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Sample records for amniotic membrane transplantation

  1. Amniotic Membrane Transplantation

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    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The past decade has witnessed the revival of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT in ophthalmology. The importance of amniotic membrane lies in its ability to reduce inflammation and scarring, enhance epithelialization and wound healing, and in its antimicrobial properties. Amniotic membrane has recently been used as a substrate for culturing limbal stem cells for transplantation. It has also been used extensively in corneal conditions such as neurotrophic ulcers, persistent epithelial defects, shield ulcers, microbial keratitis, band keratopathy, bullous keratopathy, and following photorefractive keratectomy and chemical injuries. Other indications for AMT include ocular surface reconstruction surgery for conjunctival pathologies such as squamous neoplasia, pterygium, and symblepharon. In this review we describe the basic structure and properties of amniotic membrane, its preparation process and its applications in ophthalmology.

  1. Combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation as a prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty: case report

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    Paolo Capozzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if the use of combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT is a safe and effective prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft after penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Methods. We report the case of a 17 years old patient with a history of congenital glaucoma, trabeculectomy and multiple corneal graft rejections, presenting total limbal cell deficiency. To reduce the possibility of graft rejection in the left eye after a new PK, a two step procedure was performed. At first the patient underwent a combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft (LAT and AMT and then, 10 months later, a new PK. Results. During 12 months of follow-up, the corneal graft remained stable and smooth, with no sign of graft rejection. Conclusions. In our patient, the prophylactic use of LAT from HLA-matched donors and AMT before PK, may result in a better prognosis of corneal graft survival.

  2. Transplante de membrana amniótica associado ao transplante de conjuntiva autólogo no tratamento do pterígio primário Amniotic membrane transplantation associated with conjunctival autograft for primary pterygium treatment

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    Alessandra Guerra Daros Castellano

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a eficácia do transplante de membrana amniótica associada ao transplante de conjuntiva autólogo no tratamento do pterígio primário. MÉTODOS: Analisou-se prospectivamente 26 pacientes (14 mulheres e 12 homens com idade entre 20 e 60 anos, atendidos no ambulatório de oftalmologia do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba e que foram submetidos ao tratamento do pterígio primário com cirurgia de exérese do pterígio e uso de membrana amniótica associada ao transplante de conjuntiva autólogo, entre abril e novembro de 2001. Foram analisados: grau do pterígio, complicações pós-operatórias e recidivas. RESULTADOS: No pós-operatório 4 casos (15,38% tiveram complicações, nenhuma considerada séria, sendo a mais freqüente a retração do enxerto em 2 casos. No sexto mês após a cirurgia, 24 pacientes (92,3% obtiveram sucesso cirúrgico e 2 pacientes (7,69% tiveram recidiva corneana ou conjuntival. Dos pacientes que tiveram complicações, 50% sofreram recidiva do pterígio (PPURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation associated with conjunctival autograft in primary pterygium treatment. METHODS: We have analyzed, prospectively, 26 patients (14 women and 12 men, from 20 to 60 years old, examined at the Evangelic Hospital Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic. They were submitted to primary pterygium treatment with pterygium excision surgery, amniotic membrane transplantation and conjunctival autograft, from April to November, 2001. The evaluated aspects were: degree of pterygium, postoperative complications and recurrence. RESULTS: Four cases (15,38% showed complications, none of them considered serious, conjunctival graft contraction in 2 cases being the most frequent. After a follow-up of 6 months, 24 patients (92,3% had a successful result and 2 patients (7,69% had corneal or conjunctival recurrence. Among the patients with complications 50% presented pterygium recurrence (P

  3. Amniotic membrane allografts: development and clinical utility in ophthalmology

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    Rizzuti A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allison Rizzuti,1,2 Adam Goldenberg,1 Douglas R Lazzaro1,2 1SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 2Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA Abstract: Amniotic membrane, the innermost layer of the placenta, is a tissue that promotes epithelialization, while decreasing inflammation, neovascularization, and scarring. It is used in the surgical management of a wide variety of ophthalmic conditions where it functions as a graft or patch in ocular surface reconstruction. The development of new preservation techniques, as well as a sutureless amniotic membrane, has allowed for easier, in-office placement, without the disadvantages of an operating room procedure. The purpose of this review is to describe the historical development of amniotic membrane in ophthalmology and to describe its current clinical applications, particularly focusing on recent advances. Keywords: ocular surface, cornea, stem cells, prokera, allograft, patch, transplantation

  4. Tissue Banking in Malaysia-amniotic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim bin Mohamad; Norimah binti Yusof

    1991-01-01

    Burn treatment using amniotic membranes in some of our patients initiate our own tissue bank starting with a pilot project on procurement, processing and clinical application of irradiated amniotic membrane. The irradiation of amniotic membrane was made possible by the availability of cobalt source at the Nuclear Energy Agency (UTN). With the technical help from the Inter-national Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) we soon should be able to embark on bone bank to supply local surgeons. Thus the establishment of tissue bank at our institution will further enhance our programme which will include keratinocytes culture for burn, osteocytes culture for bone replacement as well as the use of animal skin for temporary coverage of open wounds

  5. Effectiveness of the radio sterilized amniotic membrane transplantation vs conjunctival auto graft implant in the pterygium surgery with intraoperative mitomycin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez Y, L.; Martinez P, M. E.; Vazquez M, L.

    2009-01-01

    At the present time the traditional surgical handling of the pterygium with conjunctival implant presents high frequency. In this work the obtained results of a controlled clinic practice blind double are presented of the period of December from 2008 to December 2009, realized in the Medical Unit of Ambulatory Attention 231 of the Mexican Institute of the Public Health located in Metepec, Mexico State, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and security of the alternative use of the radio sterilized amniotic membrane and intraoperative mitomycin C. For the study was included patients with diagnostic of primary nasal pterygium in one or both eyes, adults of both genus with an age range of 20 to 60 years, and was used radio sterilized amniotic membrane processed in the Bank of Radio Sterilized Tissues of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. (Author)

  6. Potential antitumor therapeutic strategies of human amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

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    Kang, N-H; Hwang, K-A; Kim, S U; Kim, Y-B; Hyun, S-H; Jeung, E-B; Choi, K-C

    2012-08-01

    As stem cells are capable of self-renewal and can generate differentiated progenies for organ development, they are considered as potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Along with this capacity, stem cells have the therapeutic potential for treating human diseases including cancers. According to the origins, stem cells are broadly classified into two types: embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells. In terms of differentiation potential, ESCs are pluripotent and adult stem cells are multipotent. Amnion, which is a membranous sac that contains the fetus and amniotic fluid and functions in protecting the developing embryo during gestation, is another stem cell source. Amnion-derived stem cells are classified as human amniotic membrane-derived epithelial stem cells, human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells. They are in an intermediate stage between pluripotent ESCs and lineage-restricted adult stem cells, non-tumorigenic, and contribute to low immunogenicity and anti-inflammation. Furthermore, they are easily available and do not cause any controversial issues in their recovery and applications. Not only are amnion-derived stem cells applicable in regenerative medicine, they have anticancer capacity. In non-engineered stem cells transplantation strategies, amnion-derived stem cells effectively target the tumor and suppressed the tumor growth by expressing cytotoxic cytokines. Additionally, they also have a potential as novel delivery vehicles transferring therapeutic genes to the cancer formation sites in gene-directed enzyme/prodrug combination therapy. Owing to their own advantageous properties, amnion-derived stem cells are emerging as a new candidate in anticancer therapy.

  7. Effect of Amniotic Membrane Combined with Ciprofloxacin in Curing the Primary Stages of Pseudomonal Keratitis

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    Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keratitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often resulted in severe corneal ulcers and perforation, which leads to losses of vision. Human amniotic membrane (HAM forms the inner wall of the membranous sac which surrounds and protects the embryo during gestation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the amniotic membrane's healing in rabbits with pseudomonas keratitis.Methods: In total 14 rabbits divided in 2 groups of: 1 as Control and 2 as experimental amniotic membrane combined with ciprofloxacin. A 0.05 ml suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was injected into rabbit’s corneal stroma, with no interference in control group. In the second group, the amniotic membrane in pieces of 1.5 × 1.5 cm transplanted to the entire corneal surface by eight interrupted 10.0 nylon sutures. In the first day ciprofloxacin drop was injected to the second group every 30 minutes and through second to seventh days every 2 hours. The results of perforation in cornea and the amount of infiltration were registered.Results: The results showed that amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT + ciprofloxacin group had 0% perforation and the control group 85.6%. Average infiltrations were 5 mm in AMT + ciprofloxacin groups and 23.75 mm in control.Conclusion: The use of amniotic membrane with ciprofloxacin was effective in prevention of cornea perforation and controlling the process of pseudomonal keratitis remission. The improvement of inflammation rapidly happened in ciprofloxacin + AMT group.

  8. Experience of Using Amniotic Membrane After Circumcision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjas, Menkher; Ismal; Efmansyah, Dody

    2002-01-01

    It is compulsory, for boys to undergone circumcision before getting adult in Moslem region. It can be done by General Surgeon, General Practitioner, Nurse, Midwife or Quack. The place to carry out the circumcision can be inside or outside hospital. The utmost problems are injections, point for secondary wound covering and delay of using underpants. To overcome those problem amniotic membranes can be used as wound covering, based on : they are soft, easy to shape wound surface, satisfactory adhesive properties, good elasticity and sufficient, transparency which allows wound control without redressing of the wound. From January until December 1999, 165 boys at an age between 6-10 years, which have been carried out circumcision, were evaluated. Radiation sterilized lyophilized amniotic membranes were used in this work as wound covering Result show that amniotic membrane gave a good result in wound healing. All the patients observed, showed early mobilization as well as early using underpants. There is no different result between circumcision which had been done either inside or out hospital, carried out by surgeon or non-surgeon

  9. Intrauterine Defensive Mechanism of Amniotic Fluid and Fetal Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    金山, 尚裕

    1994-01-01

    To determine the intrauterine defensive role of urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI), we studied the effects of UTI in amniotic fluid, fetal membranes and myometrium. The level of UTI was 94±34U/ml in neonatal urine (compared to adult urine 8.0±6.0U/ml) and 88±37U/ml in amniotic fluid. This may indicate that the main source of UTI in the amniotic fluid is the fetal urine. UTI was found to be concentrated in vernix, fetal intestine, amniotic membranes and uterine myometrium. Immunostaining of term ...

  10. Clinical analysis of amniotic membrane patches and grafts for acute ocular surface burn

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    Lin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect and value of amniotic membrane patches and grafts for acute ocular surface burn at different degrees.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 28 cases(28 eyesaffected by ocular chemical or thermal burn with different degree were included in our hospital from March 2007 to March 2012. Amniotic membrane patched was undergone in 13 eyes with fresh amnion that the patients corneal burns degree Ⅱ or Ⅲ with partial limbal buns at degree Ⅳ. Amniotic membrane grafts was performed in 15 eyes with fresh amnion that the patients all corneal burns at degree Ⅲ with the whole limbal necrosis without severe eyelid defect. The follow-up time ranged 6~24mo. The postoperative visual acuity, the condition of amniotic membrane transplant, renovation of cornea and complications were observed. RESULTS: Postoperative corrected visual acuity was improved in 20 eyes(71%, it was not changed in 5 eyes(18%, the visual acuity declined in 3 eyes(11%. The amniotic membrane survived in 23 eyes and the survival rate was up to 82%. The cornea of 4 eyes recovered to transparent, nebula emceed in 8 eyes eventually, corneal macula emerged in 10 eyes, 4 eyes ended up with leukoma, 2 eyes developed corneal melting after therapy, then received lamellar keratoplasty. Corneal surface become epithelization after amnion patches or grafts, but any of them have recurrent epithelial erosion, and become stable epithalization after repeat operation.CONCLUSION: Amniotic membrane patches and grafts is an effective method to deal with acute ocular surface burn.

  11. Application of Amniotic Membrane in Ocular Surface Diseases: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

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    Derya Cindarik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To investigate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation in cases with corneal thinning, desmatocele and refractive corneal ulcer. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients who were applied amniotic membrane transplantation for various ocular surface disease between January 2004 and February 2009 in Çukurova University Ophthalmology Department were included in the study. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed. Corneal culture and corneal cytology samples were collected from the patients with the diagnosis of corneal ulcers. The patients were informed about the surgical procedure and the possible complications and informed consent was obtained. The amniotic membranes that were prepared under optimal conditions and protected in frozen forms were used in the operations. Follow-up examinations were done at postoperative 1st day, 1st week, 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and then once in a year. Re sults: Of 54 patients, 26 (48.1% were men and 28 (51.8% were women. The mean age of patients was 52.53±19.75 (2-87 years. The cases were separated into 2 groups according to the etiology: group 1 - eyes with corneal ulcer (n:26 and group 2 - eyes with corneal stromal thinning, persistent epithelial defects and desmatocel (n:28. The transplantations were performed using cover technique in 17 eyes (31.4%, graft technique in 37 eyes (68.5% and graft technique with corneal patch in 2 eyes (3.7%. Partial penetrating keratoplasty was required in 38 of 54 eyes (70.3%. One eye was enucleated. Dis cus si on: The amniotic membrane transplantation has advantages like: it can be prepared easily and is cost-effective. It is a safe and effective procedure in ocular surface disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 177-82

  12. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

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    Wolbank, Susanne; van Griensven, Martijn; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja

    Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore, we have thoroughly characterized the effect of in vitro cultivation on both phenotype and differentiation potential of hAEC. Moreover, we present different strategies to improve expansion including replacement of animal-derived supplements by human platelet products or the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase to extend the in vitro lifespan of amniotic cells. Characterization of the resulting cultures includes phenotype, growth characteristics, and differentiation potential, as well as immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  13. Evaluation of RPE65, CRALBP, VEGF, CD68, and tyrosinase gene expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells cultured on amniotic membrane.

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    Akrami, Hassan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Khalooghi, Keynoush; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Kanavi, Mojgan Rezaie; Samiei, Shahram; Pakravesh, Jalil

    2011-06-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a key role in the maintenance of the normal functions of the retina. Tissue engineering using amniotic membrane as a substrate to culture RPE cells may provide a promising new strategy to replace damaged RPE. We established a method of culturing RPE cells over the amniotic membrane as a support for their growth and transplantation. The transcription of specific genes involved in cellular function of native RPE, including RPE65, CRALBP, VEGF, CD68, and tyrosinase, were then measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Data showed a considerable increase in transcription of RPE65, CD68, and VEGF in RPE cells cultured on amniotic membrane. The amounts of CRALBP and tyrosinase transcripts were not affected. This may simply indicate that amniotic membrane restricted dedifferentiation of RPE cells in culture. The results suggest that amniotic membrane may be considered as an elective biological substrate for RPE cell culture.

  14. Using Amniotic Membrane as Wound Covering After Cesarean Section Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjas, Menkher; Helmi, Helfial

    2002-01-01

    Early mobilization and good wound operation healing are the other aim of all treatment for cesarean section operation. Especially for wound healing we can use amniotic membrane which is soft, easy to shape wound surface, satisfactory adhesive properties, good elasticity and sufficient transparency which allows wound control without secondary redressing. From July 1999 until December 1999 total of 196 patients undergoing cesarean section with amnion as would covering were evaluated for injection of amnion, sign of wound injection, and duration of wound healing. Amniotic membrane gives best results in wound healing, no sing of rejection and there is no different results between emergency operation and elective operation, clean and dirty operation

  15. Transplante de células-tronco epiteliais límbicas alógenas expandidas ex vivo sobre membrana amniótica: relato de caso Transplantation of allogenic limbal epithelial stem cells cultivated ex vivo on amniotic membrane: case report

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    José Álvaro Pereira Gomes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Paciente apresentou falência de transplante de limbo e conjuntiva de doador vivo alógeno no olho direito após ceratoconjuntivite epidêmica. Após alguns meses, foi submetida a transplante de células-tronco epiteliais límbicas alógenas cultivadas ex vivo sobre membrana amniótica (primeiro caso no Brasil, tendo evoluído com epitelização total da córnea e melhora da acuidade visual. Após o 3º mês da cirurgia, iniciou-se neovascularização superficial periférica com piora da transparência corneana. A visão manteve-se 0,1 após um ano de cirurgia.Case report of a patient who developed failure of an allogenic living related conjunctival limbal transplantation in the right eye after an episode of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. After a few months, she underwent transplantation of allogenic limbal epithelial stem cells cultivated ex vivo on amniotic membrane (first case in Brazil. The patient evolved with total corneal epithelialization and improvement of the visual acuity. Three months after the surgery, peripheral superficial neovascularization with worsening of the corneal transparency was observed. The vision remained 0.1 after one year of the transplantation.

  16. Chitosan Cross-linked Reconstituted Amniotic Collagen Membrane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Chitosan Cross-linked Reconstituted Amniotic Collagen Membrane – An Excellent Cell Substratum. The KERATINOCYTE proliferation and Differentiation into multiple layers is due to the presence of type - IV collagen in the amnion. Cultured FIBROBLASTS had good ...

  17. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nogami, Makiko; Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori; Noto, Zenko; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  18. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  19. Radiosensitivity of angiogenic and mitogenic factors in human amniotic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deocaris, Custer C.; De Guzman, Zenaida M.; Deocaris, Chester C.; Jacinto, Sonia D.

    2003-01-01

    Amniotic membrane as a temporary biological dressing remains as a beneficial and cost-effective means of treating burns in developing countries. This medical application is attributed mainly to placental structural and biochemical features that are important for maintaining proper embryonic development. Since fresh amnions are nevertheless for straightforward clinical use and for preservation, radiation-sterilization is been performed to improve the safety of this placental material. However, like any other sterilization method, gamma-radiation may induce physical and chemical changes that may influence the biological property of the material. Thus, the aim of this study is to compare the effects of various levels of radiation-sterilization protocols for human amnions on angiogenic (neovascularization) and epithelial-mitogenic activities, both of which are physiological processes fundamental to wound healing. Water-soluble extract of non-irradiated amnions demonstrates a strong stimulatory effect on both cell proliferation and angiogenesis. No change in biological activity is seen in amnions irradiated at 25 kGy, the sterilization dose used by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) for the production of radiation-sterilized human amniotic membranes (RSHAM). However, it appears that amniotic angiogenic factors are more radiosensitive than its mitogenic components, evident from the depressed vascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) exposed to 35 kGy-irradiated amnions. The dose of 35 kGy is at present the medical sterilization dose used at the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw (Poland) for the preparation of their amnion allografts. (Authors)

  20. Use of amniotic membrane in ophthalmology surgery, first cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, P.; Ogrodnik, M.T.; Zarate, H; Silva, S.; Azocar, M.; Hitschfeld, M.

    2008-01-01

    The results obtained with the implant of amniotic membranes have propitiated their use in different medical fields.One of the most important barriers that have to be solved is the risk to transmit illness from donor to patient. A cooperative work between the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN) and the Complejo de Salud San Borja Arriaran (CSSBA) has been done to prepare the membranes with the main purpose of assuring the quality and effectiveness of the tissue, since the procurement to the moment that it is used as biological apposite. In the production of this radiation sterilized tissue, we have followed a strict protocol that considers selection criteria for each donor, obtainment and processing of each membrane in aseptic conditions including the washing steps, cutting,drying in laminar flow hood, packing and identification.This is followed by sterilization with gamma radiation,quality controls which include the count of colonies formation units and the assurance of sterility. The average size of each membrane was 2 x 2 cm. The membranes have been used in 57 patients since 2002 up to date on surgical procedures of ophthalmology specialty: 38 Pterigeon, 3 Recoverment of anophthalmic cavity, 4 Corneal perforations, 2 Sclera ulcers, 1 extirpation of a conjunctiva inclusion cyst and 1 Reconstruction of Lachrymal sac, with very good results

  1. A comparative study of different amniotic membrane orientations during extraocular muscle surgery in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Rehab Rashad; El-Mofty, Randa Mohamed Abdel-Moneim; Khodeir, Mustafa Mahmoud; Hamza, Wael Mostafa

    2018-03-01

    To histopathologically compare the effect of different orientations of cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (AM) transplant during extraocular muscle surgery in rabbits. Fifty-two albino rabbit eyes underwent 4-mm resection of the superior rectus. Eyes were randomly divided into four groups. In Group C (Control group, 16 eyes) the muscle was not wrapped with amniotic membrane. In the three AM groups, cryopreserved AM was wrapped around the muscle, oriented with either its stroma (Group S, 15 eyes) or epithelium (Group E, nine eyes) towards the muscle, or folded on itself with the epithelium externally (Group F, 12 eyes). The rabbits were sacrificed and the eyes were enucleated 6 weeks after surgery. Histopathological examination was conducted for periamniotic, foreign body, scleral, and conjunctival inflammation, conjunctival vascularity, adhesions and muscle fibrosis. In all AM eyes, the AM was surrounded by periamniotic inflammation, with no adhesions detected between the muscle and surrounding tissues in the segment where the AM was present, but detected elsewhere. Adhesions were detected in all group C eyes. Foreign body inflammation was significantly less in Group C than in each of the AM groups (p  .05). Scleral inflammation was absent in all specimens. No significant differences were noted among all groups in terms of conjunctival vascularity, conjunctival inflammation, or muscle fibrosis (p > .05). All AM orientations were equally effective in preventing the development of postoperative adhesions between the extraocular muscle and surrounding tissues.

  2. The effect of amniotic membrane extract on umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell expansion: is there any need to save the amniotic membrane besides the umbilical cord blood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Vojdani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Umbilical cord blood is a good source of the mesenchymal stem cells that can be banked, expanded and used in regenerative medicine.  The objective of this study was to test whether amniotic membrane extract, as a rich source of growth factors such as basic-fibroblast growth factor, can promote the proliferation potential of the umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. Materials and Methods: The study design was interventional. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from voluntary healthy infants from hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, cultured in the presence of basic-fibroblast growth factor and amniotic membrane extracts (from pooled - samples, and compared with control cultures. Proliferation assay was performed and duplication number and time were calculated. The expression of stem cell’s specific markers and the differentiation capacity toward osteogenic and adipogenic lineages were evaluated. Results: Amniotic membrane extract led to a significant increase in the proliferation rate and duplication number and a decrease in the duplication time without any change in the cell morphology. Both amniotic membrane extract and basic-fibroblast growth factor altered the expressing of CD44 and CD105 in cell population. Treating basic-fibroblast growth factor but not the amniotic membrane extract favored the differentiation potential of the stem cells toward osteogenic lineage. Conclusion: The amniotic membrane extract administration accelerated cell proliferation and modified the CD marker characteristics which may be due to the induction of differentiation toward a specific lineage.  Amniotic membrane extract may enhance the proliferation rate and duplication number of the stem cell through changing the duplication time.

  3. Bronchial stump closure with amniotic membrane in animal model

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    Gholamreza Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of the bronchial stumps (BSs with adjacent tissues can improve healing and reduce bronchial complications in complex thoracic surgery. There is no evidence for the application of human amnion allograft for prevention of air leak from the BS. The comparison of the amniotic membrane (AM and pleural patch for BS healing after lobectomy in dogs was our aim in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of eight males and females 12-24-month-old dogs between 17 and 22 kg body-weight were used in this study in 2010, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Animals were separated into two groups: group A (n = 4; amniotic membrane and group P (n = 4; pleural patch according to the BS closure technique performed. After lobectomy of the right middle lobe, the BS was closed, while a small bronchopleural fistula (BPF was created by inserting a catheter via edges of closed stump. Then, it was covered with a piece of AM3 × 3 cm in group A and with a pedicle graft of pleura in group P. Rethoracotomy was performed after 15 days of observation, and the BS was removed for histological examination. Histological healing was classified as complete or incomplete healing. Neoangiogenesis was measured by Von Willebrand expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using Fisher′s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and T tests. Results: BPF complications were not seen during observation period. There was no significant difference in histological healing between two groups. Similarly, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of neoangiogenesis based on IHC examination (P value = 0.69. Conclusion: Human amnion allograft could be as effective as pleural patch for BS wrapping following pulmonary resections.

  4. Developmental mechanisms of the tympanic membrane in mammals and non-mammalian amniotes.

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    Takechi, Masaki; Kitazawa, Taro; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Hirai, Tamami; Iseki, Sachiko; Kurihara, Hiroki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The tympanic membrane is a thin layer that originates from the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesenchyme. Molecular-genetic investigations have revealed that interaction between epithelial and mesenchymal cells in the pharyngeal arches is essential for development of the tympanic membrane. We have recently reported that developmental mechanisms underlying the tympanic membrane seem to be different between mouse and chicken, suggesting that the tympanic membrane evolved independently in mammals and non-mammalian amniotes. In this review, we summarize previous studies of tympanic membrane formation in the mouse. We also discuss its formation in amniotes from an evolutionary point of view. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  5. Construction and characterization of human oral mucosa equivalent using hyper-dry amniotic membrane as a matrix.

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    Qi, Fangfang; Yoshida, Toshiko; Koike, Takeshi; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Shimane, Tetsu; Li, Yinghui; Yamada, Shinichi; Okabe, Motonori; Nikaido, Toshio; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Human amniotic membrane(HAM) as a graft material has been used in various fields. Hyper-dry amniotic membrane (HD-AM) is a novel dried amniotic membrane that is easy to handle and can be preserved at room temperature without time limitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the useful properties of HD-AM in reconstruction of the oral mucosa. Human oral keratinocytes were isolated and seeded on HD-AM in serum-free culture system. Oral mucosa equivalent (OME) was developed and transplanted onto full-thickness wound on athymic mice. The wound healing was analyzed and the OME both before and after transplantation was analyzed with hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining for Cytokines 10 (CK10), Cytokines 16 (CK16), and Ivolucrin (IVL). Oral keratinocytes spread and proliferated well on HD-AM. Two weeks after air-lifting, OME had formed with good differentiation and morphology. We confirmed immunohistochemically that the expression of CK10 was positive in all suprabasal layers, as was CK16 in the upper layers, while IVL was present in all cell layers. Three weeks after transplantation to athymic mice, the newly generated tissue had survived well with the smallest contraction. The epithelial cells of newly generated tissue expressed CK10 throughout in all suprabasal layers, IVL was mainly in the granular layer, and CK16 positive cells were observed in all spinous layer and granular layer but were not expressed in the mouse skin, all of which were similar to native gingival mucosa. The OME with HD-AM as a matrix revealed a good morphology and stable wound healing. This study demonstrates that HD-AM is a useful and feasible biomaterial for oral mucosa reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment outcomes in the DRy Eye Amniotic Membrane (DREAM study

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    McDonald MB

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Marguerite B McDonald,1 Hosam Sheha,2–5 Sean Tighe,2,3 Susan B Janik,6 Frank W Bowden,7 Amit R Chokshi,8 Michael A Singer,9 Seema Nanda,10 Mujtaba A Qazi,11 Damon Dierker,12 Adam T Shupe,13 Brittany J McMurren14 1Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Lynbrook, NY, USA; 2Ocular Surface Center and TissueTech, Inc., Miami, FL, USA; 3Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 4Hofstra University School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY, USA; 5Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo, Egypt; 6Solinsky Eye Care, Kensington, CT, USA; 7Bowden Eye & Associates, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 8Florida Eye Specialists, Jacksonville, FL, USA; 9Medical Center Ophthalmology Associates, San Antonio, TX, USA; 10TX Eye Institute, Houston, TX, USA; 11Pepose Vision Institute, Chesterfield, MO, USA; 12Eye Surgeons of Indiana, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 13Royo Eye Care, Marysville, CA, USA; 14Gordon and Weiss Vision Institute, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of cryopreserved amniotic membrane (CAM in reducing signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED in a large patient population. Methods: A retrospective chart review at 10 clinical sites was done of patients with refractory DED who received CAM and completed at least 3 months of follow-up. Data collected were demographics; medical history including previous and current ocular treatment, diagnosis, clinical presentations, comorbidity, duration and frequency of treatment with CAM; and concomitant medications. The primary outcome was the change in dry eye workshop (DEWS score after treatment. Results: A total of 97 eyes of 84 patients exhibited severe dry eye despite maximal medical treatments including topical artificial tears, cyclosporine-A, serum, antibiotics, and steroids. Patients manifested with superficial punctate keratitis (86%, filamentary keratitis (13%, exposure keratitis (19%, neurotrophic keratitis (2%, and corneal epithelial defect (7%. After CAM

  7. Some biological properties of the human amniotic membrane interferon

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    P. C. P. Ferreira

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic interferon was investigated to define the species specificity of its antiviral action and compare its anti-cellular and NK cell stimulating activities with those of other human interferons. The antiviral effect was titrated in bovine (RV-IAL and monkey (VERO cells. Amniotic interferon exhibited, in bovine cells, 5% of the activity seen in monkey cells, while alpha interferon displayed 200%. No effect was detected with either beta or gamma interferon in bovine cells. Daudi cells were exposed to different concentrations of various interferons and the cell numbers were determined. The anticellular effect of the amniotic interferon reached its peak on the third day of incubation. Results suggested a higher activity for alpha and gamma interferons and a lower activity for beta when compared to amniotic interferon. Using total mononuclear cells as effector cells and K 562 as target cell in a 51Cr release assay, it was demonstrated that low concentrations of amniotic interferon consistently stimulated NK cell activity in cells derived from several donors, the results indicating a higher level of activity with this interferon than with alpha and beta interferons.

  8. Isolation and identification of java race amniotic membrane secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor gene

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    Elly Munadziroh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI has been found to facilitate epithelialization, maintain a normal epithelial phenotype, reduce inflammation, secrete growth factors such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, EGF, FGF, TGF, HGFand 2-microbulin. SLPI is serine protease inhibitor, which found in secretions such as whole saliva, seminal fluid, cervical mucus, synovial fluid, breast milk, tears, amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane. Impaired healing states are characterized by excessive proteolysis and oftenbacterial infection, leading to the hypothesis that SLPI may have a role in the healing process in oral inflammation and contributes to tissue repair in oral mucosa. The oral wound healing response is impaired in the SLPI sufficient mice since matrix synthesis and collagen deposition delayed. The objective of this research is to isolate and identify the amniotic membrane of Java Race SLPI Gene. Methods: SLPI RNA was isolated from Java Race amniotic membrane and the cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Result: Through sequence analyses, SLPI cDNA was 530 nucleotide in length with a predicted molecular mass about 12 kDa. The nucleotide sequence showed that human SLPI from sample was 98% identical with human SLPI from gene bank. PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA of SLPI was highly expressed in the amniotic membrane from Java Race sample. Conclusion: it is demonstrated that human SLPI are highly conserved in sequence content as compared to the human SLPI from gene.

  9. Engraftment of mouse amniotic fluid-derived progenitor cells after in utero transplantation in mice.

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    Lin, Kun-Yi; Peng, Shao-Yu; Chou, Chih-Jen; Wu, Chia-Chun; Wu, Shinn-Chih

    2015-11-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived progenitor cells (AFPCs) are oligopotent and shed from the fetus into the amniotic fluid. It was reported that AFPCs express stem cell-like markers and are capable of differentiating into specific cell type in in vitro experiments. However, no study has fully investigated the potentiality and destiny of these cells in in vivo experiments. Ds-red transgenic mice (on Day 13.5 of pregnancy) were transplanted in utero with enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled mouse AFPC (EGFP-mAFPCs). After birth, baby mice were euthanized at 3-week intervals beginning 3 weeks postnatally, and the specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction, histology, and flow cytometry. Our results demonstrate the transplantability of mAFPCs into all three germ layers and the potential of mAFPCs in the study of progenitor cell homing, differentiation, and function. Engraftment of EGFP-mAFPCs was detected in the intestine, kidney, muscle, skin, bladder, heart, stomach, etc., at 3 weeks after delivery. This model using EGFP-mAFPCs injected in utero may provide an ideal method for determining the fate of transplanted cells in recipients and these findings may justify a clinical trial of in utero transplantation during gestation for patients who have inherited genetic disorders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Assessment of amniotic and polyurethane membrane dressings in the treatment of burns.

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    Adly, O A; Moghazy, A M; Abbas, A H; Ellabban, A M; Ali, O S; Mohamed, B A

    2010-08-01

    As allograft and xenografts are not available in Islamic countries, amniotic membrane seems to be an effective alternative in the management of deep burns. Its proven bioactivities and modest price suggest that it might be superior to synthetic dressings. Forty-six patients were enrolled in this randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted in the Burn Unit at Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. All age groups and both gender were included in the study. Only patients with less than 50% total body surface area burned were included, thus minimizing the dropouts in both groups. All were either second or third degree. These patients were randomly assigned either to group I: amniotic membrane (Biomembrane) dressing, or group II: polyurethane membrane (Tegaderm) dressing. Those in group I demonstrated a significantly lower rate of infection and required less frequent dressing changes than those in group II. They also sustained less electrolyte and albumin loss. The rate of healing in the amniotic membrane group was significantly faster than in the polyurethane group. Furthermore, pain was significantly less when Biomembrane was used. Based on these findings, we recommend the use of lyophilized gamma-irradiated amniotic membrane as an effective alternative for allograft and xenografts in Islamic countries and the Jewish population.

  11. Evaluation of a dental pulp-derived cell sheet cultured on amniotic membrane substrate.

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    Honjo, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Adachi, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Takeshi; Mazda, Osam; Kanamura, Narisato; Kita, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are transplanted for periodontal tissue regeneration, and the periodontal ligament (PDL) is regenerated using a cultured cell sheet. This cultured cell sheet is prepared using PDL-derived cells, growth factors, and amniotic membrane (AM). Dental pulp (DP)-derived cells can be easily obtained from extracted wisdom teeth, proliferate rapidly, and are less susceptible to bacterial infection than PDL-derived cells. Thus, to prepare a novel cell sheet, DP-derived cells were cultured on AM as a culture substrate for immunohistochemical examination. Wisdom teeth extracted from three adults were cut along the cement-enamel border. DP tissue was collected, minced, and primarily cultured. After three or four passage cultures, DP-derived cells were cultured on AM, followed by hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) and immunofluorescence staining. DP-derived cells cultured on AM formed a layered structure. Cells positive for vimentin, Ki-67, ZO-1, desmoplakin, CD29, 44, 105 or 146, STRO-1, collagen IV or VII or laminin 5 or α5 chain were localized. DP-derived cells proliferated on AM, while retaining the properties of DP, which allowed the cultured cell sheet to be prepared. In addition, the cultured cell sheet contained MSC, which suggests its potential application in periodontal tissue regeneration.

  12. Biomechanical assays amniotic membrane preserved in glycerol correlating with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Fernando Augusto N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Martino Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2013-01-01

    Amnion or amniotic membranes (AM) are interchangeable terms used in the literature being internal part of the fetal membranes, non-vascular and multicellular tissue. The amnion has been widely used as a graft ophthalmic surgical as well as carrier substrate stem cell tissue equivalent for ocular surface reconstruction. The AM reduces scar formation and inflammation on the ocular surface, promotes epithelization also been used as a biological bandage covering the wound or burns, reducing dehydration and allowing regeneration of these areas. The amnion has usually 0.02 to 0.5 mm thick and consists of five subsequent layers: epithelium, basement membrane, compact layer, fibroblast layer and spongy layer. The mechanical strength from the membrane structure as well as the elasticity are factors attractive to the use of amnion as a surgical graft. Higher levels of rigidity and strength may improve the graft resistance necessary to resist the stress induced during growth of the new tissue formed. The amniotic membrane is obtained at elective caesarean section and subsequently, under sterile conditions, sectioned and separated from chorion and placenta, and free blood clots. The serological tests are done at the time of collection of tissue and 6 months after delivery to confirm the results. There are different methods for storing MA in tissue banks as fresh, high concentrations of glycerol, among others. The use of fresh membrane has some limitations due to the need to rapid use and high risk of contamination, however the amniotic membrane in glycerol has antiviral and antibacterial property which is dependent on the concentration, time and temperature. The AM used in transplants must be sterile to prevent the transmission of any disease. Although sterilization by radiation is an effective procedure, it can interfere on the membrane structure. Thus, verification of potential changes caused by ionizing radiation in amnion was made using the tensile test by calculating the

  13. Biomechanical assays amniotic membrane preserved in glycerol correlating with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG)

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    Soares, Fernando Augusto N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Martino Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: fernandonevessoares@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energetias Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Amnion or amniotic membranes (AM) are interchangeable terms used in the literature being internal part of the fetal membranes, non-vascular and multicellular tissue. The amnion has been widely used as a graft ophthalmic surgical as well as carrier substrate stem cell tissue equivalent for ocular surface reconstruction. The AM reduces scar formation and inflammation on the ocular surface, promotes epithelization also been used as a biological bandage covering the wound or burns, reducing dehydration and allowing regeneration of these areas. The amnion has usually 0.02 to 0.5 mm thick and consists of five subsequent layers: epithelium, basement membrane, compact layer, fibroblast layer and spongy layer. The mechanical strength from the membrane structure as well as the elasticity are factors attractive to the use of amnion as a surgical graft. Higher levels of rigidity and strength may improve the graft resistance necessary to resist the stress induced during growth of the new tissue formed. The amniotic membrane is obtained at elective caesarean section and subsequently, under sterile conditions, sectioned and separated from chorion and placenta, and free blood clots. The serological tests are done at the time of collection of tissue and 6 months after delivery to confirm the results. There are different methods for storing MA in tissue banks as fresh, high concentrations of glycerol, among others. The use of fresh membrane has some limitations due to the need to rapid use and high risk of contamination, however the amniotic membrane in glycerol has antiviral and antibacterial property which is dependent on the concentration, time and temperature. The AM used in transplants must be sterile to prevent the transmission of any disease. Although sterilization by radiation is an effective procedure, it can interfere on the membrane structure. Thus, verification of potential changes caused by ionizing radiation in amnion was made using the tensile test by calculating the

  14. Use of hyperdry amniotic membrane in operations for cleft palate: a study in rats.

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    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Makoto; Okabe, Motonori; Tomihara, Kei; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nikaido, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    The growth of maxillary bone and the development of dentition are often impaired in patients who have had pushback operations for repair of a cleft palate. There has been considerable discussion about the most suitable technique or material used in such repairs to resolve the problem. Hyperdry amniotic membrane, a new preservable material derived from human amnion, has recently been introduced in several procedures. We have evaluated its use during pushback surgery in animal studies to try to correct the inhibition of growth and development of the maxilla. Mucosal defects were created in 3-week-old rats, and then covered with hyperdry amniotic membrane or not. Healing was assessed by histological and morphological examination at 1 week and 7 weeks postoperatively. In the group treated with hyperdry amniotic membrane, submucosal tissue was reconstructed successfully during the early postoperative period. Lateral palatal growth was not inhibited as much, and medial inclination of the teeth was less, after a period of growth using this material. The results suggest that hyperdry amniotic membrane is a suitable new dressing material for use in the treatment of cleft palate. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of the Human Amniotic Membrane on Liver Regeneration in Rats

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    Mesut Sipahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Operations are performed for broader liver surgery indications for a better understanding of hepatic anatomy/physiology and developments in operation technology. Surgery can cure some patients with liver metastasis of some tumors. Nevertheless, postoperative liver failure is the most feared complication causing mortality in patients who have undergone excision of a large liver mass. The human amniotic membrane has regenerative effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of the human amniotic membrane on regeneration of the resected liver. Methods. Twenty female Wistar albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups and underwent a 70% hepatectomy. The human amniotic membrane was placed over the residual liver in the experimental group. Relative liver weight, histopathological features, and biochemical parameters were assessed on postoperative day 3. Results. Total protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. No difference in relative liver weight was observed between the groups. Hepatocyte mitotic count was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Hepatic steatosis was detected in the experimental group. Conclusion. Applying the amniotic membrane to residual liver adversely affected liver regeneration. However, mesenchymal stem cell research has the potential to accelerate liver regeneration investigations.

  16. Human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation improves endometrial regeneration in rodent models of intrauterine adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lu; Duan, Hua; Xu, Qian; Tang, Yi-Qun; Li, Jin-Jiao; Sun, Fu-Qing; Wang, Sha

    2017-05-01

    Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is a common uterine cavity disease characterized by the unsatisfactory regeneration of damaged endometria. Recently, stem cell transplantation has been proposed to promote the recovery process. Here we investigated whether human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs), a valuable resource for transplantation therapy, could improve endometrial regeneration in rodent IUA models. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: normal, sham-operated, mechanical injury, hAMSC transplantation, and negative control group. One week after intervention and transplantation, histological analyses were performed, and immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical expression of cell-specific markers and messenger RNA expression of cytokines were measured. Thicker endometria, increased gland numbers and fewer fibrotic areas were found in the hAMSC transplantation group compared with the mechanical injury group. Engraftment of hAMSCs was detected by the presence of anti-human nuclear antigen-positive cells in the endometrial glands of the transplantation uteri. Transplantation of hAMSCs significantly decreased messenger RNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), and increased those of anti-inflammatory cytokines (basic fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin-6) compared with the injured uterine horns. Immunohistochemical expression of endometrial epithelial cells was revealed in specimens after hAMSC transplantation, whereas it was absent in the mechanically injured uteri. hAMSC transplantation promotes endometrial regeneration after injury in IUA rat models, possibly due to immunomodulatory properties. These cells provide a more easily accessible source of stem cells for future research into the impact of cell transplantation on damaged endometria. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Annexin A2 in amniotic fluid: correlation with histological chorioamnionitis, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and subsequent preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Fumihiko; Ina, Shihomi; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Yoshio, Hiroyuki; Mimura, Kazuya; Saito, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether amniotic fluid levels of annexin A2, a phospholipid-binding protein that is abundant in amnion and regulates fibrin homeostasis, are associated with histological chorioamnionitis, preterm premature rupture of the membranes, and subsequent preterm delivery. Amniotic fluid was obtained from 55 pregnant women with preterm labor and/or preterm premature rupture of the membranes before 32weeks of gestation, and amniotic fluid levels of annexin A2 were measured with a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Amniotic fluid levels of annexin A2 in patients with histological chorioamnionitis was higher than that in the remainder (P=0.053), whereas amniotic fluid levels of annexin A2 in patients with preterm premature rupture of the membranes was significantly higher than that in the remainder (P=0.002). Amniotic levels of annexin A2 was a fair test (area under receiver-operator characteristic curve=0.679), and amniotic fluid levels of annexin A2>878.2ng/mL had a sensitivity of 68.8%, a specificity of 65.2%, a positive predictive value of 73.3%, and a negative predictive value of 60.0% for predicting delivery within 2weeks after amniotic fluid sampling. Furthermore, the combined use of amniotic fluid cut-off levels of 878.2ng/mL for annexin A2 and 13.3ng/mL for interleukin-8 improved the specificity (91.3%) and the positive predictive value (89.5%). We identified amniotic fluid levels of annexin A2, especially in combination with amniotic fluid levels of interleukin-8, as a novel predictive marker for preterm delivery. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Effectiveness of the radio sterilized amniotic membrane transplantation vs conjunctival auto graft implant in the pterygium surgery with intraoperative mitomycin C;Eficacia del trasplante de membrana amniotica radioesterilizada vs injerto autologo conjuntival en la cirugia de pterigion con mitocomina C intraoperatoria

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    Tellez Y, L.; Martinez P, M. E. [ININ, Banco de Tejidos Radioesterilizados, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez M, L. [Hospital General de Mexico, Departamento de Cornea, Dr. Balmis No. 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    At the present time the traditional surgical handling of the pterygium with conjunctival implant presents high frequency. In this work the obtained results of a controlled clinic practice blind double are presented of the period of December from 2008 to December 2009, realized in the Medical Unit of Ambulatory Attention 231 of the Mexican Institute of the Public Health located in Metepec, Mexico State, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and security of the alternative use of the radio sterilized amniotic membrane and intraoperative mitomycin C. For the study was included patients with diagnostic of primary nasal pterygium in one or both eyes, adults of both genus with an age range of 20 to 60 years, and was used radio sterilized amniotic membrane processed in the Bank of Radio Sterilized Tissues of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. (Author)

  19. Retrospective analysis of the use of amniotic membranes and xenografts in spinal surgery and anterior cranial fossa operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafri Malim Abdullah

    1999-01-01

    To determine the suitability of amniotic membrane an bovine bone xenografts for the use in spinal surgery and anterior cranial for a generations. Fifteen patients with anterior cranial fossa defects and spinal bone fractures received bovine bone xenografts and 10 patients with meningomyeloceles received amniotic membranes (produced by the Malaysian National Tissue Bank) were analysed retrospectively. Clinical criterias like fever, signs of inflammation, breakdown of graft implant, non specific reaction to the nervous tissue were analysed haematological and radiologically. All patients who received the bovine grafts and amniotic membranes did not show any evidence of inflammation or fever. There were no graft implant breakdowns. There was no radiological or clinical evidence of specific or non specific reaction to the nervous tissue after 12-36 months followup Amniotic membranes and bovine xenografts may be used in the healing and reconstruction of spinal and cranial defects. Despite no evidence of rejection and infection after 36 months, a long term followup is still needed

  20. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

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    Hua Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C 6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C 6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 10 6 cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C 6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  1. Bacterial contamination of amniotic membrane in a tissue bank from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Goodarzi, Parisa; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Larijani, Bagher; Moradabadi, Leila; Rahim, Fakher; Arjmand, Babak

    2013-09-01

    Human Amniotic Membrane (AM) transplantation can promote tissue healing and reduce inflammation, tissue scarring and neovascularization. Homa Peyvand Tamin (HPT) tissue bank has focused on manufacturing human cell and tissue based products including AM. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and identify bacterial contamination of AMs that is produced by HPT for several ophthalmic applications. From July 2006 to April 2011, 122 placentas from cesarean sections were retrieved by HPT after obtaining informed consent from the donors. Besides testing donor's blood sample for viral markers, microbiological evaluation was performed pre and post processing. During tissue processing, decontamination was performed by an antibiotic cocktail including; Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone and Cloxacillin. Of 271 cesarean section AM donors who were screened as potential donors, 122 were accepted for processing and assessed for microbiological contamination. Donors' age were between 21 and 41 years (Mean = 27.61 ± 0.24). More than 92% of mothers were in their first or second gravidity with full term pregnancies. The most prevalent organisms were Staphylococci species (72.53%). After processing, contamination rates markedly decreased by 84.62% (p value = 0.013). According to our results, most of bacterial contaminations were related to donation process and the contamination pattern suggests procurement team as a source. Therefore we recommend that regular training programs should be implemented by tissue banks for procurement staff. These programs should focus on improved donor screening and proper aseptic technique for tissue retrieval. We also suggest that tissue banks should periodically check the rate and types of tissue contaminations. These data help them to find system faults and to update processing methods.

  2. Resorbable and running suture for stable fixation of amniotic membrane multilayers: A useful modification in deep or perforating sterile corneal ulcers

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    Constantin E. Uhlig

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a modified technique for secure tightening and fixing of multilayer amniotic membranes in deep or perforating corneal ulcers. Observations: The modified procedure for application and fixation of multilayer amniotic membranes is retrospectively described step by step, and the results of three patients treated with this technique were retrospectively analysed and presented.The modification consists basically in fixing the inlays with one mini-overlay that is sutured intracorneally with resorbable and running Vicryl 10.0, before a corneoscleral overlay is fixed on top conjunctivally with a running nylon 10.0 suture. The resorbable Vicryl suture is left in place permanently. Conclusions and Importance: The method described avoids any risk of destroying or displacing the inlays by removing sutures later. In each of the three patients demonstrated as case reports the cornea remained stable throughout the 3- to 5-month follow-up period. This modified technique represents a very useful auxiliary means of treating deep or perforating non-infectious corneal ulcers. Keywords: Amniotic membrane transplantation, Corneal ulcer, Corneal perforation, Multilayer, Keratoplasty

  3. Periodontal disease and intra-amniotic complications in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radochova, Vladimira; Kacerovska Musilova, Ivana; Stepan, Martin; Vescicik, Peter; Slezak, Radovan; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-08-04

    Periodontal disease is frequently suggested as a possible causal factor for preterm delivery. The link between periodontal disease and preterm delivery is a possible translocation of periopathogenic bacteria to the placenta and amniotic fluid as well as a systemic response to this chronic inflammatory disease. However, there is a lack of information on whether there is an association between clinical periodontal status in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and the presence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI). Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of periodontal disease in women with PPROM. The secondary aim was to characterize an association between periodontal status and the presence of intra-amniotic PPROM complications (MIAC and/or IAI). Seventy-eight women with PPROM at gestational ages between 24 + 0 and 36 + 6 weeks were included in this study. The samples of amniotic fluid were obtained at admission via transabdominal amniocentesis, and amniotic fluid interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations were determined using a point-of-care test. All women had a full-mouth recording to determine the periodontal and oral hygiene status. Probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss were measured at four sites on each fully erupted tooth. In total, 45% (35/78) of women with PPROM had periodontal disease. Mild, moderate, and severe periodontal disease was present in 19% (15/78), 19% (15/78), and 6% (5/78) of women, respectively. The presence of MIAC and IAI was found in 28% (22/78) and 26% (20/78) of women, respectively. Periopathogenic bacteria (2 × Streptococcus intermedius and 1 × Fusobacterium nucleatum) was found in the amniotic fluid of 4% (3/78) of women. There were no differences in periodontal status between women with MIAC and/or IAI and women without these intra-amniotic complications. The presence of MIAC and IAI was not related

  4. Impact of application of bio-amniotic membrane immersed in 5-fluorouracil solution in trabeculectomy on rabbit retina

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    Chenming Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : To observe the impact of application of bio-amniotic membrane immersed in 5-fluorouracil solution in trabeculectomy on the retina in a rabbit model. Materials and Methods : Healthy white New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups with 20 in each group. Bio-amniotic membranes of 4 × 5 mm immersed in either physiological saline/water for 10 min, or 25 mg/mL 5-fluorouracil solution for 5 and 10 min, respectively, were applied on rabbit eyes during trabeculectomy. At 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of postoperation, five rabbits from each group were examined with electroretinogram (ERG. After being examined for eye pressure and bleb morphology, rabbits were sacrificed by air embolism and their retinas were collected and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In addition, 5-fluorouracil amount in bio-amniotic membranes was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Each bio-amniotic membrane could absorb 59.004 μg and 75.828 μg 5-fluorouracil after being immersed in 5-fluorouracil solution for 5 and 10 min, respectively. Application of these bio-amniotic membranes in trabeculectomy could promote the formation of well-functioning bleb and maintain intraocular pressure, although it had no effect on retina structures as examined with ERG and TEM. Conclusion: Application of 5-FU soaked bio-amniotic membrane in rabbit eye trabeculectomy is effective and safe.

  5. A Preliminary Study of Human Amniotic Membrane as a Potential Chondrocyte Carrier

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    L Boo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using processed human amniotic membrane (HAM to support the attachment and proliferation of chondrocytes in vitro which in turn can be utilised as a cell delivery vehicle in tissue engineering applications. METHODS: Fresh HAM obtained from patients undergoing routine elective caesarean sections was harvested, processed and dried using either freeze drying (FD or air drying (AD methods prior to sterilisation by gamma irradiation. Isolated, processed and characterised rabbit autologous chondrocytes were seeded on processed HAM and cultured for up to three weeks. Cell attachment and proliferation were examined qualitatively using inverted brightfield microscopy. RESULTS: Processed HAM appeared to allow cell attachment when implanted with chondrocytes. Although cells seeded on AD and FD HAM did not appear to attach as strongly as those seeded on glycerol preserved intact human amniotic membrane, these cells to be proliferated in cell culture conditions. CONCLUSION: Preliminary results show that processed HAM promotes chondrocyte attachment and proliferation.

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation on glycerolated amniotic membranes as a substract for cultured human epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paggiaro, Andre Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is a biomaterial with biological properties that are beneficial to tissue repair. It has been used as a temporary coverage to threat burns and chronic wounds. Recently, it has been served as a substrate for keratinocytes culture to construct a living skin equivalent. However, MA is a biological material, and its transplantation could cause infectious disease for receptors. So, it must be preserved and sterilized before clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation effects on glycerol-preserved MA, considering its compatibility to support human keratinocytes culture. Four MA were stored in high concentrations of glycerol (> 85%) and half of them were radio sterilized with a dose of 25 kGy. Then, we established two groups: nonirradiated MA (MA-ni) and irradiated MA (MA-i). Both groups was deepithelialized by a standardized protocol and was investigated morphologically, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural. Subsequently human keratinocytes were cultivated immersed and in air-liquid interface on denuded surface of MA-i and MA-ni. The results were compared at 14 and 21 days of culture by light and electron microscopy. After epithelial denudation, analyses demonstrated the continuity of the basement membrane in MA-ni group, whereas in the irradiated group, there was no indication of the basement membrane’s presence on the surface of MA. The cell cultures showed that in the non-irradiated group, there was growth of a multi-layered and differentiated epithelium, with a stratum corneum’s formation in air-liquid interface. In the irradiated group, the epithelium had only two or three layer, little cell differentiation, with the same results immersed or air-liquid interface system. Glycerol-preserved MA was biocompatible with the growth of a cultivated epithelium, showing its potential as a skin substitute. Irradiation at 25 kGy cause structural damage to the tissue, making changes in basement membrane, that facilitates

  7. In vivo studies of antibacterial effect of human amniotic membrane use in treatment of burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zobiri, A.; Moussi, W.; Djeffal, A.; Larbi Daho Bachir, M.

    2001-01-01

    The present study consist to put in evidence one of essential characteristic of amniotic membrane in occurrence the antibacterial effect. The article describes a study which compared the microbiological and clinical results of the application of freeze-dried gamma sterilized amniotic membrane with that of the conventional treatment(flamazine, greased gauze), in 100 patients with intermediate burns and deep burns with small surface, the bacterial population of various types of microorganisms was well controlled using quantitative bacterial culture techniques, immediately after accident, during treatment and at the last of treatment. The bacterial counts were significantly diminished mean of 10 4 UFC/cm2 to mean of 10 3 UFC/cm2, after 4 days in no infected burns and mean of 10 6 UFC/cm2 to mean of 10 3 UFC/cm2, after 5 days in infected burns, the same reduction was registered after 16 to 25 days with the conventional treatment. It is concluded that use of amniotic membrane control infection, minimize pain and promote wound healing

  8. Microbiological viability of bovine amniotic membrane stored in glycerin 99% at room temperature for 48 months

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    Kelly Cristine de Sousa Pontes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The medium for storing biological tissues is of great importance for their optimal use in surgery. Glycerin has been proven efficient for storing diverse tissues for prolonged time, but the preservation of the bovine amniotic membrane in glycerin 99% at room temperature has never been evaluated to be used safely in surgical procedures. This study evaluated the preservation of 80 bovine amniotic membrane samples stored in glycerin 99% at room temperature. The samples were randomly divided evenly into four groups. Samples were microbiologically tested after 1, 6, 12 and 48 months of storage. The presence of bacteria and fungi in the samples was evaluated by inoculation on blood agar and incubation at 37 ºC for 48 hours and on Sabouraud agar at 25 ºC for 5 to 10 days. No fungal or bacterial growth was detected in any of the samples. It was concluded that glycerin is an efficient medium, regarding microbiology, for preserving pre-prepared bovine amniotic membrane, keeping the tissue free of microorganisms that grow in the media up to 48 months at room temperature.

  9. Applications of Amniotic Membrane and Fluid in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine

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    Kerry Rennie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amniotic membrane (AM and amniotic fluid (AF have a long history of use in surgical and prenatal diagnostic applications, respectively. In addition, the discovery of cell populations in AM and AF which are widely accessible, nontumorigenic and capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types has stimulated a flurry of research aimed at characterizing the cells and evaluating their potential utility in regenerative medicine. While a major focus of research has been the use of amniotic membrane and fluid in tissue engineering and cell replacement, AM- and AF-derived cells may also have capabilities in protecting and stimulating the repair of injured tissues via paracrine actions, and acting as vectors for biodelivery of exogenous factors to treat injury and diseases. Much progress has been made since the discovery of AM and AF cells with stem cell characteristics nearly a decade ago, but there remain a number of problematic issues stemming from the inherent heterogeneity of these cells as well as inconsistencies in isolation and culturing methods which must be addressed to advance the field towards the development of cell-based therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the recent progress and future perspectives in the use of AM- and AF-derived cells for therapeutic applications.

  10. Roles of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor amniotic membrane in oral wound healing

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    Elly Munadziroh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI is serine protease inhibitor. Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor is a protein found in secretions such as whole saliva, seminal fluid, cervical mucus, synovial fluid, breast milk, tears, and cerebral spinal fluid, as in secretions from the nose and bronchi, amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane etc. These findings demonstrate that SLPI function as a potent anti protease, anti inflammatory, bactericidal, antifungal, tissue repair, extra cellular synthesis. Impaired healing states are characterized by excessive proteolysis and often bacterial infection, leading to the hypothesis that SLPI may have a role in the process. The objectives of this article are to investigate the role of SLPI in oral inflammation and how it contributes to tissue repair in oral mucosa. The oral wound healing responses are impaired in the SLPI sufficient mice and matrix synthesis and collagen deposition are delayed. This study indicated that SLPI is a povital factor necessary for optimal wound healing.

  11. Antioxidant Vitamin Status in the Serum and Amniotic Fluid of Women with Premature Rupture of the Fetal Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bridget M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of antioxidant vitamins in women with premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Specimens of blood and amniotic fluid were obtained from 80 pregnant subjects included both smokers and non-smokers during the third trimester. The concentrations of ascorbic acid (ASA), beta -carotene, retinol and alpha -tocopherol in serum and amniotic fluid were determined. The experimental group consisted of those subjects with PROM while the control subjects were those with normal pregnancy. No statistical differences were found between the PROM and control groups in retinol and vitamin E concentrations in amniotic fluid and serum. Serum ASA concentrations of PROM subjects were not different from controls, but the PROM subjects had significantly lower amniotic fluid ASA concentrations. However, in a study with fewer subjects a lower serum ASA concentration in the PROM subjects was observed. The ratio of amniotic fluid ASA concentration to ASA serum concentration was significantly lower in PROM patients than in controls in both studies. This suggests that low levels of ASA in the amniotic fluid, but not in serum is better associated with PROM. A low amniotic fluid concentration of ASA may reflect an inefficient transfer and/or increased fetal utilization. Alterations in ASA concentration in the amniotic fluid may affect the integrity of the chorioamnion leading to PROM. beta -Carotene was not found in the amniotic fluid. Serum beta-carotene levels were significantly lower in the PROM group compared to the control group. Low concentrations of beta-carotene in maternal serum in smokers not only associated with poor maternal outcome (PROM) but also compromised the fetal outcome (decreased birth weight). Maintenance of adequate serum beta-carotene concentration and amniotic fluid ASA in smokers may result in better maternal and fetal outcome. This study demonstrated that nutrition is an important factor in the prevention of PROM.

  12. Improvement of Heart Failure by Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation in Rats.

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    Razavi Tousi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Nobakht, Maliheh; Molazem, Mohammad; Kalantari, Elham; Darbandi Azar, Amir; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2016-07-06

    Background: Recently, stem cells have been considered for the treatment of heart diseases, but no marked improvement has been recorded. This is the first study to examine the functional and histological effects of the transplantation of human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) in rats with heart failure (HF). Methods: This study was conducted in the years 2014 and 2015. 35 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 5 equal experimental groups (7 rats each) as 1- Control 2- Heart Failure (HF) 3- Sham 4- Culture media 5- Stem Cell Transplantation (SCT). Heart failure was induced using 170 mg/kg/d of isoproterenol subcutaneously injection in 4 consecutive days. The failure confirmed by the rat cardiac echocardiography on day 28. In SCT group, 3×10 6 cells in 150 µl of culture media were transplanted to the myocardium. At the end, echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters together with histological evaluation were done. Results: Echocardiography results showed that cardiac ejection fraction in HF group increased from 58/73 ± 9% to 81/25 ± 6/05% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Fraction shortening in HF group was increased from 27/53 ± 8/58% into 45/55 ± 6/91% in SCT group (p value < 0.001). Furthermore, hAMSCs therapy significantly improved mean diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, rate pressure product, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure compared to those in the HF group, with the values reaching the normal levels in the control group. A marked reduction in fibrosis tissue was also found in the SCT group (p value < 0.001) compared with the animals in the HF group. Conclusion: The transplantation of hAMSCs in rats with heart failure not only decreased the level of fibrosis but also conferred significant improvement in heart performance in terms of echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters.

  13. Elaboration of amniotic membrane dressing dried by air and irradiated - Peruvian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamero, E.C.; Perez Caballero, N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to prepare dressings from the amniotic membrane to be used in cases of skin damage principally due to superficial and intermediate second-degree burns. The amnion is a transparent membrane that lines the chorion. It is resistant and rich in collagen. Due to these characteristics it can be well used as biological dressing as it diminishes the loss of fluids, electrolytes and proteins, it also protects the growing epithelium and adheres well to the surface of the wound, improves mobility of the patient, diminishing pain and stimulating neovascularization. The ISN-IPEN Tissue Bank promoted by IAEA has processed amniotic membrane since July 1997. Initially dressings were prepared using antibiotics, after IAEA training at the MINT of Malaysia, it is processed dried by air, lyophylized and in both presentations, sterilized by gamma-rays. Amniotic membranes are procured from Lima Maternity. Tissues must comply with VDRL, HIV, Hepatitis B and C exclusion tests. The process is held in a laminar flow hood and amnion already separated from the chorion is washed with sterile distilled water, a solution of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite, and normal saline. Then it is cut into appropriate sizes and double packed in PE films. The dressings are then carried to the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy for irradiation, depending on the number of samples either irradiated with gamma-rays at the Gammacell 220 or at the Irradiation Facility located in Santa Anita. The delivered dose is 25 kGy. The product is only released if it complies with the end product quality controls. Meanwhile, microbiological tests are carried out during all the processing stages, in order to monitor the microbial load during production. In conclusion we can state that dressings prepared as above mentioned have the following advantages: not complicated preparation; reliable and safe for clinical use; diminish infection rates and days spent in the hospital; easy to storage; and can be

  14. Amnioinfusion in term labor with low amniotic fluid due to rupture of membranes: a new indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miño, M; Puertas, A; Miranda, J A; Herruzo, A J

    1999-01-01

    The null hypothesis was that the use of intrapartum amnioinfusion to induce term labor because of premature rupture of membranes when labor was complicated by low amniotic fluid volume due to vaginal loss would not improve fetal heart rate patterns, decrease the incidence of operative delivery, or improve neonatal acid-base status. 200 term pregnancies with low amniotic fluid due to vaginal loss were randomly chosen to receive intrapartum amnioinfusion or standard obstetric care without amnioinfusion. Fetal heart rate pattern, method of delivery and neonatal acid-base status were compared with Student's t test, chi-squared analysis, Mann-Whitney U- or Fisher's exact test. When amnioinfusion was used, the fetuses had lower rates of variable (74 vs. 91%, Pamnioinfusion, and babies in this group had lower rates of neonatal acidemia of arterial (22 vs. 36%, PAmnioinfusion improved fetal heart rate pattern, lowered the incidence of operative delivery, and improved neonatal acid-base status in term labor complicated by low amniotic fluid due to vaginal loss.

  15. Basic study of healing of injuries to the myometrium and amniotic membrane using photocrosslinkable chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keitaro; Shinya, Masaru; Kitagawa, Michihiro

    2006-04-01

    We performed in vivo and in vitro adhesion experiments on the use of photocrosslinkable chitosan (PC) for healing of the myometrium and the amniotic membrane to test its usefulness in the perinatal field. To determine the adhesion conditions of PC in the healing of the myometrium and amniotic membrane, we applied two concentrations (30 and 50 mg/mL) of PC to the postpartum amniotic membrane, and radiated it with ultraviolet (UV) light for 10, 20, 30 or 60 s. Next, we created incisions of three sizes (pinhole, 5 mm and 10 mm), and performed PC adhesion followed by pressure application experiments. Subsequently, we laparotomized 12-day-pregnant rats under anesthesia, created a 5-mm incision, applied PC and closed the abdomen. We removed the uterus at 20 days of pregnancy, and histologically examined the site of PC application. The optimal adhesion conditions of PC were 50 mg/mL, and the optimal time of UV irradiation was 30 s or longer. In pressure application experiments, the bonding strength of PC was so high that even 10-mm incisions withstood a mean pressure of 92 mmH2O. The bonding strength of PC was significantly higher than that of fibrin glue that was tested in parallel. Histological examination of the rat myometrium showed a mild foreign body reaction with no inflammatory findings, confirming the usefulness of PC. PC is a wound-healing drug, an improvement on the naturally occurring polysaccharide chitosan, and is safer and has a higher bonding strength than biological adhesives including fibrin, making it promising for fetal surgical and perinatal applications.

  16. [Successful treatment of surgically induced necrotizing sclerokeratitis (SINS) with systemic immunosuppresive agents and amniotic membrane grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Coma, M; Franco-Benito, M; García-Ruiz-de-Morales, J M; Alonso-Orcajo, N; Del Barrio-Manso, I

    2009-11-01

    We report the case of a 74-year-old female who developed a necrotizing sclerokeratitis affecting her left eye after uncomplicated cataract surgery. She had no previous history of systemic autoimmune disease. Histopathology of the lesion revealed necrotic granulomatosis with an increased number of plasma cells. Surgically induced necrotizing sclerokeratitis (SINS) is a serious entity which requires prompt and aggressive therapy to prevent its potential devastating ocular consequences. Conjunctival resection and amniotic membrane grafting may be necessary to temporarily interrupt local immunologic events in severe cases. However, associated systemic immunomodulatory therapy seems to be mandatory (Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2009; 84: 577-580).

  17. Membrana amniótica como alternativa de tratamiento en superficie ocular Amniotic membrane as a therapeutic option for the ocular surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyly Fernández García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de conocer la utilidad de la membrana amniótica como alternativa de tratamiento en la superficie ocular. Son abordados tópicos como las diferentes formas de obtención, preparación y conservación de la misma, sus mecanismos de acción y aplicaciones. Se consultó una bibliografía que abarca un periodo de varios años para conocer los resultados publicados sobre el trasplante de membrana amniótica humana en la superficie ocular.A literature review was made to learn about the usefulness of the amniotic membrane as a therapeutic option for the ocular surface. The different ways for obtaining, preparing, and conserving this membrane, its mechanism of action and its applications were also addressed. Literature covering several years was reviewed in order to be acquainted with the published results of the human amniotic membrane transplantation on the ocular surface.

  18. Co-effect of silk and amniotic membrane for tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Kwon; Kim, Jun-Hyung; Eo, Su-Rak

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the feasibility and biocompatibility of a silk scaffold and a composite silk scaffold in terms of new tendon generation using a rabbit Achilles tendon model. The silk scaffold was constructed using a weaving machine, then soaked in a 1% collagen-hyaluronan (HA) solution and air-dried, whereas the composite silk scaffold was composed of a silk scaffold containing a lyophilized collagen-HA substrate. Tenocytes were cultured in vitro to compare cell populations in the two groups. The cellular densities on composite silk scaffolds were 40% higher on average than those on silk scaffolds in 30-day tenocyte cultures. The tendon scaffolds had implanted into Achilles tendon defects in 16 white New Zealand rabbits. Rabbits were randomly divided into the following three groups: group I, silk scaffold alone; group II, composite silk scaffold; and group III, composite silk scaffold wrapped by an amniotic membrane. Implants were harvested 2, 8, and 12 weeks post-implantation. Histological examinations were conducted using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome, and by performing immunohistochemical staining for CD34. After 12 weeks, the three groups were distinguishable based on gross examination. The histological examination revealed more organized collagen fibrils in groups III, which showed a dense, parallel, linear organization of collagen bundles. CD34 staining revealed neoangiogenesis in groups III. The results of this research showed that collagen-HA substrates with amniotic membrane accelerate cellular migration and angiogenesis in neotendons.

  19. Human Amniotic Membrane Dressing: an Excellent Method for Outpatient Management of Burn Wounds

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    Ali Akbar Mohammadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns are among the most common traumas indeveloping countries, which consume large amounts of medicalresources. It is important to find an appropriate materialfor dressing of burn wounds that improves healing and is readilyavailable, easily applicable, and economical.Methods: In a single-blind randomized controlled clinicaltrial from March to October 2006, 211 patients with less than20% burn were enrolled into two groups. The first group contained104 patients with average burn of 11.90± 3.80% of totalbody surface area (TBSA for whom amnion dressing wasused. The second group composed of 107 patients with averageburn of 12.30± 4.14% of TBSA treated with routine silversulfadiazine dressing.Results: Amniotic membrane usage was accompanied by accelerationin wound healing, less need for skin graft, and lesspain. The mean healing time in superficial parts of burnwounds in the amnion group was significantly shorter than thecontrol group (9.50±2.13 v 14.30±2.60 days; P value < 0.01.The extent of the wound with granulation tissue which neededskin graft was less in the amnion group (2.10 ± 2.21% v 4.20±1.44%; P value < 0.01.Conclusion: Widespread use of amniotic membrane dressingis recommended for limited burn wound management.

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Amniotic Membrane and Umbilical Cord Can Diminish Immunological Response in an in vitro Allograft Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Filip A; Burdzinska, Anna; Kulesza, Agnieszka; Chlebus, Marcin; Kaleta, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Zolocinska, Aleksandra; Paczek, Leszek; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are gaining rising interest in gynecology and obstetrics. MSCs immunomodulatory properties are suitable enough to reduce perinatal morbidity caused by inflammation in premature neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the ability to inhibit allo-activated lymphocytes proliferation by MSCs derived from different sources: amniotic membrane (AM), umbilical cord (UC) and adipose tissue (AT). MSCs were isolated from AM (n = 7) and UC (n = 6) and AT (n = 6) of healthy women. Cells were characterized by flow cytometry and differentiation assay. To evaluate the potential of fetal and adult MSCs to diminish immunological response, mixed lymphocytes reaction (MLR) was performed. Amnion and UC-derived cells displayed typical MSCs characteristics. Addition of MSCs to MLR significantly inhibited the proliferation of stimulated lymphocytes. The effect was observed regardless of the MSCs type used (p < 0.01 in all groups). Comparative analysis revealed no significant differences in this action between tested MSCs types. Additionally, no type of MSCs significantly stimulated allogeneic lymphocytes. The results prove the immunosuppressive capacities of fetal-derived MSCs in vitro. In the future, they may be potentially used to treat premature newborn as well as in immunomodulation in post-transplant therapy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Skin Mast Cell Promotion in Random Skin Flaps in Rats using Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Amniotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehelcheraghi, Farzaneh; Abbaszadeh, Abolfazl; Tavafi, Magid

    2018-03-06

    Skin flap procedures are employed in plastic surgery, but failure can lead to necrosis of the flap. Studies have used bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to improve flap viability. BM-MSCs and acellular amniotic membrane (AAM) have been introduced as alternatives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of BM-MSCs and AAM on mast cells of random skin flaps (RSF) in rats. RSFs (80 × 30 mm) were created on 40 rats that were randomly assigned to one of four groups, including (I) AAM, (II) BM-MSCs, (III) BM-MSCs/AAM, and (IV) saline (control). Transplantation was carried out during the procedure (zero day). Flap necrosis was observed on day 7, and skin samples were collected from the transition line of the flap to evaluate the total number and types of mast cells. The development and the total number of mast cells were related to the development of capillaries. The results of one-way ANOVA indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the mean numbers of mast cell types for different study groups. However, the difference between the total number of mast cells in the study groups was statistically significant (p = 0.001). The present study suggests that the use of AAM/BM-MSCs can improve the total number of mast cells and accelerate the growth of capillaries at the transient site in RSFs in rats.

  2. Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Fulminant Course of Amniotic Fluid Embolism Syndrome Immediately after Cesarean Delivery

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    Jae Ha Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism is rare but is one of the most catastrophic complications in the peripartum period. This syndrome is caused by a maternal anaphylactic reaction to the introduction of fetal material into the pulmonary circulation. When amniotic fluid embolism is suspected, the immediate application of extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support such as veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO or cardiopulmonary bypass should be considered. Without the application of extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support, medical supportive care might not be sufficient to maintain cardiopulmonary stabilization in severe cases of amniotic fluid embolism. In this report, we present the case of a 36-year-old pregnant woman who developed an amniotic fluid embolism immediately after a cesarean section. Her catastrophic event started with the sudden onset of severe hypoxia, followed by circulatory collapse within 8 minutes. The veno-arterial mode of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated immediately. She was successfully resuscitated but with impaired cognitive function. Thus, urgent ECMO should be considered when amniotic fluid embolism syndrome is suspected in patients presenting acute cardiopulmonary collapse.

  3. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics

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    Lai JY

    2013-10-01

    structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells. Keywords: glutaraldehyde, amniotic membrane, nanofibrous structure, limbal epithelial cell, stemness

  4. Amniotic membrane-derived stem cells: immunomodulatory properties and potential clinical application

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    Insausti CL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carmen L Insausti,1 Miguel Blanquer,1 Ana M García-Hernández,1 Gregorio Castellanos,2 José M Moraleda11Unidad de Trasplante Hematopoyético y Terapia Celular, 2Servicio de Cirugía, Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, IMIB, Campus Mare Nostrum, Universidad de Murcia, El Palmar, Murcia, SpainAbstract: Epithelial and mesenchymal cells isolated from the amniotic membrane (AM possess stem cell characteristics, differentiation potential toward lineages of different germ layers, and immunomodulatory properties. While their expansion and differentiation potential have been well studied and characterized, knowledge about their immunomodulatory properties and the mechanisms involved is still incomplete. These mechanisms have been evaluated on various target cells of the innate and the adaptive system and in animal models of different inflammatory diseases. Some results have evidenced that the immunomodulatory effect of AM-derived cells is dependent on cell-cell contact, but many of them have demonstrated that these properties are mediated through the secretion of suppressive molecules. In this review, we present an update on the described immunomodulatory properties of the derived amniotic cells and some of the proposed involved mechanisms. Furthermore, we describe some assays in animal models of different inflammatory diseases which reveal the potential use of these cells to treat such diseases.Keywords: epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, cell therapy, immunomodulation

  5. Biological Activity Alterations of Human Amniotic Membrane Pre and Post Irradiation Tissue Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Waleed; Bashandy, A S; Araby, Eman; Khamiss, O

    Innate immunity of Human Amniotic Membrane (HAM) and its highly active secretome that rich with various types of growth factors and anti-inflammatory substances proposed it as a promising material for many medical studies and applications. This study evaluate the biological activity of cultivated HAM pre and post tissue banking process in which freeze-dried HAM was sterilized by 25 KGray (kGy) dose of γ radiation. The HAM's antimicrobial activity, viability, growth of isolated human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs), hematopoietic stimulation of co-cultivated murine bone marrow cells (mammalian model), scaffold efficiency for fish brain building up (non-mammalian model) and self re-epithelialization after trypsin denuding treatment were examined as supposed biological activity features. Native HAM revealed viability indications and was active to kill all tested microorganisms; 6 bacterial species (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative) and Candida albicans as a pathogenic fungus. Also, HAM activity promoted colony formation of murine hematopoietic cells, Tilapia nilotica brain fragment building-up and self re-epithelialization after trypsin treatment. In contrary, radiation-based tissue banking of HAM caused HAM cellular death and consequently lacked almost all of examined biological activity features. Viable HAM was featured with biological activity than fixed HAM prepared by irradiation tissue banking.

  6. Amniotic membrane grafts for the prevention of esophageal stricture after circumferential endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maximilien; Pratico, Carlos Alberto; Camus, Marine; Beuvon, Frédéric; Jarraya, Mohamed; Nicco, Carole; Mangialavori, Luigi; Chaussade, Stanislas; Batteux, Frédéric; Prat, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The prevention of esophageal strictures following circumferential mucosal resection remains a major clinical challenge. Human amniotic membrane (AM) is an easily available material, which is widely used in ophthalmology due to its wound healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. We studied the effect of AM grafts in the prevention of esophageal stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in a swine model. In this prospective, randomized controlled trial, 20 swine underwent a 5 cm-long circumferential ESD of the lower esophagus. In the AM Group (n = 10), amniotic membrane grafts were placed on esophageal stents; a subgroup of 5 swine (AM 1 group) was sacrificed on day 14, whereas the other 5 animals (AM 2 group) were kept alive. The esophageal stent (ES) group (n = 5) had ES placement alone after ESD. Another 5 animals served as a control group with only ESD. The prevalence of symptomatic strictures at day 14 was significantly reduced in the AM group and ES groups vs. the control group (33%, 40% and 100%, respectively, p = 0.03); mean esophageal diameter was 5.8±3.6 mm, 6.8±3.3 mm, and 2.6±1.7 mm for AM, ES, and control groups, respectively. Median (range) esophageal fibrosis thickness was 0.87 mm (0.78-1.72), 1.19 mm (0.28-1.95), and 1.65 mm (0.7-1.79) for AM 1, ES, and control groups, respectively. All animals had developed esophageal strictures by day 35. The anti-fibrotic effect of AM on esophageal wound healing after ESD delayed the development of esophageal stricture in our model. However, this benefit was of limited duration in the conditions of our study.

  7. Amniotic membrane grafts for the prevention of esophageal stricture after circumferential endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilien Barret

    Full Text Available The prevention of esophageal strictures following circumferential mucosal resection remains a major clinical challenge. Human amniotic membrane (AM is an easily available material, which is widely used in ophthalmology due to its wound healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. We studied the effect of AM grafts in the prevention of esophageal stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD in a swine model.In this prospective, randomized controlled trial, 20 swine underwent a 5 cm-long circumferential ESD of the lower esophagus. In the AM Group (n = 10, amniotic membrane grafts were placed on esophageal stents; a subgroup of 5 swine (AM 1 group was sacrificed on day 14, whereas the other 5 animals (AM 2 group were kept alive. The esophageal stent (ES group (n = 5 had ES placement alone after ESD. Another 5 animals served as a control group with only ESD.The prevalence of symptomatic strictures at day 14 was significantly reduced in the AM group and ES groups vs. the control group (33%, 40% and 100%, respectively, p = 0.03; mean esophageal diameter was 5.8±3.6 mm, 6.8±3.3 mm, and 2.6±1.7 mm for AM, ES, and control groups, respectively. Median (range esophageal fibrosis thickness was 0.87 mm (0.78-1.72, 1.19 mm (0.28-1.95, and 1.65 mm (0.7-1.79 for AM 1, ES, and control groups, respectively. All animals had developed esophageal strictures by day 35.The anti-fibrotic effect of AM on esophageal wound healing after ESD delayed the development of esophageal stricture in our model. However, this benefit was of limited duration in the conditions of our study.

  8. Evaluation of Amniotic Membrane Effectiveness in Skin Graft Donor Site Dressing in Burn Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Seyed Hamid; As'adi, Kamran; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Shoar, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Although the recipient site in burn wounds is dressed with universally accepted materials, the ideal management of split-thickness skin donor sites remains controversial. The aim of our study is to compare two methods of wound dressing in donor sites of split-thickness skin graft in patients undergoing burn wound reconstructive surgery. Forty-two consecutive patients with second- and third-degree burns with a total body surface area between 20 and 40 % were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial conducted in Motahari Burn Hospital in Tehran, Iran. In each patient, two anatomic areas with similar features were randomly selected as intervention and control donor sites. The intervention site was dressed with amniotic membrane, whereas the control site was treated with Vaseline-impregnated gauze. Wounds were examined daily by expert surgeons to measure the clinical outcomes including duration of healing, severity of pain, and infection rate. The mean ± SD age of patients was 31.17 ± 13.72 years; furthermore, burn percentage had a mean ± SD of 31.19 ± 10.56. The mean ± SD of patients' cooperation score was 1.6 ± 0.79 in the intervention group compared with 2.93 ± 0.71 in the control group, revealing a statistically significant difference (P  0.05). Amniotic membrane as an alternative for dressing of skin graft donor sites provides significant benefits by increasing patients' comfort via diminishing the number of dressing changes and facilitating the process of wound healing.

  9. The use of Amniotic membrane in the treatment of Burns in Children: a clinical trial at the university Teaching Hospital, Lusaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katebe, K.R.C

    1995-01-01

    This is a clinical trial which was carried out at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka from the 1st of July to the 31st December, 1994. It involved treatment of burns in forty children using gamma irradiated amniotic membrane produced at the hospital. The results showed that it is feasible to produce Gamma irradiated biological dressings from amniotic membrane at this hospital. The amniotic membrane was easy to apply on burns and the treatment was acceptable to the majority of parents with burnt children. The use of amniotic membrane was non inflammatory to the wounds in all forty patients (100%), reduced wound infection in thirty three patients (82.5%), increased the rate of wound healing in thirty nine patients (97.5%), and resulted in good quality wound healing in thirty one patients (77.5%). Therefore, the treatment offers a good alternative in the treatment of burns in children at the hospital

  10. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of amniotic membranes affects their nanofibrous structures and limbal epithelial cell culture characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Given that the cells can sense nanometer dimensions, the chemical cross-linking-mediated alteration in fibrillar structure of collagenous tissue scaffolds is critical to determining their cell culture performances. This article explores, for the first time, the effect of nanofibrous structure of glutaraldehyde (GTA) cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) on limbal epithelial cell (LEC) cultivation. Results of ninhydrin assays demonstrated that the amount of new cross-links formed between the collagen chains is significantly increased with increasing the cross-linking time from 1 to 24 hours. By transmission electron microscopy, the AM treated with GTA for a longer duration exhibited a greater extent of molecular aggregation, thereby leading to a considerable increase in nanofiber diameter and resistance against collagenase degradation. In vitro biocompatibility studies showed that the samples cross-linked with GTA for 24 hours are not well-tolerated by the human corneal epithelial cell cultures. When the treatment duration is less than 6 hours, the biological tissues cross-linked with GTA for a longer time may cause slight reductions in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt, and anti-inflammatory activities. Nevertheless, significant collagen molecular aggregation also enhances the stemness gene expression, indicating a high ability of these AM matrices to preserve the progenitors of LECs in vitro. It is concluded that GTA cross-linking of collagenous tissue materials may affect their nanofibrous structures and corneal epithelial stem cell culture characteristics. The AM treated with GTA for 6 hours holds promise for use as a niche for the expansion and transplantation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells.

  11. Clinical application of amniotic membranes on a patient with epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pardo, M E; Reyes Frías, M L; Ramos Durón, L E; Gutiérrez Salgado, E; Gómez, J C; Marín, M A; Luna Zaragoza, D

    1999-01-01

    The case of a patient with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa treated with radiosterilised amniotic membranes is presented. The disorder is a congenital disease characterised by a poor desmosomal junction in the keratinocyte membrane. After proper donor screening, amnios were collected at Hospital Central Sur de Alta Especialidad (HCSAE), PEMEX and microbiological analysis was performed at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, FQUNAM, (Biology Dept. of the Chemistry Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico), before and after radiation sterilisation. Processing, packaging and sterilisation were performed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, (National Nuclear Research Institute). The patient, a ten-year-old boy with severe malnutrition, extensive loss of skin and pseudomonad infection in the whole body, was treated with gentle debridement in a Hubbard bath. Later amnion application was performed with sterilised amnios by using two different processes, in one of which the amnion was sterilised with paracetic acid, preserved in glycerol, kindly donated by the German Institute for Tissue and Cell Replacement and applied by Dr. Johannes C. Bruck, IAEA visiting expert, and the other amnion was processed at ININ: air dried and sterilised by gamma radiation at dose of 30 kGy. After spontaneous epithelisation was successfully promoted for seven days, the pain was alleviated and mobility was improved in a few hours and the patient's general condition was so improved that in a month he was discharged. Unfortunately, because this disease is revertive and has malignant degeneration, the prognosis is not good.

  12. Radiosterilization of freeze-dried human amniotic Membrane and its use in the treatment of burn wound. Algerian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djefal, A.; Mahlous, M.; Nacer Khodja, A.; Larbi, M.; Larbi Daho Bachir, M.

    2001-01-01

    The present study evaluates the usefulness of human amniotic membrane as biological dressing and its efficacy in the treatment of burns comparatively to the conventional dressing. We reported the practical methods of preparation, preservation and radiation sterilisation of amnion, and the clinical results of its successful use in the treatment of 80 cases of superficial and intermediate depth dermal burns. The increased rate of healing, pain relief, good adhesion to the bed wound and absence of infection were observed

  13. INTERLEUKIN-6 TRANS-SIGNALING SYSTEM IN INTRA-AMNIOTIC INFLAMMATION, PRETERM BIRTH AND PRETERM PREMATURE RUPTURE OF THE MEMBRANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah Y.; Buhimschi, Irina A.; Dulay, Antonette T.; Ali, Unzila A.; Zhao, Guomao; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S.; Bahtiyar, Mert O.; Thung, Stephen F.; Funai, Edmund F.; Buhimschi, Catalin S.

    2013-01-01

    Classic IL-6 signaling is conditioned by the transmembrane receptor (IL-6R) and homodimerization of gp130. During trans-signaling, IL-6 binds to soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) enabling activation of cells expressing solely gp130. Soluble gp130 (sgp130) selectively inhibits IL-6 trans-signaling. To characterize amniotic fluid IL-6 trans-signaling molecules (IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp130) in normal gestations and pregnancies complicated by intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) we studied 301 women during second trimester (n=39), third trimester (n=40) and preterm labor with intact (n=131, 85 IAI negative & 46 IAI positive) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM: n=91, 61 IAI negative & 30 IAI positive). ELISA, Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to investigate amniotic fluid, placenta and amniochorion for protein and mRNA expression of sIL-6R, sgp130, IL-6R and gp130. Tissues were immunostained for IL-6R, gp130, CD15+ (polymorphonuclear) and CD3+ (T-cell) inflammatory cells. The ability of sIL-6R and sgp130 to modulate basal and LPS-stimulated release of amniochorion matrix-metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) was tested ex-vivo. We showed that in physiologic gestations amniotic fluid sgp130 decreases toward term. Amniotic fluid IL-6 and sIL-6R were elevated in IAI whereas sgp130 was decreased in PPROM. Our results suggested that fetal membranes are the probable source of amniotic fluid sIL-6R and sgp130. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR revealed increased IL-6R and decreased gp130 expression in amniochorion of women with IAI. Ex-vivo, sIL-6R and LPS augmented amniochorion MMP-9 release whereas sgp130 opposed this effect. We conclude that IL-6 trans-signaling molecules are physiologic constituents of the amniotic fluid regulated by gestational age and inflammation. PPROM likely involves functional loss of sgp130. PMID:21282511

  14. Bone density of defects treated with lyophilized amniotic membrane versus colagen membrane: a tomographic and histomorfogenic study in a rabbi´s femur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Ríos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the bone density of bone defects treated with lyophilizated amniotic membrane (LAM and collagen Membrane (CM, at 3 and 5 weeks. Two bone defects of 4mm in diameter and 6mm deep were created in left distal femoral diaphysis of New Zealand rabbits (n=12. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups. One of the defects was covered with lyophilized amniotic membrane (Rosa Chambergo Tissue Bank/National Institute of Child Health-IPEN, Lima, Peru or collagen Membrane (Dentium Co, Seoul, Korea. The second was left uncovered (NC. The rabbits were killed after 3 and 5 weeks (3 rabbits/period. The results showed a high bone density and repair of the defect by new bone. The tomographic study revealed that the bone density of the defects treated with LAM at 3 weeks was equivalent to the density obtained with CM and higher density compared with NC (p0.05. The results show that lyophilizated amniotic membrane provides bone density equal or higher to the collagen membrane.

  15. Histological chorioamnionitis in preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes is associated with increased expression of galectin-3 by amniotic epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoska, Ivana; Tadić, Jasmina; Vilotić, Aleksandra; Jovanović Krivokuća, Milica; Abu Rabi, Tamara; Vićovac, Ljiljana

    2017-09-01

    Gal-3, which can regulate immune responses upon infection and inflammation, was not studied so far in intrauterine infection leading to preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (PPROM), although gal-1 was reported to be implicated in the process. Gal-3 mRNA and protein expression in amnion and its changes during histological chorioamnionitis were studied here. Fetal membranes were obtained from women with PPROM with (n =15) and without histological chorioamnionitis (n =15) during second and third trimester. Immunohistochemical reactivity was evaluated semiquantitatively and analyzed using t-test. Galectin profile of amniotic epithelia was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and change assessed in gal-3 in PPROM with (n =5) or without histological chorioamnionitis (n =5) by real-time PCR. Human amniotic epithelium was found to express gal-1, gal-3, gal-7 and gal-8 mRNA. Gal-3 mRNA and protein is increased in fetal membranes and in the amniotic epithelium in patients with chorionamnionitis. Histological chorioamnionitis is associated with increased gal-3 expression and strong immunoreactivity of the amnion. Gal-3 may participate in the regulation of the inflammatory responses to chorioamniotic infection and/or direct interaction with pathogens.

  16. Positive effects of bFGF modified rat amniotic epithelial cells transplantation on transected rat optic nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xin Xie

    Full Text Available Effective therapy for visual loss caused by optic nerve injury or diseases has not been achieved even though the optic nerve has the regeneration potential after injury. This study was designed to modify amniotic epithelial cells (AECs with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF gene, preliminarily investigating its effect on transected optic nerve.A human bFGF gene segment was delivered into rat AECs (AECs/hbFGF by lentiviral vector, and the gene expression was examined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The AECs/hbFGF and untransfected rat AECs were transplanted into the transected site of the rat optic nerve. At 28 days post transplantation, the survival and migration of the transplanted cells was observed by tracking labeled cells; meanwhile retinal ganglion cells (RGCs were observed and counted by employing biotin dextran amine (BDA and Nissl staining. Furthermore, the expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43 within the injury site was examined with immunohistochemical staining.The AECs/hbFGF was proven to express bFGF gene and secrete bFGF peptide. Both AECs/hbFGF and AECs could survive and migrate after transplantation. RGCs counting implicated that RGCs numbers of the cell transplantation groups were significantly higher than that of the control group, and the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group. Moreover GAP-43 integral optical density value in the control group was significantly lower than that of the cell transplantation groups, and the value in the AECs/hbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the AECs group.AECs modified with bFGF could reduce RGCs loss and promote expression of GAP-43 in the rat optic nerve transected model, facilitating the process of neural restoration following injury.

  17. Nukbone® promotes proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Nayeli; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana G.; Enríquez-Jiménez, Juana; Alcántara-Quintana, Luz E.; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Piña-Barba, María C.; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Nukbone showed to be a good scaffold for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. •Nukbone induced osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. •Results showed that Nukbone offer an excellent option for bone tissue regeneration due to properties. -- Abstract: Bovine bone matrix Nukbone® (NKB) is an osseous tissue-engineering biomaterial that retains its mineral and organic phases and its natural bone topography and has been used as a xenoimplant for bone regeneration in clinics. There are not studies regarding its influence of the NKB in the behavior of cells during the repairing processes. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that NKB has an osteoinductive effect in human mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic membrane (AM-hMSCs). Results indicated that NKB favors the AM-hMSCs adhesion and proliferation up to 7 days in culture as shown by the scanning electron microscopy and proliferation measures using an alamarBlue assay. Furthermore, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, it was detected that two gene expression markers of osteoblastic differentiation: the core binding factor and osteocalcin were higher for AM-hMSCs co-cultured with NKB in comparison with cultivated cells in absence of the biomaterial. As the results indicate, NKB possess the capability for inducing successfully the osteoblastic differentiation of AM-hMSC, so that, NKB is an excellent xenoimplant option for repairing bone tissue defects

  18. Amniotic membranes as prosthetic material: experimental utilization data of a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariou, Z

    1997-10-01

    Prosthetic materials are applied for closing big tissue defects, the repair of traumatized organs, or hernias. Because nonabsorbable synthetic materials are rigid, possess a defined and unchangeable size, and foreign body reaction (FBR) may occur, biological materials may be an alternative. In experimental studies in rats the authors implanted the fetal parts of the human amniotic membranes and examined the utilization and FBR induced in a standardized model. In addition amnion (AM) was combined with vicryl-net (VN) for higher implant stability. Fifteen, 30 and 90 days after implantation, macroscopic appearance was examined, and light microscopy and immunohistology testing of the specimens were performed. Adhesions to parenchymal organs and omentum were present irrespective of the side facing the abdominal cavity. AM induced a rapid FBR, which diminished with time. Chorion (CH) and parts of the AM were resorbed within the examined period after infiltration with recipient cells and neovascularisation. The combined implant, AM, and VN showed best results because disadvantages of one material could be compensated for by the advantages of the other. The studies show that AM, in its anatomic definition, combined with VN proves to be a safe and reliable prosthetic material for the use in tissue defects.

  19. Dried Human Amniotic Membrane Does Not Alleviate Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Strabismus Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Chun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dried human amniotic membrane (AM in reducing the postoperative inflammatory response and scarring after strabismus surgery. Methods. The inflammatory response at the extraocular muscle reattachment site was analyzed after superior rectus (SR resection in 12 rabbits. Dried human AM (Ambiodry2 was applied between the resected SR muscle plane and Tenon’s capsule of the left eyes of rabbits. As a control, the right eyes of rabbits underwent SR resection only. The surgeon randomly ordered which eye gets operated first during the experiment. Two weeks later, enucleation was performed. Six sagittal sections were made for each eye at the insertion of the SR muscle. The grade of postoperative inflammation and the presence of fibrosis were evaluated in histological examinations. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the intensity of inflammation and fibrous proliferation between the eyes treated with dried human AM after SR resection and those treated with SR resection only. Conclusions. The use of dried human AM was not effective in controlling the postoperative inflammation and scarring in rabbit eyes after extraocular muscle surgery. However, this may be due to the devitalized dry preparation of human AM (Ambiodry2, which may have lost the expected anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties, and further studies on humans may be necessary.

  20. Nukbone® promotes proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Nayeli; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana G. [Depto. Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico City 04510 (Mexico); Enríquez-Jiménez, Juana [Depto. Biología de la Reproducción, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), México City 14000 (Mexico); Alcántara-Quintana, Luz E. [Subd. de Investigación, Centro Nacional de la Transfusión Sanguínea, Secretaria de Salud, Mexico City 07370 (Mexico); Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth [Depto. Biología Molecular e Histocompatibilidad, Hospital General “Dr. Manuel Gea González”, México City 4800 (Mexico); Piña-Barba, María C. [Depto. Materiales Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México City 04510 (Mexico); Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando [Depto. Biología Celular y Tisular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México City 04510 (Mexico); and others

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Nukbone showed to be a good scaffold for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. •Nukbone induced osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. •Results showed that Nukbone offer an excellent option for bone tissue regeneration due to properties. -- Abstract: Bovine bone matrix Nukbone® (NKB) is an osseous tissue-engineering biomaterial that retains its mineral and organic phases and its natural bone topography and has been used as a xenoimplant for bone regeneration in clinics. There are not studies regarding its influence of the NKB in the behavior of cells during the repairing processes. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that NKB has an osteoinductive effect in human mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic membrane (AM-hMSCs). Results indicated that NKB favors the AM-hMSCs adhesion and proliferation up to 7 days in culture as shown by the scanning electron microscopy and proliferation measures using an alamarBlue assay. Furthermore, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, it was detected that two gene expression markers of osteoblastic differentiation: the core binding factor and osteocalcin were higher for AM-hMSCs co-cultured with NKB in comparison with cultivated cells in absence of the biomaterial. As the results indicate, NKB possess the capability for inducing successfully the osteoblastic differentiation of AM-hMSC, so that, NKB is an excellent xenoimplant option for repairing bone tissue defects.

  1. Amniotic membrane extract ameliorates benzalkonium chloride-induced dry eye in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinye; Luo, Pingping; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jingyao; He, Hui; Xu, Yuxue; Lin, Zhirong; Zhou, Yueping; Xu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zuguo

    2013-10-01

    Human amniotic membrane (AM) is avascular but contains various beneficial bioactive factors, its extract (AE) is also effective in treating many ocular surface disorders. In this study, we for the first time evaluated the therapeutic effects of AE on dry eye induced by benzalkonium chloride in a BALB/c mouse model. Topical application of AE (1.5 and 3 μg/eye/day) resulted in significantly longer tear break-up time on Day 3 and 6, lower fluorescein staining scores on Day 3, and lower inflammatory index on Day 6. AE reduced corneal epithelial K10 expression, inflammatory infiltration, and levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in BAC treated mice than that in the control mice. Moreover, decreased TUNEL positive cells in cornea and increased goblet cells in conjunctiva were also observed in AE treated corneas. Finally, AE induced more Ki-67 positive cells in corneal epithelium of dry eye mouse. Taken together, our data provide further support for BAC induced dry eye model as a valuable for dry eye study and suggest a great potential for AE as a therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Augmented dried versus cryopreserved amniotic membrane as an ocular surface dressing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Allen

    Full Text Available Dried amniotic membrane (AM can be a useful therapeutic adjunct in ophthalmic surgery and possesses logistical advantages over cryopreserved AM. Differences in preservation techniques can significantly influence the biochemical composition and physical properties of AM, potentially affecting clinical efficacy. This study was established to investigate the biochemical and structural effects of drying AM in the absence and presence of saccharide lyoprotectants and its biocompatibility compared to cryopreserved material.AM was cryopreserved or dried with and without pre-treatment with trehalose or raffinose and the antioxidant epigallocatechin (EGCG. Structural and visual comparisons were assessed using electron microscopy. Localisation, expression and release of AM biological factors were determined using immunoassays and immunofluorescence. The biocompatibility of the AM preparations co-cultured with corneal epithelial cell (CEC or keratocyte monolayers were assessed using cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and migration assays.Drying devitalised AM epithelium, but less than cryopreservation and cellular damage was reduced in dried AM pre-treated with trehalose or raffinose. Dried AM alone, and with trehalose or raffinose showed greater factor retention efficiencies and bioavailability compared to cryopreserved AM and demonstrated a more sustained biochemical factor time release in vitro. Cellular health assays showed that dried AM with trehalose or raffinose are compatible and superior substrates compared to cryopreserved AM for primary CEC expansion, with increased proliferation and reduced LDH and caspase-3 levels. This concept was supported by improved wound healing in an immortalised human CEC line (hiCEC co-cultured with dried and trehalose or raffinose membranes, compared to cryopreserved and fresh AM.Our modified preservation process and our resultant optimised dried AM has enhanced structural properties and biochemical stability

  3. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells repairs brachial plexus injury:pathological and biomechanical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Yang; Min Luo; Peng Li; Hai Jin

    2014-01-01

    A brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits by stretching the C6 nerve root. Imme-diately after the stretching, a suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was injected into the injured brachial plexus. The results of tensile mechanical testing of the brachial plexus showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress, and maximum strain of the injured brachial plexuses were signiifcantly increased at 24 weeks after the injection. The treat-ment clearly improved the pathological morphology of the injured brachial plexus nerve, as seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the functions of the rabbit forepaw were restored. These data indicate that the injection of human amniotic epithelial cells contributed to the repair of brachial plexus injury, and that this technique may transform into current clinical treatment strategies.

  4. Tissue transglutaminase (TG-2) modified amniotic membrane: a novel scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, David Y S; Brown, Sheridan V; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Mather, Melissa L; Hutter, Victoria; Tint, Naing L; Rose, Felicity R A J; Dua, Harminder S

    2012-01-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is considered as a natural cell culture substrate and has occasionally been exploited in regenerative medicine especially for ocular surface reconstruction and dermal wound healing applications. However, its use is limited by its relatively weak mechanical strength, difficulty during manual handling and susceptibility to proteolytic degradation in vivo. Therefore, in this study we aimed to enhance the mechanical and biological characteristics of the AM by enzymatically cross-linking it using tissue transglutaminase (TG)—a calcium-dependent enzyme capable of forming stable ε(γ-glutamyl)lysine cross-linkages. Using a biological catalyst such as TG does not only prevent denaturation during sample preparation but also minimizes the potential of residual chemical cross-linking agents compared to alternative methodologies. Human AM, sourced from elective caesarean sectioning, were treated with TG, bovine serum albumin and/or a no-treatment control. Samples were then compared in terms of their physical and (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transparency, mechanical strength, susceptibility to proteolytic degradation) biological characteristics (in vitro cell culture, activation of dendritic cells (DC)) and their in vivo biocompatibility/angiogenic capacity (chick chorioallantoic membrane assay). TG-treated AM exhibited enhanced mechanical strength and greater resistance to proteolytic/collagenase degradation compared to the control(s). SEM imaging of the TG-treated membrane summarized a significantly closer association and greater interconnectivity of individual collagen fibres yet it had no effect on the overall transparency of the AM. In vitro cell culture demonstrated no detrimental effect of TG-treatment on the AM in terms of cell attachment, spreading, proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, an ‘immune response’ was not elicited based on extended in vitro culture with human-monocyte-derived DC. Interestingly, the TG

  5. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Minjuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM. The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration.

  6. Survey of Pregnancy Outcome in Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes with Amniotic Fluid Index <5 and ≥5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Tavassoli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM is among the most important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to survey the pregnancy outcomes in preterm premature rupture of membranes with an amniotic fluid index of 5.Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed on 137 pregnant women complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM with a gestational age of 28-34 weeks during October 2006 to October 2008. The patients were divided in two groups according to their amniotic fluid index; AFI<5 (77cases, AFI≥5 (60cases. The Chi-squared test for qualitative variables and T-student test for quantitative variables were used to analyze the results.Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in terms of the number of pregnancies, gestational age at rupture of membranes and birthweight between the two groups. However, the results demonstrated that the patients with AFI<5 exhibited a significantly shorter latency period (p=0.049, a higher rate of cesarean due to fetal distress (p=0.008, a lower neonatal Apgar score in the first minute (p=0.0127 and a higher rate of neonatal death during the first week (p=0.045.Conclusion: Overall, PPROM with oligohydroamnios is associated with shorter latency, higher rate of C/S, higher rate of early neonatal death and lower neonatal Apgar.

  7. Corneal regeneration by induced human buccal mucosa cultivated on an amniotic membrane following alkaline injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Rohaina Che; Yong, Then Kong; Hwei, Ng Min; Halim, Wan Haslina Wan Abdul; Zahidin, Aida Zairani Mohd; Ramli, Roszalina; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Hj

    2017-01-01

    Various clinical disorders and injuries, such as chemical, thermal, or mechanical injuries, may lead to corneal loss that results in blindness. PURPOSE : The aims of this study were to differentiate human buccal mucosa (BMuc) into corneal epithelial-like cells, to fabricate engineered corneal tissue using buccal mucosal epithelial cells, and to reconstruct a damaged corneal epithelium in a nude rat model. BMuc were subjected to 10 d of induction factors to investigate the potential of cells to differentiate into corneal lineages. Corneal stem cell markers β1-integrin, C/EBPδ, ABCG2, p63, and CK3 were upregulated in the gene expression analysis in induced BMuc, whereas CK3 and p63 showed significant protein expression in induced BMuc compared to the uninduced cells. BMuc were then left to reach 80% confluency after differential trypsinization. The cells were harvested and cultivated on a commercially available untreated air-dried amniotic membrane (AM) in a Transwell system in induction medium. The corneal constructs were fabricated and then implanted into damaged rat corneas for up to 8 weeks. A significant improvement was detected in the treatment group at 8 weeks post-implantation, as revealed by slit lamp biomicroscopy analysis. The structure and thickness of the corneal layer were also analyzed using histological staining and time-domain optical coherence tomography scans and were found to resemble a native corneal layer. The protein expression for CK3 and p63 were continuously detected throughout the corneal epithelial layer in the corneal construct. In conclusion, human BMuc can be induced to express a corneal epithelial-like phenotype. The addition of BMuc improves corneal clarity, prevents vascularization, increases corneal thickness and stromal alignment, and appears to have no adverse effect on the host after implantation.

  8. Corneal Nerve Regeneration after Self-Retained Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane in Dry Eye Disease

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    Thomas John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of self-retained cryopreserved amniotic membrane (CAM in promoting corneal nerve regeneration and improving corneal sensitivity in dry eye disease (DED. Methods. In this prospective randomized clinical trial, subjects with DED were randomized to receive CAM (study group or conventional maximum treatment (control. Changes in signs and symptoms, corneal sensitivity, topography, and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. Results. Twenty subjects (age 66.9 ± 8.9 were enrolled and 17 completed all follow-up visits. Signs and symptoms were significantly improved in the study group yet remained constant in the control. IVCM showed a significant increase in corneal nerve density in the study group (12,241 ± 5083 μm/mm2 at baseline, 16,364 ± 3734 μm/mm2 at 1 month, and 18,827 ± 5453 μm/mm2 at 3 months, p=0.015 but was unchanged in the control. This improvement was accompanied with a significant increase in corneal sensitivity (3.25 ± 0.6 cm at baseline, 5.2 ± 0.5 cm at 1 month, and 5.6 ± 0.4 cm at 3 months, p<0.001 and corneal topography only in the study group. Conclusions. Self-retained CAM is a promising therapy for corneal nerve regeneration and accelerated recovery of the ocular surface health in patients with DED. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov with trial identifier: NCT02764814.

  9. Cryopreserved Ultra-Thick Human Amniotic Membrane for Conjunctival Surface Reconstruction After Excision of Conjunctival Tumors.

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    Tanaka, Thais S; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    Cryopreserved ultra-thick human amniotic membrane (AM) is used for glaucoma surgery. We evaluated the use of cryopreserved ultra-thick human AM for conjunctival surface reconstruction after excision of a conjunctival tumor. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 28 patients who underwent conjunctival surface reconstruction with cryopreserved ultra-thick human AM after excision of the tumor. The AM was secured to the surrounding conjunctiva and underlying sclera with interrupted 8-0 Vicryl sutures. Clinical data regarding demographics, diagnosis, size and location of conjunctival tumors, patient outcome, and complications were gathered. Of 28 patients, 6 (21.4%) had malignant melanoma, 4 (14.3%) had squamous cell carcinoma, 6 (21.4%) had conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, 1 (3.6%) had sebaceous carcinoma, 1 (3.6%) had mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 1 (3.6%) had conjunctival intraepithelial dysplasia, 5 (17.9%) had pterygium, 2 (7.1%) had compound nevus, 1 (3.6%) had a large epithelial inclusion cyst, and 1 (3.6%) patient had a granuloma. The mean area of graft size was 156 ± 120 mm2. Postoperatively, the graft was well tolerated with no failure, discomfort, or dehiscence. During the 17-month mean follow-up, symblepharon, which was clinically nonsignificant, developed in 3 (11%) patients and partial stem cell deficiency was noted in 5 (18%) patients. Cryopreserved ultra-thick human AM is a well-tolerated, effective graft material that is easy to handle. It is a viable alternative for conjunctival surface reconstruction after excision of a conjunctival tumor.

  10. Novel approach to gastric mucosal defect repair using fresh amniotic membrane allograft in dogs (experimental study).

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    Farghali, Haithem A; AbdElKader, Naglaa A; Khattab, Marwa S; AbuBakr, Huda O

    2017-10-18

    Gastric mucosal defect could result from several causative factors including the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Helicobacter pylori infection, gastrointestinal and spinal cord diseases, and neoplasia. This study was performed to achieve a novel simple, inexpensive, and effective surgical technique for the repair of gastric mucosal defect. Six adult male mongrel dogs were divided into two groups (three dogs each). In the control positive group (C + ve), dogs were subjected to surgical induction of gastric mucosal defect and then treated using traditional medicinal treatment for such a condition. In the amniotic membrane (AM) group, dogs were subjected to the same operation and then fresh AM allograft was applied. Clinical, endoscopic, biochemical (serum protein and lipid and pepsin activity in gastric juice), histopathological, and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed. Regarding endoscopic examination, there was no sign of inflammatory reaction around the grafted area in the AM group compared to the C + ve group. The leukocytic infiltration in the gastric ulcer was well detected in the control group and was less observed in the AM group. In the AM group, the concentrations of both protein and lipid profiles were nearly the same as those in serum samples taken preoperatively at zero time, which indicated that the AM grafting acted the same as gastric mucosa. The re-epithelization of the gastric ulcer in the C + ve group was not yet detected at 21 days, while in the AM group it was well observed covering most of the gastric ulcer. AM accelerated the re-epithelization of the gastric ulcer. The fibrous connective tissue and the precursor of collagen (COL IA1) were poorly detected in the gastric ulcer with AM application. Using fresh AM allograft for repairing gastric mucosal defect in dogs showed great impact as a novel method to achieve optimum reconstruction of the gastric mucosal architecture and restoration of pre

  11. Amnioinfusion in labor induction of term pregnancies with premature rupture of the membranes and low amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miño, M; Puertas, A; Herruzo, A J; Miranda, J A

    1998-05-01

    To analyze the utility of prophylactic amnioinfusion in term pregnancies with PROM and a low amniotic fluid index during labor induction. Forty-two women with amnioinfusion and 42 in a control group with amniotic fluid index (AFI) below 10 cm when admitted to labor induction were studied. All patients had electronic fetal heart rate and intrauterine pressure continuous monitoring. Amnioinfusion of normal saline (37 degrees C) was realized in the study group, using a continuous perfusion pump at 600 ml/h for 1 h, after which the AFI was again recorded; if this was amnioinfusion. Both groups were similar in age, primiparity, gestational age, initial AFI, interval from rupture of membranes until delivery and length of labor. The amnioinfusion of 600 ml in 1 h significantly increased the AFI (an increase of 7.2 +/- 3.9 vs. a decrease of 1.1 +/- 1.6, P amnioinfusion group, there was a significantly lower rate of cesarean deliveries (0 vs. 6, P amnioinfusion improves neonatal metabolic state when used in labor induction of term pregnancies with PROM and a low amniotic fluid index.

  12. Biocompatibility of quantum dots (CdSe/ZnS ) in human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongping; Zeng, Guangwei; Wang, Caie; Wang, Huasheng; Yang, Bo; Guan, Fangxia; Li, Dongpeng; Feng, Xiaoshan

    2015-06-01

    Amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAM-dMSCs) are a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells which could be used to repair skin damage. The use of mesenchymal stem cells to repair skin damage requires safe, effective and biocompatible agents to evaluate the effectiveness of the result. Quantum dots (QDs) composed of CdSe/ZnS are semiconductor nanocrystals with broad excitation and narrow emission spectra, which have been considered as a new chemical and fluorescent substance for non-invasively labeling different cells in vitro and in vivo. This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of QDs on hAM-dMSCs at different times following labeling. Using 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 μL between quantum dots, labeled human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells were collected on days 1, 2 and 4 and observed morphological changes, performed an MTT cell growth assay and flow cytometry for mesenchymal stem cells molecular markers. Quantum dot concentration 0.75 μg/mL labeled under a fluorescence microscope, cell morphology was observed, The MTT assay showed cells in the proliferative phase. Flow cytometry expression CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD90, CD105 and CD106. Within a certain range of concentrations between quantum dots labeled human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells has good biocompatibility.

  13. Value of amniotic fluid IL-8 and Annexin A2 in prediction of preterm delivery in preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the clinical significance and value in the prediction of preterm delivery of combined amniotic fluid IL-8 and Annexin A2 levels in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and preterm labor (PTL). Sixty pregnant women at < 32 gestational weeks who developed PTL were divided into a PPROM group and a non-PPROM group. Ten normal pregnant women served as a control group. IL-8 and Annexin A2 levels were measured in amniotic fluid samples from each patient. Amniotic fluid IL-8 and Annexin-A2 levels in PTL (PPROM and non-PPROM groups) were significantly higher than those of the controls (p < 0.05). The PPROM group displayed higher amniotic fluid Annexin-A2 levels than did the non-PPROM group, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). The PPROM group showed higher amniotic fluid IL-8 levels than did the non-PPROM group; however, this was statistically insignificant (p = 0.56). Combined detection of amniotic fluid IL-8 and Annexin-A2 in the prediction of preterm delivery within 2 weeks of measurement showed sensitivity of 81.25%, specificity of 88.89% and PPV of 92.86%. Amniotic fluid IL-8 and Annexin-A2 levels are associated with the occurrence of PPROM and PTL. Combined detection of IL-8 and Annexin-A2 levels in identifying preterm delivery within 2 weeks in PTL and PPROM is of possible clinical and predictive value.

  14. Human amniotic membrane, best healing accelerator, and the choice of bone induction for vestibuloplasty technique (an animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Khoshzaban

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad H Samandari1, Shahriar Adibi2, Ahad Khoshzaban3, Sara Aghazadeh5, Parviz Dihimi4, Siamak S Torbaghan6, Saeed H Keshel5, Zohreh Shahabi71Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dentistry Faculty, 2Dental Research of Torabinejad Research Centre, 3Iranian Tissue Bank Research and Preparation Centre, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Dentistry Faculty, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; 5Stem Cells Preparation Unit, Eye Research Center, Farabi Hospital, 6Department of Pathology, Imam Khomeini Medical Centre, 7BMT Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranObjective: To investigate the effects of amniotic membrane (AM in bone induction and wound healing after vestibuloplasty surgery on animal samples while receptacle proteins such as growth factors were considered as accelerators for wound healing and bone induction after these operations.Material and methods: Ten adult dogs (5 females, 5 males; race, Iranian mixed; weight, 44 pounds were included, which underwent surgery for transplantation on mandible and maxillary. AM was used for promoting bone induction and healing.Results: The tissue samples were obtained after 2, 8, and 12 weeks for histology survey. No significant differences were observed between male and female or left and right jaws. AM decreased fibrinoleukocytic exudates and inflammation in the experimental group, had significant effects on bone formation, considerably improves wound healing, and gives rise to bone induction (P < 0.0001.Conclusions: Our study findings indicate that the AM is a suitable cover for different injuries and acellular AM has the potential for rapid improvement and bone induction. The AM contains collagen, laminin, and fibronectin, which provide an appropriate substrate for bone induction. This substrate promoted bone induction and might contribute to induction of the progenitor cells and/or stem

  15. Human Amniotic Membrane-Derived Products in Sports Medicine: Basic Science, Early Results, and Potential Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboh, Jonathan C; Saltzman, Bryan M; Yanke, Adam B; Cole, Brian J

    2016-09-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM)-derived products have been successfully used in ophthalmology, plastic surgery, and wound care, but little is known about their potential applications in orthopaedic sports medicine. To provide an updated review of the basic science and preclinical and clinical data supporting the use of AM-derived products and to review their current applications in sports medicine. Systematic review. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. The search term amniotic membrane was used alone and in conjunction with stem cell, orthopaedic, tissue engineering, scaffold, and sports medicine. The search identified 6870 articles, 80 of which, after screening of the titles and abstracts, were considered relevant to this study. Fifty-five articles described the anatomy, basic science, and nonorthopaedic applications of AM-derived products. Twenty-five articles described preclinical and clinical trials of AM-derived products for orthopaedic sports medicine. Because the level of evidence obtained from this search was not adequate for systematic review or meta-analysis, a current concepts review on the anatomy, physiology, and clinical uses of AM-derived products is presented. Amniotic membranes have many promising applications in sports medicine. They are a source of pluripotent cells, highly organized collagen, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory cytokines, immunomodulators, and matrix proteins. These properties may make it beneficial when applied as tissue engineering scaffolds, improving tissue organization in healing, and treatment of the arthritic joint. The current body of evidence in sports medicine is heavily biased toward in vitro and animal studies, with little to no human clinical data. Nonetheless, 14 companies or distributors offer commercial AM products. The preparation and formulation of these products alter their biological and mechanical properties, and a thorough understanding of these

  16. Prophylactic transabdominal amnioinfusion in oligohydramnios for preterm premature rupture of membranes: increase of amniotic fluid index during latency period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzetti, G G; Ciavattini, A; De Cristofaro, F; La Marca, N; Arduini, D

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to: (i) evaluate the effect of amnioinfusion on the latency period in patients with oligohydramnios for preterm premature rupture of membranes, and (ii) to investigate the relationship between changes in the amniotic fluid index and fetal heart rate short-term variability by computerized Hewlett-Packard cardiotocography, longitudinally estimated before and after prophylactic amnioinfusion. All singleton pregnancies with prolonged premature rupture of membranes after 25 weeks of gestation and seen at the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ancona (Italy), between January 1994 and June 1995 were included in the study. Transabdominal amnioinfusion with 150-350 ml warmed normal saline (25-50 ml/min) was performed at weekly intervals. Amniotic fluid volume was assessed ultrasonographically by means of the four-quadrant technique on a weekly basis before and after each amnioinfusion, as well as the short-term variability by a Hewlett-Packard computerized cardiotocographic system. 18 women were enrolled and underwent prophylactic transabdominal amnioinfusion at weekly intervals until delivery. Eighteen controls, who did not undergo prophylactic amnioinfusion, were recruited from our 1992-1993 series and included in the study. The median interval between premature rupture of membranes and delivery was 3.0 weeks (range 1-8 weeks), with an average delivery age of 33.0 weeks (range 27-36 weeks). The latency period was significantly longer in patients who underwent prophylactic amnioinfusion (mean +/- SD, 4.1 +/- 1.7 weeks) than in controls(1.7 +/- 1.0 weeks; p amnioinfusion. A direct relationship was observed between the amniotic fluid index and short-term variability (linear regression analysis r = 0.54, p = 0.04). The mean values of fetal movements recorded by computerized tomography during the 20 min of observation significantly increased after amnioinfusion in comparison with those before it (2.6 +/- 0.9 and 0.9 +/- 0

  17. Comparative Study of Pregnancy Outcome in Premature Rupture of Membranes With Amniotic Fluid Indices of less and more than 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tavassoli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM is one of the most important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcome in preterm premature rupture of the membranes with amniotic fluid index less than 5 and more than 5. Methods: This prospective study was performed on 137 pregnant women with gestational age of 28-34 weeks with PPROM from Oct 2006 to Oct 2008. The patients were divided in two groups according to amniotic fluid index: AFI<5 (77 cases, AFI≥5 (60 cases. Chi-square test was used for qualitative variables, while T-student test was used for quantitative test. Results: Both groups were similar with respect to number of pregnancies, gestational age at rupture of the membranes and birth weight. In the group with AFI<5, applied latency was significantly shorter (PV=0.049, rate of cesarean section was higher due to fetal distress (PV=0.008, neonatal Apgar score in first minute was lower during the first week (PV=0.0127 and the rate of neonatal death was higher (PV=0.045 during the first week. Conclusion: An AFI<5 cm after PPROM is associated with earlier delivery, higher rate of cesarean due to fetal distress, higher rate of neonatal death, and lower neonatal Apgar score in first minute during the first week

  18. Grafting with Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane versus Conservative Wound Care in Treatment of Pressure Ulcers: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mehdi; Azarpira, Negar; Mohammad Karimi, Vahid; Mossayebi, Hamid; Esfandiari, Elaheh

    2017-10-01

    To compare the healing process of pressure ulcers treated with cryopreserved human amniotic membrane allograft and routine pressure ulcer care in our hospital. From January 2012 to December 2013, in a prospective randomized clinical trial (IRCT201612041335N2), 24 patients with second and third stage of pressure ulcers were enrolled in this study. All patients needed split-thickness skin grafts for pressure ulcer-wound coverage. Selected patients had symmetric ulcers on both upper and lower extremities. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: amnion and control. In the amnion group, the ulcer was covered with cryopreserved amniotic membrane and in the control group it was treated with local Dilantin powder application. The duration and success rate of complete healing was compared between the two groups. The study group was composed of 24 pressure ulcers in 24 patients (19 males and 5 females) with a mean age of 44±12.70 years. The demographic characteristics, ulcer area, and underlying diseases were similar in both groups. The early sign of response, such as decrease in wound discharge, was detected 12-14 days after biological dressing. Complete pressure ulcer healing occurred only in the amnion group ( p pressure ulcers.

  19. Maternal serum C-reactive protein concentration and intra-amniotic inflammation in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

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    Ivana Musilova

    Full Text Available To evaluate maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM in relation to the presence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC and/or intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI.Two hundred and eighty-seven women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM between 2014 and 2016 were included in this study. Maternal blood and amniotic fluid samples were collected at the time of admission. Maternal serum CRP concentration was measured using a high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentration was measured using a point-of-care test. MIAC was diagnosed based on a positive polymerase chain reaction result for Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis, and/or Chlamydia trachomatis and for the 16S rRNA gene. IAI was characterized by an amniotic fluid IL-6 concentration of ≥ 745 pg/mL.Women with MIAC and IAI had higher maternal serum CRP concentrations than did women without (with MIAC: median 6.9 mg/L vs. without MIAC: median 4.9 mg/L; p = 0.02; with IAI: median 8.6 mg/L vs. without IAI: median 4.7 mg/L; p < 0.0001. When women were split into four subgroups based on the presence of MIAC and/or IAI, women with the presence of both MIAC and IAI had higher maternal serum CRP than did women with IAI alone, with MIAC alone, and women without MIAC and IAI (both MIAC and IAI: median: 13.1 mg/L; IAI alone: 6.0 mg/L; MIAC alone: 3.9 mg/L; and without MIAC and IAI: median 4.8 mg/L; p < 0.0001. The maternal serum CRP cutoff value of 17.5 mg/L was the best level to identify the presence of both MIAC and IAI, with sensitivity of 47%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 42%, negative predictive value of 96%, and the positive likelihood ratio of 10.9.The presence of both MIAC and IAI was associated with the highest maternal serum CRP concentrations. Maternal serum CRP concentration in women with PPROM at the time of admission can rule out the

  20. Cell fusion phenomena detected after in utero transplantation of Ds-red-harboring porcine amniotic fluid stem cells into EGFP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shao-Yu; Chen, Yu-Hsu; Chou, Chih-Jen; Wang, Yao-Horng; Lee, Hung-Maan; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kui; Shaw, S W Steven; Wu, Shinn-Chih

    2014-05-01

    Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) are derived from the amniotic fluid of the developing fetus and can give rise to diverse differentiated cells of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm lineages. Intrauterine transplantation is an approach used to cure inherited genetic fetal defects during the gestation period of pregnant dams. Certain disease such as osteogenesis imperfecta was successfully treated in affected fetal mice using this method. However, the donor cell destiny remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodistribution and cell fate of Ds-red-harboring porcine AFSCs (Ds-red pAFSCs) after intrauterine transplantation into enhanced green fluorescent protein-harboring fetuses of pregnant mice. Pregnant mice (12.5 days) underwent open laparotomy with intrauterine pAFSC transplantation (5 × 10(4) cells per pup) into fetal peritoneal cavity. Three weeks after birth, the mice were sacrificed. Several samples from different organs were obtained for histological examination and flow cytometric analysis. Ds-red pAFSCs migrated most frequently into the intestines. Furthermore, enhanced green fluorescent protein and red fluorescent protein signals were co-expressed in the intestine and liver cells via immunohistochemistry studies. In utero xenotransplantation of pAFSCs fused with recipient intestinal cells instead of differentiating or maintaining the undifferentiated status in the tissue. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of Human Amniotic Membrane as a Wound Dressing for Split-Thickness Skin-Graft Donor Sites

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    Denys J. Loeffelbein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic membrane (HAM has been used as a biomaterial in various surgical procedures and exceeds some qualities of common materials. We evaluated HAM as wound dressing for split-thickness skin-graft (STSG donor sites in a swine model (Part A and a clinical trial (Part B. Part A: STSG donor sites in 4 piglets were treated with HAM or a clinically used conventional polyurethane (PU foil (n=8 each. Biopsies were taken on days 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, and 60 and investigated immunohistochemically for alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA: wound contraction marker, von Willebrand factor (vWF: angiogenesis, Ki-67 (cell proliferation, and laminin (basement membrane integrity. Part B: STSG donor sites in 45 adult patients (16 female/29 male were treated with HAM covered by PU foam, solely by PU foam, or PU foil/paraffin gauze (n=15 each. Part A revealed no difference in the rate of wound closure between groups. HAM showed improved esthetic results and inhibitory effects on cicatrization. Angioneogenesis was reduced, and basement membrane formation was accelerated in HAM group. Part B: no difference in re-epithelialization/infection rate was found. HAM caused less ichor exudation and less pruritus. HAM has no relevant advantage over conventional dressings but might be a cost-effective alternative.

  2. Different therapeutic effects of cells derived from human amniotic membrane on premature ovarian aging depend on distinct cellular biological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chenyue; Li, Hong; Wang, Yun; Wang, Fuxin; Wu, Huihua; Chen, Rulei; Lv, Jinghuan; Wang, Wei; Huang, Boxian

    2017-07-27

    Many reports have shown that various kinds of stem cells have the ability to recover premature ovarian aging (POA) function. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) improves ovarian function damaged by chemotherapy in a mice model. Understanding of how to evaluate the distinct effects of adult stem cells in curing POA and how to choose stem cells in clinical application is lacking. To build a different degrees of POA model, mice were administered different doses of cyclophosphamide: light dose (70 mg/kg, 2 weeks), medium dose (70 mg/kg, 1 week; 120 mg/kg, 1 week), and high dose (120 mg/kg, 2 weeks). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected serum levels of sex hormones, and hematoxylin and eosin staining allowed follicle counting and showed the ovarian tissue structure. DiIC 18 (5)-DS was employed to label human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) and hAECs for detecting the cellular retention time in ovaries by a live imaging system. Proliferation of human ovarian granule cells (ki67, AMH, FSHR, FOXL2, and CYP19A1) and immunological rejection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (CD4, CD11b, CD19, and CD56) were measured by flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)). Distinction of cellular biological characteristics between hAECs and hAMSCs was evaluated, such as collagen secretory level (collagen I, II, III, IV, and VI), telomerase activity, pluripotent markers tested by western blot, expression level of immune molecules (HLA-ABC and HLA-DR) analyzed by FACS, and cytokines (growth factors, chemotactic factors, apoptosis factors, and inflammatory factors) measured by a protein antibody array methodology. After hAMSCs and hAECs were transplanted into a different degrees of POA model, hAMSCs exerted better therapeutic activity on mouse ovarian function in the high-dose administration group, promoting the proliferation rate of ovarian granular cells from premature ovarian failure patients, but also provoking immune

  3. Clinical significance of histologic chorioamnionitis with a negative amniotic fluid culture in patients with preterm labor and premature membrane rupture.

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    Jeong Woo Park

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA with a negative amniotic fluid (AF culture on adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and inflammatory status in the AF compartment in women with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM.This is a retrospective cohort study of 153 women diagnosed as having a preterm labor or PPROM (20-34 weeks who delivered singleton gestations within 48 hours of amniocentesis. AF obtained through amniocentesis was cultured, and interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 levels were determined. The placentas were examined histologically.The prevalence of HCA with negative AF culture was 23.5% (36/153. The women with HCA but with a negative AF culture (group 2 and those with a positive AF culture (group 3 had a significantly lower mean gestational age at amniocentesis and delivery than those with a negative AF culture and without HCA (group 1. Women in group 3 had the highest levels of AF IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9, followed by those in group 2, and those in group 1. Composite neonatal morbidity was significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1, but this was no longer significant after adjusting for confounders caused mainly by the impact of gestational age.In the women who delivered preterm neonates, HCA with a negative AF culture was associated with increased risks of preterm birth, intense intra-amniotic inflammatory response, and prematurity-associated composite neonatal morbidity, and its risks are similar to the risk posed by positive AF culture.

  4. IL-6 trans-signaling system in intra-amniotic inflammation, preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah Y; Buhimschi, Irina A; Dulay, Antonette T; Ali, Unzila A; Zhao, Guomao; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S; Bahtiyar, Mert O; Thung, Stephen F; Funai, Edmund F; Buhimschi, Catalin S

    2011-03-01

    Classic IL-6 signaling is conditioned by the transmembrane receptor (IL-6R) and homodimerization of gp130. During trans-signaling, IL-6 binds to soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R), enabling activation of cells expressing solely gp130. Soluble gp130 (sgp130) selectively inhibits IL-6 trans-signaling. To characterize amniotic fluid (AF) IL-6 trans-signaling molecules (IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp130) in normal gestations and pregnancies complicated by intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI), we studied 301 women during second trimester (n = 39), third trimester (n = 40), and preterm labor with intact (n = 131, 85 negative IAI and 46 positive IAI) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM; n = 91, 61 negative IAI and 30 positive IAI). ELISA, Western blotting, and real-time RT-PCR were used to investigate AF, placenta, and amniochorion for protein and mRNA expression of sIL-6R, sgp130, IL-6R, and gp130. Tissues were immunostained for IL-6R, gp130, CD15(+) (polymorphonuclear), and CD3(+) (T cell) inflammatory cells. The ability of sIL-6R and sgp130 to modulate basal and LPS-stimulated release of amniochorion matrix metalloprotease-9 was tested ex vivo. We showed that in physiologic gestations, AF sgp130 decreases toward term. AF IL-6 and sIL-6R were increased in IAI, whereas sgp130 was decreased in PPROM. Our results suggested that fetal membranes are the probable source of AF sIL-6R and sgp130. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR revealed increased IL-6R and decreased gp130 expression in amniochorion of women with IAI. Ex vivo, sIL-6R and LPS augmented amniochorion matrix metalloprotease-9 release, whereas sgp130 opposed this effect. We conclude that IL-6 trans-signaling molecules are physiologic constituents of the AF regulated by gestational age and inflammation. PPROM likely involves functional loss of sgp130.

  5. Modulation of amniotic fluid activin-a and inhibin-a in women with preterm premature rupture of the membranes and infection-induced preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Victor A; Buhimschi, Irina A; Dulay, Antonette T; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S; Oliver, Emily A; Duzyj, Christina M; Lipkind, Heather; Pettker, Christian M; Buhimschi, Catalin S

    2012-02-01

    Activins and inhibins are important modulators of inflammatory processes. We explored activation of amniotic fluid (AF) activin-A and inhibin-A system in women with intra-amniotic infection and preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM). We analyzed 78 AF samples: '2nd trimester-control' (n=12), '3rd trimester-control' (n=14), preterm labor with intact membranes [positive-AF-cultures (n=13), negative-AF-cultures (n=13)], and PPROM [positive-AF-cultures (n=13), negative-AF-cultures (n=13)]. Activin-A levels were evaluated ex-vivo following incubation of amniochorion and placental villous explants with Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Gram-positive (Pam3Cys) bacterial mimics. Ability of recombinant activin-A and inhibin-A to modulate inflammatory reactions in fetal membranes was explored through explants' IL-8 release. Activin-A and inhibin-A were present in human AF and were gestational age-regulated. Activin-A was significantly upregulated by infection. Lower inhibin-A levels were seen in PPROM. LPS elicited release of activin-A from amniochorion, but not from villous explants. Recombinant activin-A stimulated IL-8 release from amniochorion, an effect that was not reversed by inhibin-A. Human AF activin-A and inhibin-A are involved in biological processes linked to intra-amniotic infection/inflammation-induced preterm birth. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Reconstruction of limbal stem cell deficient corneal surface with induced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on amniotic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaina, Che Man; Then, Kong Yong; Ng, Angela Min Hwei; Wan Abdul Halim, Wan Haslina; Zahidin, Aida Zairani Mohd; Saim, Aminuddin; Idrus, Ruszymah B H

    2014-03-01

    The cornea can be damaged by a variety of clinical disorders or chemical, mechanical, and thermal injuries. The objectives of this study were to induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to corneal lineage, to form a tissue engineered corneal substitute (TEC) using BMSCs, and to treat corneal surface defects in a limbal stem cell deficiency model. BMSCs were induced to corneal lineage using limbal medium for 10 days. Induced BMSCs demonstrated upregulation of corneal stem cell markers; β1-integrin, C/EBPδ, ABCG2, and p63, increased protein expression of CK3 and p63 significantly compared with the uninduced ones. For TEC formation, passage 1 BMSCs were trypsinized and seeded on amniotic membrane in a transwell co-culture system and were grown in limbal medium. Limbal stem cell deficiency models were induced by alkaline injury, and the TEC was implanted for 8 weeks. Serial slit lamp evaluation revealed remarkable improvement in corneal regeneration in terms of corneal clarity and reduced vascularization. Histologic and optical coherence tomography analyses demonstrated comparable corneal thickness and achieved stratified epithelium with a compact stromal layer resembling that of normal cornea. CK3 and p63 were expressed in the newly regenerated cornea. In conclusion, BMSCs can be induced into corneal epithelial lineage, and these cells are viable for the formation of TEC, to be used for the reconstruction of the corneal surface in the limbal stem cell deficient model. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. No midterm advantages in the middle term using small intestinal submucosa and human amniotic membrane in Achilles tendon transverse tenotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yushu; Peng, Yinbo; Fang, Yong; Yao, Min; Redmond, Robert W; Ni, Tao

    2016-11-24

    The study was aimed to compare the effects of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and human amniotic membrane (HAM) on Achilles tendon healing. A total of 48 New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups. A full-thickness transverse tenotomy was made at the right leg of the rabbits. Then, the laceration site was wrapped with HAM (P/A group) or SIS (P/S group). The ultimate stress (US) and Young's modulus (E) of the tendons were detected for biomechanical analysis. Histological evaluation was performed using hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescent stain. Expression of collagen I was detected by western blot analysis, and levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were measured. Finally, adhesion formation was evaluated. There were no significant differences in filamentous adhesion, cross-sectional areas of the laceration sites, levels of inflammatory response, and collagen type I expression between the P/A and P/S groups (p > 0.05). Compared with the P/A group, the US and E values were significantly higher in the P/S group at day 7 (p Achilles tendon injury in the early stage of healing.

  8. Stabilization of collagen nanofibers with l-lysine improves the ability of carbodiimide cross-linked amniotic membranes to preserve limbal epithelial progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai JY

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Yang Lai,1–3 Pei-Ran Wang,1 Li-Jyuan Luo,1 Si-Tan Chen1 1Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, 2Biomedical Engineering Research Center, 3Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: To overcome the drawbacks associated with limited cross-linking efficiency of carbodiimide modified amniotic membrane, this study investigated the use of L-lysine as an additional amino acid bridge to enhance the stability of a nanofibrous tissue matrix for a limbal epithelial cell culture platform. Results of ninhydrin assays and zeta potential measurements showed that the amount of positively charged amino acid residues incorporated into the tissue collagen chains is highly correlated with the L-lysine -pretreated concentration. The cross-linked structure and hydrophilicity of amniotic membrane scaffolding materials affected by the lysine molecular bridging effects were determined. With an increase in the L-lysine-pretreated concentration from 1 to 30 mM, the cross-linking density was significantly increased and water content was markedly decreased. The variations in resistance to thermal denaturation and enzymatic degradation were in accordance with the number of cross-links per unit mass of amniotic membrane, indicating L-lysine-modulated stabilization of collagen molecules. It was also noteworthy that the carbodiimide cross-linked tissue samples prepared using a relatively high L-lysine-pretreated concentration (ie, 30 mM appeared to have decreased light transmittance and biocompatibility, probably due to the influence of a large nanofiber size and a high charge density. The rise in stemness gene and protein expression levels was dependent on improved cross-link formation, suggesting the crucial role of amino acid bridges in constructing suitable scaffolds to preserve limbal progenitor cells. It is concluded that mild to moderate pretreatment conditions (ie, 3–10 mM L-lysine can

  9. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  10. Amniotic Membrane Modifies the Genetic Program Induced by TGFß, Stimulating Keratinocyte Proliferation and Migration in Chronic Wounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Alcaraz

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic large-surface or deep wounds often cannot progress to reepithelialisation because they become irresponsive in the inflammatory stage, so intervention is necessary to provide the final sealing epidermis. Previously we have shown that Amniotic Membrane (AM induced a robust epithelialisation in deep traumatic wounds.To better understand this phenomenon, we used keratinocytes to investigate the effect of AM on chronic wounds. Using keratinocytes, we saw that AM treatment is able to exert an attenuating effect upon Smad2 and Smad3 TGFß-induced phosphorylation while triggering the activation of several MAPK signalling pathways, including ERK and JNK1, 2. This also has a consequence for TGFß-induced regulation on cell cycle control key players CDK1A (p21 and CDK2B (p15. The study of a wider set of TGFß regulated genes showed that the effect of AM was not wide but very concrete for some genes. TGFß exerted a powerful cell cycle arrest; the presence of AM however prevented TGFß-induced cell cycle arrest. Moreover, AM induced a powerful cell migration response that correlates well with the expression of c-Jun protein at the border of the healing assay. Consistently, the treatment with AM of human chronic wounds induced a robust expression of c-Jun at the wound border.The effect of AM on the modulation of TGFß responses in keratinocytes that favours proliferation together with AM-induced keratinocyte migration is the perfect match that allows chronic wounds to move on from their non-healing state and progress into epithelialization. Our results may explain why the application of AM on chronic wounds is able to promote epithelialisation.

  11. Transvaginal cervical length and amniotic fluid index: can it predict delivery latency following preterm premature rupture of membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Suwan; Amon, Erol; Hopkins, Sarah; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Shyken, Jaye

    2015-03-01

    We sought to determine whether transvaginal cervical length (TVCL), amniotic fluid index (AFI), or a combination of both can predict delivery latency within 7 days in women presenting with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). This was a prospective observational study of TVCL measurements in 106 singleton pregnancies with PPROM between 23-33 weeks. Delivery latency was defined as the period (in days) from the initial TVCL after PPROM to delivery of the infant, with our primary outcome being delivery within 7 days of TVCL. The independent predictability of significant characteristics for delivery within 7 days was determined using multiple logistic regression. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were used to examine whether the presence of a short TVCL, AFI, or a combination of both affected the risk of delivery within 7 days. Delivery within 7 days occurred in 51/106 (48%) of pregnancies. Median duration (interquartile range) from PPROM to delivery and TVCL to delivery was 8 days (4.0-16.0) and 8 days (3.0-15.0), respectively. Using multiple regression TVCL as a continuous variable (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.97; P 7 days for TVCL >2 cm alone was 61%. This predictive value changed when analyzed in conjunction with an AFI ≤5 cm and >5 cm at 42% and 89%, respectively. A shorter TVCL and an AFI ≤5 cm independently predict delivery within 7 days in women presenting with PPROM. The combination of an AFI >5 cm and TVCL >2 cm greatly improved the potential to remain undelivered at 7 days following cervical length assessment. These findings may be helpful for counseling and optimizing maternal and neonatal care in women with PPROM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative evaluation of coronally advanced flap using amniotic membrane and platelet-rich fibrin membrane in gingival recession: An 18-month clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rehan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An amnion membrane is a placenta-derived tissue that consists of numerous growth factors, proteins, and stem cell reserves which help in accelerated wound healing and regeneration. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF also releases growth factors after activation from the platelets and gets trapped within fibrin matrix which has been shown to stimulate the mitogenic response in the periosteum for bone repair and regeneration during normal wound healing. This preliminary, controlled, randomized clinical trial with an 18-month follow-up was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of coronally advanced flap (CAF with either PRF membrane or bioresorbable amniotic membrane (AM in treatment of localized gingival recession defects. Materials and Methods: Sixteen healthy adult patients presenting with Miller Class I recession defects were treated surgically with CAF along with AM (Group I or PRF (Group II for coverage of the recession defects. For all patients, plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, depth of recession, width of recession, width of attached gingiva, and gingival thickness were evaluated at 6 months and 18 months postoperatively. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test, repeated measure analysis of variance test, Bonferroni test for intragroup comparison and unpaired t-test for intergroup comparison. Results: The results showed statistically nonsignificant (P < 0.01 difference in all clinical parameters at the 6- and 18-month follow-ups in both groups. Gingival recession in both PRF and amnion group when evaluated individually, significantly reduced from baseline to 6 months (P = 0.000 and from baseline to 18 months (P = 0.000. However, the mean value from 6 months to 18 months was statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that both CAF + PRF and CAF + AM are equally effective in providing clinically significant outcomes with respect to root coverage with AM

  13. Non-invasively collected amniotic fluid as a source of possible biomarkers for premature rupture of membranes investigated by proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Sara; Mainini, Veronica; Pizzardi, Agnese; Gianazza, Erica; Chinello, Clizia; Locatelli, Anna; Magni, Fulvio

    2014-02-01

    Preterm delivery is one of the main causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality and it accounts for 75 % of perinatal mortality and more than half of the long-term morbidity. We applied a proteomic approach based on mass spectrometry (MS) for biomarkers discovery of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) by investigating amniotic fluid (AF) invasively and non-invasively collected. Amniotic fluid was obtained from vagina of women with pPROM (group 1), PROM at term (group 2) and by genetic amniocentesis (group 3). Pre-fractionated AF proteome was analyzed through matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. The characterization of proteins/peptides of interest was obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem MS. Three peptides overexpressed in pPROM and able to discriminate the groups 1 and 2 were detected. One peptide was identified as the fragment Gly452LAVPDGPLGLPPKPro466 of the protein KIAA1522, expressed by fetal brain and liver. This peptide was overexpressed in a patient of the group 3, completely asymptomatic at the time of the amniocentesis, who later developed pPROM. Amniotic fluid invasively and non-invasively collected can be analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS to obtain proteomic profiles. Proteomic analysis identified a peptide with promising diagnostic capability for pPROM.

  14. A clinical trial on the treatment of burns in children at the University Teaching Hospital using amniotic membrane sterilized by gamma radiation (July to December 1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katebe, K.R.C.

    1995-01-01

    About six hundred patients are admitted to the University Teaching Hospital every year. Most of the burns are from water and fire with a high mortality rate in children. This study was centred on the feasibility of using amniotic membrane for wound dressing. The method of Gamma radiation was employed to sterilize this biological tissue before utilising it on patients. The results of the study show more superior healing rate compared with other methods. There was lack of hypersensitivity reactions and reduced wound infection and good quality wound healing. The method is easy to use and has been accepted by the patients and nursing staff. (n.m.). 20 refs., tabs., 6 graphs

  15. [Heterogeneity of costs and performance for penetrating eye injuries and suturing amniotic membranes under DRG conditions : Analysis of case constellations of the G-DRG C01B of the Regensburg University eye clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, D; Mrosek, M; Mrosek, S; Helbig, H; Framme, C

    2012-01-01

    Patients with penetrating eye injuries are a very heterogeneous group both medically and economically. Since 2009, treatment involving sutures for open eye injuries and cases requiring amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) were allocated to DRG C01B of the German diagnosis-related group system. However, given the significant clinical differences between these treatments, an inhomogeneity of costs to performance is postulated. This analysis describes case allocation problems within the G-DRG C01B category and presents solutions. A retrospective analysis was conducted from the standardized G-DRG data of 277 patients with open eye injuries and AMT between 2007 and 2008, grouped under the 2008 G-DRG system version to the G-DRG C01Z category. This data was provided by the Department of Ophthalmology at the University Hospital Regensburg. Additionally case-based data of the following were supplemented: length of surgery, time of anesthesia and intensity of patient care. Fixed and variable costs were determined for surgery and other inpatient treatment. Finally, an analysis of the heterogeneity of costs within the G-DRG C01B of the G-DRG system 2009 was implemented. Inhomogeneity was evident within the G-DRG C01B of the G-DRG system 2009 for the two groups suture of open eye injuries and AMT concerning the parameters length of stay, proportion of high outliers and cost per case. Multiple surgeries during an inpatient stay lead to an extended length of stay and increasing costs, especially within the AMT group. Intensity of patient care and the consideration of patient comorbidity did not yield relevant differences. The quality of the G-DRG system is measured by its ability to obtain adequate funding for highly complex and heterogeneous cases. Specific modifications of the G-DRG structures could increase the appropriateness of case allocation for patients with open eye injuries within the G-DRG C01B of the German DRG system 2009. As a result of the present study, cases

  16. Engraftment of mouse amniotic fluid-derived progenitor cells after in utero transplantation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Yi Lin

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: This model using EGFP-mAFPCs injected in utero may provide an ideal method for determining the fate of transplanted cells in recipients and these findings may justify a clinical trial of in utero transplantation during gestation for patients who have inherited genetic disorders.

  17. Women's expectations and experiences of rupture of membranes and views of the potential use of reagent pads for detecting amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiby, Helen; Borrelli, Sara; Hughes, Anita J

    2017-12-01

    To explore first-time mothers' expectations and experiences regarding rupture of membranes at term and their views on the potential use of reagent pads that detect amniotic fluid. There is little information available on women's experiences of spontaneous rupture of membranes, or interest in using methods to confirm rupture of membranes (e.g. reagent pads). Descriptive qualitative study, using focus groups and telephone interviews with women during pregnancy and after the birth of their first baby. Thematic analysis was undertaken to analyse women's responses. Ethics committee approval was obtained. Twenty-five women participated in the study of whom 13 contributed both during pregnancy and postpartum between October 2015-March 2016. Three overarching themes were identified from the data from women's expectations and experiences: uncertainty in how, when and where membranes may rupture; information which was felt to be limited and confirmation of rupture of membranes. The potential use of reagent pads met with varied responses. Women were interested in having facts and figures regarding rupture of membranes, such as characteristics of liquor; volume and probability of membranes rupturing spontaneously at term. Use of a pad as a means of confirmation was viewed as helpful, although the potential for increasing anxiety was raised. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Group B streptococcal infection of the choriodecidua induces dysfunction of the cytokeratin network in amniotic epithelium: a pathway to membrane weakening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen P Vanderhoeven

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Early events leading to intrauterine infection remain poorly defined, but may hold the key to preventing preterm delivery. To determine molecular pathways within fetal membranes (chorioamnion associated with early choriodecidual infection that may progress to preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, we examined the effects of a Group B Streptococcus (GBS choriodecidual infection on chorioamnion in a nonhuman primate model. Ten chronically catheterized pregnant monkeys (Macaca nemestrina at 118-125 days gestation (term = 172 days received choriodecidual inoculation of either GBS (n = 5 or saline (n = 5. Cesarean section was performed in the first week after GBS or saline inoculation. RNA extracted from chorioamnion (inoculation site was profiled by microarray. Single gene, Gene Set, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis results were validated using qRT-PCR (chorioamnion, Luminex (amniotic fluid, AF, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Despite uterine quiescence in most cases, significant elevations of AF cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 were detected in GBS versus controls (p2-fold change, p<0.05. Remarkably, GBS exposure was associated with significantly downregulated expression of multiple cytokeratin (CK and other cytoskeletal genes critical for maintenance of tissue tensile strength. Immunofluorescence revealed highly significant changes in the CK network within amniocytes with dense CK aggregates and retraction from the cell periphery (all p = 0.006. In human pregnancies affected by PPROM, there was further evidence of CK network retraction with significantly shorter amniocyte foot processes (p = 0.002. These results suggest early choriodecidual infection results in decreased cellular membrane integrity and tensile strength via dysfunction of CK networks. Downregulation of CK expression and perturbations in the amniotic epithelial cell intermediate filament network occur after GBS

  19. Term Amniotic membrane is a high throughput source for multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alviano, Francesco; Fossati, Valentina; Marchionni, Cosetta

    2007-01-01

    of CD34 and von Willebrand Factor positive cells. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that AM-hMSCs may emerge as a remarkable tool for the cell therapy of multiple diseased tissues. AM-hMSCs may potentially assist both bone and cartilage repair, nevertheless, due to their angiogenic potential......BACKGROUND: Term Amniotic membrane (AM) is a very attractive source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) due to the fact that this fetal tissue is usually discarded without ethical conflicts, leading to high efficiency in MSC recovery with no intrusive procedures. Here we confirmed that term AM......, as previously reported in the literature, is an abundant source of hMSCs; in particular we further investigated the AM differentiation potential by assessing whether these cells may also be committed to the angiogenic fate. In agreement with the recommendation of the International Society for Cellular Therapy...

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation on glycerolated amniotic membranes as a substract for cultured human epithelium; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante em membranas amnioticas gliceroladas empregadas como substrato ao cultivo de epitelio humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggiaro, Andre Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is a biomaterial with biological properties that are beneficial to tissue repair. It has been used as a temporary coverage to threat burns and chronic wounds. Recently, it has been served as a substrate for keratinocytes culture to construct a living skin equivalent. However, MA is a biological material, and its transplantation could cause infectious disease for receptors. So, it must be preserved and sterilized before clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation effects on glycerol-preserved MA, considering its compatibility to support human keratinocytes culture. Four MA were stored in high concentrations of glycerol (> 85%) and half of them were radio sterilized with a dose of 25 kGy. Then, we established two groups: nonirradiated MA (MA-ni) and irradiated MA (MA-i). Both groups was deepithelialized by a standardized protocol and was investigated morphologically, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural. Subsequently human keratinocytes were cultivated immersed and in air-liquid interface on denuded surface of MA-i and MA-ni. The results were compared at 14 and 21 days of culture by light and electron microscopy. After epithelial denudation, analyses demonstrated the continuity of the basement membrane in MA-ni group, whereas in the irradiated group, there was no indication of the basement membrane’s presence on the surface of MA. The cell cultures showed that in the non-irradiated group, there was growth of a multi-layered and differentiated epithelium, with a stratum corneum’s formation in air-liquid interface. In the irradiated group, the epithelium had only two or three layer, little cell differentiation, with the same results immersed or air-liquid interface system. Glycerol-preserved MA was biocompatible with the growth of a cultivated epithelium, showing its potential as a skin substitute. Irradiation at 25 kGy cause structural damage to the tissue, making changes in basement membrane, that facilitates

  1. Growing experience with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafii, Alexis E; Mason, David P; Brown, Chase R; Vakil, Nakul; Johnston, Douglas R; McCurry, Kenneth R; Pettersson, Gosta B; Murthy, Sudish C

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is rarely used as a bridge to lung transplantation (BTT) because of its associated morbidity and mortality. However, recent advancements in perfusion technology and critical care have revived interest in this application of ECMO. We retrospectively reviewed our utilization of ECMO as BTT and evaluated our early and midterm results. Nineteen patients were placed on ECMO with the intent to transplant of which 14 (74%) were successfully transplanted. Early and midterm survival of transplanted patients was 75% (1 year) and 63% (3 years), respectively, with the most favorable results observed in interstitial lung disease patients supported in the venovenous configuration. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-bridged transplant survival rates were equivalent to nonbridged recipients, but early morbidity and mortality are high and the failure to bridge to transplant is significant. Overall, successfully bridged patients can derive a tangible benefit, albeit with considerable consumption of resources.

  2. Decellularized human amniotic membrane: more is needed for an efficient dressing for protection of burns against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Bandehpour, M; Mozafari, M; Hashemi, A; Ghanbarian, H; Sameni, M; Salimi, M; Gholami, M; Samadikuchaksaraei, A

    2015-11-01

    Human amniotic membranes (HAMs) have attracted the attention of burn surgeons for decades due to favorable properties such as their antibacterial activity and promising support of cell proliferation. On the other hand, as a major implication in the health of burn patients, the prevalence of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics is increasing due to overuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HAMs (both fresh and acellular) are an effective antibacterial agent against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from burn patients. Therefore, a HAM was decellularized and tested for its antibacterial activity. Decellularization of the tissue was confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. In addition, the cyto-biocompatibility of the acellular HAM was proven by the cell viability test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, MTT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resistant bacteria were isolated from burns, identified, and tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics using both the antibiogram and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Among the isolated bacteria, three blaIMP gene-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were chosen for their high resistance to the tested antibiotics. The antibacterial activity of the HAM was also tested for Klebsiella pneumoniae (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 700603) as a resistant ATCC bacterium; Staphylococcus aureus (mecA positive); and three standard strains of ATCC bacteria including Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27833), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Antibacterial assay revealed that only the latter three bacteria were susceptible to the HAM. All the data obtained from this study suggest that an alternative strategy is required to complement HAM grafting in order to fully protect burns from nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Chondrocyte-seeded type I/III collagen membrane for autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemeyer, Philipp; Lenz, Philipp; Kreuz, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: We report the 2-year clinical results and identify prognostic factors in patients treated with autologous chondrocyte transplantation by use of a collagen membrane to seed the chondrocytes (ACT-CS). METHODS: This is a prospective study of 59 patients who were treated with ACT......-CS represents a technical modification of membrane-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation that combines easy handling and attractive application properties with reliable clinical results 24 months after surgery, especially in patients with isolated cartilage defects. Even though the failure rate...

  4. Antibody response against the glomerular basement membrane protein agrin in patients with transplant glomerulopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, S.A.; Sijpkens, Y.W.; Ham, V. van; Trouw, L.A.; Vlag, J. van der; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Kooten, C. van; Paul, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) of renal allografts is still the most important cause of graft loss. A subset of these patients have transplant glomerulopathy (TGP), characterized by glomerular basement membrane (GBM) duplications, but of unknown etiology. Recently, a role for the immune system

  5. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a bridge to lung transplantation: A single-center experience in the present era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Emily M; Biswas Roy, Sreeja; Hashimi, A Samad; Serrone, Rosemarie; Panchanathan, Roshan; Kang, Paul; Varsch, Katherine E; Steinbock, Barry E; Huang, Jasmine; Omar, Ashraf; Patel, Vipul; Walia, Rajat; Smith, Michael A; Bremner, Ross M

    2017-11-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used as a bridge to lung transplantation in patients with rapid pulmonary function deterioration. The reported success of this modality and perioperative and functional outcomes are varied. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent lung transplantation at our institution over 1 year (January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015). Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on whether they required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support as a bridge to transplant; preoperative characteristics, lung transplantation outcomes, and survival were compared between groups. Of the 93 patients, 12 (13%) received bridge to transplant, and 81 (87%) did not. Patients receiving bridge to transplant were younger, had higher lung allocation scores, had lower functional status, and were more often on mechanical ventilation at listing. Most patients who received bridge to transplant (n = 10, 83.3%) had pulmonary fibrosis. Mean pretransplant extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was 103.6 hours in duration (range, 16-395 hours). All patients who received bridge to transplant were decannulated immediately after lung transplantation but were more likely to return to the operating room for secondary chest closure or rethoracotomy. Grade 3 primary graft dysfunction within 72 hours was similar between groups. Lung transplantation success and hospital discharge were 100% in the bridge to transplant group; however, these patients experienced longer hospital stays and higher rates of discharge to acute rehabilitation. The 1-year survival was 100% in the bridge to transplant group and 91% in the non-bridge to transplant group (log-rank, P = .24). The 1-year functional status was excellent in both groups. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be used to safely bridge high-acuity patients with end-stage lung disease to lung transplantation with good 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year survival and excellent 1-year functional status

  6. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  7. Autoinjerto conjuntival y membrana amniótica en la cirugía del pterigión primario Use of conjunctival autograft and amniotic membrane in primary pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyly Fernández García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar la efectividad del autoinjerto conjuntival y el injerto de membrana amniótica en la cirugía del pterigión primario en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" de septiembre de 2009 a septiembre de 2010. Métodos: estudio prospectivo, comparativo y aleatorio. El universo estuvo constituido por 80 pacientes (80 ojos con diagnóstico de pterigión primario que se les realizó escisión quirúrgica de la hiperplasia fibrovascular nasal primaria. Se dividieron en 2 grupos al azar simple. Al grupo A (40 ojos se le implantó injerto de membrana amniótica y al grupo B (40 ojos autoinjerto de conjuntiva. Resultados: en seis meses de seguimiento se presentaron cuatro recurrencias (10 % en el grupo A y solo dos casos en el grupo B (5 %. En ninguno de los pacientes hubo complicación. Fue más efectivo el autoinjerto conjuntival. Conclusiones: la recidiva fue más frecuente en la cirugía con membrana amniótica aunque no existió una diferencia significativa. Se consideran ambas técnicas efectivas en esta afección.Objective: to compare the effectiveness of the conjunctival autograft and the amniotic membrane graft in the primary pterygium surgery at “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from September 2009 to September 2010. Methods: a prospective, random and comparative study. The universe was composed by 80 eyes from 80 patients diagnosed with primary pterygium. They had undergone the surgical excision of a primary nasal fibrovascular hyperplasia. They were divided in two single-randomized groups (A and B; the group A patients (40 eyes were implanted with amniotic membrane graft whereas those of group B (40 eyes were implanted with conjunctival autograft. Results: during the 6 month follow-up, 4 recurrences were reported (10 % in group A and only 2 in group B (5 %. No complications were presented in both groups. The conjunctival autograft was more effective. Conclusions: the relapse was more

  8. Processo de reparação de lesões da córnea e a membrana amniótica na oftalmologia Repair process of corneal damage and the amniotic membrane in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristine de Sousa Pontes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os eventos que fazem parte do processo de reparação de lesões da córnea ocorrem simultaneamente e envolvem proliferação, migração, diferenciação e apoptose celular, além da comunicação intercelular. Vários fatores solúveis, além de proteínas da matriz mesenquimal, proteoglicanos, enzimas proteolíticas e alguns tipos celulares são abordados nesta revisão, na qual explicam-se os processos de reparação de lesões superficiais ou penetrantes da córnea. A membrana amniótica, muito utilizada na cirurgia oftálmica, foi estudada por apresentar funções que colaboram com o processo de reparação. Entretanto, tais funções poderão ser perdidas quando tal tecido for submetido à conservação. Assim, torna-se importante conhecer o processo de reparação de lesões que envolvem, ou não, a córnea em toda a sua espessura e escolher a melhor forma de utilização da membrana amniótica quando ela for indicada na terapia para estas lesões.The events included in the process of repair of corneal damage occur simultaneously and involve proliferation, migration, differentiation, cell apoptosis and intercellular communication. Several soluble factors, mesenchymal matrix proteins, proteoglycans, proteolytic enzymes and some cell types are covered in this review, which explains the processes of repair of corneal wounds, either superficial or penetrating. The amniotic membrane, used in ophthalmic surgery, was studied because of the contribution of its functions to the repair process. However, these functions may be lost when the amniotic membrane is subjected to conservation. Therefore, it is important to understand the repair process of lesions involving or not the entire thickness of the cornea, and choose the best use of the amniotic membrane, when it is indicated for the treatment of these lesions.

  9. The use of amniotic membrane in the repair of duodenal wounds in Wistar rats Uso da membrana amniótica no reparo de feridas duodenais em ratos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigues Schimidt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the search of a new material to repair duodenal wounds, a trial was conducted to assess the behavior of human amniotic membrane in the repair of the duodenal wall in rats. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats weighing between 250 and 350g, male, were submitted to duodenotomy and randomly distributed into two groups. Group A (n=8 had no treatment and was used as the control group. In Group B (n=42 the duodenal wound was treated with a patch of human amniotic membrane. RESULTS: All animals in Group A died. In Group B no changes were observed with regards to death or the formation of duodenal fistula. All animals presented peritoneal adherences in the region on the duodenal wall repair and intestinal obstruction was observed in two animals. Healing of the duodenal wall in the region of the patch took place progressively as the post-operatory period increased, with regeneration of the mucosa and of the smooth muscle layer. CONCLUSION: From the clinical standpoint, the amniotic membrane proved to be a biological tissue which served as a temporary seal and allowed the wound to heal by second-intention, with re-establishment of the duodenal wall structure.OBJETIVO: Na busca de um novo material para o reparo dos ferimentos duodenais, foi efetuado um estudo para avaliar o comportamento da membrana amniótica humana no reparo da parede duodenal em ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 50 ratos Wistar, com peso entre 250 e 350g, machos, distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em dois grupos. Grupo A (n=8, submetido à duodenotomia sem tratamento, utilizados como controle. Grupo B (n=42, submetido a um remendo de membrana amniótica humana para tratamento de ferimento duodenal provocado. RESULTADOS: Todos os animais do grupo A foram a óbito. No grupo B não foram observadas alterações quanto a óbito ou formação de fístula duodenal. Observaram-se em todos os animais aderências peritoneais à região do reparo da parede do duodeno e obstrução intestinal em

  10. Autologous transplantation of the internal limiting membrane for refractory macular holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizane, Yuki; Shiraga, Fumio; Kimura, Shuhei; Hosokawa, Mio; Shiode, Yusuke; Kawata, Tetsuhiro; Hosogi, Mika; Shirakata, Yukari; Okanouchi, Toshio

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effectiveness of autologous transplantation of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) for refractory macular holes. Prospective, interventional case series. Ten eyes of 10 consecutive patients who underwent autologous transplantation of the ILM for the treatment of refractory macular holes were studied. The primary diseases in these patients were large idiopathic macular holes that had existed for more than 1 year (4 eyes), a traumatic macular hole (1 eye), myopic foveoschisis (2 eyes), foveoschisis resulting from pit-macular syndrome (2 eyes), and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (1 eye). Apart from the 5 eyes with idiopathic or traumatic macular holes, macular holes developed in the other 5 eyes after initial vitrectomies with ILM removal. In all eyes, regular macular hole surgery failed to achieve closure. The main outcome measures used in this study were macular hole closure and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Macular holes were closed successfully in 9 eyes (90%) after autologous transplantation of the ILM. The postoperative BCVAs were significantly better than the preoperative BCVAs (P = .007, paired t test). Postoperative BCVAs improved by more than 0.2 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution units in 8 eyes (80%) and were unchanged in 2 eyes (20%). Although this is a pilot study, the results suggest that autologous transplantation of the ILM may contribute to improved anatomic and visual outcomes in the treatment of refractory macular holes and may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Timing of Histologic Progression from Chorio-Deciduitis to Chorio-Deciduo-Amnionitis in the Setting of Preterm Labor and Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes with Sterile Amniotic Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Norwitz, Errol R; Moon, Kyung Chul; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Histologic chorio-deciduitis and chorio-deciduo-amnionitis (amnionitis) in extra-placental membranes are known to represent the early and advanced stages of ascending intra-uterine infection. However, there are no data in humans about the time required for chorio-deciduitis to develop and for chorio-deciduitis without amnionitis to progress to chorio-deciduitis with amnionitis, and the effect of prolongation of pregnancy on the development of chorio-deciduitis and amnionitis in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (preterm-PROM). We examined these issues in this study. The study population consisted of 289 women who delivered preterm (133 cases with PTL, and 156 cases with preterm-PROM) and who had sterile amniotic fluid (AF) defined as a negative AF culture and the absence of inflammation as evidenced by a matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) level membranes (i.e., inflammation-free extra-placental membranes, choroi-deciduitis only, and chorio-deciduitis with amnionitis) in patients with PTL and preterm-PROM. Amniocentesis-to-delivery interval was longer in cases of chorio-deciduitis with amnionitis than in cases of chorio-deciduitis only in both PTL (median [interquartile-range (IQR)]; 645.4 [319.5] vs. 113.9 [526.9] hours; P = 0.005) and preterm-PROM (131.3 [135.4] vs. 95.2 [140.5] hours; Pmembranes. Moreover, prolongation of pregnancy is an independent predictor of the development of both chorio-deciduitis and amnionitis in cases of PTL with sterile AF.

  12. Amniotic constriction bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Amniotic band sequence URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... birth. The baby should be delivered in a medical center that has specialists experienced in caring for babies ... or partial loss of function of a body part. Congenital bands affecting large parts of the body cause the ...

  13. Alveolar and serum concentrations of imipenem in two lung transplant recipients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, C; Augustin, P; Allyn, J; Massias, L; Montravers, P; Allou, N

    2015-02-01

    Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used in patients with respiratory failure who fail conventional treatment. Postoperative pneumonia is the most common infection after lung transplantation (40%). Imipenem is frequently used for empirical treatment of nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive care unit. Nevertheless, few data are available on the impact of ECMO on pharmacokinetics, and no data on imipenem dosing during ECMO. Currently, no guidelines exist for antibiotic dosing during ECMO support. We report the cases of 2 patients supported with venovenous ECMO for refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome following single lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis, treated empirically with 1 g of imipenem intravenously every 6 h. Enterobacter cloacae was isolated from the respiratory sample of Patient 1 and Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from the respiratory sample of Patient 2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the 2 isolated strains were 0.125 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. Both patients were still alive on day 28. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of imipenem concentrations in lung transplantation patients supported with ECMO. This study confirms high variability in imipenem trough concentrations in patients on ECMO and with preserved renal function. An elevated dosing regimen (4 g/24 h) is more likely to optimize drug exposure, and therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended, where available. Population pharmacokinetic studies are indicated to develop evidence-based dosing guidelines for ECMO patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Contemporary Outcomes of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Used as Bridge to Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Ali H; Ahmad, Usman; McCurry, Kenneth R; Johnston, Douglas R; Pettersson, Gosta B; Budev, Marie; Murthy, Sudish; Blackstone, Eugene H; Tong, Michael Z

    2018-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), when used as bridge to lung transplantation, (BTT) identifies high-risk candidates. Recent advances in cannula design and patient selection fosters "awake ambulatory ECMO" as a viable option for critically ill candidates in an attempt to retard deconditioning while awaiting allografts. From 2012 to 2015, 30 patients underwent ECMO as BTT. Candidacy for ECMO was determined before listing for transplant. A dual-lumen single cannula was used first in 13 of 30 patients (43%). Of the remaining 30 patients, 6 (20%) were supported with venoarterial ECMO and 11 (37%) with venovenous ECMO, with double-site cannulation in 11 (37%), and 6 of 11 converted to a dual-lumen single cannula. All ECMO patients were managed in a dedicated heart/lung failure intensive care unit, and early aggressive physical therapy, ambulation, and spontaneous breathing trials were emphasized. BTT was successful in 26 patients (87%). In the 19 patients with dual-lumen single cannula, 5 (26%) were successfully ambulated, and 6 (32%) achieved spontaneous ventilation. Median (25th, 75th percentile) lengths of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital were 33 days (20, 46 days) and 56 days (28, 78 days), respectively, and were 20 and 31 days, respectively, in patients successfully ambulated (intensive care unit: p = 0.5; hospital: p = 0.4). Among all patients who received a transplant, 30-day, 1-year, and 3-year survival were 92%, 85%, and 80%, respectively. Among patients undergoing primary transplants, 3-year survival was 91%. ECMO as BTT has led to encouraging perioperative outcomes and early survival. Careful patient selection and early use of ECMO seems to allow for preservation of vitality while these critically ill candidates await donor organs, which may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffold in the repair of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-gang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate. We hypothesized that amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffolds would be conducive to the repair of spinal cord injury. To test this, we isolated and cultured amniotic epithelial cells, and constructed complexes of these cells and silk fibroin scaffolds. Implantation of the cell-scaffold complex into a rat model of spinal cord injury resulted in a smaller glial scar in the damaged cord tissue than in model rats that received a blank scaffold, or amniotic epithelial cells alone. In addition to a milder local immunological reaction, the rats showed less inflammatory cell infiltration at the transplant site, milder host-versus-graft reaction, and a marked improvement in motor function. These findings confirm that the transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffold can promote the repair of spinal cord injury. Silk fibroin scaffold can provide a good nerve regeneration microenvironment for amniotic epithelial cells.

  16. Membrana amniótica preservada em glicerina no reparo de feridas cutâneas de membros locomotores de eqüinos Equine amniotic membrane preserved in glycerin in reparing the equine limbs cütaneous wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemir Alves de Oliveira

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo experimental, avaliou-se o uso de membrana amniótica eqüina preservada em glicerina 98%, à temperatura ambiente, em feridas com cura por segunda intenção, nos membros locomotores de eqüinos. Foram provocadas cirurgicamente feridas de 9,6cm² na face lateral da articulação metacarpo-falangeana, face medial do terço proximal do metacarpo e face lateral do terço médio do metatarso de ambos os membros locomotores de cinco eqüinos adultos, perfazendo total de trinta feridas. Foram constituídos dois grupos experimentais com quinze feridas cada, sendo um destes grupos tratado com membrana amniótica, e o outro, grupo controle, tendo recebido apenas gaze umidecida em solução fisiológica. Os curativos foram trocados a cada 48horas, tendo sido a membrana amniótica e a gaze umidecida substituídas. Em todas as feridas foram mensurados a área, o grau de secreção, a formação de tecido de granulação exuberante e o tempo para a epitelização se completar. Realizou-se também exame bacteriológico e histopatológico em um grupo de feridas, tratadas e controle. Na membrana amniótica, fez-se determinação bioquímica de proteínas e identificação de fator de crescimento de fibroblasto. Em todas as feridas tratadas, observou-se: menor tempo para cicatrização, menor formação de tecido de granulação exuberante, menor incidência de bactérias patológicas e menor aumento na área total.In the present experimental study, the use of the equine amniotic membrane preserved in glvcerol 98%, at room temperature, in wounds with secound intention healing of equine limbs were evaluated. Surgical wounds of the size of 9.6cm² were made on the fetiock joint, medial aspect of the proximal third of the metacarpus and lateral aspect of the medium third of the metatarsus ofboth limbs offive adult horses, making a total of thirty wounds. Two experimental groups were made with fifteen wounds in each group, where one of these groups was

  17. Management of Amniotic Sheet with a Hammock-like Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangcheng Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An amniotic sheet is a septation in the amniotic cavity with a perforation that allows amniotic fluid to pass through. Although the incidence of abnormal placental implantation is higher in such cases, the management recommendations remain unclear. We report a case of an amniotic sheet with a hammock-like placenta located in the center of the uterine cavity. A 25-year-old woman with a history of two dilation and curettage procedures was found to have an amniotic cavity separated by a septum that contained part of the placenta. At gestational Week 32, magnetic resonance images revealed that the placenta was attached from the anterior to posterior uterine walls and resembled a hammock hanging in the center of the uterus. Subsequently, continuous intravenous administration of ritodrine hydrochloride and magnesium sulfate were given. The pregnancy was extended to Week 36. Elective cesarean section was performed, and a 3212-g female infant was delivered. Thus, owing to the risk of umbilical cord complications and placental injury secondary to premature rupture of membranes, aggressive and careful perinatal management is required in such cases.

  18. TRANSPLANTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stage ... renal artery thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, ureteric leak or stenosis ... alternative organ source for patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney ... status.27,28 Post-transplant acute tubular necrosis is caused by ischaemic injury to the ...

  19. Neovaginoplastia com membrana amniótica na síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Neovaginoplasty using amniotic membrane in Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ramalho de Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    neovagina de aspecto adequado.PURPOSE: to evaluate the results of neovaginoplasty with the use of a human amniotic graft in patients with the Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome. METHODS: the study was a retrospective analysis of a series of 28 patients with the MRKH syndrome conducted from 1990 to 2003. The patients were attended and treated at the Ambulatório de Ginecologia Infanto-Puberal (AGIP of the Hospital Universitário of the Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto of the Universidade de São Paulo (FMRP-USP, being submitted to neovaginoplasty by the technique of McIndoe and Bannister, modified by the use of a human amniotic membrane graft. Epithelization, amplitude and depth of the neovaginas were evaluated 7 and 40 days after the procedure. Patient satisfaction was determined during the late postoperative period in terms of the presence of discomfort and dyspareunia during sexual relations. RESULTS: postoperatively, seven patients (25% presented vaginal stenosis and six of them were submitted to a new surgical intervention, one had shortening of the neovagina, corrected with the use of exercises with a vaginal mold, three (10.7% developed a rectovaginal fistula, one (3.6% a uterovesical fistula, and one (3.6% excess skin in the vaginal introitus - all successfully corrected with surgery. Four patients (14.3% presented urinary tract infection. Two months after surgery, 11/19 patients (57.8% presented satisfactory sexual activity and 42% dyspareunia, and within a maximum period of four years, 20/21 patients (95.2% had satisfactory sexual activity and 4.8% dyspareunia. CONCLUSIONS: an amniotic membrane graft is a good option for the treatment of vaginal agenesis. Perioperative follow-up involves educational guidance regarding the use of the mold and regarding patient sexuality in order to reduce the complaints of dysfunctional coitus in the presence of a favorable surgical evolution and a neovagina of adequate aspect.

  20. The efficacy of topical human amniotic membrane-mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (hAMMSC-CM) and a mixture of topical hAMMSC-CM + vitamin C and hAMMSC-CM + vitamin E on chronic plantar ulcers in leprosy:a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoeswa, C R S; Natallya, F R; Harnindya, D; Thohiroh, A; Oktaviyanti, R N; Pratiwi, K D; Rubianti, M A; Yogatri, B; Primasari, P I; Herwanto, N; Alinda, M D; Kusumaputra, B H; Astari, L; Listiawan, M Y; Agusni, I; Rantam, F A

    2018-05-10

    Healing of chronic plantar ulcers in leprosy (CPUL) typically takes a long time due to impaired neurological function, thereby reducing the levels of growth factors and cytokines. Cytokines can be found in metabolite products from amniotic membrane stem cells. Chronic ulcers are frequently characterized by high levels of reactive oxygen species. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is widely used in skin lesions, owing to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin C also has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and collagen synthesis properties which are useful in wound healing. Herein, we compared the effects of topical human amniotic membrane-mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (hAMMSC-CM) alone and with vitamins C and E on healing of CPUL. In this randomized controlled trial, topical agents were applied every 3 days for up to 8 weeks. Ulcer size, side-effects, and possible complications were monitored weekly. Healing percentage increased each week in all groups. Mean difference in ulcer size was highest in the hAMMSC-CM + vitamin E group, implying better progress of wound healing. There were no side-effects or complications. hAMMSC-CM + vitamin E is best for healing of CPUL.

  1. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    OpenAIRE

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA); Emil ANTON; Sorana Caterina ANTON

    2016-01-01

    The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amn...

  2. Lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension on intraoperative and postoperatively prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides optimally controlled reperfusion and excellent outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Bernhard; Jaksch, Peter; Taghavi, Shahrokh; Muraközy, Gabriella; Lang, Georg; Hager, Helmut; Krenn, Claus; Roth, Georg; Faybik, Peter; Bacher, Andreas; Aigner, Clemens; Matilla, José R; Hoetzenecker, Konrad; Hacker, Philipp; Lang, Irene; Klepetko, Walter

    2018-01-01

    Lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension has the highest reported postoperative mortality of all indications. Reasons lie in the complexity of treatment of these patients and the frequent occurrence of postoperative left ventricular failure. Transplantation on intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support instead of cardiopulmonary bypass and even more the prolongation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation into the postoperative period helps to overcome these problems. We reviewed our experience with this concept. All patients undergoing bilateral lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension on intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with or without prophylactic extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prolongation into the postoperative period between January 2000 and December 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Forty-one patients entered the study. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was prolonged into the postoperative period for a median of 2.5 days (range 1-40). Ninety-day, 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates for the patient collective were 92.7%, 90.2%, 87.4% and 87.4%, respectively. When compared with 31 patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension transplanted in the same period of time without prolongation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation into the postoperative period, the results compared favourably (83.9%, 77.4%, 77.4%, and 77.4%; P = 0.189). Furthermore, these results are among the best results ever reported for this particularly difficult patient population. Bilateral lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension with intraoperative venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support seems to provide superior outcome compared with the results reported about the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Prophylactic prolongation of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation into the early postoperative period provides

  3. [Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in primary graft dysfunction in a paediatric double lung transplant: presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cantero, M; Grisolía, A L; Vicente, R; Moreno, I; Ramos, F; Porta, J; Torregrosa, S

    2014-04-01

    Primary graft dysfunction is a leading cause of morbimortality in the immediate postoperative period of patients undergoing lung transplantation. Among the treatment options are: lung protective ventilatory strategies, nitric oxide, lung surfactant therapy, and supportive treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to recovery of lung function or re-transplant. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl affected by cystic fibrosis who underwent double-lung transplantation complicated with a severe primary graft dysfunction in the immediate postoperative period and refractory to standard therapies. Due to development of multiple organ failure, it was decided to insert arteriovenous ECMO catheters (pulmonary artery-right atrium). The postoperative course was satisfactory, allowing withdrawal of ECMO on the 5th post-surgical day. Currently the patient survives free of rejection and with an excellent quality of life after 600 days of follow up. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Concise Review: Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells: The Known, the Unknown, and Potential Regenerative Medicine Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P; De Coppi, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The amniotic fluid has been identified as an untapped source of cells with broad potential, which possess immunomodulatory properties and do not have the ethical and legal limitations of embryonic stem cells. CD117(c-Kit)+ cells selected from amniotic fluid have been shown to differentiate into cell lineages representing all three embryonic germ layers without generating tumors, making them ideal candidates for regenerative medicine applications. Moreover, their ability to engraft in injured organs and modulate immune and repair responses of host tissues, suggest that transplantation of such cells may be useful for the treatment of various degenerative and inflammatory diseases. Although significant questions remain regarding the origin, heterogeneous phenotype, and expansion potential of amniotic fluid stem cells, evidence to date supports their potential role as a valuable stem cell source for the field of regenerative medicine. Stem Cells 2017;35:1663-1673. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Proteomic profiling of the amniotic fluid to detect inflammation, infection, and neonatal sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin S Buhimschi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid shows the presence of biomarkers characteristic of intrauterine inflammation. We sought to validate prospectively the clinical utility of one such proteomic profile, the Mass Restricted (MR score.We enrolled 169 consecutive women with singleton pregnancies admitted with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. All women had a clinically indicated amniocentesis to rule out intra-amniotic infection. A proteomic fingerprint (MR score was generated from fresh samples of amniotic fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization (SELDI mass spectrometry. Presence or absence of the biomarkers of the MR score was interpreted in relationship to the amniocentesis-to-delivery interval, placental inflammation, and early-onset neonatal sepsis for all neonates admitted to the Newborn Special Care Unit (n = 104. Women with "severe" amniotic fluid inflammation (MR score of 3 or 4 had shorter amniocentesis-to-delivery intervals than women with "no" (MR score of 0 inflammation or even "minimal" (MR score of 1 or 2 inflammation (median [range] MR 3-4: 0.4 d [0.0-49.6 d] versus MR 1-2: 3.8 d [0.0-151.2 d] versus MR 0: 17.0 d [0.1-94.3 d], p 100 cells/mm3, whereas the combination of Gram stain and MR score was best for rapid prediction of intra-amniotic infection (positive amniotic fluid culture.High MR scores are associated with preterm delivery, histological chorioamnionitis, and early-onset neonatal sepsis. In this study, proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid was shown to be the most accurate test for diagnosis of intra-amniotic inflammation, whereas addition of the MR score to the Gram stain provides the best combination of tests to rapidly predict infection.

  6. Alpha-fetoprotein as a tool to distinguish amniotic fluid from urine, vaginal discharge, and semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Amir; Tal, Reshef; Haberman, Shoshana; McCalla, Sandra; Irani, Mohamad; Perlman, Jaqueline; Seifer, David B; Minkoff, Howard

    2015-02-01

    To estimate whether alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) can be used to distinguish amniotic fluid absorbed in sanitary pads from other similarly absorbed substances (semen, urine, and normal vaginal discharge). A prospective cohort study. Urine and amniotic fluid specimens were collected from 52 pregnant women admitted for labor. Semen specimens were collected from 17 men undergoing infertility evaluation. Alpha-fetoprotein concentrations were measured directly from urine, amniotic fluid, and semen and from pads instilled with samples from these specimens. Alpha-fetoprotein concentrations were also measured from pads absorbed with normal vaginal discharge collected from 27 pregnant women. Alpha-fetoprotein levels in amniotic fluid (245.38 ± 21.03 ng/mL, n = 52) were significantly higher than those measured in maternal urine (0.84 ± 0.17 ng/mL, n = 52, P < .001), or semen (1.52 ± 0.35 ng/mL, n = 17, P < .001). The same trend was seen when AFP was extracted from pads: amniotic fluid levels (19.44 ± 1.98 ng/mL, n=52) were significantly higher than those of urine (undetectable, n=52), semen (undetectable, n = 17), or normal vaginal discharge (0.53 ± 0.16 ng/mL, n = 27, P < .001). Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis demonstrated 96.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity for distinguishing the presence of amniotic fluid from normal vaginal discharge on sanitary pads (cutoff 3.88 ng/mL, area under the curve 0.99). When the diagnosis of rupture of membranes is in doubt, AFP levels can assist in differentiating amniotic fluid from other bodily fluids. A method that utilizes sanitary pads and an assay for AFP quantification may be an accurate and convenient way to confirm the diagnosis of rupture of membranes.

  7. Amniotic Band Syndrome, Perinatal Hospice, and Palliative Care versus Active Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Rezai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amniotic band syndrome and sequence are a relatively rare condition in which congenital anomalies occur as a result of the adherence and entrapment of fetal parts with coarse fibrous bands of the amniotic membrane. A large percentage of reported cases have an atypical gestational history. The frequency of this obstetric complication is not affected by fetal gender, genetic abnormality, or prenatal infection. Case. A 21-year-old, G1P0 female parturient at 18 weeks and 5 days with a single intrauterine gestation during a routine ultrasound evaluation was noted to have amniotic band sequence. The pregnancy was subsequently complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes with oligohydramnios, resulting in a surviving neonate scheduled for rehabilitative treatment. Conclusion. Amniotic band syndrome is an uncommon congenital anomaly resulting in multiple disfiguring and disabling manifestations. Several theories are proposed with most involving early rupture of the amnion and entanglement of fetal parts by amniotic bands. This syndrome can be manifested by development of multiple malformations, with the majority of the defects being limb abnormalities of a disorganized nature, as in the case we present. In the absence of a clear etiology of consequential congenital abnormalities, obstetric management guidelines should use shared decision models to focus on the quality of life for the offspring.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Devi Padmanabhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period.

  9. Psychobiology of the amniotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Luigi; Accorsi, Francesca; Marconi, Lorenza; Benassi, Gianluca

    2004-01-01

    Water, basic element of amniotic fluid (A.F.), is closely related to Life, Fertility and Motherhood in several cultures and religions. Through material evidences of an essential growth medium and useful diagnostic source, a new concept grow up: the fluid as a first real environment in which fetus lives and acts. Many studies confirm that in A.F. fetus starts his character-building, his memory and his intelligence. The fluid seems to be the first means of learning and acknowledgement. Sounds, smells and tastes are perceived as well as emotions and fears. Urinoterapy and staminal cells sampling shows how A.F. can be considered as an additional terapeutic resource.

  10. A frame-supported ultrathin electrospun polymer membrane for transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelka, Štěpán; Studenovská, Hana; Abelová, Lucie; Ardan, Taras; Studený, P.; Straňák, Z.; Klíma, Jiří; Dvořánková, B.; Kotek, Jiří; Hodan, Jiří; Rypáček, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), 045022_1-045022_15 ISSN 1748-6041 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1629; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : RPE transplantation * RPE carrier * porcine RPE Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UZFG-Y) Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2015

  11. Multidimensional proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid to provide insight into the mechanisms of idiopathic preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Buhimschi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Though recent advancement in proteomics has provided a novel perspective on several distinct pathogenetic mechanisms leading to preterm birth (inflammation, bleeding, the etiology of most preterm births still remains elusive. We conducted a multidimensional proteomic analysis of the amniotic fluid to identify pathways related to preterm birth in the absence of inflammation or bleeding.A proteomic fingerprint was generated from fresh amniotic fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorbtion ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a total of 286 consecutive samples retrieved from women who presented with signs or symptoms of preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Inflammation and/or bleeding proteomic patterns were detected in 32% (92/286 of the SELDI tracings. In the remaining tracings, a hierarchical algorithm was applied based on descriptors quantifying similarity/dissimilarity among proteomic fingerprints. This allowed identification of a novel profile (Q-profile based on the presence of 5 SELDI peaks in the 10-12.5 kDa mass area. Women displaying the Q-profile (mean+/-SD, gestational age: 25+/-4 weeks, n = 40 were more likely to deliver preterm despite expectant management in the context of intact membranes and normal amniotic fluid clinical results. Utilizing identification-centered proteomics techniques (fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, robotic tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry coupled with Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER ontological classifications, we determined that in amniotic fluids with Q-profile the differentially expressed proteins are primarily involved in non-inflammatory biological processes such as protein metabolism, signal transduction and transport.Proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid coupled with non-hierarchical bioinformatics algorithms identified a subgroup of patients at risk for preterm birth in the absence of intra-amniotic

  12. In-vivo expansion of autologous limbal stem cell using simple limbal epithelial transplantation for treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, Ikeda; Panchal, Bhavik Uttam; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old man from Bangladesh suffered accidental alkali injury to his right eye in May 2010 leading to total limbal stem cell deficiency. An amniotic membrane graft was performed 5 days after the accident and the patient presented to our institute 6 months later. On ocular examination, his best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/50 with a 360° pannus at the periphery and central area was spared but had stromal scarring. He underwent simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) taki...

  13. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patient supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for 403 days while waiting for a lung transplant: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Umei, M.D.

    Full Text Available According to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization, the average duration of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO in adults with acute respiratory failure is 10.5–13.5 days. Some patients on V-V ECMO may not recover in such a short period of time, and recently, there have been more reports of prolonged V-V ECMO. However, we do not know how long it is feasible to wait for native lung recovery or lung transplant (LTx with the use of ECMO. We describe a patient with acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis supported by ECMO for 403 days while waiting for a LTx. In this case, we kept the patient awake, and he was communicating frequently with his family. We changed the membrane oxygenator 23 times and the cannula 10 times without complication. However, we terminated the treatment on day 403 of ECMO because there was no access site for cannula insertion due to blockage by a venous thrombotic occlusion, making it impossible to continue this bridge to lung transplantation. It has become possible to maintain patients on ECMO for extended periods of time, but it is difficult to manage ECMO for more than one year without the development of a more durable lung support system. Keywords: Lung transplantation, Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  14. Identification of emergent motion compartments in the amniote embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Rajprasad; Little, Charles D; Joshi, Pranav; Filla, Michael B; Cheuvront, Tracey J; Lansford, Rusty; Rongish, Brenda J

    2014-01-01

    The tissue scale deformations (≥ 1 mm) required to form an amniote embryo are poorly understood. Here, we studied ∼400 μm-sized explant units from gastrulating quail embryos. The explants deformed in a reproducible manner when grown using a novel vitelline membrane-based culture method. Time-lapse recordings of latent embryonic motion patterns were analyzed after disk-shaped tissue explants were excised from three specific regions near the primitive streak: 1) anterolateral epiblast, 2) posterolateral epiblast, and 3) the avian organizer (Hensen's node). The explants were cultured for 8 hours-an interval equivalent to gastrulation. Both the anterolateral and the posterolateral epiblastic explants engaged in concentric radial/centrifugal tissue expansion. In sharp contrast, Hensen's node explants displayed Cartesian-like, elongated, bipolar deformations-a pattern reminiscent of axis elongation. Time-lapse analysis of explant tissue motion patterns indicated that both cellular motility and extracellular matrix fiber (tissue) remodeling take place during the observed morphogenetic deformations. As expected, treatment of tissue explants with a selective Rho-Kinase (p160ROCK) signaling inhibitor, Y27632, completely arrested all morphogenetic movements. Microsurgical experiments revealed that lateral epiblastic tissue was dispensable for the generation of an elongated midline axis- provided that an intact organizer (node) is present. Our computational analyses suggest the possibility of delineating tissue-scale morphogenetic movements at anatomically discrete locations in the embryo. Further, tissue deformation patterns, as well as the mechanical state of the tissue, require normal actomyosin function. We conclude that amniote embryos contain tissue-scale, regionalized morphogenetic motion generators, which can be assessed using our novel computational time-lapse imaging approach. These data and future studies-using explants excised from overlapping anatomical

  15. National review of use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as respiratory support in thoracic surgery excluding lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinieri, Philippe; Peillon, Christophe; Bessou, Jean-Paul; Veber, Benoît; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Melki, Jean; Baste, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for respiratory support is increasingly used in intensive care units (ICU), but rarely during thoracic surgical procedures outside the transplantation setting. ECMO can be an alternative to cardiopulmonary bypass for major trachea-bronchial surgery and single-lung procedures without in-field ventilation. Our aim was to evaluate the intraoperative use of ECMO as respiratory support in thoracic surgery: benefits, indications and complications. This was a multicentre retrospective study (questionnaire) of use of ECMO as respiratory support during the thoracic surgical procedure. Lung transplantation and lung resection for tumour invading the great vessels and/or the left atrium were excluded, because they concern respiratory and circulatory support. From March 2009 to September 2012, 17 of the 34 centres in France applied ECMO within veno-venous (VV) (n=20) or veno-arterial (VA) (n=16) indications in 36 patients. Ten VA ECMO were performed with peripheral cannulation and 6 with central cannulation; all VV ECMO were achieved through peripheral cannulation. Group 1 (total respiratory support) was composed of 28 patients without mechanical ventilation, involving 23 tracheo-bronchial and 5 single-lung procedures. Group 2 (partial respiratory support) was made up of 5 patients with respiratory insufficiency. Group 3 was made up of 3 patients who underwent thoracic surgery in a setting of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with preoperative ECMO. Mortality at 30 days in Groups 1, 2 and 3 was 7, 40 and 67%, respectively (P<0.05). In Group 1, ECMO was weaned intraoperatively or within 24 h in 75% of patients. In Group 2, ECMO was weaned in ICU over several days. In Group 1, 2 patients with VA support were converted to VV support for chronic respiratory indications. Bleeding was the major complication with 17% of patients requiring return to theatre for haemostasis. There were two cannulation-related complications (6%). VV or

  16. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in the Amniotic Cavity of Women with Intra-Amniotic Infection: A New Mechanism of Host Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Romero, Roberto; Xu, Yi; Miller, Derek; Unkel, Ronald; Shaman, Majid; Jacques, Suzanne M; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Garcia-Flores, Valeria; Hassan, Sonia S

    2017-08-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) control microbial infections through their antimicrobial activities attributed to DNA, histones, granules, and cytoplasmic proteins (eg, elastase). Intra-amniotic infection is characterized by the influx of neutrophils into the amniotic cavity; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether amniotic fluid neutrophils form NETs in this inflammatory process. Amniotic fluid samples from women with intra-amniotic infection (n = 15) were stained for bacteria detection using fluorescent dyes. Amniotic fluid neutrophils were purified by filtration. As controls, neutrophils from maternal blood samples (n = 3) were isolated by density gradients. Isolated neutrophils were plated onto glass cover slips for culture with and without 100 nM of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). NET formation was assessed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and scanning electron microscopy. Different stages of NET formation were visualized using antibodies against elastase and histone H3, in combination with DAPI staining, by confocal microscopy. Finally, maternal or neonatal neutrophils were added to amniotic fluid samples from women without intra-amniotic infection (n = 4), and NET formation was evaluated by DAPI staining. (1) NETs were present in the amniotic fluid of women with intra-amniotic infection; (2) all of the amniotic fluid samples had detectable live and dead bacteria associated with the presence of NETs; (3) in contrast to neutrophils from the maternal circulation, amniotic fluid neutrophils did not require PMA stimulation to form NETs; (4) different stages of NET formation were observed by co-localizing elastase, histone H3, and DNA in amniotic fluid neutrophils; and (5) neither maternal nor neonatal neutrophils form NETs in the amniotic fluid of women without intra-amniotic infection. NETs are detectable in the amniotic fluid of women with intra-amniotic infection.

  17. Successful Semi-Ambulatory Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Bridge to Heart-Lung Transplantation in a Very Small Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J Y W; Buchholz, H; Ryerson, L; Conradi, A; Adatia, I; Dyck, J; Rebeyka, I; Lien, D; Mullen, J

    2015-08-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) may be denied for children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to high risk of cerebral hemorrhage. Rarely has successful LTx been reported in children over 10 years of age receiving awake or ambulatory veno-venous ECMO. LTx following support with ambulatory veno-arterial ECMO (VA ECMO) in children has never been reported to our knowledge. We present the case of a 4-year-old, 12-kg child with heritable pulmonary artery hypertension and refractory right ventricular failure. She was successfully bridged to heart-lung transplantation (HLTx) using ambulatory VA ECMO. Initial resuscitation with standard VA ECMO was converted to an ambulatory circuit using Berlin heart cannulae. She was extubated and ambulating around her bed while on VA ECMO for 40 days. She received an HLTx from an oversized marginal lung donor. Despite a cardiac arrest and Grade 3 primary graft dysfunction, she made a full recovery without neurological deficits. She achieved 104% force expiratory volume in 1 s 33 months post-HLTx. Ambulatory VA ECMO may be a useful strategy to bridge very young children to LTx or HLTx. Patient tailored ECMO cannulation, minimization of hemorrhage, and thrombosis risks while on ECMO contributed to a successful HLTx in our patient. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Role of Echogenic Amniotic Fluid Particles and Optical Density in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed to correlate echogenic amniotic fluid particle size (AFPS) in late third trimester to fetal lung maturity and amniotic fluid optical density (AFOD) at labor. AFPS were measured with specified criteria by real time transabdominal USG (3.5MHz) while Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) was measured during routine ...

  19. Amniotic Fluid Soluble Myeloid Differentiation-2 (sMD-2) as Regulator of Intra-amniotic Inflammation in Infection-induced Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Antonette T; Buhimschi, Catalin S; Zhao, Guomao; Oliver, Emily A; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S; Shook, Lydia L; Bahtiyar, Mert O; Buhimschi, Irina A

    2015-06-01

    TLR4 mediates host responses to pathogens through a mechanism that involves protein myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) and its soluble form sMD-2. The role of sMD2 in intra-amniotic inflammation-induced preterm birth has not been previously explored. Human amniotic fluid (AF) sMD-2 was studied by Western blotting in 152 AF samples of patients who had an amniocentesis to rule-out infection (yes infection, n = 50; no infection, n = 50) or women with normal pregnancy outcome (second trimester genetic karyotyping, n = 26; third trimester lung maturity testing, n = 26). Histological localization and mRNA expression of MD2 in fetal membranes were studied by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The ability of fetal membrane to release sMD-2 and inflammatory cytokines was studied in vitro. Human AF contains three sMD-2 proteoforms whose levels of expression were lower at term. Intra-amniotic infection upregulated sMD-2. MD-2 mRNA and immunohistochemistry findings concurred. In vitro, LPS and monensin increased, while cycloheximide decreased sMD-2 production. Recombinant sMD-2 modulated TNF-α and IL-6 levels in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. sMD2 proteoforms are constitutively present in human AF. The intensity of the intra-amniotic inflammatory response to bacteria or perhaps to other TLR4 ligands may be facilitated through synthesis and release of sMD2 by the amniochorion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The amniotic band syndrome: antenatal sonographic diagnosis and potential pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, B S; Filly, R A; Callen, P W; Golbus, M S

    1985-05-01

    Amniotic band syndrome causes a variety of fetal malformations involving the limbs, craniofacial region, and trunk. Six prenatally diagnosed cases of amniotic band syndrome are discussed. The diagnosis was based on sonographic visualization of either amniotic sheets or bands associated with fetal deformation or deformities in nonembryologic distributions known to characterize the amniotic band syndrome. Seven additional cases are considered in which an aberrant sheet of tissue with a free edge was visualized within the amniotic cavity but no restriction of fetal motion or subsequent deformity was demonstrated.

  1. Ethical dilemma: offering short-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for terminally ill children who are not candidates for long-term mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Venkat; Costello, John P; Peer, Syed M; Klugman, Darren; Nath, Dilip S

    2014-04-01

    The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in terminally ill pediatric patients who are not candidates for long-term mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation requires careful deliberation. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with a relapse of acute lymphoid leukemia and acute-on-chronic cardiomyopathy who received short-term ECMO therapy. In addition, we highlight several ethical considerations that were crucial to this patient's family-centered care and demonstrate that this therapy can be accomplished in a manner that respects patient autonomy and family wishes.

  2. Amniotic amputation | Ayadi | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is an uncommon, congenital fetal abnormality. Lower extremity limb defects are the common manifestations of ABS. The most common features include congenital distal ring constrictions, intrauterine amputations, and acrosyndactyly. Rare cases of craniofacial and visceral defects were ...

  3. Limbal stem cell transplantation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atallah MR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marwan Raymond Atallah, Sotiria Palioura, Victor L Perez, Guillermo Amescua Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Regeneration of the corneal surface after an epithelial insult involves division, migration, and maturation of a specialized group of stem cells located in the limbus. Several insults, both intrinsic and extrinsic, can precipitate destruction of the delicate microenvironment of these cells, resulting in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD. In such cases, reepithelialization fails and conjunctival epithelium extends across the limbus, leading to vascularization, persistent epithelial defects, and chronic inflammation. In partial LSCD, conjunctival epitheliectomy, coupled with amniotic membrane transplantation, could be sufficient to restore a healthy surface. In more severe cases and in total LSCD, stem cell transplantation is currently the best curative option. Before any attempts are considered to perform a limbal stem cell transplantation procedure, the ocular surface must be optimized by controlling causative factors and comorbid conditions. These factors include adequate eyelid function or exposure, control of the ocular surface inflammatory status, and a well-lubricated ocular surface. In cases of unilateral LSCD, stem cells can be obtained from the contralateral eye. Newer techniques aim at expanding cells in vitro or in vivo in order to decrease the need for large limbal resection that may jeopardize the “healthy” eye. Patients with bilateral disease can be treated using allogeneic tissue in combination with systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Another emerging option for this subset of patients is the use of noncorneal cells such as mucosal grafts. Finally, the use of keratoprosthesis is reserved for patients who are not candidates for any of the aforementioned options, wherein the choice of the type of keratoprosthesis depends on

  4. Estudo por microscopia eletrônica do epitélio de neovaginas confeccionadas com membrana amniótica e pesquisa de receptores para estrogênios Electron microscope study of the epithelium of neovagina constructed with amniotic membrane: estrogen receptor evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri José Piazza

    1999-06-01

    cortes histológicos obtidos em biópsias de neovaginas revestidas com membrana amniótica.Purpose: to verify changes in amnion epithelia after neovaginoplasty and the presence of estrogen receptor in this tissue using electron microscopy (TEM. Methods: a group consisting of 33 young patients with vaginal agenesy, most of them amenorreic, either incapable or having difficulty to adequately perform sexual activity, underwent surgical correction of the anomaly by the McIndoe-Banister technique. In each woman, a cavity was created through an opening of the vesicorectal space. A mold made of artificial sponge with a condom recovered by amniotic membrane was introduced into the cavity. After eight days, the mold was removed, leaving a developing neoepithelium from the amniotic membrane. Results: The TEM conducted in samples of tissue obtained from neovaginas showed similar results in all three layers of these epithelia, either in the cytoplasm or the cellular microstructures in comparison with normal women. The intensity of staining of the estrogen receptors on the vaginal neoepithelium of the group of women who underwent the surgical procedure was similar to that of normal women. The estrogen receptors were heterogeneously distributed in the three layers of the tissue in all women. The analysis of the vaginal neoepithelium obtained from amniotic membrane revealed, through the TEM, all the characteristics of a regular vaginal epithelium.

  5. Kidney Transplant Recipients With Primary Membranous Glomerulonephritis Have a Higher Risk of Acute Rejection Compared With Other Primary Glomerulonephritides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Singh, MD

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions. Patients with MN have higher incidence of acute rejection after kidney transplant but have similar 10-year allograft survival in comparison to the other glomerular diseases like IgAN, FSGS, and LN.

  6. PAH assessment in the main Brazilian offshore oil and gas production area using semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) and transplanted bivalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    André Lourenço, Rafael; Francisco de Oliveira, Fábio; Haddad Nudi, Adriana; Rebello Wagener, Ângela de Luca; Guadalupe Meniconi, Maria de Fátima; Francioni, Eleine

    2015-06-01

    The Campos Basin is Brazil's main oil and gas production area. In 2013, more than 50 million cubic meters of produced water (PW) was discharged into these offshore waters. Despite the large volumes of PW that are discharged in the Campos Basin each day, the ecological concern of the chemicals in the PW are not completely understood. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the most important contributors to the ecological hazards that are posed by discharged PW. This study aimed to evaluate the potential bioaccumulation of PAH using transplanted bivalves (Nodipecten nodosus) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD). The study was conducted in two platforms that discharge PW (P19 and P40). Another platform that does not discharge PW (P25) was investigated for comparison with the obtained results. Time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations using SPMD and transplanted bivalves were estimated from the seawater near the three platforms. The bioaccumulation of the PAH in the transplanted bivalves at platforms P19 and P40 were up to fivefold greater than the bioaccumulation of the PAH at platform P25. The lowest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P25 (4.3-6.2 ng L-1), and the highest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P19 (9.2-37.3 ng L-1). Both techniques were effective for determining the bioavailability of the PAH and for providing time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations regarding oil and gas production activities.

  7. Gastric fluid versus amniotic fluid analysis for the identification of intra-amniotic infection due to Ureaplasma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Min; Romero, Roberto; Lee, JoonHo; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Docheva, Nikolina; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Early neonatal sepsis is often due to intra-amniotic infection. The stomach of the neonate contains fluid swallowed before and during delivery. The presence of bacteria as well as neutrophils detected by culture or Gram stain of the gastric fluid during the first day of life is suggestive of exposure to bacteria or inflammation. We undertook this study to determine the relationship between gastric fluid analysis and amniotic fluid obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis in the detection of Ureaplasma species, the most frequent microorganisms responsible for intra-amniotic infection. The study population consisted of 100 singleton pregnant women who delivered preterm neonates (Ureaplasma species was performed. Intra-amniotic inflammation was defined as an elevated amniotic fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 concentration (>23 ng/mL). (1) Ureaplasma species were detected by culture or PCR in 18% (18/100) of amniotic fluid samples and in 5% (5/100) of gastric fluid samples; (2) among the amniotic fluid cases positive for Ureaplasma species, these microorganisms were identified in 27.8% (5/18) of gastric fluid samples; (3) none of the cases negative for Ureaplasma species in the amniotic fluid were found to be positive for these microorganisms in the gastric fluid; (4) patients with amniotic fluid positive for Ureaplasma species but with gastric fluid negative for these microorganisms had a significantly higher rate of intra-amniotic inflammation, acute histologic chorioamnionitis, and neonatal death than those with both amniotic fluid and gastric fluid negative for Ureaplasma species; and (5) no significant differences were observed in the rate of intra-amniotic inflammation, acute histologic chorioamnionitis, and neonatal death between patients with amniotic fluid positive for Ureaplasma species but with gastric fluid negative for these microorganisms and those with both amniotic fluid and gastric fluid positive for Ureaplasma species. Gastric fluid analysis has 100

  8. [Functional and Anatomic Outcomes of Primary and Secondary Internal Limiting Membrane Transplantation in Large and Persistent Macular Holes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jelka A; Michels, Stephan; Becker, Matthias D

    2017-11-20

    Background The gold standard therapy for full-thickness macular holes (FTMH) is vitrectomy (PPV) with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM), gas tamponade of the vitreous cavity and postoperative face-down positioning. Nevertheless, eyes with large macular holes (> 400 µm) and surgical failures remain difficult to manage. Recently, ILM transplantation (ILM-TX) techniques were developed with acceptable results, advocating different mechanisms of hole closure: in such a setting, the ILM could serve as a scaffold for neuronal tissue in the pedicle ILM flap technique or the ILM could induce a contraction of the FTMH rims through shrinking of a folded ILM plug. Patients/Material and Methods This retrospective study evaluates the functional and anatomic outcomes following ILM-TX for large FTMH and failed FMTH surgery. Large holes (group 1) were treated by the pedicle flap and the plug technique. Persistent holes following vitrectomy and ILM peeling (group 2) were treated with the plug technique. All ILM-TX were performed under perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) with a subsequent silicone oil tamponade. Results In group 1 (6 eyes), three eyes had a free ILM graft and three eyes underwent a pedunculated ILM-TX. The mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, LogMar) before primary ILM-TX was 1.18 ± 0.54 with a mean initial hole size of 681 ± 106 µm and a photoreceptor defect (PRD) of 1829 ± 474 µm. Five of six eyes showed a postoperative anatomical macular hole closure (83%). The mean BCVA after a mean follow-up of 9.3 ± 5.1 months was 0.83 ± 0.31 after a free ILM graft and 0.95 ± 0.79 after a pedunculated ILM flap. The PRD reduced to 1781 ± 713 µm after a free ILM graft and 1148 ± 378 µm after a pedunculated ILM flap. In group 2 (7 eyes), all patients had failed initial macular hole surgery closure. Prior to free ILM-TX BCVA was 1.05 ± 0.41, the hole size was 433 ± 183 µm and PRD was 2012 ± 718

  9. Amniotic band syndrome: A clinical brief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasaradha Ramireddy Malireddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic band syndrome (ABS results from bands of amnion entangling fetal parts. They may manifest as constriction rings or complex congenital anomalies resulting in stillbirth. Karyotyping is important for exclusion of inherited disorders and proper counseling. Two case reports one stillbirth and the other with constriction ring of fingers and mild hydronephrosis are presented. The aim of this paper is to make awareness and stress the need for doing thorough work-up in all cases of constriction bands.

  10. Amniotic Fluid β2- Microglobulin Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Aydın

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine β2-microglobulin levels in amniotic fluid during the course of second trimester. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred patient’s amniotic fluid β2-microglobulin levels had been evaluated retrospectively (March-October 2009. The most common amniocentesis indication was advanced maternal age (33.3%. Others were; high risk result for triple test (18.5%, high risk result for double test (6.48%, ventriculomegaly (5.55%, obstetric history for fetus with down syndrome (4.62%, the presence of soft markers on ultrasound (13.8%, others (17.8%. Patients average gravida was 2.66 (range: 1-6, parity was 0.75 (range: 0-3, abortion was 0.65 (range: 0-3. RESULTS: All patients were at second trimester and the average gestational week was 17.7 (range 15- 22. Patients were divided into four groups (15th, 16th, 17-18th and 19-20th gestational weeks. We have demonstrated that amniotic fluid β2-microglobulin levels are increased progressively throughout the second trimester. We have specified normal β2-microglobulin values of each gestational week/period in order to be used in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that amnionic fluid β2-microglobulin levels are increased progressively throughout the second trimester.

  11. THE SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF A PERIPHERAL VENO-VENOUS EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION FOR SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE IN THE EARLY PERIOD AFTER ADULT LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: of our clinical study was to present own experience of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO for the treatment of an adult patient (female, 28 yrs, 150 cm, 35 kg with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in the early period after liver transplantation against satisfactory liver graft function. Materials and methods. Double-lumen cannula 22 F was placed percutaneously in the right internal jugular vein. The ext- racorporeal contour reduced in length and the polymethylpeptene oxygenator (priming volume 175 ml were also. Results. In 1 hour after the beginning of VV ECMO, we registered the noted improvement of arterial blood gas and acid-base balance (regress of respiratory acidosis, improvement of arterial oxygenation which allowed us to use the «protective» mode of mechanical ventilation. Improvement of gas exchange and regress of clinical and radiological manifestations of ARDS allowed for VV ECMO weaning and decannulation on day 7. The patient was discharged from ICU and then from our Centre to a homestay respectively on the 9th and 16th day after VV ECMO weaning with the satisfactory liver graft and lungs function. Conclusion. VV ECMO can be successfully applied to correct the life-threatening acute respiratory failure in the early period after liver transplantation

  12. Vaginal Lactoferrin Modulates PGE2, MMP-9, MMP-2, and TIMP-1 Amniotic Fluid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Trentini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays an important role in pregnancy, and cytokine and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs imbalance has been associated with premature rupture of membranes and increased risk of preterm delivery. Previous studies have demonstrated that lactoferrin (LF, an iron-binding protein with anti-inflammatory properties, is able to decrease amniotic fluid (AF levels of IL-6. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of vaginal LF administration on amniotic fluid PGE2 level and MMP-TIMP system in women undergoing genetic amniocentesis. One hundred and eleven women were randomly divided into controls (n=57 or treated with LF 4 hours before amniocentesis (n=54. Amniotic fluid PGE2, active MMP-9 and MMP-2, and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 concentrations were determined by commercially available assays and the values were normalized by AF creatinine concentration. PGE2, active MMP-9, and its inhibitor TIMP-1 were lower in LF-treated group than in controls (p<0.01, p<0.005, and p<0.001, resp.. Conversely, active MMP-2 (p<0.0001 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 molar ratio (p<0.001 were increased, whilst TIMP-2 was unchanged. Our data suggest that LF administration is able to modulate the inflammatory response following amniocentesis, which may counteract cytokine and prostanoid imbalance that leads to abortion. This trial is registered with Clinical Trial number NCT02695563.

  13. Amniotic Tissues for the Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciosis and Achilles Tendinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Werber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Allogeneic amniotic tissue and fluid may be used to treat chronic plantar fasciosis and Achilles tendinosis. This innovative approach involves delivering a unique allograft of live human cells in a nonimmunogenic structural tissue matrix to treat chronic tendon injury. These tissues convey very positive regenerative attributes; procurement is performed with maternal consent during elective caesarian birth. Materials and Methods. In the present investigation all patients were unresponsive to multiple standard therapies for a minimum of 6 months and were treated with one implantation of PalinGen SportFLOW around the plantar fascia and/or around the Achilles paratenon. The patients were given a standard protocol for postimplant active rehabilitation. Results. The analogue pretreatment pain score (VAS of 8. By the fourth week after treatment, all patients had significantly reduced self-reported pain. Twelve weeks following the procedure the average pain level had reduced to only 2. No adverse reactions were reported in any of the patients. Conclusion. All patients in this study experienced heel or Achilles pain, unresponsive to standard therapy protocols. After treatment all patients noted significant pain reduction, indicating that granulized amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid can be successfully used to treat both chronic plantar fasciosis and Achilles tendinosis.

  14. Amniotic fluid protein profiles of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kacerovsky

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the amniotic fluid protein profiles and the intensity of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria, using the multiplex xMAP technology. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. A total of 145 pregnant women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes between gestational age 24+0 and 36+6 weeks were included in the study. Amniocenteses were performed. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The levels of specific proteins were determined using multiplex xMAP technology. RESULTS: The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria in the amniotic fluid was associated with increased levels of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, brain-derived neurotropic factor, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, and matrix metalloproteinasis-9. Ureaplasma spp. were also associated with increased levels of neurotropin-3 and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Ureaplasma spp. in the amniotic fluid is associated with a slightly different protein profile of inflammatory response, but the intensity of inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. is comparable with the inflammatory response to other bacteria.

  15. Amniotic fluid protein profiles of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Celec, Peter; Vlkova, Barbora; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Cobo, Teresa; Jacobsson, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the amniotic fluid protein profiles and the intensity of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria, using the multiplex xMAP technology. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. A total of 145 pregnant women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes between gestational age 24+0 and 36+6 weeks were included in the study. Amniocenteses were performed. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The levels of specific proteins were determined using multiplex xMAP technology. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria in the amniotic fluid was associated with increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, brain-derived neurotropic factor, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, and matrix metalloproteinasis-9. Ureaplasma spp. were also associated with increased levels of neurotropin-3 and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. in the amniotic fluid is associated with a slightly different protein profile of inflammatory response, but the intensity of inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. is comparable with the inflammatory response to other bacteria.

  16. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  17. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  18. In vitro culture of mouse embryos amniotic fluid ID human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... Because human amniotic fluid is a physiological, balanced ultrafiltrate, it has been considered as an inexpensive alternative culture medium in. IVF. A study of the development of mouse embryos in human amniotic fluid was undertaken to assess the suitability of this as an optional culture medium in human ...

  19. Amniotic fluid stem cells: a promising therapeutic resource for cell-based regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Ivana; Pantalone, Andrea; Tete, Stefano; Salini, Vincenzo; Borlongan, Cesar V; Hess, David; Stuppia, Liborio

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells have been proposed as a powerful tool in the treatment of several human diseases, both for their ability to represent a source of new cells to replace those lost due to tissue injuries or degenerative diseases, and for the ability of produce trophic molecules able to minimize damage and promote recovery in the injured tissue. Different cell types, such as embryonic, fetal or adult stem cells, human fetal tissues and genetically engineered cell lines, have been tested for their ability to replace damaged cells and to restore the tissue function after transplantation. Amniotic fluid -derived Stem cells (AFS) are considered a novel resource for cell transplantation therapy, due to their high renewal capacity, the "in vitro" expression of embryonic cell lineage markers, and the ability to differentiate in tissues derived from all the three embryonic layers. Moreover, AFS do not produce teratomas when transplanted into animals and are characterized by a low antigenicity, which could represent an advantage for cell transplantation or cell replacement therapy. The present review focuses on the biological features of AFS, and on their potential use in the treatment of pathological conditions such as ischemic brain injury and bone damages.

  20. Thermoresponsive polyurethane/siloxane membrane for wound dressing and cell sheet transplantation: In-vitro and in-vivo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezapour-Lactoee, Alireza [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14177-55469 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yeganeh, Hamid, E-mail: h.yeganeh@ippi.ac.ir [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box: 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ostad, Seyed Nasser, E-mail: ostadnas@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14177-55469 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 16 Azar St, Enqelab Sq, Tehran 1417614411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharibi, Reza [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14177-55469 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, Zohreh [Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14177-55469 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Polyurethane/siloxane based wound dressing for transferring fibroblast cell sheet to wounded skin and ability to provide an optimum condition for cellular activity at damaged tissue was prepared in this research. The dressing was made thermoresponsive, via the introduction of a poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) copolymer into the backbone of dressing. The ability of membrane for adhesion, growth, and proliferation of fibroblast cells was improved via surface modification with gelatin. The optimized dressing exhibited appropriate tensile strength (4.5 MPa) and elongation at break (80%) to protect wound against physical forces. Due to controlled equilibrium water absorption of about 89% and water vapor transmission rate of 2040 g/m{sup 2} day, the dressing could maintain the favorable moist environment over moderate to high exuding wounds. The grown cell sheet on dressing membrane could easily roll up from the surface just with lowering the temperature. The in vivo study of the wound dressed with cell loaded membrane confirmed the accelerated healing and production of tissue with complete re-epithelization, enhanced vascularization, and increased collagen deposition on the damaged area. - Highlights: • Versatile polymerization procedure to prepare wound dressing membranes • Improved cytocompatibility to support growth and proliferation of seeded fibroblasts • Utilizing thermoresponsive characteristic to transfer cell sheet to damaged tissue • Excellent physicomechanical properties of dressings to protect wound bed • Excellent fluid handling to provide moist environment over wounded tissue.

  1. The evolution of tail weaponization in amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M; Zanno, Lindsay E

    2018-01-31

    Weaponry, for the purpose of intraspecific combat or predator defence, is one of the most widespread animal adaptations, yet the selective pressures and constraints governing its phenotypic diversity and skeletal regionalization are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of tail weaponry in amniotes, a rare form of weaponry that nonetheless evolved independently among a broad spectrum of life including mammals, turtles and dinosaurs. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we test for links between morphology, ecology and behaviour in extant amniotes known to use the tail as a weapon, and in extinct taxa bearing osseous tail armaments. We find robust ecological and morphological correlates of both tail lashing behaviour and bony tail weaponry, including large body size, body armour and herbivory, suggesting these life-history parameters factor into the evolution of antipredator behaviours and tail armaments. We suggest that the evolution of tail weaponry is rare because large, armoured herbivores are uncommon in extant terrestrial faunas, as they have been throughout evolutionary history. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  3. Amniotic fluid embolism and isolated coagulopathy: atypical presentation of amniotic fluid embolism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Awad, I T

    2012-02-03

    A 41-year-old multigravida presented at 32 weeks of gestation with polyhydramnios and an anencephalic fetus. Abnormal bleeding as a result of disseminated intravascular coagulation complicated an emergency Caesarean section for severe abdominal pain thought to be due to uterine rupture. Massive transfusion with blood products was necessary and the abdomen packed to control bleeding. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit where she made a slow but complete recovery. Amniotic fluid embolism with atypical presentation of isolated coagulopathy is the likely diagnosis in this case. The case serves to demonstrate that amniotic fluid embolism may present with symptoms and signs other than the classical pattern of dyspnoea, cyanosis and hypotension.

  4. Fetal- and uterine-specific antigens in human amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, R G; Brock, D J; Nicholson, L V; Dunn, E

    1978-09-01

    Removal of the major maternal serum proteins from second trimester amniotic fluid by antibody affinity chromatography revealed various soluble tissue antigens, of which two were fetal-specific skin proteins and another, of alpha2-mobility, was specific to the uterus, and was therefore designated alpha-uterine protein (AUP). These proteins could not be detected in maternal serum by antibody-antigen crossed electrophoresis. The concentration of AUP in amniotic fluid reached a maximum between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation, suggesting that there is an influx of uterine protein into the amniotic fluid at this stage of pregnancy.

  5. Oral Rehabilitation for Amniotic Band Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotwani, Kavita; Sharma, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a congenital disorder caused by entrapment of fetal parts in fibrous amniotic bands while in utero. The syndrome is underdiagnosed and its presentation is variable. The syndrome has been well described in the pediatric, orthopedic and obstetric literature; however, despite the discernable craniomaxillofacial involvement, ABS has not been reported in the dental literature very often. The present report describes a case of a patient with ABS and concomitant dental findings. How to cite this article: Hotwani K, Sharma K. Oral Rehabilitation for Amniotic Band Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):55-57.

  6. High MMP-9 and TNF-α expression increase in preterm premature rupture of membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sulistyowati

    2016-05-01

    Expression of MMP-9 and TNF-α was higher in the amniotic membrane of preterm delivery subjects with PROM than in preterm delivery subjects without PROM and can thus be used as predictor to avoid PPROM.

  7. GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS CIRCUMVENTS NEUTROPHILS AND NEUTROPHIL EXTRACELLULAR TRAPS DURING AMNIOTIC CAVITY INVASION AND PRETERM LABOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldenow, Erica; Gendrin, Claire; Ngo, Lisa; Bierle, Craig; Vornhagen, Jay; Coleman, Michelle; Merillat, Sean; Armistead, Blair; Whidbey, Christopher; Alishetti, Varchita; Santana-Ufret, Veronica; Ogle, Jason; Gough, Michael; Srinouanprachanh, Sengkeo; MacDonald, James W; Bammler, Theo K; Bansal, Aasthaa; Liggitt, H. Denny; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Waldorf, Kristina M Adams

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is associated with the majority of early preterm births, the temporal events that occur during MIAC and preterm labor are not known. Group B Streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria, which commonly colonize the vagina but have been recovered from the amniotic fluid in preterm birth cases. To understand temporal events that occur during MIAC, we utilized a unique chronically catheterized nonhuman primate model that closely emulates human pregnancy. This model allows monitoring of uterine contractions, timing of MIAC and immune responses during pregnancy-associated infections. Here, we show that adverse outcomes such as preterm labor, MIAC, and fetal sepsis were observed more frequently during infection with hemolytic GBS when compared to nonhemolytic GBS. Although MIAC was associated with systematic progression in chorioamnionitis beginning with chorionic vasculitis and progressing to neutrophilic infiltration, the ability of the GBS hemolytic pigment toxin to induce neutrophil cell death and subvert killing by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in placental membranes in vivo facilitated MIAC and fetal injury. Furthermore, compared to maternal neutrophils, fetal neutrophils exhibit decreased neutrophil elastase activity and impaired phagocytic functions to GBS. Collectively, our studies demonstrate how a unique bacterial hemolytic lipid toxin enables GBS to circumvent neutrophils and NETs in placental membranes to induce fetal injury and preterm labor. PMID:27819066

  8. Testosterone determination in amniotic fluid for sec diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroa C, M.M.

    1985-11-01

    This study was carried on 50 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from pregnant patients with gestation old of 38 to 40 weeks; diagnosis of the foetus sex was made by measuring the testosterone levels by radioimmunoassay technique. It was found that 94% of the cases were correctly diagnosed. The testosterone levels found in the amniotic fluid of male and female foetus were significantly different (L<0.01) these confirm the efficacy of the method. (author)

  9. Amniotic Fluid Cells Proliferation in Normal and Down Syndrome Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcea Adina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome/Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal anomaly, and it represents the most common congenital cause of infants’ intellectual disability. Subjects with this syndrome are affected by degenerative processes caused by accelerated aging or unknown ethyologies. In recent years, accumulating evidence revealed increased potential of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells to be used in regenerative therapy. Our aim was to assess differences in immunophenotype, cell morphology and proliferation of amniotic fluid cells from normal and Down Syndrome pregnancies using a quantitative cytometry approach. Results revealed the emergence of a population of small sized cells in Down Syndrome derived amniotic fluid cells that are readily visible upon microscopic inspection. Hence, the fluorescence–based quantitative image cytometry determinations showed a tendency of decrease in both cell and nuclei size in trisomy, with no significant modification in nuclei circularity, as measured following actin cytoskeleton and nuclei labeling. The propensity of Ki67 positive cells was found to be increased in Down Syndrome derived cells (48.92% as compared to normal specimens (28.68%. However, cells in S and G2/M cell cycle phases decreased from 32.91% to 4.49% in diseased cells. Further studies are devoted to understanding the molecular basis of the observed differences in the proliferation ability of Down Syndrome amniotic cells, in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of amniotic fluid stem cells for tissue regeneration in subjects with trisomy and to find correlations between amniotic cells phenotype and patient prognosis.

  10. Pup retrieval and maternal attraction to canine amniotic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, I; Ranson, E; Buehler, M

    1981-10-01

    Three purebred female beagles were observed with both their first and second litters. Dams were given three separate simultaneous-choice retrieval tests: In addition, the maternal response to amniotic fluids was observed when one pup in the litter was treated with amniotic fluids and all other pups were treated with water. There was no evidence to suggest that pups were retrieved preferentially on the basis of their sex. One female retrieved her own but not alien pups, whereas another female made no such discrimination and readily retrieved alien pups in addition to her own. Retrieval behavior developed at the time of each whelping and normally lasted until the pups were about 5 days old, although a bitch would retrieve younger (alien) pups up to 14 days post partum. Maternal bitches were strongly attracted towards amniotic fluids: they investigated pups daubed with amniotic fluids to a significantly greater extent than control pups treated with water. The attraction of maternal females towards amniotic fluids developed at the time of each whelping and persisted for up to 30 days, well beyond the time that a whelping bitch would normally be exposed to her own fetal fluids. A possible role for amniotic fluids in the development of maternal behaviour and the establishment of the maternal/puppy bond is discussed. Copyright © 1981. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. In-vivo expansion of autologous limbal stem cell using simple limbal epithelial transplantation for treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Ikeda; Panchal, Bhavik Uttam; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old man from Bangladesh suffered accidental alkali injury to his right eye in May 2010 leading to total limbal stem cell deficiency. An amniotic membrane graft was performed 5 days after the accident and the patient presented to our institute 6 months later. On ocular examination, his best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/50 with a 360° pannus at the periphery and central area was spared but had stromal scarring. He underwent simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) taking a limbal biopsy from his left eye and was prescribed steroid and antibiotic eye drops postoperatively as per the standard regimen. At 2 year follow-up, the patient's ocular surface is stable with improvement in  BCVA to 20/25 post-SLET. PMID:23704435

  12. * Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Favorable Source for Cartilage Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños-López, Emma; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; de Toro-Santos, Javier; Blanco, Francisco Javier; Díaz-Prado, Silvia María

    2017-09-01

    Localized trauma-derived breakdown of the hyaline articular cartilage may progress toward osteoarthritis, a degenerative condition characterized by total loss of articular cartilage and joint function. Tissue engineering technologies encompass several promising approaches with high therapeutic potential for the treatment of these focal defects. However, most of the research in tissue engineering is focused on potential materials and structural cues, while little attention is directed to the most appropriate source of cells endowing these materials. In this study, using human amniotic membrane (HAM) as scaffold, we defined a novel static in vitro model for cartilage repair. In combination with HAM, four different cell types, human chondrocytes, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs), human amniotic epithelial cells, and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) were assessed determining their therapeutic potential. A chondral lesion was drilled in human cartilage biopsies simulating a focal defect. A pellet of different cell types was implanted inside the lesion and covered with HAM. The biopsies were maintained for 8 weeks in culture. Chondrogenic differentiation in the defect was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. HAM scaffold showed good integration and adhesion to the native cartilage in all groups. Although all cell types showed the capacity of filling the focal defect, hBMSCs and hAMSCs demonstrated higher levels of new matrix synthesis. However, only the hAMSCs-containing group presented a significant cytoplasmic content of type II collagen when compared with chondrocytes. More collagen type I was identified in the new synthesized tissue of hBMSCs. In accordance, hBMSCs and hAMSCs showed better International Cartilage Research Society scoring although without statistical significance. HAM is a useful material for articular cartilage repair in vitro when used as scaffold. In combination with hAMSCs, HAM showed better

  13. Effects of topical 0.2% Cyclosporine A on corneal neovascularization induced by xenologous amniotic membrane implantation into a corneal stroma micropocket of rats Efeitos do uso tópico da Ciclosporina A (CsA 0,2% na neovascularização corneal induzida pelo implante de membrana amniótica xenógena em microbolsa no estroma da córnea de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana F. Milani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the topical effects of 0.2% Cyclosporine A (CsA on corneal neovascularization of rats following surgical implantation of equine amniotic membrane into a corneal stroma micropocket. The implantation of xenologous amniotic membrane was performed bilaterally in 90 rats. In the same day of the surgery each right eye started receiving topical CsA twice a day. The left eye received no medication and served as a control. The evaluation of corneal neovascularization was performed by computerized image analysis and histopathological evaluation at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days postoperatively. For the image analysis 10 animals were used per time period, and for the histopathological examination, five animals were used per time period. Image analysis found that corneal neovascularization began on the 3rd postoperative day, reached its peak on the 7th day, and then progressively and rapidly decreased. Statistic analysis indicated that neovascularization of the CsA treated eye on the 7th day was significantly higher than that observed in untreated eyes. On the 30th day, however, this pattern was reversed with the neovascularization observed in the CsA treated eyes declining to the low levels observed on the 3rd day. The degree of neovascularization in the untreated eyes on the 30th day declined to the baseline levels found on day 3 at the 60th day. Histopathological analysis indicated that deposition of collagen in the implanted tissue was completed by the 15th day. Therefore, we concluded that (1 equine amniotic membrane in rat corneal stroma produced an intense neovascularization until the 15th day postoperatively and then regressed, (2 deposition of collagen of the implanted tissue was completed on the 15th day postoperatively, and (3 use of CsA was associated with increase in the corneal neovascularization initially, followed by a quick and intense regression.Este estudo teve como objetivo a avaliação dos

  14. Diagnosis of foetal membrane ruptures: Placental alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Pre‑labour rupture of membranes (PROM) is a common obstetric complication which presents a diagnostic challenge, especially in equivocal ... problematic with the need to balance the risk of prematurity with that of prolonged ... array of rapid, minimally invasive tests based on biochemical markers in amniotic fluid ...

  15. Intestine Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  16. INFLUENCE OF AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX ON FOETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In these days of smaller families and the obstetrician having to share the onus of giving a healthy child capable of independent existence as well as to ensure that the population is limited for further progress of this developing country, the estimation o f foetal maturity assumes greatest practical importance. As means to achieving the end, estimates of foetal maturity have been done by various clinical and laboratory methods of which assessment of amniotic fluid index assumes importance. The objective is to study the correlation of amniotic fluid index on foetal outcome at term gestation . MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on two hundred antenatal women who attended the institute of obstetrics and gynaecology at a Government Hospital for Wome n and Children in Visakhapatnam from Jan 2014 to Jan 2015. It is a comparative prospective study comparing 100 cases of Oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid index 5 cm as control group. RESU LTS : Perinatal outcome was inferred by noting the various parameters and Statistical Analysis was done by applying the chisquare (x2 test and the value of probability was taken . CONCLUSION: The goal of antepartum fetal surveillance is to identify the fetu s at increased risk. Amniotic fluid volume has been proved as an indirect measure of feto - placental function and hence the estimation of amniotic fluid volume assists the obstetrician in risk assessment

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of Bartter syndrome: amniotic fluid aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Myriam; Dreux, Sophie; Pean de Ponfilly, Gauthier; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Czerkiewicz, Isabelle; Chevenne, Didier; Oury, Jean-François; Deschênes, Georges; Muller, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    Bartter syndrome is a severe inherited tubulopathy characterized at birth by salt wasting, severe polyuria, dehydration, growth retardation and secondary hyperaldosteronism. Prenatally, the disease is usually discovered following onset of severe polyhydramnios. We studied amniotic fluid aldosterone concentration in cases of Bartter syndrome and in control groups. Amniotic fluid aldosterone was assayed by radioimmunoassay. We undertook a retrospective case-control study based on 36 cases of postnatally diagnosed Bartter syndrome and 144 controls matched for gestational age. Two controls groups were defined: controls with polyhydramnios (n=72) and control without polyhydramnios (n=72). Amniotic fluid aldosterone was compared between the three groups. The median amniotic fluid aldosterone concentration in the Bartter syndrome group (90 pg/mL) did not differ significantly from that in the controls with polyhydramnios (90 pg/mL, p=0.33) or the controls without polyhydramnios (87 pg/mL, p=0.41). In conclusion, amniotic fluid aldosterone assay cannot be used for prenatal diagnosis of Bartter syndrome.

  18. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and Treatment with Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut Selver, Özlem; Yağcı, Ayşe; Eğrilmez, Sait; Gürdal, Mehmet; Palamar, Melis; Çavuşoğlu, Türker; Ateş, Utku; Veral, Ali; Güven, Çağrı; Wolosin, Jose Mario

    2017-10-01

    The cornea is the outermost tissue of the eye and it must be transparent for the maintenance of good visual function. The superficial epithelium of the cornea, which is renewed continuously by corneal stem cells, plays a critical role in the permanence of this transparency. These stem cells are localized at the cornea-conjunctival transition zone, referred to as the limbus. When this zone is affected/destroyed, limbal stem cell deficiency ensues. Loss of limbal stem cell function allows colonization of the corneal surface by conjunctival epithelium. Over 6 million people worldwide are affected by corneal blindness, and limbal stem cell deficiency is one of the main causes. Fortunately, it is becoming possible to recover vision by autologous transplantation of limbal cells obtained from the contralateral eye in unilateral cases. Due to the potential risks to the donor eye, only a small amount of tissue can be obtained, in which only 1-2% of the limbal epithelial cells are actually limbal stem cells. Vigorous attempts are being made to expand limbal stem cells in culture to preserve or even enrich the stem cell population. Ex vivo expanded limbal stem cell treatment in limbal stem cell deficiency was first reported in 1997. In the 20 years since, various protocols have been developed for the cultivation of limbal epithelial cells. It is still not clear which method promotes effective stem cell viability and this remains a subject of ongoing research. The most preferred technique for limbal cell culture is the explant culture model. In this approach, a small donor eye limbal biopsy is placed as an explant onto a biocompatible substrate (preferably human amniotic membrane) for expansion. The outgrowth (cultivated limbal epithelial cells) is then surgically transferred to the recipient eye. Due to changing regulations concerning cell-based therapy, the implementation of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice using

  19. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure the...

  20. A rare combination of amniotic constriction band with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Krupa Hitesh; Shah, Hitesh

    2015-11-11

    Amniotic constriction bands and osteogenesis imperfecta are disorders arising from a collagen defect. We report a rare association of amniotic bands with osteogenesis imperfecta in a child. The child was born with multiple amniotic bands involving the right leg, both hands and both feet. Multiple fractures of long bones of lower limbs occurred in childhood due to trivial trauma. Deformities of the femur and tibia due to malunion with osteopenia and blue sclerae were present. The patient was treated with z plasty of constriction band of the right tibia and bisphosphonate for osteogenesis imperfecta. This rare association of both collagen diseases may provide further insight for the pathogenesis of these diseases. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, Ivana; Pliskova, Lenka; Kutova, Radka; Jacobsson, Bo; Paterova, Pavla; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the vagina and the amniotic fluid in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). The next aim was to evaluate the incidence of S. agalactiae early onset sepsis in newborns from PPROM pregnancies, with respect to the presence of S. agalactiae in the vagina and the amniotic fluid. Singleton gestations with PPROM between 24 + 0 and 36 + 6 were included. A vaginal swab was obtained, and amniocentesis was performed at admission. The presence of S. agalactiae in the vagina and in the amniotic fluid was assessed by culture and by real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. In total, 336 women were included. The presence of S. agalactiae in the vaginal and amniotic fluid was found in 9% (31/336) and 1% (3/336) of women. One woman had S. agalactiae in the amniotic fluid but was negative for the presence of S. agalactiae in the vaginal fluid. Early onset neonatal sepsis developed in one newborn from pregnancies complicated by the presence of S. agalactiae in the amniotic fluid. The presence of S. agalactiae in the vagina and amniotic fluid complicated approximately each 10th and each 100th PPROM pregnancy. Cultivation-negative findings of S. agalactiae in the vagina did not exclude the positivity of the amniotic fluid for S. agalactiae and the development of early onset sepsis in newborns.

  2. Treatment of PPROM with anhydramnion in humans: first experience with different amniotic fluid substitutes for continuous amnioinfusion through a subcutaneously implanted port system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchirikov, Michael; Bapayeva, Gauri; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay Sh; Dridi, Yasmina; Harnisch, Ralf; Herrmann, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to treat patients with preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) and anhydramnion using continuous amnioinfusion through a subcutaneously implanted port system. An amniotic fluid replacement port system was implanted in seven patients with PPROM and anhydramnion starting at the 20th week of gestation (range, 14-26 weeks) for long-term amnioinfusion. Saline solutions (2 L/day; Jonosteril(®), Sterofundin(®), isotonic NaCl 0.9% solution, lactated Ringer's solution) and a hypotonic aqueous composition with reduced chloride content similar to the electrolyte concentration of human amniotic fluid were used for the continuous amnioinfusion. The mean duration of the PPROM delivery interval continued for 49 days (range, 9-69 days), with 3 weeks of amnioinfusion via the port system (range, 4-49). The newborns showed no signs of lung hypoplasia. Long-term lavage of the amniotic cavity via a subcutaneously implanted port system in patients with PPROM and anhydramnion may help prolong the pregnancy and avoid fetal lung hypoplasia. A hypotonic aqueous composition with reduced chloride content similar to human amniotic fluid can be safely used for amnioinfusion. Prospective randomized studies are ongoing.

  3. The anterior lens capsule used as support material in RPE cell-transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolini, J; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Wiencke, A K

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the use of an ocular basement membrane as support material for transplanted porcine RPE cells.......To investigate the use of an ocular basement membrane as support material for transplanted porcine RPE cells....

  4. Intrinsic factor in human amniotic fluid as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstedt, V.; Stenman, U.-H.; Ylinen, K.; Graesbeck, R.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic factor (IF) concentration in 55 human amniotic fluid specimens was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The antiserum was produced by immunizing rabbits with the cobalamin-IF complex isolated from human gastric juice. The median concentration of IF was 0.17 nmol/l and the extreme values <0.07-2.51 nmol/l. Three specimens with a clearly elevated level (0.96, 1.11 and 2.51 nmol/l) were observed. The highest value was associated with a fetal malformation, viz. obstruction of the proximal gut. There was no evident correlation between the concentration of IF in amniotic fluid and gestational age. (author)

  5. SOX9 as a Predictor for Neurogenesis Potentiality of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pei-Cih; Chao, Angel; Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Chao, An-Shine; Chang, Yao-Lung; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Wang, Hsin-Shih; Chang, Yu-Jen; Tsai, Ming-Song; Sieber, Martin; Chen, Hua-Chien; Chen, Shu-Jen; Lee, Yun-Shien

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical studies of amniotic fluid-derived cell therapy have been successful in the research of neurodegenerative diseases, peripheral nerve injury, spinal cord injury, and brain ischemia. Transplantation of human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) into rat brain ventricles has shown improvement in symptoms of Parkinson's disease and also highlighted the minimal immune rejection risk of AFSCs, even between species. Although AFSCs appeared to be a promising resource for cell-based regenerative therapy, AFSCs contain a heterogeneous pool of distinct cell types, rendering each preparation of AFSCs unique. Identification of predictive markers for neuron-prone AFSCs is necessary before such stem cell-based therapeutics can become a reality. In an attempt to identify markers of AFSCs to predict their ability for neurogenesis, we performed a two-phase study. In the discovery phase of 23 AFSCs, we tested ZNF521/Zfp521, OCT6, SOX1, SOX2, SOX3, and SOX9 as predictive markers of AFSCs for neural differentiation. In the validation phase, the efficacy of these predictive markers was tested in independent sets of 18 AFSCs and 14 dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). We found that high expression of SOX9 in AFSCs is associated with good neurogenetic ability, and these positive correlations were confirmed in independent sets of AFSCs and DPSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of SOX9 in AFSCs inhibited their neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, the discovery of SOX9 as a predictive marker for neuron-prone AFSCs could expedite the selection of useful clones for regenerative medicine, in particular, in neurological diseases and injuries. PMID:25154783

  6. Amniotic band-like structures | Govender | Obstetrics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-amniotic band-like structures are seen fairly commonly on routine obstetric scans, especially during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. It is important to establish the cause for such findings in order to determine their clinical significance and to assess prognosis. The vast majority of band-like structures are ...

  7. Amniotic fluid as a source of engraftable stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar V Borlongan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of stem cells to differentiate into various lineages has made them powerful tools of regenerative medicine and applicable to multiple human diseases. Of particular interest, amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC have been characterized to express both adult and embryonic cell markers, indicating them as cells within an intermediate stage between embryonic and adult phenotype. AFSC can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, including hepatic, myogenic, osteogenic, and neurogenic cell types. Furthermore, AFSC have minimal replicative senescence, retaining the ability to divide effectively for over 250 doublings. These facts indicate that amniotic fluid may exist as a promising donor source of stem cells for the treatment of multiple clinically relevant conditions. Of particular interest is the convenience of harvesting stem cells from the amniotic fluid stem for the treatment of newborns, as well as for banking or cryopreserving purposes to be used at a later date. Importantly, the promise of amniotic fluid as a source of stem cells merits ongoing research into their potential therapeutic applications. This paper is a review article. Referred literature in this paper has been listed in the references section. The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are available online by searching various databases, including PubMed. Some original points in this article come from the laboratory practice in our research center and the authors' experiences.

  8. Amniotic fluid MMP-9 and neurotrophins in autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Pearce, Brad D; Larsen, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are caused by errors in brain plasticity. Given the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neurotrophins (NTs) in neuroplasticity, amniotic fluid samples for 331 ASD cases and 698...

  9. Amniotic fluid index predicts the relief of variable decelerations after amnioinfusion bolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, C Y; McKindsey, F; Ross, M G

    1996-10-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether intrapartum amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion can be used to predict response to therapeutic amnioinfusion. Intrapartum patients (n = 85) with repetitive variable decelerations in fetal heart rate that necessitated amnioinfusion (10 ml/min for 60 minutes) underwent determination of amniotic fluid index before and after bolus amnioinfusion. The fetal heart tracing was scored (scorer blinded to amniotic fluid index values) for number and characteristics of variable decelerations before and 1 hour after initiation of amnioinfusion. The amnioinfusion was considered successful if it resulted in a decrease of > or = 50% in total number of variable decelerations or a decrease of > or = 50% in the rate of atypical or severe variable decelerations after administration of the bolus. Spontaneous vaginal births before completion of administration of the bolus (n = 18) were excluded from analysis. The probability of success of amnioinfusion in relation to amniotic fluid index was analyzed with the chi(2) test for progressive sequence. The mean amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion was 6.2 +/- 3.3 cm. An amniotic fluid index of amnioinfusion decreased with increasing amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion (76% [16/21] when initial amniotic fluid index was 0 to 4 cm, 63% [17/27] when initial amniotic fluid index was 4 to 8 cm, 44% [7/16] when initial amniotic fluid index was 8 to 12 cm, and 33% [1/3] when initial amniotic fluid index was > 12 cm, p = 0.03). The incidence of nuchal cords or true umbilical cord knots increased in relation to amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion. Amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion can be used to predict the success of amnioinfusion for relief of variable decelerations in fetal heart rate. Failure of amnioinfusion at a high amniotic fluid index before amnioinfusion may be explained by the increased prevalence of nuchal cords or true knots in the umbilical cord.

  10. Intra-amniotic pharmacological blockade of inflammatory signalling pathways in an ovine chorioamnionitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, D J; Kemp, M W; Miura, Y; Saito, M; Newnham, J P; Keelan, J A

    2015-05-01

    Intrauterine inflammation (IUI) associated with infection is the major cause of preterm birth (PTB) at PTBs. Pharmacological strategies to prevent PTB and improve fetal outcomes will likely require both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapies. Here we investigated the effects of two cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs), compounds that specifically target inflammatory signalling pathways, in an ovine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chorioamnionitis. Chronically catheterized ewes at 116 days gestation (n = 7/group) received an intra-amniotic (IA) bolus of LPS (10 mg) plus vehicle or CSAIDS: TPCA-1 (1.2 mg/kg fetal weight) or 5z-7-oxozeaenol (OxZnl; 0.4 mg/kg fetal weight); controls received vehicle (dimethylsulphoxide). Amniotic fluid (AF), fetal and maternal blood samples were taken 0, 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h later; tissues were taken at autopsy (48 h). Administration of TPCA-1 or OxZnl abrogated the stimulatory effects of LPS (P < 0.01 versus vehicle control) on production of PGE2 in AF, with lesser (non-significant) effects on IL-6 production. Fetal membrane polymorphonuclear cell infiltration score was significantly higher in LPS versus vehicle control animals (P < 0.01), and this difference was absent with TPCA-1 and OxZnl treatment. LPS-induced systemic fetal inflammation was highly variable, with no significant effects of CSAIDs observed. Lung inflammation was evident with LPS exposure, but unaffected by CSAID treatment. We have shown in a large animal model that IA administration of a single dose of CSAIDs can suppress LPS-induced IA inflammatory responses, while fetal effects were minimal. Further development and investigation of these compounds in infectious models is warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Amniotic fluid stem cells prevent follicle atresia and rescue fertility of mice with premature ovarian failure induced by chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guan-Yu; Liu, I-Hsuan; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chang, Chia-Chun; Lee, Yen-Hua; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kuei; Wu, Shinn-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy used to treat cancer may cause irreversible premature ovarian failure (POF). Of late, amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) provide a novel source for regenerative medicine because of their primitive stage, low immunogenicity, and easy accessibility. In this study, we isolated AFSCs from transgenic mice that ubiquitously express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). These AFSCs exhibited morphologies, immunophenotypes, and mesoderm trilineage differentiation potentials similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Further, AFSCs proliferated faster than MSCs and expressed OCT4, a marker for pluripotency. To investigate their potential in recovering fertility in POF model, AFSCs were transplanted into the ovaries of mice with POF six weeks post induction using chemotherapeutic drugs, busulfan and cyclophosphamide. AFSCs could rescue the reproductive ability of mice with POF by preventing follicle atresia and sustaining the healthy follicles. Notably, the transplanted AFSCs did not differentiate into granulosa and germline cells in vivo. After one month, the decreased numbers of transplanted AFSCs accompanied with the reduced beneficial effects indicated that the therapeutic efficacy were directly from AFSCs. These findings demonstrated the therapeutic effects of AFSCs and suggested the promise of AFSCs for treating infertility and POF caused by chemotherapy.

  12. Amniotic fluid stem cells prevent follicle atresia and rescue fertility of mice with premature ovarian failure induced by chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Yu Xiao

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy used to treat cancer may cause irreversible premature ovarian failure (POF. Of late, amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs provide a novel source for regenerative medicine because of their primitive stage, low immunogenicity, and easy accessibility. In this study, we isolated AFSCs from transgenic mice that ubiquitously express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP. These AFSCs exhibited morphologies, immunophenotypes, and mesoderm trilineage differentiation potentials similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Further, AFSCs proliferated faster than MSCs and expressed OCT4, a marker for pluripotency. To investigate their potential in recovering fertility in POF model, AFSCs were transplanted into the ovaries of mice with POF six weeks post induction using chemotherapeutic drugs, busulfan and cyclophosphamide. AFSCs could rescue the reproductive ability of mice with POF by preventing follicle atresia and sustaining the healthy follicles. Notably, the transplanted AFSCs did not differentiate into granulosa and germline cells in vivo. After one month, the decreased numbers of transplanted AFSCs accompanied with the reduced beneficial effects indicated that the therapeutic efficacy were directly from AFSCs. These findings demonstrated the therapeutic effects of AFSCs and suggested the promise of AFSCs for treating infertility and POF caused by chemotherapy.

  13. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The membranes surrounding the amniotic cavity are composed from amnion and chorion, tightly adherent layers which are composed of several cell types, including epithelial cells, trophoblasts cells and mesenchyme cells, embedded in a collagenous matrix. They retain amniotic fluid, secret substances into the amniotic fluid, as well as to the uterus and protect the fetus against upward infections from urogenital tract. Normally, the membranes it breaks during labor. Premature rupture of the amniotic sac (PRAS is defined as rupture of membranes before the onset of labor. Premature rupture of the fetal membrane, which occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, usually, refers to preterm premature rupture of membranes. Despite advances in the care period, premature rupture of membranes and premature rupture of membranes preterm continue to be regarded as serious obstetric complications. On the term 8% - 10% of pregnant women have premature rupture of membranes; these women are at increased risk of intrauterine infections, where the interval between membrane rupture and expulsion is rolled-over. Premature rupture of membranes preterm occurs in approximately 1% of all pregnancies and is associated with 30% -40% of preterm births. Thus, it is important to identify the cause of pre-term birth (after less than 37 completed weeks of "gestation" and its complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal infection and intraventricular hemorrhage. Objectives: the development of the protocol of the clinical trial on patients with impending preterm birth, study clinical and statistical on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients with imminent preterm birth; clinical condition of patients and selection of cases that could benefit from the application of interventional therapy; preclinical investigation (biological and imaging of patients with imminent preterm birth; the modality therapy; clinical investigation of the effectiveness of short

  14. [Intrapartum amnioinfusion in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Karina; Samborska, Monika; Bilar, Marek; Sipak-Szmigiel, Olimpia; Ronin-Walknowska, Elzbieta

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of intrapartum amnioinfusion in the presence of meconium stained amniotic fluid. 93 women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid were assigned to receive amnioinfusion or no amnioinfusion (128 women). The trials were evaluated for fetal distress syndrome, route of delivery, fetal acidemia, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min., meconium aspiration syndrome, postpartum endometritis and maternal hospital stays. Amnioinfusion in cases of meconium-stained fluid did not improve the number of fetal distress symptoms during fetal heart rate monitoring. Amnioinfusion was associated with a significant decrease of neonatal acidemia although it did not improve Apgar score. In our study amnioinfusion was not associated with reduction in the incidence of neonatal outcome and puerperial complications.

  15. RIA of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingerova, H.; Talas, M.; Stroufova, A.

    1979-01-01

    An own modification of the double antibody radioimmunoassay for AFP using 125 I-labelled AFP as a tracer, rabbit anti-AFP obtained from SEVAC, Prague and precipitating antibodies prepared by the authors is described. The AFP levels measured in the serum and the amniotic fluid using the method were in agreement with those obtained by the means of the AFPK RIA kit by SORIN in the Institute for the Care of Mother and Child in Prague. The AFP concentrations found in the cord serum and the amniotic fluid were confirmed also by the rocket electroimmunoassay according to Laurell. The described AFP RIA seems suitable for the clinical application in prenatal screening for congenital malformations, in difficult pregnancies, in hepatology and the diagnosis and the evaluation of therapy of some human malignancies. (author)

  16. RIA of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and amniotic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingerova, H; Talas, M; Stroufova, A [Palackeho Univ., Olomouc (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta; Santavy, J; Krikal, Z [Ustav pro Peci o Matku a Dite, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1979-01-01

    An own modification of the double antibody radioimmunoassay for AFP using /sup 125/I-labelled AFP as a tracer, rabbit anti-AFP obtained from SEVAC, Prague and precipitating antibodies prepared by the authors is described. The AFP levels measured in the serum and the amniotic fluid using the method were in agreement with those obtained by the means of the AFPK RIA kit by SORIN in the Institute for the Care of Mother and Child in Prague. The AFP concentrations found in the cord serum and the amniotic fluid were confirmed also by the rocket electroimmunoassay according to Laurell. The described AFP RIA seems suitable for the clinical application in prenatal screening for congenital malformations, in difficult pregnancies, in hepatology and the diagnosis and the evaluation of therapy of some human malignancies.

  17. The oldest record of aquatic amniote congenital scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Szczygielski

    Full Text Available We report the first occurrence of congenital scoliosis in an early Permian aquatic parareptile, Stereosternum tumidum from Paraná state, Brazil. The spine malformation is caused by a congenital hemivertebra. These observations give insight into the biomechanical aspects of underwater locomotion in an axial skeleton-compromised aquatic amniote. This is the oldest record of a hemivertebra in an aquatic animal.

  18. In Vitro Cardiomyogenic Potential of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Xuan; Delo, Dawn M.; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for damaged cardiac tissue is currently limited by a number of factors, including the inability to obtain sufficient cell numbers, the potential tumorigenicity of certain types of stem cells, and the possible link between stem cell therapy and the development of malignant arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated whether human amniotic fluid-derived stem (hAFS) cells could be a potential source of cells for cardiac cell therapy by testing the in vitro differentiation capab...

  19. Multilineage Potential Research of Bovine Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Gao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC. The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

  20. Results of six years of cytogenetic studies in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: research into different genetic diseases is one of the preventive programs of paramount importance at public health level. The early detection of chromosomopathies and the establishment of an appropriate strategy reduce the morbidity-morality rate and improve the patients’ quality of life.Objective: to describe the behavior of the results of the cytogenetic studies in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women from Las Tunas province during six years: from 2008 to 2014.Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study was carried out to assess the results of cytogenetic studies in amniotic liquid during six years: from 2008 to 2014. The statistical records were checked and the results, the indication criteria, the behavior of the age groups in women advanced in age and the diagnosed chromosomopathies were assessed.Results: the samples with results that exceeded the non-conclusive and positive women prevailed; 2, 3 positive cases of chromosomopathies were diagnosed out of 100 studied women at risk; pregnant women of advanced gestational years prevailed as indication criterion, being the 37 to 40 years old age group the predominant one; in the positive cases, numeric chromosomopathies of the type trisomy 21 or Down’s syndrome prevailed, with a frequency of 1, 2 out of 100 pregnant women at risk.Conclusions: the program of the cytogenetic diagnosis in the amniotic fluid has been an effective tool to detect congenital prenatal defects by chromosomopathies, very useful in the process of genetic advice.

  1. Bartter syndrome prenatal diagnosis based on amniotic fluid biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Arnaud; Dreux, Sophie; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Oury, Jean-François; Benachi, Alexandra; Deschênes, Georges; Muller, Françoise

    2010-03-01

    Bartter syndrome is an autosomic recessive disease characterized by severe polyuria and sodium renal loss. The responsible genes encode proteins involved in electrolyte tubular reabsorption. Prenatal manifestations, mainly recurrent polyhydramnios because of fetal polyuria, lead to premature delivery. After birth, polyuria leads to life-threatening dehydration. Prenatal genetic diagnosis needs an index case. The aim of this study was to analyze amniotic fluid biochemistry for the prediction of Bartter syndrome. We retrospectively studied 16 amniotic fluids of Bartter syndrome-affected fetuses diagnosed after birth, only six of them being genetically proven. We assayed total proteins, alpha-fetoprotein, and electrolytes and defined a Bartter index corresponding to the multiplication of total protein and of alpha-fetoprotein. Results were compared with two control groups matched for gestational age-non-Bartter polyhydramnios (n = 30) and nonpolyhydramnios (n = 60). In Bartter syndrome, we observed significant differences (p Bartter index (0.16, 0.82, and 1.0, respectively). No statistical difference was observed for electrolytes. In conclusion, Bartter syndrome can be prenatally suspected on amniotic fluid biochemistry (sensitivity 93% and specificity 100%), allowing appropriate management before and after birth.

  2. Peptidome analysis of amniotic fluid from pregnancies with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yating; Zhang, Lei; Rui, Can; Ding, Hongjuan; Mao, Pengyuan; Ruan, Hongjie; Jia, Ruizhe

    2017-11-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), a life‑threatening, complicated pregnancy‑associated disease, has recently become a research focus in obstetrics. However, the peptidome of the amniotic fluid in PE patients has rarely been investigated. The present study used peptidomic profiling to perform a comparative analysis of human amniotic fluid between normal and PE pregnancies. Centrifugal ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography‑tandem mass spectrometry (LC‑MS/MS) was combined with isotopomeric dimethyl labels to gain a deeper understanding of the role of proteins and the peptidome in the onset of PE. Following ultrafiltration and LC‑MS/MS, 352 peptides were identified. Of these, 23 peptides were observed to be significantly differentially expressed (6 downregulated and 17 upregulated; POntology and Blastp analyses, the functions and biological activities of these 23 peptides were identified and revealed to include autophagy, signal transduction, receptor activity, enzymatic activity and nucleic acid binding. In addition, a bibliographic search revealed that some of the identified peptides, including Titin, are crucial to the pathogenesis underlying PE. The present study identified 23 peptides expressed at significantly different levels in the amniotic fluid of PE and normal pregnancies. A comprehensive peptidome analysis is more efficient than a simple biomarker analysis at revealing deficiencies and improving the detection rate in diseases. These analyses therefore provide a substantial advantage in applications aimed at the discovery of disease‑specific biomarkers.

  3. Amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing interleukin-1 receptor antagonist improve fulminant hepatic failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bao Zheng

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled hepatic immunoactivation is regarded as the primary pathological mechanism of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF. The major acute-phase mediators associated with FHF, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, impair the regeneration of liver cells and stem cell grafts. Amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs have the capacity, under specific conditions, to differentiate into hepatocytes. Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra plays an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic role in acute and chronic inflammation, and has been used in many experimental and clinical applications. In the present study, we implanted IL-1Ra-expressing AF-MSCs into injured liver via the portal vein, using D-galactosamine-induced FHF in a rat model. IL-1Ra expression, hepatic injury, liver regeneration, cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and animal survival were assessed after cell transplantation. Our results showed that AF-MSCs over-expressing IL-1Ra prevented liver failure and reduced mortality in rats with FHF. These animals also exhibited improved liver function and increased survival rates after injection with these cells. Using green fluorescent protein as a marker, we demonstrated that the engrafted cells and their progeny were incorporated into injured livers and produced albumin. This study suggests that AF-MSCs genetically modified to over-express IL-1Ra can be implanted into the injured liver to provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of FHF.

  4. Intravenous grafts of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells induce endogenous cell proliferation and attenuate behavioral deficits in ischemic stroke rats.

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    Naoki Tajiri

    Full Text Available We recently reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS cells [1]. Here, we tested the therapeutic benefits of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. Thirty-five days later, animals exhibiting significant motor deficits received intravenous transplants of rat AFS cells or vehicle. At days 60-63 post-MCAo, significant recovery of motor and cognitive function was seen in stroke animals transplanted with AFS cells compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. Infarct volume, as revealed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, was significantly reduced, coupled with significant increments in the cell proliferation marker, Ki67, and the neuronal marker, MAP2, in the dentate gyrus (DG [2] and the subventricular zone (SVZ of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. A significantly higher number of double-labeled Ki67/MAP2-positive cells and a similar trend towards increased Ki67/MAP2 double-labeling were observed in the DG and SVZ of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals, respectively, compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. This study reports the therapeutic potential of AFS cell transplantation in stroke animals, possibly via enhancement of endogenous repair mechanisms.

  5. Carinal transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, H; Shirakusa, T

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current techniques of management of carinal lesions are not always satisfactory. Carinal transplantation, if feasible, would be valuable in certain circumstances. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carinal transplantation experiments were performed in dogs. In early cross transplant experiments there were problems in controlling ventilation and in obtaining satisfactory anastomoses, and the animals failed to live for even a few days. In seven subsequent experiments the carinal graft was removed...

  6. A randomized controlled trial of foley catheter, extra-amniotic saline infusion and prostaglandin e2 suppository for labor induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Mansour Ghanaie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to further compare the efficacy of PGE2 suppository, the intracervical foley catheter and extra-amniotic saline infusion in nulliparous women referred for labor induction.Totally 368 nulliparous women with a Bishop score ≤ 4 with singleton gestation, vertex presentation and intact membrane referred for labor induction were randomly assigned to 3 groups; Foley catheter alone, Extra-amniotic saline infusion (EASI and PGE2 suppository. All women received concurrent dilute oxytocine infusion. The change in the Bishop Score, labor progress, various labor endpoints and outcomes of labor were assessed.From 363 women studied after exclusion of 5, 119 were assigned to EASI, 121 to Foley and 118 to PGE2. Patients' demographics did not differ significantly between three groups nor did indication for induction (P = 0.0001. The EASI group had a significant improvement in Bishop Score 6 hours after induction. The mean time to active phase was 357±135min for EASI,457±178 for Foley and 609±238 min for PGE2 group respectively (P < 0.05.rate of spontaneous rupture of membranes was higher in the EASI group (P = 0.0001 and the mean time from the start of induction up to spontaneous rupture of membranes in the EASI group was shorter than other group(P < 0.05. The mean time to vaginal delivery was 14.8±6.1 in EASI group,11.4±4.8 in Foley and 18.9±6.4 in PGE2 group(P < 0.05.there were no differences in Apgar scores, mean neonatal birth weight and neonatal morbidity.Our study showed that pre-induction cervical ripening by EASI with concurrent oxytocin is better than Foley and PGE2 in Bishop score and various labor end point and outcomes.

  7. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

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    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  8. Amniotic oxytocin and vasopressin in relation to human fetal development and labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbaan, H. P.; Swaab, D. F.

    1989-01-01

    Previous experiments in rats revealed increased amniotic oxytocin (OXT) levels in the course of normal development and increased vasopressin (AVP) levels in retarded fetal growth. In order to see whether similar changes would also occur in human, OXT and AVP levels were determined in amniotic fluid,

  9. Intraamniotic Inflammation in Women with Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes.

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    Ivana Musilova

    Full Text Available To characterize subgroups of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM and short-term neonatal outcomes based on the presence and absence of intraamniotic inflammation (IAI and/or microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC.One hundred and sixty-six Caucasian women with singleton pregnancies were included in this study. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis (n=166 and were assayed for interleukin-6 levels by a lateral flow immunoassay. The presence of Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and 16S rRNA was evaluated in the amniotic fluid. IAI was defined as amniotic fluid IL-6 values, measured by a point of care test, higher than 745 pg/mL.Microbial-associated IAI (IAI with MIAC and sterile intraamniotic inflammation (IAI alone were found in 21% and 4%, respectively, of women with PPROM. Women with microbial-associated IAI had higher microbial loads of Ureaplasma species in the amniotic fluid than women with MIAC alone. No differences in the short-term neonatal morbidity with respect to the presence of microbial-associated IAI, sterile IAI and MIAC alone were found after adjusting for the gestational age at delivery in women with PPROM.Microbial-associated but not sterile intraamniotic inflammation is common in Caucasian women with PPROM. The gestational age at delivery but not the presence of inflammation affects the short-term neonatal morbidity of newborns from PPROM pregnancies.

  10. Effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on amniotic fluid cells oxidative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Tanja R; Dolicanin, Zana C; Djordjevic, Natasa Z

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we researched the effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on the amniotic fluid cells oxidative metabolism during the first trimester of pregnancy. Oxidative stress and damage biomarkers were assayed in the amniotic fluid cells of healthy and pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Obtained results show that amniotic fluid cells of pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism have significantly higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers (superoxide anion, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite) and oxidative damage (lipid peroxide and micronuclei frequency), but lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione in comparison to healthy pregnant women. We also showed that oxidative stress biomarkers were positively correlated with micronuclei frequency and lipid peroxide concentration in amniotic fluid cells of pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. The present study provides the first evidence for prooxidative effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism on the fetus obtained by the estimating oxidative metabolism in the amniotic fluid cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [PELVIS/SACRAL syndrome with livedoid haemangioma and amniotic band].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrat, E; Lemarchand-Venencie, F; Jacquemont, M-L; El Ghoneimi, A; Wassef, M; Leger, J; Morel, P

    2008-12-01

    PELVIS or SACRAL syndrome denotes the association of local haemangioma and malformation in the pelvic region. In this paper, we report a case noteworthy on account of the initially livedoid appearance of the haemangioma as well as associated amniotic banding of an upper limb. A newborn male infant underwent left colostomy on the day of birth due to anal imperforation and anomalies of the external genital organs with sexual ambiguity. Examination of the skin and appendages revealed poorly delineated hypopigmentation in the sacrolumbar region and a fibrous groove around the right arm characteristic of amniotic band syndrome. Sacrolumbar and pelvic MRI scans revealed deviation towards the left of the last three sacral vertebrae with no medullary anomalies. Retrograde cystography showed a recto-uretral fistula. Progression of the infant's condition was marked by the appearance during the first month of a flat, violaceous, angiomatous, livedoid lesion in the middle of the buttocks and the perineum and a linear lesion on the rear aspect of the right lower limb. The skin biopsy of this lesion revealed a single capillary lobule at the dermal-hypodermal junction of non-specific appearance but with marked Glut1 expression by endothelial cells highly evocative of infantile haemangioma. Segmented haemangiomas are commonly associated with extracutaneous abnormalities. By analogy with PHACE syndrome, defined as association of segmented facial haemangioma with cerebral, ocular and cardio-aortic abnormalities, PELVIS/SACRAL syndrome denotes the association of segmented haemangioma of the loins (sacrolumbar region, buttocks or perineum=napkin haemangioma) with spinal dysraphia affecting the sacrolumbar spine, the terminal medullary cone, the genitourinary organs and the anal region to different degrees. Diagnosis of haemangioma associated with PELVIS/SACRAL syndrome may be delayed or complicated due to the macular, telangiectasic or livedoid appearance commonly seen. To our

  12. Islet Assessment for Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Klearchos K.; Suszynski, Thomas M.; Colton, Clark. K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review There is a critical need for meaningful viability and potency assays that characterize islet preparations for release prior to clinical islet cell transplantation (ICT). Development, testing, and validation of such assays have been the subject of intense investigation for the past decade. These efforts are reviewed, highlighting the most recent results while focusing on the most promising assays. Recent Findings Assays based on membrane integrity do not reflect true viability when applied to either intact islets or dispersed islet cells. Assays requiring disaggregation of intact islets into individual cells for assessment introduce additional problems of cell damage and loss. Assays evaluating mitochondrial function, specifically mitochondrial membrane potential, bioenergetic status, and cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR), especially when conducted with intact islets, appear most promising in evaluating their quality prior to ICT. Prospective, quantitative assays based on measurements of OCR with intact islets have been developed, validated and their results correlated with transplant outcomes in the diabetic nude mouse bioassay. Conclusion More sensitive and reliable islet viability and potency tests have been recently developed and tested. Those evaluating mitochondrial function are most promising, correlate with transplant outcomes in mice, and are currently being evaluated in the clinical setting. PMID:19812494

  13. Carinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Shirakusa, T

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current techniques of management of carinal lesions are not always satisfactory. Carinal transplantation, if feasible, would be valuable in certain circumstances. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carinal transplantation experiments were performed in dogs. In early cross transplant experiments there were problems in controlling ventilation and in obtaining satisfactory anastomoses, and the animals failed to live for even a few days. In seven subsequent experiments the carinal graft was removed from one dog and transplanted into a second dog. Two dogs lived for over four months with immunosuppression. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that carinal transplantation can succeed if (1) the calibre of the graft is matched with that of the recipient; (2) there is an abundant blood supply to the graft; (3) appropriate immunosuppression is provided; (4) ventilation is adequate during surgery. Images PMID:1465758

  14. Regulation of osteogenesis of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells by sodium butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoting; Li, Lei; Ye, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Yan; Tan, Wen-Song

    2018-04-01

    Human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) draw great interests for regenerative medicine due to convenient availability and low immunogenicity. However, suboptimal culture conditions limit their application. In recent years, small molecules have proven powerful in regulating stem cell fates and can be applied to stimulate their function. In the present study, the impacts of sodium butyrate (NaBu), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), on hAMSCs were investigated. It was shown that NaBu at a low concentration inhibited cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 rather than inducing apoptosis. When NaBu was supplemented at a concentration of generated and the expression of osteogenesis-related genes (ALP, Runx2, Opn, and Ocn) and proteins (Col1a1, OPN, OCN, Runx2, and TAZ) were both significantly enhanced. However, a higher concentration (1.0 mM) and longer exposure time (14 days) of NaBu showed no such effects, which may be partially attributed to both the increased expression of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) and reduced level of H3K9-Ace, thus leading to the transcriptional inhibition during osteogenesis. Further, it was indicated that ERK might be involved in the stimulatory effects of NaBu. These findings may be helpful to develop an efficient culture process for hAMSCs towards bone regeneration. © 2018 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  15. Adenovirus E1A/E1B Transformed Amniotic Fluid Cells Support Human Cytomegalovirus Replication

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    Natascha Krömmelbein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV replicates to high titers in primary human fibroblast cell cultures. A variety of primary human cells and some tumor-derived cell lines do also support permissive HCMV replication, yet at low levels. Cell lines established by transfection of the transforming functions of adenoviruses have been notoriously resistant to HCMV replication and progeny production. Here, we provide first-time evidence that a permanent cell line immortalized by adenovirus type 5 E1A and E1B (CAP is supporting the full HCMV replication cycle and is releasing infectious progeny. The CAP cell line had previously been established from amniotic fluid cells which were likely derived from membranes of the developing fetus. These cells can be grown under serum-free conditions. HCMV efficiently penetrated CAP cells, expressed its immediate-early proteins and dispersed restrictive PML-bodies. Viral DNA replication was initiated and viral progeny became detectable by electron microscopy in CAP cells. Furthermore, infectious virus was released from CAP cells, yet to lower levels compared to fibroblasts. Subviral dense bodies were also secreted from CAP cells. The results show that E1A/E1B expression in transformed cells is not generally repressive to HCMV replication and that CAP cells may be a good substrate for dense body based vaccine production.

  16. Meconium concentration and amniotic fluid index influence the outcome of amnioinfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, A; Carrillo, M P; çlvarez, M; Cañizares, J M; Miño, M; Malde, J

    2001-10-01

    To determine the usefulness of amnioinfusion as a function of meconium concentration and amniotic fluid index. This was a prospective study of 206 pregnant women in whom amniotic fluid was moderately or heavily stained with meconium, according to subjective evaluation. The women were assigned randomly to receive amnioinfusion (n=103) or no amnioinfusion (control group, n=103). The results were compared in women with =/15 % meconium in the amniotic fluid (measured by centrifugation), and in women in whom the amniotic fluid index calculated 60 min after insertion of the amnioinfusion catheter was 10. In women with >15% meconium, amnioinfusion decreased the rate of cesarian sections motivated by fetal distress (2.5% vs 22.2%), and in women with =/amnioinfusion decreased the presence of meconium below the vocal cords (6.4% vs 25.9%). Greater benefits after amnioinfusion were seen in women with an amniotic fluid index =/>10: the rate of cesarian sections was lower (1.3% vs 13.3%), as was the frequency of meconium below the vocal cords (10.1% vs 33.3%). Beneficial effects of amnioinfusion were seen in women with high and low concentrations of meconium, and with high and low amniotic fluid indexes. These criteria should therefore not be used to decide whether amnioinfusion is indicated when the amniotic fluid is moderately or heavily stained with meconium.

  17. The Immunomodulatory Properties of Amniotic Cells: The Two Sides of the Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magatti, Marta; Vertua, Elsa; Cargnoni, Anna; Silini, Antonietta; Parolini, Ornella

    2018-01-01

    Among the many cell types useful in developing therapeutic treatments, human amniotic cells from placenta have been proposed as valid candidates. Both human amniotic epithelial and mesenchymal stromal cells, and the conditioned medium generated from their culture, exert multiple immunosuppressive activities. Indeed, they inhibit T and B cell proliferation, suppress inflammatory properties of monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and natural killer cells, while promoting induction of cells with regulatory functions such as regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. These properties have laid the foundation for their use for the treatment of inflammatory-based diseases, and encouraging results have been obtained in different preclinical disease models where exacerbated inflammation is present. Moreover, an immune-privileged status of amniotic cells has been often highlighted. However, even if long-term engraftment of amniotic cells has been reported into immunocompetent animals, only few cells survive after infusion. Furthermore, amniotic cells have been shown to be able to induce immune responses in vivo and, under specific culture conditions, they can stimulate T cell proliferation in vitro. Although immunosuppressive properties are a widely recognized characteristic of amniotic cells, immunogenic and stimulatory activities appear to be less reported, sporadic events. In order to improve therapeutic outcome, the mechanisms responsible for the suppressive versus stimulatory activity need to be carefully addressed. In this review, both the immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory activity of amniotic cells will be discussed.

  18. Anxiolytic-Like Actions of Fatty Acids Identified in Human Amniotic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isela García-Ríos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight fatty acids (C12–C18 were previously identified in human amniotic fluid, colostrum, and milk in similar proportions but different amounts. Amniotic fluid is well known to be the natural environment for development in mammals. Interestingly, amniotic fluid and an artificial mixture of fatty acids contained in amniotic fluid produce similar anxiolytic-like actions in Wistar rats. We explored whether the lowest amount of fatty acids contained in amniotic fluid with respect to colostrum and milk produces such anxiolytic-like effects. Although a trend toward a dose-response effect was observed, only an amount of fatty acids that was similar to amniotic fluid fully mimicked the effect of diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p. in the defensive burying test, an action devoid of effects on locomotor activity and motor coordination. Our results confirm that the amount of fatty acids contained in amniotic fluid is sufficient to produce anxiolytic-like effects, suggesting similar actions during intrauterine development.

  19. Oxidative stress biomarkers in amniotic fluid of pregnant women with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Tanja R; Dolicanin, Zana C; Djordjevic, Natasa Z

    2017-11-15

    Hypothyroidism in pregnancy is the serious state that may lead to fetal morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress biomarkers in the amniotic fluid can provide important information on the health, development and maturation of the fetus during pregnancy. In this study, we examined whether maternal hypothyroidism contributes to increased oxidative stress biomarkers in the amniotic fluid during the first trimester of pregnancy. The study was conducted on healthy pregnant women and pregnant women with hypothyroidism (gestational age: 16-18 weeks). Oxidative stress biomarkers, such as superoxide anion (O 2 •- ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO - ), lipid peroxide (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were assayed in the amniotic fluid. The results of this study indicated that concentrations of O 2 •- and NO are significantly higher, while the concentration of H 2 O 2 is significantly lower in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women with hypothyroidism in comparison to healthy pregnant women. There were no differences in concentrations of LPO, GSH and GSSG among tested groups. Also, we found that amniotic fluid concentration of O 2 •- is negatively correlated with the body weight and Apgar score values of the newborns. These results suggest that pregnancy hypothyroidism is characterized by the amniotic fluid oxidative stress. Incorporation of the oxidative stress biomarkers measurement in the amniotic fluid may be of clinical importance in the management of pregnancy hypothyroidism.

  20. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that links the kidney to the bladder — is connected to your bladder. After the procedure After your ... three to eight weeks after transplant. No lifting objects weighing more than 10 pounds or exercise other ...

  1. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  2. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the primary problems with hepatitis C patients was universal recurrence of the virus after transplantation. However, with ... Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now ...

  3. Hair Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants Before (left) and after (right) - top ...

  4. Transplant rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antibodies References Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Transplantation immunology. In: Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S, eds. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 17. ...

  5. Pancreas Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pancreas is a gland behind your stomach and in front of your spine. It produces the juices that ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. A pancreas transplant is surgery to place a healthy pancreas ...

  6. Prenatal sex determination by radioimmunoassay of testosterone with and without chromatography of the amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distler, W.; Boniver-Ollmann, U.; Tigges, J.; Terinde, R.; Claussen, U.

    1979-01-01

    Amniotic fluid testosterone measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) without chromatography (immunoreactive testosterone) seems not to be a definitive test for prenatal sex determination in all cases. In this study testosterone (T) levels measured by RIA with chromatography of the amniotic fluid samples were compared with immunoreactive testosterone (iT) values, to determine the predictive accuracy of the two methods. In 111 amniotic fluid samples between 15 and 19 weeks of gestation iT and T were measured parallelly. There are significant differences between iT- and T-means of both sexes (p [de

  7. [Prefabrication of bone transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, M; Kokemüller, H; Jehn, P; Vogt, P; Gellrich, N-C; Krettek, C

    2015-03-01

    Prefabrication of bone transplants is a promising option for large defects of the long bones, especially if there is compromised vascularization of the defect. This is especially true for postinfection bone defects and other types of atrophic nonunion. The generation of a foreign body membrane (Masquelet's technique) has been investigated in order to ameliorate the response of the host tissue surrounding the defect. In an experimental animal study, a blood vessel within a bone construct could be used to generate customized, vascularized osteogenic constructs that can be used to treat large bone defects in the future.

  8. Multielemental analysis of 18 essential and toxic elements in amniotic fluid samples by ICP-MS: Full procedure validation and estimation of measurement uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, B; Sajnóg, A; Lorenc, W; Hanć, A; Komorowicz, I; Suliburska, J; Kocyłowski, R; Barałkiewicz, D

    2017-11-01

    Amniotic fluid is the substantial factor in the development of an embryo and fetus due to the fact that water and solutes contained in it penetrate the fetal membranes in an hydrostatic and osmotic way as well as being swallowed by the fetus. Elemental composition of amniotic fluid influences the growth and health of the fetus, therefore, an analysis of amniotic fluid is important because the results would indicate abnormal levels of minerals or toxic elements. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) is often used for determination of trace and ultra-trace level elements in a wide range of matrices including biological samples because of its unique analytical capabilities. In the case of trace and ultra-trace level analysis detailed characteristics of analytical procedure as well as properties of the analytical result are particularly important. The purpose of this study was to develop a new analytical procedure for multielemental analysis of 18 elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn) in amniotic fluid samples using ICP-MS. Dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with two reaction gases, ammonia and oxygen, was involved in the experiment to eliminate spectral interferences. Detailed validation was conducted using 3 certified reference mterials (CRMs) and real amniotic fluid samples collected from patients. Repeatability for all analyzed analytes was found to range from 0.70% to 8.0% and for intermediate precision results varied from 1.3% to 15%. Trueness expressed as recovery ranged from 80% to 125%. Traceability was assured through the analyses of CRMs. Uncertainty of the results was also evaluated using single-laboratory validation approach. The obtained expanded uncertainty (U) results for CRMs, expressed as a percentage of the concentration of an analyte, were found to be between 8.3% for V and 45% for Cd. Standard uncertainty of the precision was found to have a greater influence on the combined standard uncertainty

  9. Trace elements and antibacterial activity in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, E; Näntö, V; Hyörä, H; Vuorinen, K; Erkkola, R

    1986-01-01

    Antibacterial activity and trace element concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) were determined in a population of 39 pregnant women in the second half of gestation. Antibacterial activity in each AF was measured by a spectrophotometric micromethod after 18 h incubation at 37 degrees C using Escherichia coli K 12 as a reference bacterium. Concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, calcium, potassium and bromine were measured by particle-induced X-ray emission method and the zinc concentration was also measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Phosphate concentration was determined by direct albumin adding method. In AFs with good antibacterial activity significantly lower concentrations of potassium and bromine were found when compared to AFs with lower antibacterial activity. Concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, calcium or phosphate did not correlate with antibacterial activity in AF.

  10. A study of chromosomal aberrations in amniotic fluid cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, J; Crocker, M; Jonasson, J

    1988-06-01

    This paper represents the analysis of 1916 routine amniotic fluid specimens harvested by an in situ fixation technique in a prospective study with regard to cultural chromosome anomalies. Excluding constitutional abnormalities, 2.9 per cent of 19,432 cells analysed showed some form of chromosome anomaly, terminal deletions (57 per cent) and chromatid/chromosome breaks and gaps (18 per cent) being the most frequent, followed by interchange aberrations (13 per cent) and trisomy (5 per cent). No case was found of more than one colony from the same culture showing the same anomaly without it being present in other cultures from the same fluid. The wholly abnormal colonies had a surplus of trisomies and from the mathematical considerations presented one may infer that these are likely to reflect the presence of abnormal cells in the amniotic fluid. Partly abnormal colonies appeared at a frequency that would correspond to virtual absence of selection against chromosomally abnormal cells when cultured in vitro. The aberrations found were similar to those seen as single cell anomalies, except for chromatid breaks and exchanges. The data suggest a basic preferential induction of trisomy for chromosomes 2, 18, 21, and the Y-chromosome. Structural aberrations showed a marked clustering of breakpoints around the centromeres. The frequency of mutant cells was low (1.4 X 10(-3)) before culture was initiated. At harvest, the frequency of abnormal cells was much higher (3 X 10(-2)) corresponding to 3 X 10(-3) mutations per cell per generation accumulating over approximately ten generations in vitro.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of alpha-foeto protein in the amniotic fluid in normal and pathological pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, M.; Golstein, J.; Rodesch, F.; L'Hermite, M.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay of AFP was developed and the normal amniotic concentrations of this protein were measured as a function of the gestation age. The specific reagents used included a rabbit anti-AFP serum and a highly purified preparation of AFP labelled with 125 I, which also served as a standard. Amniotic fluid was drawn off by amniocentesis between the 11th and 40th week following the last menstrual period. Samples of amniotic fluid were also obtained in 2 cases of foetal death in utero and 3 cases of anencephaly. The normal amniotic AFP concentration limits were particularly well established between the 14th and 18th weeks, an ideal period to perform an amniocentesis both from a technical viewpoint and with regard to the bulk of information obtainable for the antenatal diagnosis of many congenital diseases. The concentrations observed in pathological cases were distinctly higher than the upper 95% confidence limit of normal values for the gestation age considered [fr

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 is elevated in midtrimester amniotic fluid prior to the development of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Spiegel Etty

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP and their inhibitors (TIMP in second trimester amniotic fluid of women with hypertensive disorders compared to normotensive women. Study Design Amniotic fluid was obtained from 133 women undergoing genetic second trimester amniocentesis. Zymography was performed for MMP characterization and an MMP-2 ELISA kit was used to determine MMP-2 levels. TIMP-2 expression was evaluated using western blot. Results Mean amniotic fluid MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly higher in women who developed a hypertensive disorder compared to normotensive women (P Conclusion Higher amniotic fluid MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels are found in women who eventually develop preeclampsia.

  13. Prophylactic Cefazolin in Amnioinfusions Administered for Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Edwards

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine if amnioinfusion with an antibiotic solution decreased the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and puerperal endometritis in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

  14. [Liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Liver transplantation represents the first choice treatment for patients with fulminant acute hepatitis and for patients with chronic liver disease and advanced functional failure. Patients in the waiting list for liver transplantation are classified according to the severity of their clinical conditions (evaluated using staging systems mostly based on hematochemical parameters related to liver function). This classification, together with the blood group and the body size compatibility, remains the main criterion for organ allocation. The main indications for liver transplantation are cirrhosis (mainly HCV-, HBV- and alcohol-related) and hepatocellular carcinoma emerging in cirrhosis in adult patients, biliary atresia and some inborn errors of metabolism in pediatric patients. In adults the overall 5-year survival ranges between 60 and 70%, in both American and European series. Even better results have been reported for pediatric patients: in fact, the 5-year survival rate for children ranges between 70 and 80% in the main published series. In this study we evaluated the main medical problems correlated with liver transplantation such as immunosuppressive treatment, acute and chronic rejection, infectious complications, the recurrence of the liver disease leading to transplantation, and cardiovascular and metabolic complications.

  15. Maternal and fetal characteristics associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balchin, Imelda; Whittaker, John C; Lamont, Ronald F

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF.......To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF....

  16. Evolution and homology of the astragalus in early amniotes: new fossils, new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, F Robin; Sidor, Christian A; Larsson, Hans C E; Maga, Abdoudaye; Ide, Oumarou

    2006-04-01

    The reorganization of the ankle in basal amniotes has long been considered a key innovation allowing the evolution of more terrestrial and cursorial behavior. Understanding how this key innovation arose is a complex problem that largely concerns the homologizing of the amniote astragalus with the various ossifications in the anamniote tarsus. Over the last century, several hypotheses have been advanced homologizing the amniote astragalus with the many ossifications in the ankle of amphibian-grade tetrapods. There is an emerging consensus that the amniote astragalus is a complex structure emerging via the co-ossification of several originally separate elements, but the identities of these elements remain unclear. Here we present new fossil evidence bearing on this contentious question. A poorly ossified, juvenile astragalus of the large captorhinid Moradisaurus grandis shows clear evidence of four ossification centers, rather than of three centers or one center as posited in previous models of astragalus homology. Comparative material of the captorhinid Captorhinikos chozaensis is also interpretable as demonstrating four ossification centers. A new, four-center model for the homology of the amniote astragalus is advanced, and is discussed in the context of the phylogeny of the Captorhinidae in an attempt to identify the developmental transitions responsible for the observed pattern of ossification within this clade. Lastly, the broader implications for amniote phylogeny are discussed, concluding that the neomorphic pattern of astragalus ossification seen in all extant reptiles (including turtles) arose within the clade Diapsida.

  17. An assessment of the accuracy of visual diagnosis of meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanlialp, C.; Caglar, G.S.; Tapisiz, O.L.; Avsar, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The assessment of meconium content in the amniotic fluid depends on visual observation by clinicians at the bedside. The aim of the present study was to compare visual evaluation of meconium-stained amniotic fluid with spectrophotometer evaluation. Study Design: Ten gram of meconium was added to 100 ml of amniotic fluid and mixed. The solution was serially two-fold diluted with amniotic fluid. The serially diluted tubes' absorbance spectrum was measured at 420 nm and thus a standard scale was established. Ninety five samples of meconium- stained amniotic fluid were collected from labouring women and the grade of meconium was deter- mined visually at the bedside. The samples' absorbance spectrum was measured at 420 nm and recorded. Spectrophotometer was considered gold standard and the ranges of optical density in the standard scale was used to test the accuracy of visual categorization of the samples. In the statistical analysis chi-square test was used and significance was p<0.05. Results: The accuracy rate of visual diagnosis of meconium-stained amniotic fluid were found as statistically significant (accuracy rate=54.74%, p<0.001). Visual evaluation was correct in 19.4% of thin, 53.1 % of moderate and 90.6% of thick meconium samples when examined with spectrophotometer. Conclusion: Visually diagnosed thin meconium can be moderate or thick meconium when examined objectively. The visual diagnosis at bedside is not always reliable and should be replaced with an objective method like spectrophotometry. (author)

  18. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Yang, Dar-Yu; Ho, Shu-Peng; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Jung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Chang, Ming-Hong; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2009-08-23

    Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto) was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS) was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days); Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.

  19. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hung-Chuan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days; Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits.

  20. Pancreas transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V.; Anderson, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  1. Pancreas transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, J.; Phillips, R.R.; Boardman, P.; Gleeson, F.V. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Anderson, E.M. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ewan.anderson@orh.nhs.uk

    2009-07-15

    Cadaveric, whole pancreas transplantation has proved an effective therapy in the treatment of long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus and is capable of achieving an insulin-independent eugyclaemic state. As a result, this procedure is being increasingly performed. However, the surgical procedure is complex and unfamiliar to many radiologists. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives excellent results and can be used confidently to diagnose vascular, enteric, and immune-mediated complications. We present a review of the normal post-transplantation appearance and the features of early and late complications.

  2. Pancreas transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, J.F.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Letourneau, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation can be complicated by vascular thrombosis, stenosis, or anastomotic leak, complications that predispose to transplant pancreatectomy. The relative roles of noninvasive radiologic studies in such vascular complications have been correlated with angiographic or pathologic data. The results of 54 scintigraphic studies, 25 CT studies, 16 sonograms, and 23 color Doppler examinations have been correlated with those of 40 angiograms and 28 pathologic studies in a population of 185 recipients. CT (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 75%; accuracy, 92%) and US (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 80%; accuracy, 85%) were most helpful in noninvasive screening for vascular complications, while angiography remains nearly definite in the radiographic diagnosis of these problems

  3. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  4. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... happens after I go home? Once you are home from the hospital, the most important work begins—the follow-up. For your transplant to ... possible. Are there disadvantages to living donation? A ... returning to work and other activities. However, recent advances in surgery ( ...

  5. Lung Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severity of the recipient's lung disease Recipient's overall health Likelihood that the transplant will be successful Immediately before ... will begin within days of your surgery. Your health care team will likely work with you to design an exercise program that's right for you. Your doctor may ...

  6. Corneal Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard

    with less risk of rejection episodes. Besides covering updated chapters on penetrating keratoplasty, and anterior and posterior lamellar procedures, this textbook also gives a thorough overview of the history of corneal transplantation and a detailed presentation of the microstructural components...... and to assist fellows and corneal surgeons in their advice and selection of patients for the best surgical procedure considering benefi ts and risks....

  7. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  8. Pregnancy in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouattar, T; Hakim, H; Rhou, H; Benamar, L; Bayahia, R; Ouzeddoun, N

    2009-06-01

    Renal transplantation with a well-functioning graft leads to a rapid restoration of endocrine and sexual functions. The aim of this study was to examine our experience with pregnancies among renal transplant patients, particularly with regard to their impact on graft function. We analyzed 10 pregnancies in 7 renal transplant recipients for long-term graft outcomes in terms of clinical and biological data. The mean patient age was 28.5 +/- 4 years. They all received a living donor kidney. The time between transplantation and the onset of pregnancy was 33.4 +/- 23.2 months. Regarding the immunosuppressive therapy, all patients received steroids and cyclosporine; 4 patients received in addition azathioprine and 2 received mycophenolate mofetil that was changed at 1 month before conception to azathioprine. There was no significant difference between the serum creatinine before and during pregnancy. We did not observe any acute rejection episode. Pregnancy complications were preclampsia in 1 case, hypertension in 1 case, urinary tract infection in 2 cases, and anemia in 80% of patients during the third trimester. Premature rupture of membranes occurred in 1 case and preterm delivery in 2 cases. Two cases of neonatal death were registered. Cesarean section was performed in 50% of cases. The follow-up revealed 2 cases of chronic rejection. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for pregnancy which generally occurs at 2 years after kidney transplantation.

  9. Considerations for successful transplantation of encapsulated pancreatic islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; Hamel, AF; Tatarkiewicz, K

    Encapsulation of pancreatic islets allows for transplantion in the absence of immunosuppression. The technology is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected for the host immune system by an artificial membrane. Encapsulation offers a solution to the shortage of donors in clinical

  10. Towards an understanding of the evolution of the chorioallantoic placenta: steroid biosynthesis and steroid hormone signaling in the chorioallantoic membrane of an oviparous reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruze, Lori; Kohno, Satomi; McCoy, Michael W; Guillette, Louis J

    2012-09-01

    Amniotes, mammals, reptiles, and birds form common extraembryonic membranes during development to perform essential functions, such as protection, nutrient transfer, gas exchange, and waste removal. Together with the maternal uterus, extraembryonic membranes of viviparous (live-bearing) amniotes develop as an endocrine placenta that synthesizes and responds to steroid hormones critical for development. The ability of these membranes to synthesize and respond to steroid hormone signaling has traditionally been considered an innovation of placental amniotes. However, our laboratory recently demonstrated that this ability extends to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of an oviparous (egg-laying) amniote, the domestic chicken, and we hypothesized that steroidogenic extraembryonic membranes could be an evolutionarily conserved characteristic of all amniotes because of similarities in basic structure, function, and shared evolutionary ancestry. In this study, we examined steroid hormone synthesis and signaling in the CAM of another oviparous amniote, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We quantified mRNA expression of a steroidogenic factor involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis (NR5A1), the key steroidogenic enzymes involved in the synthesis of progestins (HSD3B1), androgens (CYP17A1), and estrogens (CYP19A1), and the receptors involved in the signaling of progestins (PR), androgens (AR), estrogens (ESR1 and ESR2), and glucocorticoids (GR). Furthermore, we performed protein immunolocalization for PR and ESR1. Collectively, our findings indicate that the alligator CAM has the capability to regulate, synthesize, and respond to steroid hormone signaling, thus, supporting our hypothesis that the extraembryonic membranes of Amniota share a unifying characteristic, that is, the ability to synthesize and respond to steroid hormones.

  11. Intrapartum transcervical amnioinfusion for meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A K; Jana, N; Dasgupta, S; Samanta, B

    2007-06-01

    To assess the rates of cesarean deliveries and perinatal outcome following intrapartum transcervical amnioinfusion in women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) in a setting with no electronic fetal monitoring or specialized neonatal care. In this prospective comparative study with 150 women who were in labor and had MSAF, 50 of the women received a transcervical amnioinfusion and the remaining 100 women received standard care. The inclusion criteria were a pregnancy of at least 37 weeks' duration, a single live fetus in cephalic presentation, no major medical or obstetric complications, and no known fetal malformation. The amnioinfusion was performed with 1000 mL of normal saline solution through a red rubber catheter. Amnioinfusion was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of low Apgar score (amnioinfusion than in the control group (24% vs. 48%; RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.29-0.85). There were no major complications related to amnioinfusion. Intrapartum amnioinfusion for MSAF is a simple, safe, effective, and inexpensive procedure feasible in settings where intrapartum monitoring is limited. It is associated with improved perinatal outcome and could lower cesarean delivery rates in low-resource countries.

  12. The role of the notochord in amniote vertebral column segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lizzy; Pang, Angel S W; Evans, Susan E; Stern, Claudio D

    2018-07-01

    The vertebral column is segmented, comprising an alternating series of vertebrae and intervertebral discs along the head-tail axis. The vertebrae and outer portion (annulus fibrosus) of the disc are derived from the sclerotome part of the somites, whereas the inner nucleus pulposus of the disc is derived from the notochord. Here we investigate the role of the notochord in vertebral patterning through a series of microsurgical experiments in chick embryos. Ablation of the notochord causes loss of segmentation of vertebral bodies and discs. However, the notochord cannot segment in the absence of the surrounding sclerotome. To test whether the notochord dictates sclerotome segmentation, we grafted an ectopic notochord. We find that the intrinsic segmentation of the sclerotome is dominant over any segmental information the notochord may possess, and no evidence that the chick notochord is intrinsically segmented. We propose that the segmental pattern of vertebral bodies and discs in chick is dictated by the sclerotome, which first signals to the notochord to ensure that the nucleus pulposus develops in register with the somite-derived annulus fibrosus. Later, the notochord is required for maintenance of sclerotome segmentation as the mature vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs form. These results highlight differences in vertebral development between amniotes and teleosts including zebrafish, where the notochord dictates the segmental pattern. The relative importance of the sclerotome and notochord in vertebral patterning has changed significantly during evolution. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Atypical Amniotic Fluid Embolism Managed with a Novel Therapeutic Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Rezai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is the second leading cause of maternal mortality in the USA with an incidence of 1 : 15,200 births. The case fatality rate and perinatal mortality associated with AFE are 13–30% and 9–44%, respectively. This rare but devastating complication can be difficult to diagnose as many of the early signs and symptoms are nonspecific. Compounding this diagnostic challenge is a lack of effective treatment regimens which to date are mostly supportive. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman who suffered from suspected AFE and was successfully treated with the novel regimen of Atropine, Ondansetron, and Ketorolac (A-OK. The authors acknowledge that this case does not meet the new criteria proposed, by Clark in 2016, but feel that it is important to share this case report, due to dramatic patient response to the provided supportive therapy presented in this case report. We hope this case report will prompt further research into this novel approach to treating AFE with Atropine, Ondansetron, and Ketorolac.

  14. Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFMSCs were transplanted into injured liver via the portal vein in the rat FHF model. Therapeutic effect was evaluated after cell transfusion by histologic pathology, hepatic enzyme levels and animal survival. Cryostat sections were prepared and directly assessed for green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression and ...

  15. Transplant Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism. This problem seems to be the most important issue, and naturally there are ethical dilemmas related to it. A wide number of ideas have been expressed on the subject, and different solutions have been proposed. The struggle against organ trafficking and commercialism should include legislation, efforts to increase deceased-donor donations, and international cooperation. China's policy to procure organs from prisoners sentenced to death is unethical, and the international community should exert more pressure on the Chinese government to cease this practice. Each particular ethical dilemma should be taken separately and managed.

  16. Biochemical composition of amniotic fluid in normal puppies at term of pregnancy: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bolis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The full knowledge of the normal fetal fluids composition could be useful in the dog for the better management of newborns. The aim of the present study was to define the biochemical composition of amniotic fluid of puppies born by elective Caesarean section (CS at term of pregnancy. The study enrolled 24 purebred bitches, classified into small size (20kg. All the bitches were healthy and clinically monitored from mating until parturition. For all the bitches an elective CS at term of pregnancy was performed [1]. For each puppy, the amniotic fluid was collected, immediately centrifuged and frozen at – 20° C until analysis for ALB, AMY, TB, CHOL, CK, ALP, GGT, AST, ALT, LDH, Mg, Ca, K, Na, Trig, BUN, Glc, TP, CREA, LIP, Cl, and GLOB. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA to verify the possible effects of parity, breed body size and newborn gender on amniotic biochemical composition. A total of 69 amniotic fluid samples were collected. The amniotic mean±SD and min-max values for each parameter were defined. LDH (p<0.01 and CK activity (p<0.05, as well as Glc concentrations (p<0.0001 were negatively influenced by the parity. AMY activity was significantly (p<0.05 higher in large sized (44.2±20.87 U/L respect to small sized dogs (30.3±19.89 U/L, while lower (p<0.05 CHOL amniotic concentrations were found in small sized (3.0±2.71 mg/dl as compared to large sized (3.9±2.93 mg/dl dogs. Gender of the newborn did not influence the amniotic biochemical composition. The preliminary results of this study showed some similarities as well as some differences concerning the biochemical composition of the amniotic fluid in dogs at term of pregnancy if compared to data reported for the cat [2]. Furthermore, the results suggested that, in dogs, some amniotic parameters could be influenced by breed body size and by parity.

  17. Técnica de separação da membrana de Descemet para transplante de células endoteliais da córnea: estudo experimental em coelhos Technique for separating Descemet membrane for corneal endothelial cells transplantation: experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wasilewski

    2010-02-01

    shape mounted on an artificial anterior chamber to calculate the percentage of endothelial cell damage caused by this inversion. The Group three was evaluated after the separation between the Descemet's membrane and the stroma using viscoelastic substance in corneas inverted and mounted on an artificial anterior chamber. The endothelial cell damage was analyzed by digital photographs taken under a microscope after staining the endothelium with alizarin red. Group three samples were processed for histologic evaluation. RESULTS: The Group three (viscoelastic separation showed an index of endothelial cell damage of 10.06%, the Group two showed an index of 3.58% and the control group an index of 0.18% of endothelial cell damage (p<0.05. Histological evaluation of the Group three corneas revealed that approximately a 120 µm thickness of stroma remained attached to the Descemet's membrane. CONCLUSION: This technique should be better investigated because it is a viable and efficient alternative of Descemet's membrane separation for endothelial cells transplantation, since the percentage of induced cell damage is 10.06%. The percentage of endothelial cell damage caused by inversion of the cornea on an artificial anterior chamber was 3.58%.

  18. Synergic activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/6 and 9 in response to Ureaplasma parvum & urealyticum in human amniotic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafilou, Martha; De Glanville, Benjamin; Aboklaish, Ali F; Spiller, O Brad; Kotecha, Sailesh; Triantafilou, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Ureaplasma species are the most frequently isolated microorganisms inside the amniotic cavity and have been associated with spontaneous abortion, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), preterm labour (PL) pneumonia in neonates and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates. The mechanisms by which Ureaplasmas cause such diseases remain unclear, but it is believed that inappropriate induction of inflammatory responses is involved, triggered by the innate immune system. As part of its mechanism of activation, the innate immune system employs germ-lined encoded receptors, called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in order to "sense" pathogens. One such family of PRRs are the Toll like receptor family (TLR). In the current study we aimed to elucidate the role of TLRs in Ureaplasma-induced inflammation in human amniotic epithelial cells. Using silencing, as well as human embryonic kidney (HEK) transfected cell lines, we demonstrate that TLR2, TLR6 and TLR9 are involved in the inflammatory responses against Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum serovars. Ureaplasma lipoproteins, such as Multiple Banded antigen (MBA), trigger responses via TLR2/TLR6, whereas the whole bacterium is required for TLR9 activation. No major differences were observed between the different serovars. Cell activation by Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum seem to require lipid raft function and formation of heterotypic receptor complexes comprising of TLR2 and TLR6 on the cell surface and TLR9 intracellularly.

  19. Synergic activation of toll-like receptor (TLR 2/6 and 9 in response to Ureaplasma parvum & urealyticum in human amniotic epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Triantafilou

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma species are the most frequently isolated microorganisms inside the amniotic cavity and have been associated with spontaneous abortion, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of the membranes (PROM, preterm labour (PL pneumonia in neonates and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates. The mechanisms by which Ureaplasmas cause such diseases remain unclear, but it is believed that inappropriate induction of inflammatory responses is involved, triggered by the innate immune system. As part of its mechanism of activation, the innate immune system employs germ-lined encoded receptors, called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs in order to "sense" pathogens. One such family of PRRs are the Toll like receptor family (TLR. In the current study we aimed to elucidate the role of TLRs in Ureaplasma-induced inflammation in human amniotic epithelial cells. Using silencing, as well as human embryonic kidney (HEK transfected cell lines, we demonstrate that TLR2, TLR6 and TLR9 are involved in the inflammatory responses against Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum serovars. Ureaplasma lipoproteins, such as Multiple Banded antigen (MBA, trigger responses via TLR2/TLR6, whereas the whole bacterium is required for TLR9 activation. No major differences were observed between the different serovars. Cell activation by Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum seem to require lipid raft function and formation of heterotypic receptor complexes comprising of TLR2 and TLR6 on the cell surface and TLR9 intracellularly.

  20. After the Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  1. Choosing a Transplant Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Be The Match Blog Stories Anna, transplant recipient ... for transplant costs. Location – You might have to travel to receive a transplant. Consider how far the ...

  2. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graft-versus-host disease: A potential risk when stem cells come from donors If you receive a transplant ... medications and blood products into your body. Collecting stem cells for transplant If a transplant using your own ...

  3. Sealing of Corneal Lacerations Using Photo-Activated Rose Bengal Dye and Amniotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-10

    there were no 213 statistical differences in any of the categories except epithelial hyperplasia . On day 3 there was 214 more epithelial hyperplasia ...histopathological analysis of the three surgical arms was the 273 epithelial hyperplasia noted on day 3. The authors hypothesize that this reflects the... epithelial ingrowth, infection, and potential loss of the eye. Complex lacerations can be difficult 23 to treat, and repair with sutures alone is often

  4. Sealing of Corneal Lacerations Using Photo-Activated Rose Bengal Dye and Amniotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    presentation, state the type (e.g., case report, QA/QI study, program evaluation study, informational report/briefing, etc.) in the "Protocol...Number of Control 19 15 15 Eyes 3mm linear central cornea cornea corneoscleral cornea Experimental Repair 1-Epi Debridement 1-Epi Debridement 1-Epi... Debridement 1-Epi Debridement Method 2-Wound 2-Wound 2-Wound 2-Wound 3-Central 10-0 nylon 3-Apex10-0 nylon 3-Limbal 10-0 nylon 3-RBAM 4-RBAM 4

  5. Use of conjunctival autograft and amniotic membrane in primary pterygium surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández García, Keyly; Gómez Castillo, Zulema; Castillo Pérez, Alexeide; Pérez Parra, Zaadia; Jareño Ochoa, Madelyn; Perea Ruiz, Carlos Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: comparar la efectividad del autoinjerto conjuntival y el injerto de membrana amniótica en la cirugía del pterigión primario en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" de septiembre de 2009 a septiembre de 2010. Métodos: estudio prospectivo, comparativo y aleatorio. El universo estuvo constituido por 80 pacientes (80 ojos) con diagnóstico de pterigión primario que se les realizó escisión quirúrgica de la hiperplasia fibrovascular nasal primaria. Se dividieron en 2 gr...

  6. Challenges in validating the sterilisation dose for processed human amniotic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, Norimah; Hassan, Asnah; Firdaus Abd Rahman, M.N.; Hamid, Suzina A.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the tissue banks in the Asia Pacific region have been using ionising radiation at 25 kGy to sterilise human tissues for save clinical usage. Under tissue banking quality system, any dose employed for sterilisation has to be validated and the validation exercise has to be a part of quality document. Tissue grafts, unlike medical items, are not produced in large number per each processing batch and tissues relatively have a different microbial population. A Code of Practice established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2004 offers several validation methods using smaller number of samples compared to ISO 11137 (1995), which is meant for medical products. The methods emphasise on bioburden determination, followed by sterility test on samples after they were exposed to verification dose for attaining of sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -1 . This paper describes our experience in using the IAEA Code of Practice in conducting the validation exercise for substantiating 25 kGy as sterilisation dose for both air-dried amnion and those preserved in 99% glycerol

  7. Challenges in validating the sterilisation dose for processed human amniotic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Norimah [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: norimah@mint.gov.my; Hassan, Asnah [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Firdaus Abd Rahman, M.N.; Hamid, Suzina A. [National Tissue Bank, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16130 Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2007-11-15

    Most of the tissue banks in the Asia Pacific region have been using ionising radiation at 25 kGy to sterilise human tissues for save clinical usage. Under tissue banking quality system, any dose employed for sterilisation has to be validated and the validation exercise has to be a part of quality document. Tissue grafts, unlike medical items, are not produced in large number per each processing batch and tissues relatively have a different microbial population. A Code of Practice established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2004 offers several validation methods using smaller number of samples compared to ISO 11137 (1995), which is meant for medical products. The methods emphasise on bioburden determination, followed by sterility test on samples after they were exposed to verification dose for attaining of sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10{sup -1}. This paper describes our experience in using the IAEA Code of Practice in conducting the validation exercise for substantiating 25 kGy as sterilisation dose for both air-dried amnion and those preserved in 99% glycerol.

  8. Development of a Sterile Amniotic Membrane Tissue Graft Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    indistinguishable. Such results suggest that the mechanism of bacterial inactivation occurs through in- tracellular acidification due to enhanced...does not ensure complete tissue sterility.11,32,33 Unlike metals and plastics , the sterilization of soft, bio- logical tissues have many challenges

  9. Sealing of Corneal Lacerations Using Photo Activated Rose Bengal Dye and Amniotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-22

    detected nor was there any appearance o f fluorescein leakage from 234 the retinal vessels (Figure 4 B). 235 Irreversible damage to the photoreceptors...unaffected and no evidence of 35 breakdown of the blood retina barrier was detected . Retina from grccnlight laser treated eyes 36 showed normal RPE...formation of a 55 water -tight seal is critical to preventing infection and preventing surface epithelium from gaining 56 entry into the eye. This stabi

  10. Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics / Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Also known as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant , Hematopoietic ... person, called a donor, it is an allogeneic transplant. Blood or bone marrow transplants most commonly are used to treat ...

  11. Transabdominal amnioinfusion for improving fetal outcomes after oligohydramnios secondary to preterm prelabour rupture of membranes before 26 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Teeffelen, Stijn; Pajkrt, Eva; Willekes, Christine; van Kuijk, Sander M. J.; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 26 weeks can delay lung development and can cause pulmonary hypoplasia, as a result of oligohydramnios. Restoring the amniotic fluid volume by transabdominal amnioinfusion might prevent abnormal lung development and might have a protective effect

  12. Amniotic fluid gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity during the second trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, M; Potter, H C

    1986-03-12

    Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) activity was determined in second trimester amniotic fluid taken from normal fetuses and those with fetal abnormalities. GGTP activity decreased with advancing gestation. Increasing meconium contamination correlated with an increase in GGTP activity as did increasing fetal blood contamination. Maternal blood did not affect GGTP activity. Anencephaly did not significantly alter the GGTP activity, however, fetuses with spina bifida had significantly lower activity. Klinefelters and Turners syndromes both had GGTP activity close to the 50th percentile, and two trisomy 21 fetuses had GGTP activity below the 40th percentile. Two trisomy 18 fetuses and two translocation Downs syndromes (46 XY, t (14;21) had GGTP activities considerably lower than the 20th percentile as did a fetus with gastroschisis. Second trimester amniotic fluid GGTP activity may provide an easy preliminary test to screen amniotic fluids for the possibility of certain fetal chromosome abnormalities.

  13. Amniotic Constriction Bands: Secondary Deformities and Their Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Benjamin T; Rayan, Ghazi M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the surgical treatment experience of patients with amniotic constriction bands (ACB) over a 35-year interval and detail consequential limb deformities with emphasis on hands and upper extremities, along with the nature and frequency of their surgical treatment methods. Fifty-one patients were identified; 26 were males and 25 females. The total number of deformities was listed. The total number of operations, individual procedures, and operations plus procedures that were done for each patient and their frequency were recorded. The total number of operations was 117, and total number of procedures was 341. More procedures were performed on the upper extremity (85%) than the lower extremity (15%). Including the primary deformity ACB, 16 different hand deformities secondary to ACB were encountered. Sixteen different surgical methods for the upper extremity were utilized; a primary procedure for ACB and secondary reconstructions for all secondary deformities. Average age at the time of the first procedure was 9.3 months. The most common procedures performed, in order of frequency, were excision of ACB plus Z-plasty, release of partial syndactyly, release of fenestrated syndactyly, full-thickness skin grafts, resection of digital bony overgrowth from amputation stumps, and deepening of first and other digital web spaces. Many hand and upper extremity deformities secondary to ACB are encountered. Children with ACB may require more than one operation including multiple procedures. Numerous surgical methods of reconstruction for these children's secondary deformities are necessary in addition to the customary primary procedure of excision of ACB and Z-plasty.

  14. Amniotic fluid chemokines and autism spectrum disorders: An exploratory study utilizing a Danish Historic Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna Brink; Grove, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls.......Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls....

  15. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  16. March 2010 Final for Publicat...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    14. Letko E, Stechschulte SU, Kenyon KR,. Sadeq N, Romero T, Samson M, et al. 15. Hanada K, Shimazaki J, Shimmura S,. Tsubota K. Amniotic membrane inlays and overlay grafting for corneal epithelial defects and stromal ulcers. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001; 131: 324-331. Multi layered amniotic membrane transplantation for ...

  17. Clone-derived human AF-amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shengli; Zhou, Junmei; Chen, Baisong; Shang, Yafeng; Gao, Tongbing; Wang, Xue; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Stem cell-based therapy may be the most promising method to cure skeletal muscle degenerative diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and trauma in the future. Human amniotic fluid is enriched with early-stage stem cells from developing fetuses and these cells have cardiomyogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of human amniotic fluid-derived AF-type stem (HAF-AFS) cells by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation analysis. After confirming the stemness of HAF-AFS cells, we tested whether HAF-AFS cells could differentiate into skeletal myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate into regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. By temporary exposure to the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) or co-cultured with C2C12 myoblasts, HAF-AFS cells differentiated into skeletal myogenic cells, expressing skeletal myogenic cell-specific markers such as Desmin, Troponin I (Tn I) and α-Actinin. Four weeks after transplantation into cardiotoxin-injured and X-ray-irradiated tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice, HAF-AFS cells survived, differentiated into myogenic precursor cells and fused with host myofibres. The findings that HAF-AFS cells differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate in skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo hold the promise of HAF-AFS cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle degenerative diseases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Garth L.; Rajotte, Ray V.

    1992-01-01

    Transplantation of insulin-producing tissue offers a physiologic approach to restoration of glycemic control. Whereas transplantation of vascularized pancreatic grafts has recently achieved encouraging results, pancreatic islet cell transplantation holds the promise of low morbidity and reduced requirements for agressive immunosuppression for recipients. Islet cell transplantation was recently demonstrated to induce euglycemia with insulin independence. Imagesp1656-a PMID:21221366

  19. Long-term amnioinfusion through a subcutaneously implanted amniotic fluid replacement port system for treatment of PPROM in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchirikov, Michael; Steetskamp, Joscha; Hohmann, Manfred; Koelbl, Heinz

    2010-09-01

    To introduce a novel method for the treatment of PPROM (preterm premature rupture of membranes) using continuous amnioinfusion via a subcutaneously implanted port system. After development and testing since 2001 in a fetal sheep model, the port system has been successfully implanted in two humans with PPROM. In the first case, the subcutaneous port system was implanted during the 23rd week of gestation in a 39-year-old 5th-gravida with PPROM since the 18th week of gestation; in the second case, the port system was implanted during the 24th week of gestation in a 27-year-old 3rd gravida with PPROM since the 21st week of gestation. After port implantation, 100ml/h saline solution was infused intermittently into the amniotic cavity. The whole course of treatment was supported by tocolysis. In the cases presented, gestation was terminated by cesarean section, in one case in the 29th week of gestation, and in the other case in the 30th week. The newborns showed no signs of lung hypoplasia and were successfully extubated on the 1st or 2nd day after delivery. Six months later the children did not exhibit any deviation from the normal development. Long-term amnioinfusion via a subcutaneously implanted port system could be used in humans with PPROM for prolongation of pregnancy and to avoid lung hypoplasia. Prospective randomized studies are ongoing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stem-cell-activated organ following ultrasound exposure: better transplant option for organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Li, Yu; Ji, Ying-Chang; Lin, Chang-Min; Man, Cheng; Zheng, Xiao-Xuan

    2010-01-01

    Although doctors try their best to protect transplants during surgery, there remain great challenges for the higher survival rate and less rejection of transplants after organ transplantation. Growing evidence indicates that the stem cells could function after injury rather than aging, implying that suitable injury may activate the stem cells of damaged organs. Furthermore, it has been revealed that stem cells can be used to induce tolerance in transplantation and the ultrasound has great biological effects on organs. Basing on these facts, we hypothesize that the stem cells within the transplants can be activated by ultrasound with high-frequency and medium-intensity. Therefore, the stem-cell-activated organs (SCAO) can be derived, and the SCAO will be better transplant option for organ transplantation. We postulate the ultrasound can change the molecular activity and/or quantity of the stem cells, the membrane permeability, the cell-cell junctions, and their surrounding microenvironments. As a result, the stem cells are activated, and the SCAO will acquire more regenerative capacity and less rejection. In the paper, we also discuss the process, methods and models for verifying the theory, and the consequences. We believe the theory may provide a practical method for the clinical application of the ultrasound and stem cells in organ transplantation.

  1. Células-tronco do líquido amniótico Amniotic fluid stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio P. Bydlowski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde o primeiro isolamento e cultivo de células-tronco embrionárias humanas, há mais de 10 anos, seu uso na pesquisa e terapia foi inibida por considerações éticas complexas e pelo risco de transformação maligna destas células indiferenciadas após transplante no paciente. As células-tronco adultas são eticamente aceitas e o risco de transformação maligna é muito baixo. Entretanto, seu potencial de diferenciação e sua capacidade proliferativa são limitados. Cerca de 6 anos atrás, a descoberta de célulastronco no líquido amniótico que expressavam Oct-4, um marcador específico de pluripotencialidade, com alta capacidade de proliferação e diferenciação, iniciou um novo campo promissor na área das células-tronco. Estas células têm potencial de se diferenciar em células dos três folhetos germinativos. Não formam tumores in vivo e não levantam os questionamentos éticos associados com as células-tronco embrionárias humanas. Futuras investigações revelarão se as células-tronco do líquido amniótico realmente irão representar um tipo intermediário com vantagens em relação tanto às células-tronco embrionárias quanto às adultas. Este artigo faz uma revisão acerca destes tópicos e das características biológicas das células-tronco do líquido amniótico.Since the first successful isolation and cultivation of human embryonic stem cells about 10 years ago, their use for research and therapy has been constrained by complex ethical considerations as well as by the risk of development of malignancies of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells after transplantation into the patient. Adult stem cells are ethically acceptable and the risk of tumor development is low. However, their differentiation potential and proliferative capacity are limited. About 6 years ago, the discovery of Oct-4 expressing amniotic fluid stem cells, a specific marker of pluripotency, with a high proliferative capacity, and multilineage

  2. Concentrations and speciation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark F.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Domino, Steven E.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic chemicals used as flame retardants in textiles, plastics, and consumer products. Although PBDE accumulation in humans has been noted since the 1970s, few studies have investigated PBDEs within the gestational compartment, and none to date has identified levels in amniotic fluid. The present study reports congener-specific brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) concentrations in second-trimester clinical amniotic fluid samples collected in 2009 from fifteen women in southeast Michigan, USA. Twenty-one BDE congeners were measured by GC/MS/NCI. The average total PBDE concentration was 3795 pg/ml amniotic fluid (range: 337 – 21842 pg/ml). BDE-47 and BDE-99 were identified in all samples. Based on median concentrations, the dominant congeners were BDE-208, 209, 203, 206, 207, and 47 representing 23, 16, 12, 10, 9 and 6%, respectively, of the total detected PBDEs. PBDE concentrations were identified in all amniotic fluid samples from southeast Michigan, supporting a need for further investigations of fetal exposure pathways and potential impacts on perinatal health. PMID:22236635

  3. ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FETAL SERUM, AMNIOTIC-FLUID, AND MATERNAL SERUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLOON, AJ; MANTINGH, A; DEWOLF, BTHM; BREED, ASPM

    In order to gain more insight into the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and fetal chromosomal disorders, especially Down's syndrome, we measured AFP in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum at cordocentesis. We compared the concentration and gradient of AFP in these three

  4. Decreased alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid and maternal serum in diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Damm, P; Tabor, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine a reference level for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the amniotic fluid (AF) in pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in order to suggest an explanation for the observed decrease in maternal serum AFP. METHODS: Alpha-fetoprotein was measured in AF, maternal...

  5. Amniotic fluid RNA gene expression profiling provides insights into the phenotype of Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingham, Lauren J; Johnson, Kirby L; Scholl, Thomas M; Slonim, Donna K; Wick, Heather C; Bianchi, Diana W

    2014-09-01

    Turner syndrome is a sex chromosome aneuploidy with characteristic malformations. Amniotic fluid, a complex biological material, could contribute to the understanding of Turner syndrome pathogenesis. In this pilot study, global gene expression analysis of cell-free RNA in amniotic fluid supernatant was utilized to identify specific genes/organ systems that may play a role in Turner syndrome pathophysiology. Cell-free RNA from amniotic fluid of five mid-trimester Turner syndrome fetuses and five euploid female fetuses matched for gestational age was extracted, amplified, and hybridized onto Affymetrix(®) U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Significantly differentially regulated genes were identified using paired t tests. Biological interpretation was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and BioGPS gene expression atlas. There were 470 statistically significantly differentially expressed genes identified. They were widely distributed across the genome. XIST was significantly down-regulated (p Turner syndrome transcriptome from other aneuploidies we previously studied. Manual curation of the differentially expressed gene list identified genes of possible pathologic significance, including NFATC3, IGFBP5, and LDLR. Transcriptomic differences in the amniotic fluid of Turner syndrome fetuses are due to genome-wide dysregulation. The hematologic/immune system differences may play a role in early-onset autoimmune dysfunction. Other genes identified with possible pathologic significance are associated with cardiac and skeletal systems, which are known to be affected in females with Turner syndrome. The discovery-driven approach described here may be useful in elucidating novel mechanisms of disease in Turner syndrome.

  6. Species-Specific Mechanisms of Neuron Subtype Specification Reveal Evolutionary Plasticity of Amniote Brain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Nomura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Highly ordered brain architectures in vertebrates consist of multiple neuron subtypes with specific neuronal connections. However, the origin of and evolutionary changes in neuron specification mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that regulatory mechanisms of neuron subtype specification are divergent in developing amniote brains. In the mammalian neocortex, the transcription factors (TFs Ctip2 and Satb2 are differentially expressed in layer-specific neurons. In contrast, these TFs are co-localized in reptilian and avian dorsal pallial neurons. Multi-potential progenitors that produce distinct neuronal subtypes commonly exist in the reptilian and avian dorsal pallium, whereas a cis-regulatory element of avian Ctip2 exhibits attenuated transcription suppressive activity. Furthermore, the neuronal subtypes distinguished by these TFs are not tightly associated with conserved neuronal connections among amniotes. Our findings reveal the evolutionary plasticity of regulatory gene functions that contribute to species differences in neuronal heterogeneity and connectivity in developing amniote brains. : Neuronal heterogeneity is essential for assembling intricate neuronal circuits. Nomura et al. find that species-specific transcriptional mechanisms underlie diversities of excitatory neuron subtypes in mammalian and non-mammalian brains. Species differences in neuronal subtypes and connections suggest functional plasticity of regulatory genes for neuronal specification during amniote brain evolution. Keywords: Ctip2, Satb2, multi-potential progenitors, transcriptional regulation, neuronal connectivity

  7. Nutritional intra-amniotic therapy increases survival in a rabbit model of fetal growth restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Pla, Laura; Zamora, Monica; Crispi, Fatima; Gratacos, Eduard

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the perinatal effects of a prenatal therapy based on intra-amniotic nutritional supplementation in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods IUGR was surgically induced in pregnant rabbits at gestational day 25 by ligating 40–50% of uteroplacental vessels of each gestational sac. At the same time, modified-parenteral nutrition solution (containing glucose, amino acids and electrolytes) was injected into the amniotic sac of nearly half of the IUGR fetuses (IUGR-T group n = 106), whereas sham injections were performed in the rest of fetuses (IUGR group n = 118). A control group without IUGR induction but sham injection was also included (n = 115). Five days after the ligation procedure, a cesarean section was performed to evaluate fetal cardiac function, survival and birth weight. Results Survival was significantly improved in the IUGR fetuses that were treated with intra-amniotic nutritional supplementation as compared to non-treated IUGR animals (survival rate: controls 71% vs. IUGR 44% p = 0.003 and IUGR-T 63% vs. IUGR 44% p = 0.02), whereas, birth weight (controls mean 43g ± SD 9 vs. IUGR 36g ± SD 9 vs. IUGR-T 35g ± SD 8, p = 0.001) and fetal cardiac function were similar among the IUGR groups. Conclusion Intra-amniotic injection of a modified-parenteral nutrient solution appears to be a promising therapy for reducing mortality among IUGR. These results provide an opportunity to develop new intra-amniotic nutritional strategies to reach the fetus by bypassing the placental insufficiency. PMID:29466434

  8. Amniotic Fluid Cells Show Higher Pluripotency-Related Gene Expression Than Allantoic Fluid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Debora; Generali, Melanie; Görtz, Sabrina; Geering, Diego; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Bleul, Ulrich; Weber, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly multipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. However, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. In this regard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation. As allantoic fluid mainly collects fetal urine, cells originating from the efferent urinary tract can directly be compared with cells deriving from the extraembryonic amniotic tissues and the fetus. This study shows isolation of cells from the amniotic [ovine amniotic fluid cells (oAFCs)] and allantoic fluid [ovine allantoic fluid cells (oALCs)] in a strictly paired fashion with oAFCs and oALCs derived from the same fetus. Both cell types showed cellular phenotypes comparable to standard mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with trilineage differentiation potential, and expression of common ovine MSC markers. However, the expression of MSC markers per single cell was higher in oAFCs as measured by flow cytometry. oAFCs exhibited higher proliferative capacities and showed significantly higher expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, STAT3, NANOG, and REX1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction compared with paired oALCs. No significant decrease of pluripotency-related gene expression was noted over gestation, implying that cells with high differentiation potential may be isolated at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that cells with highest stem cell characteristics may originate from the fetus itself or the amniotic fetal adnexa rather than from the efferent urinary tract or the allantoic fetal adnexa.

  9. Development of a novel method for amniotic fluid stem cell storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavatti, Manuela; Beretti, Francesca; Casciaro, Francesca; Comitini, Giuseppina; Franchi, Fabrizia; Barbieri, Veronica; Bertoni, Laura; De Pol, Anto; La Sala, Giovanni B; Maraldi, Tullia

    2017-08-01

    Current procedures for collection of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) indicate that cells cultured in a flask for 2 weeks can then be used for research. However, hAFSCs can be retrieved directly from a small amount of amniotic fluid that can be obtained at the time of diagnostic amniocentesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether direct freezing of amniotic fluid cells is able to maintain or improve the potential of a sub-population of stem cells. We compared the potential of the hAFSCs regarding timing of freezing, cells obtained directly from amniotic fluid aspiration (D samples) and cells cultured in a flask before freezing (C samples). Colony-forming-unit ability, proliferation, morphology, stemness-related marker expression, senescence, apoptosis and differentiation potential of C and D samples were compared. hAFSCs isolated from D samples expressed mesenchymal stem cells markers until later passages, had a good proliferation rate and exhibited differentiation capacity similar to hAFSCs of C samples. Interestingly, direct freezing induced a higher concentration of cells positive for pluripotency stem cell markers, without teratoma formation in vivo. This study suggests that minimal processing may be adequate for the banking of amniotic fluid cells, avoiding in vitro passages before the storage and exposure to high oxygen concentration, which affect stem cell properties. This technique might be a cost-effective and reasonable approach to the process of Good Manufacturing Process accreditation for stem-cell banks. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Membrane Vesicles of Group B Streptococcus Disrupt Feto-Maternal Barrier Leading to Preterm Birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manalee Vishnu Surve

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the genitourinary tract with Group B Streptococcus (GBS, an opportunistic gram positive pathogen, is associated with premature rupture of amniotic membrane and preterm birth. In this work, we demonstrate that GBS produces membrane vesicles (MVs in a serotype independent manner. These MVs are loaded with virulence factors including extracellular matrix degrading proteases and pore forming toxins. Mice chorio-decidual membranes challenged with MVs ex vivo resulted in extensive collagen degradation leading to loss of stiffness and mechanical weakening. MVs when instilled vaginally are capable of anterograde transport in mouse reproductive tract. Intra-amniotic injections of GBS MVs in mice led to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation mimicking features of chorio-amnionitis; it also led to apoptosis in the chorio-decidual tissue. Instillation of MVs in the amniotic sac also resulted in intrauterine fetal death and preterm delivery. Our findings suggest that GBS MVs can independently orchestrate events at the feto-maternal interface causing chorio-amnionitis and membrane damage leading to preterm birth or fetal death.

  11. Membrane Vesicles of Group B Streptococcus Disrupt Feto-Maternal Barrier Leading to Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthanam, Lakshmi Kavitha; Srivastava, Rohit; Basu, Bhakti; Dutta, Suryendu; Sen, Shamik; Modi, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Infection of the genitourinary tract with Group B Streptococcus (GBS), an opportunistic gram positive pathogen, is associated with premature rupture of amniotic membrane and preterm birth. In this work, we demonstrate that GBS produces membrane vesicles (MVs) in a serotype independent manner. These MVs are loaded with virulence factors including extracellular matrix degrading proteases and pore forming toxins. Mice chorio-decidual membranes challenged with MVs ex vivo resulted in extensive collagen degradation leading to loss of stiffness and mechanical weakening. MVs when instilled vaginally are capable of anterograde transport in mouse reproductive tract. Intra-amniotic injections of GBS MVs in mice led to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation mimicking features of chorio-amnionitis; it also led to apoptosis in the chorio-decidual tissue. Instillation of MVs in the amniotic sac also resulted in intrauterine fetal death and preterm delivery. Our findings suggest that GBS MVs can independently orchestrate events at the feto-maternal interface causing chorio-amnionitis and membrane damage leading to preterm birth or fetal death. PMID:27583406

  12. Post-transplantation Development of Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erik N; Firszt, Rafael

    2018-01-29

    The development of food allergies is increasingly being recognized as a post-solid organ transplant complication. In this article, we review the spectrum of post-transplant food allergy development and the proposed mechanisms for de novo food allergies and the clinical significance they pose. The development of new food allergies is disproportionately associated with pediatric liver transplants, where it occurs in up to 38% of select populations. The mechanism of food allergy development is not completely understood; however, it is likely promoted by unbalanced immune suppression. De novo food allergy development is a common complication of solid organ transplants with the highest risk occurring in pediatric liver transplant recipients. There are likely multiple mechanisms for food allergy development including passive transfer of membrane-bound IgE and lymphocytes from donor to recipient, as well as loss of food tolerance and active development of new food allergies. The optimal management of food allergies following organ transplants has not been well researched but may include changing the immune suppression regimen if the food allergy does not resolve without intervention.

  13. Transplante de intestino delgado Small intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Galvão

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Avanços da biotecnologia e o desenvolvimento de novas drogas imunossupressoras melhoraram os resultados do transplante de intestino delgado. Esse transplante é atualmente indicado para casos especiais da falência intestinal. OBJETIVO: A presente revisão realça os recentes desenvolvimentos na área do transplante de intestino delgado. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Mais de 600 publicações de transplante de intestino delgado foram revisadas. O desenvolvimento da pesquisa, novas estratégias de imunossupressão, monitorização do enxerto e do receptor, e avanços na técnica cirúrgica são discutidos. RESULTADOS: Realizaram-se cerca de 700 transplante de intestino delgado em 55 centros: 44% intestino-fígado, 41% enxerto intestinal isolado e 15% transplante multivisceral. Rejeição e infecção são as principais limitações desse transplante. Sobrevida de 5 anos na experiência internacional é de 46% para o transplante de intestino isolado, 43% para o intestino-fígado e de cerca de 30% para o transplante multivisceral. Sobrevidas prolongadas são mais freqüentes nos centros com maior experiência. Em série de 165 transplantes intestinais na Universidade de Pittsburgh, PA, EUA, foi relatada sobrevida do paciente maior do que 75% no primeiro ano, 54% em 5 anos e 42% em 10 anos. Mais de 90% desses pacientes assumem dieta oral irrestrita. CONCLUSÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado evoluiu de estratégia experimental para uma alternativa viável no tratamento da falência intestinal permanente. Promover o refinamento da terapia imunossupressora, do manejo e prevenção de infecções, da técnica cirúrgica e da indicação e seleção adequada dos pacientes é crucial para melhorar a sobrevida desse transplante.BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been made in clinical small bowel transplantation over the last decade mainly due advances in biotechnology and new immunosuppressive regiments. This transplantation has now been indicated

  14. transplanted organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Szadujkis-Szadurski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rho-kinase and GTP-ase Rho are important regulators of vascular tone and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Rho-kinase in artery reactions induced by angiotensin II (ANG II and the effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the function of intra- and extracellular calcium in these reactions. Experiments were performed on mesenteric superior arteries procured from cadaveric organ donors and conserved under the same conditions as transplanted kidneys. The vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II was measured in the presence of Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632, after ischemia and reperfusion, in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. The maximal response to ANG II was reduced after ischemia, while an increase was observed after reperfusion. Vascular contraction induced by ANG II was decreased by Y-27632. Y-27632 reduced vascular contraction after reperfusion, both in Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution. Reperfusion augments vascular contraction in reaction to ANG II. The Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 reduces the hypersensitivity to ANG II after reperfusion mediated by both intra- and extracellular calcium. These results confirm the role of Rho-kinase in receptor-independent function of ANG II and in reperfusion-induced hypersensitivity.

  15. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Kedige, Suresh D; Jain, Kanu

    2015-01-01

    The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have the properties with significant potential uses in dentistry. This paper reviews the properties, mechanism of action, and various applications of these placental membranes in general and specifically in Periodontics.

  16. STUDY OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN AMNIOTIC FLUID FOR ASSESSMENT OF FOETAL MATURITY IN CASES OF NORMAL PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of foetal maturity had been proven of value in evaluating the foetal condition. Accurate assessment of foetal maturity is essential for the proper timing of delivery in various risk pregnancies. Amniotic Fluid analysis for foetal maturity had been of proven value. In the present study, study of biochemical parameters in amniotic fluid in respect of Creatinine, Uric Acid, Urea, Total Proteins, and Electrolytes i.e. Sodium, Potassium and Chloride has been done, along with Serum Electrolytes. Standard methodologies were adopted. The observations in the present study correlated with the works of Chadick et al and Pitkin and Zwirek. The levels of Creatinine, Uric Acid and Urea in Amniotic Fluid showed elevation, while Total Proteins and Serum Sodium showed a decline, as gestation progressed. The Serum and Amniotic Fluid Potassium and Chloride levels remain almost constant throughout the pregnancy. Thus, it is observed that the use of multiple parameters is desirable for accurate assessment of foetal maturity.

  17. Prospects for therapeutic mitochondrial transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollihue, Jenna L; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2017-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a multitude of diseases and pathological conditions- the organelles that are essential for life can also be major players in contributing to cell death and disease. Because mitochondria are so well established in our existence, being present in all cell types except for red blood cells and having the responsibility of providing most of our energy needs for survival, then dysfunctional mitochondria can elicit devastating cellular pathologies that can be widespread across the entire organism. As such, the field of "mitochondrial medicine" is emerging in which disease states are being targeted therapeutically at the level of the mitochondrion, including specific antioxidants, bioenergetic substrate additions, and membrane uncoupling agents. New and compelling research investigating novel techniques for mitochondrial transplantation to replace damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria with exogenous healthy mitochondria has shown promising results, including tissue sparing accompanied by increased energy production and decreased oxidative damage. Various experimental techniques have been attempted and each has been challenged to accomplish successful transplantation. The purpose of this review is to present the history of mitochondrial transplantation, the different techniques used for both in vitro and in vivo delivery, along with caveats and pitfalls that have been discovered along the way. Results from such pioneering studies are promising and could be the next big wave of "mitochondrial medicine" once technical hurdles are overcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  18. International Transplant Nurses Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expanded and updated to reflect today's thinking, this brand-new edition offers crucial, real-life direction on ... reduced rates in countries with emerging economies • Build awareness of World Organ Day, Transplant Games, and Transplant ...

  19. Fecal microbiota transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007703.htm Fecal microbiota transplant To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) helps to replace some of the " ...

  20. Functional fixation of autotransplanted tooth germs by using bioresorbable membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Eric; Membre, Hervé; Gaudy, Jean-François; Mahler, Patrick; Bravetti, Pierre

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of a bioresorbable membrane placement to the healing of immature teeth after autotransplantation of tooth buds. Six cases were selected: 2 transplantations of wisdom teeth, 2 for premolar agenesis, 1 for ectopia, and 1 premolar in an incisor position. The crown of each tooth germ and the marginal alveolar bone were covered with a resorbable membrane. The radicular edification was nearly complete, neither ankylosis nor inflammatory resorption was observable, the pulp vitality was preserved, and the periodontal integration was identical to that of other teeth. The membrane ensured contention and stabilization of the transplant, allowed functional stimulation, permitted protection of the coagulum and periodontal cells, and kept the epithelium at a distance. The transplantations of immature teeth were improved by the use of a resorbable membrane, which caused an optimal functional fixation of the transplanted tooth.

  1. Prenatal imaging of amniotic band sequence: utility and role of fetal MRI as an adjunct to prenatal US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, Jeremy; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Bitters, Constance; Merrow, Arnold C.; Guimaraes, Carolina V.A.; Lim, Foong-Yen

    2012-01-01

    Amniotic band sequence and its US manifestations have been well-described. There is little information, however, regarding the accuracy and utility of fetal MRI. To describe the MRI findings in amniotic band sequence and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRI and US. Prenatal MRI and US studies were retrospectively reviewed in 14 consecutive pregnancies with confirmed amniotic band sequence. Both studies were evaluated for amniotic band visualization, body part affected, type of deformity, umbilical cord involvement and vascular abnormality. Amniotic bands were confidently identified with MRI in 8 fetuses (57%), suggested with MRI in 3 fetuses (21%) and confidently seen by US in 13 fetuses (93%). Neither modality detected surgically proven bands on one fetus. Both techniques were equally able to define the body part affected and the type of deformity. At least one limb abnormality was visualized in all cases and truncal involvement was present in two cases. Cord involvement was identified in seven cases, with one case detected only by MRI. Fetal MRI is able to visualize amniotic bands and their secondary manifestations and could be complementary to prenatal US when fetal surgery is contemplated. (orig.)

  2. Organ Transplants in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigenzhin, Abay; Doskaliyev, Zhaksylyk; Tuganbekova, Saltanat; Zharikov, Serik; Altynova, Sholpan; Gaipov, Abduzhappar

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the fastest developing countries in the world and has a health care system that is unique in Central Asia. Its organ transplant services are also developing rapidly. We aimed to analyze and briefly report on the current status of organ transplant in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We analyzed organ transplant activities in that country for the period 2012 to 2014. All data were collected from the official database of the National Transplant Coordinating Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. At the end of 2014, the number of transplant centers had increased to 10, three of which could perform multiorgan transplants; during the same period, the number of deceased-donor organ-donating hospitals increased up to 37. By 2013, the transplant activity rate for all centers had reached 9.22 per million population. During the previous 3 years (2012-2014), there was a 3-fold increase in the number of living donors and an 18-fold increase in the number of kidney transplants. Between 2012 and 2014, the number of living-donor liver transplants increased from 17 to 25, and the number of deceased-donor transplants increased from 3 to 7. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), the number of heart transplants increased to 7 cases. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), Kazakhstan achieved a significant improvement in the organization of its transplant services, and a noticeable upward trend in the system continues.

  3. Role of amnioinfusion in the management of premature rupture of the membranes at <26 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, A; Vergani, P; Di Pirro, G; Doria, V; Biffi, A; Ghidini, A

    2000-10-01

    We sought to evaluate whether serial amnioinfusions for persistent oligohydramnios can affect the perinatal and long-term outcomes in extreme cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes. All singleton pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes at 4 days between January 1991 and June 1998 were included. Amniotic fluid volume was assessed as the maximum cord-free pocket with serial ultrasonographic examinations. Consenting women with persistent (>4 days) oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid amnioinfusions to maintain an amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm. The pregnancy, neonatal, and long-term neurologic outcomes of the cases that spontaneously maintained a median amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm (amnioinfusion-not-necessary group) were compared with those of women with oligohydramnios who underwent amnioinfusion but continued to have a median amniotic fluid pocket after preterm premature rupture of membranes amnioinfusion group). Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Fisher exact test, with a 2-tailed P amnioinfusions, which successfully restored a median amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm for >/=48 hours in 11 (30%) patients. This successful amnioinfusion group was comparable with the persistent oligohydramnios group (n = 25) in gestational age at first amnioinfusion (median, 20.2 weeks; range, 16-25.6 weeks; vs median, 20.3 weeks; range, 16.5-24.2 weeks; P =.4), number of amnioinfusions (median, 3; range, 1-9; vs median, 3; range, 1-5; P =.4), and interval between amnioinfusions (median, 6 days; range, 4-14 days; vs median, 8 days; range, 6-43 days; P =. 1). However, patients in the persistent oligohydramnios group had a significantly shorter interval to delivery, lower neonatal survival (20%), and higher rates of pulmonary hypoplasia (62%) and abnormal neurologic outcomes (60%) than the patients in the groups in which amnioinfusion was not necessary or was successful (all P amnioinfusions successfully alleviate oligohydramnios have a perinatal

  4. Bilateral versus single lung transplant for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Sven; Uhlemann, Madlen; Leontyev, Sergey; Seeburger, Joerg; Garbade, Jens; Merk, Denis R; Bittner, Hartmuth B; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2014-10-01

    It is unknown if uni- or bilateral lung transplant is best for treatment of usual idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We reviewed our single-center experience comparing both treatments. Between 2002 and 2011, one hundred thirty-eight patients at our institution underwent a lung transplant. Of these, 58 patients presented with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (56.9%) and were the focus of this study. Thirty-nine patients received a single lung transplant and 19 patients a bilateral sequential lung transplant. The mean patient age was 54 ± 10 years, and 69% were male. The intraoperative course was uneventful, save for 7 patients who needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Three patients had respiratory failure before the lung transplant that required mechanical ventilation and was supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Elevated pulmonary artery pressure > 40 mm Hg was identified as an independent predictor of early mortality by uni- and multivariate analysis (P = .01; OR 9.7). Using a Cox regression analysis, postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxyge-nation therapy (P = .01; OR 10.2) and the need for > 10 red blood cell concentrate during the first 72 hours after lung transplant (P = .01; OR 5.6) were independent predictors of long-term survival. Actuarial survival at 1 and 5 years was 65.6% and 55.3%, with no significant between-group differences (70.6% and 54.3%). Lung transplant is a safe and curative treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. According to our results, unilateral lung transplant for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an alternative to bilateral lung transplant and may affect the allocation process.

  5. Thoraco-amniotic shunting for fetal pleural effusion--a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, J

    2011-11-15

    Fetal pleural effusion is a rare occurrence, with an incidence of 1 per 10-15,000 pregnancies. The prognosis is related to the underlying cause and is often poor. There is increasing evidence that in utero therapy with thoraco-amniotic shunting improves prognosis by allowing lung expansion thereby preventing hydrops and pulmonary hypoplasia. This is a review of all cases of fetal pleural effusion managed over an eight year period the National Maternity Hospital Dublin. Over the nine year period there were 21 cases of fetal pleural effusion giving an overall incidence of 1 per 9281 deliveries. Of these, 15 underwent thoraco-amniotic shunting. There were associated anomalies diagnosed in 5 (33%) of cases. The overall survival in our cohort was 53%. The presence of hydrops was a poor prognostic factor, with survival in cases with hydrops of 33% (3\\/9) compared to 83% (5\\/6) in those cases without associated hydrops.

  6. The Evolution and Fossil History of Sensory Perception in Amniote Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Bickelmann, Constanze; Sobral, Gabriela

    2018-05-01

    Sensory perception is of crucial importance for animals to interact with their biotic and abiotic environment. In amniotes, the clade including modern mammals (Synapsida), modern reptiles (Reptilia), and their fossil relatives, the evolution of sensory perception took place in a stepwise manner after amniotes appeared in the Carboniferous. Fossil evidence suggests that Paleozoic taxa had only a limited amount of sensory capacities relative to later forms, with the majority of more sophisticated types of sensing evolving during the Triassic and Jurassic. Alongside the evolution of improved sensory capacities, various types of social communication evolved across different groups. At present there is no definitive evidence for a relationship between sensory evolution and species diversification. It cannot be excluded, however, that selection for improved sensing was partially triggered by biotic interactions, e.g., in the context of niche competition, whereas ecospace expansion, especially during the Mesozoic, might also have played an important role.

  7. [Imbalance of system of glutamin - glutamic acid in the placenta and amniotic fluid at placental insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelova, T N; Gunko, V O; Linde, V A

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of glutamine and glutamic acid has been investigated in the placenta and amniotic fluid under conditions of placental insufficiency. The development of placental insufficiency is characterized by the increased content of glutamic acid and a decrease of glutamine in both placenta and amniotic fluid. These changes changes were accompanied by changes in the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these amino acids. There was a decrease in glutamate dehydrogenase activity and an increase in glutaminase activity with the simultaneous decrease of glutamine synthetase activity. The compensatory decrease in the activity of glutamine keto acid aminotransferase did not prevent a decrease in the glutamine level. The impairments in the system glutamic acid-glutamine were more pronounced during the development of premature labor.

  8. Automated enzymatic measurement of lecithin, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylglycerol in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, C A; Salhany, K E; Entman, S S; Aleshire, S L; Parl, F F

    1987-01-01

    We describe methods for automated enzymatic measurement of lecithin, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylglycerol in amniotic fluid. Phospholipase C (EC 3.1.4.3) and sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.12) are reacted with lecithin and sphingomyelin, respectively, to liberate phosphocholine. Phosphocholine is then reacted with alkaline phosphatase, choline oxidase, peroxidase, and 4-aminoantipyrine to form a colored complex, for which the absorbance at 500 nm is measured with a centrifugal analyzer. Phosphatidylglycerol is hydrolyzed by phospholipase D (EC 3.1.4.4) to form glycerol, which is subsequently reacted with ATP and NAD+ in the presence of glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to yield NADH. The absorbance of the NADH formed is measured at 340 nm. These methods provide a simple, rapid, and accurate alternative to thin-layer chromatography for determination of phospholipids in amniotic fluid for assessment of fetal lung maturity.

  9. Amniotic fluid and colostrum as potential diets in the critical care of preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Viberg Østergaard, Mette; Torp Sangild, Per

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic fluid is the enteral “diet” of the developing fetus, while the first mammary gland secretion, colostrum, is the natural diet of the newborn mammal. Both diets contain nutrients but also growth factors, immune-modulating components, and antibacterial agents that support perinatal organ...... development, particularly of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Birth requires a sudden transition to nutrient uptake via the GI tract and exposure to microorganisms. Ingestion of amniotic fluid before birth and of colostrum just after birth helps to adapt GI functions and provides protection against...... and colostrum, and we describe how these fluids may have a therapeutic potential for GI conditions in some pediatric patients, particularly preterm infants. The composition of the two fluids varies widely among different species and the effects are likely highly species specific. Some effects may however...

  10. Management of interstitial ectopic pregnancies with a combined intra-amniotic and systemic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Morgan L; Harken, Tabetha R; Porto, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 2% of all pregnancies are ectopic; of these, 4% are interstitial or cervical. There exists no clear consensus as to whether surgical or medical management is superior. We present three cases of advanced nonfallopian tube ectopic pregnancies from 6 to 8 weeks of gestation. Our first two cases were managed with a combined intrafetal, intra-amniotic and systemic approach using methotrexate and potassium chloride, whereas our third case was managed with an intra-amniotic approach alone. Our combined approach cases were successful, with resolution of human chorionic gonadotropin in 50 and 34 days, whereas our single approach case re-presented with bleeding requiring uterine artery embolization and operative removal of products of conception. Patients presenting with advanced interstitial or cervical pregnancies who are clinically stable can be offered medical management with a combined approach.

  11. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  12. The correlation between histologic placentitis and amnionitis and the amnioniotic fluid's inflammatory cytokines in case of spontaneous pre-term labor with intact membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Abadi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-term labor is presumed to result from spreading of lower genital infection to upper part, subsequently to decidual and choioamniotic tissues. Host response to this injury include the expression of protein which is responsible to the inflammatory reactions. The expression of the inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α increase in case of infection.These cytokines may play an essential role in the pathophysiology of spontaneous pretem labor with intact membrane.An observational analytic cohort study was caried out on cases of spontaneous pre-tefln labor with intact membrane. The objectives of this study are to examine the relationship between l the histologic amnionitis and placentitis and the incidence of preterm delivery,2 the expression of amniotic fluid's IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α and the incidence of preterm delivery, 3 the level of amniotic fluid's IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α and the grade of histologic amnionitis and placentitis in case of pre-term labor with intact membrane. Cases of spontaneous Pre'teftn labor with intact membrane which underwent transabdominal amniocentesis at admission and managed as standard procedure for pre-term labor with intact membrane. Atl of the cases were observed until the delivery of the baby, eithir preterm or term. The membrane and the placentawere cut postnatally and then the histologic acute inflammation eyaluated based on the criteria of Salafia.The level of amniotic fluid IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were analyzed quantitatively by Elisa method. This study showed thet the degree of histologic amnionitis and placentitis, and the level of amniotic fluid's IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were significantly higher in pre-term compared to terrn deliveries (p<0.05 and lhere were a positive correlation between the grade of histoLogic inflammation and the level of amniotic fluid's cytokines (Spearmann Rank Conelation test; p<0,05 in cases of preterm labor with intact membrane. The

  13. DNA methylation patterns of imprinting centers for H19, SNRPN, and KCNQ1OT1 in single-cell clones of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Huei Peng

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells contain a unique epigenetic signature during in vitro cell culture. H19 and KCNQ1OT1 possessed a substantial degree of hypermethylation status, and variable DNA methylation patterns of SNRPN was observed during in vitro cell culture of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. Our results urge further understanding of epigenetic status of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells before it is applied in cell replacement therapy.

  14. Isolation, Characterization, Cryopreservation of Human Amniotic Stem Cells and Differentiation to Osteogenic and Adipogenic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz

    Full Text Available Human stem cells and progenitor cells can be used to treat cancer and replace dysfunctional cells within a tissue or organ. The objective of this study was to identify the appropriate cells type in regenerative medicine and targeted therapy. As an alternative to embryonic and bone marrow stem cells, we examined human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs, one of the potential source of multipotent stem cells isolated from both cell pellet (using single-stage method, and supernatant of human amniotic fluid. Source of isolation and unique property of the cells emphasize that these cells are one of the promising new tools in therapeutic field. Double sources for isolation and availability of the left over samples in diagnostic laboratory at the same time have less legal and ethical concerns compared with embryonic stem cell studies. Cells were isolated, cultured for 18th passage for 6 months and characterized using qPCR and flow cytometry. Cells showed good proliferative ability in culture condition. The cells successfully differentiated into the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Based on these findings, amniotic fluid can be considered as an appropriate and convenient source of human amniotic fluid stem cells. These cells provide potential tools for therapeutic applications in the field of regenerative medicine. To get a better understanding of crosstalk between Oct4/NANOG with osteogenesis and adipogenesis, we used network analysis based on Common Targets algorithm and Common Regulators algorithm as well as subnetwork discovery based on gene set enrichment. Network analysis highlighted the possible role of MIR 302A and MIR let-7g. We demonstrated the high expression of MIR 302A and low expression of MIR let7g in hAFSCs by qPCR.

  15. Metabolite Profiling of Human Amniotic Fluid by Hyphenated Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Graça, Gonçalo; Duarte, Iola F.; Goodfellow, Brian J.; Carreira, Isabel M.; Couceiro, Ana Bela; Domingues, Maria do Rosário; Spraul, Manfred; Tseng, Li-Hong; Gil, Ana M.

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic profiling of human amniotic fluid (HAF) is of potential interest for the diagnosis of disorders in the mother or the fetus. In order to build a comprehensive metabolite database for HAF, hyphenated NMR has been used, for the first time, for systematic HAF profiling. Experiments were carried out using reverse-phase (RP) and ion-exchange liquid chromatography (LC), in order to detect less and more polar compounds, respectively. RP-LC conditions achieved good separation of amino ac...

  16. Accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction for Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Martine; Franck, Jacqueline; Thulliez, Philippe; Huissoud, Cyril; Peyron, François; Garcia-Meric, Patricia; Kieffer, François

    2010-04-01

    To provide clinicians with information about the accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of amniotic fluid for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital Toxoplasma infection. This was a prospective cohort study of women with Toxoplasma infection identified by prenatal screening in three centers routinely carrying out real-time PCR for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid. The data available were gestational age at maternal infection, types and dates of maternal treatment, results of amniocentesis and neonatal work-up and definitive infectious status of the child. We estimated sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values both overall and per trimester of pregnancy at the time of maternal infection. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was carried out on amniotic fluid for 261 of the 377 patients included (69%). It was accurate with the exception of four negative results in children who were infected. Overall sensitivity and negative predictive value were 92.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 81-98%) and 98.1% (95% CI 95-99.5%), respectively. There was no significant association with the trimester of pregnancy during which maternal infection occurred. Specificity and positive predictive values of 100% were obtained for all trimesters. Real-time PCR analysis significantly improves the detection of T. gondii on amniotic fluid. It provides an accurate tool to predict fetal infection and to decide on appropriate treatment and surveillance. However, postnatal follow-up remains necessary in the first year of life to fully exclude infection in children for whom PCR results were negative. III.

  17. Characteristics of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and their tropism to human ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liru Li

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF have become an attractive stem cells source for cell-based therapy because they can be harvested at low cost and avoid ethical disputes. In human research, stem cells derived from AF gradually became a hot research direction for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity and their tumor tropism regardless of the tumor size, location and source. Our work aimed to obtain and characterize human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs and detect their ovarian cancer tropsim in nude mice model. Ten milliliters of twenty independent amniotic fluid samples were collected from 16-20 week pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for fetal genetic determination in routine prenatal diagnosis in the first affiliated hospital of Harbin medical university. We successfully isolated the AFMSCs from thirteen of twenty amniotic fluid samples. AFMSCs presented a fibroblastic-like morphology during the culture. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the cells were positive for specific stem cell markers CD73,CD90, CD105, CD166 and HLA-ABC (MHC class I, but negative for CD 45,CD40, CD34, CD14 and HLA-DR (MHC class II. RT-PCR results showed that the AFMSCs expressed stem cell marker OCT4. AFMSCs could differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes under certain conditions. AFMSCs had the high motility to migrate to ovarian cancer site but didn't have the tumorigenicity. This study enhances the possibility of AFMSCs as drug carrier in human cell-based therapy. Meanwhile, the research emphasis in the future can also put in targeting therapy of ovarian cancer.

  18. Prophylactic cefazolin in amnioinfusions administered for meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R K; Duff, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if amnioinfusion with an antibiotic solution decreased the rate of clinical chorioamnionitis and puerperal endometritis in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. METHODS: Patients in labor at 36 weeks of gestation or greater with singleton pregnancies and meconium-stained amniotic fluid were randomized to receive either cefazolin, 1 g/1,000 mL, of normal saline (n = 90) or normal saline (n = 93) amnioinfusion. Rates of clinically diagnosed chorioamnionitis and endometritis and of suspected and culture-proven neonatal infection were determined. RESULTS: Between the study and control groups, the incidences of clinical chorioamnionitis (7.8% vs. 8.6%), endometritis (2.4% vs. 3.5%), aggregate intrauterine infection (10.0% vs. 11.8%), suspected neonatal infection (17.8% vs. 21.5%), and proven neonatal infection (0.0% vs. 2.2%) were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic use of cefazolin in amnioinfusions did not significantly reduce rates of maternal or neonatal infection in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. PMID:10371474

  19. Effect of amnioinfusion for meconium stained amniotic fluid on perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, F; Shah, A A

    2004-06-01

    To see the effect of amnioinfusion on perinatal outcome in cases of meconium staining of liquor. This study was conducted in department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, unit 1, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from 1st January 1998 to 31st December 2000. Four hundred patients were included in this study, assigning 200 for amnioinfusion and 200 as control. All patients were matched in both the groups with respect to age, antenatal booking, parity, gestational age, stage of labour, colour of amniotic fluid and fetal birth weight. Both the groups were found to be comparable. The rate of Caesarean section was found to be 37% in amnioinfusion group, which collaborates with other international studies. The fetal outcome was better i.e. 91% alive and healthy, after amnioinfusion due to dilution of meconium stained amniotic fluid with physiological solutions. The perinatal outcome was recorded by Apgar score at 5 minutes. The perinatal morbidity and mortality both were significantly lowered and was found to be 6% as compared to 14% in control, which was also noticed by less number of admissions in nursery i.e. 12% and perinatal deaths. The incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome was found to be 56% in control and was reduced to 22% after amnioinfusion in the other arm of the study. These results are very encouraging and suggestion can be safely made that in future amnioinfusion will be the ideal method of preventing fetal distress due to meconium stained amniotic fluid.

  20. Role of intrapartum transcervical amnioinfusion in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Pushpa; Reena, Kumari; Nangia, Sangita

    2013-03-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate maternal, perinatal outcomes following transcervical intrapartum amnioinfusion in women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. A prospective comparative study was conducted on 100 women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid in labor. Group A: study group (50 cases) received amnioinfusion. Group B: control group (50 cases) did not receive amnioinfusion. FHR monitoring was done using cardiotocography. Significant relief from variable decelerations was seen in 68.18 % cases in the amnioinfusion group as compared to 7.1 % cases in the control group. 78 % cases who were given amnioinfusion had vaginal delivery as compared to 18 % cases in the control group. Fourteen percent cases in the study group had cesarean delivery as compared to 68 % cases in the control group. Meconium aspiration syndrome was seen in six percent neonates in the study group as compared to 20 % in the control group. Two neonates died in the control group due to meconium aspiration syndrome. There was no maternal mortality or major maternal complication. Intrapartum transcervical amnioinfusion is valuable in patients with meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

  1. Maternal Plasma and Amniotic Fluid Chemokines Screening in Fetal Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Laudanski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Chemokines exert different inflammatory responses which can potentially be related to certain fetal chromosomal abnormalities. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of selected chemokines in plasma and amniotic fluid of women with fetal Down syndrome. Method. Out of 171 amniocentesis, we had 7 patients with confirmed fetal Down syndrome (15th–18th weeks of gestation. For the purpose of our control, we chose 14 women without confirmed chromosomal aberration. To assess the concentration of chemokines in the blood plasma and amniotic fluid, we used a protein macroarray, which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. Results. We showed significant decrease in the concentration of 4 chemokines, HCC-4, IL-28A, IL-31, and MCP-2, and increase in the concentration of CXCL7 (NAP-2 in plasma of women with fetal Down syndrome. Furthermore, we showed decrease in concentration of 3 chemokines, ITAC, MCP-3, MIF, and increase in concentration of 4 chemokines, IP-10, MPIF-1, CXCL7, and 6Ckine, in amniotic fluid of women with fetal Down syndrome. Conclusion. On the basis of our findings, our hypothesis is that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. Defining their potential as biochemical markers of Down syndrome requires further investigation on larger group of patients.

  2. Evaluation of two real time PCR assays for the detection of bacterial DNA in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón de Velasco-Sada, Patricia; Falces-Romero, Iker; Quiles-Melero, Inmaculada; García-Perea, Adela; Mingorance, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two non-commercial Real-Time PCR assays for the detection of microorganisms in amniotic fluid followed by identification by pyrosequencing. We collected 126 amniotic fluids from 2010 to 2015 for the evaluation of two Real-Time PCR assays for detection of bacterial DNA in amniotic fluid (16S Universal PCR and Ureaplasma spp. specific PCR). The method was developed in the Department of Microbiology of the University Hospital La Paz. Thirty-seven samples (29.3%) were positive by PCR/pyrosequencing and/or culture, 4 of them were mixed cultures with Ureaplasma urealyticum. The Universal 16S Real-Time PCR was compared with the standard culture (81.8% sensitivity, 97.4% specificity, 75% positive predictive value, 98% negative predictive value). The Ureaplasma spp. specific Real-Time PCR was compared with the Ureaplasma/Mycoplasma specific culture (92.3% sensitivity, 89.4% specificity, 50% positive predictive value, 99% negative predictive value) with statistically significant difference (p=0.005). Ureaplasma spp. PCR shows a rapid response time (5h from DNA extraction until pyrosequencing) when comparing with culture (48h). So, the response time of bacteriological diagnosis in suspected chorioamnionitis is reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Amniotic fluid volume: Rapid MR-based assessment at 28-32 weeks gestation

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    Hilliard, N.J.; Hawkes, R.; Patterson, A.J.; Graves, M.J.; Priest, A.N.; Hunter, S.; Set, P.A.; Lomas, D.J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lees, C. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    This work evaluates rapid magnetic resonance projection hydrography (PH) based amniotic fluid volume (AFV) estimates against established routine ultrasound single deepest vertical pocket (SDVP) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurements, in utero at 28-32 weeks gestation. Manual multi-section planimetry (MSP) based measurement of AFV is used as a proxy reference standard. Thirty-five women with a healthy singleton pregnancy (20-41 years) attending routine antenatal ultrasound were recruited. SDVP and AFI were measured using ultrasound, with same day MRI assessing AFV with PH and MSP. The relationships between the respective techniques were assessed using linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman method comparison statistics. When comparing estimated AFV, a highly significant relationship was observed between PH and the reference standard MSP (R{sup 2} = 0.802, p < 0.001). For the US measurements, SDVP measurement related most closely to amniotic fluid volume, (R{sup 2} = 0.470, p < 0.001), with AFI demonstrating a weaker relationship (R{sup 2} = 0.208, p = 0.007). This study shows that rapid MRI based PH measurement is a better predictor of AFV, relating more closely to our proxy standard than established US techniques. Although larger validation studies across a range of gestational ages are required this approach could form part of MR fetal assessment, particularly where poly- or oligohydramnios is suspected. (orig.)

  4. A microfluidic device for separation of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells utilizing louver-array structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huei-Wen; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into multiple lineages for cell therapy and, therefore, have attracted considerable research interest recently. This study presents a new microfluidic device for bead and cell separation utilizing a combination of T-junction focusing and tilted louver-like structures. For the first time, a microfluidic device is used for continuous separation of amniotic stem cells from amniotic fluids. An experimental separation efficiency as high as 82.8% for amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells is achieved. Furthermore, a two-step separation process is performed to improve the separation efficiency to 97.1%. These results are based on characterization experiments that show that this microfluidic chip is capable of separating beads with diameters of 5, 10, 20, and 40 microm by adjusting the volume-flow-rate ratio between the flows in the main and side channels of the T-junction focusing structure. An optimal volume-flow-rate ratio of 0.5 can lead to high separation efficiencies of 87.8% and 85.7% for 5-microm and 10-microm beads, respectively, in a one-step separation process. The development of this microfluidic chip may be promising for future research into stem cells and for cell therapy.

  5. Amniotic fluid volume: Rapid MR-based assessment at 28-32 weeks gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, N.J.; Hawkes, R.; Patterson, A.J.; Graves, M.J.; Priest, A.N.; Hunter, S.; Set, P.A.; Lomas, D.J.; Lees, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates rapid magnetic resonance projection hydrography (PH) based amniotic fluid volume (AFV) estimates against established routine ultrasound single deepest vertical pocket (SDVP) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurements, in utero at 28-32 weeks gestation. Manual multi-section planimetry (MSP) based measurement of AFV is used as a proxy reference standard. Thirty-five women with a healthy singleton pregnancy (20-41 years) attending routine antenatal ultrasound were recruited. SDVP and AFI were measured using ultrasound, with same day MRI assessing AFV with PH and MSP. The relationships between the respective techniques were assessed using linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman method comparison statistics. When comparing estimated AFV, a highly significant relationship was observed between PH and the reference standard MSP (R"2 = 0.802, p < 0.001). For the US measurements, SDVP measurement related most closely to amniotic fluid volume, (R"2 = 0.470, p < 0.001), with AFI demonstrating a weaker relationship (R"2 = 0.208, p = 0.007). This study shows that rapid MRI based PH measurement is a better predictor of AFV, relating more closely to our proxy standard than established US techniques. Although larger validation studies across a range of gestational ages are required this approach could form part of MR fetal assessment, particularly where poly- or oligohydramnios is suspected. (orig.)

  6. Evolution and development of ventricular septation in the amniote heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E Poelmann

    Full Text Available During cardiogenesis the epicardium, covering the surface of the myocardial tube, has been ascribed several functions essential for normal heart development of vertebrates from lampreys to mammals. We investigated a novel function of the epicardium in ventricular development in species with partial and complete septation. These species include reptiles, birds and mammals. Adult turtles, lizards and snakes have a complex ventricle with three cava, partially separated by the horizontal and vertical septa. The crocodilians, birds and mammals with origins some 100 million years apart, however, have a left and right ventricle that are completely separated, being a clear example of convergent evolution. In specific embryonic stages these species show similarities in development, prompting us to investigate the mechanisms underlying epicardial involvement. The primitive ventricle of early embryos becomes septated by folding and fusion of the anterior ventricular wall, trapping epicardium in its core. This folding septum develops as the horizontal septum in reptiles and the anterior part of the interventricular septum in the other taxa. The mechanism of folding is confirmed using DiI tattoos of the ventricular surface. Trapping of epicardium-derived cells is studied by transplanting embryonic quail pro-epicardial organ into chicken hosts. The effect of decreased epicardium involvement is studied in knock-out mice, and pro-epicardium ablated chicken, resulting in diminished and even absent septum formation. Proper folding followed by diminished ventricular fusion may explain the deep interventricular cleft observed in elephants. The vertical septum, although indistinct in most reptiles except in crocodilians and pythonidsis apparently homologous to the inlet septum. Eventually the various septal components merge to form the completely septated heart. In our attempt to discover homologies between the various septum components we aim to elucidate the

  7. Impedance-matching hearing in Paleozoic reptiles: evidence of advanced sensory perception at an early stage of amniote evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group members such as frogs, mammals, squamates, turtles, crocodiles, and birds, the presence of true tympanic ears has never been recorded in a Paleozoic amniote, suggesting they evolved fairly recently in amniote history. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed a morphological examination and a phylogenetic analysis of poorly known parareptiles from the Middle Permian of the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We recovered a well-supported clade that is characterized by a unique cheek morphology indicative of a tympanum stretching across large parts of the temporal region to an extent not seen in other amniotes, fossil or extant, and a braincase specialized in showing modifications clearly related to an increase in auditory function, unlike the braincase of any other Paleozoic tetrapod. In addition, we estimated the ratio of the tympanum area relative to the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon of the clade, which, at 23:1, is in close correspondence to that of modern amniotes capable of efficient impedance-matching hearing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using modern amniotes as analogues, the possession of an impedance-matching middle ear in these parareptiles suggests unique ecological adaptations potentially related to living in dim-light environments. More importantly, our results demonstrate that already at an early stage of amniote diversification, and prior to the Permo-Triassic extinction event, the complexity of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems had reached a level that

  8. Association between neurotrophin 4 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in mid-trimester amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Kiesha; Passos, Mariana; Jayaram, Aswathi; Harris, Mary; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Skupski, Daniel; Witkin, Steven S

    2014-11-01

    The omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and the omega-6 LCPUFA arachidonic acid (AA) are essential nervous system components that increase in concentration throughout gestation. The neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), and neurotrophin 4 (NT4) are small basic peptides crucial for fetal brain development. The DHA supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested to enhance neural development. We evaluated whether amniotic fluid DHA and AA concentrations correlated with intra-amniotic neurotrophin levels. Amniotic fluid, obtained at 15 to 19 weeks gestation from 62 women, was tested for BDNF, NGF, NT3, and NT4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Concentrations of DHA and AA, and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, were determined by gas chromatography. Associations were analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation test. Median levels of AA and DHA were 2.3% and 1.3% of the total intra-amniotic fatty acids, respectively. Median neurotrophin levels (pg/mL) were 36.7 for NT3, 26.8 for BDNF, 5.2 for NT4, and 0.8 for NGF. Intra-amniotic NT4 and BDNF levels were correlated (P = .0016), while NT3 and NGF levels were unrelated to each other or to BDNF or NT4. Only NT4 was positively correlated with amniotic fluid DHA (P neurotrophin and maternal age, gestational age at time of amniocentesis, amniocentesis indication, parity, or gestational age at delivery. Elevations in intra-amniotic NT4 with increasing levels of DHA and AA suggest that these LCPUFAs may specifically influence the extent of NT4-mediated fetal brain neurogenesis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Encapsulation of pancreatic islets for transplantation in diabetes : the untouchable islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; Marchetti, P

    The aim of encapsulation of pancreatic islets is to transplant in the absence of immunosuppression. It is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected from the host immune system by an artificial membrane. Encapsulation allows for application of insulin-secreting cells of animal or

  10. Reference Ranges of Amniotic Fluid Index in Late Third Trimester of Pregnancy: What Should the Optimal Interval between Two Ultrasound Examinations Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad Hebbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Amniotic fluid index (AFI is one of the major and deciding components of fetal biophysical profile and by itself it can predict pregnancy outcome. Very low values are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and renal anomalies of fetus, whereas high values may indicate fetal GI anomalies, maternal diabetes mellitus, and so forth. However, before deciding the cut-off standards for abnormal values for a local population, what constitutes a normal range for specific gestational age and the ideal interval of testing should be defined. Objectives. To establish reference standards for AFI for local population after 34 weeks of pregnancy and to decide an optimal scan interval for AFI estimation in third trimester in low risk antenatal women. Materials and Methods. A prospective estimation of AFI was done in 50 healthy pregnant women from 34 to 40 weeks at weekly intervals. The trend of amniotic fluid volume was studied with advancing gestational age. Only low risk singleton pregnancies with accurately established gestational age who were available for all weekly scan from 34 to 40 weeks were included in the study. Women with gestational or overt diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy, prelabour rupture of membranes, and congenital anomalies in the foetus and those who delivered before 40 completed weeks were excluded from the study. For the purpose of AFI measurement, the uterine cavity was arbitrarily divided into four quadrants by a vertical and horizontal line running through umbilicus. Linear array transabdominal probe was used to measure the largest vertical pocket (in cm in perpendicular plane to the abdominal skin in each quadrant. Amniotic fluid index was obtained by adding these four measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software (Version 16, Chicago, IL. Percentile curves (5th, 50th, and 95th centiles were constructed for comparison with other studies. Cohen’s d coefficient was used

  11. The Effects of Intravenous Hydration on Amniotic Fluid Volume and Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Term Pregnancy and Oligohydramnios: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Shahnazi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amniotic fluid is an important factor in the prediction of fetal survival. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of intravenous hydration of mothers on amniotic fluid volume and in turn on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: The current single blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 20 pregnant mothers with amniot-ic fluid index of lower or equal to 5 cm and gestational age of 37-41 weeks. The subjects were divided into two groups of case and control through simple random sampling. Am-niotic fluid index was measured in all participants. The case group received one liter of isotonic saline during 30 minutes by the bolus method. Reevaluations of amniotic fluid index in both groups were made 90 minutes after baseline measurement. Independent t-test and paired t-test were used to compare the two groups and mean amniotic fluid in-dex before and after treatment, respectively. Results: Hydration of mothers significantly increased the amniotic fluid index in the case group (mean change: 1.5 cm; 95%CI: 0.46 - 2.64; P = 0.01. The mean change of amniotic fluid index in the control group did not significantly increase (P = 0.06. The elevation of amniotic fluid index in the hydra-tion group (32% was significantly higher than the control group (1% (P = 0.03. Conclusion: In this study intravenous hydration increased amniotic fluid index of mothers with term pregnancy and oligohydramnios. Since it caused no complications for the moth-er and the fetus, it can be used as an effective method in management of oligohydramnios.

  12. Induction of labour by extra-amniotic prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A W; Mack, D S

    1974-09-01

    Extraamniotic administration of prostaglandins (PGs) for labor induction was studied. 69 patients took part in this study, 43 of whom were primigravid and 26 of whom were parous. 65 of the cases had a normally developed child and 4 fetuses were known to be anencephalic. Pregnancy maturity ranged from 26-41 weeks. PGE2 was administered as for midtrimester abortion, except that a catheter with a balloon capacity of 30-50 ml was used. PGE2 concentration of 50, 75, or 100 mcg/ml was infused continuously by a Palmer pump at a rate of 1.8 ml per hour. Labor was successfully induced in all cases, judging by the establishment of regular uterine activity and softening, effacement, and dilatation of the cervix. Mean time of PG infusion was 6.5 hours. Mean dose was .9 mg. Oxytocin was used as a supplement if necessary, and 3 of 4 women with anencephalic fetuses needed oxytocin treatment. 39% of primigravida required oxytocin, and 17% of parous women did. Mean induction-delivery interval in the normal fetus group was 14 hours 48 minutes for primigravida, and was 9 hours 35 minutes in parous women. 12 patients were delivered by Caesarean section. 3 of the 65 normal fetuses died during labor. Uterine hypertonus occurred in 1 mother. PGE2 is indicated for labor induction when avoidance of artificial rupture of membranes is wanted.

  13. Rosiglitazone attenuates transplant arteriosclerosis after allogeneic aorta transplantation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onuta, Geanina; Rienstra, Heleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Boer, Mark Walther; Roks, Anton J. M.; Klatter, Flip A.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Navis, Gerjan; Rozing, Jan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2007-01-01

    Background. Transplant arteriosclerosis is a leading cause of chronic transplant dysfunction and is characterized by occlusive neointima formation in intragraft arteries. Development of transplant arteriosclerosis is refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs and adequate therapy is not

  14. The incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid from 1980 through 1986, by year and gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, M; Graves, B W; Sharp, E S; Cotsonis, G

    1991-09-01

    The annual incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid was analyzed for changes in a total obstetric sample of 45,115 singleton, vertex, liveborn infants over a 7-year study period. The incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid for the total obstetric population was calculated for each year of the study period. The sample was then stratified by estimated gestational age, and the incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid was calculated for each gestational age group. The incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid increased 40.9% over the study period, from 18.8% in 1980 to 26.5% in 1986 (P less than .001). This increase was found to be in a consistent linear trend (P less than .05). The incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid was also found to increase significantly in a linear trend as gestational age of the fetus increased. These findings lend support to both the maturational theory and the stress theory of meconium passage in utero.

  15. Comparative Effect of the Smells of Amniotic Fluid, Breast Milk, and Lavender on Newborns' Pain During Heel Lance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcan, Esma; Polat, Sevinç

    2016-06-17

    The aim of this randomized controlled experimental study was to evaluate the effect of the smells of amniotic fluid, breast milk, and lavender on the pain of newborns during heel lance. The sample of the study consisted of 102 newborn infants who complied with the sampling criteria between August and November, 2011. The newborns smelled the samples (lavender, breast milk, amniotic fluid, and distilled water) for 5 minutes before the heel lance until 5 minutes afterward. The Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), heart rate, and oxygen saturation were evaluated 1 minute before, during, and 1 minute after the heel lance. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistics, chi-square, intraclass correlation analysis, Spearman's rho correlation, Bonferroni's advanced analysis, Shapiro-Wilk, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Friedman, and Dunnett's tests. The newborns in the control group had severe pain and the newborns in the breast milk, amniotic fluid, and lavender groups had moderate pain during the heel lance (p lance, it was lower in the breast milk and amniotic fluid groups than the lavender group afterward. The lowest falls in oxygen saturation and increased in heart rate were in the breast milk and lavender groups during heel the lance. The smells of lavender and breast milk prevent the increased heart rates, NIPS, falling oxygen saturation, and reduced pain during the invasive procedures in newborns more than amniotic fluid or control group.

  16. Imaging in pancreatic transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, Matthew T; Bhargava, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic transplantation, performed alone or in conjunction with kidney transplantation, is an effective treatment for advanced type I diabetes mellitus and select patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Following advancements in surgical technique, postoperative management, and immunosuppression, pancreatic transplantation has significantly improved the length and quality of life for patients suffering from pancreatic dysfunction. While computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have more limited utility, ultrasound is the preferred initial imaging modality to evaluate the transplanted pancreas; gray-scale assesses the parenchyma and fluid collections, while Doppler interrogation assesses vascular flow and viability. Ultrasound is also useful to guide percutaneous interventions for the transplanted pancreas. With knowledge of the surgical anatomy and common complications, the abdominal radiologist plays a central role in the perioperative and postoperative evaluation of the transplanted pancreas

  17. Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A M James; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Ricordi, Camillo

    2017-05-01

    Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation can be considered one of the safest and least invasive transplant procedures. Remarkable progress has occurred in both the technical aspects of islet cell processing and the outcomes of clinical islet transplantation. With >1,500 patients treated since 2000, this therapeutic strategy has moved from a curiosity to a realistic treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (that is, those with hypoglycaemia unawareness, severe hypoglycaemic episodes and glycaemic lability). This Review outlines the techniques required for human islet isolation, in vitro culture before the transplant and clinical islet transplantation, and discusses indications, optimization of recipient immunosuppression and management of adjunctive immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory strategies. The potential risks, long-term outcomes and advances in treatment after the transplant are also discussed to further move this treatment towards becoming a more widely available option for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and eventually a potential cure.

  18. Anti-inflammatory Elafin in human fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalberg, Cecilia; Noda, Nathalia; Polettini, Jossimara; Jacobsson, Bo; Menon, Ramkumar

    2017-02-01

    Elafin is a low molecular weight protein with antileukoproteinase, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and immunomodulating properties. The profile of Elafin in fetal membranes is not well characterized. This study determined the changes in Elafin expression and concentration in human fetal membrane from patients with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and in vitro in response to intra-amniotic polymicrobial pathogens. Elafin messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions were studied in fetal membranes from PPROM, normal term as well as in normal term not in labor membranes in an organ explant system treated (24 h) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measured Elafin concentrations in culture supernatants from tissues treated with LPS and polybacterial combinations of heat-inactivated Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Gardnerella vaginalis (GV). Elafin mRNA expression in fetal membranes from women with PPROM was significantly higher compared to women who delivered at term after normal pregnancy (5.09±3.50 vs. 11.71±2.21; Pmembranes showed a significantly increased Elafin m-RNA expression (Pmembranes also showed no changes in Elafin protein concentrations compared to untreated controls. Higher Elafin expression in PPROM fetal membranes suggests a host response to an inflammatory pathology. However, lack of Elafin response to LPS and polymicrobial treatment is indicative of the minimal anti-inflammatory impact of this molecule in fetal membranes.

  19. About the Operation: Heart Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  20. Organ Transplantation: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  1. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  2. History of Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabak, Gül; Şenbaklavacı, Ömer

    2016-04-01

    History of lung transplantation in the world can be traced back to the early years of the 20 th century when experimental vascular anastomotic techniques were developed by Carrel and Guthrie, followed by transplantation of thoracic organs on animal models by Demikhov and finally it was James Hardy who did the first lung transplantation attempt on human. But it was not until the discovery of cyclosporine and development of better surgical techniques that success could be achieved in that field by the Toronto Lung Transplant Group led by Joel Cooper. Up to the present day, over 51.000 lung transplants were performed in the world at different centers. The start of lung transplantation in Turkey has been delayed for various reasons. From 1998 on, there were several attempts but the first successful lung transplant was performed at Sureyyapasa Hospital in 2009. Today there are four lung transplant centers in Turkey; two in Istanbul, one in Ankara and another one in Izmir. Three lung transplant centers from Istanbul which belong to private sector have newly applied for licence from the Ministry of Health.

  3. Thoracic organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Barr, Mark L; McCullough, Keith P; Egan, Thomas; Garrity, Edward; Jessup, Mariell; Murray, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of factors associated with thoracic transplantation outcomes over the past decade and provides valuable information regarding the heart, lung, and heart-lung waiting lists and thoracic organ transplant recipients. Waiting list and post-transplant information is used to assess the importance of patient demographics, risk factors, and primary cardiopulmonary disease on outcomes. The time that the typical listed patient has been waiting for a heart, lung, or heart-lung transplant has markedly increased over the past decade, while the number of transplants performed has declined slightly and survival after transplant has plateaued. Waiting list mortality, however, appears to be declining for each organ and for most diseases and high-severity subgroups, perhaps in response to recent changes in organ allocation algorithms. Based on perceived inequity in organ access and in response to a mandate from Health Resources and Services Administration, the lung transplant community is developing a lung allocation system designed to minimize deaths on the waiting list while maximizing the benefit of transplant by incorporating post-transplant survival and quality of life into the algorithm. Areas where improved data collection could inform evolving organ allocation and candidate selection policies are emphasized.

  4. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HE. Overview and choice of donor of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein ... lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Graft-versus-host ...

  5. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  6. Bioethics of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well--to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation--rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate.

  7. Timing of organogenesis support basal position of turtles in the amniote tree of life

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    Sánchez-Villagra Marcelo R

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic position of turtles is the most disputed aspect in the reconstruction of the land vertebrate tree of life. This controversy has arisen after many different kinds and revisions of investigations of molecular and morphological data. Three main hypotheses of living sister-groups of turtles have resulted from them: all reptiles, crocodiles + birds or squamates + tuatara. Although embryology has played a major role in morphological studies of vertebrate phylogeny, data on developmental timing have never been examined to explore and test the alternative phylogenetic hypotheses. We conducted a comprehensive study of published and new embryological data comprising 15 turtle and eight tetrapod species belonging to other taxa, integrating for the first time data on the side-necked turtle clade. Results The timing of events in organogenesis of diverse character complexes in all body regions is not uniform across amniotes and can be analysed using a parsimony-based method. Changes in the relative timing of particular events diagnose many clades of amniotes and include a phylogenetic signal. A basal position of turtles to the living saurian clades is clearly supported by timing of organogenesis data. Conclusion The clear signal of a basal position of turtles provided by heterochronic data implies significant convergence in either molecular, adult morphological or developmental timing characters, as only one of the alternative solutions to the phylogenetic conundrum can be right. The development of a standard reference series of embryological events in amniotes as presented here should enable future improvements and expansion of sampling and thus the examination of other hypotheses about phylogeny and patterns of the evolution of land vertebrate development.

  8. Quantitative analysis of lamellar bodies in amniotic fluid as fetal pulmonary maturity indicator

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    Ljubić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Although lamellar bodies have been the center of interest over the last years, the published results of fetal pulmonary maturity determination according to their concentration in amniotic fluid are controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of lamellar bodies, as well as the ratio lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S in amniotic fluid for the assessment of fetal pulmonary maturity. Methods. This prospective 2-year study included 102 female examinees, ranging from 17 to 44 years of age, in whom lamellar bodies concentrations in amniotic fluid were determined to check the efficacy of the applied therapy for obtaining arteficial fetal pulmonary maturity. The shake test was applied as a comparative test for determining a quantitative L/S ratio. To determine a fetus maturity and development stage we followed up biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femure length, ponderal index at birth and body mass. Results. Out of a total of 102 amniocenteses within a period from 26th to 40th gestation week only 70 results were considered due to 32 unknown neonatal outcomes. Biparietal diameter was 224-362 mm, femur length 56 - 78 mm, ponderal index 1.22-2.84, fetus body mass 1300- 4 350 g. There was found a significant relation between gestation age and lamellar bodies concentration (R = 0.396398, p < 0.01, as well as between gestation age and the ratio L/S (R = 0.691297, p < 0.01. Also, there was a significant correlation of lamellar bodies concentration to the ratio L/S determined (R = 0.493609, p < 0.01. Conclusion. Determination of lamellar bodies concentration values is a reliable method to confirm fetal pulmonary maturity.

  9. What was the ancestral sex-determining mechanism in amniote vertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    Amniote vertebrates, the group consisting of mammals and reptiles including birds, possess various mechanisms of sex determination. Under environmental sex determination (ESD), the sex of individuals depends on the environmental conditions occurring during their development and therefore there are no sexual differences present in their genotypes. Alternatively, through the mode of genotypic sex determination (GSD), sex is determined by a sex-specific genotype, i.e. by the combination of sex chromosomes at various stages of differentiation at conception. As well as influencing sex determination, sex-specific parts of genomes may, and often do, develop specific reproductive or ecological roles in their bearers. Accordingly, an individual with a mismatch between phenotypic (gonadal) and genotypic sex, for example an individual sex-reversed by environmental effects, should have a lower fitness due to the lack of specialized, sex-specific parts of their genome. In this case, evolutionary transitions from GSD to ESD should be less likely than transitions in the opposite direction. This prediction contrasts with the view that GSD was the ancestral sex-determining mechanism for amniote vertebrates. Ancestral GSD would require several transitions from GSD to ESD associated with an independent dedifferentiation of sex chromosomes, at least in the ancestors of crocodiles, turtles, and lepidosaurs (tuataras and squamate reptiles). In this review, we argue that the alternative theory postulating ESD as ancestral in amniotes is more parsimonious and is largely concordant with the theoretical expectations and current knowledge of the phylogenetic distribution and homology of sex-determining mechanisms. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Early Mid-Trimester Amniotic Fluid Does Not Predict Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenco, Juraj; Vajrychova, Marie; Link, Marek; Tambor, Vojtech; Liman, Victor; Bullarbo, Maria; Nilsson, Staffan; Tsiartas, Panagiotis; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian; Jacobsson, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to identify early proteomic biomarkers of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD) in mid-trimester amniotic fluid from asymptomatic women. Methods This is a case-cohort study. Amniotic fluid from mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis (14–19 weeks of gestation) was collected from 2008 to 2011. The analysis was conducted in 24 healthy women with subsequent spontaneous PTD (cases) and 40 randomly selected healthy women delivering at term (controls). An exploratory phase with proteomics analysis of pooled samples was followed by a verification phase with ELISA of individual case and control samples. Results The median (interquartile range (IQR: 25th; 75th percentiles) gestational age at delivery was 35+5 (33+6–36+6) weeks in women with spontaneous PTD and 40+0 (39+1–40+5) weeks in women who delivered at term. In the exploratory phase, the most pronounced differences were found in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, that were approximately two-fold higher in the pooled case samples than in the pooled control samples. However, we could not verify these differences with ELISA. The median (25th; 75th IQR) CRP level was 95.2 ng/mL (64.3; 163.5) in women with spontaneous PTD and 86.0 ng/mL (51.2; 145.8) in women delivering at term (p = 0.37; t-test). Conclusions Proteomic analysis with mass spectrometry of mid-trimester amniotic fluid suggests CRP as a potential marker of spontaneous preterm delivery, but this prognostic potential was not verified with ELISA. PMID:27214132

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Is Responsible for Lipid Vacuolation in the Amniotic Epithelium of Fetal Gastroschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L; Ward, Diane M; Pysher, Theodore J; Chambers, Christina T

    2017-07-17

    Vacuolated amniotic epithelium with lipid droplets in gastroschisis placentas is an unusual finding. Mass spectrometry of lipid droplets identified triglycerides, ester-linked to an unusual pattern of fatty acids. We hypothesize that these findings result from a Chlamydia trachomatis infection during the periconceptional period. The rising incidence of chlamydia infections has paralleled the increasing prevalence of gastroschisis among women less than 25 years of age. Histologically, young women are at greatest risk for a chlamydia infection due to their immature columnar epithelium, the preferential site for attachment of Chlamydia trachomatis infectious particle (elementary body). Chlamydia trachomatis survive in an inclusion, relying on its host to acquire essential nutrients, amino acids, and nucleotides for survival and replication. If essential nutrients are not available, the bacteria cannot replicate and may be trafficked to the lysosome for degradation or remain quiescent, within the inclusion, subverting innate immunologic clearance. Chlamydiae synthesize several lipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphoatidylglycerol); however, their lipid content reveal eukaryotic lipids (sphingomyelin, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol), evidence that chlamydiae "hijack" host lipids for expansion and replication. The abnormal amniotic epithelial findings are supported by experimental evidence of the trafficking of host lipids into the chlamydiae inclusion. If not lethal, what harm will elementary bodies inflict to the developing embryo? Do these women have a greater pro-inflammatory response to an environmental exposure, whether cigarette smoking, change in partner, or a pathogen? Testing the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for amniotic epithelium vacuoles will be a critical first step. Birth Defects Research 109:1003-1010, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Identification of a novel Gig2 gene family specific to non-amniote vertebrates.

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    Yi-Bing Zhang

    Full Text Available Gig2 (grass carp reovirus (GCRV-induced gene 2 is first identified as a novel fish interferon (IFN-stimulated gene (ISG. Overexpression of a zebrafish Gig2 gene can protect cultured fish cells from virus infection. In the present study, we identify a novel gene family that is comprised of genes homologous to the previously characterized Gig2. EST/GSS search and in silico cloning identify 190 Gig2 homologous genes in 51 vertebrate species ranged from lampreys to amphibians. Further large-scale search of vertebrate and invertebrate genome databases indicate that Gig2 gene family is specific to non-amniotes including lampreys, sharks/rays, ray-finned fishes and amphibians. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny analysis reveal lineage-specific expansion of Gig2 gene family and also provide valuable evidence for the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD hypothesis. Although Gig2 family proteins exhibit no significant sequence similarity to any known proteins, a typical Gig2 protein appears to consist of two conserved parts: an N-terminus that bears very low homology to the catalytic domains of poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs, and a novel C-terminal domain that is unique to this gene family. Expression profiling of zebrafish Gig2 family genes shows that some duplicate pairs have diverged in function via acquisition of novel spatial and/or temporal expression under stresses. The specificity of this gene family to non-amniotes might contribute to a large extent to distinct physiology in non-amniote vertebrates.

  13. Using PRP and human amniotic fluid combination for osteogenesis in rabbit socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is used as an adjunct treatment during periodontal grafting surgery because of its capability of enhancing healing process. Amniotic fluid is a rich source of growth factors and hyaluronic acid (HA and a good point to study its properties of wound healing and bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of a combination of amniotic fluid and PRP in rabbit′s dental socket preservation. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 24 healthy male laboratory rabbits (average weight 3,125 ± 185 gr that were randomly allocated into four groups. PRP for the first group, human amniotic fluid (HAF for the second group, a combination of PRP and HAF (PRHA for the third group was used. In the fourth (control group, no biomaterial was used. In each group, half of the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks following surgery and the rest were sacrificed after 8 weeks. Histological analysis of biopsies of the sockets was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software (version 16 and P-value <0.05 was considered significance. Results: All three experimental groups showed positive effect on bone formation in terms of area of trabecular bone and number of osteocytes and also vessel formation. Socket preservation using HAF and PRHA showed the highest impact on bone formation. Socket preservation using HAF also had the highest impact on vessel formation. Conclusion: PRHA and HAF appear to be useful for enhancing bone formation. Since there was no difference between HAF and PRHA, it seems beneficial to use HAF due to its simplicity of application.

  14. Transcriptome adaptation of group B Streptococcus to growth in human amniotic fluid.

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    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus is a bacterial pathogen that causes severe intrauterine infections leading to fetal morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of GBS infection in this environment is poorly understood, in part because we lack a detailed understanding of the adaptation of this pathogen to growth in amniotic fluid. To address this knowledge deficit, we characterized the transcriptome of GBS grown in human amniotic fluid (AF and compared it with the transcriptome in rich laboratory medium. METHODS: GBS was grown in Todd Hewitt-yeast extract medium and human AF. Bacteria were collected at mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic and stationary growth phase. We performed global expression microarray analysis using a custom-made Affymetrix GeneChip. The normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates at each growth point were obtained. AF/THY transcript ratios representing greater than a 2-fold change and P-value exceeding 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have discovered that GBS significantly remodels its transcriptome in response to exposure to human amniotic fluid. GBS grew rapidly in human AF and did not exhibit a global stress response. The majority of changes in GBS transcripts in AF compared to THY medium were related to genes mediating metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides. The majority of the observed changes in transcripts affects genes involved in basic bacterial metabolism and is connected to AF composition and nutritional requirements of the bacterium. Importantly, the response to growth in human AF included significant changes in transcripts of multiple virulence genes such as adhesins, capsule, and hemolysin and IL-8 proteinase what might have consequences for the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides extensive new information about how the transcriptome of GBS responds

  15. Life History Traits, Protein Evolution, and the Nearly Neutral Theory in Amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuet, Emeric; Nabholz, Benoît; Bonneau, Manon; Mas Carrio, Eduard; Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Ellegren, Hans; Galtier, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that small populations should accumulate deleterious mutations at a faster rate than large populations. The analysis of nonsynonymous (dN) versus synonymous (dS) substitution rates in birds versus mammals, however, has provided contradictory results, questioning the generality of the nearly neutral theory. Here we analyzed the impact of life history traits, taken as proxies of the effective population size, on molecular evolutionary and population genetic processes in amniotes, including the so far neglected reptiles. We report a strong effect of species body mass, longevity, and age of sexual maturity on genome-wide patterns of polymorphism and divergence across the major groups of amniotes, in agreement with the nearly neutral theory. Our results indicate that the rate of protein evolution in amniotes is determined in the first place by the efficiency of purifying selection against deleterious mutations-and this is true of both radical and conservative amino acid changes. Interestingly, the among-species distribution of dN/dS in birds did not follow this general trend: dN/dS was not higher in large, long-lived than in small, short-lived species of birds. We show that this unexpected pattern is not due to a more narrow range of life history traits, a lack of correlation between traits and Ne, or a peculiar distribution of fitness effects of mutations in birds. Our analysis therefore highlights the bird dN/dS ratio as a molecular evolutionary paradox and a challenge for future research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The development of a radioimmunoassay for reverse triiodothyronine sulfate in human serum and amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Sing-Yung; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Lian; Polk, D.; Reviczky, A.; Williams, J. III; Chopra, I.J.; Fisher, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Sulfated iodothyronines including T 4 -sulfate (T 4 S) and T 3 -sulfate (T 3 S) have been identified in human serum and amniotic fluid. Little is know, however, about the existence of sulfate conjugation of reverse T 3 (rT 3 S) in man. In this report, the authors employed a novel, sensitive, and specific rT 3 S RIA to address this question. The rabbit antiserum to rT 3 S was highly specific; T 4 , T 3 , rT 3 , and 3,3'-T 2 showed less than 0.002% cross-reaction with the antiserum. Only T 4 S and T 3 S cross-reacted significantly (0.3% and 0.01%, respectively); other analogs cross-reacted less than 0.0001%. The detection threshold of the RIA was 14 pmol/L (1.0 ng/dL). The mean serum rT 3 S concentration (pmol/L) was 40 in euthyroid subjects. Values were similar in hypothyroid patients (38) and pregnant women (52) but significantly (P 3 S increased significantly in hyperthyroid patients 1 day after administration of 1 g sodium ipodate orally. Reverse T 3 S was detected consistently in amniotic fluid at 14 to 22 weeks of gestation and showed a marked rise 1-3 weeks after intraamniotic administration of 500-1000 μg T 4 . The various data suggest that : (1) rT 3 S is a normal component of human serum and amniotic fluid; (2) it is derived from metabolism of T 4 or rT 3 ; (3) circulating rT 3 S increases in hyperthyroidism and in circumstances where type I 5'-monodeiodinating activity is low, e.g. nonthyroid illnesses, fetal life, and after administration of ipodate. 20 refs., 4 figs

  17. Effects of cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs on inflammatory activation in ex vivo human and ovine fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Lisa F; Ireland, Demelza J; Kemp, Matthew W; Payne, Matthew S; Stock, Sarah J; Newnham, John P; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2014-03-01

    Intrauterine infection and inflammation are responsible for the majority of early (PTBs). Anti-inflammatory agents, delivered intra-amniotically together with antibiotics, may be an effective strategy for preventing PTB. In this study, the effects of four cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), SB239063, TPCA-1 and NEMO binding domain inhibitor (NBDI)) were assessed on human and ovine gestational membrane inflammation. Full-thickness membranes were collected from healthy, term, human placentas delivered by Caesarean section (n=5). Using a Transwell model, they were stimulated ex vivo with γ-irradiation-killed Escherichia coli applied to the amniotic face. Membranes from near-term, ovine placentas were stimulated in utero with lipopolysaccharide, Ureaplasma parvum or saline control and subjected to explant culture. The effects of treatment with CSAIDs or vehicle (1% DMSO) on accumulation of PGE2 and cytokines (human interleukin 6 (IL6), IL10 and TNFα; ovine IL8 (oIL8)) were assessed in conditioned media at various time points (3-20  h). In human membranes, the IKKβ inhibitor TPCA-1 (7  μM) and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB239063 (20  μM) administered to the amniotic compartment were the most effective in inhibiting accumulation of cytokines and PGE2 in the fetal compartment. NAC (10  mM) inhibited accumulation of PGE2 and IL10 only; NBDI (10  μM) had no significant effect. In addition to the fetal compartment, SB239063 also exerted consistent and significant inhibitory effects in the maternal compartment. TPCA-1 and SB239063 suppressed oIL8 production, while all CSAIDs tested suppressed ovine PGE2 production. These results support the further investigation of intra-amniotically delivered CSAIDs for the prevention of inflammation-mediated PTB.

  18. Cardiac transplantation in South Carolina: 300 transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbley, A J; Odom, Sylvia; Van Bakel, Adrian B; Pereira, Naveen; Ikonomidis, John S; Bradley, Scott; Kratz, John M; Sade, Robert M; Uber, Walt; Stroud, Martha R; Crawford, Fred A

    2006-02-01

    For nearly 20 years, the Medical University's Heart Transplant Program has been providing the citizens of South Carolina with excellent results with a minimum of delay. We present here the results of our first 300 heart transplants, spanning the first 18 years of the Cardiac Transplant Program at the Medical University. Overall survival has been very good, with one, five and ten year survival rates in the adults being 92 +/- 2%, 78 +/- 3%, and 58 +/- 4%. The children's group showed survival rates of 94 +/- 5%, 79 +/- 11%, and 79 +/- 11% over the same lengths of time. Most recently, the federally sponsored Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (www.ustransplant.org, July 2005) reports for MUSC a one-year survival of 97.67% and three-year survival of 90.74%; both leading the Southeast. We attribute this success to the dedicated work of health care workers at all levels who believe in attention to detail and that the patient always comes first. It is our hope that we will be able to continue to provide expert, state-of-the-art, cardiac transplant services long into the future, while continuing to expand our heart failure management program as dictated by further developments in this rapidly evolving specialty.

  19. The Utility of Amnioinfusion in the Prophylaxis of Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid Infectious Morbidity

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    C. D. Adair

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the utility of intrapartum amnioinfusion (AI in reducing the infectious morbidity of patients with meconium-stained fluid (MSF. Previous studies have shown increased intraamniotic infection (IAI and postpartum endometritis (PPE rates in patients with MSF. Intraamniotic infection has been reduced with the prophylactic administration of ampicillin–sulbactam in MSF. Intraamniotic infection and PPE have been reduced with the use of AI in patients with clear fluid. No investigators have specifically examined the efficacy of AI in reducing meconium-stained, amniotic-fluid-associated infectious morbidity.

  20. Yolk sac development in lizards (Lacertilia: Scincidae): New perspectives on the egg of amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James R; Thompson, Michael B

    2017-04-01

    Embryos of oviparous reptiles develop on the surface of a large mass of yolk, which they metabolize to become relatively large hatchlings. Access to the yolk is provided by tissues growing outward from the embryo to cover the surface of the yolk. A key feature of yolk sac development is a dedicated blood vascular system to communicate with the embryo. The best known model for yolk sac development and function of oviparous amniotes is based on numerous studies of birds, primarily domestic chickens. In this model, the vascular yolk sac forms the perimeter of the large yolk mass and is lined by a specialized epithelium, which takes up, processes and transports yolk nutrients to the yolk sac blood vessels. Studies of lizard yolk sac development, dating to more than 100 years ago, report characteristics inconsistent with this model. We compared development of the yolk sac from oviposition to near hatching in embryonic series of three species of oviparous scincid lizards to consider congruence with the pattern described for birds. Our findings reinforce results of prior studies indicating that squamate reptiles mobilize and metabolize the large yolk reserves in their eggs through a process unknown in other amniotes. Development of the yolk sac of lizards differs from birds in four primary characteristics, migration of mesoderm, proliferation of endoderm, vascular development and cellular diversity within the yolk sac cavity. Notably, all of the yolk is incorporated into cells relatively early in development and endodermal cells within the yolk sac cavity align along blood vessels which course throughout the yolk sac cavity. The pattern of uptake of yolk by endodermal cells indicates that the mechanism of yolk metabolism differs between lizards and birds and that the evolution of a fundamental characteristic of embryonic nutrition diverged in these two lineages. Attributes of the yolk sac of squamates reveal the existence of phylogenetic diversity among amniote lineages

  1. Isolation of a somatomedin binding protein from human preterm amniotic fluid: development of a radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drop, S.L.S.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis investigates the nature and biological behaviour of a somatomedin binding protein, identified in preterm amniotic fluid (AF). For that purpose a double antibody radioimmunoassay was developed. Purified AF binding protein (AFBP) was iodinated by the chloramine-T method, and dilutions of partially purified AFBP were designated as the standard, with the results expressed in μg equivalent protein/ml. The sensitivity of the assay was improved by adoption of the nonequilibrium procedure. AFBP values were twice as high in preterm AF as in term AF. (Auth.)

  2. Molecular decay of enamel matrix protein genes in turtles and other edentulous amniotes

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    Meredith Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary edentulism (toothlessness has evolved on multiple occasions in amniotes including several mammalian lineages (pangolins, anteaters, baleen whales, birds, and turtles. All edentulous amniote clades have evolved from ancestors with enamel-capped teeth. Previous studies have documented the molecular decay of tooth-specific genes in edentulous mammals, all of which lost their teeth in the Cenozoic, and birds, which lost their teeth in the Cretaceous. By contrast with mammals and birds, tooth loss in turtles occurred in the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 Ma, providing an extended time window for tooth gene degradation in this clade. The release of the painted turtle and Chinese softshell turtle genomes provides an opportunity to recover the decayed remains of tooth-specific genes in Testudines. Results We queried available genomes of Testudines (Chrysemys picta [painted turtle], Pelodiscus sinensis [Chinese softshell turtle], Aves (Anas platyrhynchos [duck], Gallus gallus [chicken], Meleagris gallopavo [turkey], Melopsittacus undulatus [budgerigar], Taeniopygia guttata [zebra finch], and enamelless mammals (Orycteropus afer [aardvark], Choloepus hoffmanni [Hoffmann’s two-toed sloth], Dasypus novemcinctus [nine-banded armadillo] for remnants of three enamel matrix protein (EMP genes with putative enamel-specific functions. Remnants of the AMBN and ENAM genes were recovered in Chrysemys and retain their original synteny. Remnants of AMEL were recovered in both testudines, although there are no shared frameshifts. We also show that there are inactivated copies of AMBN, AMEL and ENAM in representatives of divergent avian lineages including Galloanserae, Passeriformes, and Psittaciformes, and that there are shared frameshift mutations in all three genes that predate the basal split in Neognathae. Among enamelless mammals, all three EMP genes exhibit inactivating mutations in Orycteropus and Choloepus. Conclusions Our results

  3. A new set of primers for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid using polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelloux, H; Weiss, J; Simon, J; Muet, F; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Goullier-Fleuret, A; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1996-04-15

    A new PCR system including a pair of primers, a probe and an internal control were designed from the B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii. The system described allowed the detection of less than 10 tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii. Among 21 amniotic fluid samples, this system diagnosed the cases of congenital toxoplasmosis which were simultaneously diagnosed using mice inoculation, in vitro culture, and serology from both amniotic fluid and fetal blood. These results show that these new primers allow for a highly sensitive detection of T. gondii DNA.

  4. Organ transplantation and replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerilli, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 49 chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular, Genetic, and Clinical Aspects of the HLA System; The Normal Immune Response; Significance of the ABO Antigen System; The Role of Dialysis in the Management of End-Stage Renal Disease; Access for Dialysis; Patient Selection for Renal Transplantation; The Living Donor in Kidney Transplantation; and Kidney Preservation by Cold Storage.

  5. Premature rupture of the membranes at amnioinfusion in the management of oligohydramnios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Patrizia; Locatelli, Anna; Verderio, Maria; Assi, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    We sought to evaluate whether serial amnioinfusions for persistent oligohydramnios can affect the perinatal and long-term outcomes in extreme cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes. All singleton pregnancies with preterm premature rupture of membranes at 4 days between January 1991 and December 2001 were included. Amniotic fluid volume was assessed as the maximum cord-free pocket with serial ultrasonographic examinations. Consenting women with persistent (>4 days) oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid=2 cm) received serial transabdominal amnioinfusions to maintain an amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm. The pregnancy, neonatal, and long-term neurologic outcomes of the cases that spontaneously maintained a median amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm were compared with those of women with oligohydramnios who underwent amnioinfusion but continued to have persistent oligohydramnios and with those of women in whom oligohydramnios was alleviated. Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Fisher exact test with a 2-tailed Pamnioinfusions, which successfully restored a median amniotic fluid pocket >2 cm for =48 hours in 11 (30%) patients. This successful amnioinfusion group was comparable with the persistent oligohydramnios group (n=25) in gestational age at first amnioinfusion (median, 20.2 weeks; range, 16-25.6 weeks; vs median, 20.3 weeks; range, 16.5-24.2 weeks; P=.4), number of amnioinfusions (median, 3; range, 1-9; vs median, 3; range, 1-5; P=.4), and interval between amnioinfusions (median, 6 days; range, 4-14 days; vs median, 8 days; range, 6-43 days; P=.1). However, patients in the persistent oligohydramnios group had a significantly shorter interval to delivery, lower neonatal survival (20%), and higher rates of pulmonary hypoplasia (62%) and abnormal neurologic outcomes (60%) than the patients in the groups in which amnioinfusion was not necessary or was successful (all P=.01). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that after taking into

  6. Customizing Fair Use Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, policymakers and commentators across the world have called for the introduction of copyright reform based on the fair use model in the United States. Thus far, Israel, Liberia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka and Taiwan have adopted the fair use regime or its close variants. Other jurisdictions such as Australia, Hong Kong and Ireland have also advanced proposals to facilitate such adoption. This article examines the increasing efforts to transplant fair use into the copyright system based on the U.S. model. It begins by briefly recapturing the strengths and weaknesses of legal transplants. The article then scrutinizes the ongoing effort to transplant fair use from the United States. Specifically, it identifies eight modalities of transplantation. This article concludes with five lessons that can be drawn from studying the ongoing transplant efforts.

  7. Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation: A new era in transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, Garth L.; Rajotte, Ray V.

    1992-01-01

    Transplantation of insulin-producing tissue offers a physiologic approach to restoration of glycemic control. Whereas transplantation of vascularized pancreatic grafts has recently achieved encouraging results, pancreatic islet cell transplantation holds the promise of low morbidity and reduced requirements for agressive immunosuppression for recipients. Islet cell transplantation was recently demonstrated to induce euglycemia with insulin independence.

  8. Randomised trial of amnioinfusion during labour with meconium stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, Asmita Muthal; Singh, Ruchira; Ramji, S; Tripathi, Reva

    2002-01-01

    To assess the effect of amnioinfusion during labour with meconium stained amniotic fluid on caesarean section rate and perinatal outcome. Prospective randomised controlled study. A tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Women in labour at term with meconium stained amniotic fluid. Two hundred women in labour with > or = 37 weeks gestation, single cephalic presentation with moderate or thick meconium were randomised to control and amnioinfusion groups at a 1:1 ratio. Amnioinfusion was performed using 500 mL of normal saline over a period of 30 minutes in a study group. The control group received routine care. Both groups had intermittent auscultation of fetal heart rate during labour. The primary outcome measure was caesarean section rate. Secondary outcome measures were meconium aspiration syndrome, 1 minute and 5 minute apgar amnioinfusion group was less than the control group (RR 0.47; 95% CI 0.24-0.93). Amnioinfusion was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of meconium at the vocal cords (P = 0.001); improvement in 1 minute apgar scores (P Amnioinfusion in an under resourced labour ward decreases caesarean section rates and fetal morbidity.

  9. Reptile genomes open the frontier for comparative analysis of amniote development and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, Marc; Hutchins, Elizabeth D; Kusumi, Kenro

    2014-01-01

    Developmental genetic studies of vertebrates have focused primarily on zebrafish, frog and mouse models, which have clear application to medicine and well-developed genomic resources. In contrast, reptiles represent the most diverse amniote group, but have only recently begun to gather the attention of genome sequencing efforts. Extant reptilian groups last shared a common ancestor ?280 million years ago and include lepidosaurs, turtles and crocodilians. This phylogenetic diversity is reflected in great morphological and behavioral diversity capturing the attention of biologists interested in mechanisms regulating developmental processes such as somitogenesis and spinal patterning, regeneration, the evolution of "snake-like" morphology, the formation of the unique turtle shell, and the convergent evolution of the four-chambered heart shared by mammals and archosaurs. The complete genome of the first non-avian reptile, the green anole lizard, was published in 2011 and has provided insights into the origin and evolution of amniotes. Since then, the genomes of multiple snakes, turtles, and crocodilians have also been completed. Here we will review the current diversity of available reptile genomes, with an emphasis on their evolutionary relationships, and will highlight how these genomes have and will continue to facilitate research in developmental and regenerative biology.

  10. Pulmonary phospholipids in amniotic fluid of pathologic pregnancies: relationship with clinical status of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, A; Hernandez-Garcia, J M; Grande, C; Martinez, I; Perez, J; de la Fuente, P; Usandizaga, J A

    1989-06-01

    We evaluated phospholipids, C-peptide and cortisol levels in amniotic fluid of 203 pathologic pregnancies (63, class A, B and C diabetics; 11 class D, F and H diabetics; 44 preclampsia and 85 Rh-isoimmunization); the control group was 82 normal pregnant women. There was an acceleration of fetal pulmonary maturation in women with preclampsia and severe Rh-isoimmunization in class D, F and H diabetics (at 34 weeks gestation the incidence of mature surfactant (lecithin/sphingomyelin greater than or equal to 2.7 and presence of phosphatidyl-glycerol) in these groups was 30%, 50% and 100%, respectively, while it was zero in the control group). At 37 and 38 weeks only 44.4% of the class A, B and C diabetics had mature surfactant and there was a significant difference with respect to the control group (x2 = 4.9; p less than 0.05); C-peptide levels in these diabetics (class A, B and C) were higher than in controls (p less than 0.001); in pregnant women with accelerated fetal lung maturation they were lower. We demonstrated a close relationship between fetal pulmonary maturity and the type of surfactant in amniotic fluid, which was independent of gestational age.

  11. Efficiency of nuclear and mitochondrial markers recovering and supporting known amniote groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambret-Frotté, Julia; Perini, Fernando Araújo; de Moraes Russo, Claudia Augusta

    2012-01-01

    We have analysed the efficiency of all mitochondrial protein coding genes and six nuclear markers (Adora3, Adrb2, Bdnf, Irbp, Rag2 and Vwf) in reconstructing and statistically supporting known amniote groups (murines, rodents, primates, eutherians, metatherians, therians). The efficiencies of maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and UPGMA were also evaluated, by assessing the number of correct and incorrect recovered groupings. In addition, we have compared support values using the conservative bootstrap test and the Bayesian posterior probabilities. First, no correlation was observed between gene size and marker efficiency in recovering or supporting correct nodes. As expected, tree-building methods performed similarly, even UPGMA that, in some cases, outperformed other most extensively used methods. Bayesian posterior probabilities tend to show much higher support values than the conservative bootstrap test, for correct and incorrect nodes. Our results also suggest that nuclear markers do not necessarily show a better performance than mitochondrial genes. The so-called dependency among mitochondrial markers was not observed comparing genome performances. Finally, the amniote groups with lowest recovery rates were therians and rodents, despite the morphological support for their monophyletic status. We suggest that, regardless of the tree-building method, a few carefully selected genes are able to unfold a detailed and robust scenario of phylogenetic hypotheses, particularly if taxon sampling is increased.

  12. Biochemical profile of amniotic fluid for the assessment of fetal and renal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Oliveira

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Creatinine plays a key role in the function and maturation of fetal kidneys throughout pregnancy. It is important to identify other markers that may help in the diagnosis of renal dysfunction. Our aim was to determine the profile of and the correlation between biochemical markers to be used to assess renal function and maturation of the fetus in the amniotic fluid during pregnancy and to determine the distribution of normal values for creatinine, N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG, ß2-microglobulin, glucose, urea, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, uric acid, albumin, and osmolality in three gestational age groups. This was a cross-section study that assessed 115 samples of amniotic fluid during three different periods of pregnancy, i.e., 13 to 20, 27 to 34, and 36 to 42 weeks. Concentrations of creatinine, NAG, urea, potassium and uric acid increased during pregnancy (P0.6, P0.5, P<0.05. NAG, sodium, albumin and osmolality did not show significant correlations (r<0.5, P<0.05. These tests confirmed the important role of creatinine in terms of correlation with gestational age. ß2-Microglobulin, glucose and uric acid were significant as markers of function and maturation of fetal kidneys, whereas NAG did not demonstrate a useful role for the assessment of renal maturation.

  13. Surface functionality affects the biodistribution and microglia-targeting of intra-amniotically delivered dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Nance, Elizabeth; Zhang, Zhi; Jasty, Venkatasai; Kambhampati, Siva P; Mishra, Manoj K; Burd, Irina; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

    2016-09-10

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a chronic childhood disorder with limited therapeutic options. Maternal intrauterine inflammation/infection is a major risk factor in the pathogenesis of CP. In pre-clinical models, dendrimer-based therapies are viable in postnatal period, attenuating inflammation and improving motor function in vivo. However, treatment to the mother, in the prenatal period, may provide the possibility of preventing/resolving inflammation at early stages. Towards this goal, we used a maternal intrauterine inflammation-induced rabbit model of CP to study fetal-maternal transport and neuroinflammation targeting of intra-amniotically administrated dendrimers with neutral/anionic surface functionality. Our study suggested both hydroxyl-terminated 'neutral' (D-OH) and carboxyl-terminated 'anionic' (D-COOH) Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were absorbed by fetuses and demonstrated bi-directional transport between fetuses and mother. D-OH was more effective in crossing the fetal blood-brain barrier, and targeting activated microglia. The cell-specific targeting was associated with the extent of microglia activation. This study demonstrated intra-amniotically administered hydroxyl PAMAM dendrimers could be an effective drug delivery vehicle for targeting fetal inflammation and preventing subsequent neurologic injury associated with chorioamnionitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface functionality affects the biodistribution and microglia-targeting of intra-amniotically delivered dendrimers☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Nance, Elizabeth; Zhang, Zhi; Jasty, Venkatasai; Kambhampati, Siva P.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Burd, Irina; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a chronic childhood disorder with limited therapeutic options. Maternal intrauterine inflammation/infection is a major risk factor in the pathogenesis of CP. In pre-clinical models, dendrimer-based therapies are viable in postnatal period, attenuating inflammation and improving motor function in vivo. However, treatment to the mother, in the prenatal period, may provide the possibility of preventing/resolving inflammation at early stages. Towards this goal, we used a maternal intrauterine inflammation-induced rabbit model of CP to study fetal-maternal transport and neuroinflammation targeting of intra-amniotically administrated dendrimers with neutral/anionic surface functionality. Our study suggested both hydroxyl-terminated ‘neutral’ (D-OH) and carboxyl-terminated ‘anionic’ (D-COOH) Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were absorbed by fetuses and demonstrated bi-directional transport between fetuses and mother. D-OH was more effective in crossing the fetal blood-brain barrier, and targeting activated microglia. The cell-specific targeting was associated with the extent of microglia activation. This study demonstrated intra-amniotically administered hydroxyl PAMAM dendrimers could be an effective drug delivery vehicle for targeting fetal inflammation and preventing subsequent neurologic injury associated with chorioamnionitis. PMID:27378700

  15. Early fish myoseptal cells: insights from the trout and relationships with amniote axial tenocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoann Bricard

    Full Text Available The trunk muscle in fish is organized as longitudinal series of myomeres which are separated by sheets of connective tissue called myoseptum to which myofibers attach. In this study we show in the trout that the myoseptum separating two somites is initially acellular and composed of matricial components such as fibronectin, laminin and collagen I. However, myoseptal cells forming a continuum with skeletogenic cells surrounding axial structures are observed between adjacent myotomes after the completion of somitogenesis. The myoseptal cells do not express myogenic markers such as Pax3, Pax7 and myogenin but express several tendon-associated collagens including col1a1, col5a2 and col12a1 and angiopoietin-like 7, which is a secreted molecule involved in matrix remodelling. Using col1a1 as a marker gene, we observed in developing trout embryo an initial labelling in disseminating cells ventral to the myotome. Later, labelled cells were found more dorsally encircling the notochord or invading the intermyotomal space. This opens the possibility that the sclerotome gives rise not only to skeletogenic mesenchymal cells, as previously reported, but also to myoseptal cells. We furthermore show that myoseptal cells differ from skeletogenic cells found around the notochord by the specific expression of Scleraxis, a distinctive marker of tendon cells in amniotes. In conclusion, the location, the molecular signature and the possible sclerotomal origin of the myoseptal cells suggest that the fish myoseptal cells are homologous to the axial tenocytes in amniotes.

  16. Recruitment of host's progenitor cells to sites of human amniotic fluid stem cells implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, Teodelinda; Poggi, Alessandro; Scaranari, Monica; Mogni, Massimo; Lituania, Mario; Baldo, Chiara; Cancedda, Ranieri; Gentili, Chiara

    2011-06-01

    The amniotic fluid is a new source of multipotent stem cells with a therapeutic potential for human diseases. Cultured at low cell density, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) were still able to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) after 60 doublings, thus confirming their staminal nature. Moreover, after extensive in vitro cell expansion hAFSCs maintained a stable karyotype. The expression of genes, such as SSEA-4, SOX2 and OCT3/4 was confirmed at early and later culture stage. Also, hAFSCs showed bright expression of mesenchymal lineage markers and immunoregulatory properties. hAFSCs, seeded onto hydroxyapatite scaffolds and subcutaneously implanted in nude mice, played a pivotal role in mounting a response resulting in the recruitment of host's progenitor cells forming tissues of mesodermal origin such as fat, muscle, fibrous tissue and immature bone. Implanted hAFSCs migrated from the scaffold to the skin overlying implant site but not to other organs. Given their in vivo: (i) recruitment of host progenitor cells, (ii) homing towards injured sites and (iii) multipotentiality in tissue repair, hAFSCs are a very appealing reserve of stem cells potentially useful for clinical application in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells: A Novel Source for Modeling of Human Genetic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Antonucci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the use of Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS for modeling of human genetic diseases, due to the possibility of reprogramming somatic cells of affected patients into pluripotent cells, enabling differentiation into several cell types, and allowing investigations into the molecular mechanisms of the disease. However, the protocol of iPS generation still suffers from technical limitations, showing low efficiency, being expensive and time consuming. Amniotic Fluid Stem cells (AFS represent a potential alternative novel source of stem cells for modeling of human genetic diseases. In fact, by means of prenatal diagnosis, a number of fetuses affected by chromosomal or Mendelian diseases can be identified, and the amniotic fluid collected for genetic testing can be used, after diagnosis, for the isolation, culture and differentiation of AFS cells. This can provide a useful stem cell model for the investigation of the molecular basis of the diagnosed disease without the necessity of producing iPS, since AFS cells show some features of pluripotency and are able to differentiate in cells derived from all three germ layers “in vitro”. In this article, we describe the potential benefits provided by using AFS cells in the modeling of human genetic diseases.

  18. Gap Junctions Are Involved in the Rescue of CFTR-Dependent Chloride Efflux by Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Coculture with Cystic Fibrosis CFBE41o- Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalucia Carbone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs in coculture with CF immortalised airway epithelial cells (CFBE41o- line, CFBE on Transwell® filters acquired an epithelial phenotype and led to the expression of a mature and functional CFTR protein. In order to explore the role of gap junction- (GJ- mediated intercellular communication (GJIC in this rescue, cocultures (hAMSC : CFBE, 1 : 5 ratio were studied for the formation of GJIC, before and after silencing connexin 43 (Cx43, a major component of GJs. Functional GJs in cocultures were inhibited when the expression of the Cx43 protein was downregulated. Transfection of cocultures with siRNA against Cx43 resulted in the absence of specific CFTR signal on the apical membrane and reduction in the mature form of CFTR (band C, and in parallel, the CFTR-dependent chloride channel activity was significantly decreased. Cx43 downregulation determined also a decrease in transepithelial resistance and an increase in paracellular permeability as compared with control cocultures, implying that GJIC may regulate CFTR expression and function that in turn modulate airway epithelium tightness. These results indicate that GJIC is involved in the correction of CFTR chloride channel activity upon the acquisition of an epithelial phenotype by hAMSCs in coculture with CF cells.

  19. Gap Junctions Are Involved in the Rescue of CFTR-Dependent Chloride Efflux by Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Coculture with Cystic Fibrosis CFBE41o- Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Annalucia; Zefferino, Roberto; Beccia, Elisa; Casavola, Valeria; Castellani, Stefano; Di Gioia, Sante; Giannone, Valentina; Seia, Manuela; Angiolillo, Antonella; Colombo, Carla; Favia, Maria; Conese, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    We previously found that human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) in coculture with CF immortalised airway epithelial cells (CFBE41o- line, CFBE) on Transwell® filters acquired an epithelial phenotype and led to the expression of a mature and functional CFTR protein. In order to explore the role of gap junction- (GJ-) mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) in this rescue, cocultures (hAMSC : CFBE, 1 : 5 ratio) were studied for the formation of GJIC, before and after silencing connexin 43 (Cx43), a major component of GJs. Functional GJs in cocultures were inhibited when the expression of the Cx43 protein was downregulated. Transfection of cocultures with siRNA against Cx43 resulted in the absence of specific CFTR signal on the apical membrane and reduction in the mature form of CFTR (band C), and in parallel, the CFTR-dependent chloride channel activity was significantly decreased. Cx43 downregulation determined also a decrease in transepithelial resistance and an increase in paracellular permeability as compared with control cocultures, implying that GJIC may regulate CFTR expression and function that in turn modulate airway epithelium tightness. These results indicate that GJIC is involved in the correction of CFTR chloride channel activity upon the acquisition of an epithelial phenotype by hAMSCs in coculture with CF cells.

  20. Syngeneic transplantation in aplastic anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerull, Sabine; Stern, Martin; Apperley, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Aplastic anemia is usually treated with immunosuppression or allogeneic transplant, depending on patient and disease characteristics. Syngeneic transplant offers a rare treatment opportunity with minimal transplant-related mortality, and offers an insight into disease mechanisms. We present here...... a retrospective analysis of all syngeneic transplants for aplastic anemia reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Between 1976 and 2009, 88 patients received 113 transplants. Most transplants (n=85) were preceded by a conditioning regimen, 22 of these including anti-thymocyte globulin...

  1. Pancreatic islet transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa-Giannella Maria

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No formulation of exogenous insulin available to date has yet been able to mimic the physiological nictemeral rhythms of this hormone, and despite all engineering advancements, the theoretical proposal of developing a mechanical replacement for pancreatic β cell still has not been reached. Thus, the replacement of β cells through pancreas and pancreatic islet transplantation are the only concrete alternatives for re-establishing the endogenous insulin secretion in type 1 diabetic patients. Since only 1 to 1.5% of the pancreatic mass corresponds to endocrine tissue, pancreatic islets transplantation arises as a natural alternative. Data from the International Islet Transplant Registry (ITR from 1983 to December 2000 document a total of 493 transplants performed around the world, with progressively worse rates of post-transplant insulin independence. In 2000, the "Edmonton Protocol" introduced several modifications to the transplantation procedure, such as the use of a steroid-free immunosuppression regimen and transplantation of a mean islet mass of 11,000 islet equivalents per kilogram, which significantly improved 1-year outcomes. Although the results of a 5-year follow-up in 65 patients demonstrated improvement in glycemic instability in a significant portion of them, only 7.5% of the patients have reached insulin independence, indicating the need of further advances in the preservation of the function of transplanted islet. In addition to the scarcity of organs available for transplantation, islets transplantation still faces major challenges, specially those related to cell loss during the process of islet isolation and the losses related to the graft site, apoptosis, allorejection, autoimmunity, and immunosuppression. The main strategies to optimize islet transplantation aim at improving all these aspects. Conclusion Human islet transplantation should be regarded as an intervention that can decrease the frequency of

  2. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Bakar Sulaiman

    1999-01-01

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  3. The origin of fetal sterols in second-trimester amniotic fluid : endogenous synthesis or maternal-fetal transport?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, Maria E.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S.; Luetjohann, Dieter; Plosch, Torsten; Lutjohann, D.

    OBJECTIVE: Cholesterol is crucial for fetal development. To gain more insight into the origin of the fetal cholesterol pool in early human pregnancy, we determined cholesterol and its precursors in the amniotic fluid of uncomplicated, singleton human pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: Total sterols were

  4. Adipogenic differentiation and EGFP gene transfection of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells from goat fetus at terminal gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Ying; Zheng, Yue-Mao; Qiu, Shuang; Qi, Ying-Pei; Zhang, Yong

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether stem cells could be isolated from amniotic fluid of goat fetus at terminal gestational age and to determine if these stem cells could differentiate into adipogenic cells and be transfected with a reporter gene, EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein). The stem cells were isolated from amniotic fluid of goat fetus at terminal gestational age, induced to differentiate into adipogenic cells in vitro and transfected with the EGFP gene using lipofection. Markers associated with undifferentiated AFS (amniotic fluid-derived stem) cells were tested by RT (reverse transcription)-PCR. The results demonstrated that AFS cells could be isolated from amniotic fluid of goat fetus at terminal gestational age and could differentiate into adipogenic cells. The EGFP gene was transfected into AFS cells successfully. EGFP gene transfection efficiency of the three groups of transgenic AFS cells were 26.0, 29.9 and 30.5%, respectively. Both transgenic and wild-type AFS cells could express Hes1 (hairy and enhancer of split 1), Oct4 (octamer-binding protein 4) and Nanog.

  5. Biological half-life and transfer of maternal corticosteroid-binding globulin to amniotic fluid in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seralini, G.E.; Underhill, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Nguyen, V.T.; Hammond, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Rabbit corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) from the serum of pregnant and nonpregnant females differs in terms of charge microheterogeneity, and both forms were, therefore, radiolabeled and injected iv into 23- to 27-day pregnant rabbits (n = 6) to assess their biological half-lives and possible transfer to the fetal compartment. After an initially rapid distribution phase, the serum half-lives of both forms of [ 125 I]CBG were essentially identical (approximately 13 h) and did not vary at different gestational ages. There was also no difference in the transfer of either form of [ 125 I]CBG from maternal to fetal compartments in any of the animals studied. Moreover, [ 125 I]CBG showed no sign of degradation and retained its steroid-binding activity in fetal urine and amniotic fluid. Twenty-two hours after administration of [ 125 I]CBG to rabbits (n = 2) at 23 days gestation, its mean level in fetal urine (7 cpm/microliter) and amniotic fluid (2.5 cpm/microliter) was much higher than that in fetal blood (0.6 cpm/microliter). More importantly, the specific activities of [ 125 I]CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid were comparable to that in maternal serum, and approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that in fetal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid is largely of maternal origin, and that maternal CBG crosses the fetal kidney preferentially

  6. Repeated exposure to intra-amniotic LPS partially protects against adverse effects of intravenous LPS in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisslen, Tate; Hillman, Noah H; Musk, Gabrielle C; Kemp, Matthew W; Kramer, Boris W; Senthamaraikannan, Paranthaman; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2014-02-01

    Histologic chorioamnionitis, frequently associated with preterm births and adverse outcomes, results in prolonged exposure of preterm fetuses to infectious agents and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as LPS. Endotoxin tolerance-type effects were demonstrated in fetal sheep following repetitive systemic or intra-amniotic (i.a.) exposures to LPS, suggesting that i.a. LPS exposure would cause endotoxin tolerance to a postnatal systemic dose of LPS in preterm sheep. In this study, randomized pregnant ewes received either two i.a. injections of LPS or saline prior to preterm delivery. Following operative delivery, the lambs were treated with surfactant, ventilated, and randomized to receive either i.v. LPS or saline at 30  min of age. Physiologic variables and indicators of systemic and lung inflammation were measured. Intravenous LPS decreased blood neutrophils and platelets values following i.a. saline compared to that after i.a. LPS. Intra-amniotic LPS prevented blood pressure from decreasing following the i.v. LPS, but also caused an increased oxygen index. Intra-amniotic LPS did not cause endotoxin tolerance as assessed by cytokine expression in the liver, lung or plasma, but increased myeloperoxidase-positive cells in the lung. The different compartments of exposure to LPS (i.a. vs i.v.) are unique to the fetal to newborn transition. Intra-amniotic LPS incompletely tolerized fetal lambs to postnatal i.v. LPS.

  7. Intra amniotic administration and dietary inulin affect the iron status and intestinal functionality of iron deficient broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a linear beta-fructan, is present in a variety of plants, with relatively high levels of up to 20% in chicory root. It exhibits prebiotic properties and was shown to enhance mineral absorption. Our objectives were to assess the effect of intra-amniotic administration of inulin at 17d of incu...

  8. Chest computed tomography of a patient revealing severe hypoxia due to amniotic fluid embolism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui Daisuke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amniotic fluid embolism is one of the most severe complications in the peripartum period. Because its onset is abrupt and fulminant, it is unlikely that there will be time to examine the condition using thoracic computed tomography (CT. We report a case of life-threatening amniotic fluid embolism, where chest CT in the acute phase was obtained. Case presentation A 22-year-old Asian Japanese primiparous woman was suspected of having an amniotic fluid embolism. After a Cesarean section for cephalopelvic disproportion, her respiratory condition deteriorated. Her chest CT images were examined. CT findings revealed diffuse homogeneous ground-glass shadow in her bilateral peripheral lung fields. She was therefore transferred to our hospital. On admission to our hospital's intensive care unit, she was found to have severe hypoxemia, with SpO2 of 50% with a reservoir mask of 15 L/min oxygen. She was intubated with the support of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. She was successfully extubated on the sixth day, and discharged from the hospital on the twentieth day. Conclusion This is the first case report describing amniotic fluid embolism in which CT revealed an acute respiratory distress syndrome-like shadow.

  9. Characterisation of non-maternal serum proteins in amniotic fluid at weeks 16 to 18 of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drøhse, H; Christensen, H; Myrhøj, Vibeke

    1998-01-01

    of these proteins were chosen for isolation and further characterisation. With the use of immunological methods, SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing we identified two of the proteins as C-terminal propeptides of procollagen Type I and Type III, which have not hitherto been described in amniotic fluid. The third...

  10. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains of hemoglobins from Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis and phylogenetic relationships of amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushitani, K; Higashiyama, K; Moriyama, E N; Imai, K; Hosokawa, K

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate phylogenetic relationships among amniotes and the evolution of alpha globins, hemoglobins were analyzed from the Komodo dragon (Komodo monitor lizard) Varanus komodoensis, the world's largest extant lizard, inhabiting Komodo Islands, Indonesia. Four unique globin chains (alpha A, alpha D, beta B, and beta C) were isolated in an equal molar ratio by high performance liquid chromatography from the hemolysate. The amino acid sequences of two alpha chains were determined. The alpha D chain has a glutamine at E7 as does an alpha chain of a snake, Liophis miliaris, but the alpha A chain has a histidine at E7 like the majority of hemoglobins. Phylogenetic analyses of 19 globins including two alpha chains of Komodo dragon and ones from representative amniotes showed the following results: (1) The a chains of squamates (snakes and lizards), which have a glutamine at E7, are clustered with the embryonic alpha globin family, which typically includes the alpha D chain from birds; (2) birds form a sister group with other reptiles but not with mammals; (3) the genes for embryonic and adult types of alpha globins were possibly produced by duplication of the ancestral alpha gene before ancestral amniotes diverged, indicating that each of the present amniotes might carry descendants of the two types of alpha globin genes; (4) squamates first split off from the ancestor of other reptiles and birds.

  11. In vivo (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of amniotic fluid and fetal lung at 1.5 T: technical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Vahidi, Kiarash; Caughey, Aaron B; Coakley, Fergus V; Vigneron, Daniel B; Kurhanewicz, John; Mow, Ben; Joe, Bonnie N

    2008-10-01

    To identify the major technical challenges associated with in utero single-voxel proton spectroscopy of amniotic fluid and fetal lung and to evaluate the feasibility of performing in utero fetal spectroscopy for fetal lung maturity testing. Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of amniotic fluid and fetal lung were performed at 1.5 T in 8 near-term pregnant women. Presence/absence of lactate and choline peaks was tabulated. Ex vivo spectra were obtained from amniotic fluid samples to investigate and refine sequence parameters. Spectroscopy failed in 3 of 8 cases due to maternal discomfort (n = 1) or fetal gastroschisis (n = 2). Both fetal motion and low signal-to-noise ratio were limiting factors for the remaining 5 clinical in vivo studies at 1.5 T. Ex vivo and in vivo studies suggested feasibility for detecting lactate from amniotic fluid within a reasonable clinical scan time (4-5 minutes). Lactate was detected in 3 of 5 patients. Choline detection was limited and was detected in 1 patient. Minor motion effects can be overcome but continuous fetal motion is problematic. Lactate detection seems clinically feasible, but choline detection requires additional technical development and, potentially, further imaging at a higher field strength because of the low signal-to-noise ratio at 1.5 T. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Fetal uptake of intra-amniotically delivered dendrimers in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Irina; Zhang, Fan; Dada, Tahani; Mishra, Manoj K; Borbiev, Talaibek; Lesniak, Wojciech G; Baghlaf, Haitham; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

    2014-08-01

    Intrauterine inflammation is associated with preterm birth and can lead to fetal neuroinflammation and neurobehavioral disorders in newborns. Dendrimers can intrinsically target and deliver drugs for the treatment of neuroinflammation. We explore whether hydroxyl polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer (G4-OH)-based nanomedicines can be delivered to the fetus by intra-amniotic administration, in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation. The time-dependent accumulation of G4-OH-fluorophore conjugate was quantified by fluorescence. These studies suggest that, after intra-amniotic administration, there is significant accumulation of dendrimer in the fetus gut and brain. In addition, there is some fetal-maternal transport of the dendrimer. Confocal microscopy confirmed the presence of G4-OH in the fetal brain, with a large accumulation in the brain blood vessels and the brain parenchyma, and some microglial uptake. We believe that intra-amniotic administration of G4-OH-drug nanomedicines may enable the treatment of diseases related to intrauterine inflammation and fetal neuroinflammation. Using a mouse model of intrauterin inflammation leading to neuroinflammation in the fetus, these investigators demonstrate that intra-amniotic delivery of hydroxyl polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer (G4-OH)-based nanomedicines may provide an effective method in preventing this complication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. More than fetal urine: enteral uptake of amniotic fluid as a major predictor for fetal growth during late gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagci, S.; Brosens, E.; Tibboel, D.; Klein, A.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Wijers, C.H.W.; Roeleveld, N.; Blaauw, I. de; Broens, P.M.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Holscher, A.; Boemers, T.M.; Pauly, M.; Munsterer, O.J.; Schmiedeke, E.; Schafer, M.; Ure, B.E.; Lacher, M.; Choinitzki, V.; Schumacher, J.; Zwink, N.; Jenetzky, E.; Katzer, D.; Arand, J.; Bartmann, P.; Reutter, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the importance of amniotic fluid (AF) for fetal growth during late gestation using esophageal atresia (EA) patients as a model. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared the z-scores adapted for birth weights (BW z-scores) for each of 517 European

  14. Prenatal sex hormones (maternal and amniotic fluid) and gender-related play behavior in 13-month-old Infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.; Goozen, S.H.M. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone levels were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy in maternal serum and amniotic fluid, and related to direct observations of gender-related play behavior in 63 male and 63 female offspring at age 13 months. During a structured play session, sex

  15. The Salivary Scavenger and Agglutinin in Early Life: Diverse Roles in Amniotic Fluid and in the Infant Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichhardt, M.P.; Jarva, H.; Been, de M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Quintana, E.J.; Loimaranta, V.; Vos, de W.M.; Meri, S.

    2014-01-01

    The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as gp340 and dmbt1, is an antimicrobial and inflammation-regulating molecule located at the mucosal surfaces. The present study revealed that SALSA was present in the amniotic fluid (AF) and exceptionally enriched in both meconium and feces

  16. Affinity purification of native glycodelin from amniotic fluid for biological investigations and development of a glycodelin ELISA for clinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; Myrhøj, Vibeke; Nguyen, Thanh Ha

    2017-01-01

    for functional studies because the carbohydrate part can be lacking or be insufficient in recombinant glycodelin from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell systems. METHODS AND RESULTS: Native glycodelin was purified from amniotic fluid by a series of affinity chromatography steps and had many glycosylated forms...

  17. Analysis of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide in human amniotic fluid using ion chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blount, Benjamin C.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza

    2006-01-01

    Because of health concerns surrounding in utero exposure to perchlorate, we developed a sensitive and selective method for quantifying iodide, as well as perchlorate and other sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors in human amniotic fluid using ion chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Iodide and NIS inhibitors were quantified using a stable isotope-labeled internal standards (Cl 18 O 4 - , S 13 CN - and 15 NO 3 - with excellent assay accuracy of 100%, 98%, 99%, 95% for perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide, respectively, in triplicate analysis of spiked amniotic fluid sample). Excellent analytical precision (<5.2% RSD for all analytes) was found when amniotic fluid quality control pools were repetitively analyzed for iodide and NIS-inhibitors. Selective chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry reduced the need for sample cleanup, resulting in a rugged and rapid method capable of routinely analyzing 75 samples/day. Analytical response was linear across the physiologically relevant concentration range for the analytes. Analysis of a set of 48 amniotic fluid samples identified the range and median levels for perchlorate (0.057-0.71, 0.18 μg/L), thiocyanate (<10-5860, 89 μg/L), nitrate (650-8900, 1620 μg/L) and iodide (1.7-170, 8.1 μg/L). This selective, sensitive, and rapid method will help assess exposure of the developing fetus to low levels of NIS-inhibitors and their potential to inhibit thyroid function

  18. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in Spain: analysis and evaluation of the results obtained from amniotic fluid samples during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mademont-Soler, Irene; Morales, Carme; Clusellas, Núria; Soler, Anna; Sánchez, Aurora

    2011-08-01

    Chromosome abnormalities are one of the main causes of congenital defects, and establishing their frequency according to the different clinical indications for invasive procedure during pregnancy is especially important for genetic counselling. We analyzed the results of 29,883 amniotic fluid samples referred to our laboratory for cytogenetic studies from 1998 to 2009, which constitutes the largest series of cytogenetic analysis performed on amniotic fluid samples in Spain. The number of samples received tended to increase from 1998 to 2005, but after 2005 it decreased substantially. Cytogenetic results were obtained in 99.5% of the samples, and the detected incidence of chromosome abnormalities was 2.9%. Of these, 48.1% consisted of classical autosomal aneuploidies, trisomy 21 being the most frequent one. The main clinical indications for amniocentesis were positive prenatal screening and advanced maternal age, but referral reasons with highest positive predictive values were, excluding parental chromosome rearrangement, increased nuchal translucency (9.2%) and ultrasound abnormalities (6.6%). In conclusion, performing the karyotype on amniotic fluid samples is a good method for the detection of chromosome abnormalities during pregnancy. The number of cytogenetic studies on amniotic fluid has now decreased, however, due to the implementation of first trimester prenatal screening for the detection of Down syndrome, which allows karyotyping on chorionic villus samples. Our results also show that both ultrasound abnormalities and increased nuchal translucency are excellent clinical indicators for fetal chromosome abnormality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: comparative value of fetal blood and amniotic fluid using serological techniques and cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Pelloux, H; Muet, F; Racinet, C; Bost, M; Goullier-Fleuret, A; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1997-09-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is mainly based on biological tests performed on fetal blood and amniotic fluid. We studied the performance of neonatal diagnosis procedures and the results of fetal blood and amniotic fluid analysis. Of 127 women who contracted toxoplasmosis and underwent prenatal diagnosis, the postnatal serological follow-up was long enough to definitively diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis in 19 cases and to exclude it in 27 cases. Prenatal diagnosis allowed the detection of 94.7 per cent (18/19) of the infected fetuses. The sensitivities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were equivalent, 88.2 per cent (15/17) and 87.5 per cent (14/16), respectively. In fetal blood, biological techniques were positive in 12/16 cases and in 2/16 cases, serological tests were the only positive sign. The specificities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were respectively 100 per cent (23/23) and 86.3 per cent (19/22) (three false-positive serological results). These results, added to the lower morbidity of amniocentesis compared with cordocentesis, might lead to cordocentesis being abandoned in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  20. Calcium sensing receptor expression in ovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and the potential role of R-568 during osteogenic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Di Tomo

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS cells have been identified as a promising source for cell therapy applications in bone traumatic and degenerative damage. Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaSR, a G protein-coupled receptor able to bind calcium ions, plays a physiological role in regulating bone metabolism. It is expressed in different kinds of cells, as well as in some stem cells. The bone CaSR could potentially be targeted by allosteric modulators, in particular by agonists such as calcimimetic R-568, which may potentially be helpful for the treatment of bone disease. The aim of our study was first to investigate the presence of CaSR in ovine Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells (oAFMSCs and then the potential role of calcimimetics in in vitro osteogenesis. oAFMSCs were isolated, characterized and analyzed to examine the possible presence of CaSR by western blotting and flow cytometry analysis. Once we had demonstrated CaSR expression, we worked out that 1 µM R-568 was the optimal and effective concentration by cell viability test (MTT, cell number, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP and Alizarin Red S (ARS assays. Interestingly, we observed that basal diffuse CaSR expression in oAFMSCs increased at the membrane when cells were treated with R-568 (1 µM, potentially resulting in activation of the receptor. This was associated with significantly increased cell mineralization (ALP and ARS staining and augmented intracellular calcium and Inositol trisphosphate (IP3 levels, thus demonstrating a potential role for calcimimetics during osteogenic differentiation. Calhex-231, a CaSR allosteric inhibitor, totally reversed R-568 induced mineralization. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that CaSR is expressed in oAFMSCs and that calcimimetic R-568, possibly through CaSR activation, can significantly improve the osteogenic process. Hence, our study may provide useful information on the mechanisms regulating osteogenesis in oAFMSCs, perhaps

  1. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  2. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  3. Eukaryote-Made Thermostable DNA Polymerase Enables Rapid PCR-Based Detection of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and Other Bacteria in the Amniotic Fluid of Preterm Labor Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tomohiro; Niimi, Hideki; Yoneda, Noriko; Yoneda, Satoshi; Mori, Masashi; Tabata, Homare; Minami, Hiroshi; Saito, Shigeru; Kitajima, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Intra-amniotic infection has long been recognized as the leading cause of preterm delivery. Microbial culture is the gold standard for the detection of intra-amniotic infection, but several days are required, and many bacterial species in the amniotic fluid are difficult to cultivate. We developed a novel nested-PCR-based assay for detecting Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, other bacteria and fungi in amniotic fluid samples within three hours of sample collection. To detect prokaryotes, eukaryote-made thermostable DNA polymerase, which is free from bacterial DNA contamination, is used in combination with bacterial universal primers. In contrast, to detect eukaryotes, conventional bacterially-made thermostable DNA polymerase is used in combination with fungal universal primers. To assess the validity of the PCR assay, we compared the PCR and conventional culture results using 300 amniotic fluid samples. Based on the detection level (positive and negative), 93.3% (280/300) of Mycoplasma, 94.3% (283/300) of Ureaplasma, 89.3% (268/300) of other bacteria and 99.7% (299/300) of fungi matched the culture results. Meanwhile, concerning the detection of bacteria other than Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma, 228 samples were negative according to the PCR method, 98.2% (224/228) of which were also negative based on the culture method. Employing the devised primer sets, mixed amniotic fluid infections of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and/or other bacteria could be clearly distinguished. In addition, we also attempted to compare the relative abundance in 28 amniotic fluid samples with mixed infection, and judged dominance by comparing the Ct values of quantitative real-time PCR. We developed a novel PCR assay for the rapid detection of Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, other bacteria and fungi in amniotic fluid samples. This assay can also be applied to accurately diagnose the absence of bacteria in samples. We believe that this assay will positively contribute to the treatment of intra-amniotic infection and

  4. Term amniotic fluid: an unexploited reserve of mesenchymal stromal cells for reprogramming and potential cell therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraghebi, Roksana; Kirkeby, Agnete; Chaves, Patricia; Rönn, Roger E; Sitnicka, Ewa; Parmar, Malin; Larsson, Marcus; Herbst, Andreas; Woods, Niels-Bjarne

    2017-08-25

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are currently being evaluated in numerous pre-clinical and clinical cell-based therapy studies. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in exploring alternative uses of these cells in disease modelling, pharmaceutical screening, and regenerative medicine by applying reprogramming technologies. However, the limited availability of MSCs from various sources restricts their use. Term amniotic fluid has been proposed as an alternative source of MSCs. Previously, only low volumes of term fluid and its cellular constituents have been collected, and current knowledge of the MSCs derived from this fluid is limited. In this study, we collected amniotic fluid at term using a novel collection system and evaluated amniotic fluid MSC content and their characteristics, including their feasibility to undergo cellular reprogramming. Amniotic fluid was collected at term caesarean section deliveries using a closed catheter-based system. Following fluid processing, amniotic fluid was assessed for cellularity, MSC frequency, in-vitro proliferation, surface phenotype, differentiation, and gene expression characteristics. Cells were also reprogrammed to the pluripotent stem cell state and differentiated towards neural and haematopoietic lineages. The average volume of term amniotic fluid collected was approximately 0.4 litres per donor, containing an average of 7 million viable mononuclear cells per litre, and a CFU-F content of 15 per 100,000 MNCs. Expanded CFU-F cultures showed similar surface phenotype, differentiation potential, and gene expression characteristics to MSCs isolated from traditional sources, and showed extensive expansion potential and rapid doubling times. Given the high proliferation rates of these neonatal source cells, we assessed them in a reprogramming application, where the derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed multigerm layer lineage differentiation potential. The potentially large donor base from caesarean section

  5. Imaging in transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankier, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    This book covers all topics related to the imaging of organ transplantation. An introductory section addresses such issues as organ procurement, patient selection, immune responses, and ethical and economic considerations. The main part of the book then offers in-depth coverage of heart, renal, liver, lung, bone marrow and pancreatic and intestinal transplantation. Each of these topics is discussed firstly in a clinical chapter and then in a radiological chapter. The clinical chapters detail the epidemiology, clinical background, and surgical procedures, as well as any clinically relevant issues of which the radiologist should be aware. The radiological chapters describe and depict the imaging manifestations of specific organ transplantations, document the normal radiological appearance of transplanted organs and consider both early and late complications. This is a unique, superbly illustrated volume that will be of great assistance to all who work in this field. (orig.)

  6. Post-transplant Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others in similar situations. Get a feeling of security and belonging. Learn about transplant-related issues. Get help in dealing with emotions and stress. Share helpful information with other patients. Patient brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know ...

  7. Life After Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Be The Match Blog Stories Anna, transplant recipient ... Copyright © 1996-2018 National Marrow Donor Program. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Bone marrow transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrange medical leave from work Take care of bank or financial statements Arrange care of pets Arrange ... Bleeding during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Central venous catheter - dressing change Central venous catheter - flushing ...

  9. Treatment Before Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talk about donating their baby's cord blood College football player stays true to his commitment Be the ... before transplant depend on your disease and health history. They also may vary from hospital to hospital. ...

  10. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Transplant: Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  11. Neurologic Complications of Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Rajat

    2018-02-01

    Neurologic disturbances including encephalopathy, seizures, and focal deficits complicate the course 10-30% of patients undergoing organ or stem cell transplantation. While much or this morbidity is multifactorial and often associated with extra-cerebral dysfunction (e.g., graft dysfunction, metabolic derangements), immunosuppressive drugs also contribute significantly. This can either be through direct toxicity (e.g., posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome from calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus in the acute postoperative period) or by facilitating opportunistic infections in the months after transplantation. Other neurologic syndromes such as akinetic mutism and osmotic demyelination may also occur. While much of this neurologic dysfunction may be reversible if related to metabolic factors or drug toxicity (and the etiology is recognized and reversed), cases of multifocal cerebral infarction, hemorrhage, or infection may have poor outcomes. As transplant patients survive longer, delayed infections (such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) and post-transplant malignancies are increasingly reported.

  12. Rabies in Transplant Recipients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-19

    Dr. Richard Franka, a CDC scientist, discusses rabies in organ transplant recipients.  Created: 9/19/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/19/2016.

  13. Pancreas transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100129.htm Pancreas transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 6 out of 6 Overview The pancreas resides in the back of the abdomen. It ...

  14. Amniotic fluid deficiency and congenital abnormalities both influence fluctuating asymmetry in developing limbs of human deceased fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mariquita Antoinette ten Broek

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, as an indirect measure of developmental instability (DI, has been intensively studied for associations with stress and fitness. Patterns, however, appear heterogeneous and the underlying causes remain largely unknown. One aspect that has received relatively little attention in the literature is the consequence of direct mechanical effects on asymmetries. The crucial prerequisite for FA to reflect DI is that environmental conditions on both sides should be identical. This condition may be violated during early human development if amniotic fluid volume is deficient, as the resulting mechanical pressures may increase asymmetries. Indeed, we showed that limb bones of deceased human fetuses exhibited increased asymmetry, when there was not sufficient amniotic fluid (and, thus, space in the uterine cavity. As amniotic fluid deficiency is known to cause substantial asymmetries and abnormal limb development, these subtle asymmetries are probably at least in part caused by the mechanical pressures. On the other hand, deficiencies in amniotic fluid volume are known to be associated with other congenital abnormalities that may disturb DI. More specifically, urogenital abnormalities can directly affect/reduce amniotic fluid volume. We disentangled the direct mechanical effects on FA from the indirect effects of urogenital abnormalities, the latter presumably representing DI. We discovered that both factors contributed significantly to the increase in FA. However, the direct mechanical effect of uterine pressure, albeit statistically significant, appeared less important than the effects of urogenital abnormalities, with an effect size only two-third as large. We, thus, conclude that correcting for the relevant direct factors allowed for a representative test of the association between DI and stress, and confirmed that fetuses form a suitable model system to increase our understanding in patterns of FA and symmetry development.

  15. Faecal microbiota transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Simon M D; Hansen, Mette Mejlby; Erikstrup, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening, laborat......BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently being established as a second-line treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. FMT is further being considered for other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Safe and reproducible methods for donor screening...

  16. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-01-01

    Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clea...

  17. ROLE OF AMNIOINFUSION ON NEONATAL OUTCOME IN CASES WITH MECONIUMSTAINED AMNIOTIC FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandramathy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Amnioinfusion is thought to dilute meconium present in the amniotic fluid and so reduce the risk of meconium aspiration in newborn. AIM The effect of amnioinfusion in meconium-stained amniotic fluid in reducing the incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome, hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and perinatal mortality in newborn. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and NICU at Government Medical College, Kozhikode, in a time duration of one year from January 2014 to December 2014. This is a prospective case control study. We have studied 210 antenatal women admitted to the labour room with grade 2/3 meconium-stained amniotic fluid after 36 weeks of gestation. Amnioinfusion was given in 140 cases and 70 cases given standard care. Patients were monitored with electronic foetal heart monitoring and caesarean section was done in case of foetal distress or those who are in early labour. There was no significant difference between study group and control group according to age, parity, gestational age, presence of complications like hypertension/pre-eclampsia, post-dated pregnancy, anaemia, etc. RESULTS Foetal heart rate decelerations occurred in 27 out of 140 cases (19% in the study group and 23 out of 70 (33% in control group (P <0.05. NEONATAL OUTCOME In our study those who received amnioinfusion, only 19% delivered babies with APGAR <9 at 1’ while those who do not received, 36% delivered babies with APGAR <9 at 1’ (P value of 0.009. Meconium aspiration syndrome occurred in 2.1% of cases in the infusion group and 11.4% in the non-infusion group (P<0.005. Respiratory distress was markedly reduced in amnioinfusion group 28% compared to 63% in controls (P=0.002. NICU admissions were 64% in control group compared to 22% in amnioinfusion group. Perinatal mortality and hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy in the infusion group were nil as compared to 7% and 11% in the control group

  18. The development of a radioimmunoassay for reverse triiodothyronine sulfate in human serum and amniotic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sing-Yung (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Long Beach, CA (United States)); Huang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Lian (Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)); Polk, D.; Reviczky, A.; Williams, J. III; Chopra, I.J.; Fisher, D.A. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Sulfated iodothyronines including T[sub 4]-sulfate (T[sub 4]S) and T[sub 3]-sulfate (T[sub 3]S) have been identified in human serum and amniotic fluid. Little is know, however, about the existence of sulfate conjugation of reverse T[sub 3] (rT[sub 3]S) in man. In this report, the authors employed a novel, sensitive, and specific rT[sub 3]S RIA to address this question. The rabbit antiserum to rT[sub 3]S was highly specific; T[sub 4], T[sub 3], rT[sub 3], and 3,3'-T[sub 2] showed less than 0.002% cross-reaction with the antiserum. Only T[sub 4]S and T[sub 3]S cross-reacted significantly (0.3% and 0.01%, respectively); other analogs cross-reacted less than 0.0001%. The detection threshold of the RIA was 14 pmol/L (1.0 ng/dL). The mean serum rT[sub 3]S concentration (pmol/L) was 40 in euthyroid subjects. Values were similar in hypothyroid patients (38) and pregnant women (52) but significantly (P < 0.01) elevated to 176 in hyperthyroid patient, 74 in patients with nonthyroid illnesses, and 684 in cord sera of newborns. Serum rT[sub 3]S increased significantly in hyperthyroid patients 1 day after administration of 1 g sodium ipodate orally. Reverse T[sub 3]S was detected consistently in amniotic fluid at 14 to 22 weeks of gestation and showed a marked rise 1-3 weeks after intraamniotic administration of 500-1000 [mu]g T[sub 4]. The various data suggest that : (1) rT[sub 3]S is a normal component of human serum and amniotic fluid; (2) it is derived from metabolism of T[sub 4] or rT[sub 3]; (3) circulating rT[sub 3]S increases in hyperthyroidism and in circumstances where type I 5'-monodeiodinating activity is low, e.g. nonthyroid illnesses, fetal life, and after administration of ipodate. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  19. [Prediction of maternofetal infection in preterm premature rupture of membranes: serum maternal markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowski, T; Goffinet, F; Batteux, F; Maillard, F; Kayem, G

    2011-05-01

    Premature rupture of membranes is a common situation in obstetrics that links the amniotic cavity and the bacterial cervicovaginal flora. The main risk in case of preterm premature rupture of membranes is the occurrence of an amniochorial infection, which increases neonatal morbidity and mortality. One main purpose in cases of preterm premature rupture of membranes is to identify infection early to adapt the clinical care. Among the marker used in practice, CRP has a sensitivity between 56% and 86% and specificity between 55% and 82% for predicting clinical chorioamnionitis. These values are respectively 21% to 56% and 76% to 95% for the prediction of early neonatal infection. The white blood cell count, also used in routine, has a poor predictive value of clinical chorioamnionitis although a high specificity when the threshold is of 16 giga/l. Among the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 has been the most studied. Its predictive value for chorioamnionitis or neonatal infection is higher but its clinical usefulness is limited by the various threshold used in the studies and the lack of routine measure. Procalcitonin appears to have low predictive values for detecting amniochorial infection but has finally been little studied. Ways to improve prediction of infection in cases of premature rupture of membranes are either looking for new markers or the analysis of local markers (vaginal secretions and amniotic fluid). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  1. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton GJ, Sibley CP, Jauniaux ERM. Placental anatomy and physiology. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 1. ...

  2. Simultaneous use of intrapartum fetal pulse oximetry and amnioinfusion in meconium stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvax, László; Szabó, István; Vizer, Miklós; Csermely, Tamás; Ertl, Tibor

    2002-09-10

    Fetal pulse oximetry is a minimally invasive, simple technique which continuously helps to reflect in utero well-being. The presence of meconium in the amniotic fluid may be a clinical sign of fetal hypoxaemia. Amnioinfusion has a beneficial effect on the incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), and the presence of meconium below the level of the vocal cords. We studied the impact of amnioinfusion combined with fetal pulse oximetry on the incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome and operative delivery. The retrospective analysis revealed that the presence of meconium below the level of vocal cords was significantly reduced. The frequency of cesarean section is decreased, however, it did not reach statistical significance. Fetal pulse oximetry may be used in combination with amnioinfusion and cardiotocography (CTG) to reduce the risk of meconium aspiration syndrome and the number of instrumental deliveries and improve perinatal outcome. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  3. DNA-methylation profiling of fetal tissues reveals marked epigenetic differences between chorionic and amniotic samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Eckmann-Scholz

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation are supposed to play a key role in fetal development. Here we have investigated fetal DNA-methylation levels of 27,578 CpG loci in 47 chorionic villi (CVS and 16 amniotic cell (AC samples. Methylation levels differed significantly between karyotypically normal AC and CVS for 2,014 genes. AC showed more extreme DNA-methylation levels of these genes than CVS and the differentially methylated genes are significantly enriched for processes characteristic for the different cell types sampled. Furthermore, we identified 404 genes differentially methylated in CVS with trisomy 21. These genes were significantly enriched for high CG dinucleotid (CpG content and developmental processes associated with Down syndrome. Our study points to major tissue-specific differences of fetal DNA-methylation and gives rise to the hypothesis that part of the Down syndrome phenotype is epigenetically programmed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  4. Modulation of intestinal inflammation by minimal enteral nutrition with amniotic fluid in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette Viberg; Bering, Stine Brandt; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder, associated with the difficult transition from parenteral to enteral feeding after preterm birth. We hypothesized that minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) with amniotic fluid (AF), prior to enteral formula feeding, would...... improve resistance to NEC in preterm pigs. Methods: Experiment 1: IEC-6 cells were incubated with porcine (pAF) and human AF (hAF) to test AF-stimulated enterocyte proliferation and migration in vitro. Experiment 2: Cesarean-delivered, preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition and MEN with pAF, h...... fed AF as MEN, but NEC incidences were similar (NEC-pAF) or increased (NEC-hAF) compared with controls. Conclusions: Intake of pAF or hAF improved body growth and modulated intestinal inflammatory cytokines during a period of parenteral nutrition, but did not protect against later formula-induced NEC...

  5. The amniote temporal roof and the diapsid origin of the turtle skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, G S; Lyson, Tyler R; Field, Daniel J; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S

    2016-12-01

    Fossils provide a glimpse into the architecturally complex origins of modern vertebrate body plans. One such origin that has been long debated is that of turtles. Although much attention has been directed toward the origin of the shell, the enigmatic evolution of the turtle skull and its anapsid temporal region has long clouded our understanding of reptile phylogeny. Two taxa, Eunotosaurus africanus and Pappochelys rosinae, were recently and independently described as long-anticipated stem turtles whose diapsid skulls would cement the evolutionary link between turtles and other modern reptile lineages. Detailed μCT analysis of the stratigraphically older and phylogenetically stemward of the two, Eunotosaurus, provides empirical insight into changing developmental trajectories that may have produced the anapsid cranial form of modern turtles and sets the stage for more comprehensive studies of early amniote cranial evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  7. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  8. Intrapartum amnioinfusion for meconium-stained amniotic fluid: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H; Hofmeyr, J; Roy, C; Fraser, W D

    2007-04-01

    Amnioinfusion (AI) is thought to dilute meconium when present in the amniotic fluid and so reduces the risk of meconium aspiration. To evaluate if AI reduces meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and other indicators of morbidity in babies born to women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from January 1980 to May 30, 2005, using the keywords 'amnioinfusion' and 'meconium'. Randomised trials comparing AI with no AI for women in labour with MSAF. Trial quality was evaluated using pre-established criteria. The following morbidity indicators were assessed: MAS, 5-minute Apgar score < 7, arterial cord pH < 7.2, and caesarean section. Studies were stratified according to the level of peripartum surveillance (standard versus limited). Typical relative risks (RRs) with their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each outcome using a random effects model. In clinical settings with standard peripartum surveillance, we found no evidence that AI reduced the risk of MAS (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.28-1.25), 5-minute Apgar score < 7 (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.58-1.41), or caesarean delivery (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.73-1.10). In clinical settings with limited peripartum surveillance, AI appeared to reduce the risk of MAS (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13-0.47). In clinical settings with standard peripartum surveillance, the evidence does not support the use of AI for MSAF. In settings with limited peripartum surveillance, where complications of MSAF are common, AI appears to reduce the risk of MAS. However, this finding requires confirmation by further studies.

  9. Does amnioinfusion reduce caesarean section rate in meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Deepti; Bano, Imam; Ali, S M

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcervical amnioinfusion during labour complicated by meconium-stained amniotic fluid, in a setting with limited peripartum facilities, to lower the incidence of caesarean section. A prospective study was conducted in a teaching hospital in north India, which enrolled 292 patients admitted in labour. Patients were randomly divided into two groups after taking their consent. One group received transcervical amnioinfusion, whilst in the other group amnioinfusion was not done. Caesarean sections were performed in either group if there were foetal heart rate abnormalities (bradycardia or irregularity for 10-20 min) or slow progress of labour. The outcomes studied were the incidence of caesarean sections, duration of maternal hospital stay, maternal febrile morbidity (temperature of >38 degrees C, 24 h after delivery), low Apgar score (at 1 and 5 min), respiratory death, MAS and perinatal mortality. There was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of caesarean sections in the study group compared to the control group (31 vs. 61%). Amnioinfusion was associated with improved neonatal outcome as evidenced by statistically improved Apgar score at 1 min in newborns in the study group compared to the control group (10 vs. 37.2%). Amnioinfusion during labour was not associated with any significant maternal and neonatal complications. The mean hospital stay of the mother was decreased significantly in the study group patients compared to the control group. Transcervical amnioinfusion in labour for meconium-stained amniotic fluid is a simple, safe and easy-to-perform procedure. It can be performed safely in a setup with limited peripartum facilities, especially in developing countries, to decrease intrapartum operative intervention and reduce foetomaternal morbidity and mortality.

  10. Identification of Symptomatic Fetuses Infected with Cytomegalovirus Using Amniotic Fluid Peptide Biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Desveaux

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common cause of congenital infection, and is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurological disabilities. Evaluating the risk for a CMV infected fetus to develop severe clinical symptoms after birth is crucial to provide appropriate guidance to pregnant women who might have to consider termination of pregnancy or experimental prenatal medical therapies. However, establishing the prognosis before birth remains a challenge. This evaluation is currently based upon fetal imaging and fetal biological parameters, but the positive and negative predictive values of these parameters are not optimal, leaving room for the development of new prognostic factors. Here, we compared the amniotic fluid peptidome between asymptomatic fetuses who were born as asymptomatic neonates and symptomatic fetuses who were either terminated in view of severe cerebral lesions or born as severely symptomatic neonates. This comparison allowed us to identify a 34-peptide classifier in a discovery cohort of 13 symptomatic and 13 asymptomatic neonates. This classifier further yielded 89% sensitivity, 75% specificity and an area under the curve of 0.90 to segregate 9 severely symptomatic from 12 asymptomatic neonates in a validation cohort, showing an overall better performance than that of classical fetal laboratory parameters. Pathway analysis of the 34 peptides underlined the role of viral entry in fetuses with severe brain disease as well as the potential importance of both beta-2-microglobulin and adiponectin to protect the injured fetal brain infected with CMV. The results also suggested the mechanistic implication of the T calcium channel alpha-1G (CACNA1G protein in the development of seizures in severely CMV infected children. These results open a new field for potential therapeutic options. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amniotic fluid peptidome analysis can effectively predict the severity of congenital CMV

  11. From appearance to essence: 10 years review of atypical amniotic fluid embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fangrong; Wang, Lu; Yang, Weiwen; Chen, Youguo

    2016-02-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an unpredictable and unpreventable complication of maternity. The presentation may range from relatively subtle clinical events to sudden maternal cardiac arrest. However, the neglected diagnosis of non-classical form of AFE (atypical AFE) is very common. The aim of this study was to examine population-based regional data from Suzhou, China. Based on the analysis of all available case reports, we put forward an outline of atypical AFE and investigate whether any variation identified could be ascribed to methodology. Retrospective study from January 2004 to December 2013, 53 cases was identified from the database of Center for Disease Control (CDC) in the city of Suzhou. We investigated the presentations of atypical AFE and maternal characteristics with potential factors underlying AFE. Multiple-regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). The incidence of AFE was 6.91 per 100,000 deliveries (53/766,895). Seventeen deaths occurred, a mortality rate of 32 %. Atypical AFE may as the earlier stage or mild form of AFE, there was no death case in the study with timely remedy. The atypical AFE appear is obstetric hemorrhage and/or pulmonary and renal dysfunction postpartum. Hyperfibrinolysis and coagulopathy may the early laboratory findings of atypical AFE. Atypical and classical AFE shared the same risks, such as advanced maternal age, placental abnormalities, operative deliveries, eclampsia, cervical lacerations, and induction of labor. Staying alert to premonitory symptoms of AFE is critical to turn it to a remediable disease. Patient complaints such as breathlessness, chest pain, feeling cold, distress, panic, a feeling of nausea, and vomiting should elicit close attention. The management of a suspected episode of amniotic fluid embolism is generally considered to be supportive. Hysterectomy must be performed if there is further progression of symptoms. Due to advances in

  12. Rapid molecular evolution across amniotes of the IIS/TOR network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Suzanne E; Bronikowski, Anne M; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Reding, Dawn M; Addis, Elizabeth A; Flagel, Lex E; Janzen, Fredric J; Schwartz, Tonia S

    2015-06-02

    The insulin/insulin-like signaling and target of rapamycin (IIS/TOR) network regulates lifespan and reproduction, as well as metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. Despite its vital role in health, comparative analyses of IIS/TOR have been limited to invertebrates and mammals. We conducted an extensive evolutionary analysis of the IIS/TOR network across 66 amniotes with 18 newly generated transcriptomes from nonavian reptiles and additional available genomes/transcriptomes. We uncovered rapid and extensive molecular evolution between reptiles (including birds) and mammals: (i) the IIS/TOR network, including the critical nodes insulin receptor substrate (IRS) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), exhibit divergent evolutionary rates between reptiles and mammals; (ii) compared with a proxy for the rest of the genome, genes of the IIS/TOR extracellular network exhibit exceptionally fast evolutionary rates; and (iii) signatures of positive selection and coevolution of the extracellular network suggest reptile- and mammal-specific interactions between members of the network. In reptiles, positively selected sites cluster on the binding surfaces of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), and insulin receptor (INSR); whereas in mammals, positively selected sites clustered on the IGF2 binding surface, suggesting that these hormone-receptor binding affinities are targets of positive selection. Further, contrary to reports that IGF2R binds IGF2 only in marsupial and placental mammals, we found positively selected sites clustered on the hormone binding surface of reptile IGF2R that suggest that IGF2R binds to IGF hormones in diverse taxa and may have evolved in reptiles. These data suggest that key IIS/TOR paralogs have sub- or neofunctionalized between mammals and reptiles and that this network may underlie fundamental life history and physiological differences between these amniote sister clades.

  13. Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Jason J; Polly, P David

    2015-04-02

    Hox genes regulate regionalization of the axial skeleton in vertebrates, and changes in their expression have been proposed to be a fundamental mechanism driving the evolution of new body forms. The origin of the snake-like body form, with its deregionalized pre-cloacal axial skeleton, has been explained as either homogenization of Hox gene expression domains, or retention of standard vertebrate Hox domains with alteration of downstream expression that suppresses development of distinct regions. Both models assume a highly regionalized ancestor, but the extent of deregionalization of the primaxial domain (vertebrae, dorsal ribs) of the skeleton in snake-like body forms has never been analysed. Here we combine geometric morphometrics and maximum-likelihood analysis to show that the pre-cloacal primaxial domain of elongate, limb-reduced lizards and snakes is not deregionalized compared with limbed taxa, and that the phylogenetic structure of primaxial morphology in reptiles does not support a loss of regionalization in the evolution of snakes. We demonstrate that morphometric regional boundaries correspond to mapped gene expression domains in snakes, suggesting that their primaxial domain is patterned by a normally functional Hox code. Comparison of primaxial osteology in fossil and modern amniotes with Hox gene distributions within Amniota indicates that a functional, sequentially expressed Hox code patterned a subtle morphological gradient along the anterior-posterior axis in stem members of amniote clades and extant lizards, including snakes. The highly regionalized skeletons of extant archosaurs and mammals result from independent evolution in the Hox code and do not represent ancestral conditions for clades with snake-like body forms. The developmental origin of snakes is best explained by decoupling of the primaxial and abaxial domains and by increases in somite number, not by changes in the function of primaxial Hox genes.

  14. Amniotic fluid promotes the appearance of neural retinal progenitors and neurons in human RPE cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Maliheh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sanie-Jahromi, Fateme; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Akrami, Hassan; Haghighi, Massoud; Javidi-Azad, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of differentiating into retinal neurons when induced by the appropriate growth factors. Amniotic fluid contains a variety of growth factors that are crucial for the development of a fetus. In this study, the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on primary RPE cell cultures were evaluated. RPE cells were isolated from the globes of postnatal human cadavers. The isolated cells were plated and grown in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum. To confirm the RPE identity of the cultured cells, they were immunocytochemically examined for the presence of the RPE cell-specific marker RPE65. RPE cultures obtained from passages 2-7 were treated with HAF and examined morphologically for 1 month. To determine whether retinal neurons or progenitors developed in the treated cultures, specific markers for bipolar (protein kinase C isomer α, PKCα), amacrine (cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I, CRABPI), and neural progenitor (NESTIN) cells were sought, and the amount of mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR. Treating RPE cells with HAF led to a significant decrease in the number of RPE65-positive cells, while PKCα- and CRABPI-positive cells were detected in the cultures. Compared with the fetal bovine serum-treated cultures, the levels of mRNAs quantitatively increased by 2-, 20- and 22-fold for NESTIN, PKCα, and CRABPI, respectively. The RPE cultures treated with HAF established spheres containing both pigmented and nonpigmented cells, which expressed neural progenitor markers such as NESTIN. This study showed that HAF can induce RPE cells to transdifferentiate into retinal neurons and progenitor cells, and that it provides a potential source for cell-based therapies to treat retinal diseases.

  15. Lactate in Amniotic Fluid: Predictor of Labor Outcome in Oxytocin-Augmented Primiparas' Deliveries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiberg-Itzel

    Full Text Available One of the major complications related to delivery is labor dystocia, or an arrested labor progress. Many dystocic deliveries end vaginally after administration of oxytocin, but a large numbers of women with labor dystocia will undergo a long and unsafe parturition. As a result of the exertion required in labor, the uterus produces lactate. The uterine production of lactate is mirrored by the level of lactate in amniotic fluid (AFL.To evaluate whether the level of AFL, analysed in a sample of amniotic fluid collected vaginally at arrested labor when oxytocin was needed, could predict labor outcome in nulliparous deliveries.A prospective multicentre study including 3000 healthy primiparous women all with a singleton pregnancy, gestational age 37 to 42 weeks and no maternal /fetal chronic and/or pregnancy-related conditions. A spontaneous onset of labor, regular contractions and cervical dilation ≥ 3 cm were required before the women were invited to take part in the study.AFL, analysed within 30 minutes before augmentation, provides information about delivery outcome. Sensitivity for an acute cesarean section according to high (≥10.1mmol/l or low (12h (p = 0.04, post-partum fever (>38°C, p = 0.01 and post-partum haemorrhage >1.5L (p = 0.04.The AFL is a good predictor of delivery outcome in arrested nulliparous deliveries. Low levels of AFL may support the decision to continue a prolonged vaginal labor by augmentation with oxytocin. A high level of AFL correlates with operative interventions and post-partum complications.

  16. Bioprinted Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells Accelerate Healing of Large Skin Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Aleksander; Mack, David; Kapetanovic, Edi; Atala, Anthony; Jackson, John D.; Yoo, James

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells obtained from amniotic fluid show high proliferative capacity in culture and multilineage differentiation potential. Because of the lack of significant immunogenicity and the ability of the amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells to modulate the inflammatory response, we investigated whether they could augment wound healing in a mouse model of skin regeneration. We used bioprinting technology to treat full-thickness skin wounds in nu/nu mice. AFS cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were resuspended in fibrin-collagen gel and “printed” over the wound site. At days 0, 7, and 14, AFS cell- and MSC-driven wound closure and re-epithelialization were significantly greater than closure and re-epithelialization in wounds treated by fibrin-collagen gel only. Histological examination showed increased microvessel density and capillary diameters in the AFS cell-treated wounds compared with the MSC-treated wounds, whereas the skin treated only with gel showed the lowest amount of microvessels. However, tracking of fluorescently labeled AFS cells and MSCs revealed that the cells remained transiently and did not permanently integrate in the tissue. These observations suggest that the increased wound closure rates and angiogenesis may be due to delivery of secreted trophic factors, rather than direct cell-cell interactions. Accordingly, we performed proteomic analysis, which showed that AFS cells secreted a number of growth factors at concentrations higher than those of MSCs. In parallel, we showed that AFS cell-conditioned media induced endothelial cell migration in vitro. Taken together, our results indicate that bioprinting AFS cells could be an effective treatment for large-scale wounds and burns. PMID:23197691

  17. Advanced Whole-Genome Sequencing and Analysis of Fetal Genomes from Amniotic Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing; Chin, Robert; Xie, Weiwei; Deng, Yuqing; Zhang, Wenwei; Xu, Huixin; Zhang, Rebecca Yu; Shi, Quan; Peters, Erin E; Gulbahce, Natali; Li, Zhenyu; Chen, Fang; Drmanac, Radoje; Peters, Brock A

    2018-04-01

    Amniocentesis is a common procedure, the primary purpose of which is to collect cells from the fetus to allow testing for abnormal chromosomes, altered chromosomal copy number, or a small number of genes that have small single- to multibase defects. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of generating an accurate whole-genome sequence of a fetus from either the cellular or cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of an amniotic sample. cfDNA and DNA isolated from the cell pellet of 31 amniocenteses were sequenced to approximately 50× genome coverage by use of the Complete Genomics nanoarray platform. In a subset of the samples, long fragment read libraries were generated from DNA isolated from cells and sequenced to approximately 100× genome coverage. Concordance of variant calls between the 2 DNA sources and with parental libraries was >96%. Two fetal genomes were found to harbor potentially detrimental variants in chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 8 ( CHD8 ) and LDL receptor-related protein 1 ( LRP1 ), variations of which have been associated with autism spectrum disorder and keratosis pilaris atrophicans, respectively. We also discovered drug sensitivities and carrier information of fetuses for a variety of diseases. We were able to elucidate the complete genome sequence of 31 fetuses from amniotic fluid and demonstrate that the cfDNA or DNA from the cell pellet can be analyzed with little difference in quality. We believe that current technologies could analyze this material in a highly accurate and complete manner and that analyses like these should be considered for addition to current amniocentesis procedures. © 2018 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  18. Non-integrating episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of human amniotic fluid stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells in chemically defined conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slamecka, J.; Salimova, L.; McClellan, S.; van Kelle, M.; Kehl, D.; Laurini, J.; Cinelli, P.; Owen, L.; Hoerstrup, S.P.; Weber, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) represent an attractive potential cell source for fetal and pediatric cell-based therapies. However, upgrading them to pluripotency confers refractoriness toward senescence, higher proliferation rate and unlimited differentiation potential. AFSC were observed to

  19. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by TXRF and EDXRF: child weight and aging mother dependences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Custodio, P.J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2000-01-01

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the age's mother in trace elemental concentration in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during the delivery, from healthy mothers and healthy infants. According to the age of the mother three different groups were considered: from 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40. Only two mothers were aged more than 35. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg. The organic matrices of the amniotic fluid samples were removed by wet ashing with HNO 3 in oxygen plasma. Yttrium was used as internal standard, for TXRF analysis. For EDXRF placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni, and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, independently of age of the mother and child weight. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in the newborn health, was not significantly different in the analyzed samples, however, was related, though weakly, to birth weigh. The obtained concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/L and 30 to 65 μg/g in amniotic fluid and placenta respectively. The only two elements seemed to be significantly affected with age mother and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both kind of samples: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and elder mothers, however Fe increased with the increase of the age mother but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated in its function in the organism with Fe and has a similar behavior with this element, however not so pronounced. (author)

  20. The Role of the Multiple Banded Antigen of Ureaplasma parvum in Intra-Amniotic Infection: Major Virulence Factor or Decoy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J.; Nitsos, Ilias; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Newnham, John P.; Polglase, Graeme R.; Pillow, J. Jane; Jobe, Alan H.; Timms, Peter; Knox, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    The multiple banded antigen (MBA) is a predicted virulence factor of Ureaplasma species. Antigenic variation of the MBA is a potential mechanism by which ureaplasmas avoid immune recognition and cause chronic infections of the upper genital tract of pregnant women. We tested whether the MBA is involved in the pathogenesis of intra-amniotic infection and chorioamnionitis by injecting virulent or avirulent-derived ureaplasma clones (expressing single MBA variants) into the amniotic fluid of pregnant sheep. At 55 days of gestation pregnant ewes (n = 20) received intra-amniotic injections of virulent-derived or avirulent-derived U. parvum serovar 6 strains (2×104 CFU), or 10B medium (n = 5). Amniotic fluid was collected every two weeks post-infection and fetal tissues were collected at the time of surgical delivery of the fetus (140 days of gestation). Whilst chronic colonisation was established in the amniotic fluid of animals infected with avirulent-derived and virulent-derived ureaplasmas, the severity of chorioamnionitis and fetal inflammation was not different between these groups (p>0.05). MBA size variants (32–170 kDa) were generated in vivo in amniotic fluid samples from both the avirulent and virulent groups, whereas in vitro antibody selection experiments led to the emergence of MBA-negative escape variants in both strains. Anti-ureaplasma IgG antibodies were detected in the maternal serum of animals from the avirulent (40%) and virulent (55%) groups, and these antibodies correlated with increased IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 expression in chorioamnion tissue (pureaplasmas are capable of MBA phase variation in vitro; however, ureaplasmas undergo MBA size variation in vivo, to potentially prevent eradication by the immune response. Size variation of the MBA did not correlate with the severity of chorioamnionitis. Nonetheless, the correlation between a maternal humoral response and the expression of chorioamnion cytokines is a novel finding. This host

  1. Hepatocyte transplantation and advancements in alternative cell sources for liver-based regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte A; Sinha, Siddharth; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Dhawan, Anil

    2018-06-01

    Human hepatocyte transplantation has been actively perused as an alternative to liver replacement for acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic defects. Current challenges in this field include a limited cell source, reduced cell viability following cryopreservation and poor engraftment of cells into the recipient liver with consequent limited life span. As a result, alternative stem cell sources such as pluripotent stem cells, fibroblasts, hepatic progenitor cells, amniotic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) can be used to generate induced hepatocyte like cells (HLC) with each technique exhibiting advantages and disadvantages. HLCs may have comparable function to primary human hepatocytes and could offer patient-specific treatment. However, long-term functionality of transplanted HLCs and the potential oncogenic risks of using stem cells have yet to be established. The immunomodulatory effects of MSCs are promising, and multiple clinical trials are investigating their effect in cirrhosis and acute liver failure. Here, we review the current status of hepatocyte transplantation, alternative cell sources to primary human hepatocytes and their potential in liver regeneration. We also describe recent clinical trials using hepatocytes derived from stem cells and their role in improving the phenotype of several liver diseases.

  2. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksten, Eva Futtrup; Vase, Maja Ølholm; Kampmann, Jan

    2016-01-01

    after long-term post-transplantation follow-up. A retrospective population-based cohort study including all kidney transplant recipients at two Danish centres (1990-2011; population covered 3.1 million; 2175 transplantations in 1906 patients). Pathology reports were reviewed for all patient biopsies...

  3. Overview of marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is now an accepted form of therapy for many hematologic disorders including aplastic anemia, genetically determined diseases and malignant diseases, particularly leukemia, and for rescue of patients given intensive chemoradiotherapy for malignant disease. The donor may be a healthy identical twin, a family member or even an unrelated person. Selection is made on the basis of human leukocyte antigen tissue typing. Intensive chemoradiotherapy is used to suppress patients' immune systems to facilitate engraftment and destroy diseased marrow. Transfusion of platelets, erythrocytes and granulocytes (or all of these), antibiotic coverage and protection from infection are necessary during the pancytopenic period. Survival rates vary considerably depending on a patient's disease, clinical state and age. Patients with aplastic anemia transplanted early in the course of their disease have a survival rate of approximately 80%. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are usually transplanted in a second or subsequent remission and have a survival rate of 25% to 40%. Patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia in remission have survivals ranging from 45% to 70%. More than 200 patients in the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia have been transplanted with survival ranging from 50% to 70%. Complications of marrow transplantation include marrow graft rejection, graft-versus-host disease, immunologic insufficiency and the possibility of recurrence of the leukemia. 14 references

  4. Pancreas transplantation: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ibrahim David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreas transplantation is the only treatment able to reestablish normal glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in insulin-dependent diabetic patients without the use of exogenous insulin. The evolution of pancreas transplantation in treatment of diabetes was determined by advances in the fields of surgical technique, organ preservation and immunosuppressants. The main complication leading to graft loss is technical failure followed by acute or chronic rejection. Technical failure means graft loss within the first three months following transplantation due to vascular thrombosis (50%, pancreatitis (20%, infection (18%, fistula (6.5% and bleeding (2.4%. Immunological complications still affect 30% of patients, and rejection is the cause of graft loss in 10% of cases. Chronic rejection is the most common late complication. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of late mortality in pancreas transplantation, so it remains the most effective treatment for type 1 diabetes patients. There is a significant improvement in quality of life and in patient’s survival rates. The development of islet transplantation could eliminate or minimize surgical complications and immunosuppression.

  5. Predicting Alloreactivity in Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Geneugelijk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte Antigen (HLA mismatching leads to severe complications after solid-organ transplantation and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. The alloreactive responses underlying the posttransplantation complications include both direct recognition of allogeneic HLA by HLA-specific alloantibodies and T cells and indirect T-cell recognition. However, the immunogenicity of HLA mismatches is highly variable; some HLA mismatches lead to severe clinical B-cell- and T-cell-mediated alloreactivity, whereas others are well tolerated. Definition of the permissibility of HLA mismatches prior to transplantation allows selection of donor-recipient combinations that will have a reduced chance to develop deleterious host-versus-graft responses after solid-organ transplantation and graft-versus-host responses after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Therefore, several methods have been developed to predict permissible HLA-mismatch combinations. In this review we aim to give a comprehensive overview about the current knowledge regarding HLA-directed alloreactivity and several developed in vitro and in silico tools that aim to predict direct and indirect alloreactivity.

  6. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth / For Teens / Stem Cell Transplants What's ... Take to Recover? Coping Print What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  7. Heart transplantation from older donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation of the shortage of suitable donor organs, heart transplantation from older donors is one of the ways to increase the performance of more heart transplants, particularly, in patients with urgent need of transplantation. While planning a heart transplantation from older donor one should consider increased risk of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, preexisting coronary artery disease, accelerated transplant vasculopathy which may adversely affect early and long-term survival of recipients. Subject to careful selection of donor–recipient pairs, effective prevention and treatment of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, pre-existing atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy the early and long-term survival of heart transplant recipients from older donors is comparable to heart transplantation from young donors.

  8. Stem Cell Transplants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Transplants Transplantation Recovery Coping Print en español Trasplantes de células madre Stem cells are cells in ... finding a match is called tissue typing (or HLA [human leukocyte antigen] typing). HLA is a protein ...

  9. [Significance of amnioinfusion and amniotic fluid exchange under continuous internal fetal heart rate monitoring for management of fetal distress during labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S; Ai, L; Zhang, H

    2000-01-01

    To discuss the significance of amnioinfusion and amniotic fluid exchange under continuous internal fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring for management of fetal distress during labor. 136 cases with frequent variable deceleration (VD) and meconium stained amniotic fluid during labor were divided into two groups: the study group (68 cases) and the control group (68 cases). The former were treated by amnioinfusion and amniotic fluid exchange, while oxygen inhalation, change of body position, and intravenous infusion for the control group. In the study group, VD disappeared or relieved in 62 cases obviously, and the efficacy rate reached 91.2% (62/68). 48 cases with II degree meconium stained amniotic fluid were treated by amniotic fluid exchange, amniotic fluid became clear or turned to I degree stained in 39 cases. In the control group, VD relieved in 20 cases, the efficacy rate was 19.4%, significantly lower than that of the study group (P 0.05). Amnioinfusion and AF exchange during labor are one of the effective treatment methods for fetal distress and prevention for MAS.

  10. Gaming the Liver Transplant Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Snyder

    2010-01-01

    The liver transplant waiting list is designed to allocate livers to the sickest patients first. Before March 1, 2002, livers were allocated to patients based on objective clinical indicators and subjective factors. In particular, a center placing a prospective transplant recipient in the intensive care unit (ICU) leads to a higher position on the liver transplant waiting list. After March 1, 2002, a policy reform mandated that priority on the liver transplant waiting list no longer be influen...

  11. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  12. Artificial organs and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Vega, A; Casciani, C U

    2003-05-01

    Nowadays artificial devices are not able to totally and undefinitely replace the loss of function of all vital organs and artificial organs can be used only to bridge the time to transplantation, which must be considered the first choice in the therapeutical approach for many chronic diseases. Since general population aging process is leading to an increase of organ demand, the gap between performed and requested transplantation is hard to fill. Xenotransplantation is nowadays only an experimental alternative solution and we have to do our best using available artificial organs to increase and improve the survival of patients waiting for transplantation. In this meeting we particularly dealt about organ function replacing therapy, especially regarding the kidney, heart, liver, pancreas and ear.

  13. [Transplantation-associated infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würzner, R

    2004-01-01

    Transplantation-associated infections are caused by an infected transplanted organ or the endogenic or exogenic environment of the recipient in a state of induced immunodeficiency. The best therapy would be to reconstitute the immunodeficiency, but this is usually impossible as it endangers the transplanted organ. Thus, a specific, standardised anti-infectious therapy is needed even in the absence of clearly identified micro-organisms [bacteria (in two thirds gram-positive rods), parasites (in central Europe predominantly Toxoplasma), fungi (especially Candida spp. or Aspergillus spp.) or viruses (such as Parvovirus B19 and Cytomegalovirus)]. Origins of infection (e.g., hygiene), types of infection (e.g., reactivation), typical localisations, diagnostic tools (e.g., blood cultures, antigenic tests, PCR, CT, advantages and disadvantages of antibody assays) and possible therapies are briefly discussed. The take home messages are to avoid economy measures in microbial diagnostics and to use CMV-seronegative donors whenever possible.

  14. Scintigraphy of renal transplant

    International Nuclear Informa