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Sample records for amobarbital

  1. Intracarotid amobarbital testing for language and memory dominance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, C A; Wyllie, E

    1993-07-01

    The intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) was attempted in 22 pediatric epilepsy surgery candidates, ages 5-12 years old. With extra pre-test teaching and emotional preparation, adjusted amobarbital dosage for younger patients, and simplified test items tailored to the child's abilities, language and memory testing were accomplished after at least one injection for 19 (86%) of patients. Language dominance was clarified in 11 children overall (50% of patients), in all of the children who had bilateral testing and at least borderline intelligence (IQ > 70), and in 57% of the children with mild or moderate mental retardation. Memory assessment was accomplished in 18 children after amobarbital injection of the hemisphere ipsilateral to the predominant epileptogenic zone. IAP retention scores tended to be lower in children than adults, especially in the setting of mental retardation. Retention scores after ipsilateral injection were > 60% in all 10 of the children with at least borderline intelligence, but children with mental retardation. Retention scores after contralateral injection were > 60% in only four of 12 children. Our results suggested that a modified pediatric IAP protocol can clarify the hemisphere of language dominance in most verbal preadolescent children with at least borderline intelligence, and in many children with mental retardation. However, IAP memory retention scores tended to be lower in children than adults and should be interpreted with caution. PMID:8223420

  2. A comparison of propofol and amobarbital for use in the Wada test.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Magee, James A

    2012-06-01

    129 Wada procedures were reviewed to examine the suitability of propofol (n=54) as a replacement to amobarbital (n=75) for use as an anaesthetic in the Wada test. Suitability was considered with respect to length of hemiplegia induced, the frequency of side effects and patient memory scores. Data was retrospectively collected from records of patients who had undergone the Wada procedure between 2004 and 2009 in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin. No significant differences were found between the two drugs on any of the measures. The results suggest that propofol represents a suitable alternative to amobarbital for use in the Wada procedure.

  3. Cerebral metabolic changes (F-18-FDG PET) during selective anterior temporal lobe amobarbital test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N; Hajek, M; Antonini, A; Maguire, P; Muller, S; Valavanis, A; Leenders, KL; Regard, M; Schiess, R; Wieser, HG

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral glucose utilisation using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET) was measured in 4 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy during a selective anterior temporal lobe (TL) amobarbital test (ATLAT) and compared with their baseline values. F-18-FDG was injected intrave

  4. The intracarotid amobarbital procedure (Wada test with two protocols combined, Montreal and Seattle Procedimentos do amobarbital intracarotideo (teste de Wada com dois protocolos combinados, Montreal e Seattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. M. Leite

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The intracarotid amobarbital procedure was carried out in 8 male and 7 female candidates to temporal lobectomy, and a female candidate to frontal lesionectomy, aged 18-50 (mean 32.5 years. Language and memory were tested after injection in each hemisphere. Both were measured by the Montreal procedure. In 9 patients language and memory were evaluated with the Seattle procedure too. In 12 patients the left hemisphere was dominant for language; three had bilateral dominance. In I patient the Seattle procedure demonstrated the dominant hemisphere by relatively slowness of speech during the drug effect in the left hemisphere. Memory was defined to be in the left hemisphere in 12 patients, in the right in 2, bilateral in 1 and in another lateralization was not possible. In 1 patient memory dominance was determined by the Montreal protocol alone because of lack of cooperation. These early results indicate that the methods may be complementary for determination of language and memory dominance in epilepsy surgery candidates.O testo do amobarbital intracarotídeo foi realizado em 8 homens e 7 mulheres candidatos a lobectomia temporal e em uma mulher candidata a lesionectomia frontal, com idades de 18-50 (média 32,5 anos. Linguagem e memória foram testadas após a injeção do amobarbial em cada hemisfério cerebral. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados pelo método de Montreal e 9 também pelo método de Seattle. Em 12 pacientes o hemisfério cerebral esquerdo foi dominante para linguagem e em 3 pacientes houve dominância bilateral. Em uma paciente a linguagem foi determinada apenas através do método de Seattle, com lentificação relativa da fal a, sob ação da droga no hemisfério cerebral esquerdo. Dominância da memória à esquerda foi observada em 12 pacientes, à direita em 2, bilateral em 1 e em outro não foi lateralizada. Dominância da memória foi definida apenas através do método de Montreal em um paciente, devido à pouca coopera

  5. A case report of a Wada test after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections: Pathophysiology of confusion after amobarbital injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Landazuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialepsis is defined as a predominant alteration of consciousness with preservation of motor tone and the ability to perform movements. While dialepsis is a common feature of both focal and generalized epilepsies, its precise symptomatogenic zone and pathogenesis remain undefined. This case report describes a patient who underwent intracarotid amobarbital procedures before and after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections. From our observations, we propose a possible pathogenesis for the generation of dialeptic seizures.

  6. Cerebral amobarbital sodium distribution during Wada testing: utility of digital subtraction angiography and single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to determine if the cerebral distribution of anesthetic during Wada testing is reflected by findings on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and if the findings on these studies are relevant to the outcome of the Wada test. We carried out selective internal carotid artery (ICA) DSA on 29 patients underwent studies prior to a Wada test. In patients without angiographic cross-filling, amobarbital and a radiotracer were injected into each ICA, beginning with the epileptogenic side. In patients with cross-filling, the ICA ipsilateral to the epileptogenic focus was injected with amobarbital and radiotracer while other was injected with amobarbital alone. We analyzed the DSA studies for cross-filling and filling of the posterior cerebral arteries (PCA). We reviewed the SPECT for activity in the territories of the anterior, middle cerebral, and posterior cerebral arteries. We compared the results of both studies with the success or failure of the neuropsychological portion of the Wada test. In 20 patients without cross-filling, the results of DSA and SPECT were comparable: symmetrical hemisphere activity was seen. In nine patients with cross-filling, SPECT showed bilateral, almost symmetrical activity. Filling or nonfilling of the PCA correlated with activity (or lack of it) in the medial temporal and occipital regions in all patients. The Wada test was considered successful in all patients. The findings on SPECT did not alter interpretation of the Wada test and we suggest that it may not be needed in all patients undergoing Wada testing. (orig.)

  7. Cerebral amobarbital sodium distribution during Wada testing: utility of digital subtraction angiography and single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, M.; Mukherji, S.K.; McCartney, W.H. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2000-11-01

    We aimed to determine if the cerebral distribution of anesthetic during Wada testing is reflected by findings on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and if the findings on these studies are relevant to the outcome of the Wada test. We carried out selective internal carotid artery (ICA) DSA on 29 patients underwent studies prior to a Wada test. In patients without angiographic cross-filling, amobarbital and a radiotracer were injected into each ICA, beginning with the epileptogenic side. In patients with cross-filling, the ICA ipsilateral to the epileptogenic focus was injected with amobarbital and radiotracer while other was injected with amobarbital alone. We analyzed the DSA studies for cross-filling and filling of the posterior cerebral arteries (PCA). We reviewed the SPECT for activity in the territories of the anterior, middle cerebral, and posterior cerebral arteries. We compared the results of both studies with the success or failure of the neuropsychological portion of the Wada test. In 20 patients without cross-filling, the results of DSA and SPECT were comparable: symmetrical hemisphere activity was seen. In nine patients with cross-filling, SPECT showed bilateral, almost symmetrical activity. Filling or nonfilling of the PCA correlated with activity (or lack of it) in the medial temporal and occipital regions in all patients. The Wada test was considered successful in all patients. The findings on SPECT did not alter interpretation of the Wada test and we suggest that it may not be needed in all patients undergoing Wada testing. (orig.)

  8. The Contribution of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to the Presurgical Assessment of Language Function in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anne; Beland, Renee; Lassonde, Maryse

    2012-01-01

    Before performing neurosurgery, an exhaustive presurgical assessment is required, usually including an investigation of language cerebral lateralization. Among the available procedures, the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT) was formerly the most widely used. However, this procedure has many limitations: it is invasive and potentially traumatic,…

  9. In silico Molecular Docking of Lavandula Angustifolia Mill’s compounds along with a number of antianxiety Drugs with GABAA receptor for reduce stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi Babaheydari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available GABAA receptor is hetero-oligomeric Cl- channel that is elective blocked by the alkaloid bicuculline and modulated by steroids, barbiturates and benzodiazepines. The anticonvulsant activity of Diazepam, Amobarbital and Phenobarbital may be mediated in Section by enhancement of inhibition involving y-aminobutyric acid (GABA. Lavender is one of the maximum effective medicinal plants various therapeutic effects of lavender, so as sedative, spasmolytic, antiviral, and antibacterial activities have been reportage. The molecular docking analyses done indicate the highly and effectively interactions between GABA and the Lavandula angustifolia Mill compounds. Ligand Lavandula angustifolia Mill compounds with GABAA are safer and milder with fewer or no side effects than the drugs currently used in the remedy of lessening high Stress which can be better for the development of new therapeutics to blocked GABAA lessening stress. Results confirm all the Lavandula angustifolia Mill compounds were good binding energy when compared with the binging energies of Diazepam, Amobarbital and Phenobarbital.

  10. Effect of hypernatremia on injury caused by energy deficiency: role of T-type Ca2+ channel

    OpenAIRE

    Pastukh, Viktor; Chen, Hairu; Wu, Songwei; Jong, Chian Ju; Alexeyev, Mikhail; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2010-01-01

    Hypernatremia exerts multiple cellular effects, many of which could influence the outcome of an ischemic event. To further evaluate these effects of hypernatremia, isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes were chronically incubated with medium containing either normal (142 mM) or elevated sodium (167 mM) and then transferred to medium containing deoxyglucose and the electron transport chain inhibitor amobarbital. Chronic hypernatremia diminished the degree of calcium accumulation and reactive oxygen ...

  11. Reversible blockade of complex I or inhibition of PKCβ reduces activation and mitochondria translocation of p66Shc to preserve cardiac function after ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Yang

    Full Text Available AIM: Excess mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS play a vital role in cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR injury. P66Shc, a splice variant of the ShcA adaptor protein family, enhances mROS production by oxidizing reduced cytochrome c to yield H2O2. Ablation of p66Shc protects against IR injury, but it is unknown if and when p66Shc is activated during cardiac ischemia and/or reperfusion and if attenuating complex I electron transfer or deactivating PKCβ alters p66Shc activation during IR is associated with cardioprotection. METHODS: Isolated guinea pig hearts were perfused and subjected to increasing periods of ischemia and reperfusion with or without amobarbital, a complex I blocker, or hispidin, a PKCβ inhibitor. Phosphorylation of p66Shc at serine 36 and levels of p66Shc in mitochondria and cytosol were measured. Cardiac functional variables and redox states were monitored online before, during and after ischemia. Infarct size was assessed in some hearts after 120 min reperfusion. RESULTS: Phosphorylation of p66Shc and its translocation into mitochondria increased during reperfusion after 20 and 30 min ischemia, but not during ischemia only, or during 5 or 10 min ischemia followed by 20 min reperfusion. Correspondingly, cytosolic p66Shc levels decreased during these ischemia and reperfusion periods. Amobarbital or hispidin reduced phosphorylation of p66Shc and its mitochondrial translocation induced by 30 min ischemia and 20 min reperfusion. Decreased phosphorylation of p66Shc by amobarbital or hispidin led to better functional recovery and less infarction during reperfusion. CONCLUSION: Our results show that IR activates p66Shc and that reversible blockade of electron transfer from complex I, or inhibition of PKCβ activation, decreases p66Shc activation and translocation and reduces IR damage. These observations support a novel potential therapeutic intervention against cardiac IR injury.

  12. Determination of language lateralization using functional MRI during the performance of shiritori tasks in neurosurgery patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito [Mihara Memorial Hospital, Isesaki, Gunma (Japan); Sugishita, Morihiro; Onozuka, Satoshi; Kawase, Takeshi

    2001-03-01

    Assessment of language lateralization is crucial in patients considered for neurological surgery. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) in conjunction with shiritori, a kind of word-generation task as paradigms, to determine language lateralization in the patients. We used a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging devise with an echo-planar imaging sequence. Thirty-two patients undergoing neurological surgery would alternately rest and silently perform shiritori during fMRI acquisition. Language lateralization was determined in 29 out of 32 patients. Twenty-two patients were considered as left-hemisphere dominant and seven were right-hemisphere dominant. Brain activation was seen in the prefrontal area, premotor area, superior temporal gyrus and parietal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, which is consistent with the results in normal adults. Language lateralization was particularly useful in a case of meningioma in the left lateral ventricle and in a case of AVM in the left temporoparietal region. fMRI with shiritori tasks revealed right-hemisphere dominance in both cases, which was also confirmed by intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) testing. Both lesions were treated successfully without causing any further deficit to the patients' language function. These results suggest that fMRI with shiritori tasks can be used to assess language lateralization non-invasively, compared with the current techniques, such as intracarotid amobarbital testing and cortical electrostimulation mapping. Thus, fMRI with shiritori tasks has significant clinical potential as a presurgical evaluation tool. (author)

  13. The clinical value of clonazepam in the wada test%氯硝西泮在Wada试验中的临床价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛峰; 庄进学; 陈登奎; 周昌贵; 朱明霞; 陶传元; 宋朝理; 邓聪颖; 张炜

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨氯硝西泮在Wada试验中的临床应用价值.方法 回顾分析我科自2006年7月至2010年6月,准备外科治疗的106例难治性颞叶癫痫患者,用氯硝西泮替代异戊巴比妥行Wada试验.结果 106例病人均未出现明显不良反应,测试后30分钟到60分钟均基本恢复到测试前意识水平.101例通过测试者行前颞叶切除术,其中3例术后出现短暂语言迟钝,经观察脱水治疗3~7天后逐渐恢复,其余病人术后均未出现明显的语言障碍及记忆功能缺失.结论 氯硝西泮在有效性、安全性上均达到临床用药要求,可以替代异戊巴比妥应用于Wada试验.%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of clonazepam replacing amobarbital in Wada test. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of one hundred and six patients with medically intractable temporal epilepsy from July 2006 to June 2010 in our medical facility who underwent Wada test with clonazepam instead of amobarbital. Results There were no significant side effects in the 106 patients. After 30~60 minutes, all patients regained their pre— test conscious level. 101 cases of them passed the test and underwent anterior temporal lobecto-my. Except for three cases with temporary language barrier, the rest recovered without obvious a-phasia and amnesia. Conclusion Clonazepam can meet the clinical demands with regard to drug efficacy and safety in Wada test which is a suitable alternative to amobarbital.

  14. Cardioprotection by modulation of mitochondrial respiration during ischemia–reperfusion: Role of apoptosis-inducing factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Blockade of electron transport prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria during IR. •Blockade of electron transport decreases caspase-independent cell death during IR. •Mitochondrial AIF content is down-regulated in Harlequin mice. •Blockade of electron transport protects Harlequin mouse hearts during IR. •Amobarbital protection is partially dependent on mitochondrial AIF content. -- Abstract: The transient, reversible blockade of electron transport (BET) during ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion protects mitochondria and decreases cardiac injury. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space. A release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol and nucleus triggers caspase-independent cell death. We asked if BET prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria as a mechanism of protection in the buffer perfused heart. BET during ischemia with amobarbital, a rapidly reversible inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, attenuated a release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol, in turn decreasing the formation of cleaved and activated PARP-1. These results suggest that BET-mediated protection may occur through prevention of the loss of AIF from mitochondria during ischemia–reperfusion. In order to further clarify the role of mitochondrial AIF in BET-mediated protection, Harlequin (Hq) mice, a genetic model with mitochondrial AIF deficiency, were used to test whether BET could still decrease cell injury in Hq mouse hearts during reperfusion. BET during ischemia protected Hq mouse hearts against ischemia–reperfusion injury and improved mitochondrial function in these hearts during reperfusion. Thus, cardiac injury can still be decreased in the presence of down-regulated mitochondrial AIF content. Taken together, BET during ischemia protects both hearts with normal mitochondrial AIF content and hearts with mitochondrial AIF deficiency. Although preservation of mitochondrial AIF content plays a key role in

  15. Cardioprotection by modulation of mitochondrial respiration during ischemia–reperfusion: Role of apoptosis-inducing factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Aijun [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Szczepanek, Karol; Hu, Ying [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Lesnefsky, Edward J. [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); McGuire Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23249 (United States); Chen, Qun, E-mail: qchen8@vcu.edu [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Blockade of electron transport prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria during IR. •Blockade of electron transport decreases caspase-independent cell death during IR. •Mitochondrial AIF content is down-regulated in Harlequin mice. •Blockade of electron transport protects Harlequin mouse hearts during IR. •Amobarbital protection is partially dependent on mitochondrial AIF content. -- Abstract: The transient, reversible blockade of electron transport (BET) during ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion protects mitochondria and decreases cardiac injury. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space. A release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol and nucleus triggers caspase-independent cell death. We asked if BET prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria as a mechanism of protection in the buffer perfused heart. BET during ischemia with amobarbital, a rapidly reversible inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, attenuated a release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol, in turn decreasing the formation of cleaved and activated PARP-1. These results suggest that BET-mediated protection may occur through prevention of the loss of AIF from mitochondria during ischemia–reperfusion. In order to further clarify the role of mitochondrial AIF in BET-mediated protection, Harlequin (Hq) mice, a genetic model with mitochondrial AIF deficiency, were used to test whether BET could still decrease cell injury in Hq mouse hearts during reperfusion. BET during ischemia protected Hq mouse hearts against ischemia–reperfusion injury and improved mitochondrial function in these hearts during reperfusion. Thus, cardiac injury can still be decreased in the presence of down-regulated mitochondrial AIF content. Taken together, BET during ischemia protects both hearts with normal mitochondrial AIF content and hearts with mitochondrial AIF deficiency. Although preservation of mitochondrial AIF content plays a key role in

  16. Drugs and taste aversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondeau, D.B.; Jolicoeur, F.B.; Merkel, A.D.; Wayner, M.J.

    The literature on the effects of drugs on the acquisition and the magnitude of taste aversion is reviewed and discussed. Then, the results of a series of experiments on the effects of phenobarbital and related drugs on taste aversion are reported. A standard taste aversion model was used in all experiments; test drugs were injected prior to drinking in a one bottle situation on the first test day following the taste aversion treatment. Phenobarbital in doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/kg significantly attenuated taste aversion induced by lithium chloride (LiCl) and x-radiation, the maximal effect occurred with the 60 mg/kg dose. The attenuating effect was found to be dependent upon the magnitude of the aversion to the sapid solution. Phenobarbital completely abolished aversion produced by 0.375 mEq LiCl while the attenuation effect decreased linearly with higher doses of LiCl. Results also indicate that phenobarbital's attenuating effect cannot be solely attributed to its dipsogenic characteristic or to its state dependent learning effect. Attenuation of LiCl aversion to a saccharin solution was also observed following single doses of amobarbital, 30 mg/kg, pentobarbital, 15 mg/kg, and chloropromazine, 0.75 mg/kg. Taste aversion was not affected by other doses of those drugs or by hexobarbital, barbital, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital's attenuating effect on taste aversion is discussed in relation to other known behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the drug.

  17. Effectiveness of four different clinical fMRI paradigms for preoperative regional determination of language lateralization in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has demonstrated its capability to provide comparable results to gold standard intracarotid sodium amobarbital (Wada) testing for preoperative determination of language hemispheric dominance. However, thus far, no consensus has been established regarding which fMRI paradigms are the most effective for the determination of hemispheric language lateralization in specific categories of patients and specific regions of interest (ROIs). Forty-one brain tumor patients who performed four different language tasks - rhyming (R), silent word generation (SWG) sentence completion, and sentence listening comprehension (LC) - for presurgical language mapping by fMRI were included in this study. A statistical threshold-independent lateralization index (LI) was calculated and compared among the paradigms in four different ROIs for language activation: functional Broca's (BA) and Wernicke's areas (WA) as well as larger anatomically defined expressive (EA) and receptive (RA) areas. The two expressive paradigms evaluated in this study are very good lateralizing tasks in expressive language areas; specifically, a significantly higher mean LI value was noted for SWG (0.36 ± 0.25) compared to LC (0.16 ± 0.24, p = 0.009) and for R (0.40 ± 0.22) compared to LC (0.16 ± 0.24, p = 0.001) in BA. SWG LI (0.28 ± 0.19) was higher than LC LI (0.12 ± 0.16, p = 0.01) also in EA. No significant differences in LI were found among these paradigms in WA or RA. SWG and R are sufficient for the determination of lateralization in expressive language areas, whereas new semantic or receptive paradigms need to be designed for an improved assessment of lateralization in receptive language areas. (orig.)

  18. A study of the risk of mental retardation among children of pregnant women who have attempted suicide by means of a drug overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to estimate the effect on the fetal development of high doses of prescription drugs taken as a suicide attempt during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant women were identified among self-poisoned females in the toxicological inpatient clinic in Budapest between 1960 and 1993. Congenital abnormalities, intrauterine development based on birth weight and post-conceptional age, mental retardation, cognitive-behavioral status were compared in exposed children born to mothers who had attempted suicide by means of a drug overdose during pregnancy with their siblings, born either before or after the affected pregnancy, as sib controls. RESULTS: Of a total of 1 044 pregnant women, 74 used the combination of amobarbital, glutethimide and promethazine (Tardyl®, one of the most popular drugs for treatment of insomnia in Hungary for suicide attempt. Of these 74 women, 27 delivered live-born babies. The mean dose of Tardyl® used for suicide attempts was 24 times the usually prescribed clinical dose. The rate of congenital abnormalities and intrauterine retardation was not higher in exposed children than in their sib controls. However, of the 27 exposed children, eight (29.6% were mentally retarded (Χ21=79.7, p= Sig while mental retardation did not occur among 46 sib controls. These exposed children were born to mothers who attempted suicide with Tardyl® between the 14th and 20th post-conceptional weeks. The components of Tardyl® used separately for a suicide attempt during pregnancy were not associated with a higher risk of mental retardation. Therefore the high doses of Tardyl® associated with the high risk for mental retardation may be due to the interaction of its three drug components. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study showed that the high doses of a drug containing three components may be associated with a significantly increased risk for mental retardation without any structural defects, whereas each of these

  19. Topiramate and its effect on fMRI of language in patients with right or left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Allendorfer, Jane B

    2012-05-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is well recognized for its negative effects on cognition, language performance and lateralization results on the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP). But, the effects of TPM on functional MRI (fMRI) of language and the fMRI signals are less clear. Functional MRI is increasingly used for presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients in place of IAP for language lateralization. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess the effects of TPM on fMRI signals. In this study, we included 8 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) and 8 with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) taking TPM (+TPM). Matched to them for age, handedness and side of seizure onset were 8 patients with RTLE and 8 with LTLE not taking TPM (-TPM). Matched for age and handedness to the patients with TLE were 32 healthy controls. The fMRI paradigm involved semantic decision/tone decision task (in-scanner behavioral data were collected). All epilepsy patients received a standard neuropsychological language battery. One sample t-tests were performed within each group to assess task-specific activations. Functional MRI data random-effects analysis was performed to determine significant group activation differences and to assess the effect of TPM dose on task activation. Direct group comparisons of fMRI, language and demographic data between patients with R/L TLE +TPM vs. -TPM and the analysis of the effects of TPM on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal were performed. Groups were matched for age, handedness and, within the R/L TLE groups, for the age of epilepsy onset/duration and the number of AEDs/TPM dose. The in-scanner language performance of patients was worse when compared to healthy controls - all pTPM vs. -TPM showed significant fMRI signal differences between groups (increases in left cingulate gyrus and decreases in left superior temporal gyrus in the patients with LTLE +TPM; increases in the right BA 10 and left visual cortex and decreases in the left BA

  20. Determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics in human plasma using pulse splitless injection technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry%脉冲不分流进样气相色谱-质谱法分析血浆中的10种镇静催眠药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常青; 马虹英; 王方杰; 欧红莲; 邹明

    2011-01-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS ) method coupled with pulse splitless injection technique was developed for the determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics ( barbital, amobarbital, phenobarbital, oxazepam, diazepam, nitraze-pam, clonazepam, estazolam, alprazolam, triazolam ) in human plasma. The drugs spiked in plasma were extracted with ethyl acetate after alkalization with 0. 1 mol/L NaOH solution. The organic solvent was evaporated under nitrogen stream, and the residues were redissolved by ethyl acetate. The separation was performed on an HP-5MS column ( 30 m × 250 μm × 0. 25 μm ). The analytes were determined and identified using selected ion monitoring ( SIM ) mode and scan mode, respectively. The internal standard method was used for the determination. The target analytes were well separated from each other on their SIM chromatograms and also on the total ion current ( TIC ) chromatograms. The blank extract from human plasma gave no peaks that interfered with all the analytes on the chromatogram. The calibration curves for 10 sedative-hypnotics showed excellent linearity. The correlation coefficients of all the drugs were higher than 0. 995 4. The recoveries of the drugs spiked in human plasma ranged from 92. 28% to 111. 7%, and the relative standard deviations ( RSDs ) of intra-day and inter-day determina-tions were from 4. 09% to 14. 26%. The detection limits ranged from 2 to 20 μg/L. The method is simple, reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination and the quantification of 10 seda-tive-hypnotics in human plasma and seems to be useful in the practice of clinical toxicological cases.%采用脉冲不分流进样技术建立了血浆中10种镇静催眠药(巴比妥、异戊巴比妥、苯巴比妥、奥沙西泮、地西泮、硝西泮、氯硝西泮、艾司唑仑、阿普唑仑、三唑仑)的气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)快速定性定量分析方法.血浆样品经0.1 mol/L 氢氧化钠溶液碱化后,

  1. Nrf2-ARE通路在缺血后处理和吡那地尔后处理减轻大鼠离体心脏缺血再灌注损伤中的作用%Role of nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2-antioxidant response element pathway in cardio-protection by ischemic or pinacidil postconditioning against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海英; 杨义辉; 喻田; 刘兴奎

    2012-01-01

    intraperitoneal amobarbital sodium.The isolated rat hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus with Krebs-Hensleit buffer (K-H).Fifty-six isolated rat hearts with I/R injury were randomly divided into 7 groups ( n =8 each):normal control group (group C) ; group I/R; group IP and group PP1-4 postconditioning with 4 different concentrations of pinacidil.After 20 min of equilibration,the perfusion was suspended for 40 min (global ischemia) followed by 60 min of reperfusion in group I/R.In group IP after 40 min of global ischemia,the isolated hearts underwent 6 cycles of 10 s reperfusion and 10 s ischemia followed by 58 min of reperfusion.In group PP1-4 at the end of 40 min of global ischemia,the isolated hearts were perfused with K-H containing pinacidil 5,10,30 and 50μmol/L for 5 min respectively followed by 55 min reperfusion with regular K-H.Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and LVEDP were measured immediately before global ischemia and at the end of 60 min reperfusion.Myocardial specimens were obtained at the end of reperfusion for detection of Nrf2,quinopeoxidoreductase (NQO1),HO-1 and SOD1 mRNA (by RT-PCR) and protein (by Western blot) expression.Results I/R significantly up-regulated Nrf2,NQO1,HO-1 and SODI mRNA and protein expression,decreased LVDP and increased LVEDP in group I/R as compared with group C.IP and 30,50 μmol/L pinacidil postconditioning further significantly increased Nrf2,NQO1,HO-1 and SOD1 mRNA and protein expression and IP,5,10,30,50 μmol/L pinacidil postconditioning significantly increased LVDP and decreased LVEDP as compared with group I/R.Conclusion Ischemic or pinacidil postconditioning can attenuate I/R injury by activating Nrf2-ARE pathway in isolated rat hearts.

  2. 高压氧防止创伤/失血性休克复苏后大鼠肠道缺血-再灌注损伤%Hyperbaric oxygen prevents intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats after resuscitation from traumatic/hemorrhagic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金立方; 王为成; 王钢

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察高压氧(HBO)对创伤/失血性休克复苏后大鼠肠道缺血-再灌注损伤的保护作用并探讨其作用机制.方法Wistar大鼠用铁块砸击左侧股骨并同时通过右颈动脉放血建立创伤/失血性休克模型,随后进行自体血和液体复苏.大鼠随机分成对照组、休克组、HBO一次和三次治疗组.结果 复苏24 h后HBO一次和三次组大鼠肠道组织乳酸含量、诱生型一氧化氮合成酶(iN0s)活性、一氧化氮(NO)和肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)水平均明显低于休克组(P0.05).结论HBO可以减少创伤性休克后肠道组织炎性细胞因子的产生,减轻炎症反应,保护肠道组织和黏膜屏障免受创伤/失血性休克后缺血/再灌注的损伤.%Objective To investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on ischemia/repeffusion (Ⅰ/R) injury of the small intestine after resuscitation from trauma and hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) in rats in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Method Ninety-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups with 24 rats in each group. In shock group, rats were operated with induced T/HS. In sham group, rats operated without induced T/HS. In one HBO therapy (HBOT) group, rats with T/HS were treated with HBOT once. In three-HBOT group, rats with T/HS were treated with HBOT thrice. The Animal Care and Use Committee of China Medical University approved all animal protocols. Rats were anesthetized with amobarbital sodium (80 mg/kg, i.p.) at room temperature (25 ℃), the bloed pressure was monitored via polyethylene cannula inserted into the right femoral artery, connecting with the pressure analyzer (Multiparameter Monitor, M3046A, Boebin-gen, Germany). The left jugular vein was cannulated for administering normal saline and for resuscitation. The right carotid artery was cannulated for shedding blood. After operation, the middle part of left thigh of rat was se-lected as a site to be made of trauma by a lump of 2.5 kg iron