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Sample records for amoco cadiz oil

  1. Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, A J

    1978-05-01

    This report gives a preliminary account of the events surrounding the wreck of the Amoco Cadiz on the Brittany coast in March, which caused the most massive oil pollution on record. The sequence of events is outlined. Also reported are details of clean-up of beaches as well as appearance and biological effects of oil. Further studies which will continue for years include: population dynamics (species of Littorina); feeding, reproduction, settlement of Spirorbis sp; surveillance of echinoderm and crustacean populations; changes in growth and development of species of red algae; changes in concentrations of bacteria, meiofauna, chlorophyll and organic material. There are indications of problems likely to arise in: sheltered areas (sediments, salt marsh vegetation); sandy shores; upper shore vegetation (higher plants, lichens); algae (temporary loss of algal cover); intertidal macrofauna; seabirds (mortality); economy (fishing, tourism, seaweed used for fertilizer).

  2. Birds oiled during the Amoco Cadiz incident: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.H.; Monnat, J.Y.; Cadbury, C.J.; Stowe, T.J.

    1978-11-01

    More than 4500 oiled birds were collected from beaches in Northwest France and the Channel Islands following the oil spillage from the super tanker Amoco Cadiz in March 1978. Some 33 bird species were recorded oiled. A notable feature of the incident was the high proportion of puffins among the birds known to have been oiled. In normal years, puffins are considered to be relatively uncommon off Brittany in spring, and so the high proportion of this species among the casualties was unexpected. A relatively large number of shags and divers were also oiled. (1 map, 8 references, 2 tables)

  3. Abnormal development of Dentalium due to the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.SJ.; Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    A comparison was made between the development of Dentalium eggs, spawned by animals, collected before and after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Development of eggs from animals collected before the oil spill was significantly better than development of eggs from animals collected after the oil spill. It

  4. Effects of the ``Amoco Cadiz'' oil spill on zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samain, J. F.; Moal, J.; Coum, A.; Le Coz, J. R.; Daniel, J. Y.

    1980-03-01

    A survey of zooplankton physiology on the northern coast of Brittany (France) was carried out over a one-year period by comparing two estuarine areas, one oil-polluted area (Aber Benoit) following the oil spill by the tanker “Amoco Cadiz” and one non-oil-polluted area (Rade de Brest). A new approach to an ecological survey was made by describing trophic relationships using analysis of digestive enzyme equipment (amylase and trypsin) of zooplankton organisms, mesoplankton populations and some selected species. These measurements allowed determination of (a) groups of populations with homogeneous trophic and faunistic characteristics and (b) groups of species with homogeneous trophic characteristics. The study of the appearance of these groups over a one-year period revealed the succession of populations and their adaptation to the environment on the basis of biochemical analysis. These phenomena observed in the compared areas showed marked differences in the most polluted areas during the productive spring period. Specific treatment of the data using unusual correlations between digestive enzymes is discussed in terms of the immediate effect on the whole population and on a copepod ( Anomalocera patersoni) living in the upper 10 cm.

  5. The fine sand Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauvin, J.-C. [CNRS-UPRES-A Elico, Wimereux (France). Station Marine de Wimereux

    1998-09-01

    The fine sand Abra alba community from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) was strongly affected by the Amoco Cadiz oil spill of April 1978. The long term changes in the community (1977-1996) show that reconstitution of this community is slow (over 10 yr). A progressive recolonization by amphipod Ampelisca populations constituting the dominant species is observed. The results show that it is necessary to survey the affected communities for a long period of time (> 10 yr) after an event to identify the real ecological impact of an oil spill. The abiotic and biotic factor existing in the Bay of Morlaix are favorable to the establishment and the persistence of stable dominant Ampelisca populations in time. The `climax` concept seems to be applicable to this type of stable environment. The soft-bottom Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix may only support a maximal carrying capacity of approximately 10-11 g m{sup -2} (mean annual biomass in decalcified dry weight). The deficit of production during 11 annual cycles may have affected the fish biomass feeding on this community. (author)

  6. The fine sand Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauvin, J.-C. [CNRS-UPRES-A Elico, Wimereux (France). Station Marine de Wimereux

    1998-09-01

    The fine sand Abra alba community from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) was strongly affected by the Amoco Cadiz oil spill of April 1978. The long term changes in the community (1977-1996) show that reconstitution of this community is slow (over 10 yr). A progressive recolonization by amphipod Ampelisca populations constituting the dominant species is observed. The results show that it is necessary to survey the affected communities for a long period of time (> 10 yr) after an event to identify the real ecological impact of an oil spill. The abiotic and biotic factor existing in the Bay of Morlaix are favorable to the establishment and the persistence of stable dominant Ampelisca populations in time. The 'climax' concept seems to be applicable to this type of stable environment. The soft-bottom Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix may only support a maximal carrying capacity ofapproximately 10-11 g m{sup -2} (mean annual biomass in decalcified dry weight). The deficit of production during 11 annual cycles may have affected the fish biomass feeding on this community. (author)

  7. The fine sand Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix twenty years after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauvin, J.-C.

    1998-01-01

    The fine sand Abra alba community from the Bay of Morlaix (western English Channel) was strongly affected by the Amoco Cadiz oil spill of April 1978. The long term changes in the community (1977-1996) show that reconstitution of this community is slow (over 10 yr). A progressive recolonization by amphipod Ampelisca populations constituting the dominant species is observed. The results show that it is necessary to survey the affected communities for a long period of time (> 10 yr) after an event to identify the real ecological impact of an oil spill. The abiotic and biotic factor existing in the Bay of Morlaix are favorable to the establishment and the persistence of stable dominant Ampelisca populations in time. The 'climax' concept seems to be applicable to this type of stable environment. The soft-bottom Abra alba community of the Bay of Morlaix may only support a maximal carrying capacity of approximately 10-11 g m -2 (mean annual biomass in decalcified dry weight). The deficit of production during 11 annual cycles may have affected the fish biomass feeding on this community. (author)

  8. Ecological catastrophe and economical damages. The problems of assessment from Amoco-Cadiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnieux, F.; Rainelli, P.

    1991-01-01

    This book strikes the balance of the accident of the tanker ship Amoco-Cadiz (environmental effects and economic impact) and sets the problem of damages assessment, liabilities, victims compensation. 99 refs., 41 figs., 43 tabs

  9. The Amoco CadizOil Spill: Evolution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Ile Grande Salt Marshes (Brittany) after a 13-year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, G.; Munoz, D.; Jacquot, F.; Rivet, L.; Bertrand, J.-C.

    1998-11-01

    The Ile Grande salt marshes (Brittany coast) were polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons after theAmoco Cadizgrounding in 1978. Thirteen years after the oil spill, sediments were analysed for residual hydrocarbons in order to monitor the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon signatures and to assess both qualitatively and quantitatively the changes in composition of theAmoco Cadizoil. Six stations were selected in the Ile Grande salt marshes and sediments were sampled to a depth of 20 cm. For each sample, the hydrocarbon compositions were determined for alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and biomarkers (terpanes, steranes, diasteranes). Hydrocarbon levels drastically decreased between 1978 and 1991, but to different extents according to the initial degree of contamination. In 1991, hydrocarbon concentrations never exceeded 1·7 g kg-1sediment dry weight, and in most cases were less than 0·1 g kg-1sediment dry weight. Even though petroleum hydrocarbons are still present, natural hydrocarbons were also detected at several stations. Changes in some biomarker distributions were observed 13 years after the oil spill. Nevertheless, most of the biomarkers are very stable in the salt marsh environment and remain unaltered even after a 13-year period.

  10. Response of macrobenthic communties to oil spills along Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gregory, A.

    burned after the Royal Air Force made a bombing run over the site. Both oil and detergents devastated seabirds and shore invertebrates. It was clear that tanker accidents could have a devastating effect on marine life (Smith, 1968). Amoco Cadiz (1978...

  11. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Oil Refinery, Georgetown, South Carolina. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    molecular response to oil pollution. Mar. Biol. 44:211-216. Lacaze, J. C. 1974. Ecotoxicology of crude oils and use of experimental marine...life and the ’Amoco Cadiz’. New Scientist. 79: 174-176. Snow, N. B. Undated. The effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on phytoplankton and macrophytes . Ch...VI. D-38 Macrophytes (Effects of Plant Operation) ............................. VII. C-4 Manmmals

  12. The richness of discovery : Amoco's first fifty years in Canada (1948-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    1998-01-01

    A review of Amoco's first fifty years of operations in Canada, including investments, discoveries, and policies was presented. While no claim is made for this attractively produced slim volume to be a definitive history, it does manage to shed light on some of the great achievements and outstanding deeds of the people behind the company. The book provides a glimpse into how Amoco contributed to the growth of the Canadian petroleum industry in diverse areas including the manufacturing sector, the petroleum service sector, oil field technology, oil field infrastructure and petrochemical development. The company enjoyed spectacular success during the 1950s and 1960s. As evidence of that success, in 1997 Amoco Canada was the largest Canadian producer and exporter of natural gas and NGLs, the largest cold producer of heavy oil, the second largest in situ producer of heavy oil, and one of the 10 largest producers of conventional oil. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Oil spill studies: A review of ecological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, John M.; Howarth, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed seven particularly well known and/or studied oil spills that have occurred since the National Academy of Sciences 1975 report, “Petroleum in the Marine Environment” or that occurred prior to that report but about which significant new information has since been acquired. The spills studied were from the barge Florida, and tankers Arrow, Argo Merchant, Amoco Cadiz, and Tsesis and blowouts from the Bravo and Ixtoc I platforms. These “best” studies yield only limited insight into effects because they lack controls and have a high degree of natural variability. The Tsesis, Florida, and Amoco Cadiz cases are exceptional since they occurred in areas of ongoing research programs and had nearby areas suitable for controls. Oil spills have produced measurable effects on ecosystems that have not been readily predictable from laboratory studies on isolated organisms. However, ecosystemlevel interactions are poorly understood even without the complications resulting from effects of pollution. These generalizations emerge: oil regularly reaches sediments after a spill; oil in anoxic sediments is persistent; oil regularly contaminates Zooplankton and benthic invertebrates; fish are also contaminated, but to a lesser extent; oil contamination decreases the abundance and diversity of benthic communities.

  14. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Solid waste data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizior, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late 1989 Amoco and the US Environmental Protection Agency initiated a joint project to review pollution prevention alternatives at Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown, Virginia, Refinery as a case study site. The report summarizes the solid waste emissions inventory, solids source identification, and the solid waste sampling program that was conducted at the Amoco Yorktown Refinery on September 25-27, 1990, in support of the Pollution Prevention Project. Major findings showed that the majority of solid waste generation occurs as end-of-pipe solids resulting from the treatment of wastewaters from the refinery sewer. Based on a regression analysis of the composition data for samples collected during this project, major upstream contributors to these solids appear to be soils. Solids from process units are also significant contributors

  15. Taking inventory on VOC releases from Amoco's Yorktown refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.H. Jr.; Schmitt, R.E.; Harrass, M.C.; Podar, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Amoco's Yorktown, Virginia, refinery is a 35-year-old, 53,000 bbl/day facility that manufacturers gasoline, heating oil, liquid petroleum gas, sulfur, and coke. In a cooperative and voluntary effort, Amoco Corporation and the US Environmental Protection Agency conducted a joint project to study pollution prevention opportunities at an operating industrial facility. Source reduction efforts--key to pollution prevention strategies--require knowledge of specific sources of releases. However, data on releases from individual process units are limited in favor of data to monitor existing end-of-pipe pollution control requirements. The study's sampling program sought to portray the distribution of releases within the refinery, their management within the refinery, and ultimate releases leaving the refinery. Subsequent tests of blowdown stack and fugitive emissions further improved total release estimates. The initial study estimated that the refinery generates about 25,000 metric tons (t)/year of potential pollutants. Of these, about half are released from the refinery as airborne, waterborne, or land-disposed releases. Airborne releases comprise the majority of releases by mass, about 12,000 t/year. Most of the airborne releases are volatile organic compound hydrocarbons. The inventory sampling project and subsequent work identified differences with Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) values and standard emission factors (AP-42). The inventory and other data provided an opportunity to consider options for, and limitations of, specific pollution prevention or source reduction strategies

  16. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Pollution prevention workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    On March 25-27, 1991, a workshop was held in Williamsburg, VA, to review Multi-media (air, water, land) data on environmental releases from Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. Following the data review and a Refinery tour, breakout sessions were held to brainstorm on various topics including (1) process changes to reduce emissions, (2) groundwater protection, (3) criteria for ranking alternatives, (4) permitting issues, (5) general obstacles and incentives, and (6) maintenance and operating practices

  17. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Kizier, G.J.; Baloo, S.; Hockman, E.L.; Couzens-Roberts, C.

    1992-07-01

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  18. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Yorktown refinery project workplan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, L.; Grieves, C.; Browning, R.; Hanlon, D.; Crane, C.

    1990-09-01

    The report provides a detailed workplan for obtaining data and analyzing results for a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study include (1) a multi-media inventory of all releases entering the environment from the Refinery, (2) development of possible engineering options to reduce the releases, (3) analysis of each option in terms of release reduction potential, impact on human health risk, ecological impact, changes in future liability, etc. and (4) identification of obstacles and incentives for implementation of any of the options considered

  19. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Surface water data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloo, S.

    1991-08-01

    The report summarizes the surface water sampling program at the Amoco Refinery at Yorktown, Virginia. This was undertaken as a part of the joint project between Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to review pollution prevention alternatives at a petroleum refinery. The surface water data provides a snapshot of surface water pollutant generation and discharge from the refinery. Different process units contribute to the total wastewater flow of 460 GPM in the refinery. Water in the ditch system, which is non-process water, is free of organic contamination. Oil and grease, phenols, ammonia and sulfides are the significant components measured in the process wastewater. The concentrations of organics in most water streams leaving the individual process units are relatively low, in the 1-5 parts per million (ppm) range. A few individual streams such as the crude desalter brine and tank water draws have high pollutant loadings. Concentrations of metals in the refinery wastewater are very low. The wastewater treatment plant is very effective in reducing the pollutant loading in the water with overall removal efficiencies greater than 99% for most organics and inorganics

  20. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K

    2009-01-01

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km 2 , follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  1. Australia's tyranny of distance in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipscombe, Ray

    2000-01-01

    In view of the quantity of oil spilled, smaller spills generally receive less attention than headline grabbing incidents such as the 'Amoco Cadiz', 'Exxon Valdez', 'Braer' and 'Sea Empress'. The latter incidents involve the loss of significant quantities of oil, the establishment of relatively complex spill response management structures and the involvement of significant numbers of personnel and equipment. As such, large spills from tankers have the potential to create problem areas, for example in establishing and maintaining effective communications, logistics and resource management systems. In general terms spill response personnel are well aware that large spills come complete with significant operational and administrative problems, however what may not be so well recognised is that smaller spills also have the potential to present response personnel with their own unique problems. One of the major problems to be overcome when responding to spills in Australia is the 'tyranny of distance'. In quite a few responses, Australian oil spill response managers have had to move personnel and equipment thousands of kilometres to provide an effective outcome. This paper outlines a range of problems that have been encountered by Australian personnel over the years. These include health and safety, communications, logistics and equipment issues. For the purpose of this paper a 'smaller' spill has been defined as one involving a discharge of less than 1000 tonnes of oil. (Author)

  2. Oil spills: Is the perception worse than the reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Most people form their perceptions of oil spills from television pictures immediately after the spill occurs. But the real environmental impact of the spill will not be felt until later, long after the TV crews have left and public attention has focused elsewhere. And the good news, says Mielke, is that the long-term damages may be less than initially perceived. Nature operates a very effective cleaning service. The perceived impact of an oil spill may be only vaguely related to what ultimately happens to the oil or to the oils interaction with the affected area, Mielke says. This was the case with two large spills in the 1970s - the Arco Merchant spill off Massachusetts in 1976 and the Amoco Cadiz spill off Brittany, France, in 1978. And it may be the case with the Exxon Valdez spill in Prince William Sound in Alaska in the spring of 1989, he adds. Human efforts to clean up the spills are less effective than nature's own processes, he says, and, in some cases, can actually delay the natural ecological restoration. This raises the question of whether the cost to society of massive physical clean-up efforts is equal to the social and environmental benefit

  3. Australia's tyranny of distance in oil spill response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscombe, Ray [Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Environment Protection Group, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2000-08-01

    In view of the quantity of oil spilled, smaller spills generally receive less attention than headline grabbing incidents such as the 'Amoco Cadiz', 'Exxon Valdez', 'Braer' and 'Sea Empress'. The latter incidents involve the loss of significant quantities of oil, the establishment of relatively complex spill response management structures and the involvement of significant numbers of personnel and equipment. As such, large spills from tankers have the potential to create problem areas, for example in establishing and maintaining effective communications, logistics and resource management systems. In general terms spill response personnel are well aware that large spills come complete with significant operational and administrative problems, however what may not be so well recognised is that smaller spills also have the potential to present response personnel with their own unique problems. One of the major problems to be overcome when responding to spills in Australia is the 'tyranny of distance'. In quite a few responses, Australian oil spill response managers have had to move personnel and equipment thousands of kilometres to provide an effective outcome. This paper outlines a range of problems that have been encountered by Australian personnel over the years. These include health and safety, communications, logistics and equipment issues. For the purpose of this paper a 'smaller' spill has been defined as one involving a discharge of less than 1000 tonnes of oil. (Author)

  4. Oil and chemical spill research and development in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.

    1992-01-01

    The Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU) falls within the UK Department of Transport's Marine Directorate and is the lead agency in the UK for the control of marine pollution. The MPCU assumes central government's responsibility for controlling two aspects of marine pollution: at sea response to oil and chemical spills from ships, and coordinating beach cleaning activities. All research funded by the MPCU is therefore directed at these two responsibilities. The MPCU was established in 1978 after a series of major tanker incidents in European waters (notably the AMOCO CADIZ, France) in recognition of the fact that it was not reasonable to expect the owners of tankers which operate on a world-wide basis to make arrangements for dealing with oil spills wherever they may occur. The UK Government therefore decided to set up a response unit, the MPCU, with specific responsibilities for dealing with oil and chemical spills from ships at sea. The responsibility for dealing with pollution once it comes ashore lies with the local authorities. However, to avoid expenditure by individual authorities on specialized equipment which will be rarely required, the government decided to set up stockpiles of such equipment in strategic locations to be drawn on by authorities as and when necessary. The government also provides training in the use of this equipment, offers scientific and technical advice and, for major spills, will coordinate beach cleaning activities

  5. Religious Intolerance in the Cortes of Cadiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Domínguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been no shortage of studies on religious intolerance in the Cadiz Cortes, but many of them are burdened by two critical errors. The first one is to focus the arguments on article 12 of the Constitution, without paying attention to other parliamentary debates in which the intolerant policy of the Cortes was more clearly expounded. The second common mistake is to ignore the circumstances which prevented some deputies from freely speaking their minds on religious matters. Through a detailed analysis of the proceedings of the Cortes, as well as other sources of the period, this article is intended to remedy both shortcomings, and thus to question certain common assumptions in current historiography. This approach leads to the conclusion that, while some deputies may had hidden his penchant for freedom of conscience, the decrees and speeches of the Cortes were more intolerant than many suppose. Not only they ordered to punish all dissenters from the Church's doctrines, but they decreed death penalty for anyone who dared to suggest the introduction of religious freedom in Spain.

  6. California’s Groundwater Regime: The Cadiz Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sizek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent California legislation has promised solutions to longstanding problems in groundwater management through an emphasis on management of groundwater itself, rather than on the rights of overlying property owners. In this short communication, I argue that the promises of scientific management relies on property law and jurisdiction and therefore that scientific claims about the water itself are less important than private property claims in the case of a Cadiz Inc.’s proposed groundwater extraction project in Southeastern California. While private property in land insulates Cadiz Inc. (Los Angeles, CA, USA from political contestation, opposition to the project has increasingly focused on the right to transport and transfer water through lands not held by Cadiz Inc. This legal strategy points to how California groundwater law is still fundamentally ruled by private property in land, which shifts the grounds of environmental politics from extraction itself to the transport of extracted materials. This case serves as a good example of the intersection of political ecology and legal geography.

  7. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Project peer review. Report of the Peer Review Committee of the Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project at the Yorktown, Virginia refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Podar, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project involved a number of representatives from federal and Virginia regulatory agencies, and Amoco's refining business. Participants believed that the Project could benefit from a broader perspective than these organizations along might provide. The Project Work Group selected an independent Peer Review Process which was conducted by Resource for the Future (RFF), a Washington DC think tank. A group of technical, policy and environmental experts from diverse backgrounds served as Peer Review members. The Peer Review Committee met on three occasions to discuss (1) the Project Work Plan (2) sampling data and interpretation and (3) project conclusions and recommendations. The focus of the meeting was on the general scope and content of the project

  8. Environmental Assessment/Baseline Survey to Establish New Drop Zone (DZ) in Cadiz, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    International Airport LATN Low Altitude Tactical Navigation MACA Military Airspace Collision Avoidance µg/m3 microgram per cubic meter MSL mean...Environmental Assessment and Baseline Survey 3-3 To Establish New Drop Zone in Cadiz, OH The 911 AW has a Military Airspace Collision Avoidance ( MACA ) plan...in Cadiz, OH The 911 AW flight safety would revise their existing MACA plan to include activities at the new drop zone. The MACA includes placing a

  9. Comparison of the reorganisations of BP and Shell and possible opportunities for Middle East and North African Oil companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Gilbert

    1999-07-01

    A critical analysis is provided of the recent reorganisations of the downstream and petrochemical activities of BP and Shell. BP (or BP Amoco including Arco) and Shell are preparing for the next decade anticipating the environment and changing the companies to maximise their profitability in that environment. For the oil producing countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), there are lessons to be learned both from the forecasts which BP Amoco and Shell are making and from the way these companies intend to operate. BP Amoco's view of oil refining is that the surplus capacity is endemic; Shell's view is that it is transient. BP Amoco will market oil products selectively across the world; Shell is still intent on a global approach. Both BP Amoco and Shell will minimise their wholesaling activities in the retail market and expand their merchandising with ever better quality sites. In the petrochemicals sector, the companies are taking similar actions, ie concentrating on positions of strength and selling business activities with low market shares or poor profitability. Petrochemical sites will be favoured when they have access to company produced hydrocarbon feedstocks. From the analysis, it is suggested that MENA oil companies will need to consider carefully the timing of any new refinery building. The reorganisation of the major OECD-based oil companies should offer opportunities for MENA companies to secure outlets for LPG and condensates, to form marketing alliances in OECD markets and to become involved in OECD-based petrochemical businesses.

  10. Comparison of the reorganisations of BP and Shell and possible opportunities for Middle East and North African Oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Gilbert

    1999-01-01

    A critical analysis is provided of the recent reorganisations of the downstream and petrochemical activities of BP and Shell. BP (or BP Amoco including Arco) and Shell are preparing for the next decade anticipating the environment and changing the companies to maximise their profitability in that environment. For the oil producing countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), there are lessons to be learned both from the forecasts which BP Amoco and Shell are making and from the way these companies intend to operate. BP Amoco's view of oil refining is that the surplus capacity is endemic; Shell's view is that it is transient. BP Amoco will market oil products selectively across the world; Shell is still intent on a global approach. Both BP Amoco and Shell will minimise their wholesaling activities in the retail market and expand their merchandising with ever better quality sites. In the petrochemicals sector, the companies are taking similar actions, ie concentrating on positions of strength and selling business activities with low market shares or poor profitability. Petrochemical sites will be favoured when they have access to company produced hydrocarbon feedstocks. From the analysis, it is suggested that MENA oil companies will need to consider carefully the timing of any new refinery building. The reorganisation of the major OECD-based oil companies should offer opportunities for MENA companies to secure outlets for LPG and condensates, to form marketing alliances in OECD markets and to become involved in OECD-based petrochemical businesses

  11. Audit of cataract surgery in Cadiz: visual outcomes and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Dujardin, L; Alcalde-Vílchez, E; Rodríguez-de la Rúa, E; Novalbos-Ruiz, J P

    2018-06-01

    To publish the outcomes and complications of age-related cataract surgery in Cadiz (Spain). Due to the lack of national audits, a comparison was made between the results obtained here and those of the most recent European audit, EUREQUO (2013), and the British audit RCOphth NOD (2015). A prospective, longitudinal, before-after study of 312 patients undergoing cataract surgery in the University Hospitals of Puerta del Mar and Puerto Real (Cadiz), in 2013-14. Outcome measurements included sociodemographic characteristics, visual acuity (VA), symptoms secondary to cataract, ocular comorbidity, waiting time, expertise of surgeon (consultant vs. trainee), rate and type of surgical complications. The median age at surgery was 73.92±7.31. Almost all (98.3%) of patients at consultation had a VA ≥0.60logMAR, with a mean pre-surgical VA of 1.01logMAR (0.92-1.10). There was a 6.7% complication rate, with 3.8% posterior capsule ruptures and 2.8% corneal decompensations. No cases of endophthalmitis occurred. The mean post-operative VA was 0.28logMAR (0.22-0.33). More than three-quarters (78.8%) of cases achieved a post-operative VA ≤0.3logMAR, and 27.6% of cases achieved a VA ≤0.0logMAR. Our success rate was inferior to the EUREQUO and RCOphth NOD studies, with the percentage of patients acquiring a postoperative VA ≤0.3logMAR being 98% and 89%, respectively. However, the populations were not comparable. It is hoped that this study will encourage other public hospitals in Spain to undertake audits and share their results, in order to provide a tool for constructive criticism and quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. All rights reserved.

  12. Experiences with linear solvers for oil reservoir simulation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, W.; Janardhan, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Biswas, D.; Carey, G.

    1996-12-31

    This talk will focus on practical experiences with iterative linear solver algorithms used in conjunction with Amoco Production Company`s Falcon oil reservoir simulation code. The goal of this study is to determine the best linear solver algorithms for these types of problems. The results of numerical experiments will be presented.

  13. Searching for Seismically Active Faults in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, S.; Antunes, V.; Arroucau, P.

    2015-12-01

    The repeated occurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in southwest Iberia in historical and instrumental times suggests the presence of active fault segments in the region. However, due to an apparently diffuse seismicity pattern defining a broad region of distributed deformation west of Gibraltar Strait, the question of the location, dimension and geometry of such structures is still open to debate. We recently developed a new algorithm for earthquake location in 3D complex media with laterally varying interface depths, which allowed us to relocate 2363 events having occurred from 2007 to 2013, using P- and S-wave catalog arrival times obtained from the Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IPMA, Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera), for a study area lying between 8.5˚W and 5˚W in longitude and 36˚ and 37.5˚ in latitude. The most remarkable change in the seismicity pattern after relocation is an apparent concentration of events, in the North of the Gulf of Cadiz, along a low angle northward-dipping plane rooted at the base of the crust, which could indicate the presence of a major fault. If confirmed, this would be the first structure clearly illuminated by seismicity in a region that has unleashed large magnitude earthquakes. Here, we present results from the joint analysis of focal mechanism solutions and waveform similarity between neighboring events from waveform cross-correlation in order to assess whether those earthquakes occur on the same fault plane.

  14. Quality of compost from composting plant in Puerto Real (Cadiz, Spain); Calidad del compost procedente de la planta de compostaje de Puerto Real (Cadiz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godillo Romero, M. D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.; Garrido Perez, C.; Rodriguez Barros, R.; Sales Marquez, D. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The compost taken from the Compost Plant, treating urban solid residues from the Consorcio Bahia de Cadiz in the municipal district of Puerto Real, Cadiz, has been analysed for its particular qualities over the years 1990-1996. With this in mind we have determined the most important of parameters with a view to defining the quality of this organic fertilizer extracted from urban solid residues (USR): pH, conductivity, rejection through net meshing, humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, C/N relationship, cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, tin, zinc and mercury. The compost gathered complies with the established legal requisites concerning fertilizers and their related substances. The quality in the first years of this study is better due possibly to the construction of the bio-recycling plant leaving the latter as a holding plant. (Author)

  15. Exploitation of tidal power in the Bay of Cadiz: ancient tidal mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Alonso del Rosario

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Tidal mills were the main industrial activity in the Bay of Cadiz for centuries. They were the last step in the production of salt and flour made by grinding grains. They were installed along the shallow channels, called “caños”, around the Bay, where the frictional and geometrical effects are very strong. The authors have analyzed the propagation of the semidiurnal tidal waves along the Caño de Sancti Petri and the available tidal power in the area. The ancient tidal mills were located where the available tidal potential energy is highest, which ensured productivity for grinding salt and wheat in ancient times. Some considerations about the possibility of installing tidal power plants in the Bay of Cadiz now are given, which show that it could be a real and renewal alternative source of energy for the area.

  16. Origin of Fluids and Salts at Mercator Mud Vulcano, Gulf of Cadiz

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Heeschen; M. Haeckel; C. Berndt; D. Teagle; M. Palmer; D. Green; M. Cooper; H. Vaneste; V. Liebetrau

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is located at the plate boundary between the Eurasian and African plates and is characterized by widespread mud volcanism all along the continental margins. It is commonly believed that this results from sediment dewatering enhanced by the compressional forces within the accretionary prism. Recently, 3D seismic data and geochemical sediment cores indicated that in addition to compressional tectonics, halokinesis controls the location and dynamics of the Mercator mud volca...

  17. Surface circulation in the Gulf of Cadiz: Model and mean flow structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peliz, Alvaro; Dubert, Jesus; Marchesiello, Patrick; Teles-Machado, Ana

    2007-11-01

    The mean flow structure of the Gulf of Cadiz is studied using a numerical model. The model consists of a set of one-way nested configurations attaining resolutions on the order of 2.6 km in the region of the Gulf of Cadiz. In the large-scale configuration, the entrainment of the Mediterranean Water is parameterized implicitly through a nudging term. In medium- and small-scale nested configurations, the Mediterranean outflow is introduced explicitly. The model reproduces all the known features of the Azores Current and of the circulation inside the Gulf of Cadiz. A realistic Mediterranean Undercurrent is generated and Meddies develop at proper depths on the southwest tip of the Iberian slope. The hypothesis that the Azores Current may generate in association with the Mediterranean outflow (β-plume theories) is confirmed by the model results. The time-mean flow is dominated by a cyclonic cell generated in the gulf which expands westward and has transports ranging from 4 to 5 Sv. The connection between the cell and the Azores Current is analyzed. At the scale of the Gulf, the time-mean flow cell is composed by the westward Mediterranean Undercurrent, and by a counterflow running eastward over the outer edge of the Mediterranean Undercurrent deeper vein, as the latter is forced downslope. This counterflow feeds the entrainment at the depths of the Mediterranean Undercurrent and the Atlantic inflow at shallower levels. Coastward and upslope of this recirculation cell, a second current running equatorward all the way along the northern part of the gulf is revealed. This current is a very robust model result that promotes continuity between the southwestern Iberian coast and the Strait of Gibraltar, and helps explain many observations and recurrent SST features of the Gulf of Cadiz.

  18. Chemosymbiotic species from the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic: distribution, life styles and nutritional patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous work in the mud volcanoes from the Gulf of Cadiz (South Iberian Margin revealed a high number of chemosymbiotic species, namely bivalves and siboglinid polychaetes. In this study we give an overview of the distribution and life styles of these species in the Gulf of Cadiz, determine the role of autotrophic symbionts in the nutrition of selected species using stable isotope analyses (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S and investigate the intra-specific variation of isotope signatures within and between study sites. During our studies, we identified twenty siboglinidae and nine bivalve chemosymbiotic species living in fifteen mud volcanoes. Solemyid bivalves and tubeworms of the genus Siboglinum are widespread in the study area, whereas other species were found in a single mud volcano (e.g. "Bathymodiolus" mauritanicus or restricted to deeper mud volcanoes (e.g. Polybrachia sp., Lamelisabella denticulata. Species distribution suggests that different species may adjust their position within the sediment according to their particular needs, and to the intensity and variability of the chemical substrata supply. Tissue stable isotope signatures for selected species are in accordance with values found in other studies, with thiotrophy as the dominant nutritional pathway, and with methanotrophy and mixotrophy emerging as secondary strategies. The heterogeneity in terms of nutrient sources (expressed in the high variance of nitrogen and sulphur values and the ability to exploit different resources by the different species may explain the high diversity of chemosymbiotic species found in the Gulf of Cadiz. This study increases the knowledge on distributional patterns and resource partitioning of chemosymbiotic species and highlights how trophic fuelling varies on spatial scales with direct implications to seep assemblages and potentially to the biodiversity of continental margin.

  19. Developments in the strategic planning of the major oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Gilbert

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the changes in strategic planning of the major oil companies since the 1970s, and considers the reorganisations of the companies, and upstream and downstream planning. New directions for the major companies downstream operation in the retail and aviation sectors, and the influence of the BP/AMOCO/ARCO/BURMAH, EXXON/MOBIL and TOTAL/FINA/ELF mergers on the international oil industry are explored. Tables illustrating the earnings of the major oil companies for upstream and downstream operations, and chemicals in 1999, and for BP UK exploration and production, and refining and marketing profits (quarterly) for 1983-2000 are presented

  20. Tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Gulf of Cadiz: fault model and recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Matias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Cadiz, as part of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary, is recognized as a potential source of big earthquakes and tsunamis that may affect the bordering countries, as occurred on 1 November 1755. Preparing for the future, Portugal is establishing a national tsunami warning system in which the threat caused by any large-magnitude earthquake in the area is estimated from a comprehensive database of scenarios. In this paper we summarize the knowledge about the active tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz and integrate the available seismological information in order to propose the generation model of destructive tsunamis to be applied in tsunami warnings. The fault model derived is then used to estimate the recurrence of large earthquakes using the fault slip rates obtained by Cunha et al. (2012 from thin-sheet neotectonic modelling. Finally we evaluate the consistency of seismicity rates derived from historical and instrumental catalogues with the convergence rates between Eurasia and Nubia given by plate kinematic models.

  1. Chemosynthetic bacteria found in bivalve species from mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Clara F; Webster, Gordon; Cunha, Marina R; Duperron, Sébastien; Weightman, Andrew J

    2010-09-01

    As in other cold seeps, the dominant bivalves in mud volcanoes (MV) from the Gulf of Cadiz are macrofauna belonging to the families Solemyidae (Acharax sp., Petrasma sp.), Lucinidae (Lucinoma sp.), Thyasiridae (Thyasira vulcolutre) and Mytilidae (Bathymodiolus mauritanicus). The delta(13)C values measured in solemyid, lucinid and thyasirid specimens support the hypothesis of thiotrophic nutrition, whereas isotopic signatures of B. mauritanicus suggest methanotrophic nutrition. The indication by stable isotope analysis that chemosynthetic bacteria make a substantial contribution to the nutrition of the bivalves led us to investigate their associated bacteria and their phylogenetic relationships based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and cloning of bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding genes confirmed the presence of sulfide-oxidizing symbionts within gill tissues of many of the studied specimens. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that most bacteria were related to known sulfide-oxidizing endosymbionts found in other deep-sea chemosynthetic environments, with the co-occurrence of methane-oxidizing symbionts in Bathymodiolus specimens. This study confirms the presence of several chemosynthetic bivalves in the Gulf of Cadiz and further highlights the importance of sulfide- and methane-oxidizing symbionts in the trophic ecology of macrobenthic communities in MV.

  2. Cold-water coral mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz: The MiCROSYSTEMS project approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, D.; Blamart, D.; De Mol, L.; Mienis, F.; Pirlet, H.; Wehrmann, L. M.; Barbieri, R.; Maignien, L.; Templer, S. P.; de Haas, H.; Hebbeln, D.; Frank, N.; Larmagnat, S.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Stivaletta, N.; van Weering, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hamoumi, N.; Cnudde, V.; Duyck, P.; Henriet, J.-P.; The MiCROSYSTEMS MD 169 Shipboard Party

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a case study of three cold-water coral mounds in a juvenile growth stage on top of the Pen Duick Escarpment in the Gulf of Cadiz; Alpha, Beta and Gamma mounds. Although cold-water corals are a common feature on the adjacent cliffs, mud volcanoes and open slope, no actual living

  3. Determination of parameter Vs30 using FK and SPAC techniques in the Bahia de Cadiz (South of Espana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt Diaz, Victor

    2012-01-01

    A measurement campaign of ambient vibrations was carried out in April 2008 in the Bahia de Cadiz (southern of Espana). The H / V techniques and array of sensors placed in series have been applied in order to classify soils according to the Vs30 parameter in six nearby towns: Cadiz, Chiclana, Rota, Puerto Real, San Fernando and El Puerto de Santa Maria. The H/V technique has confirmed that in the towns of Cadiz, Chiclana and El Puerto de Santa Maria, the medium is heterogeneous and with horizontal layering which allows to observe the dispersion phenomena. The soil profile in Puerto Real has been horizontal but homogeneous and in Rota and San Fernando have been significant changes in a short distance, according to the differences observed in the H / V obtained in two sites 50 m apart, therefore the profile is without be horizontal. The array technique in series has showed clear definition of dispersion curve and well defined soil profile (models with less error) in Cadiz, Chiclana and El puerto de Santa Maria but the results are inconclusive for Rota and San Fernando, due to unclear dispersion curves obtained. In general, the soil types that predominate in the area can be classified as B and C according to Eurocode 8, based on the values of Vs30 obtained using FK and SPAC techniques. (author) [es

  4. Molecular and carbon isotopic variability of hydrocarbon gases from mud volcanos in the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlantic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Ivanov, M.K.; Blinova, V.; Kreulen, R.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Investigations of molecular and carbon isotopic variability of hydrocarbon gases from methane through butanes (pentanes) have been performed on six mud volcanoes from two fluid venting provinces located in the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlantic. The main aims were to define the basic gas types, to describe

  5. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  6. Potentially beneficial spill-related effects of chemicals routinely added to crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.; Maharaj, S.

    1993-01-01

    Amoco Trinidad Oil Company produces 60,000 bbl/d of oil from the Trinidadian offshore. The oil is pipelined ashore where it is processed and returned offshore to a buoy mooring for transport up Trinidad's east coast. Amoco Trinidad has developed comprehensive oil spill contingency plans, starting from computer models of spill scenarios. The models used initially assumed that the oils would emulsify quickly and the spills would become highly viscous and persistent, reaching the shoreline in 15-24 h. Such behavior would render ineffective the use of dispersants as a spill countermeasure. Studies showed a poor potential capability of physical recovery systems for spills off the Trinidad east coast due to high sea states, strong winds, and other factors. These results led to questioning of the spill model's assumptions, and laboratory tests were conducted to study the actual behavior of the crude oils. It was found that the oil was difficult to emulsify and highly prone to breakup and dispersion. These surprising results were explained by the presence of surfactants added during processing. A revised modelling exercise showed that if the surfactants stay with the oil, spills up to 100,000 bbl will dissipate in 15 h or less at average wind conditions. To guard against the possibility that the surfactants may not stay with the spilled oil, and to help accelerate dispersion of oil spills, Amoco Trinidad has developed a dispersant-use capacity for its spill contingency plan. It is suggested that additives normally added to crude oils during production and processing in other areas may also be providing spill cleanup benefits similar to those found in the Trinidad case. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  7. Thrust-wrench interference tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz (Africa-Iberia plate boundary in the North-East Atlantic): Insights from analog models

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte , João ,; Rosas , Filipe ,; Terrinha , Pedro; Gutscher , Marc-André ,; Malavielle , Jacques; Silva , Sonia; Matias , Luis

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In the Gulf of Cadiz key segment of the Africa-Iberia plate boundary (North-East Atlantic ocean), three main different modes of tectonic interference between a recently identified wrench system (SWIM) and the Gulf of Cadiz Accretionary Wedge (GCAW) were tested through analog sand-box modeling: a) An active accretionary wedge on top of a pre-existent inactive basement fault; b) An active strike-slip fault cutting a previously formed, inactive, accretionary wedge; and c)...

  8. Coccolith concentrations in the Gulf of Cadiz at the IODP Site U1390 (Exp 339), in the last ~20,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, M.; Balestra, B.

    2013-12-01

    Our project is dedicated to the study of sediment samples gathered from the Gulf of Cadiz during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Project (IODP), Expedition 339 at Site U1390. The Gulf of Cadiz is an area of the Atlantic Ocean located directly south of Portugal and the western end of the Strait of Gibraltar. We analyzed the sediment samples to obtain the numbers of coccoliths per gram of sediment in each sample. Coccolithophores (from which the coccoliths are the fossils that remain in the sediments) are one of the most abundant groups of living phytoplankton and they are significant components of marine sediment. In order to prepare our samples for counting (the process by which we determined the number of coccoliths in our samples) we utilized about 23 samples from the uppermost 17 meters of the sediment core. This process involved collecting subsamples of each individual sample and then oven drying them. Then we weighted them by utilizing a microbalance to collect the desired amount of sample we needed (between 2 and 4 mg). Several of our samples were slightly below and above this desired amount due to human error. Once we gathered the desired amount of samples for our project, we proceeded to use a filtration system to obtain filters. Then we put the filters into an oven to dry them. After the samples were dried over the course of a day, we proceeded to prepare them for viewing through the microscope. To do this, we cut the filter and placed it upon a microscope slide. Then, we applied oil to the slide, cover and placed it under the Light Microscope (LM). We looked at five different views in each filters under the microscope, counting the number of coccoliths in each view. The counting has been expressed in terms of numbers of coccoliths per gram of sediment (total coccolith concentration). Our results showed us that the amount of coccoliths in the sediment samples receded during the cold periods of time, such as an ice age, and fluctuated in an upward pattern as

  9. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the 'Bay of Cadiz' Natural Park (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligero, R.A.; Vidal, J.; Melendez, M.J.; Hamani, M.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2009-01-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range = 0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders

  10. Meddy Interaction With A Deep Cyclone In The Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Xavier; Cherubin, Laurent

    Hydrological measurements made in July 1999 in the Gulf of Cadiz reveal the presence of two meddies, one south of Cape Saint Vincent, the other one near the Moroccan shelf and their interaction with a deep cyclone. The thermohaline anomalies of the meddies reach 60-70 km diameter, and are concentrated between 750 and 1500m depths; they reach 2C and 0.5 in salinity. The cyclone is shallower (between 600 and 1300m) with a weaker signature of Mediterranean water (12C at 800m, 36.2 in salinity between 800 and 1200m). This cyclone is coupled with one of the meddies as a baroclinic dipole. This dipole tears a long warm and salty filament away from the other meddy at 1200m. The long term evolution of these eddies is described by means of deep-drogued drifting buoy trajectories: the isolated meddy drifts southwestward, the dipole remains coherent while moving along the continental shelf until it reaches Cape Saint Vincent where it splits. A three-layer quasi-geostrophic model is used to evaluate the possible origin of the meddy and cyclone near the Portuguese coast, and to assess if their interactions, both mutual, with the domain boundaries, and with bottom topography, can account for their motion and deformation. L. Cherubin, X. Carton, J. Paillet, Y. Morel, A. Serpette, 2000: "Instability of the Mediterranean water undercurrents southwest of Portugal: effects of baroclinicity and of topography", Oceanologica Acta, 23, 551-573. X. Carton, L. Cherubin, J. Paillet, Y. Morel, A. Serpette, B. Le Cann, 2002: "Meddy coupling with a deep cyclone in the Gulf of Cadiz ". To appear in J. Mar. Syst.

  11. Environmental Assessment/Baseline Survey to Establish New Drop Zone (DZ) in Cadiz, Ohio, Pittsburgh Air Reserve Station, Coraopolis, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    International Airport LATN Low Altitude Tactical Navigation MACA Military Airspace Collision Avoidance µg/m3 microgram per cubic meter MSL mean sea...Drop Zone in Cadiz, OH The 911 AW has a Military Airspace Collision Avoidance ( MACA ) plan that includes procedures for clearing local airspace prior...existing MACA plan to include activities at the new drop zone. The MACA includes placing a radio call into the local airport to clear local traffic

  12. Geological and Structural evolution of the Eurasia Africa plate boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz Central Eastern Atlantic Sea.

    OpenAIRE

    D’Oriano, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    Iberia Africa plate boundary, cross, roughly W-E, connecting the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Azores triple junction to the Continental margin of Morocco. Relative movement between the two plate change along the boundary, from transtensive near the Azores archipelago, through trascurrent movement in the middle at the Gloria Fracture Zone, to transpressive in the Gulf of Cadiz area. This study presents the results of geophysical and geological analysis on the plate boundary area offshore Gibral...

  13. The anti-liberal deputies in the Cortes of Cadiz (1810-1813

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Alarcón Alarcón

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze, mainly drawing on the Parliamentary Debates, the political positions adopted by some anti-liberal deputies in the Cortes of Cadiz. This representative chamber (which was the leading organ of political power in the Spanish lands not controlled by the Bonapartist regime was set up as a discussion and decision-making space,which entailed a rupture with conceptions of politics prevailing during the Ancien Régime, including Absolutism. The more conservative and reactionary groups used several mechanisms and ways (the propaganda machine, army, pulpit, municipal posts, diplomacy and Parliamentary elections, among others to put an end to that new place. Despite of its impact on the making and development of Society and State in Contemporary Spain, historians have paid little attention to the genesis and social bases of the Counter-Revolution. A small number of studies are focused on the origins of this historical movement, as well as on the various ideas and political attitudes of the deputies opposed to the constitutional regime of 1812. These gaps in knowledge have motivated the present pages. Our aim is to offer a first approach to the question.

  14. Morphodynamic characterization of the Spanish beaches of the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente, J.; Gracia, F. J.; Rio, L. del; Anfuso, G.; Rodriguez-Ramirez, A.

    2015-07-01

    During the1980s several attempts were made to classify beaches according to their morphodynamic behav- iour. Published papers proposed classifications based mainly on wave incident energy and beach character- istics, such as foreshore slopes and sediment settling velocities. In the 1990s more complex classifications appeared, where the effect of tides on wave action was included, highlighting their relevance to the determi- nation of the morphodynamic state of the beach. In this paper we present a beach monitoring programme, in which more than 30 beaches located along the Spanish shores of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Strait of Gibraltar were surveyed for four years (2000-2004). The long study period allowed the monitoring of beach morphologies related both to fair weather (summer) and storm (winter) conditions. The coastal setting in the study area provided the opportunity for covering a wide range of tidal conditions, from high mesotidal (MSTR ca. 4 m) to microtidal (MSTR around 1 m). Furthermore, the dimensions of the study area permitted the mon- itoring of beaches linked to different boundary conditions, thus including both attached and detached beach- es located at varying distances from main sediment sources, and influenced by different wave regimes. The analysis of the beach morphologies related to such contrasting conditions allowed the identification of the real significance of the tidal effect on beach profile morphology and hence on beach morphodynamics. Finally, we conclude that the effect of tides on wave action is the main factor determining beach morphody- namic behaviour. (Author)

  15. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VII.- Andalucia (b): Cadiz, Malaga, Granada y Almeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Lago, C.; Roquero, C; Magister, M.

    1999-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Granada and Almeria of the Comunidad Autonoma de Andalucia. (Author) 78 refs

  16. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  17. The water erosion processes in the retreat erosive of cliff on soft rocks in the province of Cadiz (Spain); Los procesos de erosion hidrica en el retroceso erosivo de acantilados sobre rocas blandas en la provincia de Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Aragon, J. J.; Gracia Prieto, F. J.; Rio Rodriguez, L. del

    2009-07-01

    The littoral cliffs on soft materials of the Atlantic Cadiz coast show an important activity of the fresh water erosion processes, sometimes even more significant than the marine erosion processes. The connection of the lower cliffs with sandy beaches favours aeolian sand invasion, which fills previous rills and reduces the water erosion intensity by increasing infiltration. Cliff retreat and rill erosion measurement by using erosion sticks has shown very variables values, most of them higher than the estimated error of the employed methods. This indicates the existence of other factors influencing the distribution of water erosion processes along these cliffs, which have to be studied through different techniques. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Mohn, Klaus; Espedal, Harald; Loevaas, Kjell

    2002-01-01

    Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process

  19. Estimate of the annual effective dose for natural radionuclides of anthropogenic origin in the Bay of Cadiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, J. F.; Martinez-Ramos, C.; Barbero, L.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of radioactivity levels in soils has a double interest: on the one hand, allows you to set the reference values ??(base Linne) from a region or geographic area, and secondly, to evaluate the external radiation dose received by the population and biota, through appropriate dosimetric model. The natural radioactivity, especially the radionuclides in the natural series. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of gamma emitting radionuclides in marine sediments of the Bay of Cadiz, and dose rates from external radiation received in the areas studied. (Author)

  20. The water erosion processes in the retreat erosive of cliff on soft rocks in the province of Cadiz (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendon Aragon, J. J.; Gracia Prieto, F. J.; Rio Rodriguez, L. del

    2009-01-01

    The littoral cliffs on soft materials of the Atlantic Cadiz coast show an important activity of the fresh water erosion processes, sometimes even more significant than the marine erosion processes. The connection of the lower cliffs with sandy beaches favours aeolian sand invasion, which fills previous rills and reduces the water erosion intensity by increasing infiltration. Cliff retreat and rill erosion measurement by using erosion sticks has shown very variables values, most of them higher than the estimated error of the employed methods. This indicates the existence of other factors influencing the distribution of water erosion processes along these cliffs, which have to be studied through different techniques. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Late Quaternary high resolution micropaleontological and sedimentological records in the Gulf of Cadiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestra, B.; Ducassou, E.; Zarikian, C.; Bout-Roumazeilles, V.; Flores, J. A.; Paytan, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present preliminary micropaleontological and sedimentological data from IODP Site U1390 (Expedition 339), located in the central middle slope of the Gulf of Cadiz, since the last glaciation. This site has been targeted for reconstruction of regional paleo-circulation as it shows particularly high sedimentation rates, throughout the Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). We use micropaleontological and sedimentological proxies to understand the bottom current variations through time and the ecological conditions at the sea surface (planktonic foraminifer, pteropod and nannofossil assemblages), and the sea bottom (ostracod assemblages). Eleven samples, chosen at transitions of planktonic foraminifer assemblages, have been dated by AMS radiocarbon analyses. Preliminary results from benthic ostracod assemblages show variations in bottom water ventilation and food supply. Planktonic foraminifer assemblages clearly show the well-known cold events of this period such as the Younger Dryas and Heinrich stadial associated to coarser sediment, and warmer phases such as the Bölling-Allerød associated to muddy sediment. Other bio-events within the Holocene period are also recorded. The preservation of the coccolithophore assemblages is good to moderate. Coccolith abundances (expressed in coccoliths/gr of sediment) show higher values during the Holocene and generally are like assemblages previously reported for the same area. Implications for characterization of the Holocene, the last termination and LGM ecological conditions at high resolution and their potential fluctuations (i.e. amplitude and magnitude) under the influence of the lower core of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW), with this multi proxy approach based on sedimentological, and paleontological data will be discussed.

  2. Coastal counter-currents setup patterns in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relvas, P.; Juniór, L.; Garel, E.; Drago, T.

    2017-12-01

    Alongshore coastal counter-currents (CCC) are frequent features of Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems, where they temporally alternate with upwelling driven jets of opposite direction. Along the northern margin of the Gulf of Cadiz inner shelf, these CCCs are oriented poleward (eastward) and responsible for sharp temperature increases during the upwelling season, along with potential decline in water quality at the coast. This research is based on a multi-year ADCP velocity time-series (2008-2017), recorded at a single location (23 m water depth) over 13 deployments up to 3 months-long. The analysis focuses on the water column alongshore velocities during current inversions (i.e., the transition from equatorward upwelling jets to poleward CCCs). A set of parameters were derived from the flow structure to identify distinct types of inversions and to hypothesize about their driving mechanisms. Results show that 77% of the inversions start near the bed, propagating then to the upper layers. The bottom layer also changes direction before the surface layer for most events (71%). The vertical shear in this case is one order of magnitude greater than in the (less frequent) opposite situation. No seasonal variability is observed in the CCC occurrences. However, the parameters analysed in this study suggest different types of inversion between winter and summer. In winter, inversions are well defined (low variability), with similar patterns near the surface and bed layers as a result of a strong barotropic component. In summer the inversion patterns are more variable. In particular, the upper and bed layers are often importantly decoupled during inversions, indicating the strengthening of baroclinicity. A categorization of inversions events is proposed based on cross-correlation and multi-variable analyses of the developed parameters. Various types of inversion are obtained, suggesting that CCCs are driven by different forcings that may act separately or jointly.

  3. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  4. Distribution of butyltins (TBT, DBT, MBT) in sediments of Gulf of Cadiz (Spain) and its bioaccumulation in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Garg, A.; Anton-Martin, R.; Garcia-Luque, E.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.

    Surface sediment samples were analyzed for organotins namely tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin and monobutyltin from six areas located in the Gulf of Cadiz (14 stations), Spain. The total butyltin ranged between undetected and 1,580 ng Sn g sup(-1). TBT...

  5. Fluctuations of Mediterranean outflow water circulation in the Gulf of Cadiz during MIS 5 to 7: Evidence from benthic foraminiferal assemblage and stable isotope records

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, A.D.; Rai, A.K.; Tiwari, M.; Naidu, P.D.; Verma, K.; Chaturvedi, M.; Niyogi, A.; Pandey, D.

    the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature, 462, 778-782. doi:10.1038/nature08555. Gonthier, E.G., Faugères, J.C., Stow, D.A.V., 1984. Contourite facies of the Faro Drift, Gulf of Cadiz. In: Stow, D.A.V., Piper, D.J.W. (Eds.), Fine‐ grained sediments: Deep...

  6. Interaction of tectonic and depositional processes that control the evolution of the Iberian Gulf of Cadiz margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, A.; Nelson, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an integrated view of the growth patterns and factors that controlled the evolution of the Gulf of Cadiz continental margin based on studies of the tectonic, sedimentologic and oceanographic history of the area. Seven sedimentary regimes are identified, but there are more extensive descriptions of the late Cenozoic regimes because of the larger data base. The regimes of the Mesozoic passive margin include carbonate platforms, which become mixed calcareous-terrigenous deposits during the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary. The Oligocene and Early Miocene terrigenous regimes developed, in contrast, over the active and transcurrent margins near the African-Iberian plate boundary. The top of the Gulf of Cadiz olistostrome, emplaced in the Late Miocene, is used as a key horizon to define the 'post-orogenic' depositional regimes. The Late Miocene progradational margin regime is characterized by a large terrigenous sediment supply to the margin and coincides with the closing of the Miocene Atlantic-Mediterranean gateways. The terrigenous drift depositional regime of the Early Pliocene resulted from the occurrence of high eustatic sea level and the characteristics of the Mediterranean outflow currents that developed after the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar. The Late Pliocene and Quaternary regimes are dominated by sequences of deposits related to cycles of high and low sea levels. Deposition of shelf-margin deltas and slope wedges correlate with regressive and low sea level regimes caused by eustasy and subsidence. During the highstand regimes of the Holocene, inner shelf prograding deltas and deep-water sediment drifts were developed under the influence of the Atlantic inflow and Mediterranean outflow currents, respectively. A modern human cultural regime began 2000 years ago with the Roman occupation of Iberia; human cultural effects on sedimentary regimes may have equalled natural factors such as climate change. Interplay of tectonic and

  7. The experience of western oil companies in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerland, A.

    1994-01-01

    The oil and gas industry is the most important industry to Russia providing 52% of all hard currency earnings for the country. The oil production is declining by more than 30% during recent years from 10.3 billion barrels per day in 1990 to 7.1 billion barrels today. The paper discusses the Amoco engagement in the Priobskoye Field in western Siberia containing up to 5 billion barrels of recoverable oil requiring capital investments of more than 25 billion dollars over the first 20 years. Over the last five years, foreign companies have worked with their Russian counterparts to complete numerous feasibility studies on many projects. In the next few months, important developments may take place such as the offshore Sakhalin in the East and the Timan Pechora region in the North. The experienced barriers connected to the activities, burden of taxes, policy issues etc., are dealt with

  8. The experience of western oil companies in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerland, A. [Amoco Erusia Petroleum Co., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The oil and gas industry is the most important industry to Russia providing 52% of all hard currency earnings for the country. The oil production is declining by more than 30% during recent years from 10.3 billion barrels per day in 1990 to 7.1 billion barrels today. The paper discusses the Amoco engagement in the Priobskoye Field in western Siberia containing up to 5 billion barrels of recoverable oil requiring capital investments of more than 25 billion dollars over the first 20 years. Over the last five years, foreign companies have worked with their Russian counterparts to complete numerous feasibility studies on many projects. In the next few months, important developments may take place such as the offshore Sakhalin in the East and the Timan Pechora region in the North. The experienced barriers connected to the activities, burden of taxes, policy issues etc., are dealt with

  9. Geochemical characteristics and early diagenesis of recent carbonate mound sediments in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaekers, Helen; Foubert, Anneleen; Wienberg, Claudia; Hebbeln, Dierk; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Cold-water coral carbonate mounds occur in patches along the continental margin of the North Atlantic Ocean, from northern Norway down to Mauretania. Recent research has been focused on carbonate mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz, especially along the Moroccan margin. The Pen Duick, the Renard and the Vernadsky carbonate mound provinces in the Gulf of Cádiz are only some of the mound provinces which have been the subject of several recent research projects (Foubert et al., 2008; Wienberg et al., 2009). No living scleractinians could be found on top of those carbonate mounds. During cruise 64PE284 of RV Pelagia, gravity cores have been taken through carbonate mounds in the Carbonate Mound Provinces (CMP) SE of Yuma mud volcano and N of Meknes mud volcano. These cores have been analysed by several methods such as Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the geochemical characteristics of carbonate mounds, which can be used to quantify the effects of early diagenetic processes which may have altered the palaeo-environmental characteristics of the carbonate mounds. Dating has been done with 14C and U/Th methods pointing to mound growth phases being restricted to glacial periods. XRF and ICP-OES measurements give both qualitative and quantitative data of the chemical composition of the core. The main elements that have been analysed are Ca, Si, Fe, Sr, Al, K, Mg, Ti. According to the trend they follow, they can be devided in two groups, representative for the two encountered fraction types. These two fraction types (biogenic carbonate-rich fraction and terrigenous silicate-rich fraction) can be coupled to interglacial/glacial palaeo-environmental conditions. XRD measurements give an overview of the mineralogical composition of the cores. Thin sections, analysed by cathodeluminescence and classical optical petrography, and micro-CT scans are used to

  10. Chemosymbiotic bivalves from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlantic, with descriptions of new species of Solemyidae, Lucinidae and Vesicomyidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Graham; Rodrigues, Clara F; Cunha, Marina R

    2011-01-01

    The chemosymbiotic bivalves collected from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz are reviewed. Of the thirteen species closely associated with chemosynthetic settings two Solemyidae, Solemya (Petrasma) elarraichensissp. n. and Acharax gadiraesp. n., one Lucinidae, Lucinoma asapheussp. n., and one Vesicomyidae, Isorropodon megadesmussp. n. are described and compared to close relatives of their respective families. The biodiversity and distribution of the chemosymbiotic bivalves in the Gulf of Cadiz are discussed and compared to the available information from other cold seeps in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Although there is considerable similarity at the genus level between seep/mud volcano fields in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, there is little overlap at the species level. This indicates a high degree of endemism within chemosymbiotic bivalve assemblages.

  11. Sediments as indicators of artificial radionuclide distribution west of La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegueniat, P.; Auffret, J.P.; Ballada, J.

    1981-01-01

    Four-year investigations of the coastal surface sediments and associated radionuclides in the English Channel show complex distribution patterns around La Hague. Plutonium ratios in the particulate fraction confirm the general understanding gathered from long-term gamma studies - mainly that accumulation of La Hague generated radionuclides is in the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel and along the Normandy-Brittany Coast. The oil from the Amoco Cadiz accident caused a significant increase in coastal sediment activity of 144 Ce. Experimental studies with plutonium and hydrocarbons indicate that plutonium is more difficult to desorb than 144 Ce. (author)

  12. Macrofaunal assemblages from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz: abundance, biodiversity and diversity partitioning across spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, M. R.; Rodrigues, C. F.; Génio, L.; Hilário, A.; Ravara, A.; Pfannkuche, O.

    2013-04-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is an extensive seepage area in the south Iberian margin (NE Atlantic) encompassing over 40 mud volcanoes (MVs) at depths ranging from 200 to 4000 m. The area has a long geologic history and a central biogeographic location with a complex circulation ensuring oceanographic connectivity with the Mediterranean Sea, equatorial and North Atlantic regions. The geodynamics of the region promotes a notorious diversity in the seep regime despite the relatively low fluxes of hydrocarbon-rich gases. We analyse quantitative samples taken during the cruises TTR14, TTR15 and MSM01-03 in seven mud volcanoes grouped into Shallow MVs (Mercator: 350 m, Kidd: 500 m, Meknès: 700 m) and Deep MVs (Captain Arutyunov: 1300 m, Carlos Ribeiro: 2200 m, Bonjardim: 3000 m, Porto: 3900 m) and two additional Reference sites (ca. 550 m). Macrofauna (retained by a 500 μm sieve) was identified to species level whenever possible. The samples yielded modest abundances (70-1567 individuals per 0.25 m2), but the local and regional number of species is among the highest ever reported for cold seeps. Among the 366 recorded species, 22 were symbiont-hosting bivalves (Thyasiridae, Vesicomyidae, Solemyidae) and tubeworms (Siboglinidae). The multivariate analyses supported the significant differences between Shallow and Deep MVs: The environmental conditions at the Shallow MVs make them highly permeable to the penetration of background fauna leading to high diversity of the attendant assemblages (H': 2.92-3.94; ES(100): 28.3-45.0; J': 0.685-0.881). The Deep MV assemblages showed, in general, contrasting features but were more heterogeneous (H': 1.41-3.06; ES(100): 10.5-30.5; J': 0.340-0.852) and often dominated by one or more siboglinid species. The rarefaction curves confirmed the differences in biodiversity of Deep and Shallow MVs as well as the convergence of the latter to the Reference sites. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity demonstrated the high β-diversity of the assemblages

  13. Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry; Stoerrelse og loennsomhet i den internasjonale olje- og gassindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Mohn, Klaus; Espedal, Harald; Loevaas, Kjell

    2002-07-01

    Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process.

  14. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils. Volume VII.- Andalucia (b): Cadiz, Malaga, Granada y Almeria; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles. volumen VII.- Andalucia (b): Cadiz, Malaga, Granda y Almeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R; Schmid, T; Lago, C [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Roquero, C; Magister, M [UPM. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-05-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Granada and Almeria of the Comunidad Autonoma de Andalucia. (Author) 78 refs.

  15. A high-resolution hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled model of the Gulf of Cadiz – Alboran Sea region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. MACIAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern Iberia regional seas comprise the Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea sub-basins connected by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. Both basins are very different in their hydrological and biological characteristics but are, also, tightly connected to each other. Integrative studies of the whole regional oceanic system are scarce and difficult to perform due to the relative large area to cover and the different relevant time-scales of the main forcings in each sub-basin. Here we propose, for the first time, a fully coupled, 3D, hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model that covers, in a single domain (~2km resolution both marine basins for a 20 years simulation (1989-2008. Model performance is assessed against available data in terms of spatial and temporal distributions of biological variables. In general, the proposed model is able to represent the climatological distributions of primary and secondary producers and also the main seasonality of primary production in the different sub-regions of the analyzed basins. Potential causes of the observed mismatches between model and data are identified and some solutions are proposed for future model development. We conclude that most of these mismatches could be attributed to the missing tidal forcing in the actual model configuration. This model is a first step to obtain a meaningful tool to study past and future oceanographic conditions in this important marine region constituting the unique connection of the Mediterranean Sea with the open world’s ocean.

  16. Hazard potential of widespread but hidden historic offshore heavy metal (Pb, Zn) contamination (Gulf of Cadiz, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanebuth, Till J J; King, Mary Lee; Mendes, Isabel; Lebreiro, Susana; Lobo, Francisco J; Oberle, Ferdinand K; Antón, Laura; Ferreira, Paulo Alves; Reguera, Maria Isabel

    2018-05-10

    Natural and human-induced seabed sediment disturbances affect wide areas of the global coastal ocean. These recurrent to chronic disturbances mobilize significant amounts of material, including substances that have the potential to significantly harm the environment once re-released. This very challenging issue is difficult to deal with if sub-surface contaminant concentrations are unknown. Based on the analysis of 11 new, up to 5-m long sediment cores taken offshore in the Gulf of Cadiz, the contamination history (using the trace elements lead and zinc) is well documented over major parts of the gulf. Ore mining and metal processing industries on the southwestern Iberian Peninsula started five thousand years ago and experienced a first peak during the Roman Period, which can be detected over the entire gulf. The Industrial Era added a massive, shelf-wide heavy metal excursion of unprecedented dimension. This metal contamination to the coastal ocean decreased in the 1990s and appears to be today limited to larger areas off the Tinto/Odiel and Guadiana River mouths. The unforeseen, significant finding of this study is that the gulf-wide, peak heavy metal concentration, stemming from the Industrial Era, is widely overlain by a modern sediment veneer just thick enough to cover the contaminant horizon, but thin enough to have this layer within the reach of natural or human-induced sediment mobilization events. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Microbial diversity in Frenulata (Siboglinidae, Polychaeta) species from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Clara F; Hilário, Ana; Cunha, Marina R; Weightman, Andrew J; Webster, Gordon

    2011-06-01

    Frenulates are a group of gutless marine annelids belonging to the Siboglinidae that are nutritionally dependent upon endosymbiotic bacteria. We have characterized the bacteria associated with several frenulate species from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz by PCR-DGGE of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, coupled with analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries. In addition to the primary symbiont, bacterial consortia (microflora) were found in all species analysed. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the primary symbiont in most cases belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria and were related to thiotrophic and methanotrophic symbionts from other marine invertebrates, whereas members of the microflora were related to multiple bacterial phyla. This is the first molecular evidence of methanotrophic bacteria in at least one frenulate species. In addition, the occurrence of the same bacterial phylotype in different Frenulata species, from different depths and mud volcanoes suggests that there is no selection for specific symbionts and corroborates environmental acquisition as previously proposed for this group of siboglinids.

  18. Diet of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the Gulf of Cadiz: Insights from stomach content and stable isotope analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Giménez

    Full Text Available The ecological role of species can vary among populations depending on local and regional differences in diet. This is particularly true for top predators such as the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus, which exhibits a highly varied diet throughout its distribution range. Local dietary assessments are therefore critical to fully understand the role of this species within marine ecosystems, as well as its interaction with important ecosystem services such as fisheries. Here, we combined stomach content analyses (SCA and stable isotope analyses (SIA to describe bottlenose dolphins diet in the Gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic Ocean. Prey items identified using SCA included European conger (Conger conger and European hake (Merluccius merluccius as the most important ingested prey. However, mass-balance isotopic mixing model (MixSIAR, using δ13C and δ15N, indicated that the assimilated diet consisted mainly on Sparidae species (e.g. seabream, Diplodus annularis and D. bellottii, rubberlip grunt, Plectorhinchus mediterraneus, and common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus and a mixture of other species including European hake, mackerels (Scomber colias, S. japonicus and S. scombrus, European conger, red bandfish (Cepola macrophthalma and European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus. These contrasting results highlight differences in the temporal and taxonomic resolution of each approach, but also point to potential differences between ingested (SCA and assimilated (SIA diets. Both approaches provide different insights, e.g. determination of consumed fish biomass for the management of fish stocks (SCA or identification of important assimilated prey species to the consumer (SIA.

  19. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The principal objective of this research was to determine if coprocessing performance (i.e., coal conversion and oil yield) could be significantly improved by pretreating the heavy resid prior to reacting it with coal. For this purpose, two petroleum vacuum resids (1000{degrees}F+), one from the Amoco Co. and another from the Citgo Co., were used as such and after they had been pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions. The pretreatments were aimed at improving the host oil by; (1) converting any aromatic structures in the petroleum to hydroaromatic compounds capable of donating hydrogen, (2) cracking the heavy oil to lower molecular weight material that might serve as a better solvent, (3) reducing the coking propensity of the heavy oil through the hydrogenation of polynuclear aromatic compounds, and (4) removing metals and heteroatoms that might poison a coprocessing catalyst. Highly dispersed catalysts, including fine particle Fe- and Mo-based, and dicobalt octacarbonyl, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}, were used in this study. The untreated and pretreated resids were extensively characterized in order to determine chemical changes brought about by the pretreatments. The modified heavy oils were then coprocessed with an Illinois No. 6 coal as well as with a Wyodak coal, and compared to coprocessing with untreated resids under the same hydroliquefaction conditions. The amount of oil derived from coal was estimated by measuring the level of phenolic oxygen (derived mainly from coal) present in the oil products. Results are presented and discussed.

  20. Cadiz, Jamaica or London? The British colony at Cadiz and the changes of English trade with Spanish America (1655-1750 ¿Cádiz, Jamaica o Londres? La colonia británica de Cádiz y las transformaciones del comercio inglés con la América española (1655-1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Martínez Ruiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neither the exchanges through Jamaica, which had been seized from Spain in 1655, nor the privileges enjoyed by the South Sea Company as the result of the Tratado del Asiento from 1713 onwards entailed the decadence of the British merchant colony at Cadiz in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. In order to explain this apparent paradox, the article analyses the contribution of the Cadiz Factory to British imperial and commercial expansion in a period characterised by the strengthening of the ties between the Atlantic, Mediterranean and Asian worlds.Ni los intercambios realizados a través de Jamaica, conquistada a España en 1655, ni los privilegios disfrutados por la Compañía del Mar del Sur en virtud del Tratado del Asiento a partir de 1713 conllevaron la decadencia de la colonia mercantil británica de Cádiz a finales del siglo XVII y comienzos del siglo XVIII. Con objeto de explicar esta aparente paradoja, el artículo analiza la forma en que la Cadiz Factory contribuyó a la expansión comercial e imperial británica en un periodo caracterizado por el reforzamiento de los lazos entre los mundos atlántico, mediterráneo y asiático.

  1. Origin of carbonate concretions from mud mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula); Origen de las concreciones carbonatadas de los monticulos de fango en el Golfo de Cadiz (SO Peninsula Iberica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejas, M.; Taberner, C.; Pueyo, J. J.; Giralt, S.; Mata, M. P.; Gibert, J. M. de; Diaz del Rio, V.

    2015-07-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz displays a number of structures that are associated with fluid circulation (mud volcanoes, mud mounds and pockmarks).This area has been used as natural laboratory for the sedimentological, bio- logical and biogeochemical studies of these environments. Analysis of the associated authigenic carbonates has been widely used as a proxy to yield insights into the circulation and chemical composition of these flu- ids. A study of carbonate concretions from the Iberico, Cornide and Arcos mud mounds in the Diasom Field was undertaken to better understand the origin and type of fluids from which these concretions precipitated. The concretions display varying morphologies, some of which correspond to bioturbation traces. X-ray dif- fractions revealed that these carbonate concretions are mainly composed of dolomite, Fe-rich dolomite, high magnesium calcite (HMC) and ankerite. The δ{sup 1}3 C values of carbonate minerals ranged between -48.3 and-10.9 V-PDB, which suggests that the main processes involved in their genesis are organic matter oxidation, bac- terial sulphate-reduction (BSR) and anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM). The origin of the methane is main- ly thermogenic, and only few concretions yielded δ{sup 1}3C values lower than -40 V-PDB, suggesting oxidation of microbial methane. Fluids involved in the carbonate precipitation are interpreted as being related to gas hydrate destabilisation (δ{sup 18}O fluid-V-SMOW values higher than +2%) and, to a lesser extent, modified seawater enriched in {sup 18}O due to rock-water interaction. Nevertheless, the highest δ{sup 1}8O fluid-V-SMOW values suggest that the influence of other deep-seated fluids due to clay-mineral dehydration cannot be ruled out. (Author)

  2. Sedimentary infilling of bedrock-controlled palaeo-embayments off Cape Trafalgar, Strait of Gibraltar (Gulf of Cadiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Sandra; Lobo, Francisco J.

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates two bedrock-controlled palaeo-coastal embayments on the Barbate Platform off Cape Trafalgar near the Strait of Gibraltar (Gulf of Cadiz shelf, SW Iberian Peninsula), aiming to reveal their infilling dynamics and the influence of rocky outcrops on shallow-water hydrodynamics and sediment transport. The approach relies on detailed multibeam bathymetric data, high-resolution seismic profiles and tidal current simulations. Elongated rocky outcrops formed a palaeo-coast when sea level was approximately 35 to 20 m below that of the present day, and bound a relatively flat area. However, the seismic profiles enabled to distinguish two main troughs (A and B) that were infilled following a distinctive evolution during the last transgression. Five seismic units were identified (I to V, from base to top). Deposit A is composed of seismic units II to V and is interpreted as a marine embayment infill, here termed the Barbate palaeo-embayment (BPE). Deposit B is composed of seismic units I to IV and is interpreted as a palaeo-valley infill, here termed the Barbate palaeo-valley (BPV). The complex internal stratigraphic architecture depicts an overall evolution from tidal/fluvial deposits to shallow-water marine deposits. Most significant is the occurrence of coupled tidal flats/estuarine sand bars constituting the infilling of the BPE; this suggests the persistence of a high-energy current in a shallow, confined embayment, which was amplified by the rocky outcrop constrictions and possibly facilitated by the episodic movement of a normal fault. In contrast to this active setting, the nearby straight and narrow BPV was subjected to lower-energy infilling dynamics during its initial flooding phases. There, tidal activity was possibly reduced by the straight morphology of the valley and the occurrence of a topographic constriction (i.e. the Barbate Passage) at the mouth of the valley.

  3. Seasonal functioning and dynamics of Caulerpa prolifera meadows in shallow areas: An integrated approach in Cadiz Bay Natural Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Juan J.; García-Sánchez, M. Paz; Olivé, Irene; García-Marín, Patricia; Brun, Fernando G.; Pérez-Lloréns, J. Lucas; Hernández, Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    The rhizophyte alga Caulerpa prolifera thrives in dense monospecific stands in the vicinity of meadows of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa in Cadiz Bay Natural Park. The seasonal cycle of demographic and biometric properties, photosynthesis, and elemental composition (C:N:P) of this species were monitored bimonthly from March 2004 to March 2005. The number of primary assimilators peaked in spring as consequence of the new recruitment, reaching densities up to 104 assimilators·m-2. A second peak was recorded in late summer, with a further decrease towards autumn and winter. Despite this summer maximum, aboveground biomass followed a unimodal pattern, with a spring peak about 400 g dry weight·m-2. In conjunction to demographic properties of the population, a detailed biometric analysis showed that the percentage of assimilators bearing proliferations and the number of proliferations per assimilator were maximal in spring (100% and c.a. 17, respectively), and decreased towards summer and autumn. The size of the primary assimilators was minimal in spring (May) as a result of the new recruitments. However, the frond area per metre of stolon peaked in early spring and decreased towards the remainder of the year. The thallus area index (TAI) was computed from two different, independent approaches which both produced similar results, with a maximum TAI recorded in spring (transient values up to 18 m2·m-2). The relative contribution of primary assimilators and proliferations to TAI was also assessed. Whereas the number of proliferations accounted for most of the TAI peak in spring, its contribution decreased during the year, to a minimum in winter, where primary assimilators were the main contributors to TAI. The present study represents the first report of the seasonal dynamics of C. prolifera in south Atlantic Spanish coasts, and indicates the important contribution of this primary producer in shallow coastal ecosystems.

  4. Seasonal variation of early diagenesis and greenhouse gas production in coastal sediments of Cadiz Bay: Influence of anthropogenic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Macarena; Ortega, Teodora; Bohórquez, Julio; Corzo, Alfonso; Rabouille, Christophe; Forja, Jesús M.

    2018-01-01

    Greenhouse gas production in coastal sediments is closely associated with the early diagenesis processes of organic matter and nutrients. Discharges from anthropogenic activities, particularly agriculture, fish farming and waste-water treatment plants supply large amounts of organic matter and inorganic nutrients that affect mineralization processes. Three coastal systems of Cadiz Bay (SW Spain) (Guadalete River, Rio San Pedro Creek and Sancti Petri Channel) were chosen to determine the seasonal variation of organic matter mineralization. Two sampling stations were selected in each system; one in the outer part, close to the bay, and another more inland, close to a discharge point of effluent related to anthropogenic activities. Seasonal variation revealed that metabolic reactions were driven by the annual change of temperature in the outer station of the systems. In contrast, these reactions depended on the amount of organic matter reaching the sediments in the outermost part of the systems, which was higher during winter. Oxygen is consumed in the first 0.5 cm indicating that suboxic and anoxic processes, such as denitrification, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis are important in these sediments. Sulfate reduction seems to account for most of the mineralization of organic matter at the marine stations, while methanogenesis is the main pathway at the sole freshwater station of this study, located inside the estuary of the Guadalete River, because of the lack of sulfate as electron acceptor. Results point to denitrification being the principal process of N2O formation. Diffusive fluxes varied between 2.6 and 160 mmol m-2 d-1 for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC); 0.9 and 164.3 mmol m-2 d-1 for TA; 0.8 and 17.4 μmol m-2 d-1 for N2O; and 0.1 μmol and 13.1 mmol m-2 d-1 for CH4, indicating that these sediments act as a source of greenhouse gases to the water column.

  5. The hydro-climatic history of the Gulf of Cadiz throughout the last ~570 kyr from IODP 339 Site U1386

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboth, Stefanie; de Boer, Bas; Bahr, Andrè; Zeeden, Christian; Lourens, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    Here we present the first continuous and high-resolution (~ 1 kyr) benthic δ18O record from IODP Site U1386 (Gulf of Cadiz, IODP Exp. 339) representing the last 570 kyr. We find distinct and periodic δ18O enrichment events overimposed on patterns of global ice volume change as inferred from the global mean δ18O signal (i.e. LR04). These events occur most prominently during glacials, and are characterized by a relative increase of up to 1‰. The observed glacial δ18O enrichment represents a striking difference to deep-sea benthic δ18O records worldwide but is not without precedent as similar δ18O variability can be observed in the planktic signal of the Red Sea (Sites KL11 and KL23). There, similar glacial δ18O enrichment events have not raised particular interest since their occurrence was attributed to sea level induced salinity increase within this virtually landlocked basin. Our results suggest that the glacial δ18O enrichment at Site U1386 present salinity and/or temperature variability related to changes in the position of the frontal zone between subpolar and subtropical water masses within the Gulf of Cadiz. Interestingly, the δ18O enrichments at Site U1386 strongly reflect precession and semi-precession patterns. Since similar patterns can be observed in the Red Sea isotopic records, we argue that part of the inferred sea level reconstructions are biased by a regional and precession controlled mechanism.

  6. Testing Nordmøre grids on the target and by-catch species of the commercial bottom trawl fishery in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariángeles Gamaza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorting grids have been tested worldwide in trawl fisheries. Here we report upon the first trials performed using Nordmøre sorting grids with four different bar spacings in the trawl fisheries of the Gulf of Cadiz targeting crustaceans as the main resource. A total of 288 valid hauls and 67 commercial species were caught. Escapement and escape size selectivity were evaluated for the most important target and by-catch species. A decrease in the percentage of biomass escape was recorded with increasing grid spacing for the two target species, deep-water rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus, from 24% to 8% for the former and from 86 to 9% for the latter, with a 15-mm and 30-mm grid respectively. In general, high escape rates were found for most finfish and cephalopods. For hake (Merluccius merluccius, as the main by-catch species, the results showed an escape rate decreasing from 96% to 71% as the bar spacing increased. Our findings suggest the 30-mm grid would be effective for the deep-water crustacean trawlers but different mitigation measures will be required for other métiers in the multispecies trawl fishery of the Gulf of Cadiz.

  7. It only hurts when you produce : ten years of federal/provincial conflict over oil industry revenue sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    This book presents a collection of more than 300 cartoons which were published in 'Oilweek Magazine' between February 1973 and 1983. For the oil industry, this decade represented a time of increased provincial royalties and rising federal taxation. The cartoons depict the ongoing federal-provincial conflict over oil industry revenue sharing. The implication of the title is that while federal and provincial governments each determined the oil industry to be their own golden goose, the goose concluded that future demands for golden eggs would be painful to satisfy. At the time, the cartoons were submitted anonymously, but were well received by 'Oilweek' readers. In 1986, Amoco Regional Petroleum Engineering Supervisor Don Smith, revealed that he was the anonymous artist

  8. Additions to the Tanaidomorpha (Crustacea: Tanaidacea) from mud volcanoes and coral mounds of the Gulf of Cadiz and Horseshoe Continental Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquete, Patricia; Cunha, Marina R

    2018-02-05

    The Tanaidacea collection from various research cruises carried out in the Gulf of Cadiz and Horseshoe Continental Rise between 2004 and 2012 yielded four species new to science that are described herein. Two belong to genera recorded for the first time since the original descriptions of their type species: Cetiopyge, described from the Gulf of Mexico and Gamboa from shallow waters of Macaronesia. The other two belong to the genera Collettea and Paragathotanais, both with a worldwide distribution. Additionally, specimens of Tumidochelia uncinata are described and illustrated to complete previous descriptions. Identification keys to all known genera of Nototanaidae, and the Eastern Atlantic species of Paragathotanais and Collettea are provided. This works raises the number of tanaidacean species known from the deep-sea habitats in the study region to a total of 22.

  9. Cadiz, California Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32 records) were gathered by Mr. Seth I. Gutman for AridTech Inc., Denver, Colorado using a Worden Prospector gravity meter. This data base...

  10. Source and impact of lead contamination on δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.; Blasco, J.; Delgado, J.; Sarmiento, A.M.; Nieto, J.M.; Shepherd, T.J.; Nowell, G.; Bebianno, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas. The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme (δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz. Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagon, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues. The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50 ± 1.09 μg g -1 Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95 ± 0.10 μg g -1 Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels ( -1 Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD = -0.36[Pb] + 0.79; r = 0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD = 2.48e -8.3[Pb] ; r = 0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in marine bivalve species with different feeding habits. Lead isotope data

  11. The use of multivariate analysis to link sediment contamination and toxicity data to establish sediment quality guidelines: an example in the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain); El uso del analisis multivariante en la union de datos de toxicidad y contaminacion para establecer guias de calidad de sedimento: Un ejemplo en la Bahia de Cadiz (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valls, T. Angel; Forja, Jesus M [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz, (Spain); Gomez-Parra, Abelardo [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, CSIC, Puerto Real, Cadiz, (Spain)

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate marine sediment quality in the Gulf of Cadiz, chemical concentration and toxicity test endpoints from sediments were linked using multivariate analysis. Sediment samples were collected synoptically at seven stations in two littoral ecosystems of the Gulf of Cadiz (five in the Bay of Cadiz and two in the salt marsh of the Barbate River), and subjected to six separate, replicated sediment toxicity tests and comprehensive sediment chemistry analyses. The toxic effects of sediments were tested using three operational sediment phases: whole sediment, using the estuarine amphipod Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (10 d static: survival) and the estuarine clam Ruditapes philippinaru (48 h static: survival) and of the marine fish Sparus aurata (48 h static. Survival); and interstitial water, using populations of the estuarine rotifer Brachionus Plicatilis (7 d static: Population decline) and of the marine bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox ). To evaluate the levels of contamination, the concentrations in the sediments of organic carbon, 14 trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ag, Hg, As, Sn, V, Ni, Co and Cr) and the surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulphonate (LAS) were measured. The results of the toxicity tests were compared in a dose-response relationship between sites, demonstrating a general agreement between the toxicity values determined by all the tests, except in the case of interstitial water toxicity (principally due to toxic mixtures of trace metals). Data derived from sediment chemistry and bioassays were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (PCA and factor analysis), showing that the two data types could be represented by only five factors corresponding to five overlapping chemical-biological effect relations. Positive prevalence of these factors in the cases studied was used to establish those ranges in chemical concentrations associated with adverse effects. The sediment quality guidelines, in terms of concentrations at or below

  12. Evaluation of stabilization-solidification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goubier, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that among the techniques applied to treat polluting residue in France for the past ten years has been the mixing of pollutants with reactive agents in order to fix the contaminants and to give them a solid consistency. The first applications of these stabilization/solidification processes occurred in 1978 in the treatment of oil residues from the AMOCO CADIZ spill. They have also been used for the treatment of a mayor dump site for petroleum residues, for the disposal of mineral sludges of a detoxication plant, and for the rehabilitation of sites contaminated by various industrial residues, specially acid tars generated by oil refining plants. Although from the beginning these techniques appeared to be able to transform filthy lagoons into solid and apparently safe areas, it was necessary to evaluate their efficiency and to determine the conditions and limits of application

  13. Enrichment of sulfate reducing anaerobic methane oxidizing community dominated by ANME-1 from Ginsburg Mud Volcano (Gulf of Cadiz) sediment in a biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Susma; Cassarini, Chiara; Rene, Eldon R; Zhang, Yu; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2018-07-01

    This study was performed to enrich anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) present in sediment from the Ginsburg Mud Volcano (Gulf of Cadiz) in a polyurethane foam packed biotrickling filter (BTF). The BTF was operated at 20 (±2) °C, ambient pressure with continuous supply of methane for 248 days. Sulfate reduction with simultaneous sulfide production (accumulating ∼7 mM) after 200 days of BTF operation evidenced anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction. High-throughput sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that after 248 days of BTF operation, the ANME clades enriched to more than 50% of the archaeal sequences, including ANME-1b (40.3%) and ANME-2 (10.0%). Enrichment of the AOM community was beneficial to Desulfobacteraceae, which increased from 0.2% to 1.8%. Both the inoculum and the BTF enrichment contained large populations of anaerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria, suggesting extensive sulfur cycling in the BTF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fishery and life history of spot-tail mantis shrimp, Squilla mantis (Crustacea: Stomatopoda, in the Gulf of Cadiz (eastern central Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Vila

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Squilla mantis is an economically important species that is mainly caught by the Sanlucar de Barrameda bottom trawl fleet in the Gulf of Cadiz (eastern central Atlantic. Annual landings have ranged between 24 t in 1999 and 600 t in 2003, with a mean value of 269 t for the period 1984-2010. Catches have a marked seasonality, peaking in winter and showing the lowest values in summer. Larval abundance was negatively correlated with depth and distance from the coast but positively correlated with sea surface temperature. No correlation with sea surface salinity was found. The highest larval abundance was observed in June at 20-25 m depth, while adults were mostly found at 30-35 m depth. This species is mainly concentrated in the area of influence of the Guadalquivir River but is very scarce in the rest of the study area. The maturation of the ovary and the activity of the sexual accessory glands begin in early winter. The population is age-structured in three year classes and females reach first maturity within the second year class, at 23.7 mm carapace length.

  15. Vertical distribution of major, minor and trace elements in sediments from mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz: evidence of Cd, As and Ba fronts in upper layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lina; Monteiro, Rui; Figueira, Paula; Mieiro, Cláudia; Almeida, Joana; Pereira, Eduarda; Magalhães, Vítor; Pinheiro, Luís; Vale, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are feature of the coastal margins where anaerobic oxidation of methane triggers geochemical signals. Elemental composition, percentage of fine particles and loss on ignition were determined in sediment layers of eleven gravity cores retrieved from four mud volcanoes (Sagres, Bonjardim, Soloviev and Porto) and three undefined structures located on the deep Portuguese margin of the Gulf of Cadiz. Calcium was positively correlated to Sr and inversely to Al as well as to most of the trace elements. Vertical profiles of Ba, Cd and As concentrations, and their ratios to Al, in Porto and Soloviev showed pronounced enhancements in the top 50-cm depth. Sub-surface enhancements were less pronounced in other mud volcanoes and were absent in sediments from the structures. These profiles were interpreted as diagenetic enrichments related to the anaerobic oxidation of methane originated from upward methane-rich fluxes. The observed barium fronts were most likely caused by the presence of barite which precipitated at the sulphate-methane transition zone. Cd and As enrichments have probably resulted from successive dissolution/precipitation of sulphides in response to vertical shifts of redox boundaries.

  16. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hove, S. van den; Le Menestrel, M.; Bettignies, H.C. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO 2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  17. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, S.; Le Menestrel, Marc; De Bettignies, Henri-Claude

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors

  18. A slumbering beast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.

    1995-01-01

    Amoco Canada's bid to buy out Home Oil Co. Ltd., produced allegations against Amoco's position in the natural gas liquids (NGL) business, accusing it of monopolistic and obstructionist tactics which stifle competition. The charges were levelled by the president of Kinetic Resources, a subsidiary of PanCanadian Petroleum, and one of Amoco's main competitors. According to the charge Amoco, which owns or operates many of the fractionation and storage facilities , refused to ship other producer's NGL for a fair fee, forcing these producers without fractionation facilities of their own into selling their NGL to Amoco, thus significantly lessening competition . Amoco denied it engaged in unfair business practices. 2 ills

  19. Source and impact of lead contamination on {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A. [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Blasco, J. [Instituto Ciencias Marinas Andalucia (CSIC), Campus Rio San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Delgado, J. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sarmiento, A.M. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Shepherd, T.J.; Nowell, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2011-01-17

    Coastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas. The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme ({delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz. Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagon, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues. The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50 {+-} 1.09 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95 {+-} 0.10 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels (<0.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD = -0.36[Pb] + 0.79; r = 0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD = 2.48e{sup -8.3[Pb]}; r = 0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in

  20. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  1. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  2. Treatment of uncertainties in the existence of free berths with risk analysis techniques. Establishment of policies in port of Cadiz (SPAIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad Nuñez, S.; Camarero Orive, A.; Romero Sanchez-Brunete, M.; Camarero Orive, A.; Gonzalez Cancelas, N.

    2016-07-01

    This research discusses the challenges involved in the treatment of uncertainties in the existence of free berths during the arrival of cruise ships at seaports. Pursuing this goal, a three-step methodology is adopted: 1) Identifying risk sources and critical risk variables and how they are related; 2) Fitting the Probability Distribution Functions that best represent the behaviour of each critical risk variable; and 3) Simulating the probability of a ship having to wait because there are no free berths using a technique that combines statistical concepts (random sampling) with the ability of computers to generate pseudo-random numbers and automate estimations of the values of the set of critical risk variables. The innovative use of risk analysis techniques in this field allows the establishment of policies to improve the planning and management of port infrastructure, for example, deciding when it is necessary to work to increase the number of berths. As a case of study, we applied this methodology to study whether the enlargement of the wharf in the port of Cadiz (Spain) is necessary right now considering the number of cruise ships that have arrived at the port in the past three years, their date and hour of arrival, their length and draught, the duration of their stay in port and their waiting time before being able to enter the port. This action would require moving logistics activities to a new terminal, but would bring to the city the opportunity to rethink the seafront, introducing new cruiser links with the city centre and developing a better seaport-city integration. (Author)

  3. An investigation of multi-rate sound decay under strongly non-diffuse conditions: The crypt of the Cathedral of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellotta, Francesco; Álvarez-Morales, Lidia; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo

    2018-05-01

    Multi-rate sound decays are often found and studied in complex systems of coupled volumes where diffuse field conditions generally apply, although the openings connecting different sub-spaces are by themselves potential causes of non-diffuse behaviour. However, in presence of spaces in which curved surfaces clearly prevent diffuse field behaviour from being established, things become more complex and require more sophisticated tools (or, better, combinations of them) to be fully understood. As an example of such complexity, the crypt of the Cathedral of Cadiz is a relatively small space characterised by a central vaulted rotunda, with five radial galleries with flat and low ceiling. In addition, the crypt is connected to the main cathedral volume by means of several small openings. Acoustic measurements carried out in the crypt pointed out the existence of at least two decay processes combined, in some points, with flutter echoes. Application of conventional methods of analysis pointed out the existence of significant differences between early decay time and reverberation time, but was inconclusive in explaining the origin of the observed phenomena. The use of more robust Bayesian analysis permitted the conclusion that the late decay appearing in the crypt had a different rate than that observed in the cathedral, thus excluding the explanation based on acoustic coupling of different volumes. Finally, processing impulse responses collected by means of a B-format microphone to obtain directional intensity maps demonstrated that the late decay was originated from the rotunda where a repetitive reflection pattern appeared between the floor and the dome causing both flutter echoes and a longer reverberation time.

  4. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  5. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  6. Internal features, mineralogy and geochemistry of ferromanganese nodules from the Gulf of Cadiz: The role of the Mediterranean Outflow Water undercurrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, F. J.; Somoza, L.; Lunar, R.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Rubí, J. A. Martín; Torres, T.; Ortiz, J. E.; Díaz-del-Río, V.

    2010-03-01

    A large suite of Fe-Mn nodules (561 samples) were recovered during the Anastasya2001 cruise (TASYO project) along the continental margin of the Gulf of Cadiz (Eastern Central Atlantic), at the confluence of the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean, where extensive nodule fields were discovered. Based on wide previous studies that included swath bathymetry, multi-channel and very high-resolution seismic reflection, gravimetry, magnetism, heat flow probes and underwater photography surveys, nodules were collected at water depths ranging from 850 to 1000 m, associated with hydrocarbon-derived Mg-calcite, ankerite and dolomite chimneys and crusts. Forty-six selected samples among the various morphological types were used for the laboratory analysis of physical properties (morphology, color, surface texture, sphericity, weight and size), mineralogy (XRD, optical and electronic microscopy), geochemistry (XRF, AAS, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, EPMA, and GC-MS) and stable isotopes. The nodules show a wide range of sizes, densities, weights and morphologies. They are formed by multiple millimeter-thick layers of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides surrounding the nucleus composed of Early-Middle Miocene plastic marl and sediment, which were derived from underlying units by fluid venting. Massive, laminated, detrital and mottled to dendritic textural features were developed by the Fe and Mn oxyhydroxide layers. The main components are Goethite, lepidocrocite, Mn oxides (7 Å manganates and 10 Å manganates), quartz, and phyllosilicates. Accessory minerals are calcite, dolomite, siderite, rhodochrosite, kutnahorite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, potassium feldspar, zircon, rutile, ilmenite and chlorite. Fe-Mn carbonates from the siderite-rhodochrosite continuous series are the principal constituent of the nuclei. Framboidal, filamentous and globular textures are observed in Fe-Mn oxides and pyrite, suggesting biogenic origin. The nodules show a high mean abundance of Fe (38.6%), moderate Mn (6.0%) and

  7. Improving environmental strategies of the UK oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanega, J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is a strategic review of the current environmental policies and practices of the UK Oil and Gas Industry. It begins with an analysis of the current environmental impacts of the UK Oil and Gas Industry, including air emissions, effluents to sea and industrial wastes. The importance of environmental issues to UK operators is related to financial conseqeunces of environmental damage to the North Sea, poor public opinion and the spectre of increased government regulations. There is a survey of the best practices of environmental management programmes, including environmental assessment, monitoring auditing and contingency planning and emergency response, with historical lessons from Cadiz to Valdez and the industry's reaction to Exxon Valdez. After critically assessing the weaknesses of environmental management programmes, the author calls for systematic environmental assessment, employing inventory, monitoring, risk assessment and quantified risk assessment. There are recommendations on how to minimise the impact on the environment through the use of existing technology, training, incident response and crisis management, auditing, testing and industry-wide collaboration. (Author)

  8. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  9. Comparing sediment quality in Spanish littoral areas affected by acute (Prestige, 2002) and chronic (Bay of Algeciras) oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Caselles, C.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    The quality of sediments collected from two areas of the Spanish coast affected by different sources of contaminants has been compared in this study. The areas studied are the coast of Galicia affected by the oil spill from the tanker Prestige (November 2002) and the Gulf of Cadiz which suffers continuous inputs of contaminants from industries located in the area and from oil spills. Contamination by several chemicals (metals, PCBs and PAHs) that bind to sediments was analyzed, and two toxicity tests (Microtox[reg]) and amphipod 10-day bioassay) were conducted. PAHs were identified as the compounds responsible for the toxic effects. Results show differences between an acute impact related to the sinking of the tanker Prestige and the chronic impact associated with continuous oil spills associated with the maritime and industrial activities in the Bay of Algeciras, this being the most polluted part of the two coastal areas studied in this work. - Littoral sediments affected by low or moderated but continuous oil spills are more polluted than those affected by accidental oil spills such as the Prestige

  10. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  11. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  12. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  13. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  14. An early approach for the evaluation of repair processes in fish after exposure to sediment contaminated by an oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Maria J; Jimenez-Tenorio, Natalia; Reguera, Diana F; Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Delvalls, T Angel

    2008-12-01

    A chronic bioassay was carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Solea senegalensis to determine the toxicity of contaminants from an oil spill(Prestige). Also, the repair processes in fish affected by contaminants due to oil exposure were evaluated. Over 30 days individuals were exposed to clean sediment (control) and to sediment contaminated by a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other substances. The physicochemical parameters of the tanks (salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) were controlled during the exposure period. Clean sediment from the Bay of Cadiz (Spain) was used as negative control and was mixed with fuel oil to prepare the dilution (0.5% w:w dry-weight). After the exposure period, fish were labeled and transferred to "clean tanks" (tanks without sediment) in order to study the recovery and the repair processes in the exposed organisms. A biomarker of exposure (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity - EROD activity) and a biomarker of effect (histopathology) were analyzed during the exposure and recovery period. After 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure, individuals showed significant induction (P tank", enabled a first evaluation of the repair process of the induced damages due to the fuel oil exposure. After the recovery phase, control individuals showed a more significant decrease (P repair processes probably need longer recovery periods to observe significant improvement of the affected organs. This will be further investigated in the future.

  15. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  16. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  17. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  18. Microbes safely, effectively bioremediate oil field pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.; Block, C.S.; Mills, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural and augmented bioremediation provides a safe, environmental, fast, and effective solution for removing hydrocarbon stains from soil. In 1992, Amoco sponsored a study with six bioremediation companies, which evaluated 14 different techniques. From this study, Amoco continued using Environmental Protection Co.'s (EPC) microbes for bioremediating more than 145 sites near Farmington, NM. EPC's microbes proved effective on various types of hydrocarbon molecules found in petroleum stained soils from heavy crude and paraffin to volatiles such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) compounds. Controlled laboratory tests have shown that these microbes can digest the hydrocarbon molecules with or without free oxygen present. It is believed that this adaptation gives these microbes their resilience. The paper describes the bioremediation process, environmental advantages, in situ and ex situ bioremediation, goals of bioremediation, temperature effects, time, cost, and example sites that were treated

  19. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  20. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  1. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  2. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  3. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  4. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  5. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  6. Oil on seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  7. Cádiz como eje vertebrador en España del discurso dialógico musical entre México y Andalucía en la etapa preflamenca. Cadiz as the backbone in Spain of musical dialogue between Mexico and Andalucia in preflamenco period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénica Reyes Zúñiga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Durante siglos Cádiz ha sido puerta de entrada de músicas y danzas procedentes de América, hecho que fue trascendental en la etapa de conformación del flamenco. La importante presencia de piezas musicales mexicanas que fueron integradas en esta ciudad hasta el punto de convertirse en nuevos estilos preflamencos propiamente gaditanos, es un fenómeno que no ha sido atendido en la literatura flamenca. El estudio del diálogo musical transatlántico entre Andalucía y México desde un enfoque etnomusicológico, es decisivo para la comprensión de los procesos de cambio musical producidos durante la etapa preflamenca, en la que Cádiz desempeñó un papel vertebrador.Over the centuries Cadiz has been a gateway for musics and dances from America. This fact was capital during flamenco conformation process. A significant presence of mexican music was integrated into the city, to the point of becoming new “gaditano” preflamencos styles. This phenomena has not been analyzed properly in flamenco literature until now. The study of transoceanic musical dialogue between Andalusia and Mexico from an ethnomusicological approach, is capital for the understanding of musical change processes during preflamenco period, being Cadiz an important point of convergence.

  8. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  9. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  10. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  11. Oil integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  12. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  13. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  14. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  15. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  16. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  17. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  18. Developing our resources doesn't have to cost us the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Century, J.R.; Wonfor, J.; Fuenning, P.; Hewitt, T. Jr.; Tenant, R.; Breiteneder, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Geology Division of the CSPG was organized in 1990 to promote the study, evaluation, and protection of the environment as it related to geology and the earth sciences. Since the problems range from local to global, a pragmatic approach to activities was adopted, matching professional strengths with our environmental concerns. The following standing committees were formed with specific priority projects underway: (1) scientific measurements of global change, (2) environmental protection solutions, (3) environmental effects of recent geological processes, (4) monitoring global changes by remote sensing, and (5) economic and environmental energy rationalization. Examples of the effects of man-made and naturally occurring events are best illustrated through remote sensing images. The Amoco Cadiz major oil spill of 1978 off the Brittany coast and a 1977 winter Chinook in the Calgary region are contrasts in change. Land reclamation of coal mines in the Grand Cache area of the Alberta Foothills illustrates a balanced approach to resource extraction and surface environmental values. A recent environmentally successful case history of a sour gas plant project will be presented also. The Hewitt Oil Golden Spike emission-free gas-processing plant was opened in 1987 after a small operating company and the affected public went from confrontation to cooperation. Illustrations from the geologic record of geosphere/biosphere green-house gas variations (CO 2 and CH 4 ) show current high rates of increase greater than any since 150,000 years B.P

  19. Refining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1921-05-12

    The desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, ligroin, or shale oil, by treatment with alkaline hypochlorite, such as sodium hypochlorite with free alkali is preceded, followed or both preceded and followed by treatment with alkali. The treatment may be effected in a vessel in which brine is being electrolyzed for the production of sodium hypochlorite, and the temperature may be raised to say 120/sup 0/F. The product may be filtered through animal charcoal, fuller's earth, dehydrated alumina, or other adsorbent substance.

  20. Wash-oil problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlosta, J

    1941-01-01

    Meier-Grolman and others have deduced from experimental studies of the vapor pressure of solutions of benzene in paraffin oil and Solway oil-paraffin oil mixtures that the higher the proportion of aliphatic compounds in a wash oil, the less suitable it is for benzene scrubbing. This generalization is not supported. Paraffin oils from brown-coal tar and low viscous oils from the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis process are both being successfully used for benzene scrubbing.

  1. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  2. Converting heavy oils into light oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1915-12-22

    A process is described for transforming heavy oils obtained by the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, shales into light oils, and also the heavy oils of mineral and vegetable origin, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid substances or liquids suitably chosen to cause the distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature; solid and liquid substances which favor the production of light products under the influence of heat being added preferably to the oil to be treated before putting it in the retort and before heating, so that light oils are obtained by treatment of the heavy oils in a single operation.

  3. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  6. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  7. Oil and influence: the oil weapon examined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maull, H

    1975-01-01

    The term ''oil weapon'' as used here signifies any manipulation of the price and/or supply of oil by exporting nations with the intention of changing the political behavior of the consumer nations. The political potential of the oil price is fairly restricted so, in effect, the supply interruptions are of prime concern. Manipulating price does, in principle, offer the possibilities of both conferring rewards and inflicting sanctions. Oil could be sold on preferential prices and terms. A precondition for using the oil weapon successfully would be the ability to cause real and serious damage to the consumer countries. Four damaging potentials for using the oil weapon could include its application by: (1) one producer against one consumer; (2) one producer against all consumers; (3) a group of producers against one consumer; and (4) by a group of producers against all consumers. It is concluded that the oil weapon will continue to be a force in the international system. (MCW)

  8. Oil companies make cutbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    As oil prices are falling, the oil sector faces company restructuring, merger projects, closure of oil fields, and so on. Restructuring is motivated by the costs of offshore exploration and oil production projects. Saudi Arabia tries to fight the emergence of shale gases by reducing oil prices, and somehow succeeds as some projects in the USA are put into question again. Experts perceive this situation as an opportunity for the sector to improve its efficiency and reduce over-staffing

  9. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  10. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  11. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  12. Production of oil from Israeli oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givoni, D.

    1993-01-01

    Oil shale can be utilized in two-ways: direct combustion to generate steam and power or retorting to produce oil or gas. PAMA has been developing both direct combustion and retorting processes. Its main effort is in the combustion. An oil shale fired steam boiler was erected in the Rotem industrial complex for demonstration purposes. PAMA has also been looking into two alternative retorting concepts - slow heating of coarse particles and fast heating of fine particles. The present paper provides operating data of oil shale processing in the following scheme: (a) retorting in moving bed, pilot and bench scale units, and (b) retorting in a fluidized bed, bench scale units. (author)

  13. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  14. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  15. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  16. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  17. Biodegradation of lubricant oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... lubricating oil, showed high biodegradation efficiency for different used lubricating oils. Capability of ..... amount after biodegradation showed no difference in the .... products polluted sites in Elele, Rivers State, Ngeria.

  18. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  19. Eucalyptus oil poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, S; Wiggins, J

    1980-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of eucalyptus oil by a 3-year-old boy caused profound central nervous system depression within 30 minutes, but he recovered rapidly after gastric lavage. The extreme toxicity of eucalyptus oil is emphasised.

  20. A new oil crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffner, R.C.G.; Van Herpt, I.R.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in the oil market are discussed, focusing on the causes of recent price increase, expectations for the near future, why previous oil crises resulted into a recession, and the expected consequences of the oil price increase for the economic growth and inflation. The negative consequences of the high oil price for the European economy can be limited under the condition that claims for higher wages are moderate. 2 refs

  1. Oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starling, Philip

    1997-01-01

    The role of the International Energy Agency's (IEA) ''OiMarket Report'' is described in terms of its response to and support for oil companies seeking to monitor short-term global oil market developments. The document is increasingly used for reference both by industry and governments. Data is compiled from oil companies, consultants, and government, and OECD countries provide supply/demand oil balance data by product grade on a monthly basic. (UK)

  2. The oil distribution file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A series of articles addresses the recent evolutions of the French domestic fuel oil market, the development of the Argos oil company (a Dutch group) on this market, the situation and the recent evolution of the German oil product market in 2007 and 2008, the problem faced by the mandatory introduction of biofuels in Belgium and in Spain, the evolution of the Italian oil product market, and the mandatory introduction of biofuels in the United Kingdom in 2008

  3. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  4. Sassafras oil overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassafras oil comes from the root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone swallows more than the ... Safrole is the poisonous ingredient in sassafras oil. It is a clear or ... yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts.

  5. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  6. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin A ... called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, ...

  7. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  8. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  9. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  10. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  11. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  12. New round for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamarche, Myrtille

    2018-01-01

    After three years of crisis, oil companies are now strongly reinvesting, while oil prices are stabilizing at a reasonable long-term level, notably due to a rising demand from developing countries. Examples of new investments made by majors such as Total, Shell or Exxon but also by national companies and junior companies, are given. Oil price evolution as well as cost reductions (thanks notably to the digitalisation of the sector, leading to a decrease in exploration costs) are analyzed. The importance of the US oil production, and particularly shale oil production, is pinpointed

  13. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  14. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  15. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  16. The Russian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes a brief discussion of various assessments of Russian oil reserves, of the evolutions of Russian oil production (Russia is the second world producer after Saudi Arabia), of the distribution of Russian oil exports among various regions, and of the decrease of Russian oil consumption between 1992 and 2002. It describes the evolution of the actor system as the oil sector has been largely privatised since 1992, and indicates the main companies which should control the Russia market on a medium term. It also discusses the obstacles for the development of Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) between these companies. It addresses the issue of modernisation of the oil transport system as its status and its condition are often an obstacle to oil export for Russian companies. The article finally discusses the price issue, the relationship between Russia and other OPEC countries, and the need for huge investments

  17. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondy, J.; Papon, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  18. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  19. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  20. Oil My Love

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author first describes how oil will disappear from non-producing countries, notably France and Europe and will therefore lead to an energy crisis. He outlines that renewable energies will have a weak contribution in the replacement of fossil energies (in this case, oil and gas). To illustrate these trends, the author proposes an appendix which presents and discusses the evolution of global consumption of fossil fuels, the evolution of production of different oil grades, a forecast of global oil demand by 2035, evolutions of productions and exports. Another appendix discusses additional issues on oil: the meaning of reserves, solutions for France in case of shortage of oil, the world oil situation (USA, China, Russia, the European Union, Japan)

  1. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Eshita

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  2. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Eshita [The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, New Delhi 110 003 (India)

    2008-03-15

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  3. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  4. The oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, P.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical analysis cannot, alone, provide an oil price forecast. So, one needs to understand the fundamental phenomena which control the past trends since the end of world war II After a first period during which oil, thanks to its abundance, was able to increase its market share at the expense of other energies, the first oil shock reflects the rarefaction of oil resource with the tilting of the US production curve from growth to decline. Since then, the new situation is that of a ''cohabitation'' between oil and the other energies with the oil price, extremely volatile, reflecting the trial and error adjustment of the market share left to the other energies. Such a context may explain the recent oil price surge but the analogy between the US oil situation at the time of the first shock and that existing today for the world outside Middle East suggest another possibility, that of a structural change with higher future oil prices. The authors examine these two possibilities, think that the oil price will reflect both as long as one or the other will not become proven, and conclude with a series of political recommendations. (authors)

  5. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent alcohol...

  6. Shale oil. II. Gases from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil shale (from Colorado) was pyrolyzed, and the gaseous products obtained were studied. The organic material present in oil shale contains carboxyl groups that lose carbon dioxide during pyrolysis before the formation of soluble bitumen. Nitrogen was evolved as ammonia in two stages and was not continuous. The first evolution was from loosely combined nitrogen structures, whereas the second was from more stable forms. No hydrocarbons were present as such in the kerogen. The gaseous products from oil-shale pyrolysis were similar to those obtained by distillation of colophony, amber, coal, and wood. This places the kerogen of the oil shale in the same series of carbonaceous substances as those from which coals are formed. Kerogen appeared to be decomposed in three steps; namely, to insoluble bitumen, to soluble bitumen, and to oil (gas evolution accompanied each step). Its low solubility and the character of its pyrolytic gas indicated that kerogen is largely a resinous residue from vegetation of the past era and may have been formed by the tranportation of coal-forming organic debris to inland salty lakes or carried to the sea by clay-laden waters. The salt water and the natural settling action precipitated the clay and organic matter in an almost homogeneous deposit. Oil shales have existed to the present time because they have not been subjected to high pressures or elevated temperatures that would have changed them to petroleum.

  7. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  8. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amic, E.; Lautard, P.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter examines the structure of the oil industry and the impacts of the oil markets on the hedging strategies of the energy consumers, the oil company, and the energy derivatives' provider. An introduction to market perspectives is presented, and the hedging operations in the jet fuel market in the airline sector are discussed. Trading and risk management within an oil company, the derivatives provider, trading derivatives in a multi-dimensional world, locational risks, and the modelling of term structure and the role of storage are considered. Industrial spreads and the role of refining, future market developments and market strategies for crude oil and oil products, and marketing packages and market risk are addressed

  9. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  10. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Transformer oil maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J. [A.F. White Ltd., Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    Proactive treatment is required in the case of transformer oil, since the oil degrades over time, which could result in the potential failure of the transformer or costly repairs. A mineral-based oil is used for transformers because of its chemical properties and dielectric strength. Water and particulate are the main contaminants found in transformer oil, affecting the quality of the oil through reduced insulation. Acid that forms in the oil when reacting with oxygen is called oxidization. It reduces the heat dissipation of the transformer as the acid forms sludge which settles on the windings of the transformer. The first step in the preventive maintenance program associated with transformer oil is the testing of the oil. The base line is established through initial testing, and subsequent annual testing identifies any changes. The minimal requirements are: (1) dielectric breakdown, a measure of the voltage conducted by the oil; (2) neutralization/acid number, which detects the level of acid present in the oil; (3) interfacial tension, which identifies the presence of polar compounds; (4) colour, which displays quality, aging and the presence of contaminants; and (5) water, which decreases the dielectric breakdown voltage. The analysis of the gases present in the oil is another useful tool in a maintenance program for the determination of a possible fault such as arcing, corona or overheated connections and is accomplished through Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). Remediation treatment includes upgrading the oil. Ideally, reclamation should be performed in the early stages of the acid buildup before sludging occurs. Onsite reclamation includes Fuller's earth processing and degasification, a process briefly described by the author.

  12. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscom, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  13. Separating oil from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C

    1991-04-11

    The technology available to deal with oil spills has assumed many new faces in recent years. Methods of dealing with small-scale pollution in the process industries and vast oil slicks such as that in the Gulf have developed in parallel. The progress being made in finding new means of separating oil from water is reported and the relative merits of bioremediation, hydrocylones, horizontal separators and gas flotation are discussed. (author).

  14. Treating oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolbear, S H

    1921-01-04

    Oil shale is treated for the separation of the valuable organic compounds, with a view to economy in subsequent destructive distillation, by grinding to powder, mixing with water to form a pulp, adding a small quantity of an oil liquid and aerating the mixture to form a froth containing the organic compounds. If the powdered shale contains sufficient free oil, the addition of oil to the pulp may be dispensed with. In some cases an electrolyte such as sulfuric acid may be added to the pulp.

  15. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  16. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... kernel oil, or both oils. 172.861 Section 172.861 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  17. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  18. Process for extracting oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A process is described for recovering bituminous material from oil shale, characterized in that the oil shale is extracted with wood spirits oil (byproduct of woodspirit rectification), if necessary in admixture with other solvents in the cold or the hot.

  19. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  20. Oil shale technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail

  1. Manitoba oil activity review, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the annual review of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  2. Manitoba oil activity review, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report is the annual review of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  3. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  4. Purifying oils, cracking oils, catalysts. [British Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-05

    Hydrocarbon oils are refined by treating while substantially in the liquid phase between 200/sup 0/ and 400/sup 0/C with a phosphoric acid catalyst deposited on metallurgical coke, a suitable blast furnace slag, silica gel or other carrier with similar properties, until the objectionable components are converted into innocuous substances by polymerization cracking, isomerization and/or alkylation. By this treatment the bromine number is reduced, the end-point of the A.S.T.M. distillation is increased, the octane number is raised, mercaptans are converted to hydrogen sulphide and olefines, thioethers and thiophenes are converted to mereaptans, and the initial boiling point is lowered. The process is applicable to gasoline, cracked distillate, kerosine and lubricating oil, obtained by distilling or cracking petroleum, shale and hydrogenated oils; and is particularly applicable for stabilizing cracked distillates.

  5. Mineral oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.; Suess, M.J.; Grefen, K.; Reinisch, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter a general picture is presented of the air pollution aspects in the mineral oil industry. The complete field is covered, starting from drilling operations and the well head up to the delivery of the products to the consumer. A large field of activities as is given by the mineral oil

  6. Oil spill recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.; Cooper, W.; Nee, V.; Nigim, H.

    1992-01-01

    Current deficiencies in oil spill cleanup processes have resulted in research and development of new cleanup technologies at the University of Notre Dame. Emphasis on reducing, reusing and recycling equipment and waste at a cleanup site has prompted advances in oil recovery technology as well as improvement in sorbent materials. (author)

  7. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a directory of enterprises under the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the former USSR and is published for winter 1991 through spring 1992. It contains names and addresses for associations, institutes, design and engineering offices, oil and gas drilling administrations, and gas processing plants

  8. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  9. Heavy oils clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collitt, R.

    1997-01-01

    High production, transport and refining costs have long led oil companies to shun heavy crude oils. Advances in the technology of upgrading heavy oils, however, are likely to reduce transport costs and improve the refinery output. Research and development by Venezuela's state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), has resulted in a process called Aquaconversion which permits the upgrading of heavy crude oils using a catalyst and the hydrogen from steam. This may be carried out at the wellhead in small low-pressure and relatively inexpensive units. In addition, higher distillate yields of higher value could be produced by revamping the thermal cracking units of refineries to incorporate the new technology. This has generated considerable interest in Venezuela's large extra-heavy crude oil reserves and has led multinational oil companies along with PDVSA to pledge $17 billion to their development. Even at a $2 to $3 per barrel upgrading cost, Venezuela's extra heavy crudes are competitive with lighter oils from other countries. Other major markets for the new technology are likely to be China and Russia, given their own large heavy crude reserves. (UK)

  10. Origin of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, W G

    1923-01-01

    The theory by Jones was questioned. Oil shales do not contain partly decomposed vegetable matter, and, where particles of vegetation are identified, they do not prove that kerogen was formed in its place. Some shales do contain free oil that can be extracted with solvents.

  11. Process of deparaffining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-03-05

    This process comprises centrifuging in the presence of a solvent which dissolves the oil and precipitates the paraffins, with the addition of an auxiliary liquid whose surface tension with respect to the oil solution does not exceed 50 dynes/cm.

  12. Improvements in petroleum oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohle, S

    1909-10-12

    A process for treating oils of the kind described is disclosed, which consists in adding to the oil an alkaline solution containing salines, and a vegetable saponaceous substance with or without iodides and with or without sulfuric acid. The salines and iodides are added in the form of a mucilage prepared from seaweed.

  13. Krill oil: new nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Krill oil is a new available health product which is produced from deep marine species. Its property is to promote good health. The good lipid composition and antioxidant enrichment make krill oil a new nutraceutical for reducing health problems.

  14. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2004-01-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  15. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  16. Iranian-Oil-Free Zone and international oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Raeisian Parvari, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    One of the main elements of economic sanctions against Iran due to its nuclear and military programs is crude oil exportation restrictions in addition to investment in Iranian energy related projects. Senders of such sanction are interested in understanding the impacts of such embargos on international oil prices. We apply unrestricted vector autoregressive (VAR) model, using impulse response functions (IRF) and variance decomposition analysis (VDA) tools with annual data from 1965 to 2012 to analyze the dynamic response of international oil prices to Iranian oil export sanction. Controlling for the supply of non-Iranian oil, the world GDP per capita, and post-Islamic revolution exogenous dummy variables, we show that international oil prices respond negatively and statistically significant to increasing shock in absolute negative changes of the Iranian oil exports – our proxy of Iran oil sanctions – following the first 2 years after shock. The main reason is the positive response of the non-Iranian oil supply to negative shocks in Iranian oil exports, filling the missing supply of Iranian oil in international markets. - Highlights: • We analyze the interconnections between Iranian oil supply and global oil prices. • We use VAR modeling and annual data from 1965 to 2012 for the case of Iran. • There are no inflationary effects of Iranian oil sanction on world oil prices. • Non-Iranian oil supply offsets the missing Iranian oil in the market

  17. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  18. Oil and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Yoshiaki

    1988-06-01

    The secondary oil recovery due to microorganisms and the production of useful substances from oil distillates using microorganisms are described as examples to solidify the relationship between oil and biotechnology. The secondary crude-oil recovery has been carried out due to the microorganism drive process, which includes the on-the-ground and underground processes. Although the microorganism drive process has been investigated for many years, the selection of the microorganisms is not completely established. Many uncertainties still remain regarding the technical and economic aspects. The single cell protein (SCP) is an example of industrial success in the production of useful substances from the oil. Rumania has produced SCP from normal paraffin and the U. K. from the methanol and the products are used as the protein source for animals. Remarkable progress in the functional efficiency of microorganisms is expected due to the biotechnology for both applications. (4 tabs)

  19. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J E

    1923-03-19

    In distilling mineral oils such as petroleum, shale oil, distillates and topped or residual oils, particularly to obtain lubricating oils, the distillation is carried out under reduced pressures below an absolute pressure of 25 mm. of mercury and preferably below about 5 mm. of mercury, and the distillate is collected in fractions determined by the physical characteristics, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, etc. Superheated steam may be passed through the liquid during distillation. A horizontal cylindrical still provided with cross braces and peripheral ribs interrupted at the base is connected through a condensing coil immersed in a steam chest and a baffled chamber with distillate receiver and is evacuated by a pump. Steam from a boiler and superheater is injected into the still through a perforated pipe. Steam and light oil vapors passing from the chamber are condensed in a coil.

  20. Dynamic international oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linde, C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic International Oil Market Developments and Structure 1860-1990 discusses the logic of changing market structures of the international oil industry. The market structures have, in the course of time, oscillated between competition and oligopoly, as the oil market expanded, matured, stagnated, and expanded again. This book provides a dynamic interpretation of the intensifying struggle among producer, and consumer governments, and oil companies, over the distribution of economic rents and profits. In particular, it shows the shifting fortunes of the governments and companies as they try to control the recurring capacity constraints between the upstream and downstream sectors, generated by the instability of the oil market. The first part of the book examines market conditions and developments between 1860 and 1990; the second part analyzes market structures after 1945

  1. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  2. Rheology of waxy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicke, Alexandra A.; Marchesini, Flavio H.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: fhmo@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that below the crystallization temperature the rheology of waxy oils changes from Newtonian to an extremely complex non-Newtonian behavior, which is shear-rate and temperature-history dependent. Along the last decades a lot of effort has been put into obtaining reliable rheological measurements from different oils so as to understand the yielding of waxy oils as well as the effects of shear and temperature histories on rheological properties, such as viscosity, yield stress, storage and loss moduli. In this paper we examine in detail the related literature, discussing the main reasons for some disagreements concerning the history effects on the flow properties of waxy oils. In addition, we performed temperature ramps and stress-amplitude-sweep tests and compared the results obtained with the main trends observed, highlighting the effects of cooling and shear on the microstructure and consequently on the rheological properties of these oils. (author)

  3. PECES DORADOS. UN AVANCE SOBRE RECIENTES DESCUBRIMIENTOS EN LA NECRÓPOLIS FENICIA Y PÚNICA DE GADIR (CÁDIZ, ESPAÑA (Golden Fishes. A Preliminary Report on Recent Discoveries about the Phoenician and Punic Necropolis of Gadir (Cadiz, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Belizón Aragón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La necrópolis fenicia y púnica insular de Gadir es una de las más excavadas del Mediterráneo occidental, pero quedan aún muchos aspectos de sus características y evolución por definir sólidamente desde la perspectiva arqueológica. Recientes excavaciones preventivas, practicadas en un amplio solar de la ciudad de Cádiz, han revelado la existencia de varios conjuntos de enterramientos en un excepcional estado de conservación y con sus ajuares intactos, los cuales corresponden a los siglos VI-V a. C. Presentamos en este trabajo un breve avance de su análisis, así como algunas primeras propuestas acerca de la relación de estos enterramientos, vinculados a las élites gaditanas, con la economía marítima y el comercio conservero a larga distancia. ENGLISH: The Phoenician and Punic necropolis of Gadir is one of the most excavated in the Western Mediterranean, but many of the features and the development of the site are still waiting for a more solid archaeological foundation. Recent salvage excavations carried out in Cadiz have uncovered some exceptionally well-preserved funerary remains, including intact grave goods dating to the 6th–5th centuries BC. This paper focuses on the preliminary results of these excavations, the analysis of the Phoenician and Punic tombs, as well as the connections between the luxurious necropolis of the 5th century and the local elites involved in the maritime long-distance trade of salt-fish products.

  4. Oil slick skimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karterman, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    A craft for removing an oil slick from a body of water is described comprising: a pair of spacedly arranged paralleled positioned elongated floats, a platform mounted on and extending between said floats, a weir mounted on said platform between said floats and being movable independently and substantially vertical of the longitudinal axis of said floats to a position below the surface of said body of water, a submersible oil receiving and storage means detachedly mounted to said platform between said floats and having an inlet port at one level and comprising a substantially enclosed oil accumulator having an outlet port at a lower level, said weir comprising a sluice gate constructed and arranged to admit into said inlet port of said oil receiving and storage means under the effects of gravity a portion of an oil stick comprising a water and oil mixture skimmed from said body of water, and a first pump connected to said outlet port of said accumulator to control the movement of water from the inside lower level of said accumulator out of said accumulator to thereby control the amount of the oil slick flowing into said accumulator

  5. Oil and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, F

    1974-10-01

    The shift in world income due to the increase in oil prices has resulted in a world economy that has been thrown off balance. Nine papers are presented that explore the background and the main implications of this ''watershed'' in international relations, particularly the extent to which it will affect the development prospects of poor countries and the climate of trade between poor and rich nations in the next few years. Two papers, ''Diary of Events in the Oil Market 1971--1974'' and ''Statistical Background,'' provide information on the financial changes implied by the price increase; some of the figures should be treated as preliminary estimates only. ''Large International Firms in the Oil Industry'' examines the part played by the major oil companies in developments in the oil market leading up to the events of 1973. Two papers, ''Can OPEC Maintain Current Prices'' and ''OPEC As a Model for Other Mineral Exporters,'' present optimistic conclusions, from the viewpoint of developing countries, on their future capability for controlling their own destinies in trade. ''A Note on Some Issues Raised for Science and Technology Policy by the Increase in Oil Prices'' looks at options open to producers and consumers of raw materials. ''Assessing the Economic Impact on Developing Countries and Some Policy Suggestions,'' ''A Note on the Implications of the Oil Price Increases for British Aid Policy,'' and ''Confrontation Versus Co-operation'' are three papers concerned with difficulties of developing countries and particularly India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. (MCW)

  6. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  7. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  8. Hydroprocesssing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendziewski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Marek; Luzny, Rafal; Klimek, Bartlomiej [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdanska 7/9, 50-310 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of experiments of hydroprocessing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures were carried out. The reactor feed was composed of raw material: first series - 10 wt.% rape oil and 90 wt.% of diesel oil; second series - 20 wt.% rape oil and 80 wt.% of diesel oil. Hydroprocessing of both mixtures was performed with the same parameter sets, temperature (320, 350 and 380 C), hydrogen pressure 3 and 5 MPa, LHSV = 2 h{sup -} {sup 1} and hydrogen feed ratio of 500 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was stated that within limited range it is possible to control vegetable oil hydrogenolysis in the presence of light gas oil fraction (diesel oil boiling range) through the proper selection of the process parameters. Hydrogenolysis of ester bonds and hydrogenation of olefinic bonds in vegetable oils are the main reactions in the process. Basic physicochemical properties of the obtained hydroprocessed products are presented. (author)

  9. Big russian oil round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Beer, G.

    2006-01-01

    The departure of Mikhail Khodorkovsky has brought an end to the idyllic times of supplies of Russian oil to the MOL-Slovnaft group. The group used to purchase oil directly from Yukos. But now brokers have again entered the Central European oil business. And their aim is to take control over all of the oil business. The Russians demonstrated the changed situation to Slovakia last autumn: you will either accept the new model, or there will be problems with oil deliveries. Consumers got the message. The main brokers of Russian oil in Central Europe are the Swiss companies Glencore and Fisotra. Little information is available regarding these commodity brokers. But the information available is sufficient to indicate that these are not small companies. Glencore undertakes 3% of all international oil trades. With an annual turnover of 72 billions USD, it was the biggest Swiss company by turnover in 2004. Fisotra also has an extensive product portfolio. It offers financial and commercial services and does not hide its good relations with Russian oil companies. Between 1994 and 1998, it managed their financial operations with major western companies such as BP, Cargill, Elf, Exxon, Shell, Total, and Mutsubishi and also with Glencore. Fisotra states that some of its clients achieved an annual turnover of 1.5 billions USD. At present, the Swiss brokers receive a fee of 1 to 1.5 USD per barrel. The Russian political elite must be aware of these brokerage services as the oil transport through the transit system is closely monitored by the state owned company Transneft. (authors)

  10. Oil output's changing fortunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Petroleum Economist, previously the Petroleum Press Service, has been making annual surveys of output levels of petroleum in all the oil-producing countries since its founding in 1934. This article documents trends and changes in the major oil-producing countries output from 1934 until the present. This analysis is linked with the political and historical events accompanying these changes, notably the growth of Middle Eastern oil production, the North Sea finds and most recently, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. (UK)

  11. Modelling oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of oil exploration models in this paper is developed in four parts. The way in which exploration has been dealt with in oil supply models is first described. Five recent models are then looked at, paying particular attention to the explanatory variables used when modelling exploration activities. This is followed by a discussion of the factors which have been shown by several empirical studies to determine exploration in less developed countries. Finally, the interdependence between institutional factors, oil prices and exploration effort is analysed with a view to drawing conclusions for modelling in the future. (UK)

  12. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author)

  13. Oil spill clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claxton, L.D.; Houk, V.S.; Williams, R.; Kremer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. During biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic constituents to toxic species. Also, toxic compounds refractory to biological degradation may compromise the effectiveness of the treatment technique. In the study, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay showed that both the Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its weathered counterpart collected from oil-impacted water were weakly mutagenic. Results also showed that the mutagenic components were depleted at a faster rate than the overall content of organic material

  14. China's oil resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesegart, K

    1981-03-01

    The United Nations International Meeting on Petroleum Geology is being held this month from 18-25 in China, a country whose oil reserves up to mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world's oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy material, the West is showing growing interest in China's energy potential. How real is this prospect forms the subject of this article. 3 tables.

  15. Nanotechnologies in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, M.K; Kazimov, F.K.; Ismailov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of remaining, laboriously developed oil reserves at the last stage of development of deposits require drastically improved methods of oil recovery. From this point of view it is more expedient to apply high-tech nanotechnologies. Application of metal nanoparticles in solutions consisting of conventional reagents (deemulgators, SAA and etc.) allows to improve their rheology considerably to increase permaibility and washing of highly viscous components from the smallest pores. Thus, nanofluids influence layer system on atomic-molecular-ionic level which will lead to a complex synergetic effect from the application of nanotechnologies in oil and gas production.

  16. Alternatives to OPEC oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption that, for various reasons, the supply of OPEC oil required to meet a rising world energy demand will continue to be limited. Its purpose is to present a synoptic look at the various sources of energy which are alternatives to OPEC oil, with an economic commentary on the prospects for each source. A wide variety of projects are going forward for the development of non-OPEC oil, gas, coal, and nuclear power, as well as renewable energy resources. Special attention is devoted to questions of energy pricing, investment costs, and sources of finance. (author)

  17. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  18. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeper, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  19. Crude oil market report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Falling demand for refined products and an excess of production capacity are driving world oil prices down further. Competitive price cutting, notably by Mexico, Britain, and the Soviet Union, has left Saudi Arabia the only guardian of a costly pricing discipline in terms of crude oil sales. The current crisis is limited to the producers of crude oil. Refineries are now deciding what, where, and how to buy crude in order to meet the requirements of a slack market place. Saudi Arabia could precipitate a price collapse below $20 per barrel by increasing production volume, but that seems unlikely. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  20. Challenge - oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogler, O.

    1981-01-01

    After a short survey on recent developments of energy supply the risks of future energy supply and its effects are discussed. The parameters of dependence on oil-producing countries are studied and an evaluation is given on the measures which have to be taken by the Western industrialized countries in response to the dependence on oil. Further subjects are: mechanism of oil distribution in case of crisis, long-term cooperation of producer countries, measures on international level in the USA and Japan, and the energy-importing countries in the conflict area between OPEC- and industrialized countries. (UA) [de

  1. Oil-leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa Viera, D.; Fierard, P.; Bacchiani, L.; Lions, N.

    1967-01-01

    This apparatus is designed to set off an alarm when the oil level in a reservoir exceeds or falls short of a given value. The detection system consists of a condenser whose plates are separated by air or by oil, the condenser being immersed or non-immersed. A very small change in capacity (of the order of 1 pF for a height of oil of 1 cm) should be detected with respect to the high capacity of the connecting cable. An application for a patent has been made for this apparatus which makes it possible to detect small changes in capacity. (authors) [fr

  2. Oil shale activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, D.; Jialin, Q.

    1991-01-01

    China has abundant oil shale resources, of the Early Silurian to Neogene age, the most important being the Tertiary period. The proved oil shale reserves in Fushun amount to 3.6 billion t, in Maoming 4.1 billion t. In Fushun, oil shale is produced by open-pit mining as a byproduct of coal, in Maoming it is also mined in open pits, but without coal. In China, scale oil has been produced from oil shale for 60 years. Annual production of crude shale oil amounts to about 200 000 t. The production costs of shale oil are lower than the price of crude petroleum on the world market. China has accumulated the experience and technologies of oil shale retorting. The Fushun type retort has been elaborated, in which the latent and sensible heat of shale coke is well utilized. But the capacity of such retort is relatively small, therefore it is suitable for use in small or medium oil plants. China has a policy of steadily developing shale oil industry. China is conducting oil shale research and developing oil shale processing technology. Much attention is being pay ed to the comprehensive utilization of oil shale, shale oil, and to environmental problems. In China, oil shale is mostly used for producing shale by retorting, attention will also be paid to direct combustion for power generation. Great achievements in oil shale research have been made in the eighties, and there will be a further development in the nineties. (author), 12 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Metal working oils. Cutting oils, rolling oils, quenching oils, rust preventive oils; Kinzoku kakoyu. Sessakuyu, atsuenyu, yakiireyu, boseiyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, S. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    With the demand against complicating working techniques for a background, foundations of the consideration for each of the lubricants in future are outlined. 1. Cutting oils: From the standpoint of speeding up and fireproofing, share of water-soluble type has come up to 30-40%. In this type, emulsifying dispersants and preservatives are combined. 2. Rolling oils: According to thinning of the standard thickness of steel plates, pressure of contacting surfaces has come up to 300 kg/mm{sup 2}(max.) and slip speed has increased too. In stainless steel plates, in order to get rid of the heat-streak (baking streak originated from wearing-out of oil film) shifting from neat oil to emulsion type is required. 3. Quenching oils: Following two systems are recent tendencies, the mineral oil system having excellent thermostability or the water system containing polyalkylneglycol etc., but the latter is expected from the viewpoint of fireproofing. 4. Rust preventive oils: As this oils do not aim at the rust prevention for long term, degreasing property is required. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Chemical profiling of gaharu oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Mohd Fajri Osman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abd Wahab; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Shaiful Azuar Mohamad

    2006-01-01

    Gaharu oil from Aquilaria agallocha and Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk has been reported to contain different phytochemicals components (Ishihara et al., 1993). There are also differences reported by gaharu oil suppliers. The differences suggested they originate from varied of sources of gaharu wood, oleoresin maturity and extraction technology employed. In this study, gaharu oil purchased from different sources were initially analysed and later cross-examined against chemical components of oil extracted from wood sources systematically graded. The gaharu oil components obtained from this work will be presented and discussed. Initiative to profile oil provides impetus to database development and standardisation of gaharu oil. (Author)

  5. Evening Primrose Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z Evening Primrose Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... fact sheet provides basic information about evening primrose oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  6. Time of expensive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roset, C.

    2006-01-01

    Consumer information, energy conservation and the development of renewable energies are the axis on which French authorities have based their new policy to face constant high oil prices. It seems possible to increase France's hydro-energy potential by 40% without putting at risk environmental policy. In 2005 the ratio of France's energy independence descended below 50% .In 2005 despite high oil prices the tax on oil products yielded 212 million euros less than it was expected in the budget. Saudi-arabia has been asked by the G 7 group to make the necessary investment to bring its oil production up to 12.5 million barrels a day by 2010. (A.C.)

  7. The oil finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Sometimes a geologist becomes convinced that oil cannot occur in an area and finally says he will drink all the oil found there. When this happens, he should ask for a transfer. He has been in the area too long. Negative thinking never found a barrel of oil. This paper reports that a good geologist should critically examine and challenge the statements and theories of others in his own mind. He should follow up with positive actions based on his ideas and sell them to management. By so doing, he will be a creator of fires instead of a fire fighter. It is the creator who has the most to gain and obtains the bulk of the oil reserves

  8. Radium in diesel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, J.

    1977-05-01

    In order to determine the addition of radon and radium to the air in mines, originatiny from the combustion of petroleum, measurements of the content of radium in diesel oil have been performed. Knowing the radium content theradon content can easily be calculated. The procedures used for the chemical analysis of radium is desribed. The ash remaining after combustion of the diesel oil is soluted in water and radium is precipiated as sulphate. The radium is detected by a ZnS (Ag) detector. The diesel oils from different petroleum companies contained between o.019-0.5pCi radium - 226. The conclution is that the consumption of diesel oils in motors used in mines does not contribute to the radium - 226 content at the air move than permissible according to norms.(K.K.)

  9. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  10. Oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The plan outlined in this document specifies the actions that the Canadian Wildlife Service Atlantic Region is mandated to take in the event of an oil spill, or on discovering oiled migratory birds in terrestrial, fresh water, marine and inter-tidal habitats. In addition to describing the role and responsibilities of the Canadian Wildlife Service, the document also describes response plans of other agencies for dealing with all wildlife species affected by oil spills. Reporting paths, the lead agency concept, shared responsibilities with other Canadian Wildlife Service regional offices, provincial agencies, Heritage Canada, non-government wildlife response agencies, oil spill response organizations, and international organizations are outlined. An overview of the reporting and communications process is also provided

  11. Peak oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, W. H.; Campbell, C. J.; Zagar, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  12. Oil shale highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The low prices of crude oil have continued to retard the commercial development of oil shale and other syn fuels. Although research funds are more difficult to find, some R and D work by industry, academia, and governmental agencies continues in the United States and in other parts of the world. Improvements in retorting technology, upgrading oil-shale feedstock, and developing high-value niche-market products from shale oil are three notable areas of research that have been prominent for the past several years. Although the future prices of conventional crude cannot be predicted, it seems evident that diminishing supplies and a burgeoning world population will force us to turn to alternate fossil fuels as well as to cleaner sources of non-fossil energy. (author)

  13. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    and palm kernel oil exhibiting similar results in the control of the pest. ... the use of chemical pesticide in the protection of both field and stored crops is .... obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus.

  14. Flaxseed and Flaxseed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z Flaxseed and Flaxseed Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about flaxseed and flaxseed oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  15. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durousset, M.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents todays economical and strategic realities of the oil market. According to the author, petroleum will remain a vital energy source essentially supplied by the Middle-East with strong increasing and decreasing demand changes. (J.S.)

  16. Uncertainty in oil projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limperopoulos, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents an oil project valuation under uncertainty by means of two well-known financial techniques: The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and The Black-Scholes Option Pricing Formula. CAPM gives a linear positive relationship between expected rate of return and risk but does not take into consideration the aspect of flexibility which is crucial for an irreversible investment as an oil price is. Introduction of investment decision flexibility by using real options can increase the oil project value substantially. Some simple tests for the importance of uncertainty in stock market for oil investments are performed. Uncertainty in stock returns is correlated with aggregate product market uncertainty according to Pindyck (1991). The results of the tests are not satisfactory due to the short data series but introducing two other explanatory variables the interest rate and Gross Domestic Product make the situation better. 36 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Oil seed marketing prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceroni, G.

    1992-01-01

    With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

  18. Oil and entrepreneurship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majbouri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that rents produced from natural resources, especially oil and gas, can increase opportunities for entrepreneurship, but they may also reduce engagement in entrepreneurial activities as they change incentives towards rent-seeking. Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) annual surveys, this study provides empirical evidence that more per capita profit from oil and gas reduces entrepreneurship only in corrupt environments. The more the corruption is, the larger is the impact. The results have important implications for policy makers, especially in resource rich developing countries. - Highlights: •Profits from oil and gas have positive and negative impacts on entrepreneurship. •This study explains these impacts and provides empirical evidence on them. •It uses Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and WB Subsoil and Forest rents datasets. •It employs a dynamic panel data estimation with country fixed effects. •It shows that the negative impact dominates as corruption and oil and gas rents increase.

  19. Recovering oil from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahey, T; Wilson, H

    1920-11-13

    To recover oil free from inorganic impurities and water, and utilize the oil vapor and tarry matter for the production of heat, shale is heated in a retort at a temperature of not less than 120/sup 0/C. The vapors pass by a pipe into a water jacketed condenser from which the condensate and gas pass through a pipe into a chamber and then by a pipe to a setting chamber from where the light oils are decanted through a pipe into a tank. The heavy oil is siphoned through a pipe into a tank, while the gas passes through a pipe into a scrubber and then into a drier, exhauster and pipe to the flue and ports, above the fire-bars, into the retort. Air is introduced through a pipe, flue, and ports.

  20. Hydrogenizing oils, asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-03-14

    The hydrogenation of carbonaceous solids in presence of combined sulfur, e.g., sulfides as described in the parent specification is applied to the treatment of rock oils, shale oils, resins, ozokerite, asphalt, and the like, or fractions, residues, or acid sludge or other conversion products thereof, alone or mixed. Preferably the hydrogen or other reducing gas is in excess and under pressure, and is either circuited or led through a series of treatment vessels, hydrogen being added for that used. In an example, residues from American crude oil are passed continuously with hydrogen at 200 atmospheres and 450 to 500/sup 0/C over pressed precipitated cobalt sulfide, the issuing gases being cooled to condense the light oil produced.

  1. 1999 Crude oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochener, J.

    1998-01-01

    Baseline projection handling of crude oil prices was discussed, based on actual crude oil price trends from 1992 to 1998. Attention was drawn to the lack of correlation between crude oil and natural gas prices. Predictions for crude oil production were extended to the year 2015. As far as the immediate future is concerned the crude oil price for 1999 was predicted to continue to be sluggish due to competitive pressure from refined products at burner tip. tabs., figs

  2. Olive oil and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.; Abia, Rocío; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon)-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decre...

  3. Oil Origin and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Barenbaum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of oil age is discussed on the basis of the biosphere concept of oil and gas formation. It considers oil and gas deposits as underground carbon traps circulating through the Earth’s surface in the three main cycles of the circulation. A theoretical model has been developed that makes it possible to explain from these positions the phenomenon of replenishment of oil and gas deposits in the process of field development. The model provides a balance between carbon flows on the ascending and descending branches of its circulation through the Earth’s surface. In this model, the ascending flow of carbon is represented by the products of subsoil degassing (СН4, СО2 and extracted by the person from the depths of oil, gas and coal. A descending flow is an organic matter and carbonates that are submerged in the subsoil in the processes of sedimentation and subduction of lithospheric plates, as well as atmospheric COsub>2, entering the Earth’s surface with meteoric waters in the process of their climatic circulation. Since the fields are filled with hydrocarbons formed in cycles of carbon with widely differing circulation times, instead of the term ‘age of oil’, it is suggested to use the terms ‘trap formation time’ and ‘hydrocarbon life time in the trap’. This approach to the question of oil age in the biosphere concept leads to a number of conclusions, from which it follows that: 1 the ‘old’ petroleum of biogenic genesis is extracted at the initial stage of the development of deposits, whereas in the depletion stage the ‘young’ hydrocarbons of abiogenic synthesis prevail; 2 the age of industrial accumulations of oil on our planet is hardly older than the Pleistocene, while gaseous, liquid and bituminous fractions of oil have different lifetimes in traps.

  4. Global oil company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Global Oil Company Profiles provides a comprehensive review of 50 of the top oil companies in the world. Each chapter is devoted to an individual company, providing an invaluable insight into the organisation, its structure and operations. Using the most recent data available, the report offers an up-to-date analysis of performance and future direction, as well as a unique benchmarking system for each company profiled. (author)

  5. Oil troubles waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, E.

    1998-01-01

    The sea provides a vast array of natural resources for thousands of local communities in the tropics. But the presence of the oil industry has significant social and environmental impacts, both from accidents and from routine activities like seismic exploration, drilling and the generation of polluting wastes. When accidents occur, sessile life (species attached to surface such as rocks or the seabed) is the first to be affected; its mortality increases as oil accumulates, although certain organisms, like gastropods, tolerate it better

  6. Alberta's new oil boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforuk, A.

    1997-01-01

    A massive expansion of Canada's oil sands and the oil-mining business is underway. The prediction is that within five years there will be at least three, possibly six, huge new open pit mines north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. It was suggested that within 20 years, possibly half of Canada's oil supply will come from the oil sands industry which has already attracted $10 billion worth of developments. Unlike conventional crude, the oil sands contain bitumen, water, clay, minerals and lots of sands. Shallow deposits are mined like coal. Deeper formations make use of in-situ thermal recovery techniques. Extraction costs are presently at $15 per barrel, aiming for $12 by 1999. Return on investment is in double digits. Estimates of reserves in the Athabasca, Cold Lake, Peace River and Wabasca deposits go as high as 1.7 trillion barrels, or about twice as much as Saudi Arabia's conventional crude reserves. Syncrude has built a $5 billion production facility and two pipelines have already been proposed to transport the oil sands crude to midwestern US refineries. US refineries prize synthetic crude as excellent mixing stock. The major problem with oil sands is that unlike conventional oil, these reserves require an enormous amount of energy to exploit, which in turn means lots of foul air and greenhouse gases. There are many environmental unknowns, and without a clear management framework in sight the addition of two or three Syncrude-size operations has the potential to create a real and significant acid rain problem in the Western Canada Basin

  7. Exploring Vietnam's oil potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of the oil production potential in Vietnam. Since Since 1987, the country has been open to foreign investment in offshore exploration but has suffered from a US embargo on trade and economic ties. Nevertheless some exploration has occurred and twenty production sharing contracts with international oil companies has been signed. To date most of the finds have been non-commercial but optimism remains high. (U.K.)

  8. Oil is killing Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, H.

    2007-09-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa, with its mining and petroleum resources, is still the object of covetous desires from developed countries. The Gulf of Guinea is a promising area and probably the future battlefield of the 21. century. The fighters of this war are the African people and the big powers, the USA and China at the head, who call upon mercenaries to get their share of this fabulous treasure. Oil was a chance for Africa, but now oil is killing it

  9. Deodorizing petroleum oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, A

    1906-06-14

    A process of purifying and deodorizing petroleum oils, gasolines, ethers, benzines, shale oils, resins, and similar products, consisting essentially in passing the vapors of the liquids with a current of hydrogen or of gases high in hydrogen over divided metals, such as nickel, copper, cobalt, iron, platinum, etc., heated to a temperature between 100/sup 0/C and 350/sup 0/C, the vapors passing before entering the apparatus through a column of copper heated to above 350/sup 0/C.

  10. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  11. The functioning of the oil market during an oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.; Siner, M.; Tijdhof, B.

    2003-01-01

    The title study regarding the functioning of the oil market during an oil crisis is carried out with particular reference to the strategic behaviour of oil companies. Section 2 identifies major oil supply disruptions since 1951 and describes some important changes in the market that have occurred in recent decades; Section 3 reviews the economic literature of the functioning of oil markets during disruptions and models of oil supply disruptions; Section 4 examines the response of oil markets to recent supply disruptions; Section 5 examines the incentives and scope for strategic behaviour; Section 6 considers the implications of our analysis for the design of policy responses to oil supply disruptions; Appendix A describes the background to the four recent oil supply disruptions; Appendix B discusses the relationship between spot and futures prices for a storable commodity; and Appendix C is the bibliography

  12. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  13. Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurette Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammat...

  14. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  15. Mobil Oil Canada : Kearl Oil Sands Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The upgrader design at Mobil's Kearl Oil Sands Mine were described. Included were feed characteristics, upgrader products, process schemes and their overall economics and upgrader technologies in use, including coking, deasphalting, hydrocracking, hydrotreating and visbreaking. Advantages and disadvantages of the upgrader technologies were highlighted. As far as the product is concerned, much of it is destined to U.S. refineries that are equipped to process the material. The Kearl Oil Sands Mine upgrading facility will likely use a combination of coker/hydrotreating, which is a well proven process for high value products that has been used in all five of Mobil's refineries in the U.S., and visbreaker/deasphalting, which has shown promise in bench-scale testing, but at present still has some potential commercial difficulties. Foremost among these are the high softening product of asphalt from visbroken products, questionable commercial feasibility of the low yield of pitch, and problems in the disposal of asphalt. Severe visbreaking also yields unstable products. Details of Mobil Canada's oil sands project were also summarized 2 tabs., 9 figs

  16. Effectiveness of olive oil for the prevention of pressure ulcers caused in immobilized patients within the scope of primary health care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez-Pérez, Inmaculada; Morilla-Herrera, Juan Carlos; Ginel-Mendoza, Leovigildo; Martín-Santos, Francisco Javier; Navarro-Moya, Francisco Javier; Sepúlveda-Guerra, Rafaela Pilar; Vázquez-Cerdeiros, Rosa; Cuevas-Fernández-Gallego, Magdalena; Benítez-Serrano, Isabel María; Lupiáñez-Pérez, Yolanda; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel

    2013-10-23

    Pressure ulcers are considered an important issue, mainly affecting immobilized older patients. These pressure ulcers increase the care burden for the professional health service staff as well as pharmaceutical expenditure. There are a number of studies on the effectiveness of different products used for the prevention of pressure ulcers; however, most of these studies were carried out at a hospital level, basically using hyperoxygenated fatty acids (HOFA). There are no studies focused specifically on the use of olive-oil-based products and therefore this research is intended to find the most cost-effective treatment and achieve an alternative treatment. The main objective is to assess the effectiveness of olive oil, comparing it with HOFA, to treat immobilized patients at home who are at risk of pressure ulcers. As a secondary objective, the cost-effectiveness balance of this new application with regard to the HOFA will be assessed. The study is designed as a noninferiority, triple-blinded, parallel, multi-center, randomized clinical trial. The scope of the study is the population attending primary health centers in Andalucía (Spain) in the regional areas of Malaga, Granada, Seville, and Cadiz. Immobilized patients at risk of pressure ulcers will be targeted. The target group will be treated by application of an olive-oil-based formula whereas the control group will be treated by application of HOFA to the control group. The follow-up period will be 16 weeks. The main variable will be the presence of pressure ulcers in the patient. Secondary variables include sociodemographic and clinical information, caregiver information, and whether technical support exists. Statistical analysis will include the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, symmetry and kurtosis analysis, bivariate analysis using the Student's t and chi-squared tests as well as the Wilcoxon and the Man-Whitney U tests, ANOVA and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The regular use of olive-oil-based formulas

  17. Petrochema looks for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2006-01-01

    Petrochema Dubova has announced mass redundancies. The company managers, however, keep stressing that this does not mean the end of this Central Slovak refinery. Company management is searching intensely for low-sulphur oil that would help to bring back life to their fractionating column and start up production of light fuels and oils. The company has not used its equipment to produce products directly from oil for over two years. It used to specialise in the sale of oil products it purchased from other producers. About three months ago, the ownership of Petrochema changed once again. Petroinvest Bratislava became the new 100-percent owner of the company. It invested 35 mil. Sk (945-thousand EUR) in Petrochema's registered capital. The new owner has relations with people who used to cooperate with the Slovak investment group, Istrokapital. They bought Petrochema from the Czech company, Annectis. The new owners are talking about restructuring. 'We have not entered into any agreements on the purchase of oil as we did not know what the technical condition of the refinery was. Currently, we are looking for oil that meets the technological parameters of the technology used at Dubova,' said a member of the supervisory board of Petrochema, Miroslav Remeta. It is quite difficult to purchase oil for the company as the technology used for processing dates back to the first half of the last century. It requires low-sulphur oil with minimum paraffin content. In the past, the most suitable raw material used to come from Nafta Gbely. Later, the company started cooperation with Kazakhstan. 'We have to find a long-term partner to make the operation of the fractionating column profitable,' said M. Remeta. The company can process about 12-thousand tons a month. That is about 12 trainloads. In order to launch production it needs to have enough supply to cover for unreliable deliveries from unpredictable countries. 'Funds for the purchase of the oil are available from private sources

  18. The Erika tanker shipwreck, one year later. synthesis; Naufrage du petrolier Erika, un an apres. synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In december 1999 the Erika tanker shipwreck broke along the Brittany coast leading to the most important sea pollution by hydrocarbons, since the Amoco-Cadiz. One year after this accident the Ministry of the territory management and of the environment takes stock on the actions carried on after the shipwreck: the management of the POLMAR fund, the shoreline cleaning, the land and water ecosystems restoration, the wastes storage and processing, the ecological consequences. A special part is devoted to the maritime transport regulations and safety and to the victims compensation. (A.L.B.)

  19. Process for complete conversion of coal oils, shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P

    1911-07-08

    A process is described for complete conversion of mineral coal oil, shale oil, and other similar oils in pitch, characterized by these oils being mixed with a nonvolatile substance with a boiling point on the average higher than the boiling point of the oil to be treated, and then being heated under pressure with the introduction of air, whereby the heating is interrupted if necessary on account of the known exothermic reaction and the conversion of the oil in the pitch or its distillation can be carried out without further heating.

  20. Manitoba oil activity review, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    In an annual survey of Manitoba's petroleum industry, data are presented on oil and natural gas leases and sales, geophysical activity, exploration and drilling activity, production, oil prices and sales value, royalties and taxes, direct revenues from oil exploration and development, reserves, industry expenditures, and oil fields. Throughout the report, explanations are given of the items covered. Descriptions are made of new developments, the oil market, oil policies, incentive programs, and industrial activities. During 1992, 28 wells were drilled, compared to 54 in 1991. Oil production was down ca 8% from 1991 levels, to 656,415 m 3 ; the value of the oil produced decreased 4% to ca $86.3 million; and provincial revenues from the oil industry decreased by 24%. Oil industry expenditures in the province were estimated at $58 million, down 16% from 1991. As of 4 January 1993, there were 11 oil fields and 120 non-confidential oil pools designated in Manitoba. Crude oil prices fluctuated throughout the year. In 1992, Manitoba's average crude oil price was $20.89/bbl, compared with 1991's average of $20.14/bbl. Manitoba Energy and Mines amended the Drilling Incentive Program to provide a 10,000 m 3 holiday volume for horizontal wells. 12 figs., 17 tabs

  1. Manitoba oil activity review, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    In an annual survey of Manitoba's petroleum industry, data are presented on oil and natural gas leases and sales, geophysical activity, exploration and drilling activity, production, oil prices and sales value, royalties and taxes, direct revenues from oil exploration and development, reserves, industry expenditures, and oil fields. Throughout the report, explanations are given of the items covered. Descriptions are made of new developments, the oil market, oil policies, incentive programs, and industrial activities. During 1993, 87 wells were drilled, compared to 28 in 1992. Oil production was down ca 3% from 1992 levels, to 634,561 m 3 ; the value of the oil produced decreased 10% to ca $77.5 million; and provincial revenues from the oil industry decreased by 4%. Oil industry expenditures in the province were estimated at $73 million, up 26% from 1992. As of 4 January 1994, there were 11 oil fields and 120 non-confidential oil pools designated in Manitoba. Crude oil prices fluctuated throughout the year, between $15.12 and $21.50/bbl. In 1993, Manitoba's average crude oil price was $19.40/bbl, compared with 1992's average of $20.89/bbl. Manitoba Energy and Mines amended the Drilling Incentive Program to provide a 10,000 m 3 holiday volume for horizontal wells. 12 figs., 17 tabs

  2. Outlook for Saskatchewan heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youzwa, P.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the opportunities and challenges currently facing the heavy oil industry in Saskatchewan are discussed from a government perspective. By the end of September 1993, 220 heavy oil wells were drilled in the province, and 26% of the land sales in 1993 were in heavy oil areas. About 41% of the wells drilled in heavy oil areas were horizontal oil wells. Of the total horizontal wells drilled in Saskatchewan, 48% are for heavy oil, and horizontal well production averages 85 bbl/d. Initial trends suggest that horizontal wells both accelerate production and contribute to ultimate recovery. Total heavy oil production in 1992 reached 28.9 million bbl and recoverable reserves in 1991 were 262.3 million bbl, or 1.5% of total oil in place. The low recovery is not only due to technical factors such as high viscosity but also to low investment in the heavy oil sector due to poor economics. It is hoped that lower interest and exchange rates, the success of horizontal wells and the provincial royalty structure will maintain the recent increase in heavy oil activity. The provincial government recently launched a comprehensive energy strategy in which development of a heavy oil strategy is an important component. Total heavy oil reserves exceed those of light and medium oil and have significant development potential. The Saskatchewan government wishes to adopt a cooperative and partnership approach in its dealings with the heavy oil industry to help realize this potential. 9 figs

  3. Oil price prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toalster, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, four different, popular approaches to the analysis of oil price movements will be considered and an alternative method will be proposed. Whilst we await the development of a rigorous theoretical framework within which to evaluate the phenomenon of oil price movements some progress may be effected by an amalgam of approaches, with the traditional supply and demand model being supplemented by observations regarding political and social developments in particular countries or regions, together with an assessment of emerging and prospective technological achievements. In this way it should be possible to identify the critical influences at work, from which it should also be possible to select either the single most important variable or combination of variables, affecting the oil price. Moreover, it is my belief that the crucial variables influencing the oil price almost certainly, are more likely to be political and social, rather than economic. In this context and notwithstanding the fact that there is only a minimal level of surplus productive capacity in the world oil industry at present (perhaps 1-2 million b/d albeit rising rapidly), it is reasonable to conclude that oil prices will average around $18-19 a barrel for North Sea Brent in 1992 and 1993, with oscillations of $2-4 a barrel either side, rising slightly in 1994 to $19-20 a barrel and to $20-21 a barrel in 1995. Thereafter, the most likely outcome is for a rise in line with inflation (say $ a barrel/annum) with no prospect of an upward spike, because demand will be weaker than most commentators expect up to the year 2000, whilst OPEC oil supplies will be substantially higher than the consensus forecast. (author)

  4. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  5. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, M.

    1992-01-01

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  6. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  7. 1984 CRC (Coordinating Research Council, Inc.) Octane Number Requirement Rating Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Richard J . Tither Mobil Oil Corporation Sam D. Vallas Amoco Oil Company Douglas A. Voss Chevron Research Company Andy Vukovic Shell Canada Dave G...Instrumentation, * Preparation a Test Fuels: Procurement of Fuels and Cans, and Coordina- tion of On-Site Handling e Data Handling and Analysis j 2 nI |S 0- B-2 V...Doug McCorkell Union Oil Company of California James D. Merritt Amoco Oil Company Michael J . Mlotkowski Mobil Oil Corporation John Pandosh Sun Tech

  8. Oxidizing oils, etc. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penniman, W B.D.

    1926-03-02

    The oxidation of crude petroleum and its distillates, shale oils and tars, waxes, sludges, petroleum residues, asphaltic oils, asphalt, malthas, cracked oils and residues from cracking stills, wood tar oils and wood tar, peat and lignite distillates, coal tar oils and coal tar, and oils containing powdered coal, coke or peat, sulphur in suspension, is effected by passing air or other oxygen-containig gas through a layer of the material of a depth sufficient substantially to deoxygenate the air, the pressure being at or below atmospheric pressure.

  9. The determinants of oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelier, J-P.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, swings in oil prices have been of unprecendented severity and frequency. Three factors work together to determine the price of oil: in the short term, the balance between supply and demand; in the medium term, the structure of the oil industry; and in the long term, the marginal production cost consistent with world oil demand. An oil price forecast is presented based on these considerations, and it is predicted that in the year 2000, oil prices will not be significantly different from those of today. 28 refs

  10. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The two major political events of 1991 produced a much less dramatic reaction in the global oil industry than might have been expected. The economic dislocation in the former USSR caused oil production to fall sharply but this was largely offset by a concurrent fall in demand. Within twelve months of the invasion of Kuwait, crude oil prices had returned to their pre-invasion level; there was no shortage of supply due to the ability of some producers to boost their output rapidly. Details are given of world oil production and developments in oil demand. Demand stagnated in 1991 due to mainly to the economic chaos in the former USSR and a slowdown in sales in the USA; this has produced problems for the future of the refining industry. By contrast, the outlook for the natural gas industry is much more buoyant. Most clean air or carbon emissions legislation is designed to promote the use of gas rather than other hydrocarbons. World gas production rose by 1.5% in 1991; details by production on a country by country basis are given. (UK)

  11. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  12. International oil law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkzad, B.

    1997-01-01

    The 1973 energy crisis demonstrated that the international petroleum industry is not totally free. Very often it has been the object of an organization, even during the domination of international oil companies which have established a petroleum international system with a system of concession rights. This system is based on an oligopolistic structure which had the characteristics of a monopoly. This vertically integrated structure of the world petroleum industry during the 1920-1950 era was more or less locked up by the system of concessions. The incompatibility of this system of excessively long concession contracts with the economical development needs of oil exporting countries has led to their abolishment. They have been replaced by new agreements. As soon as the creation of stable and permanent international oil organizations (OPEC, OAPEC, IEA), an institutional right has been established which has generated international rights and principles governing the contractual relations between oil exporting and oil importing countries. This international petroleum right is both original and specific, it is evolutive, contractual and normative. (J.S.)

  13. Compositional modification of crude oil during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yangming; Weng, Huanxin [Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Zulin; Chen, Qi [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)

    2003-05-01

    Ten crude oils from two recovery stages spanning 5-10-year interval of five productive wells in the Tarim Basin, northwest China were analyzed for their compositional modification during production process. Significant compositional changes in polar and nonpolar fractions between the previous oil samples and the latter ones were noted at both bulk and molecular level. The latter oil samples appear to contain more aromatic fraction and less asphaltenes and resin, and their gas chromatography (GC) data for whole oil show reduced alkanes with low molecular weight and enhanced high homologue relative to the previous oil samples. Compared with the oils collected from the previous recovery stage, the concentration of basic type of nitrogen-containing compounds and organic acids in oils from the latter recovery stage have a reducing trend, suggesting the occurrence of interaction between crude oil and reservoir rock.

  14. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  15. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progenies. Benoit Constant Likeng-Li-Ngue, Joseph Martin Bell, Georges Franck Ngando-Ebongue, Godswill Ntsefong Ntsomboh, Hermine Bille Ngalle ...

  16. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  17. Manitoba oil activity review, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    In an annual survey of Manitoba's petroleum industry, data are presented on oil and natural gas leases and sales, geophysical activity, exploration and drilling activity, production, exports to other provinces and the USA, oil prices and sales value, royalties and taxes, direct revenues from oil exploration and development, reserves, industry expenditures, and oil fields. Throughout the report, explainations are given of the items covered. Descriptions are made of new developments, the oil market, oil policies, incentive programs, and industrial activities. During 1991, 54 wells were drilled, compared to 79 in 1990. Oil production was down ca 3% from 1990 levels, to 712,792 m 3 , the value of the oil produced decreased 21% to ca $90.3 million, and provincial revenues from the oil industry declined by 15%. Oil industry expenditures in the province were estimated at $69 million, down 9% from 1990. As of the end of 1991, there were 11 oil fields and 118 non-confidential oil pools designated in Manitoba. The forecast for 1992 indicates that exploration activity will increase in response to new incentive programs. Crude oil production is expected to decline slightly to about 667,000 m 3 . 9 figs., 17 tabs

  18. Economic effects of peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Lehr, Ulrike; Wiebe, Kirsten S.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that global oil production peaked, this paper uses scenario analysis to show the economic effects of a possible supply shortage and corresponding rise in oil prices in the next decade on different sectors in Germany and other major economies such as the US, Japan, China, the OPEC or Russia. Due to the price-inelasticity of oil demand the supply shortage leads to a sharp increase in oil prices in the second scenario, with high effects on GDP comparable to the magnitude of the global financial crises in 2008/09. Oil exporting countries benefit from high oil prices, whereas oil importing countries are negatively affected. Generally, the effects in the third scenario are significantly smaller than in the second, showing that energy efficiency measures and the switch to renewable energy sources decreases the countries' dependence on oil imports and hence reduces their vulnerability to oil price shocks on the world market. - Highlights: ► National and sectoral economic effects of peak oil until 2020 are modelled. ► The price elasticity of oil demand is low resulting in high price fluctuations. ► Oil shortage strongly affects transport and indirectly all other sectors. ► Global macroeconomic effects are comparable to the 2008/2009 crisis. ► Country effects depend on oil imports and productivity, and economic structures.

  19. Oil intensities and oil prices : evidence for Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Alaimo, Veronica; Lopez, Humberto

    2008-01-01

    Crude oil prices have dramatically increased over the past years and are now at a historical maximum in nominal terms and very close to it in real terms. It is difficult to argue, at least for net oil importers, that higher oil prices have a positive impact on welfare. In fact, the negative relationship between oil prices and economic activity has been well documented in the literature. Ye...

  20. Oil scenarios; Escenarios petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Corradi, Alberto [Oxford Energy Policy Club (United States)

    2003-04-15

    If there is a war in Middle East affecting the Saudi Arabian crude oil production, the crude oil prices will increase at unimaginable levels. This is due to both the current decrease of the production capacity of Venezuela and the Nigeria's political fragility. Therefore, despite the fact that the majority of the reasons why the United States invade Irak are unknown, it is clear that the crude oil is one of them and is playing a major role. [Spanish] Cualesquiera que sean las verdaderas razones de Estados Unidos para invadir Irak, esta claro que el petroleo tiene un papel muy importante. Una guerra en Medio Oriente que afectara la produccion petrolera de Arabia Saudita elevaria los precios del crudo a niveles nunca vistos, debido al actual descenso de la capacidad de produccion de Venezuela y a la fragilidad politica de Nigeria.

  1. Distilling oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W G

    1913-08-13

    Oils and other products are distilled continuously from materials containing or charged with hydrocarbons, such as coal, shale, absorbent materials containing oil, or metal turnings covered with oil, in a vertical or inclined combustion chamber supplied continuously or intermittently with a small quantity of air, and continuously with a large quantity of gases from the condenser admitted below the combustion zone. If desired, steam may also be supplied to the combustion chamber. In the apparatus shown are the combustion chamber, the air inlet, the gas-inlet pipe, the gas-outlet pipe, the condenser, and a mechanical separator which preferably also acts as a fan. A pair of slides is provided at the bottom of the combustion chamber to discharge the residue without admitting air, or a water seal may be used.

  2. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-dabbas, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  3. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  4. Shale oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-dabbas, M A

    1992-05-01

    A `coutant` carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs.

  5. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  6. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Business co-operation with various foreign partners has begun to develop intensively as a result of the restructuring that is now progressing in the Soviet Union. This is particularly the case with the enterprises and organisations dealing with oil and gas production, all of them component parts of the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the USSR. Owing to the enormous territorial expanse of this country, and also to the rather considerable volume of oil produced, the scheme of organisation of this Ministry is complicated and versatile. This Directory lists all the enterprises and organisations that are component parts of the Ministry, their postal addresses, their telephone numbers and the names of their departmental heads. (author)

  7. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  8. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  9. Method of removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmquist, F T.E.

    1949-09-08

    A method is described for removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues by centrifuging in the presence of oil-dissolving and paraffin-precipitating solvents, by which the precipitated paraffin is made to pass through an indifferent auxiliary liquid, in which a removal of oil takes place, characterized in that as auxiliary liquid is used a liquid or mixture of liquids whose surface tension against the oil solution is sufficiently low for the paraffin to pass the layer of auxiliary liquid in the form of separate crystals.

  10. The third oil shock: The effects of lower oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, J

    1983-01-01

    This book assesses how oil prices have affected other elements of the economy and assesses the costs and benefits that could result from lower oil prices for different groups of countries. The book also analyses the extent of OPEC's influence, the consumers countries' needs for energy security and the altered role of the oil industry.

  11. The oiling of ICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The incident command system (ICS) works for oil spills. It should be the industry standard and some will argue that it already is. But there are a number of temptations to fiddle with it. Fueling these inclinations is the fundamental difference between oil spills and natural disasters: Oil spills make the perpetrator fix the problem - under heavy oversight. Add to this difference the public outcry that attends oil spills and the dual role of government as both helper and prosecutor. From these conditions emerge adaptations of ICS which both weaken and strengthen it. The benefits of ICS are diminished by deputy incident commanders who block unified commanders from access to section chiefs, over-zealous crisis managers who displace command post decisions or its information office, separate press offices with party line slants, government law enforcement activity mixed into spill response, nonstandard operations terminology and structure involving open-quotes containment and clean upclose quotes or open-quotes salvage,close quotes and the commingling of public and private response funds. ICS's application to oil spill response is strengthened by the use of trained unified commanders, deputy incident commanders who operate as staff rather than line, crisis managers who support on-scene objectives, joint information centers, and heavy involvement of skilled, prepared environmental assessment teams in the planning section who generate priorities, strategies, and (operationally coordinated) tactics. Technically, not all these points constitute alterations of ICS, but most do and the others come close. This mixed bag of strengthening and weakening tweaks to oil spill ICS provides an opportunity to take a new look at this faithful friend to the crisis responder

  12. Oil outlook to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shihab-Eldin, A.; Lounnas, R.; Brennand, G.

    2001-01-01

    The OPEC Conference in 2000 developed a price band target of 22-28 US dollars per barrel for the Basket of OPEC crudes, in a bid to stabilise prices. This decision was made in the wake of a 12-month period that had seen tremendous fluctuations, with prices ranging from below 10/b US dollars to above 30/b US dollars. It was expected that the identification of the new price band would play a major role in stabilising oil prices, to the benefit of both producer and consumer. The assessment of potential medium-to-long-term prospects for the oil market, contained herein, are intimately related to these important developments in international oil markets, as well as our understanding of evolving fundamentals. Part 1 of this article, developed using OPEC's World Energy Model (OWEM), describes the reference case. From the demand side, a detailed analysis of both economic growth and intensity movements is used to project the growth of oil demand that can reasonably be expected over the next two decades. A resource-based approach is used to determine feasible longer-term production, utilising the latest data made available last year by the US Geological Survey. The rest of the article deals with various scenarios. The price scenario section considers the impact of high prices, beyond 30/b US dollars, and questions their sustainability. The next section deals with tax scenarios, and shows the extent to which oil demand has been reduced by historical developments in oil product taxation. Finally, a slow growth scenario explores the implications of a pessimistic view of economic growth over the coming years. (author)

  13. Business cycles in oil economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and 'structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon

  14. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000095.htm Butter, margarine, and cooking oils To use the sharing features on this ... these oils when possible. What to Use When Cooking When you cook, solid margarine or butter is ...

  15. Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    non-petroleum oils are also regulated under CFR 112. Like petroleum oils, they can cause devastating physical effects, be toxic, destroy food supplies and habitats, produce rancid odors, foul shorelines and treatment plants, be flammable, and linger.

  16. kernel oil by lipolytic organisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Rancidity of extracted cashew oil was observed with cashew kernel stored at 70, 80 and 90% .... method of American Oil Chemist Society AOCS (1978) using glacial ..... changes occur and volatile products are formed that are.

  17. The new oil politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodado Noriega, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    With a varied menu of adjustments, Colombia looks for to improve the range of international competitiveness and to attract the elusive private investment of risk for the future development of the oil sector. Colombia has just given to its oil sector the biggest rolling in the last decades. A series of measures of diverse class looks for to assign to the country a bigger range of competitiveness international and better exploration indicators that it assures in the time the auto supply of hydrocarbons and the export of surpluses

  18. The Mexican oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos-Giacoman, E.

    1991-01-01

    In the environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)-the Mexican national oil company-faces the challenge of not only responding adequately to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but making a significant contribution towards solid and stable growth. This paper reports that the relevant concern is how PEMEX is going to live up to these expectations. The Mexican oil industry, especially including the petrochemical sector, has great potential in terms of an ample domestic market as well as external foreign-currency-generating markets

  19. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, William N

    2009-09-01

    A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities.

  20. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  1. Future of oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatermann, R.; Ten Hoedt, R.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles in the section 'Future of oil and gas': one ('Baltic strained by oil traffic') on the growing risks of accidents in maritime traffic in the Baltic region, and one ('Angola wants bigger piece of the pie') on the importance of the oil production in Angola to energy supplies in Europe and the USA. It appears that national oil company Sonango wants to have a greater part of the profits

  2. Giant Oil Fields - The Highway to Oil: Giant Oil Fields and their Importance for Future Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robelius, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s, oil has been the dominant source of energy in the world. The cheap supply of oil has been the engine for economic growth in the western world. Since future oil demand is expected to increase, the question to what extent future production will be available is important. The belief in a soon peak production of oil is fueled by increasing oil prices. However, the reliability of the oil price as a single parameter can be questioned, as earlier times of high prices have occurred without having anything to do with a lack of oil. Instead, giant oil fields, the largest oil fields in the world, can be used as a parameter. A giant oil field contains at least 500 million barrels of recoverable oil. Only 507, or 1 % of the total number of fields, are giants. Their contribution is striking: over 60 % of the 2005 production and about 65 % of the global ultimate recoverable reserve (URR). However, giant fields are something of the past since a majority of the largest giant fields are over 50 years old and the discovery trend of less giant fields with smaller volumes is clear. A large number of the largest giant fields are found in the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. The domination of giant fields in global oil production confirms a concept where they govern future production. A model, based on past annual production and URR, has been developed to forecast future production from giant fields. The results, in combination with forecasts on new field developments, heavy oil and oil sand, are used to predict future oil production. In all scenarios, peak oil occurs at about the same time as the giant fields peak. The worst-case scenario sees a peak in 2008 and the best-case scenario, following a 1.4 % demand growth, peaks in 2018

  3. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  4. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  5. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation from...

  6. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  7. for palm kernel oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Palm nut shell is an aggregate replacement material in concrete production [1]. It is also an economically and ... requirements amongst the machine parameters of vegetable oil expellers. A manually-operated screw ... using such indices as feed rate, capacity, percentage oil recovery, machine efficiency, and oil yield.

  8. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  9. Analysing oil-production subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenblik, Ronald

    2017-11-01

    Understanding how subsidies affect fossil-fuel investment returns and production is crucial to commencing new reforms. New analysis on the impact of subsidies on US crude-oil producers finds that, at recent oil prices of around US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new oil investments into profitability.

  10. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  11. Towards sustainable oil revenue management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Challenges to oil revenue management in existing and emerging African oil economies are examined, with a special emphasis on countries in UNDP's Central and Eastern Africa (CEA) Region. It is part of the first phase of UNDP/CEA's Oil Revenue Initiative (ml)

  12. Towards sustainable oil revenue management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Challenges to oil revenue management in existing and emerging African oil economies are examined, with a special emphasis on countries in UNDP's Central and Eastern Africa (CEA) Region. It is part of the first phase of UNDP/CEA's Oil Revenue Initiative (ml)

  13. Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important

  14. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  15. Kicking the oil addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilenchik, Yaakov; Peled, Emanuel; Andelman, David

    2010-01-01

    Few people were left unaffected by the soaring oil prices of summer 2008. Motorists were the hardest hit as the price at the pumps reached an all time high, but nobody could avoid paying more for their food as higher transport costs were passed on from the retailer to the consumer.

  16. Distillation of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G A

    1926-03-22

    To distill oil shales, cannel coals, and other carbonaceous materials for the extraction therefrom of hydrocarbons and volatile nitrogenous compounds, hard non-condensable gases from the condensers and scrubbers are withdrawn by blowers and admixed with burnt gases, obtained through conduits from the flues of heaters, and forced downwardly through horizontal chambers, connected by vertical conduits, of the heaters and delivered into the retort beneath the grate. Passing upwardly through the charge they vaporize the volatile substances in the shale, and a suction pump removes the vapors from the top of the retort. Immediately they are produced and at substantially the same temperature as that at which they emanate, thus preventing cracking of the oil vapors and condensation of the oil at the top of the retort. The amount of burnt flue gas admixed with the hard gases is regulated by two valves until a required uniform temperature is obtained. A generator supplies producer gas to a heater at the commencement of the retorting operation for circulation through the shale charge to initially produce oil vapors. The generator is connected by a pipe to the gas conduit leading to blowers.

  17. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  18. Between Oil and Reindeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulaeva, S.; Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2017-01-01

    This research provides insight into various modes of benefit-sharing agreements between oil and gas companies and indigenous people in the Russian Arctic and Subarctic regions. We indicate three main modes of benefit sharing, as follows: (1) paternalism, (2) corporate social responsibility, and (3)

  19. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2006-01-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  20. Oils; destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1928-03-01

    Coals, oil-shales, or other carbonaceous solids are dissolved in or extracted by solvents at temperatures over 200/sup 0/C, and under pressure, preferably over 30 atmospheres, in presence of halogens, hydrogen halides, or compounds setting free the halogen or halide under the conditions.

  1. Oil ''rig'' disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the environmental impacts of disposing of the Brent Spar oil platform on land and at sea is presented, with a view to establishing the best decommissioning option in the light of recent controversy. The document is presented as an aid to comprehension of the scientific and engineering issues involved for Members of Parliament. (UK)

  2. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  3. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knottenbelt, H W

    1910-04-13

    An improved process of treating petroleum and shale oils is disclosed consisting in separating by distillation fractions suitable after treatment as a substitute for turpentine and for illuminating purposes respectively such treatment consisting in separating any tar bodies that may be present and subjecting the fractions to the action of a solution of ammonia carrying litmus, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

  4. World oil market simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive simulation model of the world oil market - the World Oil Market Simulation Model (WOMS). The objective was to construct a computationally simple model which provides a transparent view of the workings of the oil market. In the event WOMS has a number of features which distinguish it from other published models: the effect of exchange rate movements is incorporated in the supply and demand functions; both demand and supply functions are dynamic; the non-OPEC supply functions account for the geological as well as the economic aspects of supply; oil prices can be determined either by OPEC setting prices (as normally included in this type of model) or by OPEC setting volumes and market forces determining the price; and consistency checks on consumers' and producers' behaviour are incorporated to confirm the plausibility of model projections. The paper commences with an outline of the model structure followed by an examination of the choice of the appropriate data. The main sections of the paper discuss the estimation of the demand and non-OPEC supply functions. Finally the modelling of OPEC's behaviour is addressed. Comparisons are made throughout with other published work. As the model was estimated using data covering 1960 to 1985, brief comments are also made comparing the events of 1986 with model determined values. (author)

  5. Prospects for oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    1992-01-01

    The basic argument presented is that the oil price is set in an administrated market. The administration is undertaken by the controllers of excess capacity to produce crude oil. The extent to which the administrated price matches the market price is a function, first, of the strength and effectiveness of the market controller and, secondly, of the state of supply and demand and expectations in the market. Currently, the market is operating close to capacity, what limited excess capacity exists is located mainly in Saudi Arabia and the Saudi Arabians appear to be following a low price objective. While the Saudi Arabians pursue volume, the short term project, in the balance of a political upheaval, is that oil prices will remain below the $21 per barrel agreed in July 1990. There is a view that Saudi Arabia would take quick action to reverse a price collapse, but attention is drawn to previous miscalculations with respect to price collapse. Should political circumstances allow the return of Iraq to the oil market, then excess capacity within the Gulf members of OPEC will return and control will be much more difficult. (UK)

  6. Enterprise Oil gets going

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Priscilla.

    1996-01-01

    Enterprise Oil is a mature United Kingdom independent oil exploration and production company. In its early years, with the success of the Nelson platform in the North Sea, the company had been well rated by financial analysts in the City of London. Enterprise was floated as an independent company on the International Stock Exchange in London in 1984 having previously been part of the establishment being formed by the Government from the oil and production interests of British Gas on the UK Continental shelf. Relationships with the City suffered, however, as a result of the unsuccessful outcome of moves by the company to take over Lasmo, the only other UK independent oil company of comparable magnitude. Pedestrian financial results and poor exploration results led to Enterprise dividends being stuck in a rut from 1992 onwards. This report, however, shows how that situation is changing so that the company's share price has been reaching new highs. Enterprise has been adding quantitative value to the company through swaps, farm-in deals and licensed acquisitions and now has interests in core income producing areas in the UK, Norway, Denmark and Italy. (UK)

  7. Mineral oil; Mineraloel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [German] Das beherrschende Thema im Weltenergiemarkt war der Absturz des Rohoelpreises in 2014. Von 115 US-$/bbl im Juni sank er auf unter 50 US-$/bbl im Januar 2015. Damit hat die Schieferoelrevolution den kraeftigen Einfluss auf die Weltenergiesituation gehabt, der an dieser Stelle seit drei Jahren vorhergesagt wurde. Zwar konnte niemand die exakte Hoehe des Rueckgangs des Oelpreises prognostizieren, aber mit Oel als Leitwaehrung fuer alle anderen Energietraeger hat es nicht nur Einfluss auf den Gas- und Kohlepreis gehabt, sondern andere Rohstoffe, wie zum Beispiel Kupfer, haben ebenfalls nachgegeben. Ueber Ursache und Wirkung gibt es viele Spekulationen - nicht alle sind von Weisheit getragen.

  8. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J

    1871-08-11

    An apparatus is illustrated. It consists of a cistern of stone in which an inclined diaphragm is situated. The acid passes in below the inclined diaphragm by the pipe, and having acted upon the oil beneath the diaphragm any unabsorbed portion escapes through the opening at its highest end.

  9. Record prices [crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    Crude oil prices climbed to new record levels on fears of a future loss of supplies from Iran as Washington stepped up its efforts to persuade Tehran to abandon its programme to produce nuclear fuel. IPE's December Brent contract set a new record for the exchange by trading at $75.80/bbl on 21st April. On the same day October WTI reached an all-time high of $77.30/bbl on Nymex. US product prices gained as refiners struggled to produce sufficient middle distillate. Alarmed by the rising retail price of gasoline, the US Senate debated a reduction in the already low US tax rate on motor spirit. The House of Representatives passed a measure to prohibit overcharging for petrol, diesel and heating oil, but Democrats rejected a Republican proposal to speed-up the process for approving new refineries. President George W Bush announced a temporary easing of new gasoline and diesel specifications (see 'Focus', March 2006) to allow more fuel to be produced. He also agreed to delay the repayment of some 2.1 mn bbl of crude oil lent to companies after last year's hurricanes from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. California announced an inquiry into alleged overcharging for fuel by oil companies operating in the state. (author)

  10. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...... in enhancing oil emulsion formation by increasing interactions between polar acids and brine solutions. The results propose the potential use of HPO42- ions in reservoirs having inactive mineral surfaces. The relative oil affinity of different ions including K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (cations), and Cl-, SO42...... and thus reduces the interfacial viscoelasticity of the trapped oil. These results show significant correlation between oil emulsion formation and increased oil recovery. Copyright 2015; Society of Petroleum Engineers...

  11. Oil outlook to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shihab-Eldin, A.; Hamel, M.; Brennand, G.

    2003-01-01

    OPEC's World Energy Model, OWEM, is used to develop the outlook for oil demand and supply to 2020. The reference case assumes world economic growth averaging 3.3 per cent per annum, while OPEC's Reference Basket of seven crudes remains mainly in the target range of US $22-28 a barrel, in nominal terms. With no additional assumed policy measures, for example, to reduce CO 2 emissions, the reference case sees world oil demand rising from 76 million barrels a day in 2000 to 89 mb/d in 2010 and 107 mb/d in 2020. More than three-quarters of this increase comes from developing countries. The most important sector for a demand increase is transportation, accounting for 60 per cent of the rise globally. On the supply side, the oil resource base is not considered a constraint to satisfying this increase in demand. Non-OPEC production is expected to continue to grow during the current decade, and to stabilise at a level of 53-55 mb/d beyond 2010. OPEC production is projected to reach 36 mb/d by 2010 and 52 mb/d in 2020. It is important, however, to recognise the uncertainties pervading such an assessment. For example, it is not clear how future economic growth, energy policies and technology will develop over this time horizon, and this inevitably clouds any assessment of future oil demand and supply. In an attempt to quantify one aspect of such uncertainty, other feasible economic growth rates have been assumed, the results of which suggest that OPEC output by 2010 could be 4-5 mb/d higher or lower than in the reference case, while the range is clearly even greater in the years to 2020. Moreover, policy reactions to such developments could compound the uncertainty. On the other hand, such alternative economic growth could place pressure upon oil prices to move outside OPEC's price band of $22-28/b. These uncertainties illustrate the scope of the challenges confronting the oil industry, especially given the long lead-time nature of oil industry investment, in making

  12. Oil and gas -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, A.

    1994-06-01

    This report deals with the use of oil-, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) during 1993. Information about markets and technical environmental questions are also given. Data have been collected from earlier reports, information given by different persons and statistics from SCB and SPI. The import of crude oil increased from 16,8 million tons in 1992 to 17,8 million tons in 1993. The import of oil products decreased by 0,9 million tons down to 6,7 million tons in the same period. During this period, the import of natural gas increased by 9%, a total of 817 million cubic meters. The import of LPG was 748000 tons in 1993, which is 61000 tons less compared to the import of 1992. The production in Sweden for 1993 was 290000 tons, the same level as the level reached in 1992. The export of LPG increased from 107000 tons to 138000 tons during this period. In January 1993, legislative changes were made concerning energy taxes and carbon dioxide penalty taxes. The rate of the latter was increased from 25 to 32 oere per kilogram of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere. For industry and greenhouse production, the penalty rate is only 25% or 8 oere per kilogram of carbon dioxide. From 1995 to 1998, yearly increases in the rate of energy taxes and carbon dioxide penalty taxes will be based on the consumer price index. Taxes will be increased by 4% in 1994. Due to changes in energy taxes, the consumption of LPG decreased in 1993. Earlier, many industries had changed from oil to LPG but now have changed back to oil. 8 figs, 17 tabs

  13. Oil outlook to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shihab-Eldin, Adnan; Hamel, Mohamed; Brennand, Garry

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the OPEC Secretariat's latest outlook to 2025 for oil supply and demand. The results have been developed using the OPEC World Energy Model, OWEM. The next two decades are expected to see increases in energy demand met predominantly by fossil fuels, with oil set to continue to maintain its major role. There is also a clear expectation that the oil resource base is sufficiently abundant to satisfy this demand growth. Global oil demand rises in the reference case by 12 million barrels per day to 89 mb/d from 2002 to 2010, an average annual growth rate of 1.5 mb/d, or 1.8 per cent per annum, over the period. In the following decade, demand grows by a further 17 mb/d to 106 mb/d by 2020, and then by another 9 mb/d to 115 mb/d by 2025. Almost three-quarters of the increase in demand over the period 2002-25 comes from developing countries. In the short-to-medium term, overall non-OPEC supply is expected to continue to increase - rising to a plateau of 55-57 mb/d in the post-2010 period. The key sources for the increase in non-OPEC supply will be Latin America, Africa, Russia and the Caspian. In the longer term, OPEC will increasingly be called upon to supply the incremental barrel. Uncertainties over future economic growth, government policies and the rate of development and diffusion of newer technologies raise questions over the future scale of investment that will be required. These uncertainties, coupled with long lead times, inevitably complicate the task of maintaining market stability. Medium-term prospects suggest that there is a need to ensure that spare capacity is not too high and that it is consistent with sustained market stability. There are genuine risks of downward pressure on oil prices, and this could sow the seeds of instability. (Author)

  14. Oil outlook to 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan Shihab-Eldin; Mohamed Hamel; Brennand, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the OPEC Secretariat's latest outlook to 2025 for oil supply and demand. The results have been developed using the OPEC World Energy Model, OWEM. The next two decades are expected to see increases in energy demand met predominantly by fossil fuels, with oil set to continue to maintain its major role. There is also a clear expectation that the oil resource base is sufficiently abundant to satisfy this demand growth. Global oil demand rises in the reference case by 12 million barrels per day to 89 mb/d from 2002 to 2010, an average annual growth rate of 1.5 mb/d, or 1.8 per cent per annum, over the period. In the following decade, demand grows by a further 17 mb/d to 106 mb/d by 2020, and then by another 9 mb/d to 115 mb/d by 2025. Almost three-quarters of the increase in demand over the period 2002-25 comes from developing countries. In the short-to-medium term, overall non-OPEC supply is expected to continue to increase - rising to a plateau of 55-57 mb/d in the post-2010 period. The key sources for the increase in non-OPEC supply will be Latin America, Africa, Russia and the Caspian. In the longer term, OPEC will increasingly be called upon to supply the incremental barrel. Uncertainties over future economic growth, government policies and the rate of development and diffusion of newer technologies raise questions over the future scale of investment that will be required. These uncertainties, coupled with long lead times, inevitably complicate the task of maintaining market stability. Medium-term prospects suggest that there is a need to ensure that spare capacity is not too high and that it is consistent with sustained market stability. There are genuine risks of downward pressure on oil prices, and this could sow the seeds of instability. [Author

  15. Chaotic structure of oil prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike; Sonustun, Fulya Ozaksoy

    2018-01-01

    The fluctuations in oil prices are very complicated and therefore, it is unable to predict its effects on economies. For modelling complex system of oil prices, linear economic models are not sufficient and efficient tools. Thus, in recent years, economists attached great attention to non-linear structure of oil prices. For analyzing this relationship, GARCH types of models were used in some papers. Distinctively from the other papers, in this study, we aimed to analyze chaotic pattern of oil prices. Thus, it was used the Lyapunov Exponents and Hennon Map to determine chaotic behavior of oil prices for the selected time period.

  16. Challenge of the oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaidah, A M

    1981-11-01

    The oil market is experiencing a different environment in 1981 as demand for OPEC oil fades while customers run down their inventories. The oil-producing countries face a new challenge, but the need of consuming countries for secure oil supplies and the need of producing countries to broaden their economies and reduce dependence on a depleting resource continue. Two episodes 1973 to 1975 and late 1978 to the present, illustrate the current market situation. The impact of these episodes is the basis for recommended long-run goals that go beyond market management to the real challenge of converting oil resources into the real assets of economic development. (DCK)

  17. Oil price, capital mobility and oil importers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Romero, A.

    1992-01-01

    A three-region, three-commodity general equilibrium model is constructed to explore the impact of OPEC's pricing policies on major macro variables of importer economies. The aim of this paper is to explore general macro characteristics of the trading economies to aid understanding of the world economy response after OPEC I and OPEC II in terms of the evolution of North - South terms of trade, rates of profit and output levels. We support the view of a world economy in a three regions setting, North - South - OPEC. The analysis increases our understanding of why regions respond differently to the same external shock and how from different regimes of capital mobility we should derive alternative policy implications. With the current rise in oil prices, the topic promises to be relevant for some time, although the direction of the shocks has been reserved. (Author)

  18. Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurette Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammation are reviewed here. The results of the clinical trials on various skin parameters (hydration, trans epidermal water loss, roughness, scaling, superficial inflammation and blood flow were quite convincing about the interest of such a supplementation.

  19. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  20. The oil and gas industry in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Illustrated by many graphs and tables, this report presents and comments many data and figures on many aspects of the oil and gas industry in the world and in France: worldwide oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, worldwide gas exploration and production and stakes for European supply, exploration and production in France, oil and oil-based industry, hydrocarbon supplies, refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, domestic transport of oil products, gas infrastructures, oil product storage, oil and gas product consumption, hydrocarbon taxing, oil product prices, and oil product distribution

  1. OPEC's optimal crude oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    OPEC decided to stabilise oil prices within a range of 22-28 US Dollar/barrel of crude oil. Such an oil-price-level is far beyond the short and long run marginal costs of oil production, beyond even that in regions with particularly high costs. Nevertheless, OPEC may achieve its goal if world demand for oil increases substantially in the future and oil resources outside the OPEC are not big enough to accordingly increase production. In this case OPEC, which controls about 78% of world oil reserves, has to supply a large share of that demand increase. If we assume OPEC will behave as a partial monopolist on the oil market, which takes into consideration the reaction of the other producers to its own sales strategy, it can reach its price target. Lower prices before 2020 are probable only if the OPEC cartel breaks up. Higher prices are possible if production outside OPEC is inelastic as assumed by some geologists, but they would probably stimulate the production of unconventional oil based on oil sand or coal. Crude oil prices above 30 US Dollar/barrel are therefore probably not sustainable for a long period. (Author)

  2. Environmentally adjusted oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Bert; Lindberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    With the intention of maintaining healthy environment in our rivers Vattenfall in 1988 initiated a project called 'Environmentally friendly oils'. The goal was to find oils for bearings and hydraulic systems that would cause less negative environmental effects and still maintain a good technical function. Based on the results of the project it is recommended, for both economical and environmental reasons, to change to synthetic oil in bearings and to hydraulic oil made of white oil in regulating systems. The change may be carried out in connection to other work on the system in question. Special care is recommended when cleaning the system from old oil and dirt. In order to maintain the high quality of the oil, also during manufacturing and assembling, one should follow the recommendations outlined in the report. In bearings where used grease leaks into the river, a grease made of white oil should be used. The quality of the rubber sealings must be adapted to the oil used, in order to secure a good function. In order to bring down the number of products and to create an open market some additional changes is necessary in the specifications of oil. Further research regarding oil and sealing is planned. (3 refs.)

  3. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  4. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  5. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  6. Biodegradability of northern crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F D; Westlake, D W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Field studies on the microbiological degradation of crude oils encompassed the placing of oil-soaked plots in two areas in the Northwest Territories and Alberta. Replicate plots received amendments of fertilizer, oil-utilizing bacteria, fertilizer plus bacteria or were untreated except for the oil. Changes in microbial numbers and chemical composition of recovered oil were determined periodically. The initial stimulatory effect on bacterial numbers brought about by the addition of fertilizers to oil-soaked plots diminished two years after the application to a point where the differences were no longer significant. Experiments carried out in the Norman Wells area to determine the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied on oil degradation have yielded inconclusive results. The data suggest that at least 2.7 kg of urea-phosphate fertilizer per kl of oil is required to maintain a reasonable oil degradation rate. Preliminary studies on the use of fertilizer coated with chemicals to increase its hydrophobic character indicate that they could be useful in treating wet-land oil spills. Soils from the McKenzie River drainage basin indicate that bacteria are present which can use oil under mesophilic conditions. However, the ability to use the same oil under psychrophilic conditions is more restricted. At least one bacterial species from each mixed population studied was capable of bringing about chemical changes in oil similar to those observed for the original mixed culture. The potential hazards and uses of the seeding of oil spills is discussed relative to the environmental conditions found in the northern part of Canada. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. The oil and oil services industry international context 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbutoviez, S.; Silva, C.

    2008-11-01

    Oil companies rarely do their own major work within the framework of their investments or in the operation of their facilities. They most often act as project coordinators, thereby opening up a vast market for equipment, services and engineering, involving many companies of widely-varying sizes, which constitute the oil services industry. This document provides a panorama of the international oil context in three distinct parts, for 2007, for the first three quarters of 2008, and aspects of trends for 2009. - The first part is devoted to a rapid description of the oil context and the economic environment in which it is evolving. - The second part examines the evolution of world investment in exploration-production (E and P) activities, distinguishing the investments made by oil and oil product/service companies throughout the E and P chain from the more targeted ones of three specific sectors: seismic, drilling and the construction of offshore production equipment. These markets are observed exclusively for oil product/service companies. - The last part is devoted to investments in the refining sector, focusing on the changes in the fundamentals, particularly the equilibrium between refining capacities and medium- term oil demand. This latter analysis involves both oil and oil product/service companies. (authors)

  8. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    2001-10-01

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  9. Separation of oil and grease from oil sludge using surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Abdul Aziz; Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Zalina Laili

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the experiments was to observe the efficiency of the surfactant to remove oil and grease from oil sludges using various surfactant concentration ranging from 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and 30 %. The surfactant solution consists of two mixtures of Aqua 2000 and D Bond. The oil sludge were subjected to heating and surfactant treatment process. Remaining oil and grease concentration were observed on the oil sludges after treatment. Small scale experiments were conducted by heating process, without heating process and heating process with addition of sodium chloride. Surfactant solution was added in each process. Results shows that there is separation of oil and grease from the oil sludges. There were formation of mini emulsions (oil in water). The higher the concentration of surfactant used, the higher the concentrations of mini emulsion formed as observed. Solid remains after the treatment process were found to contain lesser oil concentration with presence of bitumen, sediment, organic and inorganic materials. After a washing process using distilled water, the solid was still black but less oily than before the treatment. There is no separation of oil occurred in aqueous solution for the control experiment. (Author)

  10. Oil analysis in machine diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaehaeoja, P.

    2006-07-01

    This study concentrates on developing and tuning various oil analysis methods to meet the requirements of modern industry and environmental analytics. Oil analysis methods form a vital part of techniques used to monitor the condition of machines and may help to improve the overall equipment effectiveness value of a factory in a significant manner. Worm gears are used in various production machines, and their breakdowns may cause significant production losses. Wearing of these gears is relatively difficult to monitor with vibration analysis. Analysis of two indicator metals, copper and iron, may reveal wearing phenomena of worm gears effectively, and savings can be significant. Effective wear metal analysis requires good tools. ICP-OES with kerosene dilution is widely used in wear metal analysis, but purchasing and using of ICP-OES is expensive. A cheaper FAAS technique with similar pre-treatment of oil samples was tested and it proved to be useful especially in analyzing small amounts of samples. The accuracy of FAAS was sufficient for quantitative work in machine diagnostics and waste oil characterization. Solid debris analyses are useful in oil contamination control as well as in detection of wearing mechanisms. Membrane filtration, optical microscopy, SEM and automatic particle counting were applied in analysis of rolling and gear oils. Particle counting is an effective way to detect oil contamination, but in the studied cases even larger particles than those detected in normal ISO classes would be informative. However, membrane filtration and optical microscopy may reveal the wearing machine element exactly. Additives provide oils with desired properties thus they should be monitored intensively. A FTIR method for quantitative analysis of fatty alcohols and fatty acid esters in machinery oils was developed during this work. It has already been used successfully in quantitative and qualitative analysis of machinery oil samples. Various kinds of oils may be

  11. Oil goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F; Mörsel, Jörg-T

    2003-02-12

    Whole berries, seeds, and pulp/peel of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, triacylglyerols, phytosterols, fat-soluble vitamins, and beta-carotene. The total lipid contents in the whole berries, seeds, and seedless parts were 2.0, 1.8, and 0.2% (on a fresh weight basis), respectively. Linoleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by oleic acid as the second major fatty acid. Palmitic and stearic acids were the major saturates. In pulp/peel oil, the fatty acid profile was characterized by higher amounts of saturates, monoenes, and trienes than in whole berry and seed oils. Neutral lipids comprised >95% of total lipids in whole berry oil and seed oil, while neutral lipids separated in lower level in pulp/peel oil. Triacylglycerols were the predominant neutral lipid subclass and constituted ca. 81.6, 86.6, and 65.1% of total neutral lipids in whole berry, seed, and pulp/peel oils, respectively. Nine triacylglycerol molecular species were detected, wherein three species, C54:3, C52:2, and C54:6, were presented to the extent of approximately 91% or above. The highest level of phytosterols was estimated in pulp/peel oil that contained the highest level of unsaponifiables. In both whole berry and seed oils, campesterol and beta-sitosterol were the sterol markers, whereas Delta5-avenasterol and campesterol were the main 4-desmethylsterols in pulp/peel oil. The tocopherols level was much higher in pulp/peel oil than in whole berry and seed oils. beta- and gamma-tocopherols were the major components in whole berry and seed oils, whereas gamma- and alpha-tocopherols were the main constituents in pulp/peel oil. beta-Carotene and vitamin K(1) were also measured in markedly high levels in pulp/peel oil followed by whole berry oil and seed oil, respectively. Information provided by the present work is of importance for further chemical investigation of goldenberry oil and industrial utilization of the berries as a raw

  12. Distilling oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, R H

    1923-04-18

    In the fractional distillation of oils from oil shale and similar materials the charge is passed continuously through a vertical retort heated externally by hot combustion gases in flues and internally by the passage of these gases through flues passing through the retort so that zones of increasing temperature are maintained. A vapor trap is provided in each zone having an exit pipe leading through a dust trap to a condenser. The bottoms of the conical vapor traps are provided with annular passages perforated to permit of steam being sprayed into the charge to form screens which prevent the vapors in different zones from mingling, and steam may also be introduced through perforations in an annular steam box. Dampers are provided to control the passage of the heating gases through the flues independently.

  13. Happy oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    The decay of demand, the bad financial results of the first half of 2009 and the hypothetical depletion of reserves must not hide a reality: oil companies are passing through the economic crisis without much trouble. Even if profits have marked time in volume (-57% for BP, -65% for Shell..), the net margins have not significantly suffered and the available cash remains comfortable (14 billion euros for Total as an example). The perspectives offered by the new offshore sites (like Santos in Brazil) added to the fabulous promises of the Iraqi market where 'majors' can now make their come-back will be the key of success of oil companies. The overall exploration-production investments should start up again by the beginning of 2011. For the only offshore drilling domain, they should rise up by 32% during the 2009-2013 period which represents a sum of 367 billion dollars. (J.S.)

  14. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foght, J.M.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ bioremediation of crude oil spills relies on either the indigenous microbes at the polluted site, whose degradative abilities are accelerated by adding such agents as fertilizers or dispersants, or on introducing pollutant-degrading microbes into the site (possibly accompanied by stimulatory chemicals). The bioremediation method to be used at a specific site must be selected to be suitable for that site and its environmental conditions. The basic components of bioremediation are outlined and the background information needed to understand the chemical and biological limitations of the technique are presented. Specifically, the microbial community, the crude oil substrate composition, and biological limiting factors are discussed. Generalized examples of bioremediation applications are illustrated. 10 refs

  15. Oil well spill trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigington, J.R. Sr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process involving an oil well and rig having a casing, a platform on the rig extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in pulling the tubing from the casing; disconnecting joints of tubing thereby; and spilling liquids from the casing, catching spilled liquids from the casing in a basin below the platform, draining the basin substantially simultaneously; connecting the drain hole to a tank, and reducing the pressure in the tank to less than atmospheric pressure. This paper also describes an oil well and rig having a casing; the rig having a platform extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in a basin surrounding the casing and connected thereto, the basin below the platform, a drain connection in the lower part of the basin, a conduit connected to the drain, and means for applying a suction to the conduit

  16. The virtual oil company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, C.A.; Haney, R.M.; Ross, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    In anticipation of continuing declines in upstream activity levels over the next 15 years, the virtual oil company model articulates a vision of fewer, leaner, but financially stronger firms that concentrate only on their core competencies and outsource the rest through well-structured partnering arrangements. Freed from the ''clutter,'' these leading companies will be in better position to focus on those opportunities that offer the potential for renewed reserve and revenue growth

  17. A very competitive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamarche, Myrtille; Cahuzac, Adrien; Cognasse, Olivier; Dupin, Ludovic; Fleitour, Gaelle; James, Olivier; Stassi, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Drop in oil barrel prices results in 8 to 10 billions in savings for French companies, i.e. as much as the tax credit for competitiveness and employment. This article analyses how the different sectors take benefit of this saving due to lower oil prices. It outlines that this decrease has been very profitable for the refining sector which exhibited historic margins. As far as the chemistry sector is concerned, costs are reduced but profits are less important as this decrease compensates the decrease of the euro with respect to the dollar. The plastic industry does not take profit as it comes at the end of value chain where other actors already took their benefits. Therefore, there is no profit in agriculture as far as plastic products and fertilizers are concerned. On the opposite, the decrease of marine fuel has been profitable to the fishing sector as well as to the sea transport sector. As far as road transport is concerned the fuel price decrease is reflected in resale prices, and the oil price decrease had therefore no impact, or only for few days. It's not the case for air transport where companies took benefit of this decrease. In this respect, a second article outlines that airline companies have learned lessons from previous oil price counter-shock to adapt their strategies. The last article addresses the general situation of industry which exhibits a better financial health, could be boosted by a recovery of consumption. But growth is still to be confirmed by investments. A brief article notices that the profit is less important at the world level, i.e. more important in Europe than in Asia and even more than in Africa

  18. Carburetor for heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautreau, L

    1905-03-06

    This invention relates to a carburetor for heavy oils in which the combustion liquid circulates successively in two annular spaces at the top and bottom of the vaporizer heated by the gas from the outlet and returning from there, after having been conveniently heated, to the constant level by an appropriate tube; the constant level can be surrounded by an annular chamber in which circulates a part of the gas from the outlet.

  19. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  20. Purifying hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostin, H

    1938-08-11

    A process is described for continuously purifying hydrocarbon oils consisting in conducting the vapors of the same at a temperature of 300 to 400/sup 0/C over the oelitic ore minette together with reducing gases in presence of steam the proportion of the reducing gases and steam being such that the sulfur of the hydrocarbons escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen without permanent sulfide of iron being formed.

  1. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  2. European gas oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1991-04-01

    The developments over the past five years of the bulk markets for gas oil in Europe are examined using advanced econometric techniques to study the related issues of pricing efficiency and hedge efficiency. The study attempts to preserve the fluctuations of the actual data as these provide insights into the process of price discovery. The markets studied include the spot, forward and futures markets and looks for evidence of differentiated markets. (UK)

  3. Shale-oil-derived additives for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raidma, E.; Leetsman, L.; Muoni, R.; Soone, Y.; Zhiryakov, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidation, wearing, and anticorrosive properties of shale oil as an additive to liquid fuels and oils enable to improve the conditions of their use. Studies conducted by Institute of Oil Shale have shown that it is possible, on the basis of shale oil produced by Viru Keemia Grupp AS (Viru Chemistry Group Ltd.) and, particularly, on the basis of its fractions 230-320 and 320-360 deg C to produce efficient and stable additives for liquid fuels to improve their combustion and storage properties. In the production of additives from shale oil the prerequisite taken into account is its complexity of composition and high concentration of neutral and phenolic oxygen compounds. Additives produced from shale oil have multifunctional properties which enable to improve operational data of liquid fuels and to increase the power of diesel engines and boilers. (author)

  4. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  5. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Kaufmann, Robert K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways

  6. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, C.J.; Kaufmann, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways. (author)

  7. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  8. Middle East oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  9. Oil spills - effects and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicks, B.M.; White, I.C.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of oil spills from offshore industry operates on the United Kingdom continental shelf is reported for the period 1979 to 1988. The properties of North Sea crude oils which determine their fate and effects when spilled onto the surface of the sea are summarized. Examples of oil impacts on specific North Sea habitats and communities are used to illustrate the effect of oil spills and the economic impact on human activities such as recreation, industry and fishing are considered. Since most oil spills will dissipate through natural processes if they remain at sea long enough, the most appropriate response to a spill from a platform in the middle of the sea is often aerial surveillance to monitor the movement and dissipation of the oil. However, if an active response is required, containment and collection of the oil or chemical dispersion are the two main options. In coastal waters, it will be necessary to focus protection efforts on selected sensitive areas of coastline. Once the oil is ashore there are still occasions when the best course of actions is to do nothing as clean-up operations may do more harm than good. If oil removal is feasible and necessary, the methods which are most effective are usually straightforward and require no sophisticated technology. Contingency planning is an essential preparation for all operations to deal with oil spills. (UK)

  10. Oil Slick Characterization with UAVSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Holt, B.

    2017-12-01

    Although radar has long been used for mapping the spatial extent of oil slicks, its capability for characterizing oil, e.g., to discriminate thicker from thinner oil or mineral slicks from look-alikes, is far less well defined. In fact, the capability of SAR to quantify the oil-to-water ratio of emulsions within slicks on the open water was first demonstrated using UAVSAR data acquired over the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico [Minchew et al., 2012]. UAVSAR's capability was made possible by the airborne instrument's high signal-to-noise ratio, which enabled it to measure low backscatter signals from oil-smoothed water that are often near or below the noise floor of satellite SAR instruments. Since 2010, UAVSAR has been used to study oil slicks through experiments in Norway (2015) and the Gulf of Mexico. In November 2016, UAVSAR took part in a NOAA-led experiment to study remote sensing of oil slicks, which took place at the site of a persistent seep in the Gulf of Mexico. The goal was to use remote sensing to identify zones of thicker oil, which is the type of information that could direct emergency responders for more effective clean-up. The objectives of the experiment were to validate and compare different remote sensing methods' capabilities for measuring the thickness of oil within a slick on open water under environmental conditions typical of oil spills. In this presentation, we show the results from UAVSAR for determining oil thickness within a slick, and relate them to the standard method of oil slick classification, the Bonn Agreement oil appearance code used by trained observers in the field. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts with the California Dept. of Water Resources and with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Synthetic lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Jurado, J

    1953-01-01

    A yellow solid petroleum paraffin d/sup 60/ 0.808, I number 3.5, average molecular weight 350, chlorinated and condensed with benzene, xylene, or naphthalene by the Friedel and Crafts reaction, in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ or activated Al, gave synthetic lubricating oils. Xylene was the preferred aromatic compound, naphthalene required the use of less completely chlorinated paraffin, benzene produced resins difficult to remove and gave darker oils with excessive green fluorescence. Activated Al rather than anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ gave darker oils with higher viscosity and Conradson C values. Tar from the low-temperature distillation of lignite, used as a source of a paraffin fraction melting 40/sup 0/ to 48/sup 0/ (chlorinated to 26.5 percent Cl) and an aromatic fraction, 45 percent aromatic compounds by volume (mainly polysubstituted benzenes), I number 10, was converted to a similar synthetic lubricant with the following properties: Kinematic viscosity at 210/sup 0/ F., 50.4 centistokes; viscosity index, 92; Conradson C, 1.5 percent; solidification point, 9/sup 0/; S, 0.41 percent.

  12. Oil outlook to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lounnas, R.; Brennand, G.

    2002-01-01

    The latest oil outlook to the year 2020 is presented, using the OPEC World Energy Model (OWEM). In the reference case, the OPEC Reference Basket of seven crudes is assumed to remain within the declared price range of US dollars 22-28 per barrel, in nominal terms, for the rest of this decade, growing with inflation thereafter. World oil demand grows from 76 million barrels a day in 2000 to 89 mb/d by 2010, and to over 106 mb/d by 2020. Two-thirds of the increase in demand over this 20-year period comes from China and the developing countries. Non-OPEC production is expected to continue to increase throughout the entire forecast period, with the decline in North Sea output more than compensated by increases in the developing countries, Russia and the Caspian region. OPEC market share in the first decade is accordingly relatively stable, as increases in output are approximately matched by higher non-OPEC supply. In the following ten years, however, it becomes increasingly inevitable that OPEC market share will increase, as the net rise in non-OPEC output slows. The net investment requirement will need to cover both additional capacity and the maintenance of the existing production potential. For OPEC alone, the estimate is around 10 billion dollars a year during this period. Substantially higher or lower oil prices than the assumed values for the reference case are shown not only to generate lower OPEC export revenue, but also to be unsustainable. (Author)

  13. Colombian fusel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Montoya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By-products valorization in bio-fuels industry is an important issue for making the global process more efficient, more profitable and closer to the concept of biorefinery. Fusel oil is a by-product of bioethanol production that can be considered as an inexpensive and renewable raw material for manufacturing value-added products. In this work, results in terms of composition and physicochemical properties of six samples of fusel oil from industrial alcohol facilities are presented. Composition of the main components was established by gas chromatography. Complementary techniques, such as headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, were used for detection of minor components. Fifty-five compounds were identified. Physicochemical properties such as density, acid value, moisture content and true boiling point curves were determined. Results are useful in the conceptual design of separation strategies for recovering higher alcohols, as well as to consider new options of valorization alternatives for fusel oil.

  14. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  15. The oil market. Call on OPEC determines the oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingma, D.; Mulder, M.

    2001-01-01

    Several scenarios are applied to determine the oil price for the medium-long term, based on the so-called 'call on OPEC'. The 'call on OPEC' is part of the demand for oil which has to supplied by OPEC. It is expected that the nominal oil price will be circa $24 per barrel in 2004, based on a global growth of 4%. 2 refs

  16. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks is described comprising: a cylindrical tank; a hollow float member for supporting said tank in a substantially upright position; a skirt assembly secured to said hollow float member and extending in a direction away from said float member opposite said tank; means for removing oil from said tank; and means for removing gas from said tank

  17. A catalogue of crude oil and oil product properties, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.A.; Callaghan, S.

    1990-09-01

    This catalogue is a compilation of available data on crude oils and petroleum products. The emphasis of the catalogue is upon oils which could potentially impact Canada's environment. Other oils which are unlikely to be of direct Canadian concern are also included because they have been well characterized and used in relevant studies. The properties listed for each oil are those which will provide an indication of a spilled oil's environmental behaviour and effects. The properties on which data is provided include API gravity, density, viscosity, interfacial tension, pour point, flash point, vapor pressure, volatility and component distribution, emulsion formation tendency and stability, weathering, dispersability, major hydrocarbon groups, aqueous solubility, toxicity, sulfur content, fire point, and wax content. Most of the chemical-physical properties listed in this catalogue were measured using standard tests. For certain properties, data are given at different temperatures and for different degrees of oil weathering. An oil's degree of weathering is expresed as the volume or weight percent evaporated from the fresh oil. Weathered oils used for testing were artificially weathered by gas stripping following the method of Mackay and Stiver. 109 refs

  18. A catalogue of crude oil and oil product properties, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiticar, S.; Bobra, M.; Liuzzo, P.; Callaghan, S.; Fingas, M.; Jokuty, P.; Ackerman, F.; Cao, J.

    1993-02-01

    This catalogue is a compilation of available data on crude oils and petroleum products. The emphasis of the catalogue is upon oils which could potentially impact Canada's environment. Other oils which are unlikely to be of direct Canadian concern are also included because they have been well characterized and used in relevant studies. The properties listed for each oil are those which will provide an indication of a spilled oil's environmental behaviour and effects. The properties on which data is provided include API gravity, density, viscosity, interfacial tension, pour point, flash point, vapor pressure, volatility and component distribution, emulsion formation tendency and stability, weathering, dispersability, major hydrocarbon groups, aqueous solubility, toxicity, sulfur content, fire point, and wax content. Most of the chemical-physical properties listed in this catalogue were measured using standard tests. For certain properties, data are given at different temperatures and for different degrees of oil weathering. An oil's degree of weathering is expresed as the volume or weight percent evaporated from the fresh oil. Weathered oils used for testing were artificially weathered by gas stripping following the method of Mackay and Stiver. 140 refs

  19. Oil patch pariah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforuk, A.

    1999-01-01

    Problems that can arise when Western oil companies invest in developing countries suffering under political instability are described using Calgary-based Talisman Energy Inc.'s recent experiences in the Sudan as example. In 1998 Talisman acquired a 25 per cent interest in an oil project by cash-poor Arakis Energy Corporation, thus acquiring a foothold in the Middle East , and more importantly, access to one of the world's largest oil reserves at a bargain-basement price. A UN report accusing the Sudanese government of gross human rights violations , the chagrin expressed by the US Secretary of State that a Canadian company would do business with a country that the US officially regards as 'a state sponsor of terrorism', a warning by the Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs of economic sanctions unless Talisman demonstrates active promotion of human rights in the Sudan, led the Ontario Teachers Federation to threaten to withdraw its $ 184-million stake in Talisman if reports of human rights abuses in the country can be corroborated. A fact finding mission has been dispatched by the Minister of Foreign Affairs to establish by next month who is killing whom in the Sudan and whether oil revenue from Talisman is being used to fund a campaign of terror and killing that have claimed the lives of some two million Sudanese citizens in the past 16 years. As a result of the turmoil caused by these actions Talisman lost nearly $ 700 million in value in the last week of October, and several institutional investors are actively considering selling their shares in Talisman. The company has hired a top public relations firm to defend itself against the 'coordinated attack' by human rights groups, Sudanese refugees, and Christian fundamentalists whose aim is said to be to shut down oil production in the Sudan. Talisman management is confident that given the company's reputation and its large asset base, it can weather the storm that its Sudanese assets have generated, however

  20. Long term prediction of unconventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, S.H.; Evans, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although considerable discussion surrounds unconventional oil's ability to mitigate the effects of peaking conventional oil production, very few models of unconventional oil production exist. The aim of this article was to project unconventional oil production to determine how significant its production may be. Two models were developed to predict the unconventional oil production, one model for in situ production and the other for mining the resources. Unconventional oil production is anticipated to reach between 18 and 32 Gb/y (49-88 Mb/d) in 2076-2084, before declining. If conventional oil production is at peak production then projected unconventional oil production cannot mitigate peaking of conventional oil alone.

  1. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  2. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  3. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  4. Bioremediation of offshore oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, E.; Tedaldi, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    This research program was directed towards the enhancement of insitu biorestoration of open sea oil spills. Bacteria possessing petroleum degrading enzymes are capable of splitting even thick, viscous oils and tars into lighter fractions. This process will occur at the oil/bacterial interface and depends upon viscosity of the oil, bacterial species, availability of ancillary nutrients, residence times and extent of mixing/oxygenation. Through the enzymatic metabolism of bacteria, a wide range of petroleum oils can be converted almost completely into CO 2 , water, cell mass and harmless biological waste products, usually within 60 to 90 days under favorable conditions. Specifically, this research work focused on the selection and examination of a floating medium which enhances the biodegradation process through improvement of conditions necessary for the process to occur. An additional effort was made to update previous citations of the order of magnitude of oil biodegradation rates and to compare laboratory measurements of biodegradation rates with field or mesocosm measurements

  5. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  6. Fluid diversion in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimir, Hassan B.

    1999-01-01

    In any oil recovery process, large scale heterogeneities, such as fractures, channels, or high-permeability streaks, can cause early break through of injected fluid which will reduce oil recovery efficiency. In waterflooding, enhanced oil recovery, and acidizing operations, this problem is particularly acute because of the cost of the injected fluid. On the other hand coping with excess water production is always a challenging task for field operators. The cost of handling and disposing produced water can significantly shorten the economic production life of an oil well. The hydrostatic pressure created by high fluid levels in a well (water coning) is also detrimental to oil production. In this paper, the concept of fluid diversion is explained. Different methods that are suggested to divert the fluid into the oil-bearing-zones are briefly discussed, to show their advantages and disadvantages. Methods of reducing water production in production well are also discussed. (Author)

  7. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Menhaden oil. 184.1472 Section 184.1472 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1472 Menhaden oil. (a) Menhaden oil. (1) Menhaden oil is prepared from fish of the genus Brevoortia, commonly known as menhaden, by cooking and pressing. The resulting crude oil...

  8. 7 CFR 985.11 - Salable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salable oil. 985.11 Section 985.11 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.11 Salable oil. Salable oil means that oil which is free to be handled. ...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil radiators. 25.1023 Section 25.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator... would be subjected in operation. (b) Each oil radiator air duct must be located so that, in case of fire...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1023 - Oil radiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil radiators. 29.1023 Section 29.1023... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1023 Oil radiators. (a) Each oil radiator must be able to withstand any vibration, inertia, and oil pressure loads to which it would be...

  11. Modification of Oil Palm Plantation Wastes as Oil Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisah Jahi; Ling, E.S.; Rizafizah Othaman; Suria Ramli

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to modify oil palm solid wastes chemically to become oil adsorbent for palm oil mill effluent (POME). The purpose of modification on oil palm leaves (OPL) and oil palm frond (OPF) was to change the hydrophilic nature to a more hydrophobic character. This study also exploited the production of sorbent materials with high efficiency in the oil uptake for POME from OPL and OPF. Chemical modification was carried out using 200 mL of 1.0 M lauric acid solution for 6 hrs at room temperature. The modified OPL and OPF were preceded to adsorption test for POME and the capacity of oil adsorbed was compared between them. FTIR analysis supported the modification to occur with the increase in a peak of C-H group and the presence of C=O originated from lauric acid structure chain. The hydrophobicity of modified OPL and OPF samples was supported by XRD and contact angle analysis with modified OPL became more hydrophobic than the modified OPF, which had been 38.15 % and 24.67 % respectively. Both the analyses proved that the result from the oil adsorption test on POME showed the presence of a new peak attribute at C=C stretching of aromatics for the oil in POME proved that it was attached on the sorbent materials. Based on SEM analysis, the perforated and rough surface had been observed on modified OPL and OPF samples because oil layers on OPL and OPF surfaces were observed on the modified samples after the adsorption test. All the analyses in the study agreed that the results from oil adsorption test showed that the modified OPL had higher adsorption capacity than the modified OPF with the percentage of oil uptake at 83.74 % and 39.84 % respectively. The prepared adsorbent showed the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent in oil for POME. (author)

  12. Preparation of refined oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-02-03

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of refined sulfur-containing oils from sulfur-containing crude oils obtained by distillation of bituminous limestone, characterized by this crude oil being first subjected to a purification by distillation with steam in the known way, then treated with lime and chloride of lime and distilled preferably in the presence of zinc powder, whereby in this purification a rectification can be added for the purpose of recovering definite fractions.

  13. Oil Trade and Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Curuk; Suphi Sen

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that a depletable resource owner might optimally increase near-term supply in response to environmental policies promoting the development of alternative resources, which might render climate policy ineffective or even counterproductive. This paper empirically confirms this prediction using data on crude oil exports from OPEC to OECD countries between 2001-2010 in a gravity framework. It documents that oil exporters decrease prices and increase quantity of oil exports in re...

  14. Update on Spain's oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.; Gutierrez, I.

    1994-01-01

    Since Spain's entry into the European Community a liberalisation of the oil industry has occurred culminating in two oil sector reform laws passed in 1992. While competition has increased, a return to the free-market policies which held sway before 1927 has not happened. Rather, three large companies dominate the Spanish oil market, with continuing input from government towards liberalization, if somewhat slowly. This paper describes recent changes and examines factors which limit liberalization policies. (UK)

  15. Fish Oil in Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Peter; Hansen, Birgitte V.; Nielsen, Flemming S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies in nondiabetic kidney diseases suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may have beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, arterial blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effect of fish...... in the fish oil compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not suggest that fish oil has beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia in normotensive IDDM patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy....

  16. Oil: economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special view to interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused upon: (1) the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and (2) the determination of oil prices. The latter involves a discussion of, on the one hand, the political and economic behaviour of the United States and Saudi Arabia and, on the other, the combination of cooperation and conflict that has tended to characterize relations among OPEC countries. (author). 30 refs

  17. Waste vegetable oil survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, R. [Science enterprise Algoma seA, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-06

    This study was conducted to estimate potential sources of feedstock waste oils for biodiesel production in the Sault Ste. Marie region of Ontario. Two feedstocks were investigated over a period of several months, notably cooking oil and waste vegetable oil. The study was conducted to examine oil throughput, collection practices, and to gauge interest in local initiatives. A distribution list of commercial restaurant listings was developed, and surveys were conducted with members of private enterprises, city government, and non-profit stakeholders in the region. Average volumes of waste vegetable oil were presented for different types of restaurants. The various types of oil used in the restaurants were also quantified. Results of the study showed a positive public response to the idea of a local biodiesel initiative. Steak house, fast food, and Italian establishments generated the largest portion of waste vegetable oil amongst survey respondents. However, the highest response rates came from establishments with little or no oil consumption. Many franchise fast food restaurants are already in contracts with waste oil removal companies. 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Essential Oils and Antifungal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production. PMID:29099084

  19. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  20. Used oil issues and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teintze, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have heard the distressing comparisons in the press: More used oil is illegally disposed of or dumped in the United States each year than the sum total of more than 35 Valdez crude spills in Alaska. 1 gallon of used oil alone has the potential to contaminate 1 million gallons of drinking water, if all used oil improperly disposed of by Do-it-Yourselfers were recycled, it could produce enough energy to power 360,000 homes each year or could provide 96 million quarts of high quality motor oil. This paper presents an overview of the used oil situation faced by the oil industry today. major issues such as the size of the problem, the current disposition of used oil, the role of the Do-it-Yourselfers, federal and state legislation, and used oil activities in foreign countries will be addressed. Likewise, the opportunities that the industry has to voluntarily and favorably respond to the used oil issues, in order to control and improve the impact on the environment, will be reviewed

  1. Microorganisms as sources of oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thevenieau France

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of microorganism belonging to the genera of yeast, fungi, bacteria and microalgae have ability to accumulate substantial amounts of oil, sometimes up to an even in excess of 70% of their biomass weight under specific cultivation conditions. For nearly 100 years, the commercial opportunities of using microorganisms as sources of oils have been continuously examined. Although it was evident that microbial oils could never compete commercially with the major commodity plant oils, there were commercially opportunities for the production of some of the higher valued oils. Today, with the great progress of metabolic and genetic engineering, the developments are focus on the high value oils containing important polyunsaturated or specific fatty acids. Such oils have the potential to be used in different applications area as food, feed and oleochemistry. This review is covering the related researches about different oleaginous microorganisms for lipids production and microbial oils biosynthesis process. In add, the lipid metabolism, metabolic engineering strategies to increase lipid production and the economics of microbial oils production are introduced.

  2. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlorio, M.; Coisson, J. D.; Bordiga, M.; Travaglia, F.; Garino, C.; Zuidmeer, L.; van Ree, R.; Giuffrida, M. G.; Conti, A.; Martelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as oextra-virgino should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers

  3. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  4. Oil shale (in memoriam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Marek

    2000-01-01

    Plans for the continued use of oil shale may lead the development of this country into an impasse. To this day no plans have been made for transition from the use of energy based on fossil fuels to that based on renewable resources. Without having any clear strategic plan politicians have been comforting both themselves and the population with promises to tackle the problem when the right time comes. Today the only enterprise whose cash flows and capital would really make it possible to reform the power industry is the firm Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy). However, its sole present shareholder - the state - prefers the sale of the firm's shares to carrying out a radical reform. At the same time, local consumers are likely to rather be willing to pay for the expensive electric energy produced from renewable resources than for that produced from fossil fuels, the price of which will also remain high due to the pollution tax. Practically it is impossible to buy a globally balanced environment for money - pollution taxes are but punitive mechanisms. The investments made into the oil-shale industry will also reinforce the cultural distance of North-East Estonia from the rest of Estonia - the uniform and prevalently Russian-speaking industrial area will be preserved as long as capital will continue to flow into the oil shale industry concentrated there. The way out would be for industries to make wider use of ecological and ecosystemic technologies and for the state to enforce ecologically balanced economic and social policies. (author)

  5. Do oil dispersants make spilled oil more toxic to fish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico was the world's largest oil spill in terms of duration and volume spilled. Clean-up operations, which involved the continuous and wide-spread use of oil dispersant at the surface and at the seabed discharge point at 1500 metres depth, gave rise to public concern about dispersant toxicity. Reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed little difference in acute toxicity to marine fish and invertebrate species among commonly available dispersants and between dispersed and non-dispersed Louisiana Sweet Crude. Technically, the toxicity of waterborne hydrocarbons does not vary with chemical dispersion. However, the EPA omitted any consideration of loading, and misled the public about the risks of dispersant use in oil clean-up. This study examined the chronic toxicity of dispersed oil to fish embryos. The study revealed that toxicity expressed as oil loading increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 times with dispersion, largely because 10 to 1000 times more oil enters the water column. Since the action of dispersant is on the exposure component of the risk equation, not on the potency of the toxic components of oil, then the risk of oil toxicity to fish increases an equivalent amount.

  6. BIODIESEL FUELS FROM PALM OIL, PALM OIL METHYLESTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    determined by methods outlined by A.O.C.S. (American Oil Chemist Society) [12], Usoro et al. [15], Clark [2], and ... diesel have shown that novel vegetable diesels could be obtained from palm oil. .... C-H stretch for alkenes and aromatics.

  7. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified...

  8. Environmental emergency in the oil production and oil products transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čopan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the experience of the environmental emergency response in the case of accidental leakages of oil or oil products into the environment. The gained experience is demonstrated on four different sites where the remediation of contaminated soil / groundwater and emergency response were carried out by the Czech environmental company DEKONTA a.s.

  9. Review and Outlook of China's Oil Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Jinshuang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Major features of China's oil market in 2005 China's oil market is changing under the influence of domestic economy and the international oil market, witnessing different characteristics from time to time.

  10. on the oxidation stability of lubricating oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    I. P. Okoye, Dpartment of Pure and Industrial Chemistry,University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria ... of the kinematic viscosity for the formulated oil were much higher than the base oil, while ... including sulphurized oil – soluble organic compounds,.

  11. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  12. Oil industry decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the oil and gas business is undergoing a significant restructuring. In order to maintain control of our own destiny and succeed in an increasingly competitive business environment, the industry must set goals which are consistent with its continued success and focus on those goals in every aspect of its strategic management. By applying an approach to decision making which focuses on the achievement of the key goals required for success at every decision point and systematic follow-up, a firm can greatly increase its ability to succeed in the business environment of the future

  13. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourez, B.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    During 1998, the price of oil continued to fall. In the autumn of 1997, the barrel of Brent was worth about $20 but then its price dropped to $10 during the last months of 1998. Early in 1997, market-watchers began to think that a downturn was possible, but it occurred on a scale that caught operators by surprise. It is always difficult to predict short- and medium-term prices or, in this case, to determine whether current prices, generally considered to be low, are here to stay

  14. Origin of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham-Craig, E H

    1915-01-01

    Kerogen was believed to be formed by the inspissation of petroleum. During this process nitrogen and sulfur compounds were concentrated in the most inspissated or weathered products. At a certain stage, reached gradually, the organic matter became insoluble in carbon-disulfide and ceased to be a bitumen. Oil shale was formed by the power of certain clays or shales to absorb inspissated petroleum, particularly unsaturated hydrocarbons. This adsorption apparently depended on the colloid content of the argillaceous rock. This rock retained these impregnated petroleum residues long after porous sandstones in the vicinity had lost all traces of petroleum by weathering and leaching.

  15. Purifying mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, J J

    1919-02-24

    A natural or an uncracked oil is desulfurized by vaporizing it and bringing the vapor into contact with granular alumina or ignited magnesite at a temperature below the boiling-point of sulfur. The alumina may be prepared from the trihydrate or bauxite. Sulfuretted hydrogen resulting from the dissociation of the sulfur compounds may be absorbed in oxide of iron, Weldon mud, or the like. Specifications 5,208/83, 14,405/92, 7,272/14, and 109,077 are referred to.

  16. Distilling mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, N M

    1885-10-29

    Stills of waggon-shape with side flues are employed; the legs are sheltered from the direct furnace heat, and apparatus for injecting steam into them is provided. The feed pipe to the primary still is vertical; as the more volatile portions of the oil evaporate the heavier portions sink into the legs from which they are drawn off by pipes entering secondary stills horizontally. In the same manner the heavier portions are removed from these stills to coking ovens. A feed-heating apparatus of the kind described in Specification No. 540, A.D. 1883, is employed.

  17. Life cycle of transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Ksenija R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of electric power is constantly increasing due to industrialization and population growth. This results in much more severe operating conditions of transformers, the most important electrical devices that make integral parts of power transmission and distribution systems. The designed operating life of the majority of worldwide transformers has already expired, which puts the increase of transformer reliability and operating life extension in the spotlight. Transformer oil plays a very important role in transformer operation, since it provides insulation and cooling, helps extinguishing sparks and dissolves gases formed during oil degradation. In addition to this, it also dissolves moisture and gases from cellulose insulation and atmosphere it is exposed to. Further and by no means less important functions of transformer are of diagnostic purpose. It has been determined that examination and inspection of insulation oil provide 70% of information on transformer condition, which can be divided in three main groups: dielectric condition, aged transformer condition and oil degradation condition. By inspecting and examining the application oil it is possible to determine the condition of insulation, oil and solid insulation (paper, as well as irregularities in transformer operation. All of the above-mentioned reasons and facts create ground for the subject of this research covering two stages of transformer oil life cycle: (1 proactive maintenance and monitoring of transformer oils in the course of utilization with reference to influence of transformer oil condition on paper insulation condition, as well as the condition of the transformer itself; (2 regeneration of transformer oils for the purpose of extension of utilization period and paper insulation revitalization potential by means of oil purification. The study highlights advantages of oil-paper insulation revitalization over oil replacement. Besides economic, there are

  18. What about oil reserve depletion and crude oil price evolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this report is to give a synthesis of different points of view with respect to the 'Peak Oil' perspective and to the crude oil price evolution. In the first part, the authors examine the evolutions and assessments of oil reserves and productions, by discussing the different types of reserve, the optimistic and pessimistic points of views. Then, in the second part, they analyse the long term price formation, the various production technical costs (conventional oils, heavy oils and asphaltic sands, coal- and gas-based synthetic hydrocarbons, bio-fuels), the external costs (notably in relationship with greenhouse emissions), the relationship between geopolitical issues and short and middle term price formation. In the third and last part, they discuss the possible evolutions and scenarios in terms of demand, production, and prices

  19. Mitsubishi Oil to become a major oil player?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, N.

    1994-01-01

    Mitsubishi Oil became a wholly-owned Japanese company in 1984. Before that, since 1981, it had been a joint venture between Mitsubishi and Getty oil. Recently the company has discovered a major new oilfield off the coast of Vietnam. In addition it has a strategic stake in the Canadian Athabasca Far Sands, major investments in Angola and operations in Papua New Guinea and Gabon. It aims to cover 30 % of the crude oil imports to its four existing, and fifth projected, refineries from owned sources by the end of the century. Mitsubishi has a network of 4500 service stations in Japan and has become one of the largest lubricating oil producers. The company's main overseas sales are of jet fuel, lubricating and tanker oils, sulphur and some petrochemicals. (UK)

  20. Oil-in-oil emulsions stabilised solely by solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2016-01-21

    A brief review of the stabilisation of emulsions of two immiscible oils is given. We then describe the use of fumed silica particles coated with either hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon groups in acting as sole stabilisers of emulsions of various vegetable oils with linear silicone oils (PDMS) of different viscosity. Transitional phase inversion of emulsions, containing equal volumes of the two oils, from silicone-in-vegetable (S/V) to vegetable-in-silicone (V/S) occurs upon increasing the hydrophobicity of the particles. Close to inversion, emulsions are stable to coalescence and gravity-induced separation for at least one year. Increasing the viscosity of the silicone oil enables stable S/V emulsions to be prepared even with relatively hydrophilic particles. Predictions of emulsion type from calculated contact angles of a silica particle at the oil-oil interface are in agreement with experiment provided a small polar contribution to the surface energy of the oils is included. We also show that stable multiple emulsions of V/S/V can be prepared in a two-step procedure using two particle types of different hydrophobicity. At fixed particle concentration, catastrophic phase inversion of emulsions from V/S to S/V can be effected by increasing the volume fraction of vegetable oil. Finally, in the case of sunflower oil + 20 cS PDMS, the study is extended to particles other than silica which differ in chemical type, particle size and particle shape. Consistent with the above findings, we find that only sufficiently hydrophobic particles (clay, zinc oxide, silicone, calcium carbonate) can act as efficient V/S emulsion stabilisers.

  1. Consequences of oil film degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravendran, Rathesan

    2017-01-01

    In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution.......In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution....

  2. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the most popular and healthy culinary herbs in the world. Essential oil derived from basil (basil oil) through steam distillation has traditionally been used for a wide range of applications such as cooking spices, aromatherapy, perfumery, medicinal treatments, pes...

  3. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  4. Oil companies and human rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Geoffrey

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights the need for oil companies in the future to take into account human rights in corporate decision making. The influence oil companies can bring to bear on government violating human rights, excuses for not voicing condemnation of abuses, and the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights are discussed. (UK)

  5. Special report: EC oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    A European Commission report on the EC's oil market has conceded that the Community will not meet its official objective of reducing oil's share of energy consumption to 40% by 1995. The paper, a 'Communication' to the European Council entitled ''The Oil Market and the Refining Industry in the Community: Recent Developments and Prospects'' says oil will ''continue to account for a major share - of the order of 45% -of the Community's energy consumption'' up to the year 2000. Nonetheless, the report's authors insist the Commission has proposed ''a number of measures'' which could reduce the potential consumption of fossil fuels and help limit CO2 emissions. The report confirms that though lower in 1990 than 1980 at 530mt, oil demand picked up in the second half of the 1980s, reflecting world trends. Little impression has been made on the proportion of the Community's crude supply that is imported. However, one area where the report did find energy objectives successes was that of diversifying sources of crude oil supply. A major source of concern for the Commission at one stage in the second half of the 1980s was the possibility of massive imports of finished oil products from refineries in the oil producing countries. However, the fact that this threat did not materialise is taken as a vindication of the Commission's assessment in previous analyses that ''an open Community market should be maintained''. (author)

  6. A biological oil adsorption filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasila, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  7. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  8. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1997-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  9. After the oil price collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this book, the authors focus on issues that include the extremely high prices following the second oil shock, the resulting decline in oil demand and the increase in non-OPEC production, reduced industry concentration, OPEC's subsequent attempt to regain market share; and the resulting free-for-all of competitive pricing

  10. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to

  11. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  12. Effects of oils on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J M

    1970-01-01

    Oils vary in their toxicity according to the content of low-boiling compounds, unsaturated compounds, aromatics, and acids. The higher the concentration of these constituents, the more toxic the oil. After penetrating into a plant, the oil may travel in the intercellular spaces and possibly also in the vascular system. Cell membranes are damaged by penetration of hydrocarbon molecules, leading to leakage of cell contents, and oil may enter the cells. Oils reduce the transpiration rate, probably by blocking the stomata and intercellular spaces. This may also be the reason for the reduction of the photosynthesis which occurs, though there are other possible explanations of this - such as disruption of chloroplast membranes and inhibition caused by accumulation of end-products. The effects of oils on respiration are variable, but an increase of respiration rate often occurs, possibly due to mitochondrial damage resulting in an uncoupling effect. Oils inhibit translocation probably by physical interference. The severity of the above effects depends on the constituents and amount of the oil, on the environmental conditions, and on the species of plant involved. 88 references, 3 tables.

  13. New oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, N.

    2004-01-01

    During the period 1999-2003, new oil and gas fields generated additional reserves of nearly 11 000 bcm of natural gas and 62 Gbbl of oil and condensates, volumes very much superior to those discovered in the five previous years. Two-thirds of these discoveries were located offshore, half in deep water. (author)

  14. Oxidizing oils, etc. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penniman, W B.D.

    1926-03-02

    The oxidation of crude petroleum and its distillates, shale oils and tars, waxes, sludges, petroleum residues, asphaltic oils, asphalt, malthas, cracked oils and residues from cracking stills, wood tar oils and wood tar, peat and lignite distillates, coal tar oils and coal tars, and oils containing powdered coal, coke, oreat, sulphur in suspension, by passing air or other oxygen-containing gas through a layer of the material of a depth sufficient substantially to deoxygenate the air and c., is carried out in stages in a series of treatment zones, the pressure in at least one of the zones being above atmospheric pressre. The products of oxidation include acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, acrylic and phthalic acids, alcohols, acetone, solvents, gums, and substances adapted for use as motor fuels or burnign oils. The oxidizing gas may be enriched with oxygen or be diluted with steam, and its point of entry into the oil and c. layer may be varied to promote or retard settlement of suspended solids.

  15. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  16. Oil price and the dollar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudert, V.; Mignon, V.; Penot, A.

    2007-01-01

    Oil prices and the United States (US) dollar exchange rate are driving the evolution of the world economy. This paper investigated long-term relationships between oil prices and the US effective exchange rate. An empirical study was performed on oil prices and the dollar real effective exchange rate between 1974 to 2004. The impact of the dollar exchange rate was also explored, and the effects of oil prices on supply and demand were considered. A dynamic partial equilibrium framework study was evaluated in order to compare how other countries used revenues from oil exports in dollars. The study showed that both variables had similar evolutions when price fluctuations were low. Strong increases in the dollar were associated with lower oil prices. However, adjustment speeds of the dollar real effective exchange rate was slow. Co-integration and causality tests showed that oil prices influenced the exchange rate, and that the link between the 2 variables was transmitted through the country's net foreign asset position. It was concluded that higher oil prices improved US net foreign asset position in relation to other countries, and had a positive impact on dollar appreciation. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  17. The future of oil supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard G; Sorrell, Steven R

    2014-01-13

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in 'tight oil' production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the 'peak oil' debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue.

  18. Press Oil Final Release Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-11

    There are forty-eight 55 gallon barrels filled with hydraulic oil that are candidates for release and recycle. This oil needs to be characterized prior to release. Principles of sampling as provided in MARSAME/MARSSIM approaches were used as guidance for sampling.

  19. Recovering valuable shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, C

    1922-09-26

    A process is described for the recovery of valuable shale oils or tars, characterized in that the oil shale is heated to about 300/sup 0/C or a temperature not exceeding this essentially and then is treated with a solvent with utilization of this heat.

  20. Separation of oils from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Slyke, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for cleaning oil-contaminated particulate solids. It comprises: contacting contaminated solids with a non-aqueous liquid composition comprising a carboxylic acid; then contacting the solids with an aqueous wash containing a reagent for converting the carboxylic acid to a water-soluble carboxylate salt; and removing an aqueous phase containing carboxylate salt and entrained oil

  1. Oil water laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P Junior, Oswaldo A.; Verli, Fernando; Lopes, Humberto E.

    2000-01-01

    Usually, the oily water effluent from petroleum processes needs to be treated prior to its environment discard and/or reuse. The synthesis of such water effluent residues in an Oily Water Laboratory - equipped with Water Treatment Pilot Scale Units - is fundamental to the study and effectiveness comparison among the typical industrial water treatment processes. The Oily Water Laboratory will allow the reproduction - in a small scale - of any oily water effluent produced in the industrial PETROBRAS units - such reproduction can be obtained by using the same fluids, oily concentration, salinity, process temperature, particle size distribution etc. Such Laboratory also allows the performance analysis of typical industrial equipment used throughout the water treatment schemes (e.g., hydro-cyclones), resulting in design and/or operational guidelines for these industrial scale schemes. In the particular niche of very small diameter oil droplet removal, more efficient and non-conventional schemes - such as centrifuges and/or membrane filtration - will be also studied in the Laboratory. In addition, the Laboratory shall be used in the certification of in-line oily water analyzers (e.g., TOC - Total Organic Carbon and OWC - Oil Wax Content). This paper describes the characteristics of such Laboratory and its main operational philosophy. (author)

  2. Is it all oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Osmundsen, Petter; Sandsmark, Maria

    2003-01-01

    After opening up of the Interconnector, the liberalized UK natural gas market and the regulated Continental gas markets became physically integrated. The oil-linked Continental gas price became dominant, due to both the large volume of the Continental market and to the fact that the significant call options embedded in the complex take-or-pay contracts make these contracts the marginal source of supply. However, in an interim period - after deregulation of the UK gas market (1994) and the opening up of the Interconnector (1998) -the UK gas market had neither government price regulation nor a physical Continental gas linkage. We use this period - which for natural gas markets displays an unusual combination of deregulation and autarky - as a natural experiment to explore if decoupling of natural gas prices from prices of other energy commodities, such as oil and electricity, took place. Using monthly price data, we find a highly integrated market where the wholesale demand seems to be for energy rather than a specific energy source. (author)

  3. Super oil cracking update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulraney, D.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of residual fuel oil to usable middle distillates was discussed. The residue conversion processing paths are usually based on separation, carbon rejection, or hydrogen addition principles. Super Oil Cracking (SOC) uses a slurry catalyst system in a new, tubular reactor to achieve high levels of hydrothermal conversion. SOC can upgrade a variety of heavy, high metals residue feedstocks with high yields of middle distillates. The SOC products can also be further treated into feedstocks for FCC or hydrocracking. The SOC process can be incorporated easily into a refinery to obtain incremental residue conversion directly. It can also be integrated with other residue processes, acting as a demetallization and decarbonization step which results in enhanced overall conversion. The relative rate of coke formation and its handling are distinguishing characteristics between residue upgrading technologies. The SOC process operates at higher temperatures that other residue hydrocracking processes resulting in higher rates of thermal decomposition, thus preventing coke formation. SOC process can operate as a stand-alone upgrader or can be integrated with other bottoms processing steps to extend the refiner's range of options for increasing bottoms conversion.3 tabs., 14 figs

  4. Whither Alberta's oil production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, R.A.; Dick, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated how a combination of old theory (decline methods and statistics) and new technology (computer graphics) can enhance decline-curve forecasts for multi-well groupings. Production and well-count forecasts are presented for four different sized groups of aggregate production. The four examples are: the small Manville pool; the Pembina Cardium, Alberta's largest oil pool; an aggregate of all reef pools of Keg River age; and an aggregate of all wells reporting conventional oil production in the province of Alberta. In each case graphical results show the historical and forecast trends for the statistical distribution of well rates, the median well rate, the aggregated rate, and the number of producing wells. It is concluded that well rate distributions for groups ranging from 15 wells in a single pool to thousands of wells in hundreds of pools are all approximately lognormal. Lognormal well rate distributions and Lorenz graphs provide qualitative and quantitative assessments of a resource base. Decline curves for the median well rate can reveal trends masked in the aggregated rate by changing well count, operating practice and degradation of the resource base. The number of producing wells in Alberta has grown from ca 9000 in 1970 to ca 24,000 in 1988, has remained constant from 1988-1990, and will start to decline as the number of suspended or abandoned wells exceeds the number of new completions. 3 refs., 13 figs., 4 figs

  5. Oil production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J F

    1983-12-21

    A new oil producing system is proposed which consists of a group of underwater wells, an underwater riser and a floating storage facility for the production of the wells. The group of wells and the riser are interconnected through a manifold system in such a way that the production from any well or from the entire group of wells go to the base (foundation) of the riser. From above the riser is connected with the floating storage facility which is equipped, besides tanks for storing the well products, with a separation device for separating the oil and the accompanying gas. The gas is used as a fuel for producing electric power required by the dynamic positioning systems. The products from each well are tested by means of a regulable coupling controlled by means of a cable, which is passed from the surface through the riser. The wellhead equipment for the unslanted wells is mounted on a template previously installed on the sea floor. From the template the well products enter the riser through the manifold unit system.

  6. What is behind the increase in oil prices? Analyzing oil consumption and supply relationship with oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, Andres; Mason, Paul; Shapiro, Steve; Fabritius, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The continuing increases in oil prices have renewed the argument over the real culprits behind these movements. The growth in demand for oil in international markets, especially from the United States and China, is often identified as the main source of consumption pressure on prices, and thus the upward trend in oil prices. This paper uses unit root tests with two endogenous breaks to analyze the characteristics of oil prices, production, and consumption for several countries. By taking into account structural breaks, we find that many countries' oil consumption and oil prices are stationary, while other countries' are not. We also perform causality tests to determine the direction of any possible relationship between oil price and oil consumption and production. Our statistical analysis reveals that production variables cause oil prices, while oil prices tend to cause consumption. As a result, we claim that the blame for the recent fluctuations in oil prices is more appropriately associated with supply factors, not consumption influences. (author)

  7. Research of losses of oil oil and mineral oil at transportation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akzhigitov, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : All way of hydrocarbonic raw material from a mouth of oil wells up to the consumer is accompanied by losses which occur as a result of evaporation, outflow and change of quality. Therefore preservation of quantity and quality of oil and mineral oil during transportation and storages is the major not only economic, but also an ecological problem. The facilitated fractional structure, the big maintenance concern to prominent features of the majority oil from underground salts adjournment Prycaspi in them of the easy hydrocarbons, the raised gas factor in conditions of deposits and presence in structure of gases, except for hydrocarbons and sour a component, - hydrogen sulphide, carbonic gas, etc. The superficial tests stabilized on phase structure oil depending on conditions of preparation for external transport and the subsequent processing can contain this or that quantity of residual hydrogen sulphide, easy hydrocarbons and the lowest sulfhydrates. For change of temperature and external pressure, during transportation and storage the part of easy hydrocarbons and not hydrocarbonic connections (sulfur organic) can be allocated from oil in a gaseous phase and in case of hit in an atmosphere sharply worsens ecology. In the Western Kazakhstan during the years period the temperature of air sometimes reaches up to 40-45 degrees. As is known, at such temperature there is a strengthened warming up of the open surface of oil tanks, that finally leads to increase evaporation easy oil and oil hydrocarbons. With this purpose experiences by quantitative definition evaporation lungs oil and petromixes of the Western Kazakhstan were spent. As a result of the lead works it is found out, that the size of losses at the given fixed temperature depends on evaporation by nature, fractional and hydrocarbonic structures of oil

  8. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  9. Process for oil shale retorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  10. Principles of heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szasz, S.E.; Thomas, G.W.

    1965-10-01

    Rising exploration costs have prompted greater interest in the large known deposits of heavy oil in North America. Because of high oil viscosities in such reservoirs, recoveries are poor, fluid drives are inefficient and production rates are uneconomical. Viscosity reduction can best be accomplished by heating the reservoir. The basic aspects of reservoir heating are reviewed and those processes which are of practical importance in heavy oil reservoirs are discussed. Wellbore heating frequently can be applied to heavy oil reservoirs to increase production rates. In hot waterflooding, the water requirements are much higher than an ordinary waterflood. Steam floods are more attractive, but operating costs are generally high. Conduction heating processes appear most promising. Among these is included the cyclic steam-soak process. A simple method is presented for estimating the performance from the first cycle of steam injection into the formation, assuming gravity as the only driving energy. An example calculation for a typical heavy oil reservoir is given. (26 refs.)

  11. Ethics and the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquin, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    In many countries public opinions are more and more sensitive to ethical issues linked to the manner in which industries and particularly oil companies behave. Oil companies are frequently unpopular, among the public both in producing and consuming countries. After a brief analysis of the reasons for this unpopularity, the author attempts to show both the ambiguities surrounding the question of ethics, and its complexity. This is especially true when oil companies have to work in countries which are destabilized, and in which disturbances - or even civil wars - may be fuelled by the important revenue streams resulting from the oil production. The various ethical issues are reviewed, from human rights to political interference, without omitting global or local environmental problems. Despite the very deep roots of the various issues the author believe some progress is achievable and advocates that the oil industry lead the way in this difficult domain. (author)

  12. Substituting oil by electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    Parting from the development of primary energy use the author refers to the latest investigations and results presented on the 1980 World Energy Conference and with special regard to oil points out the threatening exhaustion of fossil energy resources. Maintaining the economic structure of the Federal Republic of Germany implies an orientation away from oil. Due to its flexible application technology and quasi-inexhaustible energy resources electric power may substantially contribute to oil substitution which as a matter of fact is of particular interest in connection with the heat market. Coal alone cannot substitute both oil and nuclear energy. Thus, the above postulates the use of the latter. Leaving nuclear energy inactive today will effect an increase in the demand for oil the negative consequences of which would weight heavily upon the anyhow unbalanced import/export ratio of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  13. Oil trade: politics and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorn, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    After a century of exponential growth, the international oil industry suddenly slowed down in the 1970s, faltered during the 1980s, and by the early nineties was only just about back to its 1979 level. In a descriptive analysis of current influences upon the world oil trade, this book explores the reasons behind that slowdown - which are not all attributable to OPEC or its nationalisation of international major oil companies. It assesses the growth and decay of Opec monopoly power in the crude oil market, as the latest demonstration of a paradoxical but persistent imbalance in this international business: its tendency to maximise the production of high-cost rather than low-cost oil. (author)

  14. The Alberta oil sands story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This report serves as a detailed introduction to the Alberta oil sands and their development. It includes a description of the oil sands deposits, an outline of crude bitumen recovery and upgrading processes, the role of Alberta Energy Company in oil sands development, environmental aspects, manpower requirements for oil sands development, research needs, and further oil sands projects. Presently proven recoverable reserves in the oil sands amount to 26.5 billion bbl of synthetic crude. Production from the Syncrude plant (125,000 bbl/d capacity) is expected to begin in 1977, followed by a Shell Canada operation around 1980. The provincial government will participate in the oil sand industry through its joint venture participation in Syncrude and its 50% share in Alberta Energy Company; the latter company participates in related aspects of the Syncrude project, such as pipelines. The result of Alberta's participation in the industry will mean that, directly or indirectly, the province will realize 60% of the total profits. The job creation potential of oil sands projects is estimated to be extensive, with a direct and indirect work force supported by oil sands activities possibly reaching 180,000 persons by the year 2000. Research needs have been identified, particularly in the area of in-situ thermal recovery technology, and the creation of the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority has been authorized in order to meet these needs. Although current reserves are sufficient to support 20-30 synthetic crude plants, a number of factors will limit expansion of the industry. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  16. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar

    2009-01-01

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  17. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar [Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  18. The effect of oil pulling with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Komath Pavithran; Madhusudhan Krishna; Vinod A Kumar; Ashish Jaiswal; Arul K Selvan; Sudhir Rawlani

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Oil pulling as described in ancient Ayurveda involves the use of edible vegetable oils as oral antibacterial agents. It is a practice of swishing oil in the mouth for oral and systemic health benefits. Pure coconut oil has antimicrobial properties and is commonly available in all Indian households. Aim: This study aims to assess the effect of oil pulling therapy with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans count and to compare its efficacy against sesame oil and saline. Materia...

  19. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be

  20. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  1. Oil Giants Play Vital Role in China's Strategic Oil Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ China plans to start building of its strategic reserve in August this year in the attempts to meet the emergency case and moderate the oil prices, according to a senior official at Sinopec, one of China's three oil giants."This will definitely be used as a mechanism to manage prices," he added. The government planned to allow State-owned companies to draw on the oil reserve when prices breached a yet-to-be-determined ceiling, and this was strongly supported by the refiners, the Petroleum Intelligence Weekly recently reported.

  2. Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E., Castanier, Louis M.

    2000-03-16

    The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties, (2) in-situ combustion, (3) additives to improve mobility control, (4) reservoir definition, and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx.

  3. Oil use and oil dependency: Long-term issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serot, D.E.; Belzer, D.B.; Guthrie, S.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1989-06-01

    The continued dependence of the United States on imported oil is a matter of increasing concern. Under the direction of the Department of Energy's Office of Policy Integration, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study which was to examine long-term issues related to oil dependence. Major issues addressed are (1) energy efficiency and the role of new technologies, (2) fuel switching, and (3) regional factors affecting fuel use. The study examines all major end-use sectors in the economy, covering the industrial, commercial, residential, transportation, and electric utility sectors. The potential impacts of efficiency improvements in oil- using equipment are assessed through the year 2000. 107 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs

  4. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  5. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  6. Kuwait oil spill studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    1992-02-01

    More than a year after the Persian Gulf War, scientists are still trying to assess the environmental impact of the estimated 6-8 million barrels of oil that were dumped into the gulf and to understand the environmental processes that take place in such a disturbance. Many atmospheric studies were done in the months immediately following the war, but oceanographic studies have been slower in getting started.The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is currently spearheading a major oceanographic study being undertaken in the Persian Gulf by the research vessel Mt. Mitchell. The ship left its home port of Norfolk, Va., in mid-January and arrived in Muscat, Oman, on February 16 to begin a 100-day oceanographic and environmental survey. The six-leg cruise will feature physical oceanography, near-shore, and marine life studies.

  7. Oil in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diab, E.; Raimbault, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-12-01

    India is a country that is rich in energy resources. Concerning oil, proven reserves are already abundant, but there are some who think that a very large potential remains to be discovered, since the country is one of the least thoroughly explored in the world. The recent opening up of energy industries to private and foreign capital should speed up the development of exploration, refining and petrochemicals. However, even if numerous projects were to be approved by the Government, actually carrying them out does not always ensure because of conditions that are not always judged to be attractive by potential investors. Despite all this, there are some who think that India will be a power equal to if not greater than China and one that is already upholding the comparison with the Southeast Asian dragons. (authors). 8 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Oil-Free Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.; Belver, T. L.; Moore, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Compressor pistons moved by eccentric shaft need no lubricants. Compressor has shaft, middle section is eccentric in relation to end sections. Driven by brushless dc motor, shaft turns inner races of set of four cam bearings. Outer cam-bearing races in turn actuate four pistons spaced equally apart, around and along shaft. Each outer bearing race held in position by pressure exerted on it by piston. Because no frictional motion between piston and outer bearing race, lubricant between them unnecessary. Cam bearings themselves contain potted internal lubricant. Originally proposed for use in space, new compressor for refrigerators or freezers does not depend on pool of oil for lubricating its pistons. Operated in any orientation.

  9. Enhanced oil recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  10. Destructive distillation: oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J; Glover, S

    1918-01-31

    Canned and other coals are destructively distilled in continuously operated vertical retorts which at their upper portions are maintained at temperatures suitable for low temperature oil distillation such as about 700/sup 0/C, and at their lower portions the temperature is higher and such as to be suitable for the production of gas, e.g., about 1400/sup 0/C. Superheated steam is introduced into the lower portion of the retort, preferably by means of the arrangement described in Specification 120,458, and this is converted into blue water gas which assists the distillation in the center of the coal charge. The retorts are preferably such as are described in Specifications 2663/07 and 7757/14.

  11. Unconventional uses for unconventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlig-Economides, C.A.; Barrufet, M.; Longbottom, J.R.; Velu, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    The transportation sector in the United States is 95 per cent dependent on oil, which is the only primary fuel that is being imported to the country in great quantities. It has been proposed that energy independence may come by supplying electric power with renewable energy sources. It was also suggested that the best solution for future transportation may be to develop electrified guideways that would provide energy to automatically convey personal cars and driverless freight through the roadways. Advantages include zero vehicle emissions, greater safety and decreased road congestion. This paper examined the option of using heavy oil for power generation instead of the current expensive refining practices designed to produce liquid transportation fuels from heavy oil. It compared coal gasification with heavy oil for power generation. The cost to consumers and environmental impacts were considered. The comparison of conventional versus electrified transportation options was based on on a well-to-mine-to-wheels cycle. It was shown that electrified transportation is attractive from a cost, environmental and energy security perspective. If the United States were to import Canadian heavy oil only for transportation, the consumer cost will increase by approximately 25 per cent based on 2003 data. If the United States were to transform transportation from conventional to electrified transportation, the cost of using Canadian heavy oil will be less, even including carbon dioxide capture. It was concluded that all primary fuel sources would seek new equilibrium prices that may affect comparisons between heavy oil and coal. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  12. Unconventional uses for unconventional oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlig-Economides, C.A.; Barrufet, M.; Longbottom, J.R.; Velu, B.P. [Texas A and M Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The transportation sector in the United States is 95 per cent dependent on oil, which is the only primary fuel that is being imported to the country in great quantities. It has been proposed that energy independence may come by supplying electric power with renewable energy sources. It was also suggested that the best solution for future transportation may be to develop electrified guideways that would provide energy to automatically convey personal cars and driverless freight through the roadways. Advantages include zero vehicle emissions, greater safety and decreased road congestion. This paper examined the option of using heavy oil for power generation instead of the current expensive refining practices designed to produce liquid transportation fuels from heavy oil. It compared coal gasification with heavy oil for power generation. The cost to consumers and environmental impacts were considered. The comparison of conventional versus electrified transportation options was based on on a well-to-mine-to-wheels cycle. It was shown that electrified transportation is attractive from a cost, environmental and energy security perspective. If the United States were to import Canadian heavy oil only for transportation, the consumer cost will increase by approximately 25 per cent based on 2003 data. If the United States were to transform transportation from conventional to electrified transportation, the cost of using Canadian heavy oil will be less, even including carbon dioxide capture. It was concluded that all primary fuel sources would seek new equilibrium prices that may affect comparisons between heavy oil and coal. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. Pediatric Age Palm Oil Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Genova, Lorenza; Cerquiglini, Laura; Penta, Laura; Biscarini, Anna; Esposito, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Palm oil is widely used in the food industry for its chemical/physical properties, low cost and wide availability. Its widespread use has provoked an intense debate about whether it is a potential danger to human health. In a careful review of the scientific literature, we focused on nutritional characteristics and health effects of the use of palm oil with regards to children, seeking to determine whether there is evidence that justifies fears about the health effects of palm oil. Our review showed that palm oil represents a significant source of saturated fatty acids, to which scientific evidence attributes negative health effects when used in excess, especially with regards to cardiovascular diseases. However, to date, there is no evidence about the harmful effects of palm oil on the health of children. Nevertheless, palm oil has possible ill health effects linked to its composition of fatty acids: its consumption is not correlated to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young people with a normal weight and cholesterol level; the elderly and patients with dyslipidaemia or previous cardiovascular events or hypertension are at a greater risk. Therefore, the matter is not palm oil itself but the fatty-acid-rich food group to which it belongs. The most important thing is to consume no more than 10% of saturated fatty acids, regardless of their origin and regardless of one's age. Correct information based on a careful analysis of the scientific evidence, rather than a focus on a singular presumed culprit substance, should encourage better lifestyles.

  14. Oil futures and spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samii, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  15. The end of cheap oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, J.J.; Campbell, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Easy to find 'conventional' oil in huge quantities has fueled and satisfied the World's thirst for energy this century. About 95% of all oil produced-and 90% of today's production---comes from this group of hydrocarbons. But the coming century of the new millennium will see the exit of conventional oil as a major player on the World's energy stage. Already, outside the Middle East, conventional oil production is on the decline. And the Middle East with its vast reservoirs of oil will soon reach the mid-point of depletion and begin its irreversible decline. Currently, one barrel of oil is being found for every four barrels that are produced. The Middle East now supplies 30% of the World's conventional oil production and that trend is rising because, unlike in the 1970s, no new major provinces, save perhaps the Caspian, are there to deliver flush production. The stage is now set for another 'energy crisis' starting with higher prices from Middle East control and followed by the onset of physical shortage around 2010. We face something new to human experience. (author)

  16. The geopolitics of $10 oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The market and the geopolitical implications of the possibility of $10 a barrel becoming the norm for oil prices in 1999 are examined. The low price will present budgetary difficulties for all the world's major oil producing countries with the exception of Brunei. In some countries, such as Nigeria and Venezuela, general financial and economic reform will become inevitable with the pressure for political reform to follow. If energy development is to continue in the Caspian region in a low price era, long term political stability will be necessary and a move towards democracy from the present autocracies may be necessary to achieve this. In the Middle East, countries are facing the erosion of their core financial base. Depressed oil prices could force Gulf States, which in the past have depended on their oil revenues alone, to introduce taxation as an alternative source of income. Hitherto, oil has meant power in political as well as in energy terms, but the diminished value of oil in a world where their are alternative energy sources will reduce the importance, even of key regions such as the Middle East. The power of OPEC is threatened by its failure to bring about the massive co-ordinated production cutbacks which alone might turn the market around. The beneficiaries of cheap oil will be the consuming nations, particularly those of East Asia where the pace of economic recovery will be speeded up. (UK)

  17. Dynamic correlation between stock market and oil prices: The case of oil-importing and oil-exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Filis, George; Degiannakis, S.; Floros, C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the time-varying correlation between stock market prices and oil prices for oil-importing and oil-exporting countries. A DCC-GARCH-GJR approach is employed to test the above hypothesis based on data from six countries; Oil-exporting: Canada, Mexico, Brazil and Oil-importing: USA, Germany, Netherlands. The contemporaneous correlation results show that i) although time-varying correlation does not differ for oil-importing and oil-exporting economies, ii) the correlation i...

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF LOVAGE LEAVES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS AND OIL BLENDS

    OpenAIRE

    GEIDA SEVDAGUL SULIMAN; SEMAGHIUL BIRGHILA; ANCA DUMBRAVA

    2018-01-01

    We studied four edible vegetable oils and nine oil blends based on refined sunflower oil, in order to improve the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. The oils used for blends were linseed oil, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil. The physico-chemical properties demonstrated the superior features for oil blends, like lower acidity (measured by acid value) and higher stability to autoxidation (measured by peroxide value and refractive index). The best combination for sunflower oil was with coc...

  19. Manitoba 2004 oil activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presented data on oil and gas activities in Manitoba during 2004, the busiest year in Manitoba's oil patch since the mid 1980s. Increases in the leasing of Crown and freehold acreage were also noted, with accompanying increases in drilling activity for the latter part of 2004. Details of Crown land sales were presented, with a total of 43,725 hectares of crown oil and gas rights under lease. During 2004, over 15,000 hectares of Crown oil and gas leases were sold, the highest figures since 1997. More wells were licensed and drilled in 2004 than in any year since 1986. Overall drilling success rate was 96.7 per cent. Details of top drillers in Manitoba were presented, with drilling activity focused in Waskada and Daly fields and the Sinclair area. Oil production increased by 0.7 per cent, with 1474 wells in production. Daily oil production statistics were presented, with the total value of Manitoba's oil production being $196 million. Details of the top 5 producers were provided, in addition to details of horizontal well production. Recent developments in Sinclair Field, Pierson L. Amaranth MC 3b A Pool, Waskada L. Amaranth I Pool and Virden Lodgepole D Pool were reviewed. The Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program was discussed with reference to the following enhancements: new well incentives, horizontal well incentives; holiday oil volume accounts; and marginal well major workover programs. Various Oil and Gas Act amendments were reviewed. In addition, the Williston Basin Architecture and Hydrocarbon Potential Project was discussed. 3 figs

  20. Belarus oil recovery. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Belarus Oil Recovery study was sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency and funded by the Danish State Oestlandepulje. The technical work was carried out by COWIconsult, the Danish Geological Survey, and Odin Energi in cooperation with the Belarus State Oil Company, Belorusneft. Belarus, a republic of the former USSR, is a landlocked country with limited and declining oil production. Oil production was initially established in Belarus in 1964, and 56 oil fields have been discovered to date. Production reached a peak of approximately 60,000 barrels per day in the mid 70's, but current production is only about 15,000 bpd, well below the required amount for self sufficiency. The intent of this feasibility study was to determine ways of improving the production potential of the oil fields of Belarus with western technology in order to make Belarus less dependent on other energy resources and on outside supplies of hydrocarbons. All the oil fields in Belarus are located in the Pripyat Basin. The structural complexity of the fields under study coupled with the rather poor reservoir quality have resulted in low oil recoveries, and the aim of the study is to recommend technology which might improve the performance of these reservoirs. Improved well stimulation and water injection using modern western technology is likely to improve recovery from these reservoirs. If this technology proves successful in these fields, then it could be applied to the other larger oil fields in Belarus. It is anticipated that the documented results would enable financing full scale implementation of the technology utilised which could contribute toward the solution of Belarus' energy requirements. (EG)