of process modeling (often abbreviated as PPM) itself. This paper reports on our efforts to visualize this specific process in such a way that relevant characteristics of the modeling process can be observed graphically. By recording each modeling operation in a modeling process, one can build an event log that can be used as i...

  2. Managing Process Variants in the Process Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hallerbach, A.; Bauer, Th.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    When designing process-aware information systems, often variants of the same process have to be specified. Each variant then constitutes an adjustment of a particular process to specific requirements building the process context. Current Business Process Management (BPM) tools do not adequately support the management of process variants. Usually, the variants have to be kept in separate process models. This leads to huge modeling and maintenance efforts. In particular, more fundamental proces...

  3. Biosphere Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor

  4. Cassini science planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Brian G.; Ray, Trina L.

    2004-01-01

    The mission design for Cassini-Huygens calls for a four-year orbital survey of the Saturnian system and the descent into the Titan atmosphere and eventual soft-landing of the Huygens probe. The Cassini orbiter tour consists of 76 orbits around Saturn with 44 close Titan flybys and 8 targeted icy satellite flybys. The Cassini orbiter spacecraft carries twelve scientific instruments that will perform a wide range of observations on a multitude of designated targets. The science opportunities, frequency of encounters, the length of the Tour, and the use of distributed operations pose significant challenges for developing the science plan for the orbiter mission. The Cassini Science Planning Process is the process used to develop and integrate the science and engineering plan that incorporates an acceptable level of science required to meet the primary mission objectives far the orbiter. The bulk of the integrated science and engineering plan will be developed prior to Saturn Orbit Insertion (Sol). The Science Planning Process consists of three elements: 1) the creation of the Tour Atlas, which identifies the science opportunities in the tour, 2) the development of the Science Operations Plan (SOP), which is the conflict-free timeline of all science observations and engineering activities, a constraint-checked spacecraft pointing profile, and data volume allocations to the science instruments, and 3) an Aftermarket and SOP Update process, which is used to update the SOP while in tour with the latest information on spacecraft performance, science opportunities, and ephemerides. This paper will discuss the various elements of the Science Planning Process used on the Cassini Mission to integrate, implement, and adapt the science and engineering activity plans for Tour.

  5. Biosphere Process Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor

  6. 5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TSP is notified in writing that the legal process has been appealed, and that the effect of the filing... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legal processes. 1653.13... PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Legal Process for the Enforcement of a Participant's...

  7. Modeling of biopharmaceutical processes. Part 2: Process chromatography unit operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; McCue, Justin; Engel, Philip;

    2008-01-01

    Process modeling can be a useful tool to aid in process development, process optimization, and process scale-up. When modeling a chromatography process, one must first select the appropriate models that describe the mass transfer and adsorption that occurs within the porous adsorbent...

  8. Process and Post-Process: A Discursive History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Paul Kei

    2003-01-01

    Examines the history of process and post-process in composition studies, focusing on ways in which terms, such as "current-traditional rhetoric,""process," and "post-process" have contributed to the discursive construction of reality. Argues that use of the term post-process in the context of second language writing needs to be guided by a…

  9. Managing Process Variants in the Process Life Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallerbach, A.; Bauer, Th.; Reichert, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    When designing process-aware information systems, often variants of the same process have to be specified. Each variant then constitutes an adjustment of a particular process to specific requirements building the process context. Current Business Process Management (BPM) tools do not adequately supp

  10. Meadow enriched ACP process algebras

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Bergstra; Middelburg, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an ACP process algebra. The models of the axiom system ACP are the origin of this notion. ACP process algebras have to do with processes in which no data are involved. We also introduce the notion of a meadow enriched ACP process algebra, which is a simple generalization of the notion of an ACP process algebra to processes in which data are involved. In meadow enriched ACP process algebras, the mathematical structure for data is a meadow.

  11. Clinical Process Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup Pedersen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    knowledge to the point of care in a proactive manner. Attention has been on the translation of guidelines and the integration with the elec-tronic medical record (EMR). Less attention has been paid to the evaluation of clinical practice in relation to clinical guide-lines. I claim that single patient cases......, generalized processes de-ducted from many patient cases and clinical guidelines, are all guidelines that may be used in clinical reasoning. The differ-ence is the validity of the suggested actions and decisions. In the case of generalized processes deducted from EMRs, we have "what we usually do" practice i......Ideally, clinical guidelines are created from evidence based medicine. Translating the narrative semi-structured article for-mat of the clinical guidelines into a computable language makes it possible to utilize this information in IT-supported clinical reasoning, and thereby bring the relevant...

  12. Youpi: YOUr processing PIpeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerville, Mathias; Sémah, Gregory

    2012-03-01

    Youpi is a portable, easy to use web application providing high level functionalities to perform data reduction on scientific FITS images. Built on top of various open source reduction tools released to the community by TERAPIX (http://terapix.iap.fr), Youpi can help organize data, manage processing jobs on a computer cluster in real time (using Condor) and facilitate teamwork by allowing fine-grain sharing of results and data. Youpi is modular and comes with plugins which perform, from within a browser, various processing tasks such as evaluating the quality of incoming images (using the QualityFITS software package), computing astrometric and photometric solutions (using SCAMP), resampling and co-adding FITS images (using SWarp) and extracting sources and building source catalogues from astronomical images (using SExtractor). Youpi is useful for small to medium-sized data reduction projects; it is free and is published under the GNU General Public License.

  13. Integral Politics as Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Atlee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the definition proposed here, integral politics can be a process of integrating diverse perspectives into wholesome guidance for a community or society. Characteristics that follow from this definition have ramifications for understanding what such political processes involve. Politics becomes integral as it transcends partisan battle and nurtures generative conversation toward the common good. Problems, conflicts and crises become opportunities for new (or renewed social coherence. Conversational methodologies abound that can help citizen awareness temporarily expand during policy-making, thus helping raise society’s manifested developmental stage. Convening archetypal stakeholders or randomly selected citizens in conversations designed to engage the broader public enhances democratic legitimacy. With minimal issue- and candidate-advocacy, integral political leaders would develop society’s capacity to use integral conversational tools to improve its health, resilience, and collective intelligence. This both furthers and manifests evolution becoming conscious of itself.

  14. Posttranslational processing of progastrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jens René; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2010-01-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are homologous hormones with important functions in the brain and the gut. Gastrin is the main regulator of gastric acid secretion and gastric mucosal growth, whereas cholecystokinin regulates gall bladder emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion and besides acts...... as a major neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The tissue-specific expression of the hormones is regulated at the transcriptional level, but the posttranslational phase is also decisive and is highly complex in order to ensure accurate maturation of the prohormones in a cell...... processing progastrin is often greatly disturbed in neoplastic cells.The posttranslational phase of the biogenesis of gastrin and the various progastrin products in gastrin gene-expressing tissues is now reviewed here. In addition, the individual contributions of the processing enzymes are discussed...

  15. Speech processing standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1990-05-01

    Speech processing standards are given for 64, 32, 16 kb/s and lower rate speech and more generally, speech-band signals which are or will be promulgated by CCITT and NATO. The International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT) of the International body which deals, among other things, with speech processing within the context of ISDN. Within NATO there are also bodies promulgating standards which make interoperability, possible without complex and expensive interfaces. Some of the applications for low-bit rate voice and the related work undertaken by CCITT Study Groups which are responsible for developing standards in terms of encoding algorithms, codec design objectives as well as standards on the assessment of speech quality, are highlighted.

  16. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  17. PREFACE: Quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew; Ferry, David; Stoneham, Marshall

    2006-05-01

    Microelectronics and the classical information technologies transformed the physics of semiconductors. Photonics has given optical materials a new direction. Quantum information technologies, we believe, will have immense impact on condensed matter physics. The novel systems of quantum information processing need to be designed and made. Their behaviours must be manipulated in ways that are intrinsically quantal and generally nanoscale. Both in this special issue and in previous issues (see e.g., Spiller T P and Munro W J 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 V1-10) we see the emergence of new ideas that link the fundamentals of science to the pragmatism of market-led industry. We hope these papers will be followed by many others on quantum information processing in the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.

  18. Nested Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, John; Wang, Chong; Blei, David M; Jordan, Michael I

    2015-02-01

    We develop a nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) for hierarchical topic modeling. The nHDP generalizes the nested Chinese restaurant process (nCRP) to allow each word to follow its own path to a topic node according to a per-document distribution over the paths on a shared tree. This alleviates the rigid, single-path formulation assumed by the nCRP, allowing documents to easily express complex thematic borrowings. We derive a stochastic variational inference algorithm for the model, which enables efficient inference for massive collections of text documents. We demonstrate our algorithm on 1.8 million documents from The New York Times and 2.7 million documents from Wikipedia. PMID:26353240

  19. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Engagement is an essential element of the player experience, and the concept is described in various ways in the literature. To gain a more detailed comprehension of this multifaceted concept, and in order to better understand what aspects can be used to evaluate engaging game play and to design...... engaging user experiences, this study investigates one dimension of player engagement by empirically identifying the components associated with the desire to continue playing. Based on a description of the characteristics of player engagement, a series of surveys were developed to discover the components......, categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  20. Processing of Video Records

    OpenAIRE

    Čerešňák, Michal

    2013-01-01

    V této práci je prezentován systém pro zpracování videa se zaměřením na detekci a rozeznávání obličejů. Systém zpracovává video stream z kamery v reálném čase. K detekci obličejů využívá ViolaJones detektor. Pro rozeznávání obličejů je použita metoda SURF. Systém je implementován v jazyce C# a využívá knihovnu OpenCV a Emgu CV wrapper. This thesis presents a system for video processing focused on face detection and recognition. This system processes a video stream from camer...

  1. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it.

  2. Yeast nuclear RNA processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Bernstein; Eric; A; Toth

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear RNA processing requires dynamic and intricately regulated machinery composed of multiple enzymes and their cofactors.In this review,we summarize recent experiments using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system that have yielded important insights regarding the conversion of pre-RNAs to functional RNAs,and the elimination of aberrant RNAs and unneeded intermediates from the nuclear RNA pool.Much progress has been made recently in describing the 3D structure of many elements of the nuclear degradation machinery and its cofactors.Similarly,the regulatory mechanisms that govern RNA processing are gradually coming into focus.Such advances invariably generate many new questions,which we highlight in this review.

  3. Instabilities in sensory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  4. Thin film interconnect processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Farid

    Interconnects and associated photolithography and etching processes play a dominant role in the feature shrinkage of electronic devices. Most interconnects are fabricated by use of thin film processing techniques. Planarization of dielectrics and novel metal deposition methods are the focus of current investigations. Spin-on glass, polyimides, etch-back, bias-sputtered quartz, and plasma-enhanced conformal films are being used to obtain planarized dielectrics over which metal films can be reliably deposited. Recent trends have been towards chemical vapor depositions of metals and refractory metal silicides. Interconnects of the future will be used in conjunction with planarized dielectric layers. Reliability of devices will depend to a large extent on the quality of the interconnects.

  5. Improving staff selection processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerinus, Marie; Shannon, Marina

    2014-11-11

    This article, the second in a series of articles on Leading Better Care, describes the actions undertaken in recent years in NHS Lanarkshire to improve selection processes for nursing, midwifery and allied health professional (NMAHP) posts. This is an area of significant interest to these professions, management colleagues and patients given the pivotal importance of NMAHPs to patient care and experience. In recent times the importance of selecting staff not only with the right qualifications but also with the right attributes has been highlighted to ensure patients are well cared for in a safe, effective and compassionate manner. The article focuses on NMAHP selection processes, tracking local, collaborative development work undertaken to date. It presents an overview of some of the work being implemented, highlights a range of important factors, outlines how evaluation is progressing and concludes by recommending further empirical research.

  6. Soft Pion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Y.

    1968-01-01

    My talk is concerned with a review, not necessarily of the latest theoretical developments, but rather of an old idea which has contributed to recent theoretical activities. By soft pion processes I mean processes in which low energy pions are emitted or absorbed or scattered, just as we use the word soft photon in a similar context. Speaking more quantitatively, we may call a pion soft if its energy is small compared to a natural scale in the reaction. This scale is determined by the particular dynamics of pion interaction, and one may roughly say that a pion is soft if its energy is small compared to the energies of the other individual particles that participate in the reaction. It is important to note at this point that pion is by far the lightest member of all the hadrons, and much of the success of the soft pion formulas depends on this fact.

  7. Plutonium dissolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  8. Attentional processes and meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Holley S; Adair, Kathryn C

    2010-12-01

    Visual attentional processing was examined in adult meditators and non-meditators on behavioral measures of change blindness, concentration, perspective-shifting, selective attention, and sustained inattentional blindness. Results showed that meditators (1) noticed more changes in flickering scenes and noticed them more quickly, (2) counted more accurately in a challenging concentration task, (3) identified a greater number of alternative perspectives in multiple perspectives images, and (4) showed less interference from invalid cues in a visual selective attention task, but (5) did not differ on a measure of sustained inattentional blindness. Together, results show that regular meditation is associated with more accurate, efficient, and flexible visual attentional processing across diverse tasks that have high face validity outside of the laboratory. Furthermore, effects were assessed in a context separate from actual meditation practice, suggesting that meditators' better visual attention is not just immediate, but extends to contexts separate from meditation practice.

  9. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it. PMID:26571974

  10. A Logical Process Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  11. Process gas solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for withdrawing gaseous UF6 from a first system and directing same into a second system for converting the gas to liquid UF6 at an elevated temperature, additionally including the step of withdrawing the resulting liquid UF6 from the second system, subjecting it to a specified sequence of flash-evaporation, cooling and solidification operations, and storing it as a solid in a plurality of storage vessels. (author)

  12. Business processes optimization possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Mitreva, Elizabeta; Taskov, Nako; Filiposki, Oliver; Boskov, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model and opportunities for better performance, greater efficiency and effectiveness of companies, through optimization of the business processes, change of corporate culture and manners of taking full advantage of the business potential. The benefits of implementation of this model not only increase business results of companies and will continue to serve as the driving force for a continuous improvement, but also increasing the commitment of the top management and...

  13. A catalytic cracking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degnan, T.F.; Helton, T.E.

    1995-07-20

    Heavy oils are subjected to catalytic cracking in the absence of added hydrogen using a catalyst containing a zeolite having the structure of ZSM-12 and a large-pore crystalline zeolite having a Constraint Index less than about 1. The process is able to effect a bulk conversion of the oil at the same time yielding a higher octane gasoline and increased light olefin content. (author)

  14. Disability and Identity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Garzón D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a reflection about the Disabilitylike a human phenomenon, which needsnot only new definitions if not a criticism pointof view as a Concept, with the end of indicaterepresentations forms not only for people withdisabilities if not for the citizens in general.Considers discourses that identify argumentsfrom social sciences, appearing the Disabilitylike a differentiate condition between humanbeings, mainly for an exclusion process that announcesocial behaviors in relations with thepersons with disabilities.

  15. Exact Numerical Processing

    OpenAIRE

    García Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Mora Pascual, Jerónimo Manuel; Mora Mora, Higinio

    2003-01-01

    A model of an exact arithmetic processing is presented. We describe a representation format that gives us a greater expressive capability and covers a wider numerical set. The rational numbers are represented by means of fractional notation and explicit codification of its periodic part. We also give a brief description of exact arithmetic operations on the proposed format. This model constitutes a good alternative for the symbolic arithmetic, in special when numerical exact values are requir...

  16. Karst processes and time

    OpenAIRE

    Bosák, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Karst evolution depends particularly on the time available for process evolution and on the geographical and geological conditions of the exposure of the rock. The longer the time, the higher the hydraulic gradient and the larger the amount of solvent water entering the karst system, the more evolved is the karst. In general, stratigraphic discontinuities directly influence the intensity and extent of karstification. Unconformities influence the stratigraphy of the karst through the time-span...

  17. The Thermox Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thermox process is a process developed by AB Atomenergi for the decladding and dissolution of irradiated Zircaloy-2 clad uranium dioxide fuel elements and consists of the following stages: 1. Decladding by means of thermal oxidation of the Zircaloy-2 with oxygen and water vapour at 825 C using nitrogen as a catalyst. 2. Oxidation of the uranium dioxide pellets with air and oxygen to U3O8 at a temperature of 450 - 650 C. 3. Dissolving and leaching the uranium oxides with dilute nitric acid leaving the insoluble zirconium oxide as a residue. 4. Filtering the solution and washing the residues of the cladding. The work has included the following parts; The laboratory scale investigation of the conditions for the oxidation of Zircaloy-2 in various gas mixtures and of the conditions for oxidizing and dissolving sintered UO2 pellets; The development on a pilot plant scale of suitable apparatus and process techniques for the safe and reproducible treatment of half length inactive fuel elements; Studies of some special operation and handling problems, which have to be solved before the method can be applied in full scale. Five half length fuel elements have been treated, and the results have been satisfactory. The pilot plant experiments have proved that inactive fuel elements can be decanned, oxidized and dissolved by means of the Thermox process. Solutions and canning residues are easy to filter, separate, and handle and are free from corroding agents. The uranium losses can be kept very low. The zirconium dioxide is obtained in a form suitable for permanent disposal

  18. Topology and mental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeay, H

    2000-08-01

    The study reported here considers the effect of rotation on the decision time taken to compare nonrigid objects, presented as like and unlike pairs of knots and unknots. The results for 48 subjects, 21 to 45 years old, support the notion that images which have a characteristic 'foundation part' are more easily stored and accessed in the brain. Also, there is evidence that the comparison of deformable objects is processed by mental strategies other than self-evident mental rotation.

  19. Electrochemical Discharge Machining Process

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali V. Kulkarni

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical discharge machining process is evolving as a promising micromachiningprocess. The experimental investigations in the present work substantiate this trend. In the presentwork, in situ, synchronised, transient temperature and current measurements have been carriedout. The need for the transient measurements arose due to the time-varying nature of the dischargeformation and time varying circuit current. Synchronised and transient measurements revealedthe discrete nature of the pr...

  20. Thermal radiation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaastra, J. S.; Paerels, F.; Durret, F; S. Schindler; Richter, P.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the different physical processes that are important to understand the thermal X-ray emission and absorption spectra of the diffuse gas in clusters of galaxies and the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The ionisation balance, line and continuum emission and absorption properties are reviewed and several practical examples are given that illustrate the most important diagnostic features in the X-ray spectra.