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Sample records for amobarbital

  1. A comparison of propofol and amobarbital for use in the Wada test.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Magee, James A

    2012-06-01

    129 Wada procedures were reviewed to examine the suitability of propofol (n=54) as a replacement to amobarbital (n=75) for use as an anaesthetic in the Wada test. Suitability was considered with respect to length of hemiplegia induced, the frequency of side effects and patient memory scores. Data was retrospectively collected from records of patients who had undergone the Wada procedure between 2004 and 2009 in Beaumont Hospital, Dublin. No significant differences were found between the two drugs on any of the measures. The results suggest that propofol represents a suitable alternative to amobarbital for use in the Wada procedure.

  2. The intracarotid amobarbital procedure (Wada test with two protocols combined, Montreal and Seattle Procedimentos do amobarbital intracarotideo (teste de Wada com dois protocolos combinados, Montreal e Seattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. M. Leite

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The intracarotid amobarbital procedure was carried out in 8 male and 7 female candidates to temporal lobectomy, and a female candidate to frontal lesionectomy, aged 18-50 (mean 32.5 years. Language and memory were tested after injection in each hemisphere. Both were measured by the Montreal procedure. In 9 patients language and memory were evaluated with the Seattle procedure too. In 12 patients the left hemisphere was dominant for language; three had bilateral dominance. In I patient the Seattle procedure demonstrated the dominant hemisphere by relatively slowness of speech during the drug effect in the left hemisphere. Memory was defined to be in the left hemisphere in 12 patients, in the right in 2, bilateral in 1 and in another lateralization was not possible. In 1 patient memory dominance was determined by the Montreal protocol alone because of lack of cooperation. These early results indicate that the methods may be complementary for determination of language and memory dominance in epilepsy surgery candidates.O testo do amobarbital intracarotídeo foi realizado em 8 homens e 7 mulheres candidatos a lobectomia temporal e em uma mulher candidata a lesionectomia frontal, com idades de 18-50 (média 32,5 anos. Linguagem e memória foram testadas após a injeção do amobarbial em cada hemisfério cerebral. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados pelo método de Montreal e 9 também pelo método de Seattle. Em 12 pacientes o hemisfério cerebral esquerdo foi dominante para linguagem e em 3 pacientes houve dominância bilateral. Em uma paciente a linguagem foi determinada apenas através do método de Seattle, com lentificação relativa da fal a, sob ação da droga no hemisfério cerebral esquerdo. Dominância da memória à esquerda foi observada em 12 pacientes, à direita em 2, bilateral em 1 e em outro não foi lateralizada. Dominância da memória foi definida apenas através do método de Montreal em um paciente, devido à pouca coopera

  3. A case report of a Wada test after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections: Pathophysiology of confusion after amobarbital injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Landazuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialepsis is defined as a predominant alteration of consciousness with preservation of motor tone and the ability to perform movements. While dialepsis is a common feature of both focal and generalized epilepsies, its precise symptomatogenic zone and pathogenesis remain undefined. This case report describes a patient who underwent intracarotid amobarbital procedures before and after dominant hemisphere multiple hippocampal transections. From our observations, we propose a possible pathogenesis for the generation of dialeptic seizures.

  4. 76 FR 77254 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... (1631) II Methylphenidate (1724) II Amobarbital (2125) II Pentobarbital (2270) II Glutethimide (2550) II... National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) for research activities. Comments and requests for hearings...

  5. Preparation and application of a novel amobarbital electrochemical sensor based on Ni nanoparticles modified glassy carbon and CuO nanoparticles doping%纳米镍修饰的氧化铜掺杂的异戊巴比妥电化学传感器制备与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄学艺; 余会成; 韦贻春; 李浩; 雷福厚; 谭学才; 米丹丹; 吴海鹰

    2015-01-01

    先将合成的纳米镍修饰裸玻碳电极,再在修饰电极表面热聚合一种以甲基丙烯酸为功能单体、马来松香丙烯酸乙二醇酯为交联剂、纳米氧化铜掺杂的异戊巴比妥分子印迹敏感膜.研究了印迹电极的最佳成膜条件及其最佳实验条件.采用循环伏安法(CV)和电化学交流阻抗法(EIS)对印迹传感器的电化学性能进行表征.使用红外光谱和扫描电镜分别探究此印迹敏感膜的结构及表面形貌.在最佳实验条件下,以K3Fe(CN)6为分子探针的差分脉冲伏安法(DPV)峰电流响应值与异戊巴比妥的浓度在6.5×10-8~1.8×10-4 mol/L范围内呈现良好的线性关系(线性相关系数R=0.9986);检出限为1.1×10-9 mol/L(S/N=3).传感器能用于猪肉中残留异戊巴比妥的检测,加标回收率在96.5% ~ 103.2%之间.

  6. Epilepsy Surgery for Individuals with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Epilepsy Surgery for Individuals with TSC Epilepsy is a ... This is a cerebral angiogram, performed by a neuro-radiologist who injects a medication (sodium amobarbital) that ...

  7. 75 FR 79404 - Controlled Substances: Established Initial Aggregate Production Quotas for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine, amobarbital, cathinone, dimethyltryptamine...-oxide 602 g Diethyltryptamine 2 g Difenoxin 3,000 g Dihydromorphine 3,608,000 g Dimethyltryptamine 7...

  8. The Contribution of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to the Presurgical Assessment of Language Function in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anne; Beland, Renee; Lassonde, Maryse

    2012-01-01

    Before performing neurosurgery, an exhaustive presurgical assessment is required, usually including an investigation of language cerebral lateralization. Among the available procedures, the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT) was formerly the most widely used. However, this procedure has many limitations: it is invasive and potentially traumatic,…

  9. The synthesis of 5-(1- sup 11 C)ethyl barbiturates from labelled malonic esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, A.; Laangstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of ({sup 11}C)phenobarbital, ({sup 11}C)pentobarbital and({sup 11}C)amobarbital labelled in the 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl position is reported. The malonic esters R- CH(CO{sub 2}Et){sub 2} R phenyl-, 1-methylbutyl-, and 3- methylbutyl- were alkylated with (1-{sup 11}C)ethyl iodide prepared from ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide. Ring closure of the 2-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-labelled malonic esters with urea afforded 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-phenobarbital,-phenobarbital, -pentobarbital and -amobarbital synthesis times of 42-47 min, counted from ({sup 11}C) carbon dioxide. In typical syntheses starting with 3 GBq pentobarbitol and (81 mCi) ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide, 150-215 MBq (4-6 mCi) were produced in 25-30% decay corrected -amobarbital radiochemical yields with radiochemical purities greater than 98%. (author).

  10. Reversible blockade of complex I or inhibition of PKCβ reduces activation and mitochondria translocation of p66Shc to preserve cardiac function after ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Yang

    Full Text Available AIM: Excess mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS play a vital role in cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR injury. P66Shc, a splice variant of the ShcA adaptor protein family, enhances mROS production by oxidizing reduced cytochrome c to yield H2O2. Ablation of p66Shc protects against IR injury, but it is unknown if and when p66Shc is activated during cardiac ischemia and/or reperfusion and if attenuating complex I electron transfer or deactivating PKCβ alters p66Shc activation during IR is associated with cardioprotection. METHODS: Isolated guinea pig hearts were perfused and subjected to increasing periods of ischemia and reperfusion with or without amobarbital, a complex I blocker, or hispidin, a PKCβ inhibitor. Phosphorylation of p66Shc at serine 36 and levels of p66Shc in mitochondria and cytosol were measured. Cardiac functional variables and redox states were monitored online before, during and after ischemia. Infarct size was assessed in some hearts after 120 min reperfusion. RESULTS: Phosphorylation of p66Shc and its translocation into mitochondria increased during reperfusion after 20 and 30 min ischemia, but not during ischemia only, or during 5 or 10 min ischemia followed by 20 min reperfusion. Correspondingly, cytosolic p66Shc levels decreased during these ischemia and reperfusion periods. Amobarbital or hispidin reduced phosphorylation of p66Shc and its mitochondrial translocation induced by 30 min ischemia and 20 min reperfusion. Decreased phosphorylation of p66Shc by amobarbital or hispidin led to better functional recovery and less infarction during reperfusion. CONCLUSION: Our results show that IR activates p66Shc and that reversible blockade of electron transfer from complex I, or inhibition of PKCβ activation, decreases p66Shc activation and translocation and reduces IR damage. These observations support a novel potential therapeutic intervention against cardiac IR injury.

  11. Determination of language lateralization using functional MRI during the performance of shiritori tasks in neurosurgery patients

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    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito [Mihara Memorial Hospital, Isesaki, Gunma (Japan); Sugishita, Morihiro; Onozuka, Satoshi; Kawase, Takeshi

    2001-03-01

    Assessment of language lateralization is crucial in patients considered for neurological surgery. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) in conjunction with shiritori, a kind of word-generation task as paradigms, to determine language lateralization in the patients. We used a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging devise with an echo-planar imaging sequence. Thirty-two patients undergoing neurological surgery would alternately rest and silently perform shiritori during fMRI acquisition. Language lateralization was determined in 29 out of 32 patients. Twenty-two patients were considered as left-hemisphere dominant and seven were right-hemisphere dominant. Brain activation was seen in the prefrontal area, premotor area, superior temporal gyrus and parietal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, which is consistent with the results in normal adults. Language lateralization was particularly useful in a case of meningioma in the left lateral ventricle and in a case of AVM in the left temporoparietal region. fMRI with shiritori tasks revealed right-hemisphere dominance in both cases, which was also confirmed by intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) testing. Both lesions were treated successfully without causing any further deficit to the patients' language function. These results suggest that fMRI with shiritori tasks can be used to assess language lateralization non-invasively, compared with the current techniques, such as intracarotid amobarbital testing and cortical electrostimulation mapping. Thus, fMRI with shiritori tasks has significant clinical potential as a presurgical evaluation tool. (author)

  12. Neuroradiological methods and findings on presurgical evaluation of epileptic children. Neuroradiologische Methoden und Befunde vor epilepsiechirurgischen Eingriffen im Kindesalter

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    Ostertun, B.; Elger, C.E. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Epileptologische Klinik); Solymosi, L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik/Neuroradiologie); Kurthen, M; Schramm, J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik)

    1993-04-01

    Epilepsy in childhood is often caused by morphological abnormalities and is frequently pharmacoresistant. Therefore it represents a challenge to the neuroradiologist because early and accurate diagnosis of abnormal morphology is the basis for planning surgical intervention with a high change of controlling seizures and a low risk of complications. Both morphological (radiography, CT, MRI and angiography) and functional examinations [intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT)] are essential parts of the presurgical evaluation. In most cases MRI has proved to be most sensitive in detecting lesions except for some calcifications. Routine protocols for brain examinations are not sufficient, missing about 22% of lesions. Therefore a refined MRI and CT protocol is proposed. Even in very young children IAT can be performed at very low risk; these tests contribute highly valuable information about hemispheric dominance and other functions in more than 80% of procedures that is indispensable if postoperative neurological and neuropsychological deficits are to be avoided. (orig.).

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy as a cause of visual loss during assessment for epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehusmann, Pitt; Surges, Rainer; von Wrede, Randi D; Elger, Christian E; Wellmer, Jörg; Reimann, Jens; Urbach, Horst; Vielhaber, Stefan; Bien, Christian G; Kunz, Wolfram S

    2011-01-01

    Assessment for epilepsy surgery may require invasive measures such as implantation of intracranial electrodes or the Wada test. These investigations are commonly well tolerated. However, complications, including visual disturbances of various etiologies, have been reported. Here we describe two patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who displayed loss of vision in the context of presurgical assessment and in whom mutations associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) were detected. Genetic analysis revealed in one patient the frequent mitochondrial G11778A LHON mutation in ND4. In the second patient, the mitochondrial C4640A mutation in ND2 was detected. This rare LHON mutation enhanced the sensitivity of the patient's muscle and brain tissue to amobarbital, a known blocker of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in epilepsy. Thus, the presence of LHON mutations can be a rare cause of visual disturbances in patients with epilepsy and may have predisposed to development of epilepsy.

  14. Cardioprotection by modulation of mitochondrial respiration during ischemia–reperfusion: Role of apoptosis-inducing factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Aijun [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Szczepanek, Karol; Hu, Ying [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Lesnefsky, Edward J. [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States); McGuire Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23249 (United States); Chen, Qun, E-mail: qchen8@vcu.edu [Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298 (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Blockade of electron transport prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria during IR. •Blockade of electron transport decreases caspase-independent cell death during IR. •Mitochondrial AIF content is down-regulated in Harlequin mice. •Blockade of electron transport protects Harlequin mouse hearts during IR. •Amobarbital protection is partially dependent on mitochondrial AIF content. -- Abstract: The transient, reversible blockade of electron transport (BET) during ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion protects mitochondria and decreases cardiac injury. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space. A release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol and nucleus triggers caspase-independent cell death. We asked if BET prevents the loss of AIF from mitochondria as a mechanism of protection in the buffer perfused heart. BET during ischemia with amobarbital, a rapidly reversible inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, attenuated a release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol, in turn decreasing the formation of cleaved and activated PARP-1. These results suggest that BET-mediated protection may occur through prevention of the loss of AIF from mitochondria during ischemia–reperfusion. In order to further clarify the role of mitochondrial AIF in BET-mediated protection, Harlequin (Hq) mice, a genetic model with mitochondrial AIF deficiency, were used to test whether BET could still decrease cell injury in Hq mouse hearts during reperfusion. BET during ischemia protected Hq mouse hearts against ischemia–reperfusion injury and improved mitochondrial function in these hearts during reperfusion. Thus, cardiac injury can still be decreased in the presence of down-regulated mitochondrial AIF content. Taken together, BET during ischemia protects both hearts with normal mitochondrial AIF content and hearts with mitochondrial AIF deficiency. Although preservation of mitochondrial AIF content plays a key role in

  15. Epilepsy surgery without invasive EEG: early results of a new program Cirurgia de epilepsia sem EEG invasivo: resultados preliminares de um novo programa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. M. de Bittencourt

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 42 patients were submitted to a clinical, behavioural and neuropsychological evaluation with the objective of eventual surgical treatment of epilepsy refractory to the usual clinical therapies. Prolonged video-EEG monitoring, MRI hippocampal volume measurement, lateralization of speech and memory using the amobarbital (Wada test were used. Of 18 operated cases, 12 were submitted to temporal lobectomy, with a follow-up of 6-30 months; 8 patients had significant improvement in seizures control; 2 patients had partial improvement in seizure frequency and intensity; 2 patients had no improvement in seizure control. One patient underwent right frontal lobectomy with total remission of seizures and 5 had callosotomy with varying degrees of success. There was no mortality. Morbidity included one subdural hematoma, one transient hemiparesis, one episode of mania, one lobar pneumonia and frequent immediately post-operative muscular tension headaches. These early results indicate good results of temporal lobectomy patients investigated through a non-invasive presurgical evaluation.No total, 42 pacientes foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, comportamental e neuropsicológica com o objetivo de eventual tratamento cirúrgico de epilepsia refratária aos tratamentos clínicos usuais. Monitorização de vídeo-EEG digital prolongado, avaliação do volume hipocampal por RM, lateralização de fala e memória pelo teste do Amobarbital (teste de Wada foram utilizados. Dos 18 pacientes operados 12 foram submetidos a lobectomia temporal, com seguimento de 6-30 meses (média 17 meses, sendo que 8 encontram-se com melhora significativa do controle de crises, 2 com melhora parcial e em 2 não foi observada mudança substancial na intensidade e frequência de crises. Uma paciente foi submetida a lobectomia frontal direita com remissão total de crises. Cinco pacientes foram submetidos a calosotomia com graus variáveis de sucesso. Não houve mortalidade

  16. Comprehensive presurgical functional MRI language evaluation in adult patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Holland, Scott K; Jacola, Lisa M; Lindsell, Christopher; Privitera, Michael D; Szaflarski, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the potential to replace the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP) in presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy. In this study, we compared fMRI verb generation (VG) and semantic decision/tone decision (SDTD) tasks and the IAP in their ability to localize language functions in patients with epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation. We enrolled 50 healthy controls to establish normal language activation patterns for VG and SDTD tasks at 3 or 4 T, and to design language regions of interest (ROIs) that were later applied to 38 patients with epilepsy (28 of 38 also underwent the IAP). We calculated laterality indices (LIs) for each task for each subject based on the ROIs, and we used general linear modeling to analyze the fMRI data. All healthy and epileptic subjects activated language areas with both fMRI tasks. We found significant correlations in language lateralization between the fMRI tasks (r=0.495, Planguage. In the general linear modeling, only the SDTD task significantly contributed to the determination of language lateralization in patients with epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation. Results indicate a moderate convergent validity between both fMRI language tasks and between IAP and fMRI tasks. The results of this study indicate that either of these fMRI tasks can be used for language lateralization in patients with epilepsy undergoing presurgical evaluation, but that the SDTD task is likely to provide more information regarding language lateralization than the VG task.

  17. Music and the brain. Lessons from brain diseases and some reflections on the "emotional" brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Heinz Gregor

    2003-11-01

    Studies are reviewed from the perspective of a neurologist and epileptologist interested in "music and the brain." At the neurocognitive level, deficits in pitch discrimination of patients with brain lesions and those during the intracarotid amobarbital test are outlined, because they show that the temporal lobe and, in particular, the right acoustic cortex are crucial. Hallucinations of music during epileptic seizures as well as the analysis of musicogenic epilepsy point to the same gross localization and lateralization. At the esthetic level, music theoretical concepts on the consonance-dissonance dichotomy and related EEG examinations are reported, which illustrate the importance of mesiolimbic temporal lobe structures for the pleasure that we might experience when listening to music. The complex interaction of many neuronal circuits and assemblies of both hemispheres in musical perception and performance is illustrated by musical analysis of a recording by an organ player who experienced a right temporal lobe seizure. This analysis revealed that the seizure-induced errors of the left hand were compensated with the right hand in a musically meaningful way.

  18. Isolating the segment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain responsible for mitochondrial damage during cardiac ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qun; Yin, Guotian; Stewart, Sarah; Hu, Ying [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Lesnefsky, Edward J., E-mail: edward.lesnefsky@va.gov [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Medical Service, Louis Stokes Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2010-07-09

    Ischemia damages the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), mediated in part by damage generated by the mitochondria themselves. Mitochondrial damage resulting from ischemia, in turn, leads to cardiac injury during reperfusion. The goal of the present study was to localize the segment of the ETC that produces the ischemic mitochondrial damage. We tested if blockade of the proximal ETC at complex I differed from blockade distal in the chain at cytochrome oxidase. Isolated rabbit hearts were perfused for 15 min followed by 30 min stop-flow ischemia at 37 {sup o}C. Amobarbital (2.5 mM) or azide (5 mM) was used to block proximal (complex I) or distal (cytochrome oxidase) sites in the ETC. Time control hearts were buffer-perfused for 45 min. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were isolated. Ischemia decreased cytochrome c content in SSM but not in IFM compared to time control. Blockade of electron transport at complex I preserved the cytochrome c content in SSM. In contrast, blockade of electron transport at cytochrome oxidase with azide did not retain cytochrome c in SSM during ischemia. Since blockade of electron transport at complex III also prevented cytochrome c loss during ischemia, the specific site that elicits mitochondrial damage during ischemia is likely located in the segment between complex III and cytochrome oxidase.

  19. Urine levels of drugs for which Triage DOA screening was positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Fumio

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between urine levels of target drugs of abuse for which Triage DOA gave positive results, as well as the cut-off levels for these drugs. Thirty-eight forensic urine samples positive for commonly abused drugs were involved. Of these samples, 12 were positive for barbiturates (BAR), 11 for benzodiazepines (BZO), 8 for opiates (OPI), 7 for amphetamines (AMP), and 4 for tricyclic antidepressants (TCA). In the BAR-positive urine samples, phenobarbital, amobarbital or barbital was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In the BZO-positive samples, diazepam, nordiazepam, triazolam, nitrazepam and/or midazolam was detected at concentrations lower than cut-off levels; in the triazolam-involved urine, alpha-hydroxytriazolam, a metabolite of triazolam, showed concentrations higher than cut-off level. In the AMP-positive samples, methamphetamine was detected at concentrations higher than cut-off level. Urine samples positive for OPI contained total dihydrocodeine, codeine or morphine at concentrations higher than cut-off levels. In TCA-positive samples, amitriptyline was detected at concentrations higher or lower than cut-off level, and clomipramine was detected at a concentration much lower than cut-off level. Metabolites of BZO and TCA, which are not typically analyzed by instrumental procedures, may cross-react to varying degrees with the antibodies used for Triage DOA.

  20. [Determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics in human plasma using pulse splitless injection technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Ma, Hongying; Wang, Fangjie; Ou, Honglian; Zou, Ming

    2011-11-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method coupled with pulse splitless injection technique was developed for the determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics (barbital, amobarbital, phenobarbital, oxazepam, diazepam, nitrazepam, clonazepam, estazolam, alprazolam, triazolam) in human plasma. The drugs spiked in plasma were extracted with ethyl acetate after alkalization with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. The organic solvent was evaporated under nitrogen stream, and the residues were redissolved by ethyl acetate. The separation was performed on an HP-5MS column (30 m x 250 microm x 0.25 microm). The analytes were determined and identified using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and scan mode, respectively. The internal standard method was used for the determination. The target analytes were well separated from each other on their SIM chromatograms and also on the total ion current (TIC) chromatograms. The blank extract from human plasma gave no peaks that interfered with all the analytes on the chromatogram. The calibration curves for 10 sedative-hypnotics showed excellent linearity. The correlation coefficients of all the drugs were higher than 0.9954. The recoveries of the drugs spiked in human plasma ranged from 92.28% to 111.7%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day determinations were from 4.09% to 14.26%. The detection limits ranged from 2 to 20 microg/L. The method is simple, reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination and the quantification of 10 sedative-hypnotics in human plasma and seems to be useful in the practice of clinical toxicological cases.

  1. Toxicological screening of human plasma by on-line SPE-HPLC-DAD: identification and quantification of acidic and neutral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mut, Ludmila; Grobosch, Thomas; Binscheck-Domaß, Torsten; Frenzel, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    A multi-analyte screening method for the quantification of 50 acidic/neutral drugs in human plasma based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE)-HPLC with photodiode array detection (DAD) was developed, validated and applied for clinical investigation. Acetone and methanol for protein precipitation, three different SPE materials (two electro-neutral, one strong anion-exchange, one weak cation-exchange) for on-line extraction, five HPLC-columns [one C18 (GeminiNX), two phenyl-hexyl (Gemini C6 -Phenyl, Kinetex Phenyl-Hexyl) and two pentafluorophenyl (LunaPFP(2), KinetexPFP)] for analytical separation were tested. For sample pre-treatment, acetone in the ratio 1:2 (plasma:acetone) showed a better baseline and fewer matrix peaks in the chromatogram than methanol. Only the strong anion-exchanger SPE cartridge (StrataX-A, pH 6) allowed the extraction of salicylic acid. Analytical separation was carried out on a Gemini C6 -Phenyl column (150 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) using gradient elution with acetonitrile-water 90:10 (v/v) and phosphate buffer (pH 2.3). Linear calibration curves with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9950/0.9910 were obtained for 46/four analytes. Additionally, this method allows the quantification of 23 analytes for therapeutic drug monitoring. Limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 (amobarbital) to 23 mg/L (salicylic acid). Inter-/intra-day precisions of quality control samples (low/high) were better than 13% and accuracy (bias) ranged from -14 to 10%. A computer-assisted database was created for automated detection of 223 analytes of toxicological interests. Four cases of multi-drug intoxications are presented.

  2. Topiramate and its effect on fMRI of language in patients with right or left temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Allendorfer, Jane B

    2012-05-01

    Topiramate (TPM) is well recognized for its negative effects on cognition, language performance and lateralization results on the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP). But, the effects of TPM on functional MRI (fMRI) of language and the fMRI signals are less clear. Functional MRI is increasingly used for presurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients in place of IAP for language lateralization. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess the effects of TPM on fMRI signals. In this study, we included 8 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) and 8 with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) taking TPM (+TPM). Matched to them for age, handedness and side of seizure onset were 8 patients with RTLE and 8 with LTLE not taking TPM (-TPM). Matched for age and handedness to the patients with TLE were 32 healthy controls. The fMRI paradigm involved semantic decision/tone decision task (in-scanner behavioral data were collected). All epilepsy patients received a standard neuropsychological language battery. One sample t-tests were performed within each group to assess task-specific activations. Functional MRI data random-effects analysis was performed to determine significant group activation differences and to assess the effect of TPM dose on task activation. Direct group comparisons of fMRI, language and demographic data between patients with R/L TLE +TPM vs. -TPM and the analysis of the effects of TPM on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal were performed. Groups were matched for age, handedness and, within the R/L TLE groups, for the age of epilepsy onset/duration and the number of AEDs/TPM dose. The in-scanner language performance of patients was worse when compared to healthy controls - all pTPM vs. -TPM showed significant fMRI signal differences between groups (increases in left cingulate gyrus and decreases in left superior temporal gyrus in the patients with LTLE +TPM; increases in the right BA 10 and left visual cortex and decreases in the left BA

  3. Determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics in human plasma using pulse splitless injection technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry%脉冲不分流进样气相色谱-质谱法分析血浆中的10种镇静催眠药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常青; 马虹英; 王方杰; 欧红莲; 邹明

    2011-01-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS ) method coupled with pulse splitless injection technique was developed for the determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics ( barbital, amobarbital, phenobarbital, oxazepam, diazepam, nitraze-pam, clonazepam, estazolam, alprazolam, triazolam ) in human plasma. The drugs spiked in plasma were extracted with ethyl acetate after alkalization with 0. 1 mol/L NaOH solution. The organic solvent was evaporated under nitrogen stream, and the residues were redissolved by ethyl acetate. The separation was performed on an HP-5MS column ( 30 m × 250 μm × 0. 25 μm ). The analytes were determined and identified using selected ion monitoring ( SIM ) mode and scan mode, respectively. The internal standard method was used for the determination. The target analytes were well separated from each other on their SIM chromatograms and also on the total ion current ( TIC ) chromatograms. The blank extract from human plasma gave no peaks that interfered with all the analytes on the chromatogram. The calibration curves for 10 sedative-hypnotics showed excellent linearity. The correlation coefficients of all the drugs were higher than 0. 995 4. The recoveries of the drugs spiked in human plasma ranged from 92. 28% to 111. 7%, and the relative standard deviations ( RSDs ) of intra-day and inter-day determina-tions were from 4. 09% to 14. 26%. The detection limits ranged from 2 to 20 μg/L. The method is simple, reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination and the quantification of 10 seda-tive-hypnotics in human plasma and seems to be useful in the practice of clinical toxicological cases.%采用脉冲不分流进样技术建立了血浆中10种镇静催眠药(巴比妥、异戊巴比妥、苯巴比妥、奥沙西泮、地西泮、硝西泮、氯硝西泮、艾司唑仑、阿普唑仑、三唑仑)的气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)快速定性定量分析方法.血浆样品经0.1 mol/L 氢氧化钠溶液碱化后,

  4. Nrf2-ARE通路在缺血后处理和吡那地尔后处理减轻大鼠离体心脏缺血再灌注损伤中的作用%Role of nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2-antioxidant response element pathway in cardio-protection by ischemic or pinacidil postconditioning against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海英; 杨义辉; 喻田; 刘兴奎

    2012-01-01

    intraperitoneal amobarbital sodium.The isolated rat hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus with Krebs-Hensleit buffer (K-H).Fifty-six isolated rat hearts with I/R injury were randomly divided into 7 groups ( n =8 each):normal control group (group C) ; group I/R; group IP and group PP1-4 postconditioning with 4 different concentrations of pinacidil.After 20 min of equilibration,the perfusion was suspended for 40 min (global ischemia) followed by 60 min of reperfusion in group I/R.In group IP after 40 min of global ischemia,the isolated hearts underwent 6 cycles of 10 s reperfusion and 10 s ischemia followed by 58 min of reperfusion.In group PP1-4 at the end of 40 min of global ischemia,the isolated hearts were perfused with K-H containing pinacidil 5,10,30 and 50μmol/L for 5 min respectively followed by 55 min reperfusion with regular K-H.Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and LVEDP were measured immediately before global ischemia and at the end of 60 min reperfusion.Myocardial specimens were obtained at the end of reperfusion for detection of Nrf2,quinopeoxidoreductase (NQO1),HO-1 and SOD1 mRNA (by RT-PCR) and protein (by Western blot) expression.Results I/R significantly up-regulated Nrf2,NQO1,HO-1 and SODI mRNA and protein expression,decreased LVDP and increased LVEDP in group I/R as compared with group C.IP and 30,50 μmol/L pinacidil postconditioning further significantly increased Nrf2,NQO1,HO-1 and SOD1 mRNA and protein expression and IP,5,10,30,50 μmol/L pinacidil postconditioning significantly increased LVDP and decreased LVEDP as compared with group I/R.Conclusion Ischemic or pinacidil postconditioning can attenuate I/R injury by activating Nrf2-ARE pathway in isolated rat hearts.