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Sample records for amniotic fluid tandem

  1. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  2. Amniotic fluid (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  3. Analysis of perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide in human amniotic fluid using ion chromatography and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blount, Benjamin C. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)]. E-mail: bblount@cdc.gov; Valentin-Blasini, Liza [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2006-05-10

    Because of health concerns surrounding in utero exposure to perchlorate, we developed a sensitive and selective method for quantifying iodide, as well as perchlorate and other sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors in human amniotic fluid using ion chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Iodide and NIS inhibitors were quantified using a stable isotope-labeled internal standards (Cl{sup 18}O{sub 4} {sup -}, S{sup 13}CN{sup -} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3} {sup -} with excellent assay accuracy of 100%, 98%, 99%, 95% for perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate and iodide, respectively, in triplicate analysis of spiked amniotic fluid sample). Excellent analytical precision (<5.2% RSD for all analytes) was found when amniotic fluid quality control pools were repetitively analyzed for iodide and NIS-inhibitors. Selective chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry reduced the need for sample cleanup, resulting in a rugged and rapid method capable of routinely analyzing 75 samples/day. Analytical response was linear across the physiologically relevant concentration range for the analytes. Analysis of a set of 48 amniotic fluid samples identified the range and median levels for perchlorate (0.057-0.71, 0.18 {mu}g/L), thiocyanate (<10-5860, 89 {mu}g/L), nitrate (650-8900, 1620 {mu}g/L) and iodide (1.7-170, 8.1 {mu}g/L). This selective, sensitive, and rapid method will help assess exposure of the developing fetus to low levels of NIS-inhibitors and their potential to inhibit thyroid function.

  4. Amniotic fluid water dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Membrane water flux is a function of the water permeability of the membrane; available data suggests that the amnion is the structure limiting intramembranous water flow. In the placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast is likely to be responsible for limiting water flow across the placenta. In human tissues, placental trophoblast membrane permeability increases with gestational age, suggesting a mechanism for the increased water flow necessary in late gestation. Membrane water flow can be driven by both hydrostatic and osmotic forces. Changes in both osmotic/oncotic and hydrostatic forces in the placenta my alter maternal-fetal water flow. A normal amniotic fluid volume is critical for normal fetal growth and development. The study of amniotic fluid volume regulation may yield important insights into the mechanisms used by the fetus to maintain water homeostasis. Knowledge of these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  5. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  6. Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... embolisms are rare, which makes it difficult to identify risk factors. It's estimated that there are between 1 ... Kramer MS, et al. Amniotic fluid embolism: Incidence, risk factors, and impact on perinatal outcome. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2012;119:874. Baskett ...

  7. Amniotic fluid embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Thongrong, Cattleya; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Hofmann, James P; Bergese, Sergio D.; Thomas J Papadimos; Gracias, Vicente H.; Adolph, Michael D.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P A

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an unpredictable and as-of-yet unpreventable complication of maternity. With its low incidence it is unlikely that any given practitioner will be confronted with a case of AFE. However, this rare occurrence carries a high probability of serious sequelae including cardiac arrest, ARDS, coagulopathy with massive hemorrhage, encephalopathy, seizures, and both maternal and infant mortality. In this review the current state of medical knowledge about AFE is outline...

  8. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The disastrous entry of amniotic fluid into the maternal circulation leads to dramatic sequelae of clinical events, characteristically referred to as Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE. The underlying mechanism for AFE is still poorly understood. Unfortunately, this situation has very grave maternal and fetal consequences. AFE can occur during labor, caesarean section, dilatation and evacuation or in the immediate postpartum period. The pathophysiology is believed to be immune mediated which affects the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological and hematological systems. Undetected and untreated it culminates into fulminant pulmonary edema, intractable convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, malignant arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Definite diagnosis can be confirmed by identification of lanugo, fetal hair and fetal squamous cells (squames in blood aspirated from the right ventricle. Usually the diagnosis is made clinically and by exclusion of other causes. The cornerstone of management is a multidisciplinary approach with supportive treatment of failing organs systems. Despite improved modalities for diagnosing AFE, and better intensive care support facilities, the mortality is still high.

  9. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M H; van den Wijngaard, J P H M; van Gemert, M J C; Ross, M G

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and bladder. A major pathway for amniotic fluid resorption is fetal swallowing; however, in many cases the amounts of fluid produced and absorbed do not balance. A second resorption pathway, the intramembranous pathway (across the amnion to the fetal circulation), has been proposed to explain the maintenance of normal amniotic fluid volume. Amniotic fluid volume is thus a function both of the amount of water transferred to the gestation across the placental membrane, and the flux of water across the amnion. Water flux across biologic membranes may be driven by osmotic or hydrostatic forces; existing data suggest that intramembranous flow in humans is driven by the osmotic difference between the amniotic fluid and the fetal serum. The driving force for placental flow is more controversial, and both forces may be in effect. The mechanism(s) responsible for regulating water flow to and from the amniotic fluid is unknown. In other parts of the body, notably the kidney, water flux is regulated by the expression of aquaporin water channels on the cell membrane. We hypothesize that aquaporins have a role in regulating water flux across both the amnion and the placenta, and present evidence in support of this theory. Current knowledge of gestational water flow is sufficient to allow prediction of fetal outcome when water flow is abnormal, as in twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Further insight into these mechanisms may allow novel treatments for amniotic fluid volume abnormalities with resultant improvement in clinical outcome.

  10. Spectral luminescence analysis of amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobozhanina, Ekaterina I.; Kozlova, Nataly M.; Kasko, Leonid P.; Mamontova, Marina V.; Chernitsky, Eugene A.

    1997-12-01

    It is shown that the amniotic fluid has intensive ultra-violet luminescence caused by proteins. Along with it amniotic fluid radiated in the field of 380 - 650 nm with maxima at 430 - 450 nm and 520 - 560 nm. The first peak of luminescence ((lambda) exc equals 350 nm; (lambda) em equals 430 - 440 nm) is caused (most probably) by the presence in amniotic fluid of some hormones, NADH2 and NADPH2. A more long-wave component ((lambda) exc equals 460 nm; (lambda) em equals 520 - 560 nm) is most likely connected with the presence in amniotic fluid pigments (bilirubin connected with protein and other). It is shown that intensity and maximum of ultra-violet luminescence spectra of amniotic fluid in normality and at pathology are identical. However both emission spectra and excitation spectra of long-wave ((lambda) greater than 450 nm) luminescence of amniotic fluid from pregnant women with such prenatal abnormal developments of a fetus as anencephaly and spina bifida are too long-wave region in comparison with the norm. Results of research testify that spectral luminescent analysis of amniotic fluid can be used for screening of malformations of the neural tube. It is very difficult for a practical obstetrician to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of the fetus. Apart from ultrasonic examination, cytogenetic examination of amniotic fluid and defumination of concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholin-esterases in the amniotic fluid and blood plasma are the most widely used diagnostic approaches. However, biochemical and cytogenetic diagnostic methods are time-consuming. In the present work spectral luminescence properties of the amniotic fluid are investigated to determine spectral parameters that can be used to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of their offsprings.

  11. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). 884... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1550 Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). (a) Identification. The amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray) is a collection of devices used to aspirate amniotic fluid from...

  12. Amniotic fluid propionylcarnitine in methylmalonic aciduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, D; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E; Jakobs, C; Bieber, L L

    1987-01-01

    Amniotic fluid samples from pregnancies complicated by foetal methylmalonic aciduria and from metabolically normal pregnancies were obtained at 16-18 weeks of gestation and analysed for total, free and acylcarnitine and individual carnitine esters. The amniotic fluid concentrations of total acylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine were higher in pregnancies with higher in pregnancies with methylmalonic aciduria than in normal pregnancies. The predominant carnitine ester was propionylcarnitine in the methylmalonic aciduria group and acetylcarnitine in the normal group. These findings suggest that in methylmalonic aciduria, abnormalities of carnitine metabolism already occur early in gestation. The amount of propionylcarnitine in amniotic fluid may be useful as an additional indicator of foetal methylmalonic aciduria.

  13. Therapeutic potential of amniotic fluid stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrazzak, Hassan; De Coppi, Paolo; Guillot, Pascale V

    2013-03-01

    Human amniotic fluid cells have been used traditionally as a diagnostic tool for genetic anomalies. More recently it has been recognized that amniotic fluid contains populations of stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC) were first to be described. These cells are able to differentiate towards mesodermal lineages. More recently cells with broader potential, defined as amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC), were also isolated. They have intermediate characteristics between embryonic and adult stem cells and are able to differentiate into lineages representative of all three germ layers but unlike ES cells they do not form tumours in vivo. Furthermore, AFSC have been reverted to functional pluripotency in a transgene-free approach using an epigenetics modifier. These characteristics, together with absence of ethical issues concerning their employment, have made stem cells from amniotic fluid a promising candidate for cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  14. Diversity of microbes in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiulio, Daniel B

    2012-02-01

    Recent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based studies estimate the prevalence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) to be ≥30-50% higher than that detected by cultivation-based methods. Some species that have been long implicated in causing MIAC remain among the common invaders (e.g. Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma spp., Fusobacterium spp. Streptococcus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp.). Yet we now know from studies based on PCR of the 16S ribosomal DNA that cultivation-resistant anaerobes belonging to the family Fusobacteriaceae (particularly Sneathia sanguinegens, and Leptotrichia spp.) are also commonly found in amniotic fluid. Other diverse microbes detected by PCR of amniotic fluid include as-yet uncultivated and uncharacterized species. The presence of some microbial taxa is associated with specific host factors (e.g. Candida spp. and an indwelling intrauterine device). It appears that MIAC is polymicrobial in 24-67% of cases, but the potential role of pathogen synergy is poorly understood. A causal relationship between diverse microbes, as detected by PCR, and preterm birth is supported by types of association (e.g. space, time and dose) proposed as alternatives to Koch's postulates for inferring causality from molecular findings. The microbial census of the amniotic cavity remains unfinished. A more complete understanding may inform future research directions leading to improved strategies for preventing, diagnosing and treating MIAC.

  15. Amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid-derived cells: potential tools for regenerative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Ornella; Soncini, Maddalena; Evangelista, Marco; Schmidt, Dörthe

    2009-03-01

    Human amniotic membranes and amniotic fluid have attracted increasing attention in recent years as a possible reserve of stem cells that may be useful for clinical application in regenerative medicine. Many studies have been conducted to date in terms of the differentiation potential of these cells, with several reports demonstrating that cells from both the amniotic fluid and membrane display high plasticity. In addition, cells from the amniotic membrane have also been shown to display immunomodulatory characteristics both in vivo and in vitro, which could make them useful in an allotransplantation setting. Here, we provide an overview comparing the latest findings regarding the stem characteristics of cells from both the amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid, as well as on the potential utility of these cells for future clinical application in regenerative medicine.

  16. Inhibitor of intramembranous absorption in ovine amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Robert A; Cheung, Cecilia Y; Anderson, Debra F

    2014-02-01

    Intramembranous absorption increases during intra-amniotic infusion of physiological saline solutions. The increase may be due partly to the concomitant elevation in fetal urine production as fetal urine contains a stimulator of intramembranous absorption. In this study, we hypothesized that the increase in intramembranous absorption during intra-amniotic infusion is due, in part, to dilution of a nonrenal inhibitor of intramembranous absorption that is present in amniotic fluid. In late-gestation fetal sheep, amniotic fluid volume and the four primary amniotic inflows and outflows were determined over 2-day intervals under three conditions: 1) control conditions when fetal urine entered the amniotic sac, 2) during intra-amniotic infusion of 2 l/day of lactated Ringer solution when urine entered the amniotic sac, and 3) during the same intra-amniotic infusion when fetal urine was continuously replaced with lactated Ringer solution. Amniotic fluid volume, fetal urine production, swallowed volume, and intramembranous absorption rate increased during the infusions independent of fetal urine entry into the amniotic sac or its replacement. Lung liquid secretion rate was unchanged during infusion. Because fetal membrane stretch has been shown not to be involved and because urine replacement did not alter the response, we conclude that the increase in intramembranous absorption that occurs during intra-amniotic infusions is due primarily to dilution of a nonrenal inhibitor of intramembranous absorption that is normally present in amniotic fluid. This result combined with our previous study suggests that a nonrenal inhibitor(s) together with a renal stimulator(s) interact to regulate intramembranous absorption rate and, hence, amniotic fluid volume.

  17. Detection of Bacteroides fragilis endotoxin in amniotic fluid by counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Beckmann (Ilse); K. de Graaff (K.); F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk; H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe ability of counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) to detectBacteroides fragilis endotoxin in amniotic fluid in small concentrations was evaluated. A method was developed which, in combination with ultrafiltration, permits detection ofB. fragilis endotoxin in amniotic fluid in a concentr

  18. Phthalates and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid in human amniotic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Toft, Gunnar;

    2012-01-01

    Measures of prenatal environmental exposures are important, and amniotic fluid levels may directly reflect fetal exposures during hypothesized windows of vulnerability.......Measures of prenatal environmental exposures are important, and amniotic fluid levels may directly reflect fetal exposures during hypothesized windows of vulnerability....

  19. Neurogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, M; Mikula, M; Preitschopf, A; Feichtinger, M; Schipany, K; Hengstschläger, M

    2012-05-01

    In 2003, human amniotic fluid has been shown to contain stem cells expressing Oct-4, a marker for pluripotency. This finding initiated a rapidly growing and very promising new stem cell research field. Since then, amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells have been demonstrated to harbour the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers and to form three-dimensional aggregates, so-called embryoid bodies, known as the principal step in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. Marker selection and minimal dilution approaches allow the establishment of monoclonal AFS cell lineages with high proliferation potential. AFS cells have a lower risk for tumour development and do not raise the ethical issues of embryonic stem cells. Compared to induced pluripotent stem cells, AFS cells do not need exogenic treatment to induce pluripotency, are chromosomal stable and do not harbour the epigenetic memory and accumulated somatic mutations of specific differentiated source cells. Compared to adult stem cells, AFS can be grown in larger quantities and show higher differentiation potential. Accordingly, in the recent past, AFS became increasingly accepted as an optimal tool for basic research and probably also for specific cell-based therapies. Here, we review the current knowledge on the neurogenic differentiation potential of AFS cells.

  20. Amniotic fluid embolism and isolated coagulopathy: atypical presentation of amniotic fluid embolism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Awad, I T

    2012-02-03

    A 41-year-old multigravida presented at 32 weeks of gestation with polyhydramnios and an anencephalic fetus. Abnormal bleeding as a result of disseminated intravascular coagulation complicated an emergency Caesarean section for severe abdominal pain thought to be due to uterine rupture. Massive transfusion with blood products was necessary and the abdomen packed to control bleeding. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit where she made a slow but complete recovery. Amniotic fluid embolism with atypical presentation of isolated coagulopathy is the likely diagnosis in this case. The case serves to demonstrate that amniotic fluid embolism may present with symptoms and signs other than the classical pattern of dyspnoea, cyanosis and hypotension.

  1. Does reduction of amniotic fluid affect fetal movements?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, D A; Visser, G H; Prechtl, H F

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the amount of amniotic fluid on the form of fetal general movements was studied longitudinally in 19 pregnancies complicated by premature rupture of the amniotic membranes (PROM). Before birth, general movements were studied weekly by means of 1-h ultrasound observations, performed und

  2. Prognostic potential of amniotic fluid analysis at birth on canine neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppetti, D; Martino, P A; Ravasio, G; Bronzo, V; Pecile, A

    2015-12-01

    Glucose, lactate and cortisol concentrations in amniotic fluid were measured at birth in 95 pups and related to neonatal viability based on Apgar scoring and to neonatal mortality. Neither amniotic parameters nor neonatal mortality were associated with the Apgar score. Stillborn pups showed high lactate (P amniotic concentrations (P amniotic fluid differences were observed between normal and malformed pups. Amniotic glucose (P amniotic fluid collected at birth could be a valuable predictor of neonatal outcomes in dogs.

  3. Peptidomic Analysis of Amniotic Fluid for Identification of Putative Bioactive Peptides in Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ventricular septal defect (VSD is one of the most common congenital heart diseases and to date the role of peptides in human amniotic fluid in the pathogenesis of VSD have been rarely investigated. Methods: To gain insight into the mechanisms of protein and peptides in cardiovascular development, we constructed a comparative peptidomic profiling of human amniotic fluid between normal and VSD fetuses using a stable isobaric labeling strategy involving tandem mass tag reagents, followed by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results: We identified and quantified 692 non-redundant peptides, 183 of which were differentially expressed in the amniotic fluid of healthy and VSD fetuses; 69 peptides were up regulated and 114 peptides were down regulated. These peptides were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA and identified putative roles in cardiovascular system morphogenesis and cardiogenesis. Conclusion: We concluded that 35 peptides located within the functional domains of their precursor proteins could be candidate bioactive peptides for VSD. The identified peptide changes in amniotic fluid of VSD fetuses may advance our current understanding of congenital heart disease and these peptides may be involved in the etiology of VSD.

  4. Hiccups and amniotic fluid regulation in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchison, Andrew G

    2015-05-01

    Hiccups are an unexplained phenomenon and a subject of medical curiosity. They arise through a reflex arc with central control at the level of the medulla, and their primary physiological effect is the generation of negative intra-thoracic pressure. This paper presents the hypothesis that hiccups serve a purpose during the first half of gestation, when they are most prevalent; namely, that they promote amniotic fluid influx to the primitive gut, allowing fluid to be transferred to the foetal and then maternal vasculature. Furthermore, hiccups could be provoked by increasing amniotic fluid volume and pressure, and act in a regulatory capacity. This hypothesis could be tested by studying foetal movements in the first half of gestation, and assessing whether there is correlation with amniotic fluid flux in the developing gut. Ascertaining whether hiccups increase in frequency with increasing amniotic fluid volume would provide evidence for or against a regulatory function.

  5. Amniotic fluid beta-endorphin levels and labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofinas, G D; Kofinas, A D; Pyrgerou, M; Reyes, F I

    1987-06-01

    To define the relationship between amniotic fluid concentrations of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity and onset of parturition, we measured this opioid in samples obtained during cesarean section at term. A total of 27 women were studied, 14 without labor and 13 in early labor. Mean (+/- SE) amniotic fluid beta-endorphin levels were significantly lower in patients in labor than in those not in labor (3.2 +/- 0.05 versus 8.4 +/- 1.0 fmol/mL). The mean beta-endorphin level (21.1 +/- 4.2 fmol/mL) in other amniotic fluid samples obtained during the second trimester of pregnancy was significantly higher than mean values at term. These differences in amniotic fluid beta-endorphin levels may support the theory of an opioid mechanism involved in parturition.

  6. Amniotic Fluid Cells Proliferation in Normal and Down Syndrome Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcea Adina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome/Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal anomaly, and it represents the most common congenital cause of infants’ intellectual disability. Subjects with this syndrome are affected by degenerative processes caused by accelerated aging or unknown ethyologies. In recent years, accumulating evidence revealed increased potential of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells to be used in regenerative therapy. Our aim was to assess differences in immunophenotype, cell morphology and proliferation of amniotic fluid cells from normal and Down Syndrome pregnancies using a quantitative cytometry approach. Results revealed the emergence of a population of small sized cells in Down Syndrome derived amniotic fluid cells that are readily visible upon microscopic inspection. Hence, the fluorescence–based quantitative image cytometry determinations showed a tendency of decrease in both cell and nuclei size in trisomy, with no significant modification in nuclei circularity, as measured following actin cytoskeleton and nuclei labeling. The propensity of Ki67 positive cells was found to be increased in Down Syndrome derived cells (48.92% as compared to normal specimens (28.68%. However, cells in S and G2/M cell cycle phases decreased from 32.91% to 4.49% in diseased cells. Further studies are devoted to understanding the molecular basis of the observed differences in the proliferation ability of Down Syndrome amniotic cells, in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of amniotic fluid stem cells for tissue regeneration in subjects with trisomy and to find correlations between amniotic cells phenotype and patient prognosis.

  7. Elevated amniotic fluid amino acid levels in fetuses with gastroschisis

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    A. Kale

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to measure maternal plasma and amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations in pregnant women diagnosed as having fetuses with gastroschisis in the second trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-one pregnant women who had fetuses with gastroschisis detected by ultrasonography (gastroschisis group in the second trimester and 32 women who had abnormal triple screenings indicating an increased risk for Down syndrome but had healthy fetuses (control group were enrolled in the study. Amniotic fluid was obtained by amniocentesis, and maternal plasma samples were taken simultaneously. The chromosomal analysis of the study and control groups was normal. Levels of free amino acids and non-essential amino acids were measured in plasma and amniotic fluid samples using EZ:fast kits (EZ:fast GC/FID free (physiological amino acid kit by gas chromatography (Focus GC AI 3000 Thermo Finnigan analyzer. The mean levels of essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine and non-essential amino acids (alanine, glycine, proline, and tyrosine in amniotic fluid were found to be significantly higher in fetuses with gastroschisis than in the control group (P < 0.05. A significant positive correlation between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid concentrations of essential and nonessential amino acids was found only in the gastroschisis group (P < 0.05. The detection of significantly higher amino acid concentrations in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with a gastroschisis defect than in healthy fetuses suggests the occurrence of amino acid malabsorption or of amino acid leakage from the fetus into amniotic fluid.

  8. Amniotic fluid as a vital sign for fetal wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubil, Elizabeth A; Magann, Everett F

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Amniotic fluid, once thought to merely provide protection and room for necessary movement and growth for the fetus, is now understood to be a highly complex and dynamic system that is studied as a data point to interpret fetal wellbeing. Methods: Assessment of amniotic fluid volume is now routine when performing a sonographic evaluation of fetal status and is an important consideration in the assessment and management of perinatal morbidity and mortality.(1)(,)(2) In this review, we will cover the dynamics that affect amniotic fluid volume, review methods for measurement and quantification of volume, review definitions for normative data as related to neonatal outcomes, and provide evidence based guidance on the workup and management options for oligoydramnios and polyhydramnios in singleton and twin pregnancies. Conclusions: When abnormalities of fluid exist, appropriate workup to uncover the underlying etiology should be initiated as adverse fetal outcomes are sometimes associated with these variations from normalcy.

  9. Catecholamines in amniotic fluid as indicators of intrapartum fetal stress.

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    Yashiro,Yuriko

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Catecholamines were measured in the amniotic fluid and in the first voided newborn urine obtained from appropriate-for-date infants of term deliveries. Catecholamine values in the amniotic fluid and urine were nearly equal when expressed in terms of creatinine. Significant positive correlations were observed between the amniotic fluid and urine of norepinephrine and epinephrine. In normal cases (n = 32 that underwent uneventful vaginal delivery, the 95% confidence limits for norepinephrine and epinephrine in the amniotic fluid were 1.53 to 2.33 ng/ml and 0.16 to 0.30 ng/ml, respectively. In cases of moderate stress (n = 12, only norepinephrine showed significantly higher values than the normal cases, while in cases of severe stress (n = 12, norepinephrine became more significantly high, and epinephrine was found to be elevated significantly. A significant difference was noted in the incidence of fetal stress between the infants with more than and those with less than 2.30 ng/ml of norepinephrine, the upper limits of the normal 95% confidence limits. However, for epinephrine such a significant difference was not noted. It was concluded that amniotic fluid catecholamines are of fetal origin and reflect fetal sympathoadrenal activity directly, even during labor, and that their level may be a good indicator of fetal condition and stress.

  10. Stem cells from amniotic fluid--Potential for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P; De Coppi, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Regenerative medicine has recently been established as an emerging field focussing on repair, replacement or regeneration of cells, tissues and whole organs. The significant recent advances in the field have intensified the search for novel sources of stem cells with potential for therapy. Recently, researchers have identified the amniotic fluid as an untapped source of stem cells that are multipotent, possess immunomodulatory properties and do not have the ethical and legal limitations of embryonic stem cells. Stem cells from the amniotic fluid have been shown to differentiate into cell lineages representing all three embryonic germ layers without generating tumours, which make them an ideal candidate for tissue engineering applications. In addition, their ability to engraft in injured organs and modulate immune and repair responses of host tissues suggest that transplantation of such cells may be useful for the treatment of various degenerative and inflammatory diseases affecting major tissues/organs. This review summarises the evidence on amniotic fluid cells over the past 15 years and explores the potential therapeutic applications of amniotic fluid stem cells and amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

  11. INFLUENCE OF AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX ON FOETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In these days of smaller families and the obstetrician having to share the onus of giving a healthy child capable of independent existence as well as to ensure that the population is limited for further progress of this developing country, the estimation o f foetal maturity assumes greatest practical importance. As means to achieving the end, estimates of foetal maturity have been done by various clinical and laboratory methods of which assessment of amniotic fluid index assumes importance. The objective is to study the correlation of amniotic fluid index on foetal outcome at term gestation . MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on two hundred antenatal women who attended the institute of obstetrics and gynaecology at a Government Hospital for Wome n and Children in Visakhapatnam from Jan 2014 to Jan 2015. It is a comparative prospective study comparing 100 cases of Oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid index 5 cm as control group. RESU LTS : Perinatal outcome was inferred by noting the various parameters and Statistical Analysis was done by applying the chisquare (x2 test and the value of probability was taken . CONCLUSION: The goal of antepartum fetal surveillance is to identify the fetu s at increased risk. Amniotic fluid volume has been proved as an indirect measure of feto - placental function and hence the estimation of amniotic fluid volume assists the obstetrician in risk assessment

  12. Incidence, diagnosis and pathophysiology of amniotic fluid embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, F; Akasaka, J; Koike, N; Uekuri, C; Shigemitsu, A; Kobayashi, H

    2014-10-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare clinical entity, sometimes fatal. A review was conducted to describe the frequency, diagnosis and pathophysiology of AFE. The reported incidences ranged from 1.9 cases per 100,000 maternities (UK) to 6.1 per 100,000 maternities (Australia), which can vary considerably, depending on the period, region of study and the definition. Although the development of amniotic fluid-specific markers would have an impact on early diagnosis, definition of AFE based on these markers is not widely accepted. To date, immunological mechanisms, amniotic fluid-dependent anaphylactic reaction and complement activation, have been proposed as potential pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms. Immune cell activation induced through complement activation may be associated with the mechanism that immediately initiates maternal death, only in susceptible individuals. This review will focus on advances in the field of AFE biology and discuss the prevalence, diagnosis and pathophysiology of AFE.

  13. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyman, A [Physical Dosimetry Department, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Gabriel, C [MCL-P, Newbury RG14 5PY, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Benedickter, H R; Froehlich, J, E-mail: Azadeh.peyman@hpa.org.uk [Electromagnetic Fields and Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-04-07

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 deg. C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields. (note)

  14. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, A.; Gabriel, C.; Benedickter, H. R.; Fröhlich, J.

    2011-04-01

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 °C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system. (a) Identification. A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system is a device intended to measure the...

  16. Lactate to creatinine ratio in amniotic fluid : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Helen L.; Pistorius, Lourens; Voorbij, Hieronymus A. M.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of amniotic fluid (AF) lactate concentration in complicated pregnancies may provide information on the extent of fetal acidemia. However, normalisation for AF volume may be necessary by calculating the lactate: creatinine (L: C) ratio. We measured these AF parameters and compared them to

  17. Amniotic Fluid MMP-9 and Neurotrophins in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Pearce, Brad D; Larsen, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are caused by errors in brain plasticity. Given the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neurotrophins (NTs) in neuroplasticity, amniotic fluid samples for 331 ASD cases and 698...

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria by analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Yang, Yan-ling; Hasegawa, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Shi, Chun-yan; Song, Jin-qing; Sayami, Sujan; Liu, Ping; Yan, Rong; Dong, Jin-hua; Qin, Jiong

    2008-02-05

    Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is the most frequent disease of organic aciduria in China. Various biochemical strategies are followed for the prenatal diagnosis of MMA. However, since fetuses affected by MMA have decreased excretion of methylmalonic acid, the difficulties of prenatal biochemical diagnosis are obvious. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS) have allowed us to identify the disease in affected fetuses. The aim of this study was to determine the value of analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid in prenatal diagnosis of MMA. The clinical diagnoses and outcomes of nine probands with MMA and the prenatal diagnoses based on biochemical analysis of nine fetuses at risk for MMA were investigated. Amniotic fluid samples from pregnancies at risk for MMA and metabolically normal pregnancies were obtained at 16 - 24 weeks of gestation. Methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid were measured by GC/MS, propionylcarnitine was analyzed by ESI/MS/MS, and total homocysteine was determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. In two pregnancies, high levels of methylmalonic acid, methylcitric acid, propionylcarnitine, and total homocysteine indicated combined MMA and homocysteinemia in the fetuses. One of the mothers continued pregnancy and received cobalamin supplement as prenatal treatment, and the other terminated her pregnancy. In one pregnancy, significantly elevated levels of methylmalonic acid, methylcitric acid, and propionylcarnitine, and normal level of total homocysteine was found indicating isolated MMA in the fetus; abortion was performed on this case. In the other six pregnancies, all the levels of the above mentioned metabolites were normal suggesting that the fetuses were not affected by MMA. The diagnoses were confirmed after delivery by testing urinary organic acids and plasma total homocysteine. The metabolic abnormalities of MMA occur early in gestation. The level of total

  19. Potential antitumor therapeutic strategies of human amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, N-H; Hwang, K-A; Kim, S U; Kim, Y-B; Hyun, S-H; Jeung, E-B; Choi, K-C

    2012-08-01

    As stem cells are capable of self-renewal and can generate differentiated progenies for organ development, they are considered as potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Along with this capacity, stem cells have the therapeutic potential for treating human diseases including cancers. According to the origins, stem cells are broadly classified into two types: embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells. In terms of differentiation potential, ESCs are pluripotent and adult stem cells are multipotent. Amnion, which is a membranous sac that contains the fetus and amniotic fluid and functions in protecting the developing embryo during gestation, is another stem cell source. Amnion-derived stem cells are classified as human amniotic membrane-derived epithelial stem cells, human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells. They are in an intermediate stage between pluripotent ESCs and lineage-restricted adult stem cells, non-tumorigenic, and contribute to low immunogenicity and anti-inflammation. Furthermore, they are easily available and do not cause any controversial issues in their recovery and applications. Not only are amnion-derived stem cells applicable in regenerative medicine, they have anticancer capacity. In non-engineered stem cells transplantation strategies, amnion-derived stem cells effectively target the tumor and suppressed the tumor growth by expressing cytotoxic cytokines. Additionally, they also have a potential as novel delivery vehicles transferring therapeutic genes to the cancer formation sites in gene-directed enzyme/prodrug combination therapy. Owing to their own advantageous properties, amnion-derived stem cells are emerging as a new candidate in anticancer therapy.

  20. Rat full term amniotic fluid harbors highly potent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun-Fun, Hoo; Ferdaos, Nurfarhana; Hamzah, Siti Nurusaadah; Ridzuan, Noridzzaida; Hisham, Nurul Afiqah; Abdullah, Syahril; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Cheah, Pike See; Thilakavathy, Karrupiah; Yazid, Mohd Nazri; Nordin, Norshariza

    2015-10-01

    Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) are commonly isolated from mid-term amniotic fluid (AF) of animals and human collected via an invasive technique, amniocentesis. Alternatively, AFSCs could be collected at full-term. However, it is unclear whether AFSCs are present in the AF at full term. Here, we aimed to isolate and characterize stem cells isolated from AF of full term pregnant rats. Three stem cell lines have been established following immuno-selection against the stem cell marker, c-kit. Two of the new lines expressed multiple markers of pluripotency until more than passage 90. Further, they spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of the three primary germ layers through the formation of good quality embryoid bodies (EBs), and can be directly differentiated into neural lineage. Their strong stemness and potent neurogenic properties highlight the presence of highly potent stem cells in AF of full-term pregnancies, which could serve as a potential source of stem cells for regenerative medicine.

  1. Amniotic Fluid Glucose Concentration: A Marker for Infection in Preterm Labor and Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A. Dildy

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid Gram stain and culture have been utilized as laboratory tests of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity. The Gram stain of amniotic fluid has a low sensitivity in the detection of clinical infection or microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, and amniotic fluid culture results are not immediately available for management decisions. Glucose concentration is used to diagnose infection in other sites such as cerebrospinal fluid.

  2. Human amniotic fluid: a source of stem cells for possible therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadosz, Margaret; Basch, Ross S; Young, Bruce K

    2016-03-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the capacity for differentiation. Amniotic fluid cells have emerged only recently as a possible source of stem cells for clinical purposes. There are no ethical or sampling constraints for the use of amniocentesis as a standard clinical procedure for obtaining an abundant supply of amniotic fluid cells. Amniotic fluid cells of human origin proliferate rapidly and are multipotent with the potential for expansion in vitro to multiple cell lines. Tissue engineering technologies that use amniotic fluid cells are being explored. Amniotic fluid cells may be of clinical benefit for fetal therapies, degenerative disease, and regenerative medicine applications. We present a comprehensive review of the evolution of human amniotic fluid cells as a possible modality for therapeutic use.

  3. Results of six years of cytogenetic studies in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: research into different genetic diseases is one of the preventive programs of paramount importance at public health level. The early detection of chromosomopathies and the establishment of an appropriate strategy reduce the morbidity-morality rate and improve the patients’ quality of life.Objective: to describe the behavior of the results of the cytogenetic studies in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women from Las Tunas province during six years: from 2008 to 2014.Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study was carried out to assess the results of cytogenetic studies in amniotic liquid during six years: from 2008 to 2014. The statistical records were checked and the results, the indication criteria, the behavior of the age groups in women advanced in age and the diagnosed chromosomopathies were assessed.Results: the samples with results that exceeded the non-conclusive and positive women prevailed; 2, 3 positive cases of chromosomopathies were diagnosed out of 100 studied women at risk; pregnant women of advanced gestational years prevailed as indication criterion, being the 37 to 40 years old age group the predominant one; in the positive cases, numeric chromosomopathies of the type trisomy 21 or Down’s syndrome prevailed, with a frequency of 1, 2 out of 100 pregnant women at risk.Conclusions: the program of the cytogenetic diagnosis in the amniotic fluid has been an effective tool to detect congenital prenatal defects by chromosomopathies, very useful in the process of genetic advice.

  4. Amniotic fluid-borne hepatocyte growth factor protects rat pups against experimental necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sunil K; Baggerman, Eric W; Mohankumar, Krishnan; Namachivayam, Kopperuncholan; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Reyes, Victor E; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2014-03-01

    Fetal swallowing of amniotic fluid, which contains numerous cytokines and growth factors, plays a key role in gut mucosal development. Preterm birth interrupts this exposure to amniotic fluid-borne growth factors, possibly contributing to the increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in premature infants. We hypothesized that supplementation of formula feeds with amniotic fluid can provide amniotic fluid-borne growth factors and prevent experimental NEC in rat pups. We compared NEC-like injury in rat pups fed with infant formula vs. formula supplemented either with 30% amniotic fluid or recombinant hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Cytokines/growth factors in amniotic fluid were measured by immunoassays. Amniotic fluid and HGF effects on enterocyte migration, proliferation, and survival were measured in cultured IEC6 intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, we used an antibody array to investigate receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation and immunoblots to measure phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Amniotic fluid supplementation in oral feeds protected rat pups against NEC-like injury. HGF was the most abundant growth factor in rat amniotic fluid in our panel of analytes. Amniotic fluid increased cell migration, proliferation, and cell survival in vitro. These effects were reproduced by HGF and blocked by anti-HGF antibody or a PI3K inhibitor. HGF transactivated several RTKs in IEC6 cells, indicating that its effects extended to multiple signaling pathways. Finally, similar to amniotic fluid, recombinant HGF also reduced the frequency and severity of NEC-like injury in rat pups. Amniotic fluid supplementation protects rat pups against experimental NEC, which is mediated, at least in part, by HGF.

  5. Amniotic Fluid Infection in Preterm Pregnancies with Intact Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahkonen, Leena; Nupponen, Irmeli; Pätäri-Sampo, Anu; Tikkanen, Minna; Sorsa, Timo; Juhila, Juuso; Andersson, Sture; Paavonen, Jorma; Stefanovic, Vedran

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Intra-amniotic infection (IAI) is a major cause of preterm labor and adverse neonatal outcome. We evaluated amniotic fluid (AF) proteolytic cascade forming biomarkers in relation to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and IAI in preterm pregnancies with intact membranes. Material and Methods. Amniocentesis was made to 73 women with singleton pregnancies; 27 with suspected IAI; and 46 controls. AF biomarkers were divided into three cascades: Cascade 1: matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), MMP-9, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and interleukin-6; Cascade 2: neutrophil elastase (HNE), elafin, and MMP-9; Cascade 3: MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), MMP-8/TIMP-1 molar ratio, and C-reactive protein (CRP). MMP-8 was measured by an immunoenzymometric assay and the others were measured by ELISA. Standard biochemical methods, molecular microbiology, and culture techniques were used. Results. MMP-8, MMP-9, MPO, elafin, and TIMP-1 concentrations were higher in IAI suspected cases compared to controls and also in IAI suspected cases with MIAC compared to those without MIAC when adjusted by gestational age at amniocentesis. All biomarkers except elafin and MMP-2 had the sensitivity of 100% with thresholds based on ROC-curve. Odd ratios of biomarkers for MIAC were 1.2-38 and 95% confidential intervals 1.0-353.6. Conclusions. Neutrophil based AF biomarkers were associated with IAI and MIAC. PMID:28167848

  6. Amniotic fluid cathepsin-G in pregnancies complicated by the preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, Ivana; Andrys, Ctirad; Drahosova, Marcela; Soucek, Ondrej; Pliskova, Lenka; Stepan, Martin; Bestvina, Tomas; Maly, Jan; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) based on the presence of the microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and/or intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI). A total of 154 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM were included in this study. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis. Amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations were assessed by ELISA. MIAC was determined using a non-cultivation approach. IAI was defined as an amniotic fluid bedside interleukin-6 concentration ≥ 745 pg/mL. Women with MIAC had higher amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations than women without MIAC (with MIAC: median 82.7 ng/mL, versus without MIAC: median 64.7 ng/mL; p = 0.0003). Women with IAI had higher amniotic fluid cathepsin-G concentrations than women without this complication (with IAI: median 103.0 ng/mL, versus without IAI: median 66.2 ng/mL; p G concentrations than women with colonization (MIAC without IAI) and women without both MIAC and IAI (p G concentrations in pregnancies complicated by PPROM. Amniotic fluid cathepsin-G appears to be a potential marker of IAI.

  7. Cell-free fetal DNA in amniotic fluid supernatant for prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, M; Nemati, M; Maralani, M; Estiar, M A; Andalib, S; Fardiazar, Z; Sakhinia, E

    2016-04-30

    In widespread conviction, amniotic fluid is utilized for prenatal diagnosis. Amniotic fluid supernatant is usually discarded, notwithstanding being a good source of fetal DNA. The aim of the present study was to assess cell-free fetal DNA extracted from amniotic fluid supernatant for application in prenatal diagnosis such as gender determination and early diagnosis of β-thalassemia. Samples of amniotic fluid of 70 pregnant women were collected and went through routine tests along with tests for cell-free fetal DNA from amniotic fluid supernatant. The DNA in the amniotic fluid supernatant was extracted and analyzed for gender determination by PCR and Real-time PCR. ARMS-PCR was applied to test early diagnosis of IVS II-I mutation (common β-thalassemia mutation) and E7V mutation for sickle cell anemia using DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant. Using the cell-free fetal DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant, the sensitivity of PCR and Real-time PCR for gender detection was compared with the routine cytogenetic method. The fetus tested for sickle cell anemia and β-thalassemia was observed to be healthy but heterozygous for IVS II-I mutation. The findings indicated that cell-free fetal DNA from amniotic fluid supernatant can be a good source of fetal DNA and be used in early prenatal diagnosis since because of its fast and accurate application. Therefore, it would be suggested that the amniotic fluid supernatant's disposal is prevented because if the tests needs to be repeated, cell-free fetal DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant can be used as an alternative source for prenatal diagnosis.

  8. Amniotic fluid and development of the immature intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette Viberg

    ), and slow advancement of enteral feeds. Human breast milk is the gold standard of enteral nutrition (EN) of the newborn and protects against NEC in premature infants, but is often unavailable or limited after preterm birth. Innovative nutrition strategies and novel sources of the first EN are therefore...... in demand. Amniotic Fluid (AF) is the natural source of fetal EN throughout gestation in ammals. Fetal AF swallowing stimulates somatic and gastrointestinal growth during fetal development, and modulates the development of the intestinal mucosa. In addition, AF protects the fetus against infections...

  9. Human amniotic fluid derived cells can competently substitute dermal fibroblasts in a tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Hosper, Nynke; Luginbuehl, Joachim; Biedermann, Thomas; Reichmann, Ernst; Meuli, Martin

    Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. In this experimental study, we investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid derived cells to substitute dermal fibroblasts and support epidermis

  10. Neonatal Responsiveness to the Odor of Amniotic and Lacteal Fluids: A Test of Perinatal Chemosensory Continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Luc; Schaal, Benoist; Soussignan, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Studied head-orientation response of breast-feeding neonates in paired-choice odor tests. Found that 2-day olds detected amniotic fluid and colostrum, treating them as similar sensorily and/or hedonically. Four-day olds exhibited a preference for breast milk. Three-day olds oriented longer toward the odor of their own amniotic fluid than alien…

  11. Function curve of the membranes that regulate amniotic fluid volume in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Job; Anderson, Debra; Hohimer, Roger; Yang, Qin; Giraud, George; Davis, Lowell

    2005-07-01

    Seven singleton 120-day fetal lambs were prepared with a shunt from the lung to the gastric end of the esophagus, a bladder catheter, and multiple amniotic fluid and vascular catheters. The urachus was ligated. Beginning 7 days later, amniotic fluid volumes were determined by drainage, followed by replacement with 1 liter of lactated Ringer (LR) solution. Urine flow into the amnion was measured continuously. In 14 of 27 experiments, amniotic fluid volumes were determined again 2 days after the inflow into the amnion had consisted of urine only and in 13 experiments after the inflow of urine had been supplemented by an intraamniotic infusion of LR solution. Intramembranous absorption was calculated from the inflows and the changes in volume between the beginning and end of each experiment. The relations between absorption rate and amniotic fluid volume, the "function curves," were highly individual. Urine production during the infusion of LR solution did not decrease, fetal plasma renin activity decreased (P amniotic fluid volume increased by 140% [SE (27%), P amniotic fluid per day. During the infusion of LR solution, the increase in the rate of absorption matched the rate of infusion (both in ml/h), with a regression coefficient of 0.75 (P amniotic fluid volumes, volume is not limited by the absorptive capacity of the amniochorion, and, at least in these preparations, the position of the function curve and not the natural rate of inflow was the major determinant of resting amniotic fluid volume.

  12. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in regenerative medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sunyoung; Ko, In Kap; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J; Lee, Sang Jin

    2012-02-01

    The stem cells isolated from amniotic fluid present an exciting possible contribution to the field of regenerative medicine and amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells have significant potential for research and therapeutic applications. AFS cells are multipotent, showing the ability to differentiate into cell types from all three embryonic germ layers. They express both embryonic and adult stem cell markers, expand extensively without feeder cells, double in 36 h, and are not tumorigenic. The AFS cells can be maintained for over 250 population doublings and preserve their telomere length and a normal karyotype. They differentiate easily into specific cell lineages and do not require human embryo tissue for their isolation, thus avoiding the current controversies associated with the use of human embryonic stem (ES) cells. The discovery of the AFS cells has been recent, and a great deal of work remains to be performed on the characterization and use of these cells. This review describes the various differentiated lineages that AFS cells can form and the future of these promising new stem cells in regenerative medicine research.

  13. Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

    2011-06-01

    In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood.

  14. Quantitative analysis of the toxicity of human amniotic fluid to cultured rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewek, M J; Bruner, J P; Whetsell, W O; Tulipan, N

    1997-10-01

    It has been proposed that the myelodysplastic components of a myelomeningocele are secondarily damaged as the result of exposure to amniotic fluid, the so-called 'two-hit' hypothesis. The critical time at which this secondary insult might occur has not been clearly defined. The present study addresses this issue by quantitatively assessing the toxic effects of human amniotic fluid of various gestational ages upon organotypic cultures of rat spinal cord. Using an assay for lactate dehydrogenase efflux to evaluate toxicity in such spinal cord cultures, we found that the amniotic fluid became toxic at approximately 34 weeks' gestation. This toxic effect of amniotic fluid appears to emerge rather suddenly. Accordingly, it seems reasonable to suggest that prevention of exposure of vulnerable spinal cord tissue to this toxicity by surgical closure of a myelomeningocele defect prior to the emergence of toxicity in amniotic fluid may prevent injury to vulnerable myelodysplastic spinal cord tissue.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria by analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA )is the most frequent disease of organic aciduria in China.Various biochemical strategies are followed for the prenatal diagnosis of MMA.However,since fetuses affected by MMA have decreased excretion of methylmalonic acid,the difficulties of prenatal biochemical diagnosis are obvious.Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS) have allowed us to identify the disease in affected fetuses.The aim of this study was to determine the value of analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid in prenatal diagnosis of MMA.Methods The clinical diagnoses and outcomes of nine probands with MMA and the prenatal diagnoses based on biochemical analysis of nine fetuses at risk for MMA were investigated.Amniotic fluid samples from pregnancies at risk for MMA and metabolically normal pregnancies were obtained at 16-24 weeks of gestation.Methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid were measured by GC/MS,propionylcarnitine was analyzed by ESI/MS/MS,and total homocysteine was determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.Results In two pregnancies,high levels of methylmalonic acid,methylcitric acid,propionylcarnitine,and total homocysteine indicated combined MMA and homocysteinemia in the fetuses.One of the mothers continued pregnancy and received cobalamin supplement as prenatal treatment,and the other terminated her pregnancy.In one pregnancy,significantly elevated levels of methylmalonic acid,methylcitric acid,and propionylcarnitine,and normal level of total homocysteine was found indicating isolated MMA in the fetus;abortion was performed on this case.In the other six pregnancies,all the levels of the above mentioned metabolites were normal suggesting that the fetuses were not affected by MMA. The diagnoses were confirmed after delivery by testing urinary organic acids and plasma total homocysteine.Conclusions The metabolic abnormalities of MMA occur early in gestation.The level of

  16. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne M; Nellemann, Christine

    2008-12-01

    Parabens are a group of antimicrobial preservatives widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in foods. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown weak estrogenic effects of some parabens. Thus, especially, exposure of fetus and infants via the mother is a matter of concern. In order to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Markedly higher levels of ethyl paraben compared to butyl paraben were found in all fluids and tissues. Both ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal plasma, livers, and whole-body tissues from fetus seemed to be saturated after dosing with >or= 100 mg/kg bw/day, while both compounds were excreted into amniotic fluid in a dose-dependent manner. Significant difference was found between the level of ethyl paraben in maternal plasma and amniotic fluid after dosing with 200 mg/kg bw/day as well as between the levels of butyl paraben in maternal plasma and amniotic fluid after dosing with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw/day.

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Wharton's Jelly and Amniotic Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerger-Messerli, Marianne S; Marx, Caterina; Oppliger, Byron; Mueller, Martin; Surbek, Daniel V; Schoeberlein, Andreina

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in perinatal sources, such as the amniotic fluid (AF) and the umbilical connective tissue, the so-called Wharton's jelly (WJ), has transformed them into promising stem cell grafts for the application in regenerative medicine. The advantages of AF-MSCs and WJ-MSCs over adult MSCs, such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), include their minimally invasive isolation procedure, their more primitive cell character without being tumourigenic, their low immunogenicity and their potential autologous application in congenital disorders and when cryopreserved in adulthood. This chapter gives an overview of the biology of AF-MSCs and WJ-MSCs, and their regenerative potential based on the results of recent preclinical and clinical studies. In the end, open questions concerning the use of WJ-MSCs and AF-MSCs in regenerative medicine will be emphasized.

  18. Current Concepts of Immunology and Diagnosis in Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Benson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Current thinking about pathophysiology has shifted away from embolism toward a maternal immune response to the fetus. Two immunologic mechanisms have been studied to date. Anaphylaxis appears to be doubtful while the available evidence supports a role for complement activation. With the mechanism remaining to be elucidated, AFE remains a clinical diagnosis. It is diagnosed based on one or more of four key signs/symptoms: cardiovascular collapse, respiratory distress, coagulopathy, and/or coma/seizures. The only laboratory test that reliably supports the diagnosis is the finding of fetal material in the maternal pulmonary circulation at autopsy. Perhaps the most compelling mystery surrounding AFE is not why one in 20,000 parturients are afflicted, but rather how the vast majority of women can tolerate the foreign antigenic presence of their fetus both within their uterus and circulation?

  19. IMPACT OF MECONIUM STAINED AMNIOTIC FLUID ON EARLY NEONATAL OUTCOME

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    Uday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To find out the incidence, neonatal outcome and associated maternal antepartum & intrapartum risk factors of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF. DESIGN: Prospective St udy. SETTINGS: Neonatal Unit of Hospital and PNC Ward. SUBJECTS & METHODS: Prospective Study was conducted including 100 babies born with meconium stained amniotic fluid who are admitted in NICU and with mother in PNC ward in a period of six months (April 2012 - October 2012 excluding those who born with congenital abnormalities. Detail history of babies and mother with MSAF noted with emphasis on antepartum and intrapartum risk factors and outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Incidence of M SAF in the study was 8. 98%. Out of 100, 24 babies were admitted to NICU with most common indications being birth asphyxia (16% and Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS (6%. Majority babies were delivered through thin Meconium Stained Liquor (MSL (44% fo llowed by thick (35% and moderate (21%. Total number of deaths were 9 and all these babies had thick meconium with severe birth asphyxia. Ninety one babies were born at >37 weeks of gestation and 57 had birth weight over 2. 5 Kg. Nineteen percent were no n vigorous requiring tracheal suctioning and positive pressure ventilation at birth. Common mode of delivery was emergency Cesarean in 83% patients. Common maternal and fetal risk factors were fetal distress (30% followed by Oligohydramnios (30%, Pregnan cy induced hypertension (PIH (24%, anemia (14%, severe anemia (5%, Antepartum hemorrhage (4% and Antepartum eclampsia (4%. CONCLUSIONS: Oligohydramnios, PIH, anemia and fetal distress were common antenatal and intranatal factors associated with MSAF. Major morbidity and indication for NICU admission was Birth asphyxia and non vigorous babies. Mortality rate was 9% which is commonly associated with thick meconium and severe birth asphyxia.

  20. Some considerations on Meconial Amniotic Fluid in the new born babies

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    Cleopatra Cabrera Cuellar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many functions are attributed to amniotic liquid, there is no doubt, after all, about the negative consequences of its alteration. The differentiation between physiological meconium and pathological meconium can modify the perinatal results. Objectives: to determine if the presence of the meconium considered pathological, is significantly related to the morbimortality of the patients. Method: an analytic and prospective study was made, control case type, of 504 newborn children with meconial amniotic liquid, and the same number of newborn children with clear amniotic liquid. Results: the pathological meconial amniotic liquid was associated to a low Apgar percentage, in the first minute of 5,2 %. When the meconial amniotic liquid resulted physiological it was of 0,4 %. The morbility associated to perinatal hypoxia raised from 0,4 % when the meconial amniotic liquid was physiological, and to 4,85 when it was pathological. The necessity of ventilation, associated to the pathological meconial amniotic liquid, was of 3,1 %. There were 3 deaths in the pathological meconial amniotic liquid group, for a 1,3 % of mortality. When the meconial amniotic liquid colour was intensified during delivery labour, it was observed a low Apgar percentage of 11 %. Conclusions: the meconial amniotic fluid is presented in the 23% of the patients in our study increasing its incidence as long as the gestational age and the weight of the patient were higher. Preeclampsia is associated in a very significant way to the presence of meconium which is considered pathological.

  1. Amniotic fluid may act as a transporting pathway for signaling molecules and stem cells during the embryonic development of amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xinglong

    2013-11-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) is formed at the very early stages of pregnancy, and is present throughout embryonic development of amniotes. It is well-known that AF provides a protective sac around the fetus that allows fetal movement and growth, and prevents mechanical and thermal shock. However, a growing body of evidence has shown that AF contains a number of proteins and peptides, including growth factors and cytokines, which potently affect cellular growth and proliferation. In addition, pluripotent stem cells have recently been identified in AF. Herein, this article reviews the biological properties of AF during embryonic development and speculates that AF may act as a transporting pathway for signaling molecules and stem cells during amniote embryonic development. Defining this novel function of AF is potentially significant for further understanding embryonic development and regenerative medicine, preventing genetic diseases, and developing therapeutic options for human malignancies.

  2. A Mini Overview of Isolation, Characterization and Application of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh-Ghalehaziz, Shiva; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Pashaiasl, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    Amniotic fluid represents rich sources of stem cells that can be used in treatments for a wide range of diseases. Amniotic fluid- stem cells have properties intermediate between embryonic and adult mesenchymal stem cells which make them particularly attractive for cellular regeneration and tissue engineering. Furthermore, scientists are interested in these cells because they come from the amniotic fluid that is routinely discarded after birth. In this review we give a brief introduction of amniotic fluid followed by a description of the cells present within this fluid and aim to summarize the all existing isolation methods, culturing, characterization and application of these cells. Finally, we elaborate on the differentiation and potential for these cells to promote regeneration of various tissue defects, including fetal tissue, the nervous system, heart, lungs, kidneys, bones, and cartilage in the form of table.

  3. Amniotic and allantoic fluids from experimentally infected sheep contain immunoglobulin specific for Chlamydophila abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Patricia X; O'Donovan, James; Souda, Puneet; Gutierrez, Jorge; Williams, Erin J; Worrall, Sheila; McElroy, Maire; Proctor, Aisling; Brady, Colm; Sammin, Donal; Basset, Hugh; Whitelegge, Julian P; Markey, Bryan K; Nally, Jarlath E

    2011-03-15

    Chlamydophila abortus, the aetiological agent of enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE), replicates in trophoblast cells leading to their destruction and dissemination of the bacterium to foetal organs. To further understand the pathogenesis of EAE, amniotic and allantoic fluids were collected from experimentally infected pregnant ewes at 30 (7 samples from each fluid), 35 (8 samples from each fluid), 40 (10 samples from each fluid) and 43 (6 amniotic fluids and 7 allantoic fluids) days post-infection to determine pathogen numbers and other markers of infection. Whilst experimentally infected ewes had characteristic placental lesions, only two amniotic and seven allantoic fluid samples were positive for C. abortus by real-time PCR. In contrast, all amniotic and allantoic fluids were positive for immunoglobulin. Immunoglobulins were generally detected earlier in allantoic fluid than in amniotic fluid and the numbers of samples containing immunoglobulins increased as infection progressed. IgG in amniotic and allantoic fluids was shown to be specific for C. abortus, and reacted with the major outer membrane proteins, polymorphic outer membrane protein and macrophage infectivity potentiator protein. A comparison of two-dimensional immunoblots using purified IgG from the allantoic fluid, amniotic fluid, ewe serum and foetal serum of a C. abortus infected animal at 40 days post infection indicated a pattern of reactivity intermediate between that of the ewe serum and the foetal serum. Results suggest that a maternal source of immunoglobulin is predominant at 30 days post-infection but that foetal derived antibodies may be contributed at a later stage.

  4. Investigation of Midtrimester Amniotic Fluid Factors as Potential Predictors of Term and Preterm Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner

    2006-01-01

    elastase (r=0.508, P<.002. Conclusions. Midtrimester amniotic fluid SLPI concentrations significantly decrease when membrane rupture precedes pre- or full-term labor. However, none of the investigated substances predict preterm delivery.

  5. Cerebroside Sulfatase Activity in Cultivated Human Skin Fibroblasts and Amniotic Fluid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Carol W.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Prenatal monitoring for metachromatic leukodystrophy (a fatal inherited metabolic disorder) suggested that the determination of levels of cerebroside sulfatase in the amniotic fluid helped in the prenatal detection of this disorder. (DB)

  6. Human placental lactogen levels in amniotic fluid in normal and toxemic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolis, D; Kaskarelis, D

    1978-01-01

    Amniotic fluid human placental lactogen (HPL) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 162 cases of women with normal pregnancy and 43 with toxemic pregnancy, in the last trimester of pregnancy. A significant differences in levels was observed.

  7. Postnatal amniotic fluid intake reduces gut inflammatory responses and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggers, Jayda; Østergaard, Mette V.; Siggers, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm neonates are susceptible to gastrointestinal disorders such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Maternal milk and colostrum protects against NEC via growth promoting, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial factors. The fetal enteral diet amniotic fluid (AF), contains similar components, and we...

  8. [Diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism with blood samples by liquid-based cytology technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao-qin; Deng, Jian-qiang; Hou, An-chao; Cai, Ji-feng

    2014-12-01

    To establish the diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism with blood samples by liquid-based cytology technique and to study the validity of method. The blood samples were collected from patients who suffered from amniotic fluid embolism. The components of amniotic fluid in blood samples were examined with blood smear by two direct smear methods (supernatant smear, sediment smear) and two liquid-based cytology methods (automatic smear, manual smear). The positive detection rate of each method was calculated. The positive detection rates of two liquid-based cytology methods (84.6% and 92.3%, respectively) were much higher than those of two direct methods (53.8% and 61.5%, respectively). The liquid-based cytology technique could improve the positive detection rate of amniotic fluid embolism.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 is elevated in midtrimester amniotic fluid prior to the development of preeclampsia

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    Daniel-Spiegel Etty

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP and their inhibitors (TIMP in second trimester amniotic fluid of women with hypertensive disorders compared to normotensive women. Study Design Amniotic fluid was obtained from 133 women undergoing genetic second trimester amniocentesis. Zymography was performed for MMP characterization and an MMP-2 ELISA kit was used to determine MMP-2 levels. TIMP-2 expression was evaluated using western blot. Results Mean amniotic fluid MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels were significantly higher in women who developed a hypertensive disorder compared to normotensive women (P Conclusion Higher amniotic fluid MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels are found in women who eventually develop preeclampsia.

  10. Regulation of intramembranous absorption and amniotic fluid volume by constituents in fetal sheep urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra F; Jonker, Sonnet S; Louey, Samantha; Cheung, Cecilia Y; Brace, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that fetal urine contains a substance(s) that regulates amniotic fluid volume by altering the rate of intramembranous absorption of amniotic fluid. In late gestation ovine fetuses, amniotic fluid volumes, urine, and lung liquid production rates, swallowed volumes and intramembranous volume and solute absorption rates were measured over 2-day periods under control conditions and when urine was removed and continuously replaced at an equal rate with exogenous fluid. Intramembranous volume absorption rate decreased by 40% when urine was replaced with lactated Ringer solution or lactated Ringer solution diluted 50% with water. Amniotic fluid volume doubled under both conditions. Analysis of the intramembranous sodium and chloride fluxes suggests that the active but not passive component of intramembranous volume absorption was altered by urine replacement, whereas both active and passive components of solute fluxes were altered. We conclude that fetal urine contains an unidentified substance(s) that stimulates active intramembranous transport of amniotic fluid across the amnion into the underlying fetal vasculature and thereby functions as a regulator of amniotic fluid volume.

  11. Maternal and fetal characteristics associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balchin, Imelda; Whittaker, John C; Lamont, Ronald F;

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF.......To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF....

  12. Proposed diagnostic criteria for the case definition of amniotic fluid embolism in research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven L; Romero, Roberto; Dildy, Gary A; Callaghan, William M; Smiley, Richard M; Bracey, Arthur W; Hankins, Gary D; D'Alton, Mary E; Foley, Mike; Pacheco, Luis D; Vadhera, Rakesh B; Herlihy, J Patrick; Berkowitz, Richard L; Belfort, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism is a leading cause of maternal mortality in developed countries. Our understanding of risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis is hampered by a lack of uniform clinical case definition; neither histologic nor laboratory findings have been identified unique to this condition. Amniotic fluid embolism is often overdiagnosed in critically ill peripartum women, particularly when an element of coagulopathy is involved. Previously proposed case definitions for amniotic fluid embolism are nonspecific, and when viewed through the eyes of individuals with experience in critical care obstetrics, would include women with a number of medical conditions much more common than amniotic fluid embolism. We convened a working group under the auspices of a committee of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine and the Amniotic Fluid Embolism Foundation whose task was to develop uniform diagnostic criteria for the research reporting of amniotic fluid embolism. These criteria rely on the presence of the classic triad of hemodynamic and respiratory compromise accompanied by strictly defined disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. It is anticipated that limiting research reports involving amniotic fluid embolism to women who meet these criteria will enhance the validity of published data and assist in the identification of risk factors, effective treatments, and possibly useful biomarkers for this condition. A registry has been established in conjunction with the Perinatal Research Branch of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to collect both clinical information and laboratory specimens of women with suspected amniotic fluid embolism in the hopes of identifying unique biomarkers of this condition.

  13. The role of amniotic fluid in force transfer during human birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Alexa; Lehn, Andrea; Leftwich, Megan

    2013-11-01

    This study seeks to understand the fundamental fluid dynamic processes involved in human birth. We begin by examining the importance of amniotic fluid. This is done using two experimental techniques that approximate the laboring human uterus to different degrees of anatomical correctness. The first, in which a latex uterus is filled with fluid and a solid fetus is extracted, investigates the importance of both amniotic fluid properties and fetal position in the force required to remove a fetus. The second experiment simplifies the geometry of birth even more. In this case, a solid cylindrical rod is pulled through a highly flexible outer tube. The force to pull the inner cylinder as a function of the gap fluid properties is measured. By carefully controlling the fluid properties of the experiment, the study will provide further insight into the roles of amniotic fluid in human birth.

  14. Amniotic fluid elicits appetitive responses in human newborns: fatty acids and appetitive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Carlos M; Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Mendoza-López, Remedios; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Bernal-Morales, Blandina; Díaz-Marte, Cynthia

    2013-04-01

    In humans, maternal cues guide newborns to the maternal breast, and transitional cues may be present in maternal-fetal fluids. The aim of the present study was to determine the consistent presence of sensorial cues in three maternal-fetal fluids--amniotic fluid, colostrum, and milk--and test the ability of these cues to produce appetitive responses in newborns. In the analytical study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detected eight fatty acids consistently present in the amniotic fluid, colostrum, and milk from 12 healthy volunteers, but we do not find a mammalian pheromone, identified in another mammalian species (rabbits), in another 30 volunteers. In the behavioral study, we explored the ability of amniotic fluid or its fatty acids to produce appetitive responses in 19 human newborns fluid or an artificial fatty acid mixture produced a longer duration of facial reactions that suggested appetitive (sucking) movements compared with respective vehicles (i.e., propylene glycol or centrifuged amniotic fluid with a low fatty acid content verified by GC-MS). We conclude that the fatty acids contained in amniotic fluid may constitute a transitional sensorial cue that guides newborns to the maternal breast.

  15. Satellited 4q identified in amniotic fluid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, I.; Hsieh, C.L.; Songster, G. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-16

    Extra material was identified on the distal long arm of a chromosome 4 in an amniotic fluid specimen sampled at 16.6 weeks of gestational age. There was no visible loss of material from chromosome 4, and no evidence for a balanced rearrangement. The primary counseling issue in this case was advanced maternal age. Ultrasound findings were normal, and family history was unremarkable. The identical 4qs chromosome was observed in cells from a paternal peripheral blood specimen and appeared to be an unbalanced rearrangement. This extra material was NOR positive in lymphocytes from the father, but was negative in the fetal amniocytes. Father`s relatives were studied to verify the familial origin of this anomaly. In situ hybridization with both exon and intron sequences of ribosomal DNA demonstrated that ribosomal DNA is present at the terminus of the 4qs chromosome in the fetus, father, and paternal grandmother. This satellited 4q might have been derived from a translocation event that resulted in very little or no loss from the 4q and no specific phenotype. This derivative chromosome 4 has been inherited through at least 3 generations of phenotypically normal individuals. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Prenatal toxoplasmosis diagnosis from amniotic fluid by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidigal Paula Vieira Teixeira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common infections all over the world. Most cases are asymptomatic, except in immunosuppressed individuals and fetuses, which can be seriously damaged. Prenatal diagnosis should be made as soon as possible since treatment of the mother can minimize fetal sequelae. Our aim in this study was to test the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR in 86 samples of amniotic fluid from women who seroconverted during pregnancy. DNA was amplified using external primers and, in a second step, internal primers, in a nested PCR system. Samples were also inoculated into mice and the newborn were evaluated by T. gondii serology, skull x-ray, transfontanel ultrasound, fundoscopic examination, lumbar puncture and clinical examination. PCR was positive in seven cases and negative in 79. Among PCR-positive cases, two were negative by inoculation into mice and by clinical evaluation; among PCR-negative ones, three had clinical evidence of toxoplasmosis and one was positive after inoculation into mice. PCR showed values of sensitivity = 62.5% and specificity = 97.4%; the values of inoculation into mice where 42.9% and 100%, respectively. Although PCR should not be used alone for prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis, it is a promising method and deserves more studies to improve its efficacy.

  17. Adaptation of group A Streptococcus to human amniotic fluid.

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    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For more than 100 years, group A Streptococcus has been identified as a cause of severe and, in many cases, fatal infections of the female urogenital tract. Due to advances in hospital hygiene and the advent of antibiotics, this type of infection has been virtually eradicated. However, within the last three decades there has been an increase in severe intra- and post-partum infections attributed to GAS. METHODOLOGY: We hypothesized that GAS alters its transcriptome to survive in human amniotic fluid (AF and cause disease. To identify genes that were up or down regulated in response to growth in AF, GAS was grown in human AF or standard laboratory media (THY and samples for expression microarray analysis were collected during mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic, and stationary growth phases. Microarray analysis was performed using a custom Affymetrix chip and normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates were collected at each growth point. Ratios of AF/THY above a 2-fold change and P-value <0.05 were considered significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The majority of changes in the GAS transcriptome involved down regulation of multiple adhesins and virulence factors and activation of the stress response. We observed significant changes in genes involved in the arginine deiminase pathway and in the nucleotide de novo synthesis pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides new insight into how pathogenic bacteria respond to their environment to establish infection and cause disease.

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Amniotic Fluid to Identify Women with Preterm Labor and Intra-amniotic Inflammation/Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Rogers, Wade T.; Moser, Allan; Nien, Jyh Kae; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Erez, Offer; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Sam; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Examination of the amniotic fluid proteome has been used to identify biomarkers for intra-amniotic inflammation, as well as those that may be useful in predicting the outcome of preterm labor. The purpose of this study was to combine a novel computational method of pattern discovery with mass spectrometric proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid to discover biomarkers of intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI). Methods This cross-sectional study included patients with spontaneous preterm labor and intact membranes who delivered at term (n=59) and those who delivered preterm with IAI (n=60). Proteomic profiling was performed using SELDI mass spectrometry. A proteomic profile was acquired through multiple simultaneous SELDI conditions which were combined in a single proteomic “fingerprint” using a novel computational approach. Classification of patients based on their associated SELDI-TOF mass spectra as belonging to either the class of individuals with preterm delivery with IAI or term delivery was accomplished by constructing an empirical model. The first phase in the construction of this empirical model involved the selection of adjustable parameters utilizing a training/testing subset of data. The second phase tested the generalization of the model by utilizing a blinded validation set of patients who were not employed in parameter selection. Results Gestational age at amniocentesis was not significantly different between the groups. Thirty-nine unique mass spectrometric peaks discriminated patients with preterm labor/delivery with IAI from those with preterm labor and term delivery. In the testing/training dataset, the classification accuracies (averaged over 100 random draws) were: 91.4% (40.2/44) for patients with preterm delivery with IAI, and 91.2% (40.1/44) for term delivery. The overall accuracy of the classification of patients in the validation dataset was 90.3% (28/31). Conclusions Proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid allowed the

  19. Proteomic profiling of the amniotic fluid to detect inflammation, infection, and neonatal sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin S Buhimschi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid shows the presence of biomarkers characteristic of intrauterine inflammation. We sought to validate prospectively the clinical utility of one such proteomic profile, the Mass Restricted (MR score. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled 169 consecutive women with singleton pregnancies admitted with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. All women had a clinically indicated amniocentesis to rule out intra-amniotic infection. A proteomic fingerprint (MR score was generated from fresh samples of amniotic fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization (SELDI mass spectrometry. Presence or absence of the biomarkers of the MR score was interpreted in relationship to the amniocentesis-to-delivery interval, placental inflammation, and early-onset neonatal sepsis for all neonates admitted to the Newborn Special Care Unit (n = 104. Women with "severe" amniotic fluid inflammation (MR score of 3 or 4 had shorter amniocentesis-to-delivery intervals than women with "no" (MR score of 0 inflammation or even "minimal" (MR score of 1 or 2 inflammation (median [range] MR 3-4: 0.4 d [0.0-49.6 d] versus MR 1-2: 3.8 d [0.0-151.2 d] versus MR 0: 17.0 d [0.1-94.3 d], p 100 cells/mm3, whereas the combination of Gram stain and MR score was best for rapid prediction of intra-amniotic infection (positive amniotic fluid culture. CONCLUSIONS: High MR scores are associated with preterm delivery, histological chorioamnionitis, and early-onset neonatal sepsis. In this study, proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid was shown to be the most accurate test for diagnosis of intra-amniotic inflammation, whereas addition of the MR score to the Gram stain provides the best combination of tests to rapidly predict infection.

  20. Amniotic fluid iodine concentrations do not vary in pregnant women with varying iodine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Gallo, Manuel; García, Laureano; Prieto, Stephanie; Alcaide-Torres, Javier; Santiago, Piedad; Velasco, Inés; Soriguer, Federico

    2008-06-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important clinical and public health problem. Its prevention begins with an adequate intake of iodine during pregnancy. International agencies recommend at least 200 microg iodine per d for pregnant women. We assessed whether iodine concentrations in the amniotic fluid of healthy pregnant women are independent of iodine intake. This cross-sectional, non-interventional study included 365 consecutive women who underwent amniocentesis to determine the fetal karyotype. The amniocentesis was performed with abdominal antisepsis using chlorhexidine. The iodine concentration was measured in urine and amniotic fluid. The study variables were the intake of iodized salt and multivitamin supplements or the prescription of a KI supplement. The mean level of urinary iodine was 139.0 (SD 94.5) microg/l and of amniotic fluid 15.81 (SD 7.09) microg/l. The women who consumed iodized salt and those who took a KI supplement had significantly higher levels of urinary iodine than those who did not (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). The urinary iodine levels were not significantly different in the women who took a multivitamin supplement compared with those who did not take this supplement, independently of iodine concentration or multivitamin supplement. The concentrations of iodine in the amniotic fluid were similar, independent of the dietary iodine intake. Urine and amniotic fluid iodine concentrations were weakly correlated, although the amniotic fluid values were no higher in those women taking a KI supplement. KI prescription at recommended doses increases the iodine levels in the mother without influencing the iodine levels in the amniotic fluid.

  1. Amniotic Fluid Metabolomic Analysis in Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janice; Gunst, Phillip R.; Kacerovsky, Marian; Fortunato, Stephen J.; Saade, George R.; Basraon, Sanmaan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify metabolic changes associated with early spontaneous preterm birth (PTB; term births, using high-throughput metabolomics of amniotic fluid (AF) in African American population. Method: In this study, AF samples retrieved from spontaneous PTB (term birth (n = 25) by transvaginal amniocentesis at the time of labor prior to delivery were subjected to metabolomics analysis. Equal volumes of samples were subjected to a standard solvent extraction method and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography/MS/MS. Biochemicals were identified through matching of ion features to a library of biochemical standards. After log transformation and imputation of minimum observed values for each compound, t test, correlation tests, and false discovery rate corrections were used to identify differentially regulated metabolites. Data were controlled for clinical/demographic variables and medication during pregnancy. Results: Of 348 metabolites measured in AF samples, 121 metabolites had a gestational age effect and 116 differed significantly between PTB and term births. A majority of significantly altered metabolites could be classified into 3 categories, namely, (1) liver function, (2) fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoA) metabolism, and (3) histidine metabolism. The signature of altered liver function was apparent in many cytochrome P450-related pathways including bile acids, steroids, xanthines, heme, and phase II detoxification of xenobiotics with the largest fold change seen with pantothenol, a CoA synthesis inhibitor that was 8-fold more abundant in PTB. Conclusion: Global metabolic profiling of AF revealed alteration in hepatic metabolites involving xenobiotic detoxification and CoA metabolism in PTB. Maternal and/or fetal hepatic function differences may be developmentally related and its contribution PTB as a cause or effect of PTB is still unclear. PMID:24440995

  2. Amniotic fluid volume and composition after fetal membrane resection in late-gestation sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Robert A; Cheung, Cecilia Y

    2011-11-01

    The chronically catheterized fetal sheep is a widely used model for fetal physiologic and pathophysiologic investigations. Catheterization involves opening the amniochorion to gain access to the fetus. In the current study, we explored the role of the amnion and amniochorion in maintaining normal amniotic fluid volume (AFV) and composition and fetal blood-gas status after surgery. Fetal sheep were catheterized at 119.6 ± 0.3 (mean ± SE, n = 25) d gestation (term, approximately 147 d). An opening equal to approximately 5% of total membrane surface area was created by resecting a portion of the amnion or amniochorion during surgery. The uterine wall was closed in all animals. Compared with control sheep (AFV = 992 ± 153 mL, n = 11), resection of the amnion had no significant effect on AFV (745 ± 156 mL, n = 7) measured 5 d after surgery, whereas resection of the amniochorion resulted in extensive loss of amniotic fluid (AFV = 131 ± 38 mL, n = 7). This loss resulted from extensive entry of amniotic fluid into the space between the chorion and uterine wall. Amniotic fluid, fetal plasma, and urinary solute concentrations; arterial pH; oxygen tension; and carbon dioxide tension were unchanged. A small opening in the amnion has minimal effects on ovine AFV, whereas a small opening in the amniochorion results in oligohydramnios. In addition, the amnion appears to be the primary site that limits the rate of amniotic fluid absorption by the chorionic vasculature.

  3. Changes of Nerve Growth Factor in Amniotic Fluid and Correlation with Ventriculomegaly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan Xia; Xing-hua Huang; Yi-xin Xia; Wei-hua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect the change of nerve growth iactor (NGF) level in human amniotic fluid during gestation, and to explore the relationship between this change and fetal ventriculomegaly (VM). Methods The studied subjects (collected from 2004 to 2007) were divided into four groups, including the second-trimester pregnancy group (n=113), third-trimester pregnancy group (n= 110), fetal cerebral VM group (n= 12), and health), control group (n= 12) which matched with the VM group in gestational weeks. The amniotic fluid specimens were obtained during amniocentesis or cesarean section. The NGF levels in amniotic fluid were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results A significantly negative correlation was found between gestational age and the NGF level in amniotic fluid (r=-0.6149, P<0.0001). The NGF level in patients with fetal VM was significantly lower than that in healthy controls (33.95+29.24 pg/mL vs. 64.73+ 16.21 pg/mL, P=0.024). Conclusion NGF levels in amniotic fluid may be a sensitive marker for fetal VM.

  4. Pathogenesis and management of peripartum coagulopathic calamities (disseminated intravascular coagulation and amniotic fluid embolism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Acute coagulopathic peripartum calamities are relatively rare but contribute importantly to maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Abruptio placenta, amniotic fluid embolism, and retained fetal or placental material may lead to fulminant intravascular activation of coagulation which results in thromboembolic complications and consumption coagulopathy causing severe hemorrhage. The central underlying pathophysiological pathway in the coagulopathy associated with these syndromes is the occurrence of tissue factor, released from the placenta and amniotic fluid, in the circulation, in combination with low levels of physiological anticoagulant factors during pregnancy. The diagnosis of DIC may be made trough conventional composite scoring systems employing routine coagulation tests, whereas for the diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism measurement of insulin like growth factor binding protein-1 seems promising. Therapy is aimed at removing the precipitating factor combined with supportive adjunctive treatment options.

  5. AMNIOTIC FLUID STEM CELLS: THE KNOWN, THE UNKNOWN AND POTENTIAL REGENERATIVE MEDICINE APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P; De Coppi, Paolo

    2016-12-23

    The amniotic fluid has been identified as an untapped source of cells with broad potential, which possess immunomodulatory properties and don't have the ethical and legal limitations of embryonic stem cells. CD117(c-Kit)+ cells selected from amniotic fluid have been shown to differentiate into cell lineages representing all three embryonic germ layers without generating tumours, making them ideal candidates for regenerative medicine applications. Moreover, their ability to engraft in injured organs and modulate immune and repair responses of host tissues, suggest that transplantation of such cells may be useful for the treatment of various degenerative and inflammatory diseases. Although significant questions remain regarding the origin, heterogeneous phenotype and expansion potential of amniotic fluid stem cells, evidence to date supports their potential role as a valuable stem cell source for the field of regenerative medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Stem Cells in Amniotic Fluid - What are the Next Steps to Do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengstschläger M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is the hope of patients and investigators that in future the characterisation and isolation of human stem cells will allow the establishment of new therapeutic concepts for a wide variety of diseases. Recently, we found a new source for stem cells. Human amniotic fluid contains cells, which express Oct-4, a marker for pluripotent stem cells. In addition, we described amniotic fluid cells expressing markers for neuronal stem cells. The latter harbour the potential to differentiate into neurogenic cells. This opened a new field in stem cell research. In this review I want to summarise the current knowledge about amniotic fluid cells focusing on the open questions, which need to be investigated in future.

  7. LIF analysis of cervical mucus and amniotic fluid for maturity monitoring in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, Aurelija; Auksorius, Egidijus; Ramasauskaite, Diana; Smilgeviciute, Ale; Tamasauskas, Oldas; Vanseviciute, Rasa; Veleckas, Doras

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of autoflorescence spectroscopy in the diagnosis of cervix maturity through cervical mucus florescence and foetal lung maturity through amniotic fluid fluorescence. LED and broadband Mercury light were used to induce fluorescence in cervical mucus and amniotic fluid respectively. Mature specimens compared to immature ones showed a significant decrease in cervical mucus fluorescence values measured at 420 nm (p = 0.0004) and in measured amniotic fluid fluorescence values at 410 nm (p = 0.0686). Probability-based classification algorithm was developed to identify samples 'maturity' through analysis of the fluorescence spectra. Employing fluorescence intensity at 420 nm for cervix maturity diagnosis rendered optimal sensitivity of 92.9%, specificity of 83.3% and area under the ROC curve of 91.1%.

  8. [Ultrasonographic density of amniotic fluid and its correlation with fetal pulmonary maturity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gutiérrez, G; Avelar-Jaime, R

    1996-07-01

    In order to determine if the amniotic fluid density is correlated with fetal lung maturity, we carried out a prospective study in the Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia del Centro Médico León del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. One hundred and forty one patients with pregnancies between 13 and 41 gestation weeks were included. The amniotic fluid density was calculated by counting the level of echoes (free-floating particles) in the amniotic fluid. We found a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between the level of echoes and the gestation age, nevertheless, the correlation coefficient was very low (R = 0.28), therefore we concluded that this procedure is not a reliable predictor of fetal lung maturity.

  9. Amniotic fluid and colostrum as potential diets in the critical care of preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Viberg Østergaard, Mette; Torp Sangild, Per

    2015-01-01

    be species independent, maybe allowing colostrum from one species (i.e., lactating cows) to be used as the first enteral diet for infants for whom mother’s milk is lacking. The use of amniotic fluid and bovine colostrum in the critical care of neonates is still at an experimental stage, but animal studies......Amniotic fluid is the enteral “diet” of the developing fetus, while the first mammary gland secretion, colostrum, is the natural diet of the newborn mammal. Both diets contain nutrients but also growth factors, immune-modulating components, and antibacterial agents that support perinatal organ...... development, particularly of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Birth requires a sudden transition to nutrient uptake via the GI tract and exposure to microorganisms. Ingestion of amniotic fluid before birth and of colostrum just after birth helps to adapt GI functions and provides protection against...

  10. Contribution of neonatal amniotic fluid testing to diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filisetti, Denis; Yera, Hélène; Villard, Odile; Escande, Benoît; Wafo, Estelle; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Delhaes, Laurence; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the molecular diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) on neonatal amniotic fluid samples from 488 mother-child pairs. Maternal infection during pregnancy was diagnosed and dated or could not be ruled out. Forty-six cases of CT were defined according to the European Research Network on CT classification system and case definitions. Neonatal amniotic fluid testing had an overall sensitivity of 54% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 39 to 69%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 99 to 100%). Its sensitivity was 33% (95% CI, 13 to 59%) when antenatal diagnosis was positive and 68% (95% CI, 48 to 84%) when antenatal diagnosis was negative or lacking. This difference in sensitivity may have been due to treatment of antenatally diagnosed cases. Relative to postnatal serology, neonatal amniotic fluid testing allowed an earlier diagnosis to be made in 26% of the cases (95% CI, 9 to 51%).

  11. Observations on the alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme distribution in maternal and amniotic fluid compartments in Nigerian parturients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpere, E; Okorodudu, A; Gbinigie, O

    1988-01-01

    Estimation of the alkaline phosphates isoenzymes in paired maternal serum and amniotic fluids in term uncomplicated pregnancies and in patients with pre-eclampsia, showed poor correlation coefficients between the levels of both heat stable and heat labile isoenzymes. There was a statistically significant fall in AF (P less than .05) HSAP in pre-eclampsia and a highly significant rise of HLAP in meconial liquor. It is concluded that the poor correlation between the levels of HSAP in maternal serum and amniotic fluid (despite their common source of origin), the normal levels of HLAP in maternal serum in the presence of significantly high levels of HSAP in maternal serum in the presence of significantly diminished levels in amniotic fluid point to a state of relatively diminished permeability of the chorioamniotic membranes to the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in Nigerians.

  12. Hypoxanthine in fetal umbilical venous blood and amniotic fluid from pregnancies complicated by rhesus isoimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangenberg, M; Legarth, J; Hong-Lie, C; Lingman, G; Persson, B; Rahman, F; Westgren, M

    1993-09-01

    Concentrations of hypoxanthine (HX) was determined in umbilical venous blood and amniotic fluid obtained at 74 instances in 36 rhesus immunized patients before the onset of labor. HX concentrations were related to gestational age, concentrations of hemoglobin and lactate, pH, and partial oxygen pressure in umbilical venous blood. Multiple regression analysis revealed hemoglobin concentration to be the only variable that had any explanatory power to HX in amniotic fluid. No one of the studied variables gave any significant contribution to a regression model to explain HX in umbilical venous blood. We conclude that HX levels in umbilical venous blood and in amniotic fluid from rhesus immunized patients were not associated with fetal blood gases before the onset of labor.

  13. Human amniotic fluid derived cells can competently substitute dermal fibroblasts in a tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Hosper, Nynke; Luginbuehl, Joachim; Biedermann, Thomas; Reichmann, Ernst; Meuli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. In this experimental study, we investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid derived cells to substitute dermal fibroblasts and support epidermis formati

  14. Fluorescence polarization of amniotic fluid to assess fetal lung maturity in high risk pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Gantus Simão Stefano

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and thepositive and negative predictive values of amniotic fluidfluorescence polarization for neonatal respiratory distresssyndrome in high risk pregnancies. Methods: A prospectivedescriptive study of 54 patients with high risk pregnancies. Fetallung maturity was assessed using amniotic fluid florescencepolarization obtained by amniocentesis up to 72 hours beforedelivery. Respiratory distress syndrome, stratified by gestationalage at birth, was the primary outcome analyzed. Amniotic fluidfluorescence polarization values equal to or over 50 mg/g (indicatingfetal lung maturity were considered as negative results. Results:The mean gestational age at birth was 35 weeks (SD 2.0.Respiratory distress syndrome was seen in 14 newborns(24%. Amniotic fluid fluorescence polarization had high sensitivity(86% and specificity (81%, with 14% false-negative and 19% falsepositiveresults. The positive predictive value was 60% and thenegative predictive value was 94%. The area under the ROC curveindicated the 50 mg/g albumin/surfactant ratio as the best cutoffpoint (85% sensitivity and 81% specificity. Conclusion: A negativevalue in amniotic fluid fluorescence polarization (results equal toor over 50 mg/g confirms lung maturity which translates into avery low risk of a newborn developing respiratory distresssyndrome in high risk pregnancies.

  15. Amniotic fluid sludge as a marker of intra-amniotic infection and histological chorioamnionitis in cervical insufficiency: a report of four cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, Cristina; Moreno, Esther; Gonzales, Ariel; Fabre, Ernesto; González de Agüero, Rafael; Oros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid sludge (AFS) is defined as the presence of particulate matter in the amniotic fluid in close proximity to the cervix. Although its prevalence is known to correlate with the risk of preterm delivery, initial reports describe a strong association between AFS and microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and histological chorioamnionitis. However, AFS is also present in uncomplicated pregnancies, and its prevalence appears to increase with gestational age. Recent evidence debates the usefulness of AFS as a marker of early preterm delivery risk. We present four cases with AFS diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound at admission for cervical insufficiency between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation, with confirmed lower genital tract and intra-amniotic infections by amniocentesis and histological chorioamnionitis and funisitis. Our findings reinforce the presence of AFS as a useful marker of MIAC, chorioamnionitis and funisitis that increase the likelihood of preterm delivery at an extreme gestational age.

  16. Antioxidant Vitamin Status in the Serum and Amniotic Fluid of Women with Premature Rupture of the Fetal Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bridget M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of antioxidant vitamins in women with premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Specimens of blood and amniotic fluid were obtained from 80 pregnant subjects included both smokers and non-smokers during the third trimester. The concentrations of ascorbic acid (ASA), beta -carotene, retinol and alpha -tocopherol in serum and amniotic fluid were determined. The experimental group consisted of those subjects with PROM while the control subjects were those with normal pregnancy. No statistical differences were found between the PROM and control groups in retinol and vitamin E concentrations in amniotic fluid and serum. Serum ASA concentrations of PROM subjects were not different from controls, but the PROM subjects had significantly lower amniotic fluid ASA concentrations. However, in a study with fewer subjects a lower serum ASA concentration in the PROM subjects was observed. The ratio of amniotic fluid ASA concentration to ASA serum concentration was significantly lower in PROM patients than in controls in both studies. This suggests that low levels of ASA in the amniotic fluid, but not in serum is better associated with PROM. A low amniotic fluid concentration of ASA may reflect an inefficient transfer and/or increased fetal utilization. Alterations in ASA concentration in the amniotic fluid may affect the integrity of the chorioamnion leading to PROM. beta -Carotene was not found in the amniotic fluid. Serum beta-carotene levels were significantly lower in the PROM group compared to the control group. Low concentrations of beta-carotene in maternal serum in smokers not only associated with poor maternal outcome (PROM) but also compromised the fetal outcome (decreased birth weight). Maintenance of adequate serum beta-carotene concentration and amniotic fluid ASA in smokers may result in better maternal and fetal outcome. This study demonstrated that nutrition is an important factor in the prevention of PROM.

  17. Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells and Their Application in Cell-Based Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in stem cell biotechnology hold great promise in the field of tissue engineering andregenerative medicine. Of interest are marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, embryonic stemcells (ESCs, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. In addition, amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCshave attracted attention as a viable choice following the search for an alternative stem cellsource. Investigators are interested in these cells because they come from the amniotic fluid that isroutinely discarded after birth. There have been multiple investigations conducted worldwide in anattempt to better understand AF-SCs in terms of their potential use in regenerative medicine. In thisreview we give a brief introduction of amniotic fluid followed by a description of the cells presentwithin this fluid. Their history related to stem cell discovery in the amniotic fluid as well as themain characteristics of AF-SCs are discussed. Finally, we elaborate on the potential for these cellsto promote regeneration of various tissue defects, including fetal tissue, the nervous system, heart,lungs, kidneys, bones, and cartilage.

  18. Lamotrigine in pregnancy - therapeutic drug monitoring in maternal blood, amniotic fluid, and cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulzen, Michael; Lammertz, Sarah E; Veselinovic, Tanja; Goecke, Tamme W; Hiemke, Christoph; Gründer, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    This study is the first to measure and correlate lamotrigine concentrations in maternal blood, amniotic fluid, and umbilical cord blood and account for distribution of the drug between these three compartments. Concentrations of lamotrigine were measured in six mother-infant pairs at the time of delivery. Daily doses of lamotrigine ranged between 200 and 650 mg. Daily doses were correlated with maternal serum and umbilical cord blood concentrations, and serum levels were correlated with levels in amniotic fluid. Lamotrigine levels in serum correlated strongly with the lamotrigine levels in amniotic fluid (r=+0.986, Pamniotic fluid was in a range between 0.31 and 0.75 (mean 0.58, SD 0.17); the penetration ratio into the fetal circulation, calculated on the basis of umbilical cord blood levels, was found to be in a range between 0.48 and 1.27 (mean 0.81, SD 0.28). Lamotrigine concentrations in amniotic fluid provided evidence that maternally administered lamotrigine is accessible to the fetus in a manner not previously appreciated. Furthermore, the penetration ratio into umbilical cord blood calculated here is in line with the largest study carried out so far to explore transplacental transfer.

  19. Relationship Between Ultrasound Estimated Amniotic Fluid Index and Fetal Weight in Healthy Pregnant African Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola A Adeyekun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fetal weight (FW estimation in late pregnancy is an important guide in obstetric care. Amniotic fluid protects the fetus against traumatic and infective insults. There possibly exists a relationship between FW and amniotic fluid index (AFI that can be estimated by ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-eight low-risk pregnancies were prospectively studied by means of ultrasound over a 12-month period. FW was estimated using a combination of fetal parameters; bi-parietal diameter, fetal trunk cross sectional area, and femur length. AFI was assessed using the 4-quadrant method. Spearman′s correlation was used to test possible relationship between amniotic fluid indices and estimated FW pairs. The level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The mean AF1 and estimated fetal weight (EFW pairs were as follows: at 27-29 weeks the values were 172.1 mm and 1,250.2 g; at 30-32 weeks AF1 and EFW values were 170.3 mm and 1,648.0 g; at 33-35 weeks values were 162.3 mm and 2,273.5 g; at 36-38 weeks values were 144.09 mm and 2,906.1 g; at 39-40 weeks AF1 and EFW values were 125.0 mm and 3,222.6 g. Overall, there was no statistically significant relationship between AFI and EFW ( P > 0.05; r = 0.241. Conclusion: While FW calculations and amniotic index showed variations in value in late pregnancy, there does not appear to be a linear relationship between ultrasound estimate of FW and amniotic index. The implication of this is that fetal size need not be taken into cognizance when alterations in amniotic fluid values are noted.

  20. ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FETAL SERUM, AMNIOTIC-FLUID, AND MATERNAL SERUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLOON, AJ; MANTINGH, A; DEWOLF, BTHM; BREED, ASPM

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain more insight into the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and fetal chromosomal disorders, especially Down's syndrome, we measured AFP in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum at cordocentesis. We compared the concentration and gradient of AFP in these three compar

  1. [Assessment of AFP in amniotic fluid: comparison of three automated techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguy, Marie-Clémence; Tavares, Silvina Dos Reis; Tsatsaris, Vassili; Lewin, Fanny; Clauser, Eric; Guibourdenche, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound scanning is useful to detect neural tube defect (NTD) but scarcely distinguished between closed NTD and open NTD, which had very different prognosis. An amniotic fluid punction is thus mandatory to search for an increase in alpha foeto protein (AFP) levels and for the presence of acetylcholinesterase which identified open NTD. However, AFP levels fluctuate both with the gestational age and the assay used. Our aim was to establish normative values for AFP in amniotic fluid in the second half of pregnancy using three different immunoassays and to improve their clinical relevance. Amniotic fluid punctions were performed on 527 patients from 9 week of gestation (WG) to 37 WG either for maternal age, Trisomy 21 screening, increase in nucal translucency (control group, n = 527) or for suspicion of neural tube defect or abdominal defect (n = 5). AFP was measured using the immunoassay developed for serum AFP on the Access 2 system, the Immulite 2000 and the Advia Centaur. Results were expressed in ng/ml, multiple of the median (MoM) and percentiles. AFP decrease by 1.5 fold between 9 and 19 WG. When NTD was suspected, an increase in anmniotic AFP was observed (from 2.5 MoM to 9.3 MoM) confirming an open NTD. In conclusion, the assay developed on those 3 automates is suitable for the measurement of AFP in amniotic fluid.

  2. Stable isotope dilution analysis of orotic acid and uracil in amniotic fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobs, C.; Sweetman, L.; Nyhan, W.L.; Gruenke, L.; Craig, J.C.; Wadman, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    Rapid, sensitive and accurate stable isotope dilution assays were developed for the measurement of orotic acid and uracil in amniotic fluid. The method utilizes [15N2]orotic acid and [15N2]uracil as internal standards, isolation by liquid partition chromatography and quantitation by chemical ionizat

  3. Isolation of osteogenic progenitors from human amniotic fluid using a single step culture protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salini Vincenzo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cells isolated from amniotic fluid are known to be able to differentiate into different cells types, being thus considered as a potential tool for cellular therapy of different human diseases. In the present study, we report a novel single step protocol for the osteoblastic differentiation of human amniotic fluid cells. Results The described protocol is able to provide osteoblastic cells producing nodules of calcium mineralization within 18 days from withdrawal of amniotic fluid samples. These cells display a complete expression of osteogenic markers (COL1, ONC, OPN, OCN, OPG, BSP, Runx2 within 30 days from withdrawal. In order to test the ability of these cells to proliferate on surfaces commonly used in oral osteointegrated implantology, we carried out cultures onto different test disks, namely smooth copper, machined titanium and Sandblasted and Acid Etching titanium (SLA titanium. Electron microscopy analysis evidenced the best cell growth on this latter surface. Conclusion The described protocol provides an efficient and time-saving tool for the production of osteogenic cells from amniotic fluid that in the future could be used in oral osteointegrated implantology.

  4. Osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their bone regeneration potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipino, Caterina; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2015-05-26

    In orthopedics, tissue engineering approach using stem cells is a valid line of treatment for patients with bone defects. In this context, mesenchymal stromal cells of various origins have been extensively studied and continue to be a matter of debate. Although mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow are already clinically applied, recent evidence suggests that one may use mesenchymal stromal cells from extra-embryonic tissues, such as amniotic fluid, as an innovative and advantageous resource for bone regeneration. The use of cells from amniotic fluid does not raise ethical problems and provides a sufficient number of cells without invasive procedures. Furthermore, they do not develop into teratomas when transplanted, a consequence observed with pluripotent stem cells. In addition, their multipotent differentiation ability, low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory properties make them ideal candidates for bone regenerative medicine. We here present an overview of the features of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their potential in the osteogenic differentiation process. We have examined the papers actually available on this regard, with particular interest in the strategies applied to improve in vitro osteogenesis. Importantly, a detailed understanding of the behavior of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their osteogenic ability is desirable considering a feasible application in bone regenerative medicine.

  5. Amniotic fluid RNA gene expression profiling provides insights into the phenotype of Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingham, Lauren J; Johnson, Kirby L; Scholl, Thomas M; Slonim, Donna K; Wick, Heather C; Bianchi, Diana W

    2014-09-01

    Turner syndrome is a sex chromosome aneuploidy with characteristic malformations. Amniotic fluid, a complex biological material, could contribute to the understanding of Turner syndrome pathogenesis. In this pilot study, global gene expression analysis of cell-free RNA in amniotic fluid supernatant was utilized to identify specific genes/organ systems that may play a role in Turner syndrome pathophysiology. Cell-free RNA from amniotic fluid of five mid-trimester Turner syndrome fetuses and five euploid female fetuses matched for gestational age was extracted, amplified, and hybridized onto Affymetrix(®) U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Significantly differentially regulated genes were identified using paired t tests. Biological interpretation was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and BioGPS gene expression atlas. There were 470 statistically significantly differentially expressed genes identified. They were widely distributed across the genome. XIST was significantly down-regulated (p Turner syndrome transcriptome from other aneuploidies we previously studied. Manual curation of the differentially expressed gene list identified genes of possible pathologic significance, including NFATC3, IGFBP5, and LDLR. Transcriptomic differences in the amniotic fluid of Turner syndrome fetuses are due to genome-wide dysregulation. The hematologic/immune system differences may play a role in early-onset autoimmune dysfunction. Other genes identified with possible pathologic significance are associated with cardiac and skeletal systems, which are known to be affected in females with Turner syndrome. The discovery-driven approach described here may be useful in elucidating novel mechanisms of disease in Turner syndrome.

  6. Catalytic ferrous iron in amniotic fluid as a predictive marker of human maternal-fetal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuka; Mukaide, Takahiro; Jiang, Li; Kotani, Tomomi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Mano, Yukio; Sumigama, Seiji; Hirayama, Tasuku; Nagasawa, Hideko; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic fluid contains numerous biomolecules derived from fetus and mother, thus providing precious information on pregnancy. Here, we evaluated oxidative stress of human amniotic fluid and measured the concentration of catalytic Fe(II). Amniotic fluid samples were collected with consent from a total of 89 subjects in Nagoya University Hospital, under necessary medical interventions: normal pregnancy at term, normal pregnancy at the 2nd trimester, preterm delivery with maternal disorders but without fetal disorders, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, fetal growth restriction, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome and trisomy 18. Catalytic Fe(II) and oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG; dityrosine) were determined with RhoNox-1 and specific antibodies, respectively, using plate assays. Levels of 8-OHdG and dityrosine were higher in the 3rd trimester compared with the 2nd trimester in normal subjects, and the abnormal groups generally showed lower levels than the controls, thus suggesting that they represent fetal metabolic activities. In contrast, catalytic Fe(II) was higher in the 2nd trimester than the 3rd trimester in the normal subjects, and overall the abnormal groups showed higher levels than the controls, suggesting that high catalytic Fe(II) at late gestation reflects fetal pathologic alterations. Notably, products of H2O2 and catalytic Fe(II) remained almost constant in amniotic fluid.

  7. [Spectrophotometric characteristics of the amniotic fluid in Rh isoimmunization following intrauterine fetal blood transfusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrova, T S; Vasileva, Iu

    1989-01-01

    The amniotic fluids of 7 pregnant women with Rh-isoimmunization were examined. On the basis of the data of this investigation as well as of the clinical and ultrasound data intrauterine blood transfusions were made in fetuses--from 4 to 8 in number. Forty two spectrophotometric analyses were made in all, but the amniotic fluids were examined before intrauterine blood transfusions as well as before the performance of each subsequent blood transfusion. The authors found changes in the characteristic of the amniotic fluid after intrauterine blood transfusion, which were manifested by the fact that the pigment peak of delta 450 nm was reduced, but the peak of delta 410 nm was increased. In connection with these findings after intrauterine blood transfusions delta 450 nm lost its diagnostic and prognostic value. delta 410 nm before intrauterine blood transfusions manifested gravity of fetal hemolytic disease. After intrauterine blood transfusions its increase was due to blood transfusions and accumulation of methemoglobin in the amniotic fluid.

  8. The potential of mesenchymal stem cells derived from amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid for neuronal regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Kim, Min Kyu

    2014-03-01

    The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are derived from the mesoderm, are considered as a readily available source for tissue engineering. They have multipotent differentiation capacity and can be differentiated into various cell types. Many studies have demonstrated that the MSCs identified from amniotic membrane (AM-MSCs) and amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs) are shows advantages for many reasons, including the possibility of noninvasive isolation, multipotency, self-renewal, low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory and nontumorigenicity properties, and minimal ethical problem. The AF-MSCs and AM-MSCs may be appropriate sources of mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine, as an alternative to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Recently, regenerative treatments such as tissue engineering and cell transplantation have shown potential in clinical applications for degenerative diseases. Therefore, amnion and MSCs derived from amnion can be applied to cell therapy in neuro-degeneration diseases. In this review, we will describe the potential of AM-MSCs and AF-MSCs, with particular focus on cures for neuronal degenerative diseases.

  9. A new approach to the pathomechanism of amniotic fluid embolism:unknown role of amniotic cells in the induction of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mieczyslaw Uszyński; Waldemar Uszyński

    2012-01-01

    There are four concepts (theories) of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). The aim of the study was to perform their critical review and to popularize a novel integrated concept. We searched Medline (from its inception to 2011), using key words:amniotic fluid embolism, amniotic cells, tissue factor, leukotriene and microparticles. Articles most eligible for the study of etiopathomechanism of AFE were chosen by title and/or abstract contents. The analysis of the publications revealed that:(i) the integrated concept of AFE is an adequate tool to interpret the complication, being particularly useful for taking direct therapeutic decisions; (ii) disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in this complication is induced not by tissue factor (TF) of amniotic origin but by spectacular procoagulant activity of apoptosis-affected amniotic cells. Descriptions of molecular processes were provided. In clonclusioin, there are two independent pathways of AFE-the DIC pathway and the leukotriene pathway. It is not the TF but the apoptosis-affected amniotic cells that are responsible for the process of DIC in AFE. 3. One of the therapeutic conclusions of the new approach to the concept of AFE indicates that attempts to use heparin in AFE are justified (at the onset of the complication).

  10. Pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP1) in cultured amniotic fluid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, M; Wahlström, T; Aula, P; Virtanen, I; Seppälä, M

    1980-12-01

    The synthesis of pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP1) was studied in amniotic fluid cell cultures using RIA, immunoperoxidase, and immunofluorescence techniques. SP1 was found by RIA in all 11 sonicates and in 21 of 26 culture media. The SP1-immunoreactive material was immunologically similar to maternal serum SP1. Immunoperoxidase and indirect immunofluorescence staining were positive in large cells identified as epithelial amniotic cells by labeling with antikeratin antibodies. Fibroblast-like cells were occasionally found in cultures, but they did not contain demonstrable amounts of SP1. The physiological significance of the findings presented remains unclear.

  11. EVALUATION OF AMNIOT IC FLUID VOLUME AND ITS RELATION TO PERINATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amniotic fluid is an indicator of placental function on the fetal development. The AFI is the most commonly used method of measuring amniotic fluid. AIMS: We aimed to study the amniotic fluid volume in pregnancies beyond 34 weeks of gestation and to evalu ate the predictive value of amniotic fluid index (AFI 5 cm during one year from August 2013 to July 2014. The women's history, clinical examination recorded and AFI were measured using the Phelan's technique and the perinatal outcome compared between the two groups i.e. AFI 5cm. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi - square test was carried out at 5% (  =0.05 level of significance to analyze the collected data for final outcome. RESULTS: Labour was induced in 30% in group A as compared to 18% in group B. Induction of labour was significantly less in cases with AFI>5 cm of same gestational age group. The non - reassuring fetal heart rate were recorded more often in group A i.e. AFI < 5 cm. The incidence of meconium sta ining in caesarean section and low 5 min Apgar score was higher in patients with oligohydramnios i.e. AFI < 5 cm (p=0.015, 0.012, 0.027 respectively. There was no significant difference in NICU admissions and perinatal death between the two groups. CONCLUSIO N: Amniotic fluid index is a helpful tool in determining the high risk patients during labour and AFI < 5 cm is one of the indicators of comparatively poor perinatal outcome.

  12. Osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid mesenchymalstromal cells and their bone regeneration potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In orthopedics, tissue engineering approach usingstem cells is a valid line of treatment for patients withbone defects. In this context, mesenchymal stromalcells of various origins have been extensively studiedand continue to be a matter of debate. Although mesenchymalstromal cells from bone marrow are alreadyclinically applied, recent evidence suggests that one mayuse mesenchymal stromal cells from extra-embryonictissues, such as amniotic fluid, as an innovative andadvantageous resource for bone regeneration. Theuse of cells from amniotic fluid does not raise ethicalproblems and provides a sufficientnumber of cellswithout invasive procedures. Furthermore, they donot develop into teratomas when transplanted, aconsequence observed with pluripotent stem cells.In addition, their multipotent differentiation ability,low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory propertiesmake them ideal candidates for bone regenerativemedicine. We here present an overview of the featuresof amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and theirpotential in the osteogenic differentiation process.We have examined the papers actually availableonthis regard, with particular interest in the strategiesapplied to improve in vitro osteogenesis. Importantly, adetailed understanding of the behavior of amniotic fluidmesenchymal stromal cells and their osteogenic abilityis desirable considering a feasible application in boneregenerative medicine.

  13. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla;

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine......). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides...

  14. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Boberg, Julie; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides detected in urine demonstrated the exposure as well as the ability of the rat to excrete these compounds. PMID:23736656

  15. Association between fetal weight and amniotic fluid index in women of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Wadnere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The placenta is important for fetal growth and well-being. Defective placentation and impaired placental circulation may result in anomalies in fetal growth. Placental volume in the second trimester appears to be closely related to the neonatal weight. The association of body weight with urine output has been observed in human neonates. Our goal is to assess the association of the amniotic fluid index (AFI with the estimated fetal weight (EFW. Materials and Methods : Thirteen hundred and ninety-three pregnant women were prospectively studied by means of an ultrasound over a 12-month period. The fetal weight (FW was estimated using a combination of fetal parameters - bi-parietal diameter, fetal trunk cross-sectional area, and femur length. AFI was assessed using the four quadrant method. The level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Result s: There was no statistically significant association between AFI and EFW (P > 0.05; r = 0.413. We also did not find a significant association between AFI and EFW for all subdivisions of gestation age, except in the 24 - 28 weeks and 29 - 32 weeks′ groups. Conclusion : The FW calculations and amniotic index show a variation in values in late pregnancy. There does not appear to be a linear association between the ultrasound estimate of FW and the amniotic index. The implication of this is that the fetal size need not be taken into cognizance when alterations in amniotic fluid values are noted.

  16. [The imbalance of metal-containing proteins and free metal ions in the amniotic fluid during fetal growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelova, T N; Linde, V A; Gunko, V O; Selyutina, S N

    2016-01-01

    The levels of zinc, copper, iron, and magnesium ions, and some of their binding proteins have been investigated in an amniotic fluid under the fetal growth retardation (FGR). FGR, developed under conditions of placental insufficiency, is characterized by a decrease in the content of zinc, iron, and magnesium ions and by an increase in the copper content in the amniotic fluid in the II and III trimesters of pregnancy. During these trimesters the levels of ceruloplasmin, ferritin, and Ca2+,Mg2+-ATPase were lower in FGR, while the level of zinc-a-2-glycoprotein was higher than during the same periods of normal pregnancy. Changes in the parameters studied in the amniotic fluid were associated with developmental disorders of the newborns. These changes obviously have a pathogenetic importance in the development of FGR, and the levels of metal ions and their ratio in the amniotic fluid can be used as markers of the pre- and postnatal pathology.

  17. Characterisation of non-maternal serum proteins in amniotic fluid at weeks 16 to 18 of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drøhse, H; Christensen, H; Myrhøj, Vibeke;

    1998-01-01

    Proteins found in amniotic fluid are mainly serum proteins, probably of maternal origin. About 5% of the total protein concentration has the potential of being fetal or decidual in origin. Only a few of these proteins have been isolated and characterised. In order to describe the foetal...... and decidual components in amniotic fluid more extensively, a polyspecific antiserum to amniotic fluid at weeks 16-18 of gestation was raised. Specificities in the antiserum to serum proteins were removed by adsorption. Several proteins of non-serum protein origin reacted with the antiserum. Three...... of these proteins were chosen for isolation and further characterisation. With the use of immunological methods, SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing we identified two of the proteins as C-terminal propeptides of procollagen Type I and Type III, which have not hitherto been described in amniotic fluid. The third...

  18. A prospective study of 20 foot and ankle wounds treated with cryopreserved amniotic membrane and fluid allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Bruce; Martin, Erin

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the background information and previous clinical studies that considered the use of allogeneic amniotic tissue and fluid (granulized amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid) in the treatment of chronic diabetic foot wounds. This innovation represents a relatively new approach to wound management by delivering a unique allograft of live human cells in a nonimmunogenic structural tissue matrix. Developed to fill soft tissue defects and bone voids and to convey antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory capabilities, granulized amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid does not require fetal death, because its procurement is performed with maternal consent during birth. In the present investigation, 20 chronic wounds (20 patients) that had been treated with standard wound therapy for a mean of 36.6 ± 31.58 weeks and with a mean baseline area of 10.15 ± 19.54 cm(2) were followed up during a 12-week observation period or until they healed. A total of 18 of the wounds (90%) healed during the 12-week observation period, and none of the wounds progressed to amputation. From our experience with the patients in the present case series, we believe that granulized amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid represents a useful option for the treatment of chronic diabetic foot wounds.

  19. Human amniotic fluid derived cells can competently substitute dermal fibroblasts in a tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analog

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. In this experimental study, we investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid derived cells to substitute dermal fibroblasts and support epidermis formation and stratification in a humanized animal model. METHODS: Dermo-epidermal skin grafts with either amniocytes or with fibroblasts in the dermis were compared in a rat model. Full-thicknes...

  20. Induction of micronuclei, hyperdiploidy and chromosomal breakage affecting the centric/pericentric regions of chromosomes 1 and 9 in human amniotic fluid cells after treatment with asbestos and ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopp, E; Schuler, M; Schiffmann, D; Eastmond, D A

    1997-06-09

    This article describes the induction of micronuclei, hyperdiploidy and chromosome breakage in human amniotic cells in vitro by amosite, chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos, and ceramic fibers. The response of human (amniotic fluid cells) and rodent (Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts, SHE) cells to fiber treatment was compared using the micronucleus assay. The data of the rodent studies were taken from a previous investigation (Dopp, E. et al. (1995) Environ. Health Perspect., 103, 268-271). All types of mineral fibers caused a significant increase of micronucleated cells. The kinetochore analysis revealed that all three types of asbestos and ceramic fibers yielded similar effects. Approximately 50% of the induced micronuclei were kinetochore-negative indicating formation through clastogenic events. Human amniotic cells were much less susceptible than SHE cells to the induction of micronuclei by mineral fibers. This again demonstrates that SHE cells are more susceptible to chromosomal changes than human amniotic fluid cells. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with tandem DNA probes yielded more detailed information about specific structural chromosome aberrations in the 1 (cen-q12) and 9 (cen-q12) regions and about abnormal numbers of chromosomes in interphase human amniotic fluid cells. Using this FISH approach we found a statistically significant increase of chromosomal breakage in the pericentric heterochromatin regions of chromosomes 1 and 9 in interphase human amniotic cells after exposure to asbestos and ceramic fibers compared to control cells. The number of hyperdiploid cells was also significantly increased. Our results show that asbestos fibers as well as ceramic fibers are inducers of structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in human amniotic fluid cells.

  1. Use of low-frequency electrical impedance measurements to determine phospholipid content in amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, F.; Cametti, C.; Zimatore, G.; Maraviglia, B.; Pachi', A.

    1996-09-01

    In this report we propose a new method for an in vitro test of the foetal lung maturity based on the measurement of the electrical conductivity of the overall amniotic fluid obtained from transabdominal amniocentesis, since this quantity can be linked to a first approximation in a very simple way to the phospholipid content. We have carried out measurements of 85 different samples of amniotic fluid as a function of gestation weeks and we have observed a pronounced change of the electrical conductivity that reflects the increase in the phospholipid concentration occurring at the end of normal pregnancies. The method could be further developed to obtain similar information on in vivo experiments by means of bioelectric impedance tomography, taking advantage of the frequency dependence of the tissue electrical impedance.

  2. Chemical analysis of succinylacetone and 4-hydroxyphenyllactate in amniotic fluid using selective ion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobs, C; Sweetman, L; Nyhan, W L

    1984-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the concentration of succinylacetone and 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid in amniotic fluid was developed for the prenatal diagnosis of hereditary tyrosinemia. Succinylacetone was converted to 5-methyl-3-isoxazolepropionic acid and isolated with 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid by liquid partition chromatography and the trimethylsilyl derivatives quantified by ammonia chemical ionization selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with 2-hydroxy-n-caproic acid as the internal standard. The concentration of 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid in normal amniotic fluid was 1.97 +/- 0.75 (S.D.) mumol/l while succinylacetone was undetectable. A pregnancy at risk for tyrosinemia type II was monitored. The concentration of 4-hydroxyphenyllactic acid was within the normal range and a healthy child was born.

  3. [Imbalance of system of glutamin - glutamic acid in the placenta and amniotic fluid at placental insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelova, T N; Gunko, V O; Linde, V A

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of glutamine and glutamic acid has been investigated in the placenta and amniotic fluid under conditions of placental insufficiency. The development of placental insufficiency is characterized by the increased content of glutamic acid and a decrease of glutamine in both placenta and amniotic fluid. These changes changes were accompanied by changes in the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these amino acids. There was a decrease in glutamate dehydrogenase activity and an increase in glutaminase activity with the simultaneous decrease of glutamine synthetase activity. The compensatory decrease in the activity of glutamine keto acid aminotransferase did not prevent a decrease in the glutamine level. The impairments in the system glutamic acid-glutamine were more pronounced during the development of premature labor.

  4. Amniotic fluid embolism with involvement of the brain, lungs, adrenal glands, and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazic, J; Rott, T; Jancigaj, T; Popović, M; Zajfert-Slabe, M; Svigelj, V

    2003-06-01

    The case of a healthy 31-year-old woman in the 40th week of second pregnancy is presented. During preparation for an emergency caesarean section, she developed an amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) with unusual and unique features. The acute onset of disease with cardiorespiratory failure with hypotension, tachycardia, cyanosis, respiratory disturbances and loss of consciousness, suggested at first a pulmonary thromboembolism, but the appearance of convulsions led to the diagnosis of AFE. The patient died after 5 days due to an untreatable brain edema. At autopsy, AFE with the usually associated disseminated intravascular coagulation was found in the lungs, brain, left adrenal gland, kidneys, liver and heart. Eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrates were found in the lungs, hepatic portal fields and especially in the heart, suggesting a specific hypersensitivity reaction to fetal antigens. Moreover, intravascular accumulation of macrophages in the lungs also favored a non-specific immune reaction to amniotic fluid constituents.

  5. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in C57BL/6 mice detected through proteomics screening of the amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Susmita; Turner, Delano; Singh, Reetu; Ruest, L Bruno; Pierce, William M; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2008-04-01

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a severe consequence of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, is associated with craniofacial defects, mental retardation, and stunted growth. Previous studies in C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice provide evidence that alcohol-induced pathogenesis follows early changes in gene expression within specific molecular pathways in the embryonic headfold. Whereas the former (B6J) pregnancies carry a high-risk for dysmorphogenesis following maternal exposure to 2.9 g/kg alcohol (two injections spaced 4.0 h apart on gestation day 8), the latter (B6N) pregnancies carry a low-risk for malformations. The present study used this murine model to screen amniotic fluid for biomarkers that could potentially discriminate between FAS-positive and FAS-negative pregnancies. B6J and B6N litters were treated with alcohol (exposed) or saline (control) on day 8 of gestation. Amniotic fluid aspirated on day 17 (n = 6 replicate litters per group) was subjected to trypsin digestion for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry with the aid of denoising algorithms, statistical testing, and classification methods. We identified several peaks in the proteomics screen that were reduced consistently and specifically in exposed B6J litters. Preliminary characterization by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and multidimensional protein identification mapped the reduced peaks to alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The predictive strength of AFP deficiency as a biomarker for FAS-positive litters was confirmed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. : These findings in genetically susceptible mice support clinical observations in maternal serum that implicate a decrease in AFP levels following prenatal alcohol damage. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. A comparative study of the protein C system in mother's blood, cord blood and amniotic fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Zekanowska; Waldemar Uszyński; Mieczysław Uszyński; Jarosław Kuczyński; Marek Szymański

    2010-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is an important anticoagulant which plays a role in pathophysiology of pregnancy, e.g. in maintenance of the uteroplacental circulation and development of the fetus as well as in pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The study objective was to compare the levels of the respective components of the protein C system (protein C, PC; protein S, PS; thrombomodulin, TM) as well as thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor - TAFI in mother's blood, cord blood and amniotic fluid. ...

  7. Characteristics of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and their tropism to human ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liru Li

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF have become an attractive stem cells source for cell-based therapy because they can be harvested at low cost and avoid ethical disputes. In human research, stem cells derived from AF gradually became a hot research direction for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity and their tumor tropism regardless of the tumor size, location and source. Our work aimed to obtain and characterize human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs and detect their ovarian cancer tropsim in nude mice model. Ten milliliters of twenty independent amniotic fluid samples were collected from 16-20 week pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for fetal genetic determination in routine prenatal diagnosis in the first affiliated hospital of Harbin medical university. We successfully isolated the AFMSCs from thirteen of twenty amniotic fluid samples. AFMSCs presented a fibroblastic-like morphology during the culture. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the cells were positive for specific stem cell markers CD73,CD90, CD105, CD166 and HLA-ABC (MHC class I, but negative for CD 45,CD40, CD34, CD14 and HLA-DR (MHC class II. RT-PCR results showed that the AFMSCs expressed stem cell marker OCT4. AFMSCs could differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes under certain conditions. AFMSCs had the high motility to migrate to ovarian cancer site but didn't have the tumorigenicity. This study enhances the possibility of AFMSCs as drug carrier in human cell-based therapy. Meanwhile, the research emphasis in the future can also put in targeting therapy of ovarian cancer.

  8. Amniotic fluid protein profiles of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kacerovsky

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the amniotic fluid protein profiles and the intensity of intraamniotic inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria, using the multiplex xMAP technology. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. A total of 145 pregnant women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes between gestational age 24+0 and 36+6 weeks were included in the study. Amniocenteses were performed. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The levels of specific proteins were determined using multiplex xMAP technology. RESULTS: The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and other bacteria in the amniotic fluid was associated with increased levels of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, brain-derived neurotropic factor, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, and matrix metalloproteinasis-9. Ureaplasma spp. were also associated with increased levels of neurotropin-3 and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Ureaplasma spp. in the amniotic fluid is associated with a slightly different protein profile of inflammatory response, but the intensity of inflammatory response to Ureaplasma spp. is comparable with the inflammatory response to other bacteria.

  9. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume: mathematical model based on intramembranous transport mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Robert A; Anderson, Debra F; Cheung, Cecilia Y

    2014-11-15

    Experimentation in late-gestation fetal sheep has suggested that regulation of amniotic fluid (AF) volume occurs primarily by modulating the rate of intramembranous transport of water and solutes across the amnion into underlying fetal blood vessels. In order to gain insight into intramembranous transport mechanisms, we developed a computer model that allows simulation of experimentally measured changes in AF volume and composition over time. The model included fetal urine excretion and lung liquid secretion as inflows into the amniotic compartment plus fetal swallowing and intramembranous absorption as outflows. By using experimental flows and solute concentrations for urine, lung liquid, and swallowed fluid in combination with the passive and active transport mechanisms of the intramembranous pathway, we simulated AF responses to basal conditions, intra-amniotic fluid infusions, fetal intravascular infusions, urine replacement, and tracheoesophageal occlusion. The experimental data are consistent with four intramembranous transport mechanisms acting in concert: 1) an active unidirectional bulk transport of AF with all dissolved solutes out of AF into fetal blood presumably by vesicles; 2) passive bidirectional diffusion of solutes, such as sodium and chloride, between fetal blood and AF; 3) passive bidirectional water movement between AF and fetal blood; and 4) unidirectional transport of lactate into the AF. Further, only unidirectional bulk transport is dynamically regulated. The simulations also identified areas for future study: 1) identifying intramembranous stimulators and inhibitors, 2) determining the semipermeability characteristics of the intramembranous pathway, and 3) characterizing the vesicles that are the primary mediators of intramembranous transport.

  10. Concentrations of Mineral in Amniotic Fluid and Their Relations to Selected Maternal and Fetal Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, J; Kocyłowski, R; Komorowicz, I; Grzesiak, M; Bogdański, P; Barałkiewicz, D

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of various trace elements in amniotic fluid (AF) change over the course of pregnancy, with gestational age and fetus growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of selected essential and toxic elements in AF and their relations to maternal and fetal parameters. The study was carried out in 39 pregnant women, aged 34.6 ± 4.7 years, between weeks 16 and 26 of gestation. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained during the standard procedure of amniocentesis in high-risk patients for chromosomal abnormalities. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique was used to determine the levels of Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, U, and V in AF. Body mass and blood pressure were measured in all the women. The basic parameters of fetal development were also assayed. It was found that the age of the mother, the gender of the fetus, and the week of the pregnancy may affect the concentrations of mineral in the amniotic fluid. Moreover, several significant correlations between the essential and toxic elements and maternal and fetal parameters were observed. In particular, negative and positive correlations between fetal parameters and magnesium and copper levels in AF, respectively, were seen. The present findings demonstrate the association between minerals in AF and fetal development.

  11. Amniotic fluid volume: Rapid MR-based assessment at 28-32 weeks gestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, N.J.; Hawkes, R.; Patterson, A.J.; Graves, M.J.; Priest, A.N.; Hunter, S.; Set, P.A.; Lomas, D.J. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lees, C. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    This work evaluates rapid magnetic resonance projection hydrography (PH) based amniotic fluid volume (AFV) estimates against established routine ultrasound single deepest vertical pocket (SDVP) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurements, in utero at 28-32 weeks gestation. Manual multi-section planimetry (MSP) based measurement of AFV is used as a proxy reference standard. Thirty-five women with a healthy singleton pregnancy (20-41 years) attending routine antenatal ultrasound were recruited. SDVP and AFI were measured using ultrasound, with same day MRI assessing AFV with PH and MSP. The relationships between the respective techniques were assessed using linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman method comparison statistics. When comparing estimated AFV, a highly significant relationship was observed between PH and the reference standard MSP (R{sup 2} = 0.802, p < 0.001). For the US measurements, SDVP measurement related most closely to amniotic fluid volume, (R{sup 2} = 0.470, p < 0.001), with AFI demonstrating a weaker relationship (R{sup 2} = 0.208, p = 0.007). This study shows that rapid MRI based PH measurement is a better predictor of AFV, relating more closely to our proxy standard than established US techniques. Although larger validation studies across a range of gestational ages are required this approach could form part of MR fetal assessment, particularly where poly- or oligohydramnios is suspected. (orig.)

  12. Immunosuppressive activity of human amniotic fluid of normal and abnormal pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohat, B; Faktor, J M

    1988-01-01

    Twenty specimens of amniotic fluid (AF) obtained between week 16 and 18 of gestation from normal pregnant women and six specimens from pregnant women in which trisomia of chromosome 21 was found were tested for immunosuppressive activity. Incubation of normal human donor lymphocytes with 0.2-1 mL of AF from normal pregnant women for one hour at 37 degrees C was sufficient for induction of significant inhibition of the ability of these cells to induce a local xenogeneic graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) as well as inhibition of E and E-active rosette formation, the GVHR being the most sensitive test. On the other hand, amniotic fluid obtained from the six pregnant women in which trisomia of chromosome 21 was found showed no inhibitory activity in either the E or E-active rosette formation, nor in the local xenogeneic graft-versus-host reaction. AF from all the women tested was found to have no effect on phenotype expression of the lymphocytes, as tested by the monoclonal antibodies OKT4+ and OKT8+, nor on B-lymphocytes, as tested by surface immunoglobulins. No correlation was found between the alpha-fetoprotein levels in the sera of those women and the immunosuppressive activity. These findings indicate that genetic defects of the conceptus are not limited to the embryo but may affect the composition of immunosuppressive components present in normal amniotic fluid.

  13. Methylmalonic Acid in Amniotic Fluid and Maternal Urine as a Marker for Neural Tube Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小平; 张炼; 魏虹; 刘皖君; 王慕逖; 宁琴

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the implication of methymalonic acid (MMA) in the early diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTD), a quantitative assay for MMA was established by using gas chromatographymass spectrometry with stable isotope of MMA as an internal standard. Amniotic fluid and maternal urine MMA concentration, maternal serum folate, red blood cell folate and vitamin B12 levels were measured in the middle term of NTD-affected and normal pregnancies. Amniotic fluid and maternal urine MMA concentrations in the middle term of NTD affected pregnancies (1.4 ± 0.9 μmol/L, and 22.1 ± 12.6 nmol/μmol creatinine) were significantly higher than that of normal pregnancies (1.0±0.4μ mol/L, and 2.5± 1.1 nmol/μmol creatinine). There was no significant difference between normal and NTD pregnancies for serum folate, red blood cell folate and vitamin B12 levels.The results suggested that MMAs in amniotic fluid and maternal urine are sensitive markers for early diagnosis of NTD. Vitamin B12 is an active cofactor involved in the remethylation of homocycteine and its deficiency is an independent risk factor for NTD. MMA is a specific and sensitive marker for intracellular vitamin B12 deficiency. This study suggests that it is necessary to monitor the vitamin B12 deficiency and advocates vitamin B12 supplementation with folate prevention program.

  14. Prenatal exposure to maternal infection alters cytokine expression in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and fetal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakubo, A; Jarskog, L F; Lieberman, J A; Gilmore, J H

    2001-01-15

    Prenatal exposure to infection appears to increase the risk of schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders. We have hypothesized that cytokines, generated in response to maternal infection, play a key mechanistic role in this association. E16 timed pregnancy rats were injected i.p. with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to model prenatal exposure to infection. Placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal brains were collected 2 and 8h after LPS exposure. There was a significant treatment effect of low-dose (0.5mg/kg) LPS on placenta cytokine levels, with significant increases of interleukin (IL)-1beta (P<0.0001), IL-6 (P<0.0001), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (P=0.0001) over the 2 and 8h time course. In amniotic fluid, there was a significant effect of treatment on IL-6 levels (P=0.0006). Two hours after maternal administration of high-dose (2.5mg/kg) LPS, there were significant elevations of placenta IL-6 (P<0.0001), TNF-alpha (P<0.0001), a significant increase of TNF-alpha in amniotic fluid (P=0.008), and a small but significant decrease in TNF-alpha (P=0.035) in fetal brain. Maternal exposure to infection alters pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the fetal environment, which may have a significant impact on the developing brain.

  15. Acid- and alkaline phosphatase in amniotic fluid in normal and complicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, G; Beckman, L; Löfstrand, T

    1978-01-01

    171 samples of amniotic fluid were obtained by abdominal amniocentesis from 67 women with complicated pregnancies (isoimmunization, diabetes mellitus or toxaemia). The levels of heat-labile alkaline phosphatase (HLAP), heat-stable alkaline phosphatase (HSAP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were determined and compared to the enzyme levels in 179 samples from women with normal pregnancies of corresponding gestational ages. HLAP showed two "peaks" of activity, one in the 5th-22nd week and the other at term. HSAP and AcP showed increased activity at term. HSAP was decreased (p less than 0.01) in isoimmunization between the 36th and 40th week. 11 cases of toxaemia with placental insufficiency showed no differences in the levels of HLAP and HSAP compared with normal pregnancy. AcP showed no differences between normal and complicated pregnancy. Samples contaminated by blood showed no significant increase in the acid- and alkaline phosphatase levels. Samples contaminated by meconium showed a complex pattern. Some samples had normal enzyme levels, some had high levels of HLAP only and some had high levels of HSAP and AcP. The origin of the enzymes is not known with certainty. HSAP in amniotic fluid is most likely not of placental but intestinal origin. Determinations of acid- and alkaline phosphatase in amniotic fluid seem to be of little values in the clinical management of complicated pregnancy.

  16. Maternal Plasma and Amniotic Fluid Chemokines Screening in Fetal Down Syndrome

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    Piotr Laudanski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Chemokines exert different inflammatory responses which can potentially be related to certain fetal chromosomal abnormalities. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of selected chemokines in plasma and amniotic fluid of women with fetal Down syndrome. Method. Out of 171 amniocentesis, we had 7 patients with confirmed fetal Down syndrome (15th–18th weeks of gestation. For the purpose of our control, we chose 14 women without confirmed chromosomal aberration. To assess the concentration of chemokines in the blood plasma and amniotic fluid, we used a protein macroarray, which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. Results. We showed significant decrease in the concentration of 4 chemokines, HCC-4, IL-28A, IL-31, and MCP-2, and increase in the concentration of CXCL7 (NAP-2 in plasma of women with fetal Down syndrome. Furthermore, we showed decrease in concentration of 3 chemokines, ITAC, MCP-3, MIF, and increase in concentration of 4 chemokines, IP-10, MPIF-1, CXCL7, and 6Ckine, in amniotic fluid of women with fetal Down syndrome. Conclusion. On the basis of our findings, our hypothesis is that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. Defining their potential as biochemical markers of Down syndrome requires further investigation on larger group of patients.

  17. Discuss the intrapartum amniotic fluid meconium contamination by amniotic fluid%经宫颈羊水置换术治疗产时羊水胎粪污染探讨

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    刘海梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the intrapartum amniotic fluid meconium contamination by amniotic fluid. Methods 37 cases with intrapartum amniotic fluid meconium contamination were collected ,all of them were treated by amniotic fluid. The cura-tive effect were recorded. Results The intrapartum amniotic fluid meconium contamination were got improved,29 cases of amniot-ic fluid clarification,no occurrence degree of amniotic fluid pollution;there was no MAS,only 1 case appeared neonatal asphyxia, and no complications. Conclusion It can improve the conditions for the intrapartum amniotic fluid meconium contamination by amniotic fluid,and it can reduce the occurrence rate for MAS and neonatal asphyxia rate.%目的:评价经宫颈羊水置换术治疗产时羊水胎粪污染的疗效。方法我院在2010年1月-2013年1月期间共收治了37例羊水胎粪污染的孕妇,对所有孕妇均采取了羊水置换术治疗,统计治疗后的疗效。结果37例接受羊水置换术的孕妇在分娩羊水污染程度得到了极大的改善,其中29例羊水澄清,无1例出现羊水Ⅲ°污染;所有新生儿中均未出现MAS症,仅有1例出现了新生儿窒息,且没有1例出现术后并发症。结论经宫颈羊水置换术,可有效改善胎儿宫内羊水胎粪污染的状况,降低MAS的发生率和新生儿的窒息率。

  18. Applications of Amniotic Membrane and Fluid in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine

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    Kerry Rennie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amniotic membrane (AM and amniotic fluid (AF have a long history of use in surgical and prenatal diagnostic applications, respectively. In addition, the discovery of cell populations in AM and AF which are widely accessible, nontumorigenic and capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types has stimulated a flurry of research aimed at characterizing the cells and evaluating their potential utility in regenerative medicine. While a major focus of research has been the use of amniotic membrane and fluid in tissue engineering and cell replacement, AM- and AF-derived cells may also have capabilities in protecting and stimulating the repair of injured tissues via paracrine actions, and acting as vectors for biodelivery of exogenous factors to treat injury and diseases. Much progress has been made since the discovery of AM and AF cells with stem cell characteristics nearly a decade ago, but there remain a number of problematic issues stemming from the inherent heterogeneity of these cells as well as inconsistencies in isolation and culturing methods which must be addressed to advance the field towards the development of cell-based therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the recent progress and future perspectives in the use of AM- and AF-derived cells for therapeutic applications.

  19. DNA methylation patterns of imprinting centers for H19, SNRPN, and KCNQ1OT1 in single-cell clones of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cell

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    Hsiu-Huei Peng

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells contain a unique epigenetic signature during in vitro cell culture. H19 and KCNQ1OT1 possessed a substantial degree of hypermethylation status, and variable DNA methylation patterns of SNRPN was observed during in vitro cell culture of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. Our results urge further understanding of epigenetic status of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells before it is applied in cell replacement therapy.

  20. Hyaluronic acid, an important factor in the wound healing properties of amniotic fluid: in vitro studies of re-epithelialisation in human skin wounds.

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    Nyman, Erika; Huss, Fredrik; Nyman, Torbjörn; Junker, Johan; Kratz, Gunnar

    2013-04-01

    Foetal wounds are unique in their ability to heal rapidly without forming scars. The amniotic fluid, rich in nutrients, growth factors, and hyaluronic acid, surrounds the foetus and is essential to foetal wound healing. The wound healing properties of foetal wounds may be the result of high concentrations of hyaluronic acid. This study aimed to verify that amniotic fluid induces re-epithelialisation in human skin wounds in vitro and to study whether this ability is dependent on hyaluronic acid. Standard deep dermal wounds were produced in vitro in human skin. The skin samples, with a central wound, were incubated in different culture media. Varying concentrations of amniotic fluid and amniotic fluid with added hyaluronidase were tested, and re-epithelialisation was assessed at 3, 7, and 12 days using light microscopy, after staining with haematoxylin and eosin. Amniotic fluid 50% resulted in a significantly higher (p < 0.05) grade of re-epithelialisation than Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and 10% amniotic fluid at all time points. When 50% amniotic fluid was compared with 10% foetal calf serum, no significant difference was found in grades of re-epithelialisation on days 3 and 12 and significantly higher grades of re-epithelialisation on day 7 (p < 0.05). Degradation of hyaluronic acid in the medium that contained 50% amniotic fluid gave significantly impaired re-epithelialisation (p < 0.05) on culture days 3 and 7. In conclusion, amniotic fluid promotes accelerated re-epithelialisation and hyaluronic acid is an important ingredient.

  1. Polyhydramnios in Lrp4 knockout mice with bilateral kidney agenesis: Defects in the pathways of amniotic fluid clearance.

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    Tanahashi, Hiroshi; Tian, Qing-Bao; Hara, Yoshinobu; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Endo, Shogo; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2016-02-05

    Amniotic fluid volume during mid-to-late gestation depends mainly on the urine excretion from the foetal kidneys and partly on the fluid secretion from the foetal lungs during foetal breathing-like movements. Urine is necessary for foetal breathing-like movements, which is critical for foetal lung development. Bilateral renal agenesis and/or obstruction of the urinary tract lead to oligohydramnios, which causes infant death within a short period after birth due to pulmonary hypoplasia. Lrp4, which functions as an agrin receptor, is essential for the formation of neuromuscular junctions. Herein, we report novel phenotypes of Lrp4 knockout (Lrp4(-/-)) mice. Most Lrp4(-/-) foetuses showed unilateral or bilateral kidney agenesis, and Lrp4 knockout resulted in polyhydramnios. The loss of Lrp4 compromised foetal swallowing and breathing-like movements and downregulated the expression of aquaporin-9 in the foetal membrane and aquaporin-1 in the placenta, which possibly affected the amniotic fluid clearance. These results suggest that amniotic fluid removal was compromised in Lrp4(-/-) foetuses, resulting in polyhydramnios despite the impairment of urine production. Our findings indicate that amniotic fluid removal plays an essential role in regulating the amniotic fluid volume.

  2. Soluble leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 in amniotic fluid is of fetal origin and positively associates with lung compliance.

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    Houben, Michiel L; Olde Nordkamp, Marloes J M; Nikkels, Peter G J; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Meyaard, Linde; Bont, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1) is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that sLAIR-1 is present in amniotic fluid during term parturition and is related to fetal lung function development. sLAIR-1 was detectable in all amniotic fluid samples (n=355) collected during term spontaneous deliveries. First, potential intra-uterine origins of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 were explored. Although LAIR-1 was expressed on the surface of amniotic fluid neutrophils, LAIR-1 was not secreted upon ex vivo neutrophil stimulation with LPS, or PMA/ionomycin. Cord blood concentrations of sLAIR-1 were fourfold lower than and not related to amniotic fluid concentrations and placentas showed no or only sporadic LAIR-1 positive cells. Similarly, in post-mortem lung tissue of term neonates that died of non-pulmonary disorders LAIR-1 positive cells were absent or only sporadically present. In fetal urine samples, however, sLAIR-1 levels were even higher than in amniotic fluid and correlated with amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 concentrations. Second, the potential relevance of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 was studied. sLAIR-1 concentrations had low correlation to amniotic fluid cytokines. We measured neonatal lung function in a convenient subset of 152 infants, using the single occlusion technique, at a median age of 34 days (IQR 30-39). The amniotic fluid concentration of sLAIR-1 was independently correlated to airway compliance (ρ=0.29, P=.001). Taken together, we show the consistent presence of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid, which originates from fetal urine. Concentrations of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid during term deliveries are independent from levels of other soluble immune mediators. The positive association between concentrations of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 and neonatal lung compliance

  3. Soluble leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 in amniotic fluid is of fetal origin and positively associates with lung compliance.

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    Michiel L Houben

    Full Text Available The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1 is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that sLAIR-1 is present in amniotic fluid during term parturition and is related to fetal lung function development. sLAIR-1 was detectable in all amniotic fluid samples (n=355 collected during term spontaneous deliveries. First, potential intra-uterine origins of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 were explored. Although LAIR-1 was expressed on the surface of amniotic fluid neutrophils, LAIR-1 was not secreted upon ex vivo neutrophil stimulation with LPS, or PMA/ionomycin. Cord blood concentrations of sLAIR-1 were fourfold lower than and not related to amniotic fluid concentrations and placentas showed no or only sporadic LAIR-1 positive cells. Similarly, in post-mortem lung tissue of term neonates that died of non-pulmonary disorders LAIR-1 positive cells were absent or only sporadically present. In fetal urine samples, however, sLAIR-1 levels were even higher than in amniotic fluid and correlated with amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 concentrations. Second, the potential relevance of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 was studied. sLAIR-1 concentrations had low correlation to amniotic fluid cytokines. We measured neonatal lung function in a convenient subset of 152 infants, using the single occlusion technique, at a median age of 34 days (IQR 30-39. The amniotic fluid concentration of sLAIR-1 was independently correlated to airway compliance (ρ=0.29, P=.001. Taken together, we show the consistent presence of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid, which originates from fetal urine. Concentrations of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid during term deliveries are independent from levels of other soluble immune mediators. The positive association between concentrations of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 and neonatal lung

  4. Quantitative analysis of lamellar bodies in amniotic fluid as fetal pulmonary maturity indicator

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    Ljubić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Although lamellar bodies have been the center of interest over the last years, the published results of fetal pulmonary maturity determination according to their concentration in amniotic fluid are controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of lamellar bodies, as well as the ratio lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S in amniotic fluid for the assessment of fetal pulmonary maturity. Methods. This prospective 2-year study included 102 female examinees, ranging from 17 to 44 years of age, in whom lamellar bodies concentrations in amniotic fluid were determined to check the efficacy of the applied therapy for obtaining arteficial fetal pulmonary maturity. The shake test was applied as a comparative test for determining a quantitative L/S ratio. To determine a fetus maturity and development stage we followed up biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femure length, ponderal index at birth and body mass. Results. Out of a total of 102 amniocenteses within a period from 26th to 40th gestation week only 70 results were considered due to 32 unknown neonatal outcomes. Biparietal diameter was 224-362 mm, femur length 56 - 78 mm, ponderal index 1.22-2.84, fetus body mass 1300- 4 350 g. There was found a significant relation between gestation age and lamellar bodies concentration (R = 0.396398, p < 0.01, as well as between gestation age and the ratio L/S (R = 0.691297, p < 0.01. Also, there was a significant correlation of lamellar bodies concentration to the ratio L/S determined (R = 0.493609, p < 0.01. Conclusion. Determination of lamellar bodies concentration values is a reliable method to confirm fetal pulmonary maturity.

  5. Metabolomics of Human Amniotic Fluid and Maternal Plasma during Normal Pregnancy.

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    Orczyk-Pawilowicz, Magdalena; Jawien, Ewa; Deja, Stanislaw; Hirnle, Lidia; Zabek, Adam; Mlynarz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic profiles of amniotic fluid and maternal blood are sources of valuable information about fetus development and can be potentially useful in diagnosis of pregnancy disorders. In this study, we applied 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling to track metabolic changes occurring in amniotic fluid (AF) and plasma (PL) of healthy mothers over the course of pregnancy. AF and PL samples were collected in the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) trimester, prolonged pregnancy (PP) until time of delivery (TD). A multivariate data analysis of both biofluids reviled a metabolic switch-like transition between 2nd and 3rd trimester, which was followed by metabolic stabilization throughout the rest of pregnancy probably reflecting the stabilization of fetal maturation and development. The differences were further tested using univariate statistics at α = 0.001. In plasma the progression from T2 to T3 was related to increasing levels of glycerol, choline and ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate) while pyruvate concentration was significantly decreased. In amniotic fluid, T2 to T3 transition was associated with decreasing levels of glucose, carnitine, amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, alanine, methionine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine) and increasing levels of creatinine, succinate, pyruvate, choline, N,N-dimethylglycine and urocanate. Lactate to pyruvate ratio was decreased in AF and conversely increased in PL. The results of our study, show that metabolomics profiling can be used to better understand physiological changes of the complex interdependencies of the mother, the placenta and the fetus during pregnancy. In the future, these results might be a useful reference point for analysis of complicated pregnancies.

  6. A novel method to derive amniotic fluid stem cells for therapeutic purposes

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    Vantanasiri Chanchai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human amniotic fluid stem (hAFS cells have become an attractive stem cell source for medical therapy due to both their ability to propagate as stem cells and the lack of ethical debate that comes with the use of embryonic stem cells. Although techniques to derive stem cells from amniotic fluid are available, the techniques have limitations for clinical uses, including a requirement of long periods of time for stem cell production, population heterogeneity and xeno-contamination from using animal antibody-coated magnetic beads. Herein we describe a novel isolation method that fits for hAFS derivation for cell-based therapy. Methods and Results With our method, single hAFS cells generate colonies in a primary culture of amniotic fluid cells. Individual hAFS colonies are then expanded by subculturing in order to make a clonal hAFS cell line. This method allows derivation of a substantial amount of a pure stem cell population within a short period of time. Indeed, 108 cells from a clonal hAFS line can be derived in two weeks using our method, while previous techniques require two months. The resultant hAFS cells show a 2-5 times greater proliferative ability than with previous techniques and a population doubling time of 0.8 days. The hAFS cells exhibit typical hAFS cell characteristics including the ability to differentiate into adipogenic-, osteogenic- and neurogenic lineages, expression of specific stem cell markers including Oct4, SSEA4, CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105 and CD133, and maintenance of a normal karyotype over long culture periods. Conclusions We have created a novel hAFS cell derivation method that can produce a vast amount of high quality stem cells within a short period of time. Our technique makes possibility for providing autogenic fetal stem cells and allogeneic cells for future cell-based therapy.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Early Mid-Trimester Amniotic Fluid Does Not Predict Spontaneous Preterm Delivery.

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    Maria Hallingström

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify early proteomic biomarkers of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD in mid-trimester amniotic fluid from asymptomatic women.This is a case-cohort study. Amniotic fluid from mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis (14-19 weeks of gestation was collected from 2008 to 2011. The analysis was conducted in 24 healthy women with subsequent spontaneous PTD (cases and 40 randomly selected healthy women delivering at term (controls. An exploratory phase with proteomics analysis of pooled samples was followed by a verification phase with ELISA of individual case and control samples.The median (interquartile range (IQR: 25th; 75th percentiles gestational age at delivery was 35+5 (33+6-36+6 weeks in women with spontaneous PTD and 40+0 (39+1-40+5 weeks in women who delivered at term. In the exploratory phase, the most pronounced differences were found in C-reactive protein (CRP levels, that were approximately two-fold higher in the pooled case samples than in the pooled control samples. However, we could not verify these differences with ELISA. The median (25th; 75th IQR CRP level was 95.2 ng/mL (64.3; 163.5 in women with spontaneous PTD and 86.0 ng/mL (51.2; 145.8 in women delivering at term (p = 0.37; t-test.Proteomic analysis with mass spectrometry of mid-trimester amniotic fluid suggests CRP as a potential marker of spontaneous preterm delivery, but this prognostic potential was not verified with ELISA.

  8. Transcriptome adaptation of group B Streptococcus to growth in human amniotic fluid.

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    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus is a bacterial pathogen that causes severe intrauterine infections leading to fetal morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of GBS infection in this environment is poorly understood, in part because we lack a detailed understanding of the adaptation of this pathogen to growth in amniotic fluid. To address this knowledge deficit, we characterized the transcriptome of GBS grown in human amniotic fluid (AF and compared it with the transcriptome in rich laboratory medium. METHODS: GBS was grown in Todd Hewitt-yeast extract medium and human AF. Bacteria were collected at mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic and stationary growth phase. We performed global expression microarray analysis using a custom-made Affymetrix GeneChip. The normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates at each growth point were obtained. AF/THY transcript ratios representing greater than a 2-fold change and P-value exceeding 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have discovered that GBS significantly remodels its transcriptome in response to exposure to human amniotic fluid. GBS grew rapidly in human AF and did not exhibit a global stress response. The majority of changes in GBS transcripts in AF compared to THY medium were related to genes mediating metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides. The majority of the observed changes in transcripts affects genes involved in basic bacterial metabolism and is connected to AF composition and nutritional requirements of the bacterium. Importantly, the response to growth in human AF included significant changes in transcripts of multiple virulence genes such as adhesins, capsule, and hemolysin and IL-8 proteinase what might have consequences for the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides extensive new information about how the transcriptome of GBS responds

  9. Amniotic fluid pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (SP1) in fetal developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, M; Jalanko, H; Leisti, J; Kolho, K L; Salonen, R; Von Koskull, H; Aula, P

    1984-01-01

    Concentration of pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (SP1) was studied in second and third trimester amniotic fluid from pregnancies with various fetal developmental disorders. The material consisted of 26 cases with chromosomal disorders and 19 cases with non-chromosomal fetal malformations. The SP1 concentration was elevated in two cases of Meckel's syndrome (mean +2.7-4.0 S.D.) as well as in one case of fetal triploidy (mean +22 S.D.), while it was normal in all other 14 different fetal disorders.

  10. Comparison between two computer codes for PIXE studies applied to trace element analysis in amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, I.; Heber, O.; Zajfman, J.; Zajfman, D.; Rosner, B.

    1989-01-01

    Two different methods of analysis applicable for PIXE data are introduced and compared. In the first method Gaussian shaped peaks are fitted to the X-ray spectrum, and the complete analysis can be done on a microcomputer. The second is based on the Bayesian deconvolution method for simultaneous peak fitting and has to be carried out on a larger IBM computer. The advantage of the second method becomes evident for regions of poor statistics or where many overlapping peaks occur in the spectrum. The comparisons between the methods made on PIXE measurements obtained from 55 amniotic fluid samples gave satisfactory agreement.

  11. Does amniotic fluid volume affect fetofetal transfusion in monochorionic twin pregnancies? Modelling two possible mechanisms

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    Umur, Asli; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Ross, Michael G.

    2002-06-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that increased amniotic fluid volume due to polyhydramnios increases placental vascular resistance. We have sought to model the possible effects of an increased amniotic fluid volume on the net fetofetal transfusion in monochorionic twin pregnancies. We wanted to compare these effects with the results of previous simulations, which aimed to explain why the twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) placentas more often include bidirectional arteriovenous (AV) rather than AV plus arterioarterial (AA) anastomoses. We extended our mathematical model of TTTS by simulating two different mechanisms that increase the placental vascular resistance as a consequence of polyhydramnios. First, there is an increase in the placental capillary resistance and hence in deep AV and opposite AV (denoted as VA) resistances due to polyhydramnios. Second, there is an increase in the resistance of chorionic veins due to polyhydramnios, assuming that these veins act as Starling resistors. We then simulated the effects of polyhydramnios on different placental anastomotic patterns. The results were as follows. In the first mechanism (polyhydramnios affects AV-VA resistances), an increased amniotic fluid volume hardly affected bidirectional AV, but slightly decreased fetofetal transfusion in AV plus AA anastomoses. However, for these effects to change the natural development of the pregnancy, polyhydramnios needed to persist for approximately 4 weeks, and by comparing the effects of polyhydramnios with the effects of amnioreduction, amnioreduction was more beneficial for normalizing the donor amniotic fluid volume. Therefore, these beneficial effects due to polyhydramnios have no practical clinical significance. In the second mechanism (Starling resistor for chorionic veins), polyhydramnios slightly increased fetofetal transfusion and hence slightly increased TTTS severity in bidirectional AV and AV plus VV, but did not affect AV plus AA anastomoses. In conclusion, we

  12. Isolation of c-Kit+ human amniotic fluid stem cells from second trimester.

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    Pozzobon, Michela; Piccoli, Martina; Schiavo, Andrea Alex; Atala, Anthony; De Coppi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells have been described as an appealing source of stem cells because of their (1) fetal, non-embryonic origin, (2) easy access during pregnancy overcoming the ethical issues related both to the use of human embryonic cells and to the postnatal tissue biopsy with donor site morbidity, and (3) their undemanding ability to be expanded. We and others have demonstrated the broad differentiation potential and here we describe the established protocol we developed to obtain c-Kit+ human AFS cells, starting from second trimester amniocentesis samples.

  13. Follow-up of infants with amniotic fluid trisomy 20 mosaicism.

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    Abuelo, D N; Barsel-Bowers, G; Zartler, A S

    1986-07-01

    The finding of trisomy 20 mosaicism in amniotic fluid is a cause of considerable anxiety for both physicians and parents. Although the significance of this finding is still not clear, some reassurance can be given to prospective parents, since the outcome has been normal in all reported pregnancies carried to term. Follow-up information on psychomotor development of these infants is needed in order to provide better genetic counseling to these families. We have followed three infants who have had normal growth and psychomotor development up to approximately 2 years.

  14. Reprogramming of mouse amniotic fluid cells using a PiggyBac transposon system

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    E. Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated from mouse and human somatic cells by forced expression of defined transcription factors using different methods. Amniotic fluid (AF cells are easy to obtain from routinely scheduled procedures for prenatal diagnosis and iPS cells have been generated from human AF. Here, we generated iPS cells from mouse AF cells, using a non-viral-based approach constituted by the PiggyBac (PB transposon system. All iPS cell lines obtained exhibited characteristics of pluripotent cells, including the ability to differentiate toward derivatives of all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome using cell-free fetal DNA in amniotic fluid by quantitative fluorescent polymersase chain reaction

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    Wu Dan; Chi Hongbin; Shao Minjie; Wu Yao; Jin Hongyan; Wu Baiyan; Qiao Jie

    2014-01-01

    Backgroud Amniotic fluid (AF) supernatant contains cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) fragments.This study attempted to take advantage of cffDNA as a new material for prenatal diagnosis,which could be combined with simple quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) to provide an ancillary method for the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 syndrome.Methods AF supernatant samples were obtained from 27 women carrying euploid fetuses and 28 women carrying aneuploid fetuses with known cytogenetic karyotypes.Peripheral blood samples of the parents were collected at the same time.Short tandem repeat (STR) fragments on chromosome 21 were amplified by QF-PCR.Fetal condition and the parental source of the extra chromosome could be determined by the STR peaks.Results The sensitivity of the assay for the aneuploid was 93% (26/28; confidence interval,CI:77%-98%) and the specificity was 100% (26/26; CI:88%-100%).The determination rate of the origin of the extra chromosome was 69%.The sensitivity and the specificity of the assay in the euploid were 100% (27/27).Conclusions Trisomy 21 can be prenatally diagnosed by the QF-PCR method in AF supernatant.This karyotype analysis method greatly reduces the requirement for the specimen size.It will be a benefit for early amniocentesis and could avoid pregnancy complications.The method may become an ancillary method for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21.

  16. The Effects of Intravenous Hydration on Amniotic Fluid Volume and Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Term Pregnancy and Oligohydramnios: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Mahnaz Shahnazi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amniotic fluid is an important factor in the prediction of fetal survival. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of intravenous hydration of mothers on amniotic fluid volume and in turn on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: The current single blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 20 pregnant mothers with amniot-ic fluid index of lower or equal to 5 cm and gestational age of 37-41 weeks. The subjects were divided into two groups of case and control through simple random sampling. Am-niotic fluid index was measured in all participants. The case group received one liter of isotonic saline during 30 minutes by the bolus method. Reevaluations of amniotic fluid index in both groups were made 90 minutes after baseline measurement. Independent t-test and paired t-test were used to compare the two groups and mean amniotic fluid in-dex before and after treatment, respectively. Results: Hydration of mothers significantly increased the amniotic fluid index in the case group (mean change: 1.5 cm; 95%CI: 0.46 - 2.64; P = 0.01. The mean change of amniotic fluid index in the control group did not significantly increase (P = 0.06. The elevation of amniotic fluid index in the hydra-tion group (32% was significantly higher than the control group (1% (P = 0.03. Conclusion: In this study intravenous hydration increased amniotic fluid index of mothers with term pregnancy and oligohydramnios. Since it caused no complications for the moth-er and the fetus, it can be used as an effective method in management of oligohydramnios.

  17. Amniotic fluid metabolomics and biochemistry analysis provides novel insights into the diet-regulated foetal growth in a pig model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jin; Jiang, Fei; Zhang, Jiao; Xu, Qingsong; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Yu, Jie; Luo, Yuheng; He, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Foetal loss and intrauterine growth restriction are major problems in mammals, but there are few effective ways in preventing it. Intriguingly, chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a biomaterial derived from chitosan, can promote foetal survival and growth. Therefore, we have investigated how COS affects foetal survival and growth in a pig model. Fifty-two sows were divided into two treatment groups (n = 26) and fed either solely a control diet or a control diet that includes 100 mg/kg COS. Amniotic fluid and foetus samples from six sows that were of average body weight in each group were collected on gestation day 35. We applied a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach combined with biochemistry analysis to track the changes that occurred in the amniotic fluid of pregnant sows after COS intervention. Maternal COS inclusion had enhanced (P < 0.05) the foetal survival rate and size at 35 days. COS supplementation had both increased (P < 0.05) SOD, CAT and T-AOC activities and elevated (P < 0.05) IL-10, IgG and IgM concentrations in the amniotic fluid. Moreover, COS had affected (P < 0.05) the amniotic fluid’s lysine, citrate, glucose and hypoxanthine levels. Overall, COS inclusion induced amniotic fluid antioxidant status and metabolic profiles modifications characterising improvements in foetal survival and growth in a pig model. PMID:28300194

  18. Fetuin A Concentration in the Second Trimester Amniotic Fluid of Fetuses with Trisomy 21 Appears to Be Lower: Phenotypic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iliodromiti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated whether the concentration of the glycoprotein fetuin A is altered in the second trimester amniotic fluid of trisomy 21 pregnancies compared with euploid pregnancies. Methods. 25 pregnancies with an extra chromosome 21 were matched for maternal and gestational age with 25 pregnancies with normal karyotype. Levels of fetuin A in amniotic fluid were measured by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. Results. The median concentration of fetuin A in amniotic fluid of trisomy 21 pregnancies (5.3 ng/ml was statistically significantly lower (P  value=0.008 compared with that in euploid pregnancies (6.8 ng/mL. Conclusion. Lower levels of fetuin A in trisomy 21 may indicate an association with altered metabolic pathways in this early stage that could potentially be associated with features of the syndrome, such as growth restriction or impaired osteogenesis.

  19. 羊水预处理在羊水细胞培养瓶法中应用效果研究%Application effect research with amniotic fluid pretreatment in amniotic fluid cell culture bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向文秀

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究羊水预处理在羊水细胞培养瓶法中的应用效果.方法 采用羊水预处理培养瓶法(实验组)和未经处理羊水细胞培养瓶法(对照组)对100例18-24周的孕中期孕妇和152例25-32周的孕晚期孕妇进行羊水细胞培养.结果 100例孕18-24周羊水细胞培养实验组培养成功率高于对照组(P<0.05),实验组羊水细胞培养时间比对照组短(P<0.001),实验组有效核分裂数比对照组多(P <0.001);152例孕25-32周羊水细胞培养实验组培养成功率高于对照组(P<0.01),实验组羊水细胞培养时间比对照组短(P <0.001),实验组有效核分裂数比对照组多(P <0.001).结论 羊水预处理羊水细胞培养瓶法羊水细胞培养成功率高,细胞培养时间短,有效核分裂数多,可进行羊水产前诊断孕妇孕周范围增宽.%Objective:Research with amniotic fluid pretreatment in amniotic fluid cell culture bottle of application effect.Methods:100 samples of amniotic fluid from pregnant women during 18-24th-week gestation and 152 samples of amniotic fluid from pregnant women during 25-32th-week gestation were cultured in fluid pretreatment amniotic fluid cell culture bottle and untreated amniotic fluid cell culture bottle.Results:In 100 samples of pregnant women during 18-24th-week gestation.Culture success rate of the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.05).Amniotic fluid cell culture time of the experimental group than the control group short (P < 0.001).Effective mitotic count of the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.001).In 152 samples of pregnant women during 25-32th-week gestation,Culture success rate of the experimental group than the control group (P <0.01),Amniotic fluid cell culture time of the experimental group than the control group short (P < 0.001).Effective mitotic count of the experimental group than the control group (P < 0.001).Conclusion:Amniotic fluid pretreatment in amniotic fluid cell

  20. ROLE OF ECHOGENIC AMNIOTIC FLUID PARTICLES AND OPTICAL DENSITY IN PREDICTION OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME AND LABOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shankar H S Ram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to correlate echogenic amniotic fluid particle size (AFPS in late third trimester to fetal lung maturity and amniotic fluid optical density (AFOD at labor. AFPS were measured with specified criteria by real time transabdominal USG (3.5MHz while Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI was measured during routine antenatal visits. The criteria for AFPS score which are taken into account are the amniotic fluid particle size, number and distribution. Serial AFPS measurements were done till onset of labor. AFPS was correlated to AFOD value at spontaneous labor in 123 women. Uncentrifuged fresh amniotic fluid samples were obtained during ARM/amniotomy and used for AFOD estimation at 650 nm. The mean AFPS and AFOD at onset of labor was found to be 5.14 ± 0.69 mm (3.67 – 6.7 CI 95% and 1.03 ± 0.31 (0.35 -1.69 CI 95% respectively in 116 women who delivered normal babies devoid of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Serial AFPS measurements showed a definite AFOD surge after a value in the region of 3.8 mm which is obtained culminating in onset of Labor. 28 women (24.1% had dense clusters of free floating particles across the vertical pool in amniotic fluid with mean AFPS and AFOD of 5.6 ± 0.68 mm and 1.12 ± 0.21 respectively. In 123 women, AFPS < 3.8 mm had sensitivity of 85.74% and positive predictive value of 66.67% in predicting RDS. AFPS serves as a sonological marker for fetal lung maturity and labor. The range of AFOD values can be measured in terms of AFPS (r =0.6, F = 69.8, β= + 0.23, p < 0.001. Serial AFPS estimation predicts fetal maturity and onset of labor.

  1. A new set of primers for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid using polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelloux, H; Weiss, J; Simon, J; Muet, F; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Goullier-Fleuret, A; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1996-04-15

    A new PCR system including a pair of primers, a probe and an internal control were designed from the B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii. The system described allowed the detection of less than 10 tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii. Among 21 amniotic fluid samples, this system diagnosed the cases of congenital toxoplasmosis which were simultaneously diagnosed using mice inoculation, in vitro culture, and serology from both amniotic fluid and fetal blood. These results show that these new primers allow for a highly sensitive detection of T. gondii DNA.

  2. Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells: A Novel Source for Modeling of Human Genetic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Antonucci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the use of Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS for modeling of human genetic diseases, due to the possibility of reprogramming somatic cells of affected patients into pluripotent cells, enabling differentiation into several cell types, and allowing investigations into the molecular mechanisms of the disease. However, the protocol of iPS generation still suffers from technical limitations, showing low efficiency, being expensive and time consuming. Amniotic Fluid Stem cells (AFS represent a potential alternative novel source of stem cells for modeling of human genetic diseases. In fact, by means of prenatal diagnosis, a number of fetuses affected by chromosomal or Mendelian diseases can be identified, and the amniotic fluid collected for genetic testing can be used, after diagnosis, for the isolation, culture and differentiation of AFS cells. This can provide a useful stem cell model for the investigation of the molecular basis of the diagnosed disease without the necessity of producing iPS, since AFS cells show some features of pluripotency and are able to differentiate in cells derived from all three germ layers “in vitro”. In this article, we describe the potential benefits provided by using AFS cells in the modeling of human genetic diseases.

  3. Human amniotic fluid contaminants alter thyroid hormone signalling and early brain development in Xenopus embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Jean-Baptiste; Mughal, Bilal B.; Le Mével, Sébastien; Leemans, Michelle; Lettmann, Mélodie; Spirhanzlova, Petra; Affaticati, Pierre; Jenett, Arnim; Demeneix, Barbara A.

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development in vertebrates. In humans, abnormal maternal thyroid hormone levels during early pregnancy are associated with decreased offspring IQ and modified brain structure. As numerous environmental chemicals disrupt thyroid hormone signalling, we questioned whether exposure to ubiquitous chemicals affects thyroid hormone responses during early neurogenesis. We established a mixture of 15 common chemicals at concentrations reported in human amniotic fluid. An in vivo larval reporter (GFP) assay served to determine integrated thyroid hormone transcriptional responses. Dose-dependent effects of short-term (72 h) exposure to single chemicals and the mixture were found. qPCR on dissected brains showed significant changes in thyroid hormone-related genes including receptors, deiodinases and neural differentiation markers. Further, exposure to mixture also modified neural proliferation as well as neuron and oligodendrocyte size. Finally, exposed tadpoles showed behavioural responses with dose-dependent reductions in mobility. In conclusion, exposure to a mixture of ubiquitous chemicals at concentrations found in human amniotic fluid affect thyroid hormone-dependent transcription, gene expression, brain development and behaviour in early embryogenesis. As thyroid hormone signalling is strongly conserved across vertebrates the results suggest that ubiquitous chemical mixtures could be exerting adverse effects on foetal human brain development.

  4. Human amniotic fluid contaminants alter thyroid hormone signalling and early brain development in Xenopus embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Jean-Baptiste; Mughal, Bilal B.; Le Mével, Sébastien; Leemans, Michelle; Lettmann, Mélodie; Spirhanzlova, Petra; Affaticati, Pierre; Jenett, Arnim; Demeneix, Barbara A.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development in vertebrates. In humans, abnormal maternal thyroid hormone levels during early pregnancy are associated with decreased offspring IQ and modified brain structure. As numerous environmental chemicals disrupt thyroid hormone signalling, we questioned whether exposure to ubiquitous chemicals affects thyroid hormone responses during early neurogenesis. We established a mixture of 15 common chemicals at concentrations reported in human amniotic fluid. An in vivo larval reporter (GFP) assay served to determine integrated thyroid hormone transcriptional responses. Dose-dependent effects of short-term (72 h) exposure to single chemicals and the mixture were found. qPCR on dissected brains showed significant changes in thyroid hormone-related genes including receptors, deiodinases and neural differentiation markers. Further, exposure to mixture also modified neural proliferation as well as neuron and oligodendrocyte size. Finally, exposed tadpoles showed behavioural responses with dose-dependent reductions in mobility. In conclusion, exposure to a mixture of ubiquitous chemicals at concentrations found in human amniotic fluid affect thyroid hormone-dependent transcription, gene expression, brain development and behaviour in early embryogenesis. As thyroid hormone signalling is strongly conserved across vertebrates the results suggest that ubiquitous chemical mixtures could be exerting adverse effects on foetal human brain development. PMID:28266608

  5. Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsche Connell, Jennifer; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that a population of stem cells can be isolated from amniotic fluid removed by amniocentesis that are broadly multipotent and nontumorogenic. These amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC) could potentially provide an autologous cell source for treatment of congenital defects identified during gestation, particularly cardiovascular defects. In this review, the various methods of isolating, sorting, and culturing AFSC are compared, along with techniques for inducing differentiation into cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells. Although research has not demonstrated complete and high-yield cardiac differentiation, AFSC have been shown to effectively differentiate into endothelial cells and can effectively support cardiac tissue. Additionally, several tissue engineering and regenerative therapeutic approaches for the use of these cells in heart patches, injection after myocardial infarction, heart valves, vascularized scaffolds, and blood vessels are summarized. These applications show great promise in the treatment of congenital cardiovascular defects, and further studies of isolation, culture, and differentiation of AFSC will help to develop their use for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and cardiovascular therapies. PMID:23350771

  6. Treatment of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin in maternal serum and amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzl, R; Sodeck, G; Platzer, P; Jäger, W; Graf, J; Pollak, A; Thalhammer, T

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy is widely treated with oral spiramycin to reduce the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis in the infant. Failures of therapy have been observed, however. In this study, a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography technique was used to measure concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin, one of the major metabolites of spiramycin, in maternal serum and amniotic fluid. Samples were obtained from 18 women who underwent amniocentesis for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of fetal infection 5-109 days following the prescription of spiramycin therapy (3 g/day). Concentrations of spiramycin and neospiramycin in both serum and amniotic fluid were highly variable, ranging from nondetectable values to 1 microg/ml. None of the concentrations measured were within the range reported to inhibit growth of the parasite in vitro. Consistent with previous reports, part of the observed variability in maternal and fetal drug concentrations could be explained by individual differences in several pharmacokinetic parameters: intestinal absorption, tissue distribution, cellular uptake, metabolism, transfer across the placenta, drug accumulation in fetal tissue, and maternal and fetal drug elimination. The heterogeneity of the data could also be related to differences in patient compliance with the medication prescribed. By addressing factors that could impair adequate treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, the data presented call for a larger-scale controlled study to determine individual and diurnal variations in maternal drug levels, patient compliance, and outcomes of the offspring. The activity of neospiramycin against Toxoplasma gondii should be assessed.

  7. AFM studies of cellular mechanics during osteogenic differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, Pan; Chen, Jia-Nan; Cai, Ji-Ye; Cai, Xiao-Fang; Ding, Hui; Pan, Yun-Long

    2010-01-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) are becoming an important source of cells for regenerative medicine given with apparent advantages of accessibility, renewal capacity and multipotentiality. In this study, the mechanical properties of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), such as the average Young's modulus, were determined by atomic force microscopy (3.97 ± 0.53 kPa for hAFSCs vs. 1.52 ± 0.63 kPa for fully differentiated osteoblasts). These differences in cell elasticity result primarily from differential actin cytoskeleton organization in these two cell types. Furthermore, ultrastructures, nanostructural details on the surface of cell, were visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was clearly shown that surface of osteoblasts were covered by mineralized particles, and the histogram of particles size showed that most of the particles on the surface of osteoblasts distributed from 200 to 400 nm in diameter, while the diameter of hAFSCs particles ranged from 100 to 200 nm. In contrast, there were some dips on the surface of hAFSCs, and particles were smaller than that of osteoblasts. Additionally, as osteogenic differentiation of hAFSCs progressed, more and more stress fibers were replaced by a thinner actin network which is characteristic of mature osteoblasts. These results can improve our understanding of the mechanical properties of hAFSCs during osteogenic differentiation. AFM can be used as a powerful tool for detecting ultrastructures and mechanical properties.

  8. The effect of electromagnetic radiation of wireless connections on morphology of amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Vsevolod O.; Titova, Natalia; Azarhov, Olexand; Wójcik, Waldemar; GrÄ dz, Å.»aklin; Mussabekova, Assel

    2016-09-01

    The article considers the effect of wireless networks on the morphology of amniotic fluid (AF) to demonstrate possible risks involving pregnant women. The analysis of AF thesiograms after exposure of the model fluid to Wi-Fi, 3G and β- radiation was chosen as the research method. A comparative analysis of facies structures is carried out, and depth maps of the facies structure are created. This comparative analysis permits an evaluation of the efficiency of morphological changes. It is shown that AF control facies differ in the concentration of areas with a narrow peripheral area and ellipsoidal formations of crystalloids in circumferences center. After exposure of different types of radiation onto AF, the facies structures collapse and form their own conglomerates. The obtained results show that the considered types of radiation have a negative effect on AF.

  9. Antenatal diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency by quantification of pterins in amniotic fluid and enzyme activity in fetal and extrafetal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, N; Kierat, L; Matasovic, A; Leimbacher, W; Heizmann, C W; Guardamagna, O; Ponzone, A

    1994-05-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency was undertaken by evaluating the pterin patterns in amniotic fluid and the specific enzyme activities in fetal or extrafetal tissues. This allowed the prenatal diagnosis in 19 pregnancies at risk. In 8 families with a child already affected by dihydropteridine reductase deficiency 4 fetuses were diagnosed as homozygotes and 4 as heterozygotes for the defect. In 11 families with a child affected by 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency 4 fetuses were homozygous, 4 heterozygous and 3 normal. This study also advanced our knowledge of tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism during fetal development. The key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of BH4 are expressed early and allow the fetus to be autotrophous for its cofactor requirement. In a twin pregnancy, both fetuses were diagnosed to be heterozygotes for dihydropteridine reductase deficiency and primapterin (7-biopterin) in amniotic fluid was increased. This indicates that pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase activity seems to be differently expressed during fetal life. As a consequence, pterins detected in amniotic fluid are of fetal origin and 6- and 7-substituted pterins can be present in amniotic fluid in higher proportions when compared with other body fluids.

  10. Tandem fluid queues fed by homogeneous on-off sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Aalto, Samuli

    2000-01-01

    We consider a tandem fluid model with multiple consecutive buffers. The input of buffer j+1 is the output from buffer j, while the first buffer is fed by a, possibly infinite, number of independent homogeneous on–off sources. The sources have exponentially distributed silent periods and generally di

  11. Chest computed tomography of a patient revealing severe hypoxia due to amniotic fluid embolism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui Daisuke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amniotic fluid embolism is one of the most severe complications in the peripartum period. Because its onset is abrupt and fulminant, it is unlikely that there will be time to examine the condition using thoracic computed tomography (CT. We report a case of life-threatening amniotic fluid embolism, where chest CT in the acute phase was obtained. Case presentation A 22-year-old Asian Japanese primiparous woman was suspected of having an amniotic fluid embolism. After a Cesarean section for cephalopelvic disproportion, her respiratory condition deteriorated. Her chest CT images were examined. CT findings revealed diffuse homogeneous ground-glass shadow in her bilateral peripheral lung fields. She was therefore transferred to our hospital. On admission to our hospital's intensive care unit, she was found to have severe hypoxemia, with SpO2 of 50% with a reservoir mask of 15 L/min oxygen. She was intubated with the support of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. She was successfully extubated on the sixth day, and discharged from the hospital on the twentieth day. Conclusion This is the first case report describing amniotic fluid embolism in which CT revealed an acute respiratory distress syndrome-like shadow.

  12. S100B protein expression in the amnion and amniotic fluid in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskitishvili, E; Komoto, Y; Temma-Asano, K; Hayashi, S; Kinugasa, Y; Tsubouchi, H; Song, M; Kanagawa, T; Shimoya, K; Murata, Y

    2006-12-01

    Our aim was to investigate the expression of S100B protein in the amnion and to assess the amniotic fluid concentration in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. Samples were obtained from women who developed pre-eclampsia (n = 7), pre-eclampsia with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) (n = 4), normotensive IUGR (n = 7) and gestational hypertension (n = 4) during pregnancy and healthy controls who delivered at term (n = 35). To determine the difference in the expression of S100B in the amnion, we performed immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we assessed the S100B concentration in amniotic fluid. The S100B mRNA expression in the amnion of pre-eclamptic patients and patients with pre-eclampsia with IUGR was significantly higher than that in the control. The amniotic fluid S100B protein concentration of the pre-eclampsia and normotensive IUGR cases was significantly higher than that of the control. This study shows that amnion could be a source responsible for the increased concentration of S100B in amniotic fluid. In pre-eclampsia, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by oxidative stress. Some pathological conditions that develop during pregnancy and are related to hypoxic stress can affect the elevation of S100B concentration in the amnion.

  13. Are myo-inositol, glucose and zinc concentrations in amniotic fluid of fetuses with spina bifida different from controls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.; Wevers, R.A.; Janssen, F.; Tuerlings, J.H.A.M.; Merkus, J.M.W.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Associations are reported between myo-inositol, glucose, zinc and the occurrence of spina bifida. To gain more insight into the pathogenesis of spina bifida, the concentrations of myo-inositol, glucose and zinc were determined in amniotic fluids from pregnancies with a spina bifida or

  14. The IgG avidity value for the prediction of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Kenji; Nishikawa, Akira; Tairaku, Shinya; Shinozaki, Nanae; Deguchi, Masashi; Morizane, Mayumi; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Morioka, Ichiro; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-09-01

    Primary Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection during pregnancy may lead to congenital toxoplasmosis. Maternal screening using T. gondii IgG avidity measurement and multiplex nested PCR was performed. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine a cut-off value of IgG avidity index (AI) for the prediction of the presence of T. gondii DNA in the amniotic fluid. One hundred thirty-nine women with positive or equivocal tests for IgM underwent both serum IgG avidity measurement and PCR analysis for the amniotic fluid. Nine had positive PCR results, and three of them were diagnosed as having congenital infection. A cut-off value of IgG AI was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. IgG AI (mean 13%) in women with positive PCR results was significantly lower than that (39%) in women with negative results. A cut-off value of amniotic fluid. None of women with IgG AI of ≥30% had a positive PCR result or congenital infection. This study firstly demonstrated that a cut-off value of 25-30% IgG AI might be useful for the prediction of the presence of T. gondii DNA in the amniotic fluid and congenital infection.

  15. Characterisation of non-maternal serum proteins in amniotic fluid at weeks 16 to 18 of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drøhse, H; Christensen, H; Myrhøj, Vibeke;

    1998-01-01

    Proteins found in amniotic fluid are mainly serum proteins, probably of maternal origin. About 5% of the total protein concentration has the potential of being fetal or decidual in origin. Only a few of these proteins have been isolated and characterised. In order to describe the foetal and decid...

  16. Human gut colonisation may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Rautava, Samuli; Aakko, Juhani; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-03-22

    Interaction with intestinal microbes in infancy has a profound impact on health and disease in later life through programming of immune and metabolic pathways. We collected maternal faeces, placenta, amniotic fluid, colostrum, meconium and infant faeces samples from 15 mother-infant pairs in an effort to rigorously investigate prenatal and neonatal microbial transfer and gut colonisation. To ensure sterile sampling, only deliveries at full term by elective caesarean section were studied. Microbiota composition and activity assessment by conventional bacterial culture, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, quantitative PCR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the placenta and amniotic fluid harbour a distinct microbiota characterised by low richness, low diversity and the predominance of Proteobacteria. Shared features between the microbiota detected in the placenta and amniotic fluid and in infant meconium suggest microbial transfer at the foeto-maternal interface. At the age of 3-4 days, the infant gut microbiota composition begins to resemble that detected in colostrum. Based on these data, we propose that the stepwise microbial gut colonisation process may be initiated already prenatally by a distinct microbiota in the placenta and amniotic fluid. The link between the mother and the offspring is continued after birth by microbes present in breast milk.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: comparative value of fetal blood and amniotic fluid using serological techniques and cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Pelloux, H; Muet, F; Racinet, C; Bost, M; Goullier-Fleuret, A; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1997-09-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is mainly based on biological tests performed on fetal blood and amniotic fluid. We studied the performance of neonatal diagnosis procedures and the results of fetal blood and amniotic fluid analysis. Of 127 women who contracted toxoplasmosis and underwent prenatal diagnosis, the postnatal serological follow-up was long enough to definitively diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis in 19 cases and to exclude it in 27 cases. Prenatal diagnosis allowed the detection of 94.7 per cent (18/19) of the infected fetuses. The sensitivities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were equivalent, 88.2 per cent (15/17) and 87.5 per cent (14/16), respectively. In fetal blood, biological techniques were positive in 12/16 cases and in 2/16 cases, serological tests were the only positive sign. The specificities of tests in amniotic fluid and fetal blood were respectively 100 per cent (23/23) and 86.3 per cent (19/22) (three false-positive serological results). These results, added to the lower morbidity of amniocentesis compared with cordocentesis, might lead to cordocentesis being abandoned in the prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  18. The Salivary Scavenger and Agglutinin in Early Life: Diverse Roles in Amniotic Fluid and in the Infant Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichhardt, M.P.; Jarva, H.; Been, de M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Quintana, E.J.; Loimaranta, V.; Vos, de W.M.; Meri, S.

    2014-01-01

    The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as gp340 and dmbt1, is an antimicrobial and inflammation-regulating molecule located at the mucosal surfaces. The present study revealed that SALSA was present in the amniotic fluid (AF) and exceptionally enriched in both meconium and feces o

  19. The origin of fetal sterols in second-trimester amniotic fluid : endogenous synthesis or maternal-fetal transport?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, Maria E.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S.; Luetjohann, Dieter; Plosch, Torsten; Lutjohann, D.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cholesterol is crucial for fetal development. To gain more insight into the origin of the fetal cholesterol pool in early human pregnancy, we determined cholesterol and its precursors in the amniotic fluid of uncomplicated, singleton human pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: Total sterols were cha

  20. Aquaporins in ovine amnion: responses to altered amniotic fluid volumes and intramembranous absorption rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Cecilia Y; Anderson, Debra F; Brace, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid water movement across cell membranes. In amniotic membrane, the AQP-facilitated transfer of water across amnion cells has been proposed as a mechanism for amniotic fluid volume (AFV) regulation. To investigate whether AQPs modulate AFV by altering intramembranous absorption (IMA) rate, we tested the hypothesis that AQP gene expression in the amnion is positively correlated with IMA rate during experimental conditions when IMA rate and AFV are modified over a wide range. The relative abundances of AQP1, AQP3, AQP8, AQP9, and AQP11 mRNA and protein were determined in the amnion of 16 late-gestation ovine fetuses subjected to 2 days of control conditions, urine drainage, urine replacement, or intraamniotic fluid infusion. AQP mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR and proteins by western immunoblot. Under control conditions, mRNA levels among the five AQPs differed more than 20-fold. During experimental treatments, mean IMA rate in the experimental groups ranged from 100 ± 120 mL/day to 1370 ± 270 mL/day. The mRNA levels of the five AQPs did not change from control and were not correlated with IMA rates. The protein levels of AQP1 were positively correlated with IMA rates (r(2) = 38%, P = 0.01) while the remaining four AQPs were not. These findings demonstrate that five AQPs are differentially expressed in ovine amnion. Our study supports the hypothesis that AQP1 may play a positive role in regulating the rate of fluid transfer across the amnion, thereby participating in the dynamic regulation of AFV.

  1. The development of a radioimmunoassay for reverse triiodothyronine sulfate in human serum and amniotic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sing-Yung (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Long Beach, CA (United States)); Huang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Lian (Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)); Polk, D.; Reviczky, A.; Williams, J. III; Chopra, I.J.; Fisher, D.A. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Sulfated iodothyronines including T[sub 4]-sulfate (T[sub 4]S) and T[sub 3]-sulfate (T[sub 3]S) have been identified in human serum and amniotic fluid. Little is know, however, about the existence of sulfate conjugation of reverse T[sub 3] (rT[sub 3]S) in man. In this report, the authors employed a novel, sensitive, and specific rT[sub 3]S RIA to address this question. The rabbit antiserum to rT[sub 3]S was highly specific; T[sub 4], T[sub 3], rT[sub 3], and 3,3'-T[sub 2] showed less than 0.002% cross-reaction with the antiserum. Only T[sub 4]S and T[sub 3]S cross-reacted significantly (0.3% and 0.01%, respectively); other analogs cross-reacted less than 0.0001%. The detection threshold of the RIA was 14 pmol/L (1.0 ng/dL). The mean serum rT[sub 3]S concentration (pmol/L) was 40 in euthyroid subjects. Values were similar in hypothyroid patients (38) and pregnant women (52) but significantly (P < 0.01) elevated to 176 in hyperthyroid patient, 74 in patients with nonthyroid illnesses, and 684 in cord sera of newborns. Serum rT[sub 3]S increased significantly in hyperthyroid patients 1 day after administration of 1 g sodium ipodate orally. Reverse T[sub 3]S was detected consistently in amniotic fluid at 14 to 22 weeks of gestation and showed a marked rise 1-3 weeks after intraamniotic administration of 500-1000 [mu]g T[sub 4]. The various data suggest that : (1) rT[sub 3]S is a normal component of human serum and amniotic fluid; (2) it is derived from metabolism of T[sub 4] or rT[sub 3]; (3) circulating rT[sub 3]S increases in hyperthyroidism and in circumstances where type I 5'-monodeiodinating activity is low, e.g. nonthyroid illnesses, fetal life, and after administration of ipodate. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  2. ROLE OF AMNIOINFUSION ON NEONATAL OUTCOME IN CASES WITH MECONIUMSTAINED AMNIOTIC FLUID

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    K. Chandramathy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Amnioinfusion is thought to dilute meconium present in the amniotic fluid and so reduce the risk of meconium aspiration in newborn. AIM The effect of amnioinfusion in meconium-stained amniotic fluid in reducing the incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome, hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and perinatal mortality in newborn. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and NICU at Government Medical College, Kozhikode, in a time duration of one year from January 2014 to December 2014. This is a prospective case control study. We have studied 210 antenatal women admitted to the labour room with grade 2/3 meconium-stained amniotic fluid after 36 weeks of gestation. Amnioinfusion was given in 140 cases and 70 cases given standard care. Patients were monitored with electronic foetal heart monitoring and caesarean section was done in case of foetal distress or those who are in early labour. There was no significant difference between study group and control group according to age, parity, gestational age, presence of complications like hypertension/pre-eclampsia, post-dated pregnancy, anaemia, etc. RESULTS Foetal heart rate decelerations occurred in 27 out of 140 cases (19% in the study group and 23 out of 70 (33% in control group (P <0.05. NEONATAL OUTCOME In our study those who received amnioinfusion, only 19% delivered babies with APGAR <9 at 1’ while those who do not received, 36% delivered babies with APGAR <9 at 1’ (P value of 0.009. Meconium aspiration syndrome occurred in 2.1% of cases in the infusion group and 11.4% in the non-infusion group (P<0.005. Respiratory distress was markedly reduced in amnioinfusion group 28% compared to 63% in controls (P=0.002. NICU admissions were 64% in control group compared to 22% in amnioinfusion group. Perinatal mortality and hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy in the infusion group were nil as compared to 7% and 11% in the control group

  3. Amniotic fluid amino acid levels in non-immune hydrops fetalis: a case-control study

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    M. Erdemoğlu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective case-control study, we compared the amniotic fluid amino acid levels in non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF and normal fetuses. Eighty fetuses underwent amniocentesis for different reasons at the prenatal diagnosis unit of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University. Forty of these fetuses were diagnosed with NIHF. The study included 40 women each in the NIHF (mean age: 27.69 ± 4.56 years and control (27.52 ± 5.49 years groups, who had abnormal double- or triple-screening test values with normal fetuses with gestational ages of 23.26 ± 1.98 and 23.68 ± 1.49 weeks at the time of sample collection, respectively. Amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations (intra-assay variation: 2.26-7.85%; interassay variation: 3.45-8.22% were measured using EZ:faast kits (EZ:faast GC/FID free (physiological amino acid kit; Phenomenex, USA by gas chromatography. The standard for quantitation was a mixture of free amino acids from Phenomenex. The levels of 21 amino acids were measured. The mean phosphoserine and serine levels were significantly lower in the NIHF group, while the taurine, α-aminoadipic acid (aaa, glycine, cysteine, NH4, and arginine (Arg levels were significantly higher compared to control. Significant risk variables for the NIHF group and odds coefficients were obtained using a binary logistic regression method. The respective odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk variables phosphoserine, taurine, aaa, Arg, and NH4 were 3.31 (1.84-5.97, 2.45 (1.56-3.86, 1.78 (1.18-2.68, 2.18 (1.56-3.04, and 2.41 (1.66-3.49, respectively. The significant difference between NIHF and control fetuses suggests that the amniotic fluid levels of some amino acids may be useful for the diagnosis of NIHF.

  4. Proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid in premature labor using two-dimensional liquid separation and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, Emmanuel; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Gotsch, Francesca; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Gomez, Ricardo; Espinoza, Jimmy; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kim, Yeon Mee; Edwin, Samuel; Pisano, Mike; Allen, Beth; Podust, Vladimir N.; Dalmasso, Enrique A.; Rutherford, Jennifer; Rogers, Wade; Moser, Allan; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Barder, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Objective Simultaneous analysis of the protein composition of biological fluids is now possible. Such an approach can be used to identify biological markers of disease and to understand the pathophysiology of disorders that have eluded classification, diagnosis, and treatment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in protein composition in amniotic fluid of patients in preterm labor. Study Design Amniotic fluid was obtained by amniocenteses from three groups of women with preterm labor and intact membranes: (1) women without intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) who delivered at term; (2) women without intra-amniotic IAI who delivered a preterm neonate; and (3) women with IAI. Intra-amniotic infection was defined as a positive amniotic fluid culture for microorganisms. Intra-amniotic inflammation was defined as an elevated amniotic fluid interleukin (IL)-6 (≥2.3 ng/mL). Two-dimensional (2D) chromatography was used for analysis. The first dimension separated proteins by isoelectric point, while the second, by the degree of hydrophobicity. 2D protein maps were generated using different experimental conditions (reducing agents as well as protein concentration). The maps were used to discern subsets of isoelectric point/hydrophobicity containing differentially expressed proteins. Protein identification of differentially expressed fractions was conducted with mass spectrometry. ELISA immunoassays as well as surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS)--based on-chip antibody capture immunoassay were also used for confirmation of a specific protein that was differentially expressed. Results 1) Amniotic fluid protein composition can be analyzed using a combination of 2D liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for the identification of proteins differentially expressed in patients in preterm labor; 2) While total insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) concentration did not change

  5. Amniotic fluid deficiency and congenital abnormalities both influence fluctuating asymmetry in developing limbs of human deceased fetuses.

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    Clara Mariquita Antoinette ten Broek

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, as an indirect measure of developmental instability (DI, has been intensively studied for associations with stress and fitness. Patterns, however, appear heterogeneous and the underlying causes remain largely unknown. One aspect that has received relatively little attention in the literature is the consequence of direct mechanical effects on asymmetries. The crucial prerequisite for FA to reflect DI is that environmental conditions on both sides should be identical. This condition may be violated during early human development if amniotic fluid volume is deficient, as the resulting mechanical pressures may increase asymmetries. Indeed, we showed that limb bones of deceased human fetuses exhibited increased asymmetry, when there was not sufficient amniotic fluid (and, thus, space in the uterine cavity. As amniotic fluid deficiency is known to cause substantial asymmetries and abnormal limb development, these subtle asymmetries are probably at least in part caused by the mechanical pressures. On the other hand, deficiencies in amniotic fluid volume are known to be associated with other congenital abnormalities that may disturb DI. More specifically, urogenital abnormalities can directly affect/reduce amniotic fluid volume. We disentangled the direct mechanical effects on FA from the indirect effects of urogenital abnormalities, the latter presumably representing DI. We discovered that both factors contributed significantly to the increase in FA. However, the direct mechanical effect of uterine pressure, albeit statistically significant, appeared less important than the effects of urogenital abnormalities, with an effect size only two-third as large. We, thus, conclude that correcting for the relevant direct factors allowed for a representative test of the association between DI and stress, and confirmed that fetuses form a suitable model system to increase our understanding in patterns of FA and symmetry development.

  6. Clinical analysis of atypical amniotic fluid embolism%不典型羊水栓塞的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷思珍; 杨龙慧

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不典型羊水栓塞的症状、诱发因素、治疗效果及转归。方法:收治羊水栓塞患者14例,11例初期症状不典型,分析其病因、临床表现、诊断、治疗及预后。结果:14例中有3例典型羊水栓塞,其中2例死亡,另外11例不典型病例均抢救成功。结论:注意羊水栓塞的前驱症状,早发现,早诊断,早治疗,寻找支持诊断的依据,是羊水栓塞患者抢救成功的关键。%Objective:To explore the symptoms,inducing factors,treatment effect and outcome of atypical amniotic fluid embolism. Methods:14 patients with amniotic fluid embolism were selected.The early stage symptoms of 11 cases were not typical.The causes,clinical manifestations,diagnosis,treatment and prognosis were analyzed.Results:3 cases were typical amniotic fluid embolism in 14 cases,including 2 cases of died,other 11 cases of atypical cases were rescued successfully.Conclusion:Paying attention to the premonitory symptoms of amniotic fluid embolism,early detection,early diagnosis,early treatment and looking for the basis of support for diagnosis are the keys to the successful rescue of patients with amniotic fluid embolism.

  7. 羊水栓塞临床救治分析%Amniotic fluid embolism analysis to clinical treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危卫萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨预防羊水栓塞的诱发因素及其临床诊断和救治方法。方法:回顾近3年来我院发生4例孕产妇羊水栓塞诊断、抢救、治疗过程。结果:在我国,羊水栓塞死亡已经成为分娩孕产妇死亡的第二大原因;羊水栓塞发病诱因主要有宫缩过强、急产、胎膜早破、羊水浑浊、高龄初产、多产、前置胎盘、胎盘早剥、剖宫产等。结论:及早诊断、尽早治疗,抢救治疗正确,是成功的关键。%Objective to study the prevention of amniotic fluid embolism induced factors and clinical diagnosis and treatment methods.Methods to review the recent 3 years in our 4 cases of maternal amniotic fluid embolism diagnosis, rescue and treatment process.Results in our country, amniotic fluid embolism death has become the second leading cause of maternal death childbirth;Amniotic fluid embolism the triggers are too strong, the emergency birth contractions, premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid turbidity, older first-timer, productive, placenta previa, placental abruption, cesarean section, etc.Conclusion early diagnosis, early treatment, rescue treatment, the right is the key to success.

  8. Amniotic Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines: Potential Markers of Immunologic Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy. Methods: AF samples of 331 ASD cases and 698......: Overall, individuals with ASD had significantly elevated AF levels of TNF-α and TNF-β compared to controls. Analyzing individuals diagnosed only with ICD-10 codes yielded significantly elevated levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α and TNF-β in ASD patients. Restricting analysis to infantile autism cases yielded...... significantly elevated levels of IL-4, TNF-α and TNF-β compared to controls with no psychiatric comorbidities. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-5 were found in individuals with other childhood psychiatric disorders (OCPD) when compared to controls with no psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusions: AF samples...

  9. Role of gastric lavage in vigorous neonates born with meconium stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameta, Gaurav; Upadhyay, Amit; Gothwal, Sunil; Singh, Kuldeep; Dubey, Kirti; Gupta, Abhilasha

    2013-03-01

    To compare reduction in incidence of feed intolerance in neonates born with meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) by use of gastric lavage to those who did not receive lavage. This Randomized controlled trial was conducted in all vigorous newborns delivered through MSAF, with birth weight ≥1800 g and gestation ≥34 wk. In the lavage group, gastric lavage with 10 ml/kg of normal saline was done. Twelve neonates in the lavage group (n = 124) developed feed intolerance compared to 16 neonates in control group (n = 120), (p = .309; OR 0.69; 95%CI 0.27-1.58). No difference in any other morbidity was noted. Gastric lavage in neonates with MSAF does not reduce feed intolerance, irrespective of thickness of MSAF and it confers no advantages.

  10. Trace element determination in amniotic fluid by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaves, E.D.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Castelli, C.; Borgerg, C. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); Meitin, J.; Liendo, J.

    1995-03-01

    A new method is reported for the determination of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Br in amniotic fluid (AF) by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence. The irradiation of AF samples with monochromatic X-Rays reduces the scattering background from the organic matrix and avoids the need for sample digestion. Sample manipulation is reduced to centrifuging and adding cobalt as internal standard. Lower detection limits obtained are 109, 53, 44 and 37 ppb for Fe, Cu, Zn and Br respectively. Measurement precision depends on element concentrations and can be as low as 1.5% SD. Results of the analysis of 34 AF samples from Venezuelan pregnant patients agree with previously reported ranges of Fe, Cu and Zn. Other elements observed but not quantified are Cl, K, Ca in all spectra and Pb and Sr in some of them. (author).

  11. Human and murine amniotic fluid c-Kit+Lin- cells display hematopoietic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditadi, Andrea; de Coppi, Paolo; Picone, Olivier; Gautreau, Laetitia; Smati, Rim; Six, Emmanuelle; Bonhomme, Delphine; Ezine, Sophie; Frydman, René; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; André-Schmutz, Isabelle

    2009-04-23

    We have isolated c-Kit(+)Lin(-) cells from both human and murine amniotic fluid (AF) and investigated their hematopoietic potential. In vitro, the c-Kit(+)Lin(-) population in both species displayed a multilineage hematopoietic potential, as demonstrated by the generation of erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid cells. In vivo, cells belonging to all 3 hematopoietic lineages were found after primary and secondary transplantation of murine c-Kit(+)Lin(-) cells into immunocompromised hosts, thus demonstrating the ability of these cells to self-renew. Gene expression analysis of c-Kit(+) cells isolated from murine AF confirmed these results. The presence of cells with similar characteristics in the surrounding amnion indicates the possible origin of AF c-Kit(+)Lin(-) cells. This is the first report showing that cells isolated from the AF do have hematopoietic potential; our results support the idea that AF may be a new source of stem cells for therapeutic applications.

  12. Odor-induced crawling locomotion in the newborn rat: Effects of amniotic fluid and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Gallardo, Valerie; Robinson, Scott R

    2014-04-01

    Early locomotion in the neonatal rat previously has been reported 3 days after birth during exposure to an odor of biological relevance (nest material). The current study explores if other ecologically relevant stimuli-amniotic fluid (AF) and milk-could evoke a similar locomotor response in the newborn rat and whether the endogenous opioid system mediates the response. Newborn rats tested 24 hr after birth were presented with the odors of AF or milk while placed in a runway. Pups expressed crawling and moved along the runway in response to direct exposure to the odors of AF and milk (Exp. 1). However, there was no evidence that this crawling response was altered after pretreatment with the opioid antagonist naloxone (Exp. 2). This study provides evidence of the capacity of AF and milk to evoke coordinated motor behavior, suggesting that they may play a role in the development of fundamental motor patterns.

  13. Modulation of intestinal inflammation by minimal enteral nutrition with amniotic fluid in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette V; Bering, Stine Brandt; Jensen, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder, associated with the difficult transition from parenteral to enteral feeding after preterm birth. We hypothesized that minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) with amniotic fluid (AF), prior to enteral formula feeding, would...... improve resistance to NEC in preterm pigs. Methods: Experiment 1: IEC-6 cells were incubated with porcine (pAF) and human AF (hAF) to test AF-stimulated enterocyte proliferation and migration in vitro. Experiment 2: Cesarean-delivered, preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition and MEN with pAF, h...... fed AF as MEN, but NEC incidences were similar (NEC-pAF) or increased (NEC-hAF) compared with controls. Conclusions: Intake of pAF or hAF improved body growth and modulated intestinal inflammatory cytokines during a period of parenteral nutrition, but did not protect against later formula-induced NEC...

  14. STUDY OF AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX AT THE ONSET OF LABOUR ON PERINATAL OUTCOME

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    Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study is to determine amniotic fluid index in labour and to assess the course of labour, mode of delivery and perinatal outcome in relation to AFI. Objective of the study is the early detection of fetal distress and prevention of neonatal morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada from October, 2011 to October 2013, to evaluate perinatal outcome in relation to AFI with a gestational age between 37 - 42 weeks. AFI was measured and the perinatal o utcome compared between three groups. The cesarean section rate for fetal distress and low birth weight babies, <2.5 kgs was higher in patients with oligohydroamnios. There was a significant difference in meconium staining, APGAR at 1 & 5 mins <7 at the time of birth between three groups. Oligohydroamnios has a significant correlation with cesarean section for fetal distress and low birth weight babies.

  15. Therapeutic outcomes of transplantation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in experimental ischemic stroke

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    Naoki eTajiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating preclinical evidence suggests the use of amnion as a source of stem cells for investigations of basic science concepts related to developmental cell biology, but also for stem cells’ therapeutic applications in treating human disorders. We previously reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS cells. Subsequently, we recently reported the therapeutic benefits of intravenous transplantation of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Parallel lines of investiagtions have provided safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for treating stroke and other neurological disorders. This review article highlights characterization of AFS cells’ phenotype and their transplant-mediated functional effects, the need for investigations of mechanisms underlying AFS cells’ therapeutic benefits and discusses lab-to-clinic translational gating items in an effort to optimize the clinical application of cell transplantation for stroke.

  16. Therapeutic outcomes of transplantation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in experimental ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Naoki; Acosta, Sandra; Portillo-Gonzales, Gabriel S; Aguirre, Daniela; Reyes, Stephanny; Lozano, Diego; Pabon, Mibel; Dela Peña, Ike; Ji, Xunming; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao; Solomita, Marianna A; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating preclinical evidence suggests the use of amnion as a source of stem cells for investigations of basic science concepts related to developmental cell biology, but also for stem cells' therapeutic applications in treating human disorders. We previously reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells. Subsequently, we recently reported the therapeutic benefits of intravenous transplantation of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Parallel lines of investigations have provided safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for treating stroke and other neurological disorders. This review article highlights the need for investigations of mechanisms underlying AFS cells' therapeutic benefits and discusses lab-to-clinic translational gating items in an effort to optimize the clinical application of the cell transplantation for stroke.

  17. Amniotic fluid embolism: what level of scientific evidence can be drawn? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Foldes-Papp, Zeno; Zaami, Simona; Busardo, Francesco P

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare and severe obstetric emergency and a significant cause of maternal mortality in developed countries and its incidence varies according to different studies. Presently, advances in the understanding of this pathology continue to be slowed down for the absence of generally accepted diagnostic criteria, the clinical analogies of this entity to other types of acute dangerous maternal illnesses and the presence of a wide range of disease severity. The aim of this review has been to evaluate the incidence of AFE, the role of possible risk factors, the clinical presentation (signs and symptoms) and outcome. Secondly the authors reviewed the management of these very difficult patients, including treatments and interventions in order to extrapolate sharable recommendations for the management of these complicated patients.

  18. Identification of Symptomatic Fetuses Infected with Cytomegalovirus Using Amniotic Fluid Peptide Biomarkers.

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    Cyrille Desveaux

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common cause of congenital infection, and is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurological disabilities. Evaluating the risk for a CMV infected fetus to develop severe clinical symptoms after birth is crucial to provide appropriate guidance to pregnant women who might have to consider termination of pregnancy or experimental prenatal medical therapies. However, establishing the prognosis before birth remains a challenge. This evaluation is currently based upon fetal imaging and fetal biological parameters, but the positive and negative predictive values of these parameters are not optimal, leaving room for the development of new prognostic factors. Here, we compared the amniotic fluid peptidome between asymptomatic fetuses who were born as asymptomatic neonates and symptomatic fetuses who were either terminated in view of severe cerebral lesions or born as severely symptomatic neonates. This comparison allowed us to identify a 34-peptide classifier in a discovery cohort of 13 symptomatic and 13 asymptomatic neonates. This classifier further yielded 89% sensitivity, 75% specificity and an area under the curve of 0.90 to segregate 9 severely symptomatic from 12 asymptomatic neonates in a validation cohort, showing an overall better performance than that of classical fetal laboratory parameters. Pathway analysis of the 34 peptides underlined the role of viral entry in fetuses with severe brain disease as well as the potential importance of both beta-2-microglobulin and adiponectin to protect the injured fetal brain infected with CMV. The results also suggested the mechanistic implication of the T calcium channel alpha-1G (CACNA1G protein in the development of seizures in severely CMV infected children. These results open a new field for potential therapeutic options. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amniotic fluid peptidome analysis can effectively predict the severity of congenital CMV

  19. Lactate in Amniotic Fluid: Predictor of Labor Outcome in Oxytocin-Augmented Primiparas’ Deliveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembe, Andrea B.; Järnbert-Pettersson, Hans; Norman, Margareta; Wihlbäck, Anna-Carin; Hoesli, Irene; Todesco Bernasconi, Monya; Azria, Elie; Åkerud, Helena; Darj, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the major complications related to delivery is labor dystocia, or an arrested labor progress. Many dystocic deliveries end vaginally after administration of oxytocin, but a large numbers of women with labor dystocia will undergo a long and unsafe parturition. As a result of the exertion required in labor, the uterus produces lactate. The uterine production of lactate is mirrored by the level of lactate in amniotic fluid (AFL). Objectives To evaluate whether the level of AFL, analysed in a sample of amniotic fluid collected vaginally at arrested labor when oxytocin was needed, could predict labor outcome in nulliparous deliveries. Methods A prospective multicentre study including 3000 healthy primiparous women all with a singleton pregnancy, gestational age 37 to 42 weeks and no maternal /fetal chronic and/or pregnancy-related conditions. A spontaneous onset of labor, regular contractions and cervical dilation ≥ 3 cm were required before the women were invited to take part in the study. Results AFL, analysed within 30 minutes before augmentation, provides information about delivery outcome. Sensitivity for an acute cesarean section according to high (≥10.1mmol/l) or low (12h (p = 0.04), post-partum fever (>38°C, p = 0.01) and post-partum haemorrhage >1.5L (p = 0.04). Conclusion The AFL is a good predictor of delivery outcome in arrested nulliparous deliveries. Low levels of AFL may support the decision to continue a prolonged vaginal labor by augmentation with oxytocin. A high level of AFL correlates with operative interventions and post-partum complications. PMID:27783611

  20. Lactate in Amniotic Fluid: Predictor of Labor Outcome in Oxytocin-Augmented Primiparas' Deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg-Itzel, Eva; Pembe, Andrea B; Järnbert-Pettersson, Hans; Norman, Margareta; Wihlbäck, Anna-Carin; Hoesli, Irene; Todesco Bernasconi, Monya; Azria, Elie; Åkerud, Helena; Darj, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    One of the major complications related to delivery is labor dystocia, or an arrested labor progress. Many dystocic deliveries end vaginally after administration of oxytocin, but a large numbers of women with labor dystocia will undergo a long and unsafe parturition. As a result of the exertion required in labor, the uterus produces lactate. The uterine production of lactate is mirrored by the level of lactate in amniotic fluid (AFL). To evaluate whether the level of AFL, analysed in a sample of amniotic fluid collected vaginally at arrested labor when oxytocin was needed, could predict labor outcome in nulliparous deliveries. A prospective multicentre study including 3000 healthy primiparous women all with a singleton pregnancy, gestational age 37 to 42 weeks and no maternal /fetal chronic and/or pregnancy-related conditions. A spontaneous onset of labor, regular contractions and cervical dilation ≥ 3 cm were required before the women were invited to take part in the study. AFL, analysed within 30 minutes before augmentation, provides information about delivery outcome. Sensitivity for an acute cesarean section according to high (≥10.1mmol/l) or low (12h (p = 0.04), post-partum fever (>38°C, p = 0.01) and post-partum haemorrhage >1.5L (p = 0.04). The AFL is a good predictor of delivery outcome in arrested nulliparous deliveries. Low levels of AFL may support the decision to continue a prolonged vaginal labor by augmentation with oxytocin. A high level of AFL correlates with operative interventions and post-partum complications.

  1. Bupropion therapy during pregnancy: the drug and its major metabolites in umbilical cord plasma and amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOKINA, Valentina M; WEST, Holly; ONCKEN, Cheryl; CLARK, Shannon M; AHMED, Mahmoud S; HANKINS, Gary DV; NANOVSKAYA, Tatiana N

    2017-01-01

    Background Bupropion is used for treatment of depression during pregnancy. However, its use as a smoking cessation aid for pregnant women is currently under evaluation. Objectives The aim of this opportunistic study was to investigate the transfer of bupropion and its major pharmacologically active metabolites, hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion, across the placenta in vivo. In addition, the concentrations of the drug and its metabolites were determined in the amniotic fluid. Methods The following samples were collected at deliveries from twenty-two women taking bupropion: maternal blood (n=22), umbilical cord venous blood (n=22), and amniotic fluid (n=9). The concentrations of the drug and its metabolites in blood plasma and amniotic fluid were determined by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Placental passage was calculated as a ratio of umbilical cord venous plasma to maternal plasma concentrations. Results The levels of hydroxybupropion and threohydrobupropion in umbilical cord venous plasma were invariably lower than their corresponding concentrations in maternal plasma. The concentrations of bupropion in umbilical cord plasma were lower than in maternal plasma in the majority of the maternal-cord blood pairs. The median values of the umbilical cord venous plasma to maternal plasma ratios were: bupropion, 0.53 (interquartile range 0.35, n=18), hydroxybupropion, 0.21 (interquartile range 0.12, n=18), and threohydrobupropion, 0.61 (interquartile range 0.11, n=21). In umbilical cord venous plasma, the median concentration of bupropion was 5.3 ng/ml; hydroxybupropion, 103.6 ng/ml and threohydrobupropion, 59.6 ng/ml. Bupropion and its metabolites were detectable in the amniotic fluid but the concentrations of threohydrobupropion were higher than those in the corresponding umbilical cord venous plasma. Conclusion Bupropion and its active metabolites cross the placenta to the fetal circulation. The concentrations of hydroxybupropion and

  2. Clinical analysis on 117 cases of amniotic fluid%羊水过少117例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万美霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨羊水过少现象出现的原因以及相关因素。方法:对117例羊水过少患者临床资料进行分析。结果:40周以后是羊水过少现象的高发阶段;B超检查准确率高达95%,妊高征和胎儿宫内生长迟缓是出现频率最高的妊娠并发症;相比于对照组,羊水过少脐带缠绕、脐带过短情况发生概率以及新生儿窒息率要稍高一些(P<0.01)。随着羊水量的逐渐减少,羊水粪染率、胎儿窘迫情况发生的概率会越来越高。结论:在明确了羊水量之后,应采用剖宫产的方式结束分娩。%Objective:To investigate the causes and related factors on the phenomenon of amniotic fluid.Methods:117 cases with amniotic fluid were selected,then their clinical data was analyzed.Results:The high incidence of amniotic fluid was at the stage of 40 weeks after pregnancy;ultrasonography accuracy rate was as high as 95% ;pregnancy induced hypertension(PIH) and fetal intrauterine growth retardation were the highest frequency of pregnancy complications;compared with the control group, oligohydramnios umbilical cord entanglement,umbilical cord too short occurrence probability and neonatal asphyxia rate is slightly higher(P<0.01).With the gradual decrease of amniotic fluid volume,the probability occurrence of stained amniotic fluid and fetal distress would be more and more high.Conclusion:After the amniotic fluid volume clarify a diagnosis,cesarean section should be taken to terminate the pregnancy.

  3. Proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid in preterm labor using two-dimensional liquid separation and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, Emmanuel; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Gotsch, Francesca; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Gomez, Ricardo; Espinoza, Jimmy; Vaisbuch, Edi; Mee Kim, Yeon; Edwin, Samuel; Pisano, Mike; Allen, Beth; Podust, Vladimir N; Dalmasso, Enrique A; Rutherford, Jennifer; Rogers, Wade; Moser, Allan; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Barder, Tim

    2008-10-01

    Simultaneous analysis of the protein composition of biological fluids is now possible. Such an approach can be used to identify biological markers of disease and to understand the pathophysiology of disorders that have eluded classification, diagnosis, and treatment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in protein composition of the amniotic fluid of patients in preterm labor. Amniotic fluid was obtained by amniocentesis from three groups of women with preterm labor and intact membranes: (1) women without intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) who delivered at term, (2) women without IAI who delivered a preterm neonate, and (3) women with IAI. Intra-amniotic infection was defined as a positive amniotic fluid culture for microorganisms. Intra-amniotic inflammation was defined as an elevated amniotic fluid interleukin (IL)-6 (> or =2.3 ng/mL). Two-dimensional (2D) chromatography was used for analysis. The first dimension separated proteins by isoelectric point, while the second, by the degree of hydrophobicity. 2D protein maps were generated using different experimental conditions (reducing agents as well as protein concentration). The maps were used to discern subsets of isoelectric point/hydrophobicity containing differentially expressed proteins. Protein identification of differentially expressed fractions was conducted with mass spectrometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) as well as surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS)-based on-chip antibody capture immunoassays were also used for confirmation of a specific protein that was differentially expressed. (1) Amniotic fluid protein composition can be analyzed using a combination of 2D liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for the identification of proteins differentially expressed in patients in preterm labor. (2) While total insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) concentration did not change, IGFBP-1

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria by measuring methylmalonic acid in dried amniotic fluid on filter paper using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshito; Ohse, Morimasa

    2011-06-01

    Methylmalonic aciduria is a common inherited metabolic disorder. Methylmalonic acid (MMA), a key indicator of methylmalonic aciduria, increases in the amniotic fluid of affected fetuses. For prenatal diagnosis, the MMA in amniotic fluid can be measured by stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Here, we quantified the MMA in cell-free amniotic fluid samples that had been dried on filter paper and transported at ambient temperatures, and compared the results with data obtained from the original amniotic fluid. Our results indicated that the filter paper method was reproducible and accurate enough to be applied to clinical analysis. We also used the filter paper method to screen at-risk fetuses and obtained a clear diagnosis in each case. We conclude that our method enables the prenatal diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria using practical procedures and a simplified method for transporting the samples.

  5. 羊水栓塞的诊治%Progress in diagnosis and treatment of amniotic fluid embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洋洋; 袁雅冬

    2016-01-01

    羊水栓塞是一种罕见、但极为凶险的产科并发症,由羊水物质进入母体循环引起,起病急骤,病死率高。熟悉羊水栓塞的发病机制、临床表现,并进行早期诊断及治疗对降低其病死率有极其重要的价值。%Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare but dreadful obstetric complications with a high maternal mortality,which caused by the transfer of amniotic fluid substances into the maternal circulation.In order to reduce the mortality,it is necessary to be familiar with the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations,and then make early diagnosis and choose the effective treatment.

  6. Human amniotic fluid stem cell injection therapy for urethral sphincter regeneration in an animal model

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    Kim Bum

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell injection therapies have been proposed to overcome the limited efficacy and adverse reactions of bulking agents. However, most have significant limitations, including painful procurement, requirement for anesthesia, donor site infection and a frequently low cell yield. Recently, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs have been proposed as an ideal cell therapy source. In this study, we investigated whether periurethral injection of hAFSCs can restore urethral sphincter competency in a mouse model. Methods Amniotic fluids were collected and harvested cells were analyzed for stem cell characteristics and in vitro myogenic differentiation potency. Mice underwent bilateral pudendal nerve transection to generate a stress urinary incontinence (SUI model and received either periurethral injection of hAFSCs, periurethral injection of Plasma-Lyte (control group, or underwent a sham (normal control group. For in vivo cell tracking, cells were labeled with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles containing rhodamine B isothiocyanate (MNPs@SiO2 (RITC and were injected into the urethral sphincter region (n = 9. Signals were detected by optical imaging. Leak point pressure and closing pressure were recorded serially after injection. Tumorigenicity of hAFSCs was evaluated by implanting hAFSCs into the subcapsular space of the kidney, followed two weeks later by retrieval and histologic analysis. Results Flow activated cell sorting showed that hAFSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers, but no hematopoietic stem cell markers. Induction of myogenic differentiation in the hAFSCs resulted in expression of PAX7 and MYOD at Day 3, and DYSTROPHIN at Day 7. The nanoparticle-labeled hAFSCs could be tracked in vivo with optical imaging for up to 10 days after injection. Four weeks after injection, the mean LPP and CP were significantly increased in the hAFSC-injected group compared with the control group. Nerve regeneration and

  7. Genotoxic effects of cadmium chloride on human amniotic fluid cells cultured in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogu, G. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dept. of Physiological, Biochemical and Cellular sciences; Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Centre of Clinical Genetics; Congiu, A. M.; Sini, M. C.; Ladu, R. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Dept. of Physiological, Biochemical and Cellular sciences; Campus, P. M.; Sanna, R.; Soro, G. [Sassari Univ., Sassari (Italy). Centre of Clinical Genetics

    2000-12-01

    In this study it has been reported the results of cytogenetic tests, namely a search for chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), performed on human amniotic fluid cells cultured and treated with Cadmium chloride. The cells from primary cultures were exposed to CdCl{sub 2} at 1 {mu}M and 10 {mu}M for 24 h. At the higher dose, no metaphases were scored and at the lower dose (1 {mu}M) no effects were evident on cell proliferation, and no chromosome aberrations were found. In the subsequent experiments were used cells from subcultures exposed to 1 {mu}M and 5 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. At the 5 {mu}M dose was evident the induction of chromatid breaks, while the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges shows a small increase, not statistically significant at the dose of 1 {mu}M. In this study it was positively demonstrated that amniotic fluid cells grown in vitro are reliable for testing various mutagenic or teratogenic substances. With regard to cadmium treatment results, it is evident a clastogenic effect of cadmium chloride but not a significant induction of SCEs. [Italian] In questo studio abbiamo riportato i risultati dei tests citogenici di valutazione degli scambi fra cromatidi fratelli (SCEs) e di induzione di aberrazioni cromosomiche (CA) condotti su colture cellulari di liquido amniotico umano, trattate con cloruro di cadmio. Le cellule delle colture primarie venivano esposte al CdCl{sub 2} a concentrazioni di 1 {mu}M 10 {mu}M per 24 h. Alla dose piu' alta (10 {mu}M) non sono state osservate metafasi, mentre alla dose piu' bassa (1 {mu}M) non sono stati evidenziati ne' effetti sulla proliferazione cellulare ne' CA. Nei successivi esperimenti il CdC{sub 2} e' stato testato su subcolture cellulari alle dosi di 1 {mu}M e 5 {mu}M. Alla dose di 5 {mu}M sono state evidenziate rotture cromatidiche, mentre la frequenza di SCE alla dose di 1 {mu}M ha mostrato un piccolo incremento, statisticamente non significativo. In questo

  8. Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid as an Independent Risk Factor for Fever and Postpartum Infection in Term Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Valadan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to statistically evaluate the hypothesis that the presence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid is associated with postpartum maternal infection.Methods: This prospective cohort study included 573 term pregnant women in labor, with no other medical problems, that underwent cesarean section for pregnancy termination. Women with prolonged active-phase labor, prolonged rupture of membranes, complicated cesarean section and pre-operative infections were excluded from this study.The subjects were divided into two groups: 280 women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (M group, and 293 women with clear amniotic fluid (C group. A comparison was done regarding postpartum fever, endometritis and wound infection between the two groups. Students t-test and chi square test were used for data analysis, along with linear regression, with p<0.05 indicating significance.Results: Among the 573 women, a total of 82 women (14% had fever after cesarean; 42 women from the M group, and 40 women from the C group (p= 0.3. Among the 82 women who had fever, 33 women had continuous fever, 6.5% in group M and 2.7% in group C (p<0.05, RR: 1.98, 95% CI 1.3-3.1. Among the 573 women, 4% developed endometritis 5% in group M and 2% in group C (p<0.05, RR: 2.3, 95%, CI 1.3-3.4. Similarly, among the 573 women, a total of 5 women (1% developed wound infection, 1.7% in group M and 0.68% in group C (p=0.7.Conclusion: Meconium-stained amniotic fluid is associated with increased postpartum infection independent of other risk factors for infection.

  9. Fetal stem cells obtained from amniotic fluid and wharton's jelly expanded using platelet lysate for tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, A. R.; Aleixo, I; Frias, A.M.; Fernandes, S.; Rocha, L; Reis, R. L.; Neves, N.M

    2012-01-01

    Extra-embryonic tissues, such as amniotic fluid (AF) and Wharton´s Jelly (WJ) of umbilical cord, offer many advantages over both embryonic and adult stem cell sources. These tissues are routinely discarded at parturition and the extracorporeal nature of these cell sources facilitates isolation, as well as the comparatively large volume and ease of physical manipulation theoretically increases the number of stem cells that can be isolated. Autologous approaches to use MSCs, n...

  10. 浅析羊水栓塞的诊断与治疗%Diagnosis and Treatment of Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿斯叶·阿布拉

    2014-01-01

    The amniotic fluid embolism is a serious complication in obstetrics, the onset is sudden, high mortality, serious impact on pregnant women and fetal safety. Based on years of clinical experience, analysis of the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of amniotic fluid embolism, strengthen the understanding of this disease, in order to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis and treatment of amniotic fluid embolism to reduce the mortality rate has a very important value.%羊水栓塞是产科严重并发症,该病起病急,死亡率高,严重影响孕妇及胎儿的生命安全。根据多年的临床经验,分析羊水栓塞的发病机制及临床表现,加强对该病的认识,以期提高羊水栓塞的临床诊断及治疗质量对降低该病死率有着极重要的价值。

  11. An update clinical application of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) in cancer cell therapy and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz, Shiva; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Fardyazar, Zahra; Pashaiasl, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have elucidated that cell-based therapies are promising for cancer treatments. The human amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells are advantageous cells for such therapeutic schemes that can be innately changed to express therapeutic proteins. HAFSCs display a natural tropism to cancer cells in vivo. They can be useful in cancer cells targeting. Moreover, they are easily available from surplus diagnostic samples during pregnancy and less ethical and legal concern are associated with the collection and application than other putative cells are subjected. This review will designate representatives of amniotic fluid and stem cell derived from amniotic fluid. For this propose, we collect state of human AFS cells data applicable in cancer therapy by dividing this approach into two main classes (nonengineered and engineered based approaches). Our study shows the advantage of AFS cells over other putative cells types in terms differentiation ability to a wide range of cells by potential and effective use in preclinical studies for a variety of diseases. This study has shown the elasticity of human AFS cells and their favorable potential as a multipotent cell source for regenerative stem cell therapy and capable of giving rise to multiple lineages including such as osteoblasts and adipocyte.

  12. The entry of fetal and amniotic fluid components into the uterine vessel circulation leads to sterile inflammatory processes during parturition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eKobayashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role during the process of human parturition. The focus of this review was to explore the contribution of biological, biochemical and genetic changes in the onset of term labor. This article reviews the English-language literature on inflammatory, hormonal and immunological factors in an effort to identify the molecular basis of human parturition. The majority of the genes and proteins upregulated in parturition at term are related to four functional categories, mechanical stretch-mediated damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs activation, response to immunity, induction of inflammatory signaling, and progressive uterine myometrial contractility and resultant term birth. Mechanical stretch could promote the entry of amniotic fluid components into the uterine vessel circulation that is the common physiologic mechanism at term prior to labor. The fetal or amniotic fluid-derived DAMPs could activate the immune system. The inflammatory mediators are produced by infiltrating activated leukocytes and by the reproductive tissues themselves such as myometrium, and subsequently lead to uterine contractions. This review supports the sterile inflammation hypothesis that there are at least two phases of human parturition: the initial wave of the entry of amniotic fluid components into uterine vasculatures would be followed by the second big wave of subsequent myometrial contraction.

  13. The entry of fetal and amniotic fluid components into the uterine vessel circulation leads to sterile inflammatory processes during parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role during the process of human parturition. The focus of this review was to explore the contribution of biological, biochemical, and genetic changes in the onset of term labor. This article reviews the English-language literature on inflammatory, hormonal, and immunological factors in an effort to identify the molecular basis of human parturition. The majority of the genes and proteins up-regulated in parturition at term are related to four functional categories, mechanical stretch-mediated damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) activation, response to immunity, induction of inflammatory signaling, and progressive uterine myometrial contractility and resultant term birth. Mechanical stretch could promote the entry of amniotic fluid components into the uterine vessel circulation that is the common physiologic mechanism at term prior to labor. The fetal or amniotic fluid-derived DAMPs could activate the immune system. The inflammatory mediators are produced by infiltrating activated leukocytes and by the reproductive tissues themselves such as myometrium, and subsequently lead to uterine contractions. This review supports the sterile inflammation hypothesis that there are at least two phases of human parturition: the initial wave of the entry of amniotic fluid components into uterine vasculatures would be followed by the second big wave of subsequent myometrial contraction. PMID:23109934

  14. Human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Second- and Third-Trimester Amniocentesis: Differentiation Potential, Molecular Signature, and Proteome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurate Savickiene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid stem cells have become an attractive stem cell source for potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to characterize amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs from second- and third-trimester of gestation. Using two-stage protocol, MSCs were successfully cultured and exhibited typical stem cell morphological, specific cell surface, and pluripotency markers characteristics. AF-MSCs differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes, and neuronal cells, as determined by morphological changes, cell staining, and RT-qPCR showing the tissue-specific gene presence for differentiated cell lineages. Using SYNAPT G2 High Definition Mass Spectrometry technique approach, we performed for the first time the comparative proteomic analysis between undifferentiated AF-MSCs from late trimester of gestation and differentiated into myogenic, adipogenic, osteogenic, and neurogenic lineages. The analysis of the functional and expression patterns of 250 high abundance proteins selected from more than 1400 demonstrated the similar proteome of cultured and differentiated AF-MSCs but the unique changes in their expression profile during cell differentiation that may help the identification of key markers in differentiated cells. Our results provide evidence that human amniotic fluid of second- and third-trimester contains stem cells with multilineage potential and may be attractive source for clinical applications.

  15. Adenovirus E1A/E1B Transformed Amniotic Fluid Cells Support Human Cytomegalovirus Replication

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    Natascha Krömmelbein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV replicates to high titers in primary human fibroblast cell cultures. A variety of primary human cells and some tumor-derived cell lines do also support permissive HCMV replication, yet at low levels. Cell lines established by transfection of the transforming functions of adenoviruses have been notoriously resistant to HCMV replication and progeny production. Here, we provide first-time evidence that a permanent cell line immortalized by adenovirus type 5 E1A and E1B (CAP is supporting the full HCMV replication cycle and is releasing infectious progeny. The CAP cell line had previously been established from amniotic fluid cells which were likely derived from membranes of the developing fetus. These cells can be grown under serum-free conditions. HCMV efficiently penetrated CAP cells, expressed its immediate-early proteins and dispersed restrictive PML-bodies. Viral DNA replication was initiated and viral progeny became detectable by electron microscopy in CAP cells. Furthermore, infectious virus was released from CAP cells, yet to lower levels compared to fibroblasts. Subviral dense bodies were also secreted from CAP cells. The results show that E1A/E1B expression in transformed cells is not generally repressive to HCMV replication and that CAP cells may be a good substrate for dense body based vaccine production.

  16. Nuclear Nox4 Role in Stemness Power of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells

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    Tullia Maraldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC are an attractive source for cell therapy due to their multilineage differentiation potential and accessibility advantages. However the clinical application of human stem cells largely depends on their capacity to expand in vitro, since there is an extensive donor-to-donor heterogeneity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and cellular oxidative stress are involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes of stem cells, including pluripotency, proliferation, differentiation, and stress resistance. The mode of action of ROS is also dependent on the localization of their target molecules. Thus, the modifications induced by ROS can be separated depending on the cellular compartments they affect. NAD(PH oxidase family, particularly Nox4, has been known to produce ROS in the nucleus. In the present study we show that Nox4 nuclear expression (nNox4 depends on the donor and it correlates with the expression of transcription factors involved in stemness regulation, such as Oct4, SSEA-4, and Sox2. Moreover nNox4 is linked with the nuclear localization of redox sensitive transcription factors, as Nrf2 and NF-κB, and with the differentiation potential. Taken together, these results suggest that nNox4 regulation may have important effects in stem cell capability through modulation of transcription factors and DNA damage.

  17. Amniotic fluid as a source of multipotent cells for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce K; Chan, Michael K; Liu, Li; Basch, Ross S

    2016-04-01

    Amniotic fluid cells (AFC) from 2nd trimester amniocentesis have been found to be a source of multipotent stem cells which might overcome the limitations of expansion, histocompatibility, tumorigenesis, and ethical issues associated with using human embryonic cells, umbilical cord, cord blood, bone marrow, and induced pluripotent cells. Previous work by our group and others demonstrated multipotency and the ability to grow well in culture. However, all these studies were done in media containing fetal calf serum. We sought to observe the properties of AFC grown in serum-free media as that would be required for clinical transplantation in humans. Fresh samples were obtained from three patients, and each sample divided into a culture whose cells were not exposed to fetal calf serum, and the other half into a standard culture medium containing fetal calf serum. Doubling time and stem cell marker expression by flow cytometry were assessed. Differentiation to neural, osteoid, and chondrogenic lineages was induced using appropriate media and confirmed by fluorescent microscopy, histology, and immunohistochemistry. There were no statistically significant differences between cells grown serum-free and in standard media in any of these parameters. The data supports the possibility of clinical use of AFC in stem cell transplantation.

  18. Proteomic profile determination of autosomal aneuploidies by mass spectrometry on amniotic fluids

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    Desmetz Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities by cytogenetic analysis is time-consuming, expensive, and requires highly qualified technicians. Rapid diagnosis of aneuploidies followed by reassurance of women with normal results can be performed by molecular analysis of uncultured foetal cells. In the present study, we developed a proteomic fingerprinting approach coupled with a statistical classification method to improve diagnosis of aneuploidies, including trisomies 13, 18, and 21, in amniotic fluid samples. Results The proteomic spectra obtained from 52 pregnant women were compiled, normalized, and mass peaks with mass-to-charge ratios between 2.5 and 50 kDa identified. Peak information was combined together and analysed using univariate statistics. Among the 208 expressed protein peaks, 40 differed significantly between aneuploid and non aneuploid samples, with AUC diagnostic values ranging from 0.71 to 0.91. Hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis and support vector machine (SVM analysis were performed. Two class predictor models were defined from the training set, which resulted in a prediction accuracy of 92.3% and 96.43%, respectively. Using an external and independent validation set, diagnostic accuracies were maintained at 87.5% and 91.67%, respectively. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrates the potential interest of protein expression signature in the identification of new potential biological markers that might be helpful for the rapid clinical management of high-risk pregnancies.

  19. Calcitonin-Induced Effects on Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Caterina Morabito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic fluid (huAFMSCs can differentiate into multiple lineages and are not tumorigenic after transplantation, making them good candidates for therapeutic purposes. The aim was to determine the effects of calcitonin on these huAFMSCs during osteogenic differentiation, in terms of the physiological role of calcitonin in bone homeostasis. Methods: For huAFMSCs cultured under different conditions, we assayed: expression of the calcitonin receptor, using immunolabelling techniques; proliferation and osteogenesis, using colorimetric and enzymatic assays; intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP levels, using videomicroscopy and spectrophotometry. Results: The calcitonin receptor was expressed in proliferating and osteo-differentiated huAFMSCs. Calcitonin triggered intracellular Ca2+ increases and cAMP production. Its presence in cell medium also induced dose-dependent inhibitory effects on proliferation and increased osteogenic differentiation of huAFMSCs, as also indicated by enhancement of specific markers and alkaline phosphatase activity. Conclusions: These data show that huAFMSCs represent a potential osteogenic model to study in-vitro cell responses to calcitonin (and other members of the calcitonin family. This leads the way to the opening of new lines of research that will add new insight both in cell therapies and in the pharmacological use of these molecules.

  20. Quantitative analysis of nerve growth factor in the amniotic fluid during chick embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Farhad; Dianati, Elham; Moghadam, Lotfali Masomi

    2011-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and most neurotrophic factors support the proliferation and survival of particular types of neurons. Besidesthe pivotal role of NGF in the development of neuronal cells, it also has important functions on non-neuronal cells. The amnion surrounds the embryo, providing an aqueous environment for the embryo. A wide range of proteins has been identified in human amniotic fluid (AF). In this study, total protein concentration (TPC) and NGF level in AF samples from chick embryos were measured using a Bio-Rad protein assay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. TPC increased from days E10 to day E18. There was a rapid increase in AF TPC on day E15 when compared to day E16. No significant changes in NGF levels have been seen from day E10 to day E14. There was a rapid increase in NGF content on days E15 and E16, and thereafter the levels decreased from day E16 to day E18. Since, NGF is important in brain development and changes in AF NGF levels have been seen in some CNS malformations, changes in the TPC and NGF levels in AF during chick embryonic development may be correlated with cerebral cortical development. It is also concluded that NGF is a constant component of the AF during chick embryogenesis.

  1. Amniotic fluid index and estimated fetal weight for prediction of fetal macrosomia: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khouly, Nabih I; Elkelani, Osama A; Saleh, Said A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of combining the estimated fetal weight (EFW) and amniotic fluid index (AFI) measured in term patients early in labor with intact membranes for prediction of macrosomia. In a single center, prospective observational study, 600 patients in the first stage of labor before rupture of membranes in whom ultrasonography was performed to measure AFI and EFW, and these data were analyzed statistically to evaluate prediction of fetal macrosomia. Macrosomia occurred in 64 cases (10.6%). The AFI was significantly higher in the macrosomic group (p = 0.001). It was noted that the area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for EFW was 0.93 and that of AFI was 0.67. Based on suggested combined EFW and AFI cutoffs of 4000 g and 164 mm, respectively, the positive predictive value (PPV) for combined parameters (92.3%) was higher than that of EFW (75%) and that of AFI (27%) and the likelihood ratio for combination (93.7%) was higher than that of EFW (24.7%) and that of AFI (21%). Combined use of EFW and AFI improves prediction of macrosomia at birth rather than the EFW alone.

  2. Accuracy Assessment of Interphase Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization on Uncultured Amniotic Fluid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Karimi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental anxiety while waiting for the results of amniocentesis has been investigatedby many authors. It seems that the implementation of faster techniques such as fluorescence in-situhybridization (FISH will have some benefits in reducing this anxiety. Besides the patients' attitudesto choosing this method, gynecologists who are the persons responsible for treatment, must feelcomfortable about prescribing FISH techniques.Materials and Methods: This study, using a simple methodology, was undertaken to evaluate theresults of FISH tests on the amniotic fluid from 40 pregnant women undergoing cesarean surgery.Two sets of probes including X/Y cocktail and 13, 21 and 18 were applied on different slides.Results: The results of FISH tests were compared with the reports of the pediatrician about thehealth condition of the newborn. Complete conformity between the two sets of findings, haveconvinced our gynecologists of the benefit of prescribing this method to reduce the anxiety ofpatients at risk of having abnormal offspring due to chromosomal anuploidies.Conclusion: As has been documented by many authors, conventional chromosome analysis hasgreat advantages over fluorescence in situ hybridization of interphase amniocytes, but reducing theanxiety of parents is a good reason for employing the FISH technique.

  3. Assessing malpractice lawsuits for death or injuries due to amniotic fluid embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaami, S; Marinelli, E; Montanari Vergallo, G

    2017-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a pregnancy complication known to be extremely hard to diagnose, since it manifests itself abruptly and with no warning signs, presenting an incidence rate of about 1 in 40000 deliveries, and maternal morbidity and mortality ranging from 20% to 60%. Although almost a century has gone by since it was first identified (1926) and despite medical research having been conducted on such a syndrome, diagnostic procedures and treatment methods have not yet been clarified enough. Specific biochemical markers have been produced in research laboratories, but their clinical value results to be limited, given how rapid the pathological process moves forward. At the time being, no diagnosis is feasible which may effectively prevent the disease from occurring. Certainly, a multidisciplinary approach might contribute to saving the lives of mother and infant, as well as ensuring better life standards. The paper's authors aim to highlight the medico-legal issues, in light of several rulings from the Italian Constitutional Court as well as lower courts. The authors also advocate for the creation of a nation-wide registry meant to collect all signaled AFE instances so that research on this as yet devastating syndrome can be conducted based on hard data.

  4. Amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing interleukin-1 receptor antagonist improve fulminant hepatic failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bao Zheng

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled hepatic immunoactivation is regarded as the primary pathological mechanism of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF. The major acute-phase mediators associated with FHF, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, impair the regeneration of liver cells and stem cell grafts. Amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs have the capacity, under specific conditions, to differentiate into hepatocytes. Interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra plays an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic role in acute and chronic inflammation, and has been used in many experimental and clinical applications. In the present study, we implanted IL-1Ra-expressing AF-MSCs into injured liver via the portal vein, using D-galactosamine-induced FHF in a rat model. IL-1Ra expression, hepatic injury, liver regeneration, cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and animal survival were assessed after cell transplantation. Our results showed that AF-MSCs over-expressing IL-1Ra prevented liver failure and reduced mortality in rats with FHF. These animals also exhibited improved liver function and increased survival rates after injection with these cells. Using green fluorescent protein as a marker, we demonstrated that the engrafted cells and their progeny were incorporated into injured livers and produced albumin. This study suggests that AF-MSCs genetically modified to over-express IL-1Ra can be implanted into the injured liver to provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of FHF.

  5. Human Amniotic Fluid Cells Form Functional Gap Junctions with Cortical Cells

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    Anna Jezierski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of stem cells is a promising strategy for the repair of damaged tissue in the injured brain. Recently, amniotic fluid (AF cells have received a lot of attention as an alternative source of stem cells for cell-based therapies. However, the success of this approach relies significantly on proper interactions between graft and host tissue. In particular, the reestablishment of functional brain networks requires formation of gap junctions, as a key step to provide sufficient intercellular communication. In this study, we show that AF cells express high levels of CX43 (GJA1 and are able to establish functional gap junctions with cortical cultures. Furthermore, we report an induction of Cx43 expression in astrocytes following injury to the mouse motor cortex and demonstrate for the first time CX43 expression at the interface between implanted AF cells and host brain cells. These findings suggest that CX43-mediated intercellular communication between AF cells and cortical astrocytes may contribute to the reconstruction of damaged tissue by mediating modulatory, homeostatic, and protective factors in the injured brain and hence warrants further investigation.

  6. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells as a cell source for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Márcia T; Lee, Sang Jin; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2012-12-01

    In tissue engineering, stem cells have become an ideal cell source that can differentiate into most human cell types. Among the stem cells, bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) have been widely studied, and there is strong evidence that these cells can be differentiated into cells of the osteogenic lineage. Thus, BMSCs have become the gold standard for studies of tissue engineering in orthopedics. However, novel stem cell sources, such as amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) have been identified, and these have important and unique features that may lead to novel and successful applications toward the regeneration of bone tissue. This study was designed to originally compare the osteogenic potential of both BMSCs and AFSCs under distinct culture environments to determine whether the osteogenic differentiation process of both types of stem cells is related to the origin of the cells. Osteogenic differentiation was carried out in both two and three dimensions using a tissue culture plate and by means of seeding the cells onto microfibrous starch and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds (a blend of starch and polycaprolactone), respectively. BMSCs and AFSCs were successfully differentiated into the osteogenic cell type, as cells derived from them produced a mineralized extracellular matrix. Nevertheless, the two types of cells presented different expression patterns of bone-related markers as well as different timing of differentiation, indicating that both cell origin and the culture environment have a significant impact on the differentiation into the osteogenic phenotype in AFSCs and BMSCs.

  7. Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, V T M; Rososchansky, J; Abbade, J F; Dias, A; Peraçoli, J C; Rudge, M V C

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF) index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade(®)), water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject's group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89) and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95) increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios.

  8. Effect of maternal hydration on the increase of amniotic fluid index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T.M. Borges

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal hydration with oral isotonic solution and water on the amniotic fluid (AF index of women with normohydramnios. Women with a normal AF index and gestational age between 33 and 36 weeks without maternal complications were randomized into three groups [isotonic solution (Gatorade®, water, control]. The isotonic solution and water groups were instructed to drink 1.5 L of the respective solution and the control group was instructed to drink 200 mL water over a period of 2 to 4 h. AF index was measured before and after hydration by Doppler ultrasonography. The investigator performing the AF index measurement was blind to the subject’s group. Ninety-nine women completed the study without any adverse maternal effects. The median increase in AF index after hydration was significantly greater for the isotonic solution and water groups than for the control group. There was no significant difference between the isotonic solution and water groups. Hydration with isotonic solution and water caused a 10-fold (95%CI: 2.09-49.89 and 6-fold (95%CI: 1.16-30.95 increase in the chance of a 20% increase of AF index, respectively. Maternal hydration with isotonic solution or water increased the AF index in women with normohydramnios.

  9. Amniotic fluid stem cells from EGFP transgenic mice attenuate hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury.

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    Shih-Tao Wen

    Full Text Available High concentrations of oxygen aggravate the severity of lung injury in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Although mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to effectively attenuate various injured tissues, there is limited information regarding a role for amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs in treating acute lung injury. We hypothesized that intravenous delivery of AFSCs would attenuate lung injury in an experimental model of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. AFSCs were isolated from EGFP transgenic mice. The in vitro differentiation, surface markers, and migration of the AFSCs were assessed by specific staining, flow cytometry, and a co-culture system, respectively. The in vivo therapeutic potential of AFSCs was evaluated in a model of acute hyperoxia-induced lung injury in mice. The administration of AFSCs significantly reduced the hyperoxia-induced pulmonary inflammation, as reflected by significant reductions in lung wet/dry ratio, neutrophil counts, and the level of apoptosis, as well as reducing the levels of inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and early-stage fibrosis in lung tissues. Moreover, EGFP-expressing AFSCs were detected and engrafted into a peripheral lung epithelial cell lineage by fluorescence microscopy and DAPI stain. Intravenous administration of AFSCs may offer a new therapeutic strategy for acute lung injury (ALI, for which efficient treatments are currently unavailable.

  10. Prenatally engineered autologous amniotic fluid stem cell-based heart valves in the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Benedikt; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Behr, Luc; Schoenauer, Roman; Brokopp, Chad; Drögemüller, Cord; Modregger, Peter; Stampanoni, Marco; Vats, Divya; Rudin, Markus; Bürzle, Wilfried; Farine, Marc; Mazza, Edoardo; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Zannettino, Andrew C; Zünd, Gregor; Kretschmar, Oliver; Falk, Volkmar; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2012-06-01

    Prenatal heart valve interventions aiming at the early and systematic correction of congenital cardiac malformations represent a promising treatment option in maternal-fetal care. However, definite fetal valve replacements require growing implants adaptive to fetal and postnatal development. The presented study investigates the fetal implantation of prenatally engineered living autologous cell-based heart valves. Autologous amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) were isolated from pregnant sheep between 122 and 128 days of gestation via transuterine sonographic sampling. Stented trileaflet heart valves were fabricated from biodegradable PGA-P4HB composite matrices (n = 9) and seeded with AFCs in vitro. Within the same intervention, tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs) and unseeded controls were implanted orthotopically into the pulmonary position using an in-utero closed-heart hybrid approach. The transapical valve deployments were successful in all animals with acute survival of 77.8% of fetuses. TEHV in-vivo functionality was assessed using echocardiography as well as angiography. Fetuses were harvested up to 1 week after implantation representing a birth-relevant gestational age. TEHVs showed in vivo functionality with intact valvular integrity and absence of thrombus formation. The presented approach may serve as an experimental basis for future human prenatal cardiac interventions using fully biodegradable autologous cell-based living materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accuracy Assessment of Interphase Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization on Uncultured Amniotic Fluid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gourabi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental anxiety while waiting for the results of amniocentesis has been investigatedby many authors. It seems that the implementation of faster techniques such as fluorescence in-situhybridization (FISH will have some benefits in reducing this anxiety. Besides the patients' attitudesto choosing this method, gynecologists who are the persons responsible for treatment, must feelcomfortable about prescribing FISH techniques.Materials and Methods: This study, using a simple methodology, was undertaken to evaluate theresults of FISH tests on the amniotic fluid from 40 pregnant women undergoing cesarean surgery.Two sets of probes including X/Y cocktail and 13, 21 and 18 were applied on different slides.Results: The results of FISH tests were compared with the reports of the pediatrician about thehealth condition of the newborn. Complete conformity between the two sets of findings, haveconvinced our gynecologists of the benefit of prescribing this method to reduce the anxiety ofpatients at risk of having abnormal offspring due to chromosomal anuploidies.Conclusion: As has been documented by many authors, conventional chromosome analysis hasgreat advantages over fluorescence in situ hybridization of interphase amniocytes, but reducing theanxiety of parents is a good reason for employing the FISH technique.

  12. Amniotic Fluid Chemokines and Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study Utilizing a Danish Historic Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls. Material...... and Methods A Danish historic birth cohort (HBC) kept at Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen was utilized. Using data from Danish nation-wide health registers, a case-control study design of 414 cases and 820 controls was adopted. Levels of MCP-1, MIP-1α and RANTES were analyzed using Luminex xMAP technology...... (elevated 90th percentile adjusted OR: 2.32 [95% CI: 1.17 – 4.61]) compared to controls. An increased risk for infantile autism with elevated MCP-1 was also found (adjusted OR: 2.28 [95% CI: 1.16 – 4.48]). Elevated levels of MCP-1 may decipher an etiologic immunologic dysfunction or play rather an indirect...

  13. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and protein levels in Amniotic Fluid

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    Calabrese Francesca

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is a neurotrophin which plays survival- and growth-promoting activity in neuronal cells and it is involved in cellular plasticity mechanisms as it controls activity dependent synaptic transmission. A functional polymorphism (Val66Met in the pro-region of BDNF, which affects the intracellular trafficking of proBDNF has been associated with memory and cognitive deficits as well as to an increased susceptibility for several psychiatric disorders especially those with a neurodevelopmental origin. To date, no study has evaluated the influence of the Val66Met polymorphism on BDNF levels in a peripheral system that may reflect fetal neurodevelopment. Therefore we investigated in amniotic fluids (AF obtained from 139 healthy women during 15-17 week of pregnancy, BDNF protein levels in correlation with the Val66Met polymorphism. Results Interestingly we found a significant BDNF protein levels reduction in 55 Met carriers (Val/Met and Met/Met (p = 0.002 as compared to 84 non carriers (Val/Val, and no effect of fetus gender, maternal age or gestation week on BDNF levels has been observed. Conclusion These results, although explorative, indicate that during fetal life the Val66Met genotype might influences BDNF protein levels in AF supporting the involvement of this polymorphism in behavioral and functional brain individual differences in the adulthood.

  14. THE CONCENTRATION OF SURFACTANT PROTEIN-A IN AMNIOTIC FLUID DECREASES IN SPONTANEOUS HUMAN PARTURITION AT TERM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hong, Joon-Seok; Hull, William M.; Kim, Chong Jai; Gomez, Ricardo; Mazor, Moshe; Romero, Roberto; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The fetus is thought to play a central role in the onset of labor. Pulmonary surfactant protein (SP)-A, secreted by the maturing fetal lung, has been implicated in the mechanisms initiating parturition in mice. The present study was conducted to determine whether amniotic fluid concentrations of SP-A and SP-B change during human parturition. STUDY DESIGN Amniotic fluid SP-A and SP-B concentrations were measured with sensitive and specific ELISA in the following groups of pregnant women: 1) mid-trimester of pregnancy between 15th and 18th weeks of gestation (n=29); 2) term pregnancy not in labor (n=28); and 3) term pregnancy in spontaneous labor (n=26). Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS SP-A was detected in all amniotic fluid samples. SP-B was detected in 24.1% (7/29) of mid-trimester samples and in all samples at term. The median amniotic fluid concentration of SP-A and SP-B were significantly higher in women at term than in women in the mid-trimester (SP-A term no labor: median 5.6 μg/ml, range 2.2–15.2 μg/ml vs. mid-trimester: median 1.64 μg/ml, range 0.1–4.7 μg/ml; and SP-B term no labor: median 0.54 μg/ml, range 0.17–1.99 μg/ml vs. mid-trimester: median 0 μg/ml, range 0–0.35 μg/ml; both plabor was significantly lower than that in women at term not in labor (term in labor: median 2.7 μg/ml, range 1.2–10.1 μg/ml vs. term no labor: median 5.6 μg/ml, range 2.2–15.2 μg/ml; plabor and those not in labor (term in labor: median 0.47 μg/ml range 0.04–1.32 μg/ml vs. term no labor: median 0.54 μg/ml range 0.17–1.99 μg/ml; p=0.2). CONCLUSION The amniotic fluid concentration of surfactant protein-A decreases in spontaneous human parturition at term. PMID:18828058

  15. Comparative analysis of amniotic fluid lamellar body count and foam stability test as indices of fetal lung maturity

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    Višnjevac Nemanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn caused by the fetal lung immaturity is a very serious clinical problem. Different tests of prenatal analysis of amniotic fluid, such as lamellar body count and Clements’ test, are available for predicting the fetal lung maturity. Material and methods. A prospective clinical study was conducted on amniotic fluid samples from 2005 to 2006. The amniotic fluid samples were obtained at the gestational age of 30 to 42 weeks and collected by vaginal amniotomy, amniotomy during Caesarean section and 72 hours before the delivery by amniocentesis. A haematology analyzer (Nikon-Kohden® was used to determine the lamellar body counts. Clements’ test involved adding an equal volume of 96% ethanol to the multiple amniotic fluid volume (1:2, 1:4, 1:16, 1:32, followed by shaking and noting the presence of ring of bubbles. After the delivery, we compared the lamellar body count results and Clements’ test and the outcome of pregnancies, primarily the development of respiratory distress syndrome. The most specific lamellar body cutoffs for maturity and immaturity were determined according to receiver operating characteristic curves. Results and Discussion. Out of 232 amniotic fluid samples which were tested, 112 samples were collected after vaginal amniotomy, 88 during the Caesarean delivery and 32 samples by amniocentesis. The overall incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 14.6%. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify cutoff points for the test. We found that both tests are good screening tests for predicting the fetal lung maturity with the area under the curve of 0.782 in Clements’ test and 0.751 in the lamellar body count. Clements’ cutoff 2 with sensitivity of 67.6% and specificity of 72.2%, proved best in the prediction of the fetal lung maturity. The lamellar body count cutoff of 42x10³/μl had the sensitivity of 82.4% and specificity of 64.6% in predicting

  16. Effects of topical human amniotic fluid and human serum in a mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, Guilherme G; Camacho, Walter; Castro-Combs, Juan; Li, Li; Martins, Suy Anne R; Wittmann, Priscila; Campos, Mauro; Behrens, Ashley

    2012-04-01

    To compare the effects of topical human amniotic fluid (HAF), topical human serum (HS), and topical artificial tears in a mouse model of dry eye. Thirty C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 treatment groups: HAF, HS, and preservative-free artificial tears. Dry eye was induced by an injection of botulinum toxin B (BTX-B) into the lacrimal gland. Tear production and ocular surface fluorescein staining were evaluated in each mouse at 6 time points during a 4-week period. Goblet cell density was assessed in stained histological sections. Apoptotic keratocytes were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling test assay. A significant decrease in tear production was observed 3 days after BTX-B injection in all groups. At week 1, the HAF and HS groups had improved tear production compared with the control group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively). HAF had a significantly improved fluorescein staining score compared with the HS (P = 0.043) and control (P = 0.007) groups at week 2. Goblet cell density was significantly decreased in the control group compared with the HAF and HS groups (P < 0.001). No difference in the amount of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive keratocytes was observed among the groups. HAF was superior to HS and artificial tears for improving corneal staining within 2 weeks of therapy in this induced mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Clinical studies are needed to ascertain the benefits of these therapies in patients with ocular surface disorders associated with dry eye.

  17. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid

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    Sanie-Jahromi Fatemeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells with amniotic fluid (AF, RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1 confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells from amnion and amniotic fluid in the bovine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, B; Meucci, A; Bizzaro, D; Cremonesi, F; Lange Consiglio, A

    2013-04-01

    Amnion and amniotic fluid (AF) are noncontroversial and inexhaustible sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be harvested noninvasively at low cost. As in humans, also in veterinary field, presumptive stem cells derived from these tissues reveal as promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of this work is to obtain and characterize, for the first time in bovine species, presumptive MSCs from the epithelial portion of the amnion (AECs) and from the AF (AF-MSCs) to be used for clinical applications. AECs display a polygonal morphology, whereas AF-MSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the second passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. For both lines, the proliferative ability has been found constant over the ten passages studied and AECs show a statistically lower (P<0.05) doubling time with respect to AF-MSCs. AECs express MSC-specific markers (ITGB1 (CD29), CD44, ALCAM (CD166), ENG (CD105), and NT5E (CD73)) from P1 to P3; in AF-MSCs, only ITGB1, CD44, and ALCAM mRNAs are detected; NT5E is expressed from P2 and ENG has not been found at any passage. AF-MSCs and AECs are positive for the pluripotent markers (POU5F1 (OCT4) and MYC (c-Myc)) and lack of the hematopoietic markers. When appropriately induced, both cell lines are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study contributes to reinforce the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine. A deeper evaluation of the immunological properties needs to be performed in order to better understand their role in cellular therapy.

  19. Proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid of pregnant rats with spina bifida aperta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liping; Fan, Yang; Li, Hui; Liu, Wei; Gu, Hui; Zhou, Fenghua; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2012-02-02

    Congenital spina bifida aperta is a common congenital malformation in children and has an incidence of 1‰ to 5‰ in China. However, we currently lack specific biomarkers for screening or prenatal diagnosis and there is no method to entirely cure or prevent such defects. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/mass spectrometry (MS) to characterize differentially expressed proteins in amniotic-fluid samples (AFSs) of embryonic day (E) 17.5 rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta induced by retinoic acid (RA). We identified five proteins differentially expressed in AFSs of spina bifida aperta, including three upregulated proteins (transferrin, alpha-1 antiproteinase and signal recognition particle receptor, B subunit [SRPRB] 55 kDa), two downregulated proteins (apolipoprotein A IV [APO A4] and Srprb 77 kDa). Specifically, we found 11 alpha-1 fetoprotein (AFP) fragments that were downregulated and 35 AFP fragments that were upregulated in AFSs from embryos with spina bifida aperta. Of the downregulated AFP fragments, 72.7% (8/11) were confined to the AFP N-terminus (amino acids [aas] 25-440) and 77.1% (27/35) of upregulated AFP fragments were confined to the AFP C-terminus (aas 340-596). We also confirmed APO A4 and AFP by immunoblot analysis. This is the first comparative proteomic study of AFSs from rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta. We demonstrate proteomic alterations in the AFS of spina bifida aperta, which may provide new insights in neural tube defects and contribute to the prenatal screening.

  20. Cloned, CD117 selected human amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of modulating the immune response.

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    Emily C Moorefield

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem (AFS cells are broadly multipotent, can be expanded extensively in culture, are not tumorigenic and can be readily cryopreserved for cell banking. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC show immunomodulatory activity and secrete a wide spectrum of cytokines and chemokines that suppress inflammatory responses, block mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR and other immune reactions, and have proven therapeutic against conditions such as graft-versus-host disease. AFS cells resemble MSCs in many respects including surface marker expression and differentiation potential. We therefore hypothesized that AFS cells may exhibit similar immunomodulatory capabilities. We present data to demonstrate that direct contact with AFS cells inhibits lymphocyte activation. In addition, we show that cell-free supernatants derived from AFS cells primed with total blood monocytes or IL-1β, a cytokine released by monocytes and essential in mediation of the inflammatory response, also inhibited lymphocyte activation. Further investigation of AFS cell-free supernatants by protein array revealed secretion of multiple factors in common with MSCs that are known to be involved in immune regulation including growth related oncogene (GRO and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP family members as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6. AFS cells activated by PBMCs released several additional cytokines as compared to BM-MSCs, including macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α, MIP-1α and Activin. AFS cells also released higher levels of MCP-1 and lower levels of MCP-2 compared to BM-MSCs in response to IL-1β activation. This suggests that there may be some AFS-specific mechanisms of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. Our results indicate that AFS cells are able to suppress inflammatory responses in vitro and that soluble factors are an essential component in the communication between lymphocytes and AFS cells. Their extensive self-renewal capacity, possibility for banking and

  1. Amniotic fluid prostaglandin concentrations increase before the onset of spontaneous labor at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Eun; Romero, Roberto; Park, In-Sook; Seong, Hyo Suk; Park, Chan-Wook; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2008-02-01

    The role of prostaglandins (PGs) in the onset of human parturition has been controversial. Specifically, some investigators have proposed that PGs are the consequence rather than the cause of labor. An important question is whether or not amniotic fluid (AF) PG concentrations increase before the onset of labor in humans. The concentrations of PGs were determined in AF obtained from 167 singleton pregnant women with intact membranes. Patients were divided into four groups: (1) preterm not in labor (gestational age 15-36 weeks, n = 65); (2) term not in labor (n = 68); (3) spontaneous labor at term with cervical dilatation labor at term with cervical dilatation > or = 4 cm (n = 9). AF was obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis or collected at the time of cesarean delivery. All patients met the following criteria: (1) normal pregnancy outcome; (2) clear AF; (3) no significant medical or obstetric complications such as diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, or major congenital malformations; and (4) no significant neonatal complications. The concentrations of PGE2 and PGF2a in AF were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Non-parametric analysis was performed. (1) AF PG concentrations remained unchanged with advancing gestation until 36 weeks of gestation; (2) however, an abrupt increase in AF PG concentrations was observed before the onset of labor at term; (3) among cases without labor at term, the median AF PGF2a concentration increased with advancing gestation; (4) the presence of labor and the degree of cervical dilatation were significantly associated with a higher concentration of PGF2a. An abrupt increase in AF PG concentrations (25-fold for PGF2a) occurs before the onset of spontaneous labor at term in humans; these observations suggest that PGs increase prior to the onset of labor and contradict the claim that an increase in PG concentrations is the consequence of labor.

  2. Pluripotency can be rapidly and efficiently induced in human amniotic fluid-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunliang; Zhou, Junmei; Shi, Guilai; Ma, Yu; Yang, Ying; Gu, Junjie; Yu, Hongyao; Jin, Shibo; Wei, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Jin, Ying

    2009-11-15

    Direct reprogramming of human somatic cells into pluripotency has broad implications in generating patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for disease modeling and cellular replacement therapies. However, the low efficiency and safety issues associated with generation of human iPS cells have limited their usage in clinical settings. Cell types can significantly influence reprogramming efficiency and kinetics. To date, human iPS cells have been obtained only from a few cell types. Here, we report for the first time rapid and efficient generation of iPS cells from human amniotic fluid-derived cells (hAFDCs) via ectopic expression of four human factors: OCT4/SOX2/KLF4/C-MYC. Significantly, typical single iPS cell colonies can be picked up 6 days after viral infection with high efficiency. Eight iPS cell lines have been derived. They can be continuously propagated in vitro and express pluripotency markers such as AKP, OCT4, SOX2, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81, maintaining the normal karyotype. Transgenes are completely inactivated and the endogenous OCT4 promoter is adequately demethylated in the established iPS cell lines. Moreover, various cells and tissues from all three germ layers are found in embryoid bodies and teratomas, respectively. In addition, microarray analysis demonstrates a high correlation coefficient between hAFDC-iPS cells and human embryonic stem cells, but a low correlation coefficient between hAFDCs and hAFDC-iPS cells. Taken together, these data identify an ideal human somatic cell resource for rapid and efficient generation of iPS cells, allowing us to establish human iPS cells using more advanced approaches and possibly to establish disease- or patient-specific iPS cells.

  3. Microbial prevalence, diversity and abundance in amniotic fluid during preterm labor: a molecular and culture-based investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B DiGiulio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery causes substantial neonatal mortality and morbidity. Unrecognized intra-amniotic infections caused by cultivation-resistant microbes may play a role. Molecular methods can detect, characterize and quantify microbes independently of traditional culture techniques. However, molecular studies that define the diversity and abundance of microbes invading the amniotic cavity, and evaluate their clinical significance within a causal framework, are lacking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In parallel with culture, we used broad-range end-point and real-time PCR assays to amplify, identify and quantify ribosomal DNA (rDNA of bacteria, fungi and archaea from amniotic fluid of 166 women in preterm labor with intact membranes. We sequenced up to 24 rRNA clones per positive specimen and assigned taxonomic designations to approximately the species level. Microbial prevalence, diversity and abundance were correlated with host inflammation and with gestational and neonatal outcomes. Study subjects who delivered at term served as controls. The combined use of molecular and culture methods revealed a greater prevalence (15% of subjects and diversity (18 taxa of microbes in amniotic fluid than did culture alone (9.6% of subjects; 11 taxa. The taxa detected only by PCR included a related group of fastidious bacteria, comprised of Sneathia sanguinegens, Leptotrichia amnionii and an unassigned, uncultivated, and previously-uncharacterized bacterium; one or more members of this group were detected in 25% of positive specimens. A positive PCR was associated with histologic chorioamnionitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 20; 95% CI, 2.4 to 172, and funisitis (adjusted OR 18; 95% CI, 3.1 to 99. The positive predictive value of PCR for preterm delivery was 100 percent. A temporal association between a positive PCR and delivery was supported by a shortened amniocentesis-to-delivery interval (adjusted hazard ratio 4.6; 95% CI, 2.2 to 9.5. A dose

  4. Soluble Leukocyte-Associated Ig-Like Receptor-1 in Amniotic Fluid Is of Fetal Origin and Positively Associates with Lung Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.L.; Olde Nordkamp, M.J.M.; Nikkels, P.G.J.; van der Ent, C.K.; Meyaard, L.; Bont, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1) is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that s

  5. Soluble Leukocyte-Associated Ig-Like Receptor-1 in Amniotic Fluid Is of Fetal Origin and Positively Associates with Lung Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.L.; Olde Nordkamp, M.J.M.; Nikkels, P.G.J.; van der Ent, C.K.; Meyaard, L.; Bont, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1) is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that

  6. 羊水栓塞8例临床分析%CLINICAL ANALYSIS ON 8 CASES AMNIOTIC FLUID EMBOLISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秀金

    2009-01-01

    Objective To probe into the treating method for 8 patients with amniotic fluid embolism and summarize the cognition and experience.Methods A retrospective analysis was made on the treatment of 8 patients with amniotic fluid embolism and the prognosis clinical material of mother and baby.Results All of them had the drop of blood pressure and shock.7 cases had premonitory symptom.7 cases had survived and 1 case had been dead.Conclusion It is very important for the successful rescuing that the symptom is found out in early period, diagnosis is correctly made, adrenocortical hormones and heparin are used in time, amount of blood and fibrinogen level were supplied quickly, pathogenic factors are removed and subtotal hysterectomy can be carried out early, which has absolutely clinical value for the successful rescuing patients with amniotic fluid embolism.%目的 探讨8例羊水栓塞的治疗方法 ,总结认识与体会.方法 回顾性分析8例羊水栓塞的治疗及母儿预后的临床资料.结果 8例均出现血压下降、休克,7例发生前驱症状的临床表现.其中存活7例,死亡1例.结论 抢救成功的关键为早期识别症状,正确地做出诊断,及时应用肾上腺皮质激素、肝素,快速补充血容量及纤维蛋白原,去除致病因子,及早行全子宫切除术.对提高羊水栓塞患者抢救成功率有很大临床价值.

  7. Evaluation of two commercially available ELISA kits for the determination of melatonin concentrations in amniotic fluid throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Soyhan; Altuntas, Özlem; Katzer, David; Berg, Christoph; Willruth, Arne; Reutter, Heiko; Bartmann, Peter; Müller, Andreas; Zur, Berndt

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to evaluate the utility of extraction versus non-extraction-based commercial melatonin ELISA kits for determining the melatonin concentration in amniotic fluid obtained in early and late pregnancy. Methods Pregnancy duration less than 28 weeks was defined as early and from 28 weeks until delivery as late gestation. Nine samples were obtained in early and 18 in late pregnancy. Two commercially available melatonin ELISA kits (melatonin ELISA RE54021, including methanol-based extraction and direct saliva melatonin ELISA RE 54041, not including an extraction step, both from IBL-International, Germany) were used to determine melatonin concentrations in amniotic fluid. Results The mean melatonin concentration in ELISAs assayed by the non-extraction was significantly lower than those assayed after extraction. Subgroup analysis showed that there was no significant difference between melatonin concentration measured by non-extraction versus extraction ELISA in early pregnancy (11.2 ± 7.4 vs. 12.2 ± 7.7, respectively, P = 0.463) but that the mean melatonin concentration in late pregnancy was significantly lower when assayed by non-extraction ELISA than when assayed by extraction ELISA (14.8 ± 9.3 vs. 145.1 ± 179.3, respectively; P pregnancy was rather poor (r(2 )= 0.271, P = 0.022), as opposed to the good correlation found in early pregnancy (r(2 )= 0.929, P < 0.001). Conclusions The present study revealed that a melatonin assay without an extraction step, such as direct saliva ELISA, does not seem to be a valid method to determine the melatonin concentration of amniotic fluid, especially in late gestation.

  8. Relationship between leptin levels in maternal blood,amniotic fluid,arterial and venous cord blood and fetal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽莎; 薛昭卿; 宋岩峰; 何晓宇

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between leptin concentration and fetal growth.Methods: Levels of leptin in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, arterial and venouscord blood of 65 normal parturients (gestational age 37-42weeks) were measured by ra-dioimmunoassay (RIA) method. At the same time, maternal blood lipids were detected.Neonates were divided into three groups: small for gestational age (SGA) group (n=10), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=45), large for gestational age(LGA) group (n= 10). Statistical analysis was performed by t test, variance analysisand correlation analysis.Results: (1) There was no obvious correlation between leptin concentrations in ma-ternal serum and arterial/ venous cord blood, amniotic fluid, and also no correlationwith birth weight and placental weight (P>0.05). Maternal body mass index signifi-cantly correlated with birth weight and neonatal length and leptin levels in arterial andvenous cord blood (P<0.01). Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood positivelycorrelated significantly with placental and neonatal weight and body length (P<0.01)and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (P<0. 01). There was no obvi-ous correlation between fetal gender and leptin concentrations in maternal serum, arteri-al and venous cord blood and amniotic fluid; (2) Leptin levels in arterial and venouscord blood , placental weight in LGA group were significantly higher than those in SGAand AGA group (P<0.05). Among three groups, leptin concentrations in maternalblood were significantly higher than those in arterial and venous cord blood (P<0.05).Conclusions: (1)Fetal leptin is synthesized in uterus, born of itself and placenta.Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood are related to the intrauterine growthpattern. It might positively regulate birth weight and body fat content. (2)Either mater-nal or fetal leptin was not correlated with fetal gender. There is no gender difference infetal leptin

  9. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 in a baby with trisomy 2 mosaicism in amniotic fluid culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.B. [Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States); Eisenger, K.; Brown, S. [Columbia Univ., NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We describe the first case of a baby with maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 2. Growth failure, hypothyroidism and hyaline membrane disease were present at birth, and the first year of life was complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 14 months, motor and intellectual development appear to be normal, but growth remains below the 10th percentile. The baby was investigated for uniparental disomy because trisomy 2 mosaicism had been detected in a second trimester amniocentesis. This is the first reported case in which amniotic fluid chromosome mosaicism has been associated with uniparental disomy. Implications for prenatal diagnosis are considered.

  10. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 in a baby with trisomy 2 mosaicism in amniotic fluid culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K. [Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States); Eisenger, K.; Brown, S. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-28

    We describe the first case of a baby with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2. Growth failure, hypothyroidism, and hyaline membrane disease were present at birth, and the first year of life was complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At age 14 months, motor and intellectual development were normal, but growth remained below the 10th centile. The baby was investigated for uniparental disomy because trisomy 2 mosaicism had been detected in a second trimester amniocentesis. This is the first reported case in which amniotic fluid chromosome mosaicism has been associated with uniparental disomy. Implications for prenatal diagnosis are considered. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Aortic Compression and Cross Clamping in a Case of Placenta Percreta and Amniotic Fluid Embolism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Belfort

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE, also known as anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy at the time of surgery for placenta percreta has been previously reported. We report here a case in which AFE and associated cardiac arrest occurred following a hysterectomy for placenta percreta. In this case, subhepatic manual aortic compression during the cardiac arrest and chest compressions followed by infrarenal aortic cross-clamping during volume infusion and reversal of the coagulopathy were associated with a successful resuscitation and good maternal outcome.

  12. Data on clinical significance of second trimester inflammatory biomarkers in the amniotic fluid in predicting preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesrouani, Assaad; Chalhoub, Elie; El Rassy, Elie; Germanos, Mirna; Khazzaka, Aline; Rizkallah, Jamale; Attieh, Elie; Aouad, Norma

    2016-12-01

    In this article second trimester amniotic fluid biomarkers are measured for correlation with preterm delivery. One additional milliliter of amniotic fluid is collected during amniocentesis for dosages of IL-6, MMP-9, CRP and glucose levels, along with maternal serum CRP and glucose. MMP-9 and Il-6 levels were measured with the corresponding Human Quantikine(R) ELISA Kit (R&D systems) according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer. Cut-off values for AF MMP-9 and IL-6 were fixed by the kit sensitivity thresholds. Data includes ROC curves for glucose (Fig. 1), IL-6 (Fig. 2) and MMP-9 (Fig. 3), aiming to search for sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of premature delivery. Statistical analyses are performed with SPSS v20.0 software. Statistical significance is determined using the Mann-Whitney and one way ANOVA test. The association with preterm delivery is performed using a two proportions test. Correlations are measured using the Pearson׳'s coefficient. A p valueamniotic fluid" (A. Kesrouani, E. Chalhoub, E. El Rassy, M. Germanos, A. Khazzaka, J. Rizkallah, E. Attieh, N. Aouad, 2016) [1].

  13. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels in amniotic fluid before the onset of labor and during labor do not differ in normal pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masatoshi; Sohma, Ryoichi; Sumioka, Yumiko; Inaba, Noriyuki

    2006-01-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) at the implantation site may regulate invasion and differentiation of placental trophoblast. We evaluated whether GM-CSF levels in amniotic fluid during labor contributing to subsequent delivery differed from those before the onset of labor in normal pregnancies. This study enrolled 36 Japanese women experiencing normal pregnancies with single fetuses who had no infection. Of these pregnancies, 18 were women during labor that led to subsequent term delivery (labors). The other 18 were women without labor underwent cesarean section (controls). These two groups (18 labors and 18 controls) were compared. The average gestational age at entry was 38-39 weeks of gestation. The women's ages and gestational ages did not differ significantly between the two groups. Amniotic fluid was collected and the GM-CSF levels were compared between two groups. The GM-CSF level was determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. There was no significant increase in GM-CSF levels in amniotic fluid during labor compared with that before the onset of labor. The GM-CSF in amniotic fluid may not promote the onset of labor at term and/or term labor contributing to subsequent delivery may not induce the production and secretion of GM-CSF into amniotic cavity.

  14. Proteome analysis of human amnion and amniotic fluid by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Yoon, Won-Gap; Song, Jin-Su; Jung, Hyun Sook; Kim, Chong Jai; Oh, Soo Young; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Jung, Guhung; Kim, Hie-Joon; Nirasawa, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Proteome analysis by 2-DE and PMF by MALDI-TOF MS was performed on human amnion and amniotic fluid at term. Ninety-two soluble and nineteen membrane proteins were identified from amnion. Thirty-five proteins were identified from amniotic fluid. Calgranulin A and B were found in all patients infected with Ureaplasma urealyticum, but not in any of the patients without infection, indicating that they are potential markers of intrauterine infection. Identity of calgranulin A and B was confirmed by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. This study represents the first extensive analysis of the human amnion and amniotic fluid proteome at term and demonstrates that 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS is a useful tool for identifying clinically significant biomarkers of problematic pregnancies.

  15. Amniotic fluid cathelicidin in PPROM pregnancies: from proteomic discovery to assessing its potential in inflammatory complications diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Tambor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM complicated by microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC leading to histological chorioamnionitis (HCA significantly impacts perinatal morbidity. Unfortunately, no well-established tool for identifying PPROM patients threatened by these disorders is available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed an unbiased exploratory analysis of amniotic fluid proteome changes due to MIAC and HCA. From among the top five proteins that showed the most profound and significant change, we sought to confirm results concerning cathelicidin (P49913, CAMP_HUMAN, since an ELISA kit was readily available for this protein. In our exploratory proteomic study, cathelicidin showed a ∼6-fold higher concentration in PPROM patients with confirmed MIAC and HCA. We verified significantly higher levels of cathelicidin in exploratory samples (women without both MIAC and HCA: median 1.4 ng/ml; women with both conditions confirmed: median 3.6 ng/ml; p = 0.0003. A prospective replication cohort was used for independent validation and for assessment of cathelicidin potential to stratify women with MIAC leading to HCA from women in whom at least one of these conditions was ruled out. We confirmed the association of higher amniotic fluid cathelicidin levels with MIAC leading to HCA (the presence of both MIAC and HCA: median 3.1 ng/ml; other women: median 1.4 ng/ml; p<0.0001. A cathelicidin concentration of 4.0 ng/ml was found to be the best cut-off point for identifying PPROM women with both MIAC and HCA. When tested on the validation cohort, a sensitivity of 48%, a specificity of 90%, a likelihood ratio of 5.0, and an area under receiver-operating characteristic curve of 71% were achieved for identification of women with MIAC leading to HCA. CONCLUSIONS: Our multi-stage study suggests cathelicidin as a candidate marker that should be considered for a panel of amniotic fluid proteins permitting identification

  16. Amniotic fluid embolism incidence, risk factors and outcomes: a review and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Marian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is a rare but severe complication of pregnancy. A recent systematic review highlighted apparent differences in the incidence, with studies estimating the incidence of AFE to be more than three times higher in North America than Europe. The aim of this study was to examine population-based regional or national data from five high-resource countries in order to investigate incidence, risk factors and outcomes of AFE and to investigate whether any variation identified could be ascribed to methodological differences between the studies. Methods We reviewed available data sources on the incidence of AFE in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the USA. Where information was available, the risk factors and outcomes of AFE were examined. Results The reported incidence of AFE ranged from 1.9 cases per 100 000 maternities (UK to 6.1 per 100 000 maternities (Australia. There was a clear distinction between rates estimated using different methodologies. The lowest estimated incidence rates were obtained through validated case identification (range 1.9-2.5 cases per 100 000 maternities; rates obtained from retrospective analysis of population discharge databases were significantly higher (range 5.5-6.1 per 100 000 admissions with delivery diagnosis. Older maternal age and induction of labour were consistently associated with AFE. Conclusions Recommendation 1: Comparisons of AFE incidence estimates should be restricted to studies using similar methodology. The recommended approaches would be either population-based database studies using additional criteria to exclude false positive cases, or tailored data collection using existing specific population-based systems. Recommendation 2: Comparisons of AFE incidence between and within countries would be facilitated by development of an agreed case definition and an agreed set of criteria to minimise inclusion of false positive cases for

  17. 羊水粪染对妊娠结局影响的临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Meconium Stained Amniotic Fluid Effects on Pregnancy Outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨羊水粪染对母儿妊娠结局的影响。方法选取我院在2010~2014年期间收治的832例羊水粪染患者为研究对象,通过研究患者羊水污染程度、胎心监护结果、孕周与胎粪吸入综合征诊断的相关性,分析羊水粪染对妊娠结局的影响,进行统计学处理。结果羊水粪染的发生率为21.9%,其中过期妊娠或早产儿的羊水粪染发生率显著高于足月产,对比差异显著(P<0.05)有统计学意义;在电子监护异常和新生儿不良结局方面,III度羊水粪染者显著高于I度和II度羊水粪染者(P<0.05),有统计学意义。结论临床上对于I度和II度羊水粪染胎儿要加强监护措施,无需过早干预,对于III度羊水粪染胎儿应尽快娩出,避免造成新生儿不良结局。%Objective To explore the effect of meconium stained amniotic fluid on maternal and perinatal outcome of pregnancy.MethodsIn our hospital 832 cases of meconium stained amniotic fluid of patients as the research object,analysis of meconium stained amniotic fluid influence on pregnancy outcomes,statistical processing.ResultsThe incidence of meconium stained amniotic fluid was 21.9%,which expired pregnancy or preterm meconium staining incidence was significantly higher than that of ful-term,III degree of meconium stained amniotic fluid were significantly higher than that of I and II degrees of meconium stained amniotic fluid. Conclusion For I degrees and II degrees of fetal meconium stained amniotic fluid to strengthen monitoring measures,without the need for early intervention,for the III degree of meconium stained amniotic fluid should be delivered fetus as soon as possible,avoid adverse neonatal outcomes.

  18. Windowed direct exponential curve resolution quantification of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with applications to amniotic fluid metabonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botros, L.L

    2007-07-01

    This thesis presents a quantitative protocol of proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) that allows the determination of human amniotic fluid metabolite concentrations, which are then used in a metabonomic study to establish patient health during gestation. {sup 1}H NMR free inductive decays (FIDs) of 258 human amniotic fluid samples from a 500MHz spectrometer are acquired. Quantitative analyses methods in both the frequency- and time-domain are carried out and compared. Frequency-domain analysis is accomplished by integration of the metabolite peaks before and after the inclusion of a known standard addition of alanine. Time-domain analysis is accomplished by the direct exponential curve resolution algorithm (DECRA). Both techniques are assessed by applications to calibration biological solutions and a simulated data set. The DECRA method proves to be a more accurate and precise route for quantitative analysis, and is included in the developed protocol. Well-defined peaks of various components are visible in the frequency-domain {sup 1}H NMR spectra, including lactate, alanine, acetate, citrate, choline, glycine, and glucose. All are quantified with the proposed protocol. Statistical t-test and notched box and whisker plots are used to compare means of metabolite concentrations for diabetic and normal patients. Glucose, glycine, and choline are all found to correlate with gestational diabetes mellitus early in gestation. With further development, time-domain quantitative {sup 1}H NMR has potential to become a robust diagnostic tool for gestational health. (author)

  19. Comparative Study of Pregnancy Outcome in Premature Rupture of Membranes With Amniotic Fluid Indices of less and more than 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tavassoli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM is one of the most important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcome in preterm premature rupture of the membranes with amniotic fluid index less than 5 and more than 5. Methods: This prospective study was performed on 137 pregnant women with gestational age of 28-34 weeks with PPROM from Oct 2006 to Oct 2008. The patients were divided in two groups according to amniotic fluid index: AFI<5 (77 cases, AFI≥5 (60 cases. Chi-square test was used for qualitative variables, while T-student test was used for quantitative test. Results: Both groups were similar with respect to number of pregnancies, gestational age at rupture of the membranes and birth weight. In the group with AFI<5, applied latency was significantly shorter (PV=0.049, rate of cesarean section was higher due to fetal distress (PV=0.008, neonatal Apgar score in first minute was lower during the first week (PV=0.0127 and the rate of neonatal death was higher (PV=0.045 during the first week. Conclusion: An AFI<5 cm after PPROM is associated with earlier delivery, higher rate of cesarean due to fetal distress, higher rate of neonatal death, and lower neonatal Apgar score in first minute during the first week

  20. Eicosanomic profiling reveals dominance of the epoxygenase pathway in human amniotic fluid at term in spontaneous labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Romero, Roberto; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Zhou, Sen-Lin; Xu, Zhonghui; Tarca, Adi L; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Munoz, Hernan; Honn, Kenneth V

    2014-11-01

    Lipid mediators play an important role in reproductive biology, especially, in parturition. Enhanced biosynthesis of eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α, precedes the onset of labor as a result of increased expression of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in placental tissues. Metabolism of arachidonic acid results in bioactive lipid mediators beyond prostaglandins that could significantly influence myometrial activity. Therefore, an unbiased lipidomic approach was used to profile the arachidonic acid metabolome of amniotic fluid. In this study, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the first time to quantitate these metabolites in human amniotic fluid by comparing patients at midtrimester, at term but not in labor, and at term and in spontaneous labor. In addition to exposing novel aspects of COX pathway metabolism, this lipidomic study revealed a dramatic increase in epoxygenase- and lipoxygenase-pathway-derived lipid mediators in spontaneous labor with remarkable product selectivity. Despite their recognition as anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and regulators of ion channels, little is known about the epoxygenase pathway in labor. Epoxygenase pathway metabolites are established regulators of vascular homeostasis in cardiovascular and renal physiology. Their presence as the dominant lipid mediators in spontaneous labor at term portends a yet undiscovered physiological function in parturition. © FASEB.

  1. Survey of Pregnancy Outcome in Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes with Amniotic Fluid Index <5 and ≥5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Tavassoli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM is among the most important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to survey the pregnancy outcomes in preterm premature rupture of membranes with an amniotic fluid index of 5.Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed on 137 pregnant women complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM with a gestational age of 28-34 weeks during October 2006 to October 2008. The patients were divided in two groups according to their amniotic fluid index; AFI<5 (77cases, AFI≥5 (60cases. The Chi-squared test for qualitative variables and T-student test for quantitative variables were used to analyze the results.Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in terms of the number of pregnancies, gestational age at rupture of membranes and birthweight between the two groups. However, the results demonstrated that the patients with AFI<5 exhibited a significantly shorter latency period (p=0.049, a higher rate of cesarean due to fetal distress (p=0.008, a lower neonatal Apgar score in the first minute (p=0.0127 and a higher rate of neonatal death during the first week (p=0.045.Conclusion: Overall, PPROM with oligohydroamnios is associated with shorter latency, higher rate of C/S, higher rate of early neonatal death and lower neonatal Apgar.

  2. The Clinical study of the Diagnosis of Amniotic Fluid Infection with theAmniotic Lens%羊水镜检查诊断羊水粪染的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴芙蓉; 邵玉兰; 刘光亚

    2001-01-01

    Objective:By observing the characteristics of the amniotic fluid and choosing adaptable delivering ways to reduce the rate of neonatal mortality and asphyxia. Methods: Using the amniotie fluid lens to diagnose whether the amniotic fluid was infected or not. Results: It showed that the diagnostic rate could reach more than 90%. Conclusion:Using amniotic fluid lens has important and practical significance in treating the parturients.%目的:观察羊水性状,选择恰当的分娩方式,降低新生儿窒息、死亡率。方法:我院1998年1至12月采用沈阳市光学仪器厂生产的YSJ-Ⅰ型羊水镜检查,监测有无羊水粪染,并与B超进行比较。结果:发现羊水镜诊断率高达90%,同时可了解胎先露及胎膜早破情况。结论:对临产时医护人员的监护及处理有重要临床实用价值。

  3. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Parabens are a group of antimicrobial preservatives widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in foods. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown weak estrogenic effects of some parabens. Thus, especially, exposure of fetus and infants via the mother is a matter of concern. In order...... to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...

  4. In vitro fabrication of autologous living tissue-engineered vascular grafts based on prenatally harvested ovine amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Benedikt; Kehl, Debora; Bleul, Ulrich; Behr, Luc; Sammut, Sébastien; Frese, Laura; Ksiazek, Agnieszka; Achermann, Josef; Stranzinger, Gerald; Robert, Jérôme; Sanders, Bart; Sidler, Michele; Brokopp, Chad E; Proulx, Steven T; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Schoenauer, Roman; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Falk, Volkmar; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) have been proposed as a valuable source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, before clinical implementation, rigorous evaluation of this cell source in clinically relevant animal models accepted by regulatory authorities is indispensable. Today, the ovine model represents one of the most accepted preclinical animal models, in particular for cardiovascular applications. Here, we investigate the isolation and use of autologous ovine AFCs as cell source for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. Fetal fluids were aspirated in vivo from pregnant ewes (n = 9) and from explanted uteri post mortem at different gestational ages (n = 91). Amniotic non-allantoic fluid nature was evaluated biochemically and in vivo samples were compared with post mortem reference samples. Isolated cells revealed an immunohistochemical phenotype similar to ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and showed expression of stem cell factors described for embryonic stem cells, such as NANOG and STAT-3. Isolated ovine amniotic fluid-derived MSCs were screened for numeric chromosomal aberrations and successfully differentiated into several mesodermal phenotypes. Myofibroblastic ovine AFC lineages were then successfully used for the in vitro fabrication of small- and large-diameter tissue-engineered vascular grafts (n = 10) and cardiovascular patches (n = 34), laying the foundation for the use of this relevant pre-clinical in vivo assessment model for future amniotic fluid cell-based therapeutic applications.

  5. [The phenol turbidity test for measurement of pulmonary surfactants in amniotic fluid--rapid test for fetal lung maturity (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, H; Shimada, N; Kuramoto, R; Mochizuki, Y; Nishizima, M; Arai, M; Osanai, K; Ishihara, K; Goso, K; Hotta, K

    1981-05-01

    A simple and sensitive procedure for the quantitative estimation of pulmonary surfactants in the amniotic fluid is described. The method is based on the formation of turbidity from the amniotic fluid surfactants with phenol. Amniotic fluid drawn through an intrauterine catheter was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 5 min. One ml of 5% aqueous phenol solution was added to 1.0 ml of the diluted supernatant. Control solution was prepared by addition of 1.0 ml of distilled water to the supernatant, instead of phenol solution. The turbidity was measured spectrophotometrically against control at 340 nm 5 to 10 min after agitation on a Vortex mixer for 5 sec. The turbidity obtained from amniotic fluid with phenol was proportional to the increase in total phospholipids in the fluid measured enzymatically. Moreover, only lecithin in the phospholipids was related to the turbidity formation. Sphyngomyelin, lysolecithin, phosphatidylethanolamin did not produce any turbidity with phenol. The spectrophotometric reading of 87 cases (31-41 weeks) was ranged at 0.18-3.52. Four cases with lower value (0.40) showed neonatal respiratory problem. The phenol turbidity test is more useful for the detection of fetal lung maturity comparing with the generally used shake test.

  6. [Cytological-energetic principle of the amniotic fluid examination on female patients with diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes - up to now experiences and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, K; Kelbich, P; Švecová, M

    2015-12-01

    In our study we have dealt with the amniotic fluid examination on female patients with diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). For one of the most important task in the feto-maternal medicine we consider the discovered method of amniotic fluid examination which is capable of the earliest possible detection in an intraamniotic inflammatory response. Unnoticed could harm or in the most serious cases threat the life of fetus or its mother. This was also the main reason why we chose this topic for our study. We have not been interested only in already known interleu-kin-6 (IL-6), but we have approached the examination comprehensively. We used the cytological-energetic principle supplemented by the examination of aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), in which already are long-term experiences in investigating other extracellular fluids. We have monitored values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and leucocytes in maternal serum, IL-6, AST and energetic score ratio (KEB) in amniotic fluid. Further we have investigated which imunocompetent cells have been dominant in amniotic fluid at different types of inflamantory reaction. According to the results of the examination of the control groups, it was necessary to correct the KEB limit in comparison to KEB limits of other extracellular fluids. Although our study includes untill now only 44 patients - 21 controls and 23 investigated persons, we have been already able to find out some trends of changes in observed parametres. As a very impotant discovery we consider the fact, that KEB, AST and cytological examination of amniotic fluid seem to be the methods for prediction of chorioamnionitis as reliable as the examination of IL-6. These methods are besides less expensive and therefore more suitable for the use in the small hospitals and developing countries. We continue in our study to confirm the previously found trends on the larger numbers of patients.

  7. Diagnóstico laboratorial do líquido amniótico Laboratory diagnosis of amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Gonçalves Campana

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivos a definição e a fisiologia do líquido amniótico, ressaltando aspectos citológicos e principais técnicas para diagnóstico laboratorial das patologias mais freqüentes. A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão bibliográfica atualizada relacionando os aspectos citológicos com a idade gestacional e técnicas laboratoriais para diagnóstico das principais patologias em que são observadas alterações do líquido amniótico, concluindo-se que este é um importante componente do ambiente intra-uterino. Sua produção e absorção dependem de uma série de mecanismos interdependentes entre o feto, a placenta, as membranas e o organismo materno. Atualmente este fluido pode fornecer inúmeras informações sobre a saúde fetal, realizando-se diversas técnicas, entre elas a amniocentese e a dosagem de alfafetoproteína, que pode detectar defeitos do tubo neural e trissomia do cromossomo 21. A análise do líquido amniótico reforça a importância da realização adequada de um pré-natal, sendo importante relacionar os resultados laboratoriais com a clínica.This present paper aims the definition of the amniotic fluid and its physiology standing out cytological aspects and main techniques for laboratorial diagnosis of the most frequent pathologies. The methodology was based on updated bibliographical research relating the cytological aspects with the pregnancy age and laboratorial techniques for diagnosis of the main pathologies in which alterations of the amniotic fluid are observed, concluding that this is an important component of the intrauterine environment. Its production and absorption depend on a series of interdependent mechanisms among the fetus, the placenta, the membranes and the maternal organism. Currently this fluid can supply innumerable information on the fetal health by the use of diverse techniques, among which, amniocentesis and dosage of alpha-fetoprotein, which can detect defects of the

  8. The Calcium Binding Protein, S100B, is Increased in the Amniotic Fluid of Women with Intra-Amniotic Infection/Inflammation Following Preterm Labor with Intact or Ruptured Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Lara A.; Romero, Roberto; Edwin, Sam; Nien, Jyh Kae; Gomez, Ricardo; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Hassan, Sonia S.; Espinoza, Jimmy

    2008-01-01

    Objective S100B is produced by glia of the central and peripheral nervous systems and is considered a marker of neurologic injury in the perinatal period. Indeed, increased neonatal urine S100B concentration is associated with adverse neurological outcomes including intraventricular hemorrhage and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, while elevated adult serum concentrations are associated with infectious diseases/sepsis. The objective of this study was to determine whether amniotic fluid (AF) S100B concentrations change with advancing gestational age and intra-amniotic infection (IAI). Study Design S100B concentration was measured in the AF of women in midtrimester, at term, and in pregnancies with preterm labor and intact membranes (PTL) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), with and without IAI. Placental pathology was performed and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. Results (1) AF S100B concentration did not change during gestation; (2) patients with IAI had significantly higher AF S100B concentration than those without IAI following an episode of PTL or PPROM and; (3) neonates who had morbidity/mortality had had an elevated AF S100B concentration; however, this could be explained by the association with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation. Thus, AF S100B concentration was not an independent predictor of neonatal morbidity or fetal/neonatal death. Conclusions An elevated concentration of AF S100B may reflect intra-amniotic infection/inflammation and not necessarily fetal neurologic damage. PMID:17624933

  9. Amniotic fluid derived stem cells give rise to neuron-like cells without a further differentiation potential into retina-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, K; Raabe, O; Wenisch, S; Arnhold, S

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid contains heterogeneous cell types and has become an interesting source for obtaining fetal stem cells. These stem cells have a high proliferative capacity and a good differentiation potential and may thus be suitable for regenerative medicine. As there is increasing evidence, that these stem cells are also able to be directed into the neural lineage, in our study we investigated the neuronal and glial differentiation potential of these cells, so that they may also be applied to cure degenerative diseases of the retina. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from routine prenatal amniocentesis at 15 to 18 weeks of pregnancy of human amniotic fluid and expanded in the cell culture. Cells were cultivated according to standard procedures for mesenchymal stem cells and were differentiated along the neural lineage using various protocols. Furthermore, it was also tried to direct them into cell types of the retina as well as into endothelial cells. Cells of more than 72 amniotic fluid samples were collected and characterized. While after induction neural-like phenotypes could actually be detected, which was confirmed using neural marker proteins such as GFAP and ßIII tubulina further differentiation into retinal like cells could not reliably be shown. These data suggest that amniotic fluid derived cells are an interesting cell source, which may also give rise to neural-like cells. However, a more specific differentiation into neuronal and glial cells could not unequivocally be shown, so that further investigations have to becarried out.

  10. Phosphatidylglycerol determination in the amniotic fluid from a PAD placed over the vulva: a method for diagnosis of fetal lung maturity in cases of premature ruptured membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estol, P C; Poseiro, J J; Schwarcz, R

    1992-01-01

    Four hundred and forty seven pregnant women with ruptured membranes, were prospectively studied in order to assess the diagnostic capacity of Phosphatidylglycerol (PhG) determination in amniotic fluid recovered from vulval pads in the diagnosis of Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD). The identification of PhG was performed using one dimensional silica gel thin layer chromatography. The sensitivity of PhG determination in the diagnosis of HMD in newborns of the total population was found to be 88.2%, with a specificity of 76.9%. In the study population, the incidence of HMD was 7.6%, the negative predictive value was 98.8% and, the positive predictive value was 24.0%. When the 265 newborns of the gestational age group of less than or equal to 34 weeks is considered, we observed an incidence of HMD of 12.1%. The diagnostic capacity of PhG in this group was shown by a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 76.4%, a positive predictive value of 33.7% and a negative predictive value of 97.8%. This method of assessment of fetal lung maturity has a diagnostic capability similar to that described by other authors, who used amniotic fluid obtained vaginally or transabdominally. The procedure described here of amniotic fluid collection is non-invasive, harmless to the mother and fetus and simple to perform. The characteristics of this method, allow serial studies of the amniotic fluid to be carried out.

  11. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid, Biomarkers of Fetal Leydig Cell Function, and Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias in Danish Boys (1980-1996)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Gunnar; Jönsson, Bo A G; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    associations with fetal hormone levels may have long-term implications for reproductive health. CITATION: Toft G, Jönsson BA, Bonde JP, Nørgaard-Pedersen B, Hougaard DM, Cohen A, Lindh CH, Ivell R, Anand-Ivell R, Lindhard MS. 2016. Perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations in amniotic fluid, biomarkers of fetal...

  12. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  13. Quality aspects of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis : Determining the effect of various factors involved in handling amniotic fluid and chorionic villus material for cytogenetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; de Jong, Bauke; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Meerman, Gerard J. te

    Objectives To investigate the effect of factors involved in cell culturing and slide preparation of amniotic fluid (AF) and chorionic villus biopsies (CVB) for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Methods The effect on the outcome of our standard AF cell culture procedure of volume and appearance of the

  14. New observations on procoagulant properties of amniotic fluid: microparticles (MPs) and tissue factor-bearing MPs (MPs-TF), comparison with maternal blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uszyński, Waldemar; Zekanowska, Ewa; Uszyński, Mieczysław; Zyliński, Andrzej; Kuczyński, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are submicron fragments of the cell membrane affecting many biological processes, e.g. coagulation. The aim of the study was to determine (i) MPs and (ii) tissue factor bearing MPs (MPs-TF) in the amniotic fluid and in blood plasma of parturient women, as well as to assess (iii) TF and TFPI. The study group consisted of 38 women laboring at term, whereas the control group included 20 non-pregnant women. ELISA method was used to evaluate MPs, MPs-TF, TF and TFPI. The levels of MPs and MPs-TF were significantly higher in the amniotic fluid than in blood plasma of parturient women: the level of MPs was 41.08 times higher (medians: 246.48 nM PS vs. 6.00 nM PS, respectively, pMPs-TF was 18.59 times higher (medians: 90.16pg/ml vs. 4.85pg/ml, respectively) (pMPs) and tissue factor-bearing MPs (MPs-TF) are constituent components of amniotic fluid. 2. It is reasonable to assume that these components together with tissue factor (TF) and its inhibitor (TFPI) can participate in life-threatening coagulation disturbances in amniotic fluid embolism, and to take into consideration their impact on fetal development. © 2013.

  15. Quality aspects of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis : Determining the effect of various factors involved in handling amniotic fluid and chorionic villus material for cytogenetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Suijkerbuijk, Ron; Bouman, Katelijne; de Jong, Bauke; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Meerman, Gerard J. te

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of factors involved in cell culturing and slide preparation of amniotic fluid (AF) and chorionic villus biopsies (CVB) for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Methods The effect on the outcome of our standard AF cell culture procedure of volume and appearance of the

  16. Provision of Amniotic Fluid During Parenteral Nutrition Increases Weight Gain With Limited Effects on Gut Structure, Function, Immunity, and Microbiology in Newborn Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette Viberg; Liang Shen, Rene; Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Small enteral boluses with human milk may reduce the risk of subsequent feeding intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). We hypothesized that feeding amniotic fluid, the natural enteral diet of the mammalian fetus, will have sim...

  17. [Reference ranges of matrix metalloproteinase-1, -2, -9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 concentrations in amniotic fluid in physiological pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenovsky, Yu V; Remneva, O V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine reference values of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in the amniotic fluid at the first stage of labor in physiological pregnancy. 89 women at the first stage of term labor have been examined. Samples of amniotic fluid were taken at the first period of labor by vaginal amniotomy. Concentrations ofMMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 were investigated in amniotic fluid by ELISA kits. We have determined normal concentration ranges for MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and ratios of concentrations of MMPs and TIMP-1 (MMP-1/TIMP-1, MMP-2/TIMP-1, MMP-9/TIMP-1) in the amniotic fluid at the first period of labor in physiological pregnancy. These included: MMP-1--5.1-16.8 pg/mg of protein, MMP-2--238.3-374.1 pg/mg of protein, MMP-9--66.1-113.3 pg/mg of protein, TIMP-1--4.7-13.6 pg/mg of protein, ratio of MMP-1/TIMP-1--0.1-2.2, ratio of MMP-2/TIMP-1--19.9-55.7, ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1--4.2-17.2.

  18. Evaluation of correlation between nucleated red blood cell count in term newborns and meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeilian L

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the incidence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF in newborns and its complications, and also based on indirect reports pointing out relationship between nucleated red blood cell (nRBC, as a marker of chronic hypoxia, and MSAF in term newborns, and in order to determine this relationship more accurately, this study was done on women with uncomplicated singleton term pregnancy that admitted for delivery at Shariati hospital in year 2000. After excluding confounding factors on nRBC, case group who includes infants with MSAF, and control group who have clear amniotic fluid were determined. Maternal age and parity, gestational age, birth weight, apgar score, neonatal out come, and FHR pattern as well as newborn hemoglobin values were evaluated. Venous cord blood was analyzed for nRBC counts per 100 WBC. Case and control groups were divided according to nRBC counts with cutoff point of 10 and then compared statistically. From the samples, 117 cases and 67 controls were evaluated. Maternal and neonatal factors were similar in two situations. Number of nRBC was 3.75±4.8 in control group and 12.04±11.7 in case group (P<0.01 and it was abnormal (>10 in 9 percent of newborns with clear fluid and 32 percent of MSAF (P<0.01. Cord blood nRBC count increased when meconium is passed intrauterine. This suggests that cases with MSAF may be at risk of chronic hypoxia. Cohort research is recommended to study the affect of delivery mode on the neonatal outcome in cases with MSAF and to evaluate the cause of fetal hypoxia in uncomplicated pregnancy with MSAF.

  19. Cryopreserved amniotic fluid-derived cells: a lifelong autologous fetal stem cell source for heart valve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Dörthe; Achermann, Josef; Odermatt, Bernhard; Genoni, Michele; Zund, Gregor; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2008-07-01

    Fetal stem cells represent a promising cell source for heart valve tissue engineering. In particular, amniotic fluid-derived cells (AFDC) have been shown to lead to autologous fetal-like heart valve tissues in vitro for pediatric application. In order to expand the versatility of these cells also for adult application, cryopreserved AFDC were investigated as a potential life-long available cell source for heart valve tissue engineering. Human AFDC were isolated using CD133 magnetic beads, and then differentiated and analyzed. After expansion of CD133- as well as CD133+ cells up to passage 7, a part of the cells was cryopreserved. After four months, the cells were re-cultured and phenotyped by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, including expression of CD44, CD105, CD90, CD34, CD31, CD141, eNOS and vWF, and compared to their non-cryopreserved counterparts. The stem cell potential was investigated in differentiation assays. The viability of cryopreserved AFDC for heart valve tissue engineering was assessed by creating heart valve leaflets in vitro. After cryopreservation, amniotic fluid-derived CD133- and CD133+ cells retained their stem cell-like phenotype, expressing mainly CD44, CD90 and CD105. This staining pattern was comparable to that of their non-cryopreserved counterparts. Moreover, CD133- cells demonstrated differentiation potential into osteoblast-like and adipocyte-like cells. CD133+ cells showed characteristics of endothelial-like cells by eNOS, CD141 and beginning vWF expression. When used for the fabrication of heart valve leaflets, cryopreserved CD133- cells produced extracellular matrix elements comparable to their non-cryopreserved counterparts. Moreover, the resulting tissues showed a cellular layered tissue formation covered by functional endothelia. The mechanical properties were similar to those of tissues fabricated from non-cryopreserved cells. The study results suggest that the use of cell bank technology fetal amniotic fluid

  20. 羊水过少经阴道分娩的临床观察%Clinical observation of amniotic fluid had less vaginal delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽华; 王金兰

    2012-01-01

      目的:探讨妊娠晚期羊水过少的监测、终止妊娠时机、提高阴道分娩率,有效降低剖宫产率.方法:对216例羊水过少孕妇阴道试产的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果:羊水过少阴道分娩率为58.33%,其中羊水量150~299 ml阴道分娩率为73.58%,羊水量100~149 ml阴道分娩率为48.84%,羊水量小于100 ml阴道分娩率为25%.结论:动态监测妊娠晚期孕妇羊水量,对羊水过少选择适当时机终止妊娠,提高阴道分娩率,有效降低剖宫产率.%  Objective To investigate trimester amniotic fluid too little monitoring,termination of pregnancy timing,increase vaginal delivery rate,effectively reducing the rate of cesarean section.Methods Clinical data on 216 cases of amniotic fluid too few pregnant women vaginal trial of labor were analyzed retrospectively.Results The amniotic fluid had less vaginal birth rate was 58.33%,73.58%of the vaginal delivery rate of 150~299 ml of amniotic fluid volume,amniotic fluid volume of 100~149 ml of vaginal delivery rate of 48.84%,amniotic fluid volume is less than 100 ml of vaginal delivery was 25%.Conclusion Dynamic monitoring of pregnant women in late pregnancy amniotic fluid volume,oligohydramnios an appropriate time to termination of pregnancy,vaginal delivery rate,effectively reducing the rate of cesarean section.

  1. Relationship between neonatal asphyxia and meconium-stained amniotic fluid%新生儿窒息与羊水粪染的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑日华; 谢晓丹; 方妙君

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between neonatal asphyxia and meconiumstained amniotic fluid.Methods Seventy-seven cases of neonatal asphyxia from January 2010 to December 2011 were selected to annlyze the feature of amniotic fluid.All the newborn were single fetus and mature.Results The rate of meconium-stained was 76.6%,and meconium-stained amniotic fluid Ⅲ played a main role in severe asphyxia of newborn.Conclusions There is a certain relationship between neonatorum asphyxia and meconium-stained amniotic fluid,and the therapy to the meconium-stained amniotic fluid is important.%目的 探讨新生儿窒息和羊水粪染的相关性.方法 选取2010年1月至2011年12月汕头大学医学院第二附属医院分娩的单胎、头位孕37~42周的77例窒息新生儿,对其羊水性状进行分析.结果 新生儿窒息组羊水粪染率为76.6%,新生儿重度窒息组中羊水Ⅲ度粪染比例高.结论 羊水粪染与新生儿窒息有一定的相关性,应重视羊水粪染的母儿处理.

  2. 正常足月产妇羊水组织因子水平与妊娠高凝状态、羊水栓塞的关系研究%To study the relation between normal full-term parturient amniotic fluid TF level detection and hypercoagulable state, amniotic fluid embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 张红英; 袁宁霞; 朱丽红; 车虹彩

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨正常足月产妇羊水中的组织因子(T F )水平与妊娠高凝状态及羊水栓塞的关系。方法选取2013年1月至2014年12月该院待产的正常足月妊娠产妇158例,检测产妇血浆、羊水、羊水上清液及羊水沉渣中的 TF 和组织因子途径抑制物(TFPI)水平。结果羊水沉渣 TF 水平为(1409.36±120.34)ng/L ,明显高于血浆、羊水及羊水上清液水平,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);血浆 TF 水平为(30.17±6.49)ng /L ,明显低于羊水各标本水平,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);羊水沉渣 TFPI 水平为(9.46±1.77)g/L ,明显低于血浆、羊水及羊水上清液水平,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);血浆 TFPI 水平为(22.19±5.16)g /L ,明显高于羊水各标本(P<0.05);羊水及羊水上清液 TF 和 TFPI 水平差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);羊水、羊水上清液、羊水沉渣中 TF 与 TFPI 呈负相关关系(P<0.05),其中羊水沉渣相关性最强(r =-0.903,P <0.05),血浆标本 TF 与 TFPI 无相关性(P >0.05)。结论正常足月产妇羊水 TF 含量较高,而 TFPI 较低,可能在羊水栓塞的发生机制中起一定的临床作用。%Objective To investigate in normal full term parturient amniotic fluid and its relationship with hy‐percoagulability and amniotic fluid embolism .Methods 158 cases of normal full‐term pregnant was choosed in our hospital from 2013 January to 2014 December ,detected their maternal plasma ,amniotic fluid ,amniotic fluid superna‐tant ,amniotic fluid sediment TF and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) levels .Results Normal full‐term partu‐rient amniotic fluid sediment TF level (1 409 .36 ± 120 .34) ng /L ,was higher than that in plasma ,amniotic fluid ,am‐niotic fluid supernatant samples (P 0 .05) ;TF levels and TFPI level had a negative correlation in amniotic fluid

  3. Prenatal detection of the cholesterol biosynthetic defect in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome by the analysis of amniotic fluid sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Tint, G S; Kelley, R; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

    1995-04-10

    The Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO or RSH) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of minor facial anomalies, congenital anomalies of many organs, failure to thrive, and mental retardation. Its cause is a defect in cholesterol biosynthesis characterized by abnormally low plasma cholesterol levels and concentrations of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) elevated up to several thousand-fold above normal. We used capillary column gas-chromatography to quantify sterols in amniotic fluid, amniotic cells, plasma, placenta, and breast milk from a heterozygous mother who had previously given birth to an affected son and in cord blood and plasma from her affected newborn daughter. The cholesterol concentration in amniotic fluid at 16 weeks gestation was normal, but 7DHC, normally undetectable, was greatly elevated. In cultured amniocytes, the level of 7DHC was 11% of total cholesterol, similar to cultured fibroblasts from patients with SLO syndrome. At 38 weeks, a girl with phenotype consistent with the syndrome was born. Cholesterol concentrations were abnormally low in cord blood and in the baby's plasma at 12 weeks, while levels of 7DHC were grossly elevated, confirming the prenatal diagnosis. The mother's plasma cholesterol increased steadily during gestation but remained below the lower 95% limit reported for normal control women. We conclude that it is now possible to detect the SLO syndrome at 16 weeks gestation by analyzing amniotic fluid sterols.

  4. Two-Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis to Identify Protein Biomarkers in Amniotic Fluid of Edwards Syndrome (Trisomy 18 Pregnancies.

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    Te-Yao Hsu

    Full Text Available Edwards syndrome (ES is a severe chromosomal abnormality with a prevalence of about 0.8 in 10,000 infants born alive. The aims of this study were to identify candidate proteins associated with ES pregnancies from amniotic fluid supernatant (AFS using proteomics, and to explore the role of biological networks in the pathophysiology of ES.AFS from six second trimester pregnancies with ES fetuses and six normal cases were included in this study. Fluorescence-based two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS were used for comparative proteomic analysis. The identified proteins were further validated by Western blotting and the role of biological networks was analyzed.Twelve protein spots were differentially expressed by more than 1.5-fold in the AFS of the ES pregnancies. MALDI-TOF/MS identified one up-regulated protein: apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1, and four under-regulated proteins: vitamin D binding protein (VDBP, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1, and transthyretin (TTR. Western blot and densitometric analysis of ApoA1, A1AT, IGFBP-1, and TTR confirmed the alteration of these proteins in the amniotic fluid samples. Biological network analysis revealed that the proteins of the ES AFS were involved mainly in lipid and hormone metabolism, immune response, and cardiovascular disease.These five proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of ES. Further studies are needed to explore.

  5. Sphingosine 1-phosphate in amniotic fluid modulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human amnion-derived WISH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Im; Jo, Eun Jin; Lee, Ha-Young; Cha, Moon Seok; Min, Jung Kee; Choi, Chang Hwan; Lee, Yong Moon; Choi, Young-Ae; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Ryu, Sung Ho; Lee, Kyu Sup; Kwak, Jong-Young; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2003-08-22

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid, in particular the generation of prostaglandins (PGs), has been proposed to play a key role in the regulation of labor. Moreover, several extracellular proteins have been reported to modulate PG synthesis in amnion cells. In this study, we found that lipid components dissolved in the amniotic fluid modulate PG synthesis in WISH human amnion cells and identified one of these components as a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). WISH cells express several S1P receptors including S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3. When WISH cells were stimulated with S1P, PGE2 synthesis increased in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximal activity at around 100 nM. S1P treatment also caused the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein, which was apparent within 3-12 h of stimulation. In terms of the intracellular signaling pathway of S1P-induced WISH cell activation, we found that S1P stimulated two kinds of MAPK, ERK, and p38 kinase. We examined the roles of these two MAPKs in S1P-induced COX-2 expression. S1P-induced COX-2 expression was blocked completely by PD-98059 but not by SB-203580, suggesting that ERK has a critical role in the process. Transfection of S1P1 or S1P3 but not of S1P2 antisense oligonucleotide inhibited S1P-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in WISH cells, indicating the involvements of S1P1 and S1P3 in the processes. This study demonstrates the physiological role of S1P in amniotic fluid and its effect on the modulation of COX-2 expression and PGs synthesis in WISH cells.

  6. Levels of Adipokines in Amniotic Fluid and Cord Blood Collected from Dichorionic-Diamniotic Twins Discordant for Fetal Growth.

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    Seung Mi Lee

    Full Text Available To compare the concentrations of adipokines in amniotic fluid (AF and cord blood collected from discordant dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA twin fetuses.The study population included DCDA twins discordant for fetal growth (birth weight difference >10% who either underwent mid-trimester amniocentesis for routine clinical indication (Cohort 1 or whose amniotic fluid was collected at the time of delivery (Cohort 2. In both cohorts, cord blood was collected at delivery.A total of 92 twin pairs were enrolled (n = 49 in Cohort 1; n = 43 in Cohort 2. In Cohort 1, the concentrations of adiponectin (median, 68.5 ng/mL vs 61.4 ng/mL; p<0.05 and leptin (median, 13.9 ng/mL vs 11.2 ng/mL; p<0.1 in mid-trimester AF were significantly higher in smaller compared with larger twins. In Cohort 2, the concentration of serpin E1 (median, 246.0 ng/mL vs 182.8 ng/mL; p<0.01 in AF at delivery was significantly higher in smaller twins, but no difference was noted in adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Levels of adiponectin (median, 10425.5 ng/mL vs 11552.0 ng/mL; p<0.005 and leptin (median, 2.1 ng/mL vs 2.6 ng/mL; p<0.005 were significantly lower in the cord blood of smaller twins whereas cord blood concentrations of serpin E1 (median, 15.5 ng/mL vs 13.3 ng/mL; p<0.05 was higher in the smaller twins.In discordant DCDA twin pairs, concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and serpin E1 in mid-trimester AF, AF at delivery, and cord blood at birth vary significantly but predictably between the smaller and larger twins.

  7. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography for amniotic fluid belt-shaped echo%超声对羊水内带状回声的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马芬; 田荣华; 李燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of amniotic fluid belt-shaped echo. Methods Fifty four mid and late pregnant women with belt-shaped echo in amniotic fluid underwent ultrasonography. Ultrasonographic characteristic of belt-shaped echo in amniotic fluid, the condition of fetuses and placenta appendages were observed. Medical history was inquired and the patients were followed up. Results Among 54 cases with belt-shaped echo in amniotic fluid, 18 of them showed septum for twin pregnancy, 16 of them presented amniotic sheets. The rest included 9 cases of incomplete mediastinum uterus, 7 cases of infused amnion and chorion, 2 cases of lumbar placenta and amniotic band syndrome. Conclusion There are many kinds of reasons for the formation of amniotic fluid belt-shaped echo, some are the normal physiological phenomenon or the benign process, some are the serious pathology phenomena affecting fetal prognosis directly. Correct diagnosis has important value for clinical treatment.%目的:探讨超声诊断羊水内带状回声的临床价值。方法54例伴有羊水内带状回声的中晚期妊娠的孕妇,超声观察带状回声的超声特点及胎儿、附属物情况,询问病史并追踪随访。结果54例羊水内带状回声中,双胎间隔膜18例,羊膜片16例,不全纵隔子宫9例,羊膜、绒毛膜未融合7例,轮状胎盘2例,羊膜带综合征2例。结论羊水内带状回声的形成有多种原因,有的为正常生理现象或良性过程,有的为严重病理现象,直接影响胎儿预后,做出正确诊断对指导临床有重要的价值。

  8. Endothelin-1 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor are co-localized in human amnion membrane cells and secreted into amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Gabriel; Sand, Anna; Ostlund, Eva; Andersson, Eva; Byström, Birgitta; Ståbi, Berit

    2003-11-01

    We have examined the cellular localization and human amniotic fluid content of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The study material consisted of amniotic fluid from 20 patients referred for amniocentesis, and placental samples from normal deliveries. ET-1 and M-CSF were analysed by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively. The cellular localization of ET-1 and M-CSF in the amnion membranes was analysed by double-labelling immunocytochemistry using fluorescein isothiocyanate- and Cy3-labelled secondary antibodies. Release of ET-1 and M-CSF was studied in cultured amniocytes. We found that the mean +/- SD concentrations of ET-1 and M-CSF in fetal amniotic fluid were 45.6 +/- 17.3 pmol/l (range 16.8-85.5) and 7323 +/- 3415 ng/l (range 2640-12 110) respectively. Double-labelling immunocytochemistry showed that both M-CSF and ET-1 were co-localized in the same cells to a high extent. Further analysis revealed that levels of M-CSF, but not ET-1, were significantly correlated with pregnancy length. Both M-CSF and ET-1 were released from cultured amniocytes in response to interleukin-1. These findings show that ET-1 and M-CSF are partly co-localized to specific cells in the human amniotic membrane. As both M-CSF and ET-1 were released from cultured amniocytes in vitro, this suggests that they both may be secreted into fetal amniotic fluid in vivo as well.

  9. 晚期妊娠羊水过少181例护理%Nursing care of 181 cases of late pregnancy with amniotic fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀珍

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of amniotic fluid in patients with late pregnancy on maternal and infant.Methods:181 cases of pregnant women with amniotic fluid in term pregnancy were selected.In the same period,181 cases of normal amniotic fluid volume of normal term pregnancy were selected as the control group.We observed the mode of delivery and perinatal infant of the two groups.Results:The amniotic fluid,fetal distress,neonatal asphyxia,aspiration pneumonia,maternal cesarean section rate of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group(P<0.05).The observation group neonatal death in 15 cases(8.29%),the control group had no deaths.Conclusion:Amniotic fluid is the most sensitive and specific index of fetal intrauterine chronic hypoxia, which has a serious impact on the prognosis of perinatal infants.Cesarean section is an important measure to deal with amniotic fluid and reduce the mortality of perinatal infants.%目的:探讨晚期妊娠羊水过少对母婴的影响。方法:选择足月妊娠羊水过少孕妇181例,同期随机选取羊水量正常足月妊娠孕妇181例作为对照,观察两组分娩方式及围生儿情况。结果:观察组羊水粪染、胎儿窘迫、新生儿窒息、吸入性肺炎、产妇剖宫产率均明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。观察组新生儿死亡15例(8.29%),对照组无死亡病例。结论:晚期妊娠羊水过少是胎儿宫内慢性缺氧的最敏感的特异性指标,对围生儿预后有严重影响,剖宫产是处理羊水过少及降低围生儿死亡率的重要措施。

  10. Clinical significance of histologic chorioamnionitis with a negative amniotic fluid culture in patients with preterm labor and premature membrane rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Woo; Park, Kyo Hoon; Jung, Eun Young

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) with a negative amniotic fluid (AF) culture on adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and inflammatory status in the AF compartment in women with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 153 women diagnosed as having a preterm labor or PPROM (20–34 weeks) who delivered singleton gestations within 48 hours of amniocentesis. AF obtained through amniocentesis was cultured, and interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels were determined. The placentas were examined histologically. Results The prevalence of HCA with negative AF culture was 23.5% (36/153). The women with HCA but with a negative AF culture (group 2) and those with a positive AF culture (group 3) had a significantly lower mean gestational age at amniocentesis and delivery than those with a negative AF culture and without HCA (group 1). Women in group 3 had the highest levels of AF IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9, followed by those in group 2, and those in group 1. Composite neonatal morbidity was significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1, but this was no longer significant after adjusting for confounders caused mainly by the impact of gestational age. Discussion In the women who delivered preterm neonates, HCA with a negative AF culture was associated with increased risks of preterm birth, intense intra-amniotic inflammatory response, and prematurity-associated composite neonatal morbidity, and its risks are similar to the risk posed by positive AF culture. PMID:28278303

  11. Accumulation of interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 in amniotic fluid: a sequela of labour at term and preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S M; Casey, M L; MacDonald, P C

    1997-01-01

    From the finding of micro-organisms or inflammatory mediators, or both, in amniotic fluid (AF), it has been proposed that intrauterine infection is one cause of preterm labour (PTL, intact fetal membranes). This theory, however, remains unproved, i.e. the accumulation of micro-organisms and inflammatory mediators in AF after labour is in progress may be the consequence, not the cause, of labour both at term and preterm. This study was conducted to evaluate this possibility by a comparison of the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 in AFs collected before and during PTL (labour and from the forebag and upper compartments of the amniotic sac during labour). The concentrations of IL-1beta and IL-6 in AF were also analysed as a function of the duration of labour (term or preterm) before fluid collection. In addition, studies were conducted to define the source of IL-1beta in AF. A total of 666 AFs were evaluated. IL-1beta was not detected (onset of labour at any stage of gestation (n = 320), including 170 fluids obtained at term. During labour, IL-1beta was detected (>50 pg/ml) in 58 out of 106 (54.7%), 17 out of 64 (26.6%) and 60 out of 176 (34%) of AF samples obtained during PTL, term labour (upper compartment) and term labour (forebag) respectively. AF sampling, as well as labour and delivery, were completed in labour (with cervical dilation) was in progress for >18 h before AF was collected in 39 out of 106 (37%) PTL pregnancies. The incidence of IL-1beta-positive samples among AFs collected before 18 h of PTL (23 out of 67; 34%) was indistinguishable from that in AFs collected during labour at term. However, in AFs collected after >18 h PTL, the incidence of IL-1beta-positive samples was 35 out of 39 (89.7%) The concentrations of IL-1beta (pg/ml; mean +/- SEM) in AFs collected during PTL (2680 +/- 730; n = 106) were greater than those in AFs collected from the upper compartment and forebag during term labour (436 +/- 244, n = 64; and 468 +/- 119, n

  12. Nursing experience of 16 cases of amniotic fluid embolism%羊水栓塞16例护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春林

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical nursing methods of amniotic fluid embolism. Methods:From 2009 January to 2012 February, 16 patients with amniotic fluid embolism nursing methods were analyzed. Results: 16 cases of patients after treatment of 12 cases of successful treatment, including 4 cases of death. Conclusion:On basis of amniotic fluid embolism in patients with treatment and nursing, maternal chest tightness, symptomatic improvement in dyspnea, bleeding under control, could keep the balance of body fluid with fetus or newborn safety.%  目的:探讨羊水栓塞的临床护理方法。方法:收集2009年1月~2012年2月羊水栓塞患者16例护理方法进行分析。结果:16例患者经救治12例救治成功,其中4例死亡。结论:通过对羊水栓塞患者的救治及护理,产妇胸闷、呼吸困难症状改善,出血不止得到控制,维持体液平衡。胎儿或新生儿安全。

  13. Amniotic Fluid or Its Fatty Acids Produce Actions Similar to Diazepam on Lateral Septal Neurons Firing Rate

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    Ana G. Gutiérrez-García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid (AF contains eight fatty acids (FATs, and both produce anxiolytic-like effects in adult rats and appetitive responses in human newborns. The medial amygdala and lateral septal nucleus function are related to social behavior, but the action of AF or its FATs in this circuit is known. We obtained 267 single-unit extracellular recordings in Wistar rats treated with vehicle (1 mL, s.c.; n=12, human AF (1 mL, s.c.; n=12, a FAT mixture (1 mL, s.c.; n=13, diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.; n=11, and fluoxetine (1 mg/kg, p.o.; n=12. Compared with the vehicle group, the spontaneous septal firing rate in the AF, FAT mixture, and diazepam groups was the lowest and in the fluoxetine group the highest. Cumulative peristimulus histograms indicated that the significant change in septal firing occurred only in the AF and FAT mixture groups and exclusively in those neurons that increased their firing rate during amygdala stimulation. We conclude that human AF and its FATs produce actions comparable to anxiolytic drugs and are able to modify the responsivity of a circuit involved in social behavior, suggesting facilitation of social recognition processes by maternal-fetal fluids.

  14. Analysis of relationship between amniotic fluid pollution and neonatal asphyxia%羊水污染与新生儿窒息关系的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明

    2015-01-01

    羊水污染是胎儿窘迫的重要临床表现。羊水污染与新生儿窒息发生率呈正相关。因此,临床上应加强产程观察,及时发现羊水污染并根据羊水污染程度正确分析判断胎儿缺氧状况,尽早积极处理,降低新生儿窒息率、围产儿死亡率,预防胎粪吸入综合症。此外,脐带因素、胎盘因素、胎膜早破、早产、产程及胎位异常均可导致胎儿窘迫和新生儿窒息,这些因素也必须关注。%Amniotic fluid pollution is the important clinical manifestation of fetal distress. The incidence of amniotic fluid pollution was positively correlated with the incidence of neonatal asphyxia. Therefore, clinical should strengthen the observation of birth process, timely detection of amniotic fluid contamination and according to the degree of amniotic fluid pollution correct analysis determine fetal hypoxia condition, early aggressive treatment, reduce the rate of neonatal asphyxia and perinatal mortality, prevention of meconium aspiration syndrome. In addition, umbilical cord factors, placental factors, premature rupture of membranes, premature birth, birth process and fetal abnormalities can lead to fetal distress and neonatal asphyxia, so we should also must pay close attention to these factors.

  15. 羊水细胞染色体分析在产前的应用%Amniotic fluid cel chromosome analysis in prenatal application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚群; 童克婷

    2013-01-01

    Objective Study amniotic fluid cel chromosome usefulness in clinical prenatal diagnosis and in the diagnosis of chromosomal disorders. Methods Puncture indications of second trimester amniotic fluid cel culture and chromosome analysis detected abnormal karyotype types and statistics. Results 474 cases were successfuly cultured amniotic fluid detection of abnormal karyotype 22 cases, autosomal abnormal number of 15 cases, the sex chromosome abnormalities, six cases of chromosome structural abnormalities, abnormal detection rate of 4.64%, chromosome polymorphismThe karyotype 22 cases. A conclusion Second trimester amniotic fluid chromosome chromosome-risk pregnant woman is an important means of prenatal diagnosis.%  目的研究羊水细胞染色体检查在临床产前诊断中的实用性和在染色体疾病诊断中的意义.方法对孕中期有穿刺指征的孕妇羊水细胞培养并进行染色体分析,检出异常核型及类型并统计.结果在成功培养的474例羊水中,检出异常核型22例,其中常染色体数目异常15例,性染色体数目异常1例,染色体结构异常6例,异常检出率为4.64%,染色体多态性核型22例.结论孕中期对染色体高危孕妇进行羊水染色体检查是产前诊断的重要手段.

  16. Progress in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Amniotic Fluid Embolism%羊水栓塞诊断治疗的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世芬

    2007-01-01

    羊水栓塞(amniotic fluid embolism,AFE)是一种极为凶险的产科并发症。AFE已上升为产科死因的首位Ⅲ。近几年来对AFE的发病机制已有了更新的认识,现就AFE的诊断、治疗新进展进行讨论。

  17. Reference Intervals for N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Amniotic Fluid between 10 and 34 Weeks of Gestation

    OpenAIRE

    Merz, Waltraut M.; Christina Leufgen; Rolf Fimmers; Birgit Stoffel-Wagner; Ulrich Gembruch

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adult and pediatric cardiology, n-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (nt-proBNP) serves as biomarker in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular dysfunction. Elevated levels of circulating nt-proBNP are present in fetal conditions associated with myocardial pressure or volume load. Compared to fetal blood sampling, amniocentesis is technically easier and can be performed from early pregnancy onwards. We aimed to investigate amniotic fluid (AF) nt-proBNP concentration...

  18. An example of prompt and appropriate multidisciplinary management leading to an exceptionally good outcome: a case complicated by amniotic fluid embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deesha; Osakwe, Osaeloke; Ghosh, Sayanti

    2015-11-24

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare and serious phenomenon; we describe a rare case of AFE occurring after a second trimester surgical termination in a private clinic, which, with prompt transfer and appropriate multidisciplinary management, had an exceptionally good outcome. The patient developed hypotension, respiratory arrest and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy following the procedure but with aggressive management she made a full recovery without any neurological or long-term sequelae. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Acceleration of Regeneration of Large-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using Accellular Nerve Allografts Plus Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    2 AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0310 TITLE: Acceleration of Regeneration of Large-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injuries Using Acellular... Nerve Allografts plus amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells (AFS). PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Li, Zhongyu CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Wake Forest...DATE September 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2014 - 31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acceleration of Regeneration of Large

  20. A step-by-step diagnosis of exclusion in a twin pregnancy with acute respiratory failure due to non-fatal amniotic fluid embolism: a case report

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    Papaioannou Vasilios E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Respiratory failure may develop during the later stages of pregnancy and is usually associated with tocolysis or other co-existing conditions such as pneumonia, sepsis, pre-eclampsia or amniotic fluid embolism syndrome. Case presentation We present the case of a 34-year-old healthy woman with a twin pregnancy at 31 weeks and 6 days who experienced acute respiratory failure, a few hours after administration of tocolysis (ritodrine, due to preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Her chest discomfort was significantly ameliorated after the ritodrine infusion was stopped and a Cesarean section was performed 48 hours later under spinal anesthesia; however, 2 hours after surgery she developed severe hypoxemia, hypotension, fever and mild coagulopathy. The patient was intubated and transferred to the intensive care unit where she made a quick and uneventful recovery within 3 days. As there was no evidence for drug- or infection-related thromboembolic or myocardial causes of respiratory failure, we conclude that our patient experienced a rare type of non-fatal amniotic fluid embolism. Conclusion In spite of the lack of solid scientific support for our diagnosis, we conclude that our patient suffered an uncommon type of amniotic fluid embolism syndrome and we believe that this report highlights the need for extreme vigilance and a high index of suspicion for such a diagnosis in any pregnant individual.

  1. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) promotes the neural differentiation of full-term amniotic fluid-derived stem cells towards neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liyang; Zhao, Mingyan; Ye, Wei; Huang, Jinzhi; Chu, Jiaqi; Yan, Shouquan; Wang, Chaojun; Zeng, Rong

    2016-08-01

    The amniotic fluid has a heterogeneous population of cells. Some human amniotic fluid-derived stem (hAFS) cells have been shown to harbor the potential to differentiate into neural cells. However, the neural differentiation efficiency of hAFS cells remains low. In this study, we isolated CD117-positive hAFS cells from amniotic fluid and then examined the pluripotency of these cells through the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs). Additionally, we induced the neural differentiation of these cells using neuroectodermal medium. This study revealed that the GSK3-beta inhibitor SB216763 was able to stimulate the proliferation of CD117-positive hAFS cells without influencing their undifferentiated state. Moreover, SB216763 can efficiently promote the neural differentiation of CD117-positive hAFS cells towards neural progenitor cells in the presence of DMEM/F12 and N2 supplement. These findings provide an easy and low-cost method to maintain the proliferation of hAFS cells, as well as induce an efficacious generation of neural progenitor cells from hAFS cells. Such induction of the neural commitment of hAFS cells may provide an option for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by hAFS cells-based therapies.

  2. Histologic Chorioamnionitis, Amniotic Fluid Interleukin 6, Krebs von den Lungen 6, and Transforming Growth Factor β for the Development of Neonatal Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

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    Hisako Matsumura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chorioamnionitis (CAM is an important risk factor for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in preterm infants. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of CAM on the development of BPD using interleukin 6 (IL-6, Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6, and transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β 1 in the amniotic fluid as markers for inflammation, lung injury, and fibrosis/remodeling, respectively. Methods: Amniotic fluid concentrations of IL-6, KL-6, and TGF-β 1 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Of the 36 preterm infants, 18 were exposed to histologically confirmed CAM. Of these, 12 were later diagnosed as having BPD. The IL-6, KL-6, and TGF-β 1 levels in the amniotic fluid significantly increased with increasing histologic severity of CAM. Moreover, these markers were higher in the BPD group with histologic CAM than those without. Conclusions: Our study suggests that CAM is likely to induce inflammatory, injury, and remodeling processes in the fetal lung.

  3. Predictive value of mid-trimester amniotic fluid high-sensitive C-reactive protein, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Sedigheh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR is surprisingly common with placental dysfunction occurring in about 3% of pregnancies and despite advances in obstetric care, FGR remains a major problem in developed countries. Aim: The purpose of this study is to find out the predictive value of amniotic fluid high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH for FGR. Materials and Methods: This prospective strategy of this study has been conducted on pregnant women who underwent genetic amniocentesis between 15th and 20th weeks of gestation. All patients were followed up on until delivery. Patients with abnormal karyotype and iatrogenic preterm delivery for fetal and maternal indications were excluded. The samples were immediately sent to laboratory for cytogenetic and biochemical examination. Non-parametric tests and receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis were used for statistical purpose. Results: A significant correlation between incremental amniotic fluid alpha fetoprotein (αFPr and LDH levels and FGR at gestational weeks 15th-20th was found out. We also found an optimum cut-off value> 140 IU/L for the amniotic fluid LDH concentration with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 82.4% for the prediction of FGR. Conclusion: Once the LDH value is confirmed, it could serve as a prediction factor for FGR at the time of genetic amniocentesis at gestational weeks 15-20.

  4. Comparison of the neural differentiation potential of human mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic fluid and adult bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhong-Jie; Hu, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Hong-Tian; Zhang, Peng; Xiao, Zong-Yu; Sun, Xin-Lin; Cai, Ying-Qian; Hu, Chang-Chen; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered a promising tool for cell-based therapies of nervous system diseases. Bone marrow (BM) has been the traditional source of MSCs (BM-MSCs). However, there are some limitations for their clinical use, such as the decline in cell number and differentiation potential with age. Recently, amniotic fluid (AF)-derived MSCs (AF-MSCs) have been shown to express embryonic and adult stem cell markers, and can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. In this study, we isolated AF-MSCs from second-trimester AF by limiting dilution and compared their proliferative capacity, multipotency, neural differentiation ability, and secretion of neurotrophins to those of BM-MSCs. AF-MSCs showed a higher proliferative capacity and more rapidly formed and expanded neurospheres compared to those of BM-MSCs. Both immunocytochemical and quantitative real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that AF-MSCs showed higher expression of neural stemness markers than those of BM-MSCs following neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation. Furthermore, the levels of brain-derived growth factor and nerve growth factor secreted by AF-MSCs in the culture medium were higher than those of BM-MSCs. In addition, AF-MSCs maintained a normal karyotype in long-term cultures after NSC differentiation and were not tumorigenic in vivo. Our findings suggest that AF-MSCs are a promising and safe alternative to BM-MSCs for therapy of nervous system diseases.

  5. Valproic acid confers functional pluripotency to human amniotic fluid stem cells in a transgene-free approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschidou, Dafni; Mukherjee, Sayandip; Blundell, Michael P; Drews, Katharina; Jones, Gemma N; Abdulrazzak, Hassan; Nowakowska, Beata; Phoolchund, Anju; Lay, Kenneth; Ramasamy, T Selvee; Cananzi, Mara; Nettersheim, Daniel; Sullivan, Mark; Frost, Jennifer; Moore, Gudrun; Vermeesch, Joris R; Fisk, Nicholas M; Thrasher, Adrian J; Atala, Anthony; Adjaye, James; Schorle, Hubert; De Coppi, Paolo; Guillot, Pascale V

    2012-10-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with potential for therapeutic applications can be derived from somatic cells via ectopic expression of a set of limited and defined transcription factors. However, due to risks of random integration of the reprogramming transgenes into the host genome, the low efficiency of the process, and the potential risk of virally induced tumorigenicity, alternative methods have been developed to generate pluripotent cells using nonintegrating systems, albeit with limited success. Here, we show that c-KIT+ human first-trimester amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) can be fully reprogrammed to pluripotency without ectopic factors, by culture on Matrigel in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) medium supplemented with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) valproic acid (VPA). The cells share 82% transcriptome identity with hESCs and are capable of forming embryoid bodies (EBs) in vitro and teratomas in vivo. After long-term expansion, they maintain genetic stability, protein level expression of key pluripotency factors, high cell-division kinetics, telomerase activity, repression of X-inactivation, and capacity to differentiate into lineages of the three germ layers, such as definitive endoderm, hepatocytes, bone, fat, cartilage, neurons, and oligodendrocytes. We conclude that AFSC can be utilized for cell banking of patient-specific pluripotent cells for potential applications in allogeneic cellular replacement therapies, pharmaceutical screening, and disease modeling.

  6. Chromosome abnormalities diagnosed in utero: a Japanese study of 28 983 amniotic fluid specimens collected before 22 weeks gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Miyuki; Yan, Jim; Yotsumoto, Junko; Sawai, Hideaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Sago, Haruhiko

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the frequency and type of abnormal karyotype in Japan by amniocentesis before 22 weeks of gestation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 28 983 amniotic fluid specimens in a local population collected before 22 weeks gestations for fetal karyotyping. The incidence of abnormal karyotype was 6.0%. The main indication was advanced maternal age (AMA) of 35 years and older, which represented over half of the clinical indications. Abnormal karyotype was most frequently reported among the referrals for abnormal ultrasound findings (21.8%), followed by positive maternal serum screen results (5.3%). Three-fourths of abnormal karyotype was either autosomal aneuploidy (64.0%) or sex chromosome aneuploidy (11.6%). Abnormal karyotype was detected in 2.8% of pregnant women referred for AMA. Clinically significant abnormal karyotype increased with advancing maternal age. The frequency and type of abnormal karyotype detected by amniocentesis for various indications were determined. Amniocentesis was mainly performed among the referrals for AMA, which is a characteristic distribution of indications of Japan.

  7. Cell sourcing for bone tissue engineering: amniotic fluid stem cells have a delayed, robust differentiation compared to mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peister, Alexandra; Woodruff, Maria A; Prince, Jarod J; Gray, Derwin P; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Guldberg, Robert E

    2011-07-01

    Cell based therapies for bone regeneration are an exciting emerging technology, but the availability of osteogenic cells is limited and an ideal cell source has not been identified. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFS) and bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were compared to determine their osteogenic differentiation capacity in both 2D and 3D environments. In 2D culture, the AFS cells produced more mineralized matrix but delayed peaks in osteogenic markers. Cells were also cultured on 3D scaffolds constructed of poly-ε-caprolactone for 15 weeks. MSCs differentiated more quickly than AFS cells on 3D scaffolds, but mineralized matrix production slowed considerably after 5 weeks. In contrast, the rate of AFS cell mineralization continued to increase out to 15 weeks, at which time AFS constructs contained 5-fold more mineralized matrix than MSC constructs. Therefore, cell source should be taken into consideration when used for cell therapy, as the MSCs would be a good choice for immediate matrix production, but the AFS cells would continue robust mineralization for an extended period of time. This study demonstrates that stem cell source can dramatically influence the magnitude and rate of osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Amniotic fluid stem cells morph into a cardiovascular lineage: analysis of a chemically induced cardiac and vascular commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Margherita; Contini, Giovanni; Santaniello, Sara; Bandiera, Pasquale; Pigliaru, Gianfranco; Sanna, Raimonda; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Delitala, Alessandro P; Montella, Andrea; Bagella, Luigi; Ventura, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells were previously observed along with mesenchymal stem cells from different sources, after being treated with a mixed ester of hyaluronan with butyric and retinoic acids, to show a significant increase in the yield of cardiogenic and vascular differentiated elements. The aim of the present study was to determine if stem cells derived from primitive fetal cells present in human amniotic fluid (hAFSCs) and cultured in the presence of a mixture of hyaluronic (HA), butyric (BU), and retinoic (RA) acids show a higher yield of differentiation toward the cardiovascular phenotype as compared with untreated cells. During the differentiation process elicited by exposure to HA + BU + RA, genes controlling pluripotency and plasticity of stem cells, such as Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4, were significantly downregulated at the transcriptional level. At this point, a significant increase in expression of genes controlling the appearance of cardiogenic and vascular lineages in HA + BU + RA-treated cells was observed. The protein expression levels typical of cardiac and vascular phenotypes, evaluated by Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry, were higher in hAFSCs cultured in the presence of HA + BU + RA, as compared with untreated control cells. Appearance of the cardiac phenotype was further inferred by ultrastructural analysis using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. These results demonstrate that a mixture of HA + BU + RA significantly increased the yield of elements committed toward cardiac and vascular phenotypes, confirming what we have previously observed in other cellular types.

  9. Mercury concentrations in human placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid and their relations with body parameters of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozikowska, Iwona; Binkowski, Łukasz J; Szczepańska, Katarzyna; Sławska, Helena; Miszczuk, Katarzyna; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Łaciak, Tomasz; Stawarz, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Studies were conducted on samples taken from giving birth women (n = 40) living in Poland, representing three age groups: 19-25, 26-30 and 31-38 years old. Mercury concentrations were measured with CV-AAS in placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid. The placentas weight did not exceed the 750 g value and was heavier than 310 g. Mean values of Hg concentrations in blood, placenta and umbilical cord were similar (c.a. 9 μg/g). High levels of mercury were noted in cord blood which in 75% of all observations exceeded (up to 17 μg/L) the safe dose set by US EPA (5.8 μg/L). No statistically significant differences in medium level of Hg in all the studied tissues among age groups of women were observed. Positive correlations between Hg concentrations in placenta and umbilical cord and cord blood were revealed as well as some negative ones between mercury concentrations and pregnancy parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tuberin and PRAS40 are anti-apoptotic gatekeepers during early human amniotic fluid stem-cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Christiane; Rosner, Margit; Dolznig, Helmut; Mikula, Mario; Kramer, Nina; Hengstschläger, Markus

    2012-03-01

    Embryoid bodies (EBs) are three-dimensional multicellular aggregates allowing the in vitro investigation of stem-cell differentiation processes mimicking early embryogenesis. Human amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells harbor high proliferation potential, do not raise the ethical issues of embryonic stem cells, have a lower risk for tumor development, do not need exogenic induction of pluripotency and are chromosomal stable. Starting from a single human AFS cell, EBs can be formed accompanied by the differentiation into cells of all three embryonic germ layers. Here, we report that siRNA-mediated knockdown of the endogenous tuberous sclerosis complex-2 (TSC2) gene product tuberin or of proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40), the two major negative regulators of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), leads to massive apoptotic cell death during EB development of human AFS cells without affecting the endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal cell differentiation spectrum. Co-knockdown of endogenous mTOR demonstrated these effects to be mTOR-dependent. Our findings prove this enzyme cascade to be an essential anti-apoptotic gatekeeper of stem-cell differentiation during EB formation. These data allow new insights into the regulation of early stem-cell maintenance and differentiation and identify a new role of the tumor suppressor tuberin and the oncogenic protein PRAS40 with the relevance for a more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases associated with altered activities of these gene products.

  11. Protective effect of human amniotic fluid stem cells in an immunodeficient mouse model of acute tubular necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Perin

    Full Text Available Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN causes severe damage to the kidney epithelial tubular cells and is often associated with severe renal dysfunction. Stem-cell based therapies may provide alternative approaches to treating of ATN. We have previously shown that clonal c-kit(pos stem cells, derived from human amniotic fluid (hAFSC can be induced to a renal fate in an ex-vivo system. Herein, we show for the first time the successful therapeutic application of hAFSC in a mouse model with glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis and ATN. When injected into the damaged kidney, luciferase-labeled hAFSC can be tracked using bioluminescence. Moreover, we show that hAFSC provide a protective effect, ameliorating ATN in the acute injury phase as reflected by decreased creatinine and BUN blood levels and by a decrease in the number of damaged tubules and apoptosis therein, as well as by promoting proliferation of tubular epithelial cells. We show significant immunomodulatory effects of hAFSC, over the course of ATN. We therefore speculate that AFSC could represent a novel source of stem cells that may function to modulate the kidney immune milieu in renal failure caused by ATN.

  12. The relationship between trace mineral concentrations of amniotic fluid with placentatraits in the pregnancy toxemia Ghezel ewes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Olfati; Gholamali Moghaddam; Nasroallah Moradi Kor; Behzad Baradaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the trace mineral concentrations (Mg, Se, Zn, Cu and Fe) in amniotic fluid (AF) in 40 pregnancy toxemia Ghezel ewes at the time of parturition phase and its association with placental traits. Methods: Animals were treated with controlled internal drug release for 14 d and injected 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin at the time of controlled internal drug release removal. After the detection of estrus by use of teaser rams, ewes were hand-mated. Ewes were classified as having subclinical pregnancy toxemia on the basis of beta-hydroxy butyrate (BHBA) results (BHBA >0.86 mmol/L). Results: The overall mean AF traces of mineral concentrations were 3.13 ng/mL, 22.1 μg/dL, 134.7 μg/dL, 122.5 μg/dL and 166.6 μg/dL, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between placental efficiency and Zn concentration in AF ewes (r = 0.633, P 0.01), except for placental weight (r = 0.808, P < 0.01). Also, no significant correlation was detected between BHBA with the above trace minerals. Conclusions:Overall, determinations of these trace minerals in the AF ewes could have been used to obtain information on nutritional and reproductive status for the diagnosis of pregnancy toxemia in Ghezel ewes.

  13. The use of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells as the feeder layer to establish human embryonic stem cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Yung-Kwei; Huang, Shang-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Hsiang; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Chang, Kuo-Hsuan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Shaw, S W Steven

    2015-12-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells that have the potential to differentiate into the three germ layers and possibly all tissues of the human body. To fulfil the clinical potentials for cell-based therapy, banks of hESC lines that express different combinations of the major histocompatibility genes should be established, preferably without exposing such cells to animal cells and proteins. In this study, we tested human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) as feeder cells to support the growth of hESCs. Our results indicated that mitomycin-treated AFMSCs were able to support the newly established hESC lines CGLK-1 and CGLK-2. The hESC colonies cultured on AFMSCs expressed alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, Oct-4, Nanog and Sox-2, which are markers for undifferentiated hESCs. Chromosomal analyses of both hESC lines, CGLK-1 and CGLK-2, which were cultured on AFMSC feeders for 22 and 14 passages, respectively, were confirmed to be normal karyotypes (46, XX). The ability of AFMSCs as feeder cells to maintain the undifferentiated growth and pluripotency of hESCs was confirmed by in vivo formation of teratomas derived on AFMSC hESCs in severe combined immune-compromised mice. The use of AFMSCs for feeder cells to culture hESCs has several advantages, in that AFMSCs are not tumourigenic and can be expanded extensively with a short doubling time.

  14. The congruity between urine and cervical swab cultures in pregnant women with versus without amniotic fluid infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrova-Risteska, L; Hrgovic, Z; Curzik, D; Kissler, S; Kaufmann, M; Gaetje, R

    2005-12-01

    We observed the congruity of bacteria found in urine and cervix of pregnant women with amniotic fluid infection (AFI) compared to healthy controls. Over three years, we prospectively analysed urine and cervical swabs cultures in 120 pregnant women in gestational week 16-20. The patient population was divided in two groups: group I patients had clinical symptoms of AFI. The rest of the patients were designated as healthy controls (group II). Congruity between findings in both groups was observed. In patients with bacterial growth, antibiotic treatment was initiated as recommended and once ended - culture probes were repeated. The rates of nonsignificant and significant bacteriuria were doubled in group I. Fifty-five percent (n = 33) of patients in group I had identical bacteria cultured both from the urine sample and cervical swab, in contrast to only 13.3 % in group II. Congruity was most pronounced for Klebsiella species and E. coli, the later being single most dominant isolate in regards to both cultures. After antimicrobial treatment, microbial eradication occurred in 15 patients (45.5 %). The observed incidences of abortions and preterm deliveries were significantly lower in patients with microbial eradication versus patients with microbial persistence. Patients with clinical symptoms of AFI have high risk for bacteriuria identical to bacterial culture from cervical swab. Antimicrobial treatment was effective only partially where indicated. Screening for eradication is recommended and consensus on the most appropriate therapy is needed.

  15. Investigation on biological characteristics of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells%人羊水来源干细胞生物学性状的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建芳; 顾潇; 陈必良

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Human amniotic fluid samples were isolated and cultured in vitro.To establish in vitro culture procedure of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFS) and to study their biological characteristics.Methods: AFS were isolated from second-trimester amniotic fluid by adherence.The phenotypes of AFS were detected by flow cytometry and RT-PCR.Results: Primary cells grow slowly, The cells proliferated rapidly after passage and they were positive for CD29, CD44, CD105 and negative for CD45 and CD133 by flow cytometry.RT-PCR analysis showed that AFS were positive for Oct-4 and Nanog.Conclusion: Experiment has successfully isolated stem cells in amniotic fluid.The stem cells isolated from second-trimester amniotic fluid have a great potential of proliferation, which express mesenchymal stem cell markers.Their characteristics are in accord with mesenchymal stem cells.%目的 对人羊水标本进行体外分离培养,建立人羊水来源干细胞的体外培养体系,对其生物学形状进行研究.方法 贴壁法体外分离获得人羊水来源干细胞,多次传代扩增后,采用流式细胞仪和RT-PCR技术检测细胞表面抗原的表达.结果 羊水干细胞原代生长较慢,传代后生长迅速,体外倍增时间约36h,流式细胞仪检测证实细胞表达CD29、CD44、CD105等间充质干细胞标志,不表达造血干细胞标志CD45和CD133.RT-PCR检测显示羊水干细胞表达Oct-4、Nanog基因.结论 实验成功分离获得羊水中具有干细胞性质的细胞群,采用贴壁法分离获得的干细胞体外增殖能力强,表达间充质干细胞表面标志,符合间充质干细胞的特点.

  16. Multielemental analysis of 18 essential and toxic elements in amniotic fluid samples by ICP-MS: Full procedure validation and estimation of measurement uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, B; Sajnóg, A; Lorenc, W; Hanć, A; Komorowicz, I; Suliburska, J; Kocyłowski, R; Barałkiewicz, D

    2017-11-01

    Amniotic fluid is the substantial factor in the development of an embryo and fetus due to the fact that water and solutes contained in it penetrate the fetal membranes in an hydrostatic and osmotic way as well as being swallowed by the fetus. Elemental composition of amniotic fluid influences the growth and health of the fetus, therefore, an analysis of amniotic fluid is important because the results would indicate abnormal levels of minerals or toxic elements. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) is often used for determination of trace and ultra-trace level elements in a wide range of matrices including biological samples because of its unique analytical capabilities. In the case of trace and ultra-trace level analysis detailed characteristics of analytical procedure as well as properties of the analytical result are particularly important. The purpose of this study was to develop a new analytical procedure for multielemental analysis of 18 elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn) in amniotic fluid samples using ICP-MS. Dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with two reaction gases, ammonia and oxygen, was involved in the experiment to eliminate spectral interferences. Detailed validation was conducted using 3 certified reference mterials (CRMs) and real amniotic fluid samples collected from patients. Repeatability for all analyzed analytes was found to range from 0.70% to 8.0% and for intermediate precision results varied from 1.3% to 15%. Trueness expressed as recovery ranged from 80% to 125%. Traceability was assured through the analyses of CRMs. Uncertainty of the results was also evaluated using single-laboratory validation approach. The obtained expanded uncertainty (U) results for CRMs, expressed as a percentage of the concentration of an analyte, were found to be between 8.3% for V and 45% for Cd. Standard uncertainty of the precision was found to have a greater influence on the combined standard uncertainty

  17. TANDEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tandem Van de Graaff facility provides researchers with beams of more than 40 different types of ions - atoms that have been stripped of their electrons. One of...

  18. The relationship between meconium-stained amniotic fluid and chorioamnionitis%羊水粪染与绒毛膜羊膜炎关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜玉琴; 刘群香; 蔡丹青

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨Ⅱ~Ⅲ度羊水粪染与绒毛膜羊膜炎的关系及对围生儿的影响.方法:对2010年2~8月囚羊水Ⅱ~Ⅲ度粪染行胎盘病理检查的236例临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果:在236例Ⅱ~Ⅲ度羊水粪染病例中,胎盘病理检查有组织学绒毛膜羊膜炎病例多于无组织学绒毛膜羊膜炎病例,重度绒毛膜羊膜炎新生儿窒息发病率较尤急性绒毛膜羊膜炎和轻、中度急性绒毛膜羊膜炎病例高(P<0.05),有组织学绒毛膜羊膜炎与无组织学绒毛膜羊膜炎的胎盘病理表现基本相同(P>0.05).结论:Ⅱ~Ⅲ度羊水粪染与绒毛膜羊膜炎密切相关;绒毛膜羊膜炎引起绒毛及血管病变是导致羊水粪染、胎儿窘迫、新生儿窒息原因之一.在临床工作中对羊水Ⅱ~Ⅲ度粪染病例应常规行胎盘病理检查,有利于诊断及指导孕产妇和新生儿的治疗.%Objective: To study on the relationship between meconium - stained amniotic fluid of Ⅱ ~ Ⅲ degree and chorioamnionitis and the effect of meconium - stained amniotic fluid on perinatal children.Methods: 236 patients who were done placental pathology because of Ⅱ - Ⅲ degree meconium- stained amniotic fluid from February, 2010 to August, 2010 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed.Results: In 236 cases of Ⅱ - Ⅲ degree meconium - stained amniotic fluid, the patients with histologically chorioamnionitis were more than the patients without histologically chorioamnionitis (64.41% ) by placental pathology, the incidence of neonatal asphyxia with severe chorioamnionitis was higher than those without acute chorioamnionitis and mild acute chorioamnionitis ( P < 0.05 ).The placental pathology was same between histologic chorioamnionitis and no histological chorioamnionitis (P > 0.05 ).Conclusion: Ⅱ - Ⅲ degree meconium - stained amniotic fluid is closely related with the chorioamnionitis; Chorioamnionitis caused by vascular disease is one of the

  19. Induction of E-cadherin+ human amniotic fluid cell differentiation into oocyte-like cells via culture in medium supplemented with follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te; Huang, Yongyi; Bu, Yanzhen; Zhao, Yanhui; Zou, Gang; Liu, Zhixue

    2014-07-01

    Pluripotent human amniotic fluid cells (HuAFCs) can differentiate into various types of somatic cell in vitro. However, their differentiation into oocyte-like cells has never been described to the best of our knowledge. In the present study, differentiation of E-cadherin+ and E-cadherin- HuAFC sub-populations into oocyte-like cells was induced via culture in medium containing bovine follicular fluid and β-mercaptoethanol. The E-cadherin+ HuAFCs expressed DAZL highly. Post-induction, cells with an oocyte-like phenotype were found among the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, expressing markers specific to germ cells and oocytes (VASA, ZP3 and GDF9) and meiosis (DMC1 and SCP3). When specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress E-cadherin in the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs, the levels of DAZL expression were reduced. Post-induction, the morphology of the siRNA‑E‑cadherin HuAFCs was poorer and the expression levels of germ cell-specific markers were lower compared with those of the siRNA-mock HuAFCs. Therefore, E-cadherin+ HuAFCs could be more easily induced to differentiate into oocyte-like cells by bovine follicular fluid and β-mercaptoethanol. In addition, the E-cadherin+ HuAFCs exhibited potential characteristics of DAZL protein expression, and thus it was conjectured that bovine follicular fluid acts on DAZL protein and promotes E-cadherin+ HuAFC differentiation into oocyte-like cells.

  20. Amniotic fluid composition analysis of gestational diabetes mellitus patients with amniotic fluid volume abnormality and its effect on pregnancy outcome%妊娠期糖尿病患者羊水量异常羊水成分分析及其对妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅; 白润芳; 李艳川; 石紫云

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the composition of amniotic fluid in gestational diabetes mellitus patients with amniotic fluid volume abnormality and its effect on pregnancy outcome. Methods A total of 133 cases of gesta-tional diabetes mellitus patients with abnormal amniotic fluid volume, who admitted to Department of Obstetrics of our hospital from February 2013 to August 2015, were selected and divided into the amniotic fluid too much group (n=108) and the amniotic fluid too little group (n=25) according to amniotic fluid volume. At the same period, 30 cases of normal delivery of women with normal amniotic fluid volume were selected as the control group. Amniotic fluid com-position was analyzed, and the patients were followed up to the end of pregnancy to analyze the gestational age distri-bution and clinical pregnancy outcome. Results The gestational distribution of abnormal amniotic fluid in the amni-otic fluid too much group was in 33~36 weeks and after 36 weeks, and the gestational distribution of abnormality am-niotic fluid in the amniotic fluid too little group was after 36 weeks. Na+, Ca2+and Osm levels in the amniotic fluid of the amniotic fluid too little group were significantly lower than those of the control group, with (121.45±5.49) mmol/L vs (124.72±4.91) mmol/L, (1.58±0.16) mmol/L vs (1.68±0.17) mmol/L, (241.23±10.09) mOsm/L vs (247.67±11.12) mOsm/L, respectively, P36周,羊水过少组孕妇的羊水量异常孕周主要分布在>36周;羊水过少组孕妇的羊水成分中,Na+(121.45±5.49) mmol/L、Ca2+(1.58±0.16) mmol/L及Osm (241.23±10.09) mOsm/L的水平明显低于对照组的(124.72±4.91) mmol/L、(1.68±0.17) mmol/L、(247.67±11.12) mOsm/L,而Crea (223.36±54.24)μmol/L及Glu (6.42±1.33) mmol/L的水平明显高于对照组的(191.98±29.64)μmol/L、(1.09±1.21) mmol/L,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);羊水过多组和羊水过少组孕妇的胎位异常(17.59%,20.00%)、胎儿窘迫(37.96%,24.00%)、早产(23.15%

  1. 羊水来源干细胞的研究进展%Research Progresses of Amniotic Fluid-derived Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2011-01-01

    干细胞具有自我更新和多向分化的潜能,是目前医学及组织工程学研究的热点.近来发现羊水中含有干细胞,具有向内、中、外三个胚层分化的能力,且通过了功能测试.由于羊水来源广泛、创伤小、无伦理道德方面的限制且无致瘤性,将为干细胞开辟新的研究领域,为组织工程提供新的种子细胞来源,为细胞介导的基因治疗提供新的载体.目前对其来源及生物学特征的研究还不是很清楚.现对羊水中细胞的组成、羊水来源干细胞分离培养、生物学特征及鉴定、分化潜能等问题进行综述.%Stem cells possess the potentials of self-renewal and multipotent differentiation, which has become a hotspot of medical and tissue engineering research. Recently, amniotic fluids are found to contain stem cells capable of differentiating to endoderm, mesoderm,and ectoderm as justified by functional tests. As amniotic fluids have a wide source, minimally invasive harvest,less ethnical restriction, and free of tumorigenesis,they are used to create a new research field to provide new seed cells for tissue engineering and new vectors for cell-based gene therapy. The source and biological properties of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells remain unclear until now. This article reviews the components of amniotic cells,isolation and culture of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells, biological properties, characterization, and differential potentials.

  2. 围术期急性羊水栓塞11例诊治分析%Analysis of 11 cases of perioperative acute amniotic fluid embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫竹泉; 蓝英平; 梁天北; 韦天全

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过探讨围术期羊水栓塞的发生原因及诊治措施,提高对羊水栓塞的诊断、预防及抢救水平。方法收集1995年5月-2011年8月围术期羊水栓塞患者11例,进行回顾性分析。结果11例羊水栓塞患者中,进入手术室尚未进行麻醉出现羊水栓塞的患者2例,剖宫产术中出现羊水栓塞的患者9例。有胸闷、呼吸困难、呛咳等肺动脉高压症状者6例,确诊弥散性血管内凝血(DIC)者5例,经抢救治疗后,6例症状缓解,4例切口及阴道出血不止,行子宫全切除或次全切除术。抢救无效死亡1例,抢救治愈10例,死亡率9.09%。结论及时、正确的诊断,并采取合理、有效的抢救措施是提高抢救成功率的关键。%Objective To explore the causes and treatment of perioperative amniotic fluid embolism,and improve the diagnosis,prevention and rescue level of amniotic fluid embolism. Methods Clinical data of 11 patients with perioperative am-niotic fluid embolism from May 1995 to August 2011 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results 11 cases of amniot-ic fluid embolism patients into the operation room had not yet performed anesthesia in patients with amniotic fluid embolism in 2 cases;9 cases of amniotic fluid embolism occurred in patients with cesarean section. Chest tightness,dyspnea,choking cough and pulmonary arterial hypertension symptoms were occurred in 6 cases,and 5 cases were diagnosed diffuse intravascular coag-ulation(DIC). After treatment,6 patients relieved the symptoms,and 4 cases of incision and vaginal bleeding,and then uterine subtotal or time total resection. Died 1 case,and rescue cure in 10 cases,the mortality rate was 9. 09% . Conclusion Timely and correct diagnosis,taking reasonable and effective rescue measures is the key to improve the success rate of rescue.

  3. Células-tronco do líquido amniótico Amniotic fluid stem cells

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    Sergio P. Bydlowski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde o primeiro isolamento e cultivo de células-tronco embrionárias humanas, há mais de 10 anos, seu uso na pesquisa e terapia foi inibida por considerações éticas complexas e pelo risco de transformação maligna destas células indiferenciadas após transplante no paciente. As células-tronco adultas são eticamente aceitas e o risco de transformação maligna é muito baixo. Entretanto, seu potencial de diferenciação e sua capacidade proliferativa são limitados. Cerca de 6 anos atrás, a descoberta de célulastronco no líquido amniótico que expressavam Oct-4, um marcador específico de pluripotencialidade, com alta capacidade de proliferação e diferenciação, iniciou um novo campo promissor na área das células-tronco. Estas células têm potencial de se diferenciar em células dos três folhetos germinativos. Não formam tumores in vivo e não levantam os questionamentos éticos associados com as células-tronco embrionárias humanas. Futuras investigações revelarão se as células-tronco do líquido amniótico realmente irão representar um tipo intermediário com vantagens em relação tanto às células-tronco embrionárias quanto às adultas. Este artigo faz uma revisão acerca destes tópicos e das características biológicas das células-tronco do líquido amniótico.Since the first successful isolation and cultivation of human embryonic stem cells about 10 years ago, their use for research and therapy has been constrained by complex ethical considerations as well as by the risk of development of malignancies of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells after transplantation into the patient. Adult stem cells are ethically acceptable and the risk of tumor development is low. However, their differentiation potential and proliferative capacity are limited. About 6 years ago, the discovery of Oct-4 expressing amniotic fluid stem cells, a specific marker of pluripotency, with a high proliferative capacity, and multilineage

  4. Feasibility of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells in Alleviation of Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constrictive Injury Nerve Model.

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    Chien-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available The neurobehavior of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve is very similar to that in humans, and it is accompanied by a profound local inflammation response. In this study, we assess the potentiality of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model.This neuropathic pain animal model was conducted by four 3-0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. The intravenous administration of hAFMSCs with 5x105 cells was conducted for three consecutive days.The expression IL-1β, TNF-α and synaptophysin in dorsal root ganglion cell culture was remarkably attenuated when co-cultured with hAFMSCs. The significant decrease of PGP 9.5 in the skin after CCI was restored by administration of hAFMSCs. Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were rescued by hAFMSCs administration. Increases in synaptophysin and TNF-α over the dorsal root ganglion were attenuated by hAFMSCs. Significant expression of TNF-α and OX-42 over the dorsal spinal cord was substantially attenuated by hAFMSCs. The increased amplitude of sensory evoked potential as well as expression of synaptophysin and TNF-α expression was alleviated by hAFMSCs. Human AFMSCs significantly improved the threshold of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as various parameters of CatWalk XT gait analysis.Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and neurobehavior possibly through the modulation of the inflammatory response.

  5. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

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    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  6. Determinants of organochlorine levels detectable in the amniotic fluid of women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Mahtani, Vikesh; Troyano, Juan M; Alvarez de la Rosa, Margarita; Padilla-Pérez, Ana I; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida, Maira; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Boada, Carlos; Boada, Luis D

    2009-07-01

    Organochlorines (OCs) tend to accumulate in human tissues and can be measured in amniotic fluid (AF). The detection of OCs in AF samples reflects intrauterine exposure of human beings to these persistent organic pollutants. The present study was performed to evaluate the level of contamination of AF by OCs in 100 pregnant women from Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify and quantify the analytes, including 7 polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners and 18 OC pesticides and metabolites. The majority of the AF samples (67%) showed some detectable OC-residue, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) being the most frequently detected compound (66% of the samples) and at the highest concentration (median 0.023 ng/ml). Lindane was also detected in 28% of the samples. Inverse associations were found between previous lactation and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH) and cyclodienes in the group of younger women (p = 0.037 and p = 0.027, respectively). Unexpectedly, serum values of HCB (r = -0.414; p = 0.04), gamma-HCH (r = -0.294; p = 0.035), and SigmaOCs (r = -0.350; p = 0.014) were negatively related to age. Even more, women with detectable levels of HCH isomers were younger (33.9 +/- 4.9 years) than women with undetectable levels of them (36.1 +/- 4.9 years; p = 0.035). We conclude that approximately one in two fetuses in the Canary Islands is exposed to OCs in utero, and that, therefore, the exposure of young women from these Islands to some HCH isomers persists nowadays. Because prenatal exposure to these chemicals may be a causative factor in adverse health trends, further studies are required to enhance preventive measures.

  7. Amniotic fluid stem cells inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via CCL2 modulation in bronchoalveolar lavage.

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    Orquidea Garcia

    Full Text Available The potential for amniotic fluid stem cell (AFSC treatment to inhibit the progression of fibrotic lung injury has not been described. We have previously demonstrated that AFSC can attenuate both acute and chronic-fibrotic kidney injury through modification of the cytokine environment. Fibrotic lung injury, such as in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, is mediated through pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity. Thus, we hypothesized that AFSC treatment might inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis through cytokine modulation. In particular, we aimed to investigate the effect of AFSC treatment on the modulation of the pro-fibrotic cytokine CCL2, which is increased in human IPF patients and is correlated with poor prognoses, advanced disease states and worse fibrotic outcomes. The impacts of intravenous murine AFSC given at acute (day 0 or chronic (day 14 intervention time-points after bleomycin injury were analyzed at either day 3 or day 28 post-injury. Murine AFSC treatment at either day 0 or day 14 post-bleomycin injury significantly inhibited collagen deposition and preserved pulmonary function. CCL2 expression increased in bleomycin-injured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, but significantly decreased following AFSC treatment at either day 0 or at day 14. AFSC were observed to localize within fibrotic lesions in the lung, showing preferential targeting of AFSC to the area of fibrosis. We also observed that MMP-2 was transiently increased in BAL following AFSC treatment. Increased MMP-2 activity was further associated with cleavage of CCL2, rendering it a putative antagonist for CCL2/CCR2 signaling, which we surmise is a potential mechanism for CCL2 reduction in BAL following AFSC treatment. Based on this data, we concluded that AFSC have the potential to inhibit the development or progression of fibrosis in a bleomycin injury model during both acute and chronic remodeling events.

  8. Immunoregulatory effects on T lymphocytes by human mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, amniotic fluid, and placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschi, Katia; Castiglia, Sara; Sanavio, Fiorella; Rustichelli, Deborah; Muraro, Michela; Defedele, Davide; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Fagioli, Franca

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising tool in cell therapies because of their multipotent, bystander, and immunomodulatory properties. Although bone marrow represents the main source of MSCs, there remains a need to identify a stem cell source that is safe and easily accessible and yields large numbers of cells without provoking debates over ethics. In this study, MSCs isolated from amniotic fluid and placenta were compared with bone marrow MSCs. Their immunomodulatory properties were studied in total activated T cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA-PBMCs). In particular, an in vitro co-culture system was established to study: (i) the effect on T-lymphocyte proliferation; (ii) the presence of T regulatory lymphocytes (Treg); (iii) the immunophenotype of various T subsets (Th1 and Th2 naïve, memory, effector lymphocytes); (iv) cytokine release and master gene expression to verify Th1, Th2, and Th17 polarization; and (v) IDO production. Under all co-culture conditions with PHA-PBMCs and MSCs (independently of tissue origin), data revealed: (i) T proliferation inhibition; (ii) increase in naïve T and decrease in memory T cells; (iii) increase in T regulatory lymphocytes; (iv) strong Th2 polarization associated with increased interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 levels, Th1 inhibition (significant decreases in interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-12) and Th17 induction (production of high concentrations of interleukins-6 and -17); (v) indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase mRNA induction in MSCs co-cultured with PHA-PBMCs. AF-MSCs had a more potent immunomodulatory effect on T cells than BM-MSCs, only slightly higher than that of placenta MSCs. This study indicates that MSCs isolated from fetal tissues may be considered a good alternative to BM-MSCs for clinical applications.

  9. Karyotype analysis with amniotic fluid in 12365 pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis and strategies of prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H; Yang, Y L; Zhang, C Y; Liao, E J; Zhao, H R; Liao, S X

    2016-01-01

    We explored the strategies of prenatal diagnosis by foetal karyotype analysis in pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis. Karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid was performed on 12365 pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis. The detection rates and distributions of abnormal karyotypes were observed in a variety of indications for genetic amniocentesis. The detection rates of abnormal karyotype were 57.4% in either a mother or father with chromosomal abnormality, 8.5% in the pregnant women with pathological ultrasound finding (PUF), 2.79% in the pregnant women with advanced age (35 years and over) and 2.23% in the women with abnormal maternal serum screening (MSS) tests. Foetal abnormal karyotype was found in 86 pregnant women with PUF; of the 86 pregnant women, 42 had trisomy 13, 18 or 21. Of the 12365 pregnant women, foetal abnormal karyotype was found in 428 (3.46%); of the 428 foetuses, only 154 had trisomy 13, 18 or 21. In the pregnant women with abnormal MSS, 111 foetuses had abnormal karyotype, but only 36 foetuses had trisomy 13, 18 or 21. We conclude that (1) ultrasound is an important approach to prevent the birth of foetuses with chromosomal disease. (2) Non-invasive prenatal DNA detection cannot completely replace invasive prenatal diagnosis and MSS. (3) The strategies of prenatal diagnosis: Genetic amniocentesis is strongly recommended for the pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis. For pregnant women who refuse invasive prenatal diagnosis, non-invasive prenatal DNA detection is first performed. If the results of non-invasive prenatal DNA detection are negative, the pregnant women are followed up by ultrasound; if the results of non-invasive prenatal DNA detection are positive, the pregnant women should undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis.

  10. 羊水 ABH血型物质测定与 ABO 血型基因分型%Detection of amniotic fluid ABH blood group substances and ABO blood type gene classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 逯心敏; 郭渝; 胡伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect amniotic fluid ABH blood group substances and ABO blood group genotype by the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers(PCR-SSP) to increase the prenatal diagnosis of fetal ABO blood group .Methods 53 pregnant women with gestational age 16 -25 weeks were selected .Amniotic fluid was extracted for detecting ABH blood group substances by the serological indirect agglutinating reaction ;the amniotic fluid cells were separated for extracting DNA .Then the PCR-SSP technique was adopted to analyze the ABO blood group genotypes .Results 16 specimens of amniotic fluid were non-se-creting type phenotype(30 .2% ) and 37 specimens of amniotic fluid were secreting type phenotype (69 .8% );48 specimens of amni-otic fluid were detected out the ABO blood group genotype by the PCR-SSP method .ABO blood group of fetal amniotic fluid cells by the gene identification was consistent to the detection results of amniotic fluid secreting type ABH blood group substances .Con-clusion The PCR-SSP technique can accurately detect the fetal amniotic fluid cells ABO blood group .%目的:通过检测羊水ABH血型物质和序列特异性引物-聚合酶链反应(PCR-SSP)基因技术检测胎儿羊水细胞ABO血型基因型,鉴定胎儿ABO血型。方法选取妊娠16~25周的孕妇53例,抽取羊水,利用间接凝集实验测定羊水AB H血型物质;将羊水细胞进行分离,提取羊水细胞DNA ,运用PCR-SSP技术分析其ABO血型基因型。结果16例羊水标本为非分泌型,占30.2%,37例羊水标本为分泌型,占69.8%;48例羊水标本通过PCR-SSP方法检测出了ABO血型的基因型。经基因鉴定的胎儿羊水细胞ABO血型与羊水分泌型ABH血型物质检测结果一致。结论 PCR-SSP技术可以准确地检测胎儿羊水细胞的ABO血型。

  11. 羊水葡萄糖及白介素-6在胎膜早破中的意义%Determination of Amniotic Fluid Glucose and Interleukin 6in Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽红; 胡继芬; 游彩玲; 马炎辉

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between amniotic cavity infection and the content of glucose and interleukin 6(IL 6) in amniotic fluid in premature rupture of membranes(PMOR) group. Methods To chose randomly 70 examples of PMOR patients without pregnant complication in 1994~1999. Leading by Brightness mode of ultrasound, amniotic fluid was obtained by puncturing the amnion through abdomen. Amniotic fluid glucose was determined quantitatively by "Glucose oxidizing enzyme", IL 6 was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results The content of glucose in amniotic fluid decreased obviously while the quantity of IL 6 increased distinctively in the group with PMOR and amniotic cavity infection. When the content of glucose in amniotic fluid was lower than 0.55 mmol/L while the quantity of IL 6 higher than 315 ng/L, the sensitivity of amniotic cavity infection was expected to be 100%, the specificity over 80%. Conclusion In the PMOR group, to determine the content of glucose and IL 6 in amniotic fluid can predict amniotic cavity infection rapidly and conveniently.%目的探讨胎膜早破患者羊水中葡萄糖及白介素 6(IL 6)含量与宫内感染的关系。方法随机选择1994~1999年70例无妊娠并发症的胎膜早破的患者,在B超引导下,经腹行羊膜腔内穿刺,抽取羊水,用葡萄糖氧化酶方法测定羊水中葡萄糖,用酶联免疫方法测定IL 6含量。结果胎膜早破并宫内感染者,羊水葡萄糖含量明显下降,IL 6含量则明显增高,当羊水葡萄糖含量≤0.55 mmol/L,IL 6含量≥315 ng/L时,预测宫内感染的敏感性100%,特异性>80.00%。结论胎膜早破患者,测定羊水葡萄糖及IL 6含量,能早期快速预测宫内感染。

  12. Amniotic fluid embolism after cesarean section in 1 case of first aid and nursing care%1例剖宫产术后羊水栓塞的急救与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素清; 邵燕明; 黄彩霞

    2010-01-01

    Objective 1 case of amniotic fluid embolism after cesarean section in first aid, rescue of amniotic fluid embolism approach to improve the treatment level of amniotic fluid embolism. Methods 1 case of amniotic fluid embolism in our hospital the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage caused by inducement, clinical manifestations, laboratory examination and treatment were analyzed. Results 1 patient was discharged successfully rescued. Conclusion Early recognition, prompt and correct treatment is to improve the rescue of amniotic fluid embolism that occurred after the key to success.%目的 通过对1例剖宫产术后羊水栓塞的急救,探讨羊水栓塞的抢救方法,以提高羊水栓塞救治水平.方法 对我院1例羊水栓塞致产后大出血的发病诱因、临床表现、实验室检查及治疗结果进行分析.结果 1例患者抢救成功痊愈出院.结论 早期识别、及时正确处理是提高产后发生羊水栓塞抢救成功的关键.

  13. Prediction of exact delivery time in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes at admission by amniotic fluid interleukin-8 level and preterm labor index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Satoshi; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Yoneda, Noriko; Shima, Tomoko; Ito, Mika; Yamanaka, Mikiko; Hidaka, Takao; Sumi, Shigeki; Saito, Shigeru

    2011-07-01

    To examine whether delivery time for preterm labor can be predicted by clinical and biochemical markers at admission. It has previously been reported that interleukin (IL)-8 and glucose in the amniotic fluid, fetal fibronectin (fFN) in vaginal secretions and the preterm labor index (PLI) are independent risk factors for delivery before 34 weeks' gestation. Using these four markers, we developed an equation model to predict the remaining gestation period after amniocentesis by step-wise multiple regression analysis in 126 preterm delivery cases (retrospective section of the study). We also evaluated whether this equation model could predict delivery time in 65 new preterm labor patients (prospective section of the study). Finally, we investigated the risk factors for delivery within three days after amniocentesis. The period from amniocentesis until delivery was calculated using the following equation by step-wise multiple regression analysis: predicted period until delivery (days) = 77.1 - 15.8 × log (amniotic IL-8 level [ng/mL]) - 9.2 × PLI (points). The calculated period until delivery correlated significantly with the actual period until delivery in the prospective study. When a high score of PLI (≥5 points) and a high level of vaginal fFN (≥90 ng/mL) or a high level of amniotic IL-8 (≥25.5 ng/mL) were present, the positive predictive values were 88.2% and 80.9% in predicting delivery within three days, respectively. Using markers reflecting inflammation in the uterus (amniotic IL-8 or vaginal fFN) and clinical symptoms (PLI), we may be able to predict the exact delivery time in preterm labor patients with intact membranes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Analysis of Amniotic Fluid Embolism%羊水栓塞的临床诊断及治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娓娓

    2015-01-01

    Objective The clinical diagnostic approach and efficacy in treatment of amniotic fluid embolism are to be discussed. Methods Chose 30 patients with amniotic fluid embolism in hospital from July 2013 to October 2014. Firstly,those patients was diagnosed accurately and treated them with anti-al ergy,shock and microcirculation dredge,and bronchial dilation on basis of diagnostic results. Then we observed the efficacy. Results After treatment,28 patients were cured and discharged. The treatment success rate was up to 93.33% . The treatment efficacy was significant and it had statistic value(P<0.05).Conclusion Diagnosing early amniotic fluid embolism patients and treating them with comprehensive and symptomatic treatment are bound to achieve favorable.%目的:探究羊水栓塞患者临床的诊断方法和治疗效果。方法选取2013年7月~2014年10月收治的30例羊水栓塞患者进行治疗,首先给予明确诊断,并根据诊断情况采取抗过敏、休克、疏通微循环、扩张肺支气管的治疗,观察患者的治疗效果。结果对所有患者进行治疗,28例患者治愈出院,治疗成功率为93.33%。治疗效果显著,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对羊水栓塞患者给予早期诊断,以及综合的对症治疗,可得到显著的治疗效果。

  15. Chromosome karyotype analysis of 1341 amniotic fluid samples%1341例羊水细胞染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄郁晶; 王岳平

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨羊水细胞培养染色体核型分析技术在细胞遗传学产前诊断中的应用及意义.方法 1341例妊娠17~28周的孕妇在超声引导下行羊膜腔穿刺术,进行细胞培养及染色体核型分析.结果 1341例标本一次培养成功1330例,培养成功率为99.2%.共检出异常核型90例,异常率为6.8%,其中21-三体24例,18-三体7例,其他异常核型59例.结论 羊水细胞学检查作为一项产前诊断技术对于指导优生优育,降低缺陷儿的出生具有重要意义.%Objective:To investigate the significance of chromosome karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid cells in prenatal diagnosis.Methods:Amniocentesis by guided B-ultrasound was performed on 1341 cases of pregnant women.Chromosome karyotypes from amniotic fluid samples were then analyzed.Results:1330 cells were cultured successfully,and the success rate of primary culture was 99.2%.90 abnormal karyotypes were detected,including 24 21-trisomes,7 18-trisomes.Conclusion:Chromosome karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid cells has great significance in prenatal diagnosis.

  16. Clinical Study on Treatment of Amniotic Fluid Embolism%羊水栓塞的急救处理措施临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical analysis of first aid in amniotic fluid embolism and treatment methods,to provide the reference for the clinical treatment of amniotic fluid embolism.Methods According to the 42 amniotic fluid embolism patients in our hospital received to carry on the research analysis,these patients were grouped into control group and treatment group,the treatment group adopted new first aid technique,the control group used the traditional first aid technique,each group had 21 patients,according to the two groups of patients with clinical rescue situation to compare. Results After emergency treatment,the control group had 42.86% patients successful treatment,the treatment group of 100% successful rescue. Conclusion Amniotic fluid embolism patients who receive new aid technology has a high success rate,it is worth to promote the use.%目的:研究分析羊水栓塞临床的急救和处理方式,为临床治疗羊水栓塞提供参考。方法根据我院接收的42羊水栓塞患者来进行研究分析,将这些患者分组为对照组和治疗组,治疗组采取新急救技术,对照组使用传统急救技术,每组都有21例患者,根据两组患者的临床抢救情况来进行比较。结果经抢救治疗,对照组有42.86%的患者抢救成功,治疗组100%抢救成功。结论羊水栓塞患者接受新急救技术具有比较高的成功率,值得推广使用。

  17. Acute hypotension associated with intraoperative cell salvage using a leukocyte depletion filter during management of obstetric hemorrhage due to amniotic fluid embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William Kirke; Wernimont, Sarah A; Kumar, Girish C; Bennett, Eliza; Chestnut, David H

    2013-08-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare but catastrophic obstetric complication that can lead to profound coagulopathy and hemorrhage. The role of cell salvage and recombinant human Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) administration in such cases remains unclear. We present a case of AFE and describe our experience with the use of cell salvage and rFVIIa administration during the resuscitation. Cell salvage and transfusion through a leukocyte depletion filter was attempted after the diagnosis of AFE was made, but the attempted transfusion was immediately followed by hypotension and a worsening of hemodynamics. rFVIIa, on the contrary, was used with clinical improvement in coagulopathy and without apparent adverse thrombotic effect.

  18. Cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels in the amniotic fluid and fetal cord at birth and in the urine from pregnant smokers.

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    Julia de Barros Machado

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking during pregnancy has several impacts on fetal development, including teratogenic effects. The objective of this study was to assess whether the toxic substances (cotinine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in pregnant smokers are transmitted to their fetuses. The outcomes were analyzed measuring cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and maternal urine, benzopyrene and cotinine in the umbilical cord blood. Through a controlled cross-sectional design, 125 pregnant women were selected and classified according to their smoking status: 37 current smokers, 25 passive smokers and 63 non-smokers (controls. We performed high-performance liquid chromatography to measure substances' concentrations. A post-hoc Tukey's test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. All variables were significantly different between controls and smokers. The mean ratios between the concentration of cotinine in smokers compared to controls were as follows: 5.9 [2.5-13.5], p<0.001 in the urine; 25 [11.9-52.9], p<0.001 in the amniotic fluid; and 2.6 [1.0-6.8], p = 0.044 in the umbilical cord blood. The mean ratios of 1-hydroxypyrene concentration between smokers and controls were 7.3 [1.6-29.6], p = 0.003 in the urine and 1.3 [1.0-1.7], p = 0.012 in the amniotic fluid, and of benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood was 2.9 [1.7-4.7], p<0.001. There were no significant differences between controls and passive smokers. When comparing the three groups together, there were statistical differences between all variables. Thus, the fetuses of pregnant smokers are exposed to toxic and carcinogens substances. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure 1-hydroxypyrene in the amniotic fluid and benzopyrene in umbilical cord blood by high-performance liquid chromatography when considering pregnant women in relation to smoking exposure only.

  19. Emergency Treatment and Nursing Experience of 1 Cases of Amniotic Fluid Embolism%1例羊水栓塞的急救处理及护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟贵微

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the emergency treatment and nursing experience of patients with amniotic fluid embolism.Methods A retrospective analysis was made on November 2015 the successful treatment of clinical data of 1 case of amniotic fluid embolism,propose an emergency nursing measures and matters needing attention. Results The amniotic fluid embolism patients after effective diagnosis treatment and careful nursing after treatment success.Conclusion Early identification of prodromal symptoms of amniotic fluid embolism,beware of the risk factors,do a good job in monitoring and early diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism in patients with, timely and correct treatment is to improve the rescue of amniotic fluid embolism that occurred after the key to success.%目的:探讨羊水栓塞患者的急救处理与护理体会。方法回顾性分析2015年11月本院成功救治1例羊水栓塞患者的临床资料,提出急救时的护理措施和注意事项。结果该羊水栓塞患者经过有效的诊断治疗和精心的护理后救治成功。结论及早识别羊水栓塞的前驱症状,提防高危因素,做好羊水栓塞患者的监测及早期诊断,及时正确处理是提高产后发生羊水栓塞抢救成功的关键。

  20. Human amniotic fluid stem cells as a model for functional studies of genes involved in human genetic diseases or oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Margit; Dolznig, Helmut; Schipany, Katharina; Mikula, Mario; Brandau, Oliver; Hengstschläger, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Besides their putative usage for therapies, stem cells are a promising tool for functional studies of genes involved in human genetic diseases or oncogenesis. For this purpose induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be derived from patients harbouring specific mutations. In contrast to adult stem cells, iPS cells are pluripotent and can efficiently be grown in culture. However, iPS cells are modulated due to the ectopic induction of pluripotency, harbour other somatic mutations accumulated during the life span of the source cells, exhibit only imperfectly cleared epigenetic memory of the source cell, and are often genomically instable. In addition, iPS cells from patients only allow the investigation of mutations, which are not prenatally lethal. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have a high proliferation and differentiation potential, but raise ethical issues. Human embryos, which are not transferred in the course of in vitro fertilization, because of preimplantation genetic diagnosis of a genetic defect, are still rarely donated for the establishment of ES cell lines. In addition, their usage for studies on gene functions for oncogenesis is hampered by the fact the ES cells are already tumorigenic per se. In 2003 amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells have been discovered, which meanwhile have been demonstrated to harbour the potential to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. Monoclonal human AFS cell lines derived from amniocenteses have a high proliferative potential, are genomically stable and are not associated with ethical controversies. Worldwide amniocenteses are performed for routine human genetic diagnosis. We here discuss how generation and banking of monoclonal human AFS cell lines with specific chromosomal aberrations or monogenic disease mutations would allow to study the functional consequences of disease causing mutations. In addition, recently a protocol for efficient and highly reproducible siRNA-mediated long-term knockdown of endogenous gene

  1. The performance of four molecular methods for the laboratory diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in amniotic fluid samples

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    Leandro Emidio Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Toxoplasmosis may be life-threatening in fetuses and in immune-deficient patients. Conventional laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is based on the presence of IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies; however, molecular techniques have emerged as alternative tools due to their increased sensitivity. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of 4 PCR-based methods for the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. One hundred pregnant women who seroconverted during pregnancy were included in the study. The definition of cases was based on a 12-month follow-up of the infants. Methods Amniotic fluid samples were submitted to DNA extraction and amplification by the following 4 Toxoplasma techniques performed with parasite B1 gene primers: conventional PCR, nested-PCR, multiplex-nested-PCR, and real-time PCR. Seven parameters were analyzed, sensitivity (Se, specificity (Sp, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR and efficiency (Ef. Results Fifty-nine of the 100 infants had toxoplasmosis; 42 (71.2% had IgM antibodies at birth but were asymptomatic, and the remaining 17 cases had non-detectable IgM antibodies but high IgG antibody titers that were associated with retinochoroiditis in 8 (13.5% cases, abnormal cranial ultrasound in 5 (8.5% cases, and signs/symptoms suggestive of infection in 4 (6.8% cases. The conventional PCR assay detected 50 cases (9 false-negatives, nested-PCR detected 58 cases (1 false-negative and 4 false-positives, multiplex-nested-PCR detected 57 cases (2 false-negatives, and real-time-PCR detected 58 cases (1 false-negative. Conclusions The real-time PCR assay was the best-performing technique based on the parameters of Se (98.3%, Sp (100%, PPV (100%, NPV (97.6%, PLR (∞, NLR (0.017, and Ef (99%.

  2. The comparison of the perinatal outcome between amniotic fluid index ≤5 cm and the largest pocket of amniotic fluid ≤2 cm×2 cm%羊水指数≤5 cm与羊水池最大切面≤2 cm×2 cm围产结局的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建迎; 韩玉环; 郭尚宏; 刘跃华; 刘映瞵

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine a more appropriate diagnostic criteria of ultrasonography for the oligohydramnios.Methods Oligohydramnios were determined by ultrasonography in the two groups that were amniotic fluid index (AFI)≤5 cm and the largest pocket of amniotic fluid ≤2 cm in two prependicular planes respectively.χ2 test was used to analyse the perinatal outcome between the two groups.Results Among the patients with AFI ≤5 cm, 45.2% of them had a largest pocket of amniotic fluid >2 cm×2 cm.The incidence of fetal heart rate abnormalities and the thick meconium were increased in the group with the largest pocket amniotic fluid ≤2 cm×2 cm when compared to the group with AFI ≤5 cm (P0.05).Conclusions It is more accurate criteria that oligohydramnios are diagnosed by ultrasonography with the largest pocket of amniotic fluid ≤2 cm×2 cm.%目的为超声诊断羊水过少寻求更为适宜的诊断标准。方法分别以羊水指数(AFI)≤5 cm和羊水池最大切面≤2 cm×2 cm 为诊断标准超声诊断羊水过少,采用χ2检验分析两组围产结局。结果 AFI≤5 cm组中有45.2%的孕妇羊水池最大切面>2 cm×2 cm。羊水池最大切面≤2 cm×2 cm组的胎心率异常,羊水II度以上粪染率均高于AFI≤5 cm组(P0.05)。结论以羊水池最大切面≤2 cm×2 cm为标准超声诊断羊水过少更为准确。

  3. Optimization of Toxoplasma gondii DNA extraction from amniotic fluid using NucliSENS easyMAG and comparison with QIAamp DNA minikit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, B; Miermont, F; Ranque, S; Franck, J; Piarroux, R

    2012-06-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis relies on PCR in amniotic fluid. Because parasitic load is often low, DNA extraction must be optimized. Manual methods remain widespread although automated methods appear more effective. This study aimed at optimizing an automated method and at comparing it with a widespread manual method: QIAamp DNA minikit. To optimize NucliSens easyMAG, we evaluated the addition of proteinase K pre-treatment and the increase of the amount of silica particles used for the extraction. The optimized method was then compared to QIAamp DNA minikit on samples containing less than 25 tachyzoites/ml. NucliSens easyMAG DNA yield was improved after proteinase K pre-treatment (p DNA amount in samples found positive by PCR was higher after optimized automated extraction than after manual extraction (p Proteinase K pre-treatment should be added to extract DNA from amniotic fluid using NucliSens easyMAG. Using this optimized automated method rather than manual methods would improve the sensitivity of Toxoplasma PCR and simplify the daily workflow.

  4. Clone-derived human AF-amniotic fluid stem cells are capable of skeletal myogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shengli; Zhou, Junmei; Chen, Baisong; Shang, Yafeng; Gao, Tongbing; Wang, Xue; Xie, Hua; Chen, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Stem cell-based therapy may be the most promising method to cure skeletal muscle degenerative diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and trauma in the future. Human amniotic fluid is enriched with early-stage stem cells from developing fetuses and these cells have cardiomyogenic potential both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the characteristics of human amniotic fluid-derived AF-type stem (HAF-AFS) cells by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation analysis. After confirming the stemness of HAF-AFS cells, we tested whether HAF-AFS cells could differentiate into skeletal myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate into regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. By temporary exposure to the DNA demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) or co-cultured with C2C12 myoblasts, HAF-AFS cells differentiated into skeletal myogenic cells, expressing skeletal myogenic cell-specific markers such as Desmin, Troponin I (Tn I) and α-Actinin. Four weeks after transplantation into cardiotoxin-injured and X-ray-irradiated tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of NOD/SCID mice, HAF-AFS cells survived, differentiated into myogenic precursor cells and fused with host myofibres. The findings that HAF-AFS cells differentiate into myogenic cells in vitro and incorporate in skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo hold the promise of HAF-AFS cell-based therapy for skeletal muscle degenerative diseases.

  5. Detection of placental alpha microglobulin-1 versus insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 in amniotic fluid at term: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet-Villard, Marie; Cartier, Régine; Gaucherand, Pascal; Doret, Muriel

    2011-06-01

    We compared two biochemical tests of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in vitro: Actim PROM (Medix Biochemica, Kauniainen, Finland), which detects insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and AmniSure (AmniSure International LLC, Cambridge, MA), which detects placental alpha microglobulin-1. Samples of amniotic fluid were collected during caesarean section in 41 patients. A dilution series was prepared and both tests were performed twice at each dilution. Sensitivity, detection limit, response time, and reproducibility of both tests were compared. Both tests' sensitivity was 100% at dilution 1:10 and 1:20. AmniSure sensitivity was higher at dilution 1:40 and 1:80 ( P AmniSure had a lower detection limit than Actim PROM. AmniSure response times were shorter and reproducibility was higher than Actim PROM ( P AmniSure had a lower detection limit of amniotic fluid than Actim PROM, with a shorter response time, a higher sensitivity, and a better reproducibility.

  6. Prediction markers for respiratory distress syndrome: evaluation of the stable microbubble test, surfactant protein-A and hepatocyte growth factor levels in amniotic fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumazawa K

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant treatment in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS has decreased neonatal mortality. With the advent of this therapy, it has become important to predict accurately the fetal lung maturity of a fetus before delivery. We evaluated the stable microbubble test (SMT, surfactant protein-A (SP-A and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF in amniotic fluid as predicting markers for RDS. Of 55 amniotic fluid samples obtained by amniocentesis from women less than 37 weeks pregnant, the SMT values were as follows: sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 84.2%, positive predictive value 68.4%, negative predictive value 88.9% and overall accuracy 81.8%. For SP-A, the values were 88.2%, 65.8%, 53.6%, 92.6% and 72.7%, respectively. If we used both SMT and SP-A, we could diagnose with 100% accuracy that a case with measurements of SMT > or = 2 and SP-A > or = 420 ng/ml would not complicate with RDS (24/24. However, the RDS diagnostic accuracy of HGF does not equal to those of SMT and SP-A levels. We concluded that the rapidity, simplicity and reliability of SMT was very useful during 24-36 weeks of gestation as a bedside procedure to predict fetuses likely to develop RDS. We also noted the additive effect of SP-A in improving the accuracy of lung maturity diagnosis.

  7. Lim Mineralization Protein 3 Induces the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Amniotic Fluid Stromal Cells through Kruppel-Like Factor-4 Downregulation and Further Bone-Specific Gene Expression

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    Marta Barba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with extensive self-renewal properties can be easily isolated and rapidly expanded in culture from small volumes of amniotic fluid. These cells, namely, amniotic fluid-stromal cells (AFSCs, can be regarded as an attractive source for tissue engineering purposes, being phenotypically and genetically stable, plus overcoming all the safety and ethical issues related to the use of embryonic/fetal cells. LMP3 is a novel osteoinductive molecule acting upstream to the main osteogenic pathways. This study is aimed at delineating the basic molecular events underlying LMP3-induced osteogenesis, using AFSCs as a cellular model to focus on the molecular features underlying the multipotency/differentiation switch. For this purpose, AFSCs were isolated and characterized in vitro and transfected with a defective adenoviral vector expressing the human LMP3. LMP3 induced the successful osteogenic differentiation of AFSC by inducing the expression of osteogenic markers and osteospecific transcription factors. Moreover, LMP3 induced an early repression of the kruppel-like factor-4, implicated in MSC stemness maintenance. KLF4 repression was released upon LMP3 silencing, indicating that this event could be reasonably considered among the basic molecular events that govern the proliferation/differentiation switch during LMP3-induced osteogenic differentiation of AFSC.

  8. 孕妇妊娠中期羊水中Ins13水平研究%Ins13 levels in second-trimester amniotic fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娜; 李新娜; 曹艳菲

    2012-01-01

    目的 动物实验得知睾丸间质细胞激素胰岛素样因子3(insulin-like factor 3,Ins13)在腹部睾丸迁移过程中起到非常重要的作用.此过程在人类发生在妊娠中期(第二个3个月),本研究探讨是否人体中Ins13在睾丸下降过程中也起到一定作用.方法 经羊膜穿刺术60名孕妇取羊水测定Ins13及睾酮(testosterone,T)水平,选取样本孕周15-25w,确定胎儿男性28例,女性32例.结果 28例孕男性胎儿羊水中均检测到Ins13 (160.5±85.2pg/ml),而在孕女性胎儿羊水中均未检测到此激素水平.T水平在男性胎儿(1.05±0.30 nmol/L)与女性胎儿(0.33±0.05 nmol/L)相比具有显著差异性(P <0.0001).在男性胎儿中Ins13与T阴性相关,Ins13与孕龄统计学阴性相关处于基线水平(P=0.06),T与孕龄不相关(P=0.10);相反女性胎儿T水平与孕龄相关(P=0.03).结论 Ins13存在于人类孕中期孕有男性胎儿羊水中,而孕中期正值睾丸移位过程中.相反在女性胎儿羊水中未检测到Ins13,结果认为Ins13在人类睾丸下降过程同样起到重要作用.%Objective: The testicular leydig cell hormone insulin -like factor 3 (Ins13) exerts a essential function in abdominal testis translocation in animal studies, which occurs in the beginning of the second trimester in humans, however, human prenatal Insl3 levels has been poorly investigated. Methods: Amniotic fluid from 60 pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis were tested Insl3 and testosterone (T) levels. Data were related to gestational age (15 -25weeks) at amniocentesis and to sex (28 males and 32 females). Results: Insl3 was present in amniotic fluid in all male fetuses (160. 5 ± 85. 2pg/ml), whereas Insl3 was undetectable in the female fetuses. T was significantly higher in male (1.05 ±0.30) as compared with in female amniotic fluid (0. 33 ±0. 05) (P<0.0001). In males there was no correlation between Insl3 and T, A statistically borderline negative association was found between Insl3

  9. Amniotic Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the presence of adequate protective liquid substances called surfactants in the lungs, which are necessary for proper lung function. If there are insufficient surfactants, a newborn may develop life-threatening neonatal respiratory ...

  10. An Update on Maternal Hydration Strategies for Amniotic Fluid Improvement in Isolated Oligohydramnios and Normohydramnios: Evidence from a Systematic Review of Literature and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gizzo

    Full Text Available Several trials aimed at evaluating the efficacy of maternal hydration (MH in increasing amniotic-fluid-volume (AFV in pregnancies with isolated oligohydramnios or normohydramnos have been conducted. Unfortunately, no evidences support this intervention in routine-clinical-practice. The aim of this systematic-literature-review and meta-analysis was to collect all data regarding proposed strategies and their efficacy in relation to each clinical condition for which MH-therapy was performed with the aim of increasing amniotic-fluid (AF and improving perinatal outcomes.A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic-database MEDLINE, EMBASE, ScienceDirect and the Cochrane-Library in the time interval between 1991 and 2014. Following the identification of eligible trials, we estimated the methodological quality of each study (using QADAS-2 and clustered patients according to the following outcome measures: route of administration (oral versus intravenous versus combined, total daily dose of fluids administered (2000, duration of hydration therapy: (1 day, >1 day but 1 week, type of fluid administered (isotonic versus hypotonic versus combination.In isolated-oligohydramnios (IO, maternal oral hydration is more effective than intravenous hydration and hypotonic solutions superior to isotonic solutions. The improvement in AFV appears to be time-dependent rather than daily-dose dependent. Regarding normohydramnios pregnancies, all strategies seem equivalent though the administration of hypotonic-fluid appears to have a slightly greater effect than isotonic-fluid. Regarding perinatal outcomes, data is fragmentary and heterogeneous and does not allow us to define the real clinical utility of MH.Available data suggests that MH may be a safe, well-tolerated and useful strategy to improve AFV especially in cases of IO. In view of the numerous obstetric situations in which a reduced AFV may pose a threat, particularly to the fetus, the possibility

  11. 羊水栓塞导致孕产妇死亡的相关因素分析%Analysis of Related Factors of Maternal Death Cause of Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓慧

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes of maternal deaths caused by amniotic fluid embolism.Methods Aretrospective analysis was made on the amniotic fluid embolism in our hospital from 2010 to 2014 received 35 cases died, looking to the related risk factors of clinical information from their.ResultsThe reason why this occurred in 35 patients of amniotic fluid embolism with oxytocin, misoprostol, cervical laceration, turbid amniotic fluid, premature rupture of membranes, amniotic fluid embolism occurred due to oxytocin accounted for 28.6% of the total number of cases study. There were 18 patients with diagnosis of embolism is the performance of the 10, is to create the conditions to change death.ConclusionAmniotic fluid embolism clinical onset speed, produced a greater threat to maternal life safety, provide accurate diagnosis and timely and effective rescue can avoid the death of parturient, need to give attention to the early diagnosis in clinic, especially the use of oxytocin, like this can maximize the prevention of amniotic fluid embolism.%目的:探讨羊水栓塞引起产妇死亡的原因。方法对我院2010年至2014年接收的羊水栓塞死亡病例35例进行回顾分析,从他们的临床病例资料来进行相关危险因素的寻找。结果这35例患者发生羊水栓塞的原因有催产素、米索前列醇引产、宫颈裂伤、羊水混浊、胎膜早破等,而因催产素出现羊水栓塞的病例占研究总数的28.6%。有18例患者是对其表现诊断为栓塞死亡,10是可创造条件改变死亡。结论羊水栓塞临床发病速度快,对产妇的生命安全产生了较大了威胁,对产妇提供准确的诊断和及时有效的抢救能够避免其死亡,在临床中需要对早期诊断给予重视,特别是催产素的使用,这样能够最大限度的预防羊水栓塞。

  12. Effect of Different Delivery Methods on Neonatal Outcomes in Amniotic Flu-id contaminated Pregnant Women%羊水污染孕产妇不同分娩方式对新生儿结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洵艳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of different delivery methods on neonatal outcome in amniotic fluid contaminated pregnant women. Methods Random decimation in 320 cases of meconium stained amniotic fluid of pregnant and lying in women, all personnel are admitted between May 2014 and March 2016, investigation of all patients with amniotic fluid pol-lution degree, and the ways of delivery and neonatal outcomes were investigated. Results Amniotic fluid I pollution degree of patients with neonatal asphyxia rate was 11.6%;pollution second degree amniotic fluid of patients with neonatal asphyxia incidence rate was 33.1%;meconium stained amniotic fluid of patients with neonatal asphyxia rate was 60.9%, three groups compared with the presence of significant difference,P < 0.05. Amniotic fluid I pollution degree of patients with cesarean section newborn asphyxia rate was 62.50% and vaginal delivery; neonatal asphyxia rate was 11.29%; 2nd degree amniotic fluid pollution in patients with cesarean section newborn asphyxia rate was 21.9%, vaginal delivery; neonatal asphyxia rate was 49.01%; meconium stained amniotic fluid of patients with cesarean section birth neonatal asphyxia rate was 49.3%, vaginal delivery;neonatal asphyxia rate was 85.7%. Conclusion Different ways of intervention should be taken to ensure the safety of pregnant women and neonates in different ways for the patients with different degrees of amniotic fluid pollution.%目的:对羊水污染孕产妇不同分娩方式对新生儿结局的影响结果进行研究。方法随机抽选该院320例羊水污染孕产妇,均为2014年5月一2016年3月间入院的产妇,对所有患者羊水污染程度进行调查,并对其分娩方式,新生儿结局进行调查。结果羊水I度污染的患者新生儿窒息率为11.6%;羊水Ⅱ度污染的患者新生儿窒息率发生率为33.1%;羊水Ⅲ度污染的患者新生儿窒息率为60.9%,3组比较差异有统计学意义,P<0.05。羊水I度污染的患者剖

  13. Identification of fetal ABO blood groups by analyzing amniotic fluid cells via PCR-SSP%PCR-SSP技术对羊水细胞ABO血型的基因鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣; 陈江

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过PCR-SSP基因技术检测胎儿羊水细胞ABO血型基因型,产前诊断胎儿ABO血型.方法 选取了6名孕16 W以上的孕妇,抽取羊水细胞并进行分离,提取羊水细胞DNA,运用PCR-SSP技术分析其ABO血型基因型,并通过出生后的脐带血的血型鉴定进行确认.结果 6例羊水标本均通过PCR-SSP方法检测出了ABO血型的基因型;该6名胎儿的脐带血的ABO血型与羊水细胞的血型一致.结论 PCR-SSP技术可以准确地检测胎儿羊水细胞的ABO血型.%Objective To identify fetal ABO blood groups by analyzing amniotic fluid cells via PCR-SSP. Methods Six pregnant women with gestational age between 16 weeks and 25 weeks were selected. DNA was taken in amniotic fluid cells from these pregnant women and then ABO genotypes of amniotic fluid cells were detected by PCR-SSP. And the ABO genotypes were conformed by detecting the cord blood . Results The ABO genotypes were identified from the 6 samples of amniotic fluid cells, and the results were in accordance with cord blood. Conclusion Fetal ABO blood group can be accurately detected out by amniotic fluid cells.

  14. Reference Ranges of Amniotic Fluid Index in Late Third Trimester of Pregnancy: What Should the Optimal Interval between Two Ultrasound Examinations Be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad Hebbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Amniotic fluid index (AFI is one of the major and deciding components of fetal biophysical profile and by itself it can predict pregnancy outcome. Very low values are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and renal anomalies of fetus, whereas high values may indicate fetal GI anomalies, maternal diabetes mellitus, and so forth. However, before deciding the cut-off standards for abnormal values for a local population, what constitutes a normal range for specific gestational age and the ideal interval of testing should be defined. Objectives. To establish reference standards for AFI for local population after 34 weeks of pregnancy and to decide an optimal scan interval for AFI estimation in third trimester in low risk antenatal women. Materials and Methods. A prospective estimation of AFI was done in 50 healthy pregnant women from 34 to 40 weeks at weekly intervals. The trend of amniotic fluid volume was studied with advancing gestational age. Only low risk singleton pregnancies with accurately established gestational age who were available for all weekly scan from 34 to 40 weeks were included in the study. Women with gestational or overt diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of the pregnancy, prelabour rupture of membranes, and congenital anomalies in the foetus and those who delivered before 40 completed weeks were excluded from the study. For the purpose of AFI measurement, the uterine cavity was arbitrarily divided into four quadrants by a vertical and horizontal line running through umbilicus. Linear array transabdominal probe was used to measure the largest vertical pocket (in cm in perpendicular plane to the abdominal skin in each quadrant. Amniotic fluid index was obtained by adding these four measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software (Version 16, Chicago, IL. Percentile curves (5th, 50th, and 95th centiles were constructed for comparison with other studies. Cohen’s d coefficient was used

  15. Zika virus detected in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood in an in vitro fertilization-conceived pregnancy in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Isaac; Fernández, Gissel; Figueira, José Valentin; Parpacén, Leticia; Urbina, María Teresa; Medina, Randolfo

    2017-06-01

    To describe the consequences of Zika virus infection at 10 weeks of gestation in an IVF-conceived pregnancy in Venezuela. A case report. Private assisted reproduction unit. A 36-year-old patient who conceived her first pregnancy through IVF and became infected with Zika virus at 10 weeks' gestation in Venezuela. In vitro fertilization with fresh ET. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging Zika diagnostic methods. Zika virus detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in maternal plasma, PCR in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood. Ultrasonography findings of anatomic abnormalities. Zika infection was confirmed at 10 weeks' gestation by real-time PCR; ultrasound results appeared normal. At 19 weeks' gestation, an ultrasound revealed biometry on three SDs below the means for all parameters but with no apparent anatomic abnormality. Zika virus was positive in maternal urine and amniotic fluid by PCR at 19 weeks' gestation. Ultrasound at 21 weeks + 4 days of gestation showed fetal cerebellar hypoplasia with ventricular dysmorphia, particularly marked on the left, consistent with microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Because of the poor prognosis, pregnancy was interrupted at 24 weeks' gestation, in France. The PCR in umbilical cord blood taken in this procedure was positive for Zika virus. Initial ultrasound findings in pregnancy may not be informative. Only at 21 weeks + 4 days of gestation did an ultrasound reveal fetal microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Combined clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings provided a complete picture of the severe damage caused by Zika infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human amniotic fluid stem cells support undifferentiated propagation and pluripotency of human embryonic stem cell without b-FGF in a density dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaorong; Li, Huanqi; Xin, Shujia; Ma, Yueting; Ouyang, Tianxiang

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells which can give rise to almost all adult cell lineages. Culture system of hESCs is complex, requiring exogenous b-FGF and feeder cell layer. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) not only synthesize soluble cytokines or factors such as b-FGF, but also provide other mechanism which might play positive role on sustaining hESCs propagation and pluripotency. Human amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells, which share characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells, have been regarded as promising cells for regenerative medicine. Taking advantage by AFS cells, we studied the ability of AFS cells in supporting undifferentiated propagation and pluripotency of Chinese population derived X-01 hESCs. Human AF-type amniotic fluid stem cells (hAF-AFSCs) transcribed genes including Activin A, TGF-β1, Noggin and b-FGF, which involved in maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal of hESCs. Compared to mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), hAF-AFSCs secreted higher concentration of b-FGF which was important in hESCs culture (P FGF supplementation, keeping undifferentiated status. While exogenous b-FGF was obviated, propagation of hESCs with undifferentiated status was dependent on density of hAF-AFSC feeder layer. Lower density of hAF-AFSCs resulted in rapid decline in undifferentiated clone number, while higher ones hindered the growth of colonies. The most appropriate hAF-AFSCs feeder density to maintain the X-01 hESC line without exogenous b-FGF was 15-20×10(4)/well. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that hAF-AFSCs could support undifferentiated propagation and pluripotency of Chinese population derived hESCs without exogenous b-FGF supplementation.

  17. 羊水表皮生长因子与胎肺成熟度的关系%Amniotic Fluid Epidermal Growth Factor and Fetal Pulmonary Maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施长春; 费小阳; 陈松涛

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between amniotic fluid (AF) epidermalgrowth factor (EGF) concentration and fetal pulmonary maturation. Methods Lecithin - sphin-gomyelin ratio (L/S) and EGF were measured in amniotic fluid from women(n = 138,21~42 weeks'gestation) undergoing amniocentesis by TLC and RIA. Results The AF L/S ratio and EGF concen-tration increased linearly with Gestational age(GA) ( r = 0.8t3 and 0.87, respectively, P < 0.01 ).There was a strong correlation between the AF L/S ratio and EGF( r = 0.76, P < 0. 001 ). Conclu-sion There are a confirmed relationship between AF EGF levels and fetal pulmonary maturation.%目的 探讨羊水表皮生长因子浓度与胎儿肺泡成熟度的关系。方法 对168例胎龄在21~42周的孕妇,采用羊膜腔穿刺术采集羊水。分别以薄层层析法和放射免疫法测定卵磷脂/鞘磷脂比值(L/S)和表皮生长因子(EGF)。结果 羊水L/S比值及EGF浓度均与胎龄呈正相关(r值分别为0.86和0.87,P值均<0.01)。羊水EGF浓度与L/S比值有显著的相关性(r=0.76,P<0.001)。结论羊水表皮生长因子与胎儿肺泡成熟度密切相关。

  18. 产前超声监测羊水量不均衡双胎妊娠的临床价值%Value of prenatal surveillances of ultrasonography in twin pregnancies with amniotic fluid discordance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 吴瑛; 王慧芳; 谭喜平; 甘晗靖; 林琪; 焦阳; 熊奕; 姜燕; 张辉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the values of prenatal surveillances of ultrasonography in twin pregnancies with amniotic fluid discordance. Methods Two hundred and seventy cases of diamniotic twins were included. Both postnatal outcomes and prenatal amniotic fluid discordant variations were analyzed,and the incidences of amniotic fluid discordance were compared between the monochorionic-diamniotic(MCDA)and dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA) gruop. Results Twenty four cases of twins with amniotic fluid discordance were found in the study. The incidence of amniotic fluid discordance in MCDA group was much higher than that in DCDA group (28.9% vs 5.6%, P <0. 001 ) ,and 24 cases of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) were diagnosed in the former group and none were found in the latter group. Downward tendency of amniotic fluid discordance was shown in non-TTTS cases of MCDA group. Compared with TTTS cases, the postnatal outcomes of non-TTTS cases with amniotic fluid discordance were much better in MCDA group ( P <0.001 ). Conclusions TTTS and MCDA twins with amniotic fluid discordance may overlap each other in the early stage. Serial surveillances of ultrasonography are necessary for prenatal differentiating twin pregnancies complicated by amniotic fluid discordance,and providing strong support to clinical treament.%目的 探讨产前超声监测羊水量不均衡双胎的临床价值.方法 分析270例双羊膜囊双胎中单绒毛膜双羊膜囊双胎(monochorionic-diamniotic twin,MCDA)与双绒毛膜双羊膜囊双胎(dichorionicdiamniotic twin,DCDA)羊水量不均衡的发生率,妊娠过程中羊水量变化趋势及与妊娠结局的关系.结果 共45例双胎间羊水量不均衡,MCDA组37例,其中24例为双胎输血综合征(twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome,TTTS);DCDA组8例,无TTTS发生.MCDA组羊水量不均衡的发生率明显高于DCDA组(P<0.001).MCDA组中羊水量不均衡的非TTTS双胎,羊水量的差异随孕周增加呈减少趋势,且

  19. The Influence of Decreased Amniotic Fluid on the Pregnancy Outcome and the Perinatal Health%妊娠晚期羊水过少对妊娠的结局及围生儿健康的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of decreased amniotic fluid on the pregnancy outcome and the perinatal health.Methods A total of 82 patients with decreased amniotic fluid in Beihai Maternal and Child Care Service Center from Mar.2011 to May 2013 were selected for this study,then 85 normal patients during the same period were selected as the control group,and the pregnancy complication,perinatal complication and the mode of delivery were observed and analyzed.Results The pregnancy complication incidence of decreased amniotic fluid group was 54.9%, of normal amniotic fluid group was 14.1%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05);incidence of perinatal complication in decreased amniotic fluid group was 95.1%,of normal amniotic fluid group was 14.1%, the difference was statistically signifi-cant(P<0.05);the rate of Cesarean-section of decreased amniotic fluid group was 56.1%, of normal amni-otic fluid group was 15.3%, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.01).Conclusion Decreased amniotic fluid can increase the rate of Cesarean-section,and affect the perinatal health.%目的:分析妊娠晚期羊水过少对妊娠的结局及围生儿健康的影响。方法选择2011年3月至2013年5月北海市妇幼保健院足月妊娠羊水指数减少孕妇82例作为羊水过少组,同时期羊水指数正常孕产妇85例为羊水正常组,观察分析羊水过少组和羊水正常组妊娠相关并发症、围生儿并发症以及产妇分娩方式。结果妊娠相关并发症的发生率,羊水过少组为54.9%、羊水正常组为14.1%,羊水过少组显著高于羊水正常组( P <0.05);围生儿并发症的发生率,羊水过少组为95.1%、羊水正常组为14.1%,羊水过少组显著高于羊水正常组( P<0.05);剖宫产率,羊水过少组为56.1%、羊水正常组为15.3%,羊水过少组显著高于羊水正常组( P <0.01)。结论羊水量减少可引起孕产妇接受剖宫产增多

  20. Fetal organ growth in response to oesophageal infusion of amniotic fluid, colostrum, milk or gastrin-releasing peptide: a study in fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahair, J F; Sangild, P T

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that the infusion of the biological fluids to which the developing gut is normally exposed (i.e. amniotic fluid, colostrum, milk) and a single growth factor (gastrin-releasing peptide), which is found in high concentrations in fetal fluids and milk, could ameliorate the altered growth induced by the elimination of swallowed input secondary to ligation of the oesophagus. At 108-110 days of gestation the fetal oesophagus was ligated and a catheter inserted towards the stomach (32 fetuses). At 117-119 days of gestation saline (n = 5), amniotic fluid (n = 5), colostral whey (n = 5), milk whey (n = 5) or gastrin-releasing peptide (3.6 nmol day(-1), n = 6), was infused for 7 days (4 x 20 mL day(-1)), or no infusion was given (ligated group, n = 6). A further 15 fetuses were not ligated (normal group, n = 15). All fetuses had carotid artery and/or jugular vein catheters implanted. At 124-126 days of gestation the fetus was delivered and fetal body and organ weights recorded. Analysing the results by ANOVA, there were no effects of either ligation alone or infusion after ligation on fetal weight, crown-rump length, or weight relative to bodyweight of heart, adrenal, pancreas, large intestine and cecum. There were significant differences between the infusion groups for lungs, kidney, pancreas, total gut, abomasum, small intestine, spleen, chest and neck thymus, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Ligation alone significantly reduced small intestinal growth and increased kidney and spleen growth. Colostrum infusion enhanced growth of most organs. Gastrin-releasing peptide significantly increased growth of all the immune organs studied. It was concluded that at an age when premature delivery could be encountered, the fetal gut is capable of significant adaptive growth, to varying degrees, depending on the enteral diet. Growth effects in organs distant to the gut suggest that either gastrointestinal uptake and transport of growth factors or

  1. Data on clinical significance of second trimester inflammatory biomarkers in the amniotic fluid in predicting preterm delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaad Kesrouani

    2016-12-01

    Data includes ROC curves for glucose (Fig. 1, IL-6 (Fig. 2 and MMP-9 (Fig. 3, aiming to search for sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of premature delivery. Statistical analyses are performed with SPSS v20.0 software. Statistical significance is determined using the Mann–Whitney and one way ANOVA test. The association with preterm delivery is performed using a two proportions test. Correlations are measured using the Pearson׳’s coefficient. A p value<0.05 is considered statistically significant. The data is presented in the figures provided. Data relied on a previous publication “Prediction of preterm delivery by second trimester inflammatory biomarkers in the amniotic fluid” (A. Kesrouani, E. Chalhoub, E. El Rassy, M. Germanos, A. Khazzaka, J. Rizkallah, E. Attieh, N. Aouad, 2016 [1].

  2. 利用抗氧化剂促进羊水细胞培养效果的研究%The study of improving the culture results of amniotic fluid cells by adding antioxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘力功; 蔡小杰; 黄志诚

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过添加抗氧化剂促进羊水细胞的培养效果.方法 分离传代的成纤维型羊水细胞,以生长指数为检测指标,在H配方的基础上利用部分析因设计法和最陡爬坡法对促进羊水细胞生长的抗氧化剂进行筛选和优化.优化后的培养基通过原代羊水细胞培养进行效果验证.结果 添加的维生素E、L-抗坏血酸、α硫辛酸和还原型谷胱甘肽等抗氧化剂皆能促进羊水细胞的生长,且具有协同效应.与H培养基相比,经最陡爬坡法优化的培养基培养的羊水细胞在克隆总数、生长指数等指标都提高3倍以上,分裂相细胞总数增长4倍以上.结论 改良后的羊水细胞培养基培养效果要显著优于H配方培养基,在产前诊断应用中具有推广价值.%Objective To improve the culture results of amniotic fluid by adding antioxidants. Methods Using Fractional factorial designs combined with the steepest ascent path approach, the concentration of antioxidants added in H medium was optimized to increase the growth speed of the passage fibroblast cells from amniotic fluid . And the performance of the optimized culture medium was tested with the growth index, the numbers of clones and metaphase of primary amniotic fluid cells culture. Results Vitamin E, L-ascorbic acid,α-lipoic acid and reduced CSH can all promote the growth of the amniotic fluid cells with synergic effect. Total number of clones,growth index,and total number of metaphase cells from amniotic fluid cells cultured in medium optimized by the steepest ascent path approach are all 3 times higher than those from H medium. Conclusion The optimization method of adding antioxidants in H medium can improve significantly the results of amniotic fluid cells culture and the optimized culture medium is applicable to the prenatal diagnosis.

  3. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2001-11-01

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 μg/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism

  4. Chromosome karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid cells of 1 466 pregnant women in Yangzhou%扬州地区1466例孕妇羊水细胞染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑; 徐贵江

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinic value of chromosome karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid cells in prenatal diagnosis . Methods 1 466 cases of pregnant women who had the prenatal diagnosis indexes were selected ,and their amniotic fluid specimens were collected through amniocentesis guiding by type‐B ultrasonic around the 16th to 24th week .Amniotic fluid cells were gained after a successful cell culture .G banding was used for the karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid cells .Results The one‐time success rate of cultivation for amniotic fluid cells was 99 .8% .In 1 466 cases of pregnant women ,there were 16 cases of abnormal karyotype polymorphism (including 12 cases of trisomy 21 ,1 case of trisomy 18 ,and 3 cases of Chromosome abnormalities) and 3 cases of chromosomal polymorphism .Conclusion The chromosome karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid cell is still an irreplaceable test in prenatal diagnosis .%目的:探讨孕妇羊水细胞染色体核型分析在产前诊断中的临床应用价值。方法选择孕16~24周、具有产前诊断指征的孕妇1466例,在B超引导下行羊膜腔穿刺抽取羊水。经过羊水细胞培养增殖成功后收获细胞,G显带检查分析羊水细胞的染色体核型。结果羊水细胞一次性培养成功率为99.8%。1466例孕妇中,检出16例异常核型(其中12例21三体,1例18三体,3例染色体异常)和3例染色体多态性。结论羊水细胞染色体核型检查仍然是产前诊断中不可替代的手段。

  5. Isolation and characterization of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in Turner’s syndrome%Turner综合征羊水干细胞的分离及特征*★◆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚余; 骆玉梅; 田霖; 刘海波; 陈欣洁; 孙筱放; 陈耀勇

    2013-01-01

      背景:羊水干细胞的分离培养及生物学特性相关研究取得了明显进展,但未见45,X/46,XX(Turner综合征)羊水细胞建系的报道。目的:建立体外培养人羊水来源干细胞的方法,初步探讨羊水干细胞的生物学特性。方法:孕中期羊膜腔穿刺获得1例染色体核型异常(45,X/46,XX)羊水标本,采用梯度稀释后低密度种植的方法获得羊水干细胞,体外传代培养,倒置显微镜观察细胞的贴壁生长情况,细胞染色体检查确认核型,流式细胞仪检测羊水干细胞特异性表面标志和细胞周期,进行成骨诱导分化及碱性磷酸酶染色和茜素红染色鉴定。结果与结论:羊水干细胞在体外培养体系中增殖迅速,核型为45,X/46,XX,流式细胞仪检测羊水干细胞表达CD29、CD44、CD90和CD105间充质干细胞表面标志,不表达造血干细胞标志CD45和CD34;大部分细胞处于 G1期,增殖能力强。羊水干细胞经成骨诱导分化后,碱性磷酸酶染色和茜素红染色阳性。结果可见该实验成功分离获得45,X/46,XX (Turner 综合征)羊水干细胞,其增殖能力强,表现间充质干细胞的特性。%BACKGROUND: Great progress has been achieved on studies on isolation, culture and biological characteristics of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cel s. However, few studies are reported on amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cel s in 45, X/46, XX (Turner’s syndrome). OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple culture protocol to isolate amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cel s and investigate the biological characteristics of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cel s. METHODS: We developed a gradient dilution culture protocol to isolate a population of 45, X/46, XX (Turner’s syndrome) amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cel s from second-trimester amniocentesis. The morphology of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cel s was observed by

  6. Meconium stained amniotic fluid neonatal umbilical arterial blood gas value of Apgar score and clinical observation%羊水胎粪污染新生儿脐动脉血气pH值与Apgar评分临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建国; 孙庆霞; 于普丽; 宋燕玲; 胡美莲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between meconium stained amniotic fluid and the degree of asphyxia of newborn hypoxia. Methods Umbilical arterial blood gas analysis and Apgar score were pH value detection method of meconium stained amniotic fluid 1 degrees in 160 cases, 135 cases of meconium stained amniotic fluidⅡ°Ⅲ°, meconium stained amniotic fluid of 189 cases of newborn. Results the difference of umbilical artery blood gas index pH value and Apgar score significantly, and the amniotic fluid meconium pollution degree and umbilical artery blood gas index pH value and Apgar score proportional relationship, namely, the more serious pollution of neonatal asphyxia hypoxic severity. Conclusion Meconium stained amniotic fluid and the degree of asphyxia of newborn anoxic degree, and the problem of Neonatology, obstetrics, puts forward positive prevention interventions.%目的:探讨羊水胎粪污染程度与新生儿窒息缺氧的相关性。方法对羊水胎粪污染Ⅰ度160例、羊水胎粪污染Ⅱ度135例、羊水胎粪污染Ⅲ度189例新生儿的脐动脉血气pH值及Apgar评分结果进行分析。结果3组脐动脉血血气指标pH值及Apgar评分差异显著,且羊水胎粪污染程度与脐动脉血血气指标pH值及Apgar评分成正比关系,即污染程度越严重新生儿窒息缺氧程度越重。结论羊水胎粪污染程度与新生儿窒息缺氧的程度有密切联系,产科、新生儿科应积极给予预防干预措施。

  7. Fast and sensitive HPLC method for the determination of neopterin, kynurenine and tryptophan in amniotic fluid, malignant effusions and wound exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcmova, Lenka Kujovska; Cervinkova, Barbora; Solichova, Dagmar; Sobotka, Lubos; Hansmanova, Lenka; Melichar, Bohuslav; Solich, Petr

    2015-11-01

    A new HPLC method for the determination of neopterin, kynurenine and tryptophan using a second-generation monolith stationary phase and high-throughput sample preparation procedure based on microplates was developed and fully validated. As the stationary phase a monolithic C18 Chromolith high-resolution column with dimensions of 4.6 × 100 mm connected to a monolithic 4.6 × 10-mm security guard was used. Separation was achieved using 15 mM phosphate buffer (KH2PO4 +K2HPO4·3H2O at pH 3) and acetonitrile in gradient mode. Target analytes were determined in 5.5 minutes in amniotic fluid, effusions and wound exudates with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.25 nM for neopterin, 2.5 µM for tryptophan and 0.25 µM for kynurenine. The method was applied to real clinical sample measurements, and it will be used to monitor neopterin, kynurenine and tryptophan levels in biological fluids to assess the patient response to therapy and clinical status.

  8. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of free and total sialic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M. van der; Koning, T.J. de; Lefeber, D.J.; Fleer, A.; Prinsen, B.H.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of sialic acid (SA) metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for free sialic acid (FSA) and total sialic acid (TSA) in human CSF was v

  9. 羊水污染对胎儿危害分析与处理方法的探讨%Exploration of amniotic fluid pollution on fetal harm analysis and han-dling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡春燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨羊水污染对胎儿的危害及临床处理方法。方法2012年3月~2013年3月在本院产科足月分娩的产妇共2952例,其中剖宫产968例(32.79%),经阴道分娩1984例(67.21%),选取其中发生羊水污染的263例(8.91%)产妇作为研究对象,分析羊水污染对胎儿的影响及其相应的临床处理措施。结果Ⅰ度羊水污染的新生儿窒息率为9.78%,Ⅱ度羊水污染的新生儿窒息率为14.29%,Ⅲ度羊水污染的新生儿窒息率为21.74%,Ⅰ度羊水污染的新生儿窒息率显著低于Ⅱ度和Ⅲ度(P期发生Ⅱ度、Ⅲ度羊水污染,其胎儿窘迫率为21.74%(5/23),新生儿窒息率为4.35%(1/23),潜伏期与活>期比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论羊水污染与胎儿窘迫及新生儿窒息密切相关,对胎儿具有较大危害,针对羊水污染采取相应的临床处理措施,有助于保障围生儿生命安全。%Objective To explore the amniotic fluid pollution on fetal harm and clinical handling method. Methods From March 2012 to March 2013,there were 2952 puerperae of maternal labor in department of obstetrical in our hos-pital,among these participants,968 puerperae (32.79%) was given cesarean section,1984 puerperae (67.21%) was given through vaginal delivery.There were 263 out of 2952 puerperae which took 8.91% occurredwith amniotic fluid pollution were selected as research objects.Influence of amniotic fluid pollution on fetus and the corresponding treatment in clinic was analyzed. Results Incidence of neonatal asphyxia in degree Ⅰ amniotic fluid pollution was 9.78%,14.29% in de-greeII,and 21.74%in degreeⅢ.Incidence of amniotic fluid pollution in degreeⅠ was greatly less than that of degreeII and degree Ⅲ (P<0.05).During latent period, incidence of fetal distress in uterus due to degree II and Ⅲ was 32.14%(18/56),and occurrence rate of neonatal asphyxia was 21.43%(12/56).However,incidences of fetal distress in uterus due to

  10. 水通道蛋白9与羊水量异常的研究进展%Research progress on relationship between expression of aquaporin 9 and amniotic fluid volume abnormality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解雁飞; 李红梅

    2013-01-01

    水通道蛋白普遍存在于人体组织器官的细胞膜上,跨过脂质双分子层转运水及其它小分子物质,调节人体内的水平衡代谢。近年来研究发现水通道蛋白是羊水平衡的重要通道,参与母胎的液体交换。水通道蛋白9作为水通道蛋白家族中重要成员之一,目前被认为表达于人类的胎膜和胎盘,可能是羊水膜内调节中的一种重要的水通道。对水通道蛋白9在人胎盘胎膜的分布以及水通道蛋白9与羊水量异常相关性的深入研究,有助于探索羊水量异常的发生机制,从而为治疗羊水量异常提供新的思路和方向。为进一步明确羊水量异常的发病机制以指导临床的诊治,该文就国内外水通道蛋白9及其与羊水量异常关系的研究进展进行了综述。%Aquaporin ( AQP ) , which exists widely in cell membrane of human tissues and organs , passes through lipidic bilayer ( phospholipid bilayer ) to transport water and other small molecules and regulates water metabolic balance in body .Recent studies have found that AQP is an important passage for amnion fluid balance and maternal-fetal fluid exchange .As one of the important members of the AQPs family, AQP9 is now believed to be expressed in human fetal membrane and placenta , and it may be an important water passage for amniotic fluid intramembrane regulation .Deep investigationes on distribution of AQP 9 in fetal membranes and placenta and its relationship with amniotic fluid volume abnormality is contributive to explore mechanisms of amniotic fluid volume abnormality , so as to provide a new idea and direction for the treatment .In order to further clarify the pathogenesis of abnormal amniotic fluid volume and to guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment , the article reviewed recent advance both at home and abroad in AQP 9 and its relationship with amniotic fluid volume abnormality .

  11. 孕晚期羊水量的减少与妊娠结局的临床分析%Reduce the Clinical Analysis and the Outcome of Pregnancy Trimester Amniotic Fluid Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任英囡

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析并研究孕晚期羊水量减少对妊娠结局的影响。方法选取我院在2012年8月~2014年8月收治的98例孕晚期羊水减少的患者作为研究对象,将其定为观察组,再选取同期的98例羊水正常对象作为对照组。对两组研究对象的进行胎心监护和B超检测。结果观察组的胎盘钙化率、剖宫产率、新生儿窒息率、FGR率和羊水污染率都明显高于对照组,P<0.05,效果显著,具有统计学意义。结论妊娠晚期羊水减少严重地影响着胎儿的生命安全,所以需要重视妊娠期内羊水量少的孕妇的检测工作。%Objective To analyze and study the third trimester amniotic fluid volume to reduce the impact on the outcome of pregnancy. Methods In our hospital in 98 cases of late pregnancy amniotic lfuid in 2012 August to 2014 August were decreased in patients as the research object, use it as the observation group, 98 cases of normal amniotic fluid object were selected as the control group. The fetal heart rate monitoring and B ultrasound detection of two groups. Results The observation group of placental calciifcation rate, cesarean section rate, neonatal asphyxia rate, FGR rate and amniotic fluid contamination rates are signiifcantly higher than the control group, P<0.05, the effect is remarkable, with statistical significance. Conclusion amniotic fluid in late pregnancy to reduce seriously affect fetal life safety, so need to pay attention to the detection work during pregnancy the amniotic lfuid volume and less in pregnant women.

  12. Performance of Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of the Amniotic Fluid of Pregnant Women for Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Congenital infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious damage that can be diagnosed in utero or at birth, although most infants are asymptomatic at birth. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis considerably improves the prognosis and outcome for infected infants. For this reason, an assay for the quick, sensitive, and safe diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis is desirable. Goal To systematically review the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the amniotic fluid of pregnant women with recent serological toxoplasmosis diagnoses for the diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis. Method A systematic literature review was conducted via a search of electronic databases; the literature included primary studies of the diagnostic accuracy of PCR analysis of amniotic fluid from pregnant women who seroconverted during pregnancy. The PCR test was compared to a gold standard for diagnosis. Results A total of 1.269 summaries were obtained from the electronic database and reviewed, and 20 studies, comprising 4.171 samples, met the established inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The following results were obtained: studies about PCR assays for fetal toxoplasmosis are generally susceptible to bias; reports of the tests’ use lack critical information; the protocols varied among studies; the heterogeneity among studies was concentrated in the tests’ sensitivity; there was evidence that the sensitivity of the tests increases with time, as represented by the trimester; and there was more heterogeneity among studies in which there was more time between maternal diagnosis and fetal testing. The sensitivity of the method, if performed up to five weeks after maternal diagnosis, was 87% and specificity was 99%. Conclusion The global sensitivity heterogeneity of the PCR test in this review was 66.5% (I2). The tests show low evidence of heterogeneity with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 99% when performed up to five weeks

  13. OBSTETRIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOME OF LOW-RISK PREGNANCIES WITH TERM LABOUR AND MECONIUM-STAINED AMNIOTIC FLUID AT ST. PHILOMENA’S HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopashree D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meconium-stained amniotic fluid has been considered as sign of foetal distress in presentations other than breech and is associated with poor foetal outcome, but others consider meconium passage by foetus as physiological phenomenon and procedures of environmental hazards to foetus before birth. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid in labour, all low-risk pregnancies were included in our study from September 2010 to August 2012 admitted in our department. For uniformity of results, cases with obstetric and medical complications were excluded. The cases were divided into three groups depending upon grades of meconium staining as thin, moderate and thick. Foetal monitoring, uterine contractions and Apgar score, birth weight, resuscitation of baby noted. All babies were followed up to first week of neonatal life. RESULTS Of 200 cases, 147 had caesarean delivery 73.5% and 53 had vaginal delivery 26.5%. The incidence of LSCS was found to be maximum in the thick MSAF group 54.5%, 14% in moderate and 5% in this MSAF group. In moderate MSAF group, 2.17% had <7, 1 minute Apgar. In thick MSAF group, 3.33% had <7 Apgar; in thin MSAF group, 11.76% had <7 Apgar at 1 minute. The p value was 0.094 in all grades of MSAF, the 5 min. Apgar’s were more than 7. The occurrence of complications in the baby did not depend on the mode of delivery. The p value was 0.58, which was insignificant. The ‘p value of association of CTG abnormality and foetal morbidity was significant <0.001. The association of grades of meconium and foetal morbidity, the p value was 0.337, which was insignificant. There was no perinatal mortality in our study. CONCLUSION The incidence of low-risk pregnancies with MSAF in our study was 4.5%. There was increased tendency for LSCS in the MSAF. The foetal morbidity depends on the reactivity to CTG not on grades of MSAF. Therefore, close intrapartum monitoring has to be done in such cases and LSCS done

  14. Comparison of human amniotic fluid-derived and umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells: Characterization and myocardial differentiation capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Bai; Yuan Hu; Yi-Ru Wang; Li-Feng Liu; Jie Chen; Shao-Ping Su; Yu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the characterization and myocardial differentiation capacity of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AF MSCs) and umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ MSCs). Methods The human AF MSCs were cultured from amniotic fluid samples obtained by amniocentesis. The umbilical cord WJ MSCs were obtained from Wharton's Jelly of umbilical cords of infants delivered full-term by normal labor. The morphology, growth curves, and analyses by flow cytometry of cell surface markers were compared between the two types of cells. Myocardial genes (GATA-4, c-TnT, α-actin, and Cx43) were detected by real-time PCR and the corresponding protein expressions were detected by Western blot analysis after myocardial induced in AF MSCs and WJ MSCs. Results Our findings revealed AF MSCs and WJ MSCs shared similar morphological characteristics of the fibroblastoid shape. The AF MSCs were easily obtained than the WJ MSCs and had a shorter time to reach adherence of 2.7 ± 1.6 days to WJ MSCs of 6.5 ± 1.8 days. The growth curves by MTT cytotoxic assay showed the AF MSCs had a similar proliferative capacity at passage 5 and passage 10. However, the proliferative capacities of WJ MSCs were decreased at 5 passage relative to 10 passage. Both AF stem cells and WJ stem cells had the characteristics of mesenchymal stromal cells with some characteristics of embryonic stem cells. They express CD29 and CD105, but not CD34. They were positive for Class I major histocompatibility (MHC I) antigens (HLA-ABC), and were negative, or mildly positive, for MHC Class II (HLA-DR) antigen. Oct-4 was positive in all the two cells types. Both AF MSCs and WJ MSCs could differentiate along myocardium. The differentiation capacities were detected by the expression of GATA-4, c-TnT, α-actin, Cx43 after myocardial induction. Conclusions Both AF MSCs and WJ MSCs have the potential clinical application for myogenesis in cardiac regenerative therapy.

  15. 羊水栓塞患者的临床分析及护理要点探讨%Clinical Analysis and Nursing Key Points Discussed in Patients with Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秀玉

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinical characteristics and nursing methods of patients with amniotic fluid embolism.Methods12 cases of amniotic fluid embolism admitted in our hospital in 2008 March~2013 year in February period as the object of study, the clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.ResultsIn 1 patients died and the remaining patients were survived, and were discharged from the hospital. Conclusion Amniotic fluid embolism in the clinical manifestations of shock, vaginal bleeding, DIC and coagulation and other symptoms, clinical on treating the patients with amniotic fluid embolism, given targeted nursing measures, not only can reduce the incidence of complications, but also can improve the therapeutic effect, improve the quality of life of patients with pre.%目的:探析羊水栓塞患者的临床特点和护理方法。方法将我院2008年3月~2013年2月期间收治的12例羊水栓塞患者作为研究对象,对其临床治疗资料进行回顾性分析。结果除1例患者死亡外,其余患者均存活,并康复出院。结论羊水栓塞在临床上表现为休克、阴道出血、DIC和血不凝等症状,临床上在对羊水栓塞患者进行治疗时,给予针对性护理措施,不仅可以降低并发症发生率,还能提高治疗效果,改善患者预后生活质量。

  16. B超监测羊水性状在孕晚期可疑羊水过少中的应用%B-mode ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid character in suspected oligohydramnios during late pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峥; 朱科俊

    2016-01-01

    目的::B超监测羊水性状在孕晚期可疑羊水过少中的应用,方法:2012年1月至2014年12月就诊我院系统产检300例患者,比较单纯可疑羊水过少组(150例)与合并羊水浑浊组(150例)的剖宫产率和新生儿窒息率。结果:可疑羊水过少且合并羊水浑浊组发生剖宫产分娩率、新生儿窒息率升高( P<0.01)。结论:B超监测羊水性状为孕晚期可疑羊水过少提供敏感指标,为临床分娩方式选择提供依据。%Objective:To investigate the value of B-mode ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid character in suspected oligohydramnios during late pregnancy. Methods:Included in this study were 300 patients subjected to systemic prenatal examination in our hospital between January 2012 and December 2014. These patients were with suspected oligohydramnios alone (n=150) or concomitant amniotic fluid turbidity (n=150). The rates of cesarean section and neonatal asphyxia in these patients were compared. Results: Patients with suspected oligohydramnios and concomitant amniotic fluid turbidity were more likely to have cesarean delivery (P<0.01) and neonatal asphyxia ( P<0.01) . Conclusion:B-mode ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid can offer sensitive indicators for suspected oligohydramnios during late pregnancy and evidence for selection of delivery mode.

  17. Radioimmunologic determination of SP-1 (gestational beta-1-glycoprotein) in the serum and amniotic fluid during normal and pathological courses of gestation. Radioimmunologische Bestimmung von SP-1 (schwangerschaftsspezifisches. beta. 1-Glycoprotein) im Serum und Fruchtwasser bei normalen und pathologischen Schwangerschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtial, A.

    1986-07-18

    While determinations of SP-1 in the amniotic fluid were found to be of rather limited diagnostic usefulness, both single and repeated measurements in the serum provided valuable information that permitted to predict the presumable patient outcome in cases of imminent abortion attributable to such conditions as diabetic fetopathy or severe gestosis associated with deficient fetal development (one limitation of the method's usefulness being a comparatively high percentage of false-positive results). (TRV).

  18. To study on the methods of serial subcultivation of amniotic fluid in penatal diagnosis%转瓶培养在羊水细胞产前诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋; 郑红云; 童永清

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立一种成功率高,收获分裂相多的羊水细胞培养方法.方法 总共357例羊水标本用经典培养法和转瓶培养法培养.结果 经典培养成功率为94.3%(337/357),转瓶培养二次收获后成功率为97.8% (349/357),成功率提高,且所获分裂相数目多,形态好.结论 转瓶培养方法是一种简便易行的羊水细胞培养方法.%Objective; To improve the successful rate of culture of human amniotic fluid cells. Methods; The classic cultivation method and serial subcultivation method was performed in 357 cases of amniotic fluid cultivation. Results: The successful rate of classic cultivation method and serial subcultivation method was 94. 3% (337/357) and 97. 8% (349/357) respectively. The serial sub-cultivation has high successful rate. More and high - quality M - phase can be observed by serial subcultivation method. Conclusion: The serial subcultivation is convenient method in amniotic fluid culture. It has the advantages of good chromosome morphous and high successful rate.

  19. Líquido amniótico tópico: uma potencial nova alternativa para doenças da superfície ocular Topical amniotic fluid: a potential new alternative for ocular surface diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Goulart Quinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O líquido amniótico banha o feto durante a vida intra-uterina e está em contato permanente com a superfície ocular durante este importante período do desenvolvimento. Ele contém uma série de fatores de crescimento que podem ter diversos efeitos sobre o processo cicatricial. Estes fatores aceleram a recuperação da sensibilidade corneana e regeneração nervosa após procedimentos cerato-refrativos, além de controlar a formação de cicatriz e o equilíbrio da superfície ocular após sua aplicação tópica. Centenas de diferentes proteínas têm sido identificadas no líquido amniótico humano e o papel de cada uma continua desconhecido. Os resultados obtidos até o momento sobre a aplicação de líquido amniótico em doenças de superfície ocular sugerem uma terapia promissora. Pesquisas estão sendo realizadas para identificar os efeitos dos fatores específicos do líquido amniótico sobre a inflamação ocular. O objetivo desta revisão é relatar as propriedades e utilizações atuais do líquido amniótico, bem como apresentar os recentes estudos relacionados ao uso deste líquido e doenças da superfície ocular.Amniotic fluid bathes the fetus during intrauterine life and is in permanent contact with the fetal ocular surface in this important period of development. It contains a series of growth factors that may have multiple effects on the wound healing process. These factors are thought to accelerate the recovery of corneal sensitivity and nerve regeneration after keratorefractive procedures, and also may control scar formation and balance the ocular surface after topical application. Hundreds of different proteins have been identified in the human amniotic fluid, and the role of each still not quite understood. The outcomes obtained so far with amniotic fluid application to ocular surface diseases suggest a promising therapy. Research is underway to identify the effects of specific factors of the amniotic fluid in ocular

  20. Intravenous grafts of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells induce endogenous cell proliferation and attenuate behavioral deficits in ischemic stroke rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Tajiri

    Full Text Available We recently reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS cells [1]. Here, we tested the therapeutic benefits of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. Thirty-five days later, animals exhibiting significant motor deficits received intravenous transplants of rat AFS cells or vehicle. At days 60-63 post-MCAo, significant recovery of motor and cognitive function was seen in stroke animals transplanted with AFS cells compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. Infarct volume, as revealed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, was significantly reduced, coupled with significant increments in the cell proliferation marker, Ki67, and the neuronal marker, MAP2, in the dentate gyrus (DG [2] and the subventricular zone (SVZ of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. A significantly higher number of double-labeled Ki67/MAP2-positive cells and a similar trend towards increased Ki67/MAP2 double-labeling were observed in the DG and SVZ of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals, respectively, compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. This study reports the therapeutic potential of AFS cell transplantation in stroke animals, possibly via enhancement of endogenous repair mechanisms.

  1. Levels of CD105(+) cells increase and cell proliferation decreases during S-phase arrest of amniotic fluid cells in long-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Chen, Rui; Zhong, Xuan; Fan, Yong; Lai, Weiqiang; Sun, Xiaofang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to improve the characterization of amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) in order to optimize their use in chromosomal prenatal diagnosis and as seed or stem cells for tissue engineering. The AFCs used in the current study were obtained from three females in their second trimester of pregnancy. The cells were cultured independently and characterized by cell morphology, cell markers, cell cycle distribution and chromosome Giemsa banding in an early- and late-passage. The AFCs remained homogeneous in culture and expressed mesenchymal markers, but not endothelial markers along the culture process. In addition, compared with the early-passage cells, the late-passage cells exhibit an increase in CD105 expression, a decrease in cell division and a delay in the cell cycle, and a number of cells underwent cell cycle arrest. However, the cells retained a normal karyotype. Therefore, the current study characterized AFCs in a clinical culture and confirmed that AFCs are mesenchymal precursors. The results obtained may be useful for the application of AFCs in prenatal diagnosis.

  2. Second trimester amniotic fluid glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium concentrations in relation to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and birth weight centiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiou, Maria; Michaelidou, Alexandra Maria; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Menexes, Georgios; Symeonidou, Maria; Koulourida, Vasiliki; Ganidou, Maria; Theodoridis, Theodoros D; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2015-05-01

    To study the evolution profile of amniotic fluid (AF) glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium, in the second trimester of pregnancy, and explore the possible relations between the concentration of these components and maternal, as well as neonatal characteristics. AF of 52 pregnant women was analyzed using an automatic multichannel analyzer. Maternal age, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), inter-pregnancy intervals, and smoking status were derived from questionnaires. Information on pregnancy and delivery was collected from medical records. Uric acid increased (r = 0.423, p uric acid concentration (r = 0.460, p uric acid and phosphate levels were significantly related to birth weight centiles (R(2)( )= 0.345, p uric acid concentration, and (c) in appropriate for gestational age infants, AF phosphate and uric acid levels may serve as potential biomarkers of birth weight centiles. Further studies on AF composition may help to unravel the biochemical pathways underlying fetal development and could offer insight on the potential impact of maternal nutritional management on fetal growth regulation.

  3. Reference intervals for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in amniotic fluid between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation.

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    Waltraut M Merz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adult and pediatric cardiology, n-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (nt-proBNP serves as biomarker in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular dysfunction. Elevated levels of circulating nt-proBNP are present in fetal conditions associated with myocardial pressure or volume load. Compared to fetal blood sampling, amniocentesis is technically easier and can be performed from early pregnancy onwards. We aimed to investigate amniotic fluid (AF nt-proBNP concentrations in normal pregnancies between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Nt-proBNP and total protein (TP was measured in AF by chemiluminescence assay (photometry, respectively. To adjust for a potential dilutional effect, the AF-nt-proBNP/AF-TP ratio was analyzed. Reference intervals were constructed by regression modeling across gestational age. RESULTS: 132 samples were analyzed. A negative correlation between AF-nt-proBNP/AF-TP ratio and gestational age was observed. Curves for the mean and the 5% and 95% reference interval between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation were established. CONCLUSION: In normal pregnancy, nt-proBNP is present in AF and decreases during gestation. Our data provide the basis for research on AF-nt-proBNP as biomarker in fetal medicine.

  4. Amniotic fluid stem cells restore the muscle cell niche in a HSA-Cre, Smn(F7/F7) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Martina; Franzin, Chiara; Bertin, Enrica; Urbani, Luca; Blaauw, Bert; Repele, Andrea; Taschin, Elisa; Cenedese, Angelo; Zanon, Giovanni Franco; André-Schmutz, Isabelle; Rosato, Antonio; Melki, Judith; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Pozzobon, Michela; De Coppi, Paolo

    2012-08-01

    Mutations in the survival of motor neuron gene (SMN1) are responsible for spinal muscular atrophy, a fatal neuromuscular disorder. Mice carrying a homozygous deletion of Smn exon 7 directed to skeletal muscle (HSA-Cre, Smn(F7/F7) mice) present clinical features of human muscular dystrophies for which new therapeutic approaches are highly warranted. Herein we demonstrate that tail vein transplantation of mouse amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells enhances the muscle strength and improves the survival rate of the affected animals. Second, after cardiotoxin injury of the Tibialis Anterior, only AFS-transplanted mice efficiently regenerate. Most importantly, secondary transplants of satellite cells (SCs) derived from treated mice show that AFS cells integrate into the muscle stem cell compartment and have long-term muscle regeneration capacity indistinguishable from that of wild-type-derived SC. This is the first study demonstrating the functional and stable integration of AFS cells into the skeletal muscle, highlighting their value as cell source for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Amniotic Fluid Embolism Pathophysiology Suggests the New Diagnostic Armamentarium: β-Tryptase and Complement Fractions C3-C4 Are the Indispensable Working Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is an uncommon obstetric condition involving pregnant women during labor or in the initial stages after delivery. Its incidence is estimated to be around 5.5 cases per 100,000 deliveries. Therefore, this paper investigated the pathophysiological mechanism, which underlies AFE, in order to evaluate the role of immune response in the development of this still enigmatic clinical entity. The following databases (from 1956 to September 2014 Medline, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science and Science Direct were used, searching the following key words: AFE, pathophysiology, immune/inflammatory response, complement and anaphylaxis. The main key word “AFE” was searched singularly and associated individually to each of the other keywords. Of the 146 sources found, only 19 were considered appropriate for the purpose of this paper. The clinical course is characterized by a rapid onset of symptoms, which include: acute hypotension and/or cardiac arrest, acute hypoxia (with dyspnoea, cyanosis and/or respiratory arrest, coagulopathies (disseminated intravascular coagulation and/or severe hemorrhage, coma and seizures. The pathology still determines a significant morbidity and mortality and potential permanent neurological sequelae for surviving patients. At this moment, numerous aspects involving the pathophysiology and clinical development are still not understood and several hypotheses have been formulated, in particular the possible role of anaphylaxis and complement. Moreover, the detection of serum tryptase and complement components and the evaluation of fetal antigens can explain several aspects of immune response.

  6. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor induced the differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells into vascular endothelial-like cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruyu; Lu, Ying; Li, Ju; Wang, Jia; Liu, Caixia; Gao, Fang; Sun, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) are a novel source of stem cells that are isolated and cultured from second trimester amniocentesis. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) acts as a tissue morphogen and regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation. This study investigated the effect of an adenovirus-mediated GDNF gene, which was engineered into AFSCs, on the cells' biological properties and whether GDNF in combination with AFSCs can be directionally differentiated into vascular endothelial-like cells in vitro. AFSCs were isolated and cultured using the plastic adherence method in vitro and identified by the transcription factor Oct-4, which is the primary marker of pluripotent stem cells. AFSCs were efficiently transfected by a GFP-labeled plasmid system of an adenovirus vector carrying the GDNF gene (Ad-GDNF-GFP). Transfected AFSCs stably expressed GDNF. Transfected AFSCs were cultured in endothelial growth medium-2 containing vascular endothelial growth factor. After 1 week, AFSCs were positive for von Willebrand factor (vWF) and CD31, which are markers of endothelial cells, and the recombinant GDNF group was significantly higher than undifferentiated controls and the GFP only group. These results demonstrated that AFSCs differentiated into vascular endothelial-like cells in vitro, and recombinant GDNF promoted differentiation. The differentiation-induced AFSCs may be used as seed cells to provide a new manner of cell and gene therapies for transplantation into the vascular injury site to promote angiogenesis.

  7. 产后出血与羊水栓塞关系的初步研究%Preliminary study on the relationship between postpartum hemorrhage and amniotic fluid embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 余舰; 张国栋

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To detect the expression of STN antigen which was the characteristic component of amniotic fluid and meconium in the cases with postpartum hemorrhage, find out the clear pathological causes of postpartum hemorrhage, explore the relationship between postpartum hemorrhage and anmiotic fluid embolism preliminarily. Methods: 20 autopsy specimens were analyzed retrospectively by HE staining and STN antigen immunohistochemical staining Results: Among 15 cases diagnosed as postpartum hemorrhage, 8 cases were found with positive STN antigen; tangible components in amniotic fluid including squamous epithelium, meconium body, fetal fat and mucus were not found by HE staining; 2 cases were diagnosed as amniotic fluid embolism by autopsy and HE staining (positive control group), and they were found with positive STN antigen, fetal fat and meconium body by HE staining; 3 cases died because of other causes ( negative control group), and they were found with negative STN antigen, no tangible components in amniotic fluid was found by HE staining; there was significant difference in positive rate of STN antigen among experimental group, positive control group and negative control group (P < 0. 05) . Conclusion: For the cases with unexplained postpartum hemorrhage, STN antigen which is the characteristic component of amniotic fluid can be detected by immunohistochemistry in order to determine if amniotic fluid enters into blood circulation of pregnant women and induce the occurrence of atypical amniotic fluid embolism, then the causes of postpartum hemorrhage can be made clear.%目的:检测羊水及胎粪的特征性成分-STN抗原在产后出血病例中的表达,查找引起产后出血的确切病因,初步探讨产后出血与羊水栓塞的关系.方法:通过HE染色、STN抗原免疫组化染色,对20例尸检标本进行回顾性研究.结果:临床诊断为产后出血的15例病例中,STN抗原表达阳性8例.HE染色均末观察到鳞状上皮、胎粪小

  8. Amniotic constriction bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of function of an arm or a leg. Congenital bands affecting the hand often cause the most problems. Alternative Names Pseudo-ainhum; Streeter dysplasia; Amniotic band sequence; Amniotic constriction bands; Constriction band ...

  9. A Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of Metformin and Gliclazide in Human Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Y. K.; Gogoi, P. J.; Manna, K.; Bhatt, H. G.; Jain, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Present study reports the development and validation of a simultaneous estimation of metformin and gliclazide in human plasma using supercritical fluid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry. Acetonitrile:water (80:20) mixture was used as a mobile phase along with liquid CO2 in supercritical fluid chromatography and phenformin as an internal standard. The modified plasma samples were analyzed by electro-spray ionization method in selective reaction monitoring mode in tandem mass spectrometry. Supercritical fluid chromatographic separation was performed using nucleosil C18 containing column as a stationary phase. The separated products were identified by characteristic peaks and specific fragments peaks in tandem mass spectrometry as m/z 130 to 86 for metformin, m/z 324 to 110 for gliclazide and m/z 206 to 105 for phenformin. The present method was found linear in the concentration ranges of 6.0-3550 ng/ml and 7.5-7500 ng/ml for metformin and gliclazide, respectively. Pharmacokinetic study was performed after an oral administration of dispersible tablets containing 500 mg of metformin and 80 mg of gliclazide using same techniques. PMID:20582190

  10. Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells with a Renal Progenitor Phenotype Inhibit Interstitial Fibrosis in Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gabriela Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid (hAFSCs are a promising source for cellular therapy, especially for renal disorders, as a subpopulation is derived from the fetal urinary tract. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if hAFSCs with a renal progenitor phenotype demonstrate a nephroprotective effect in acute ischemia reperfusion (I/R model and prevent late stage fibrosis.A total of 45 male 12-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups;: rats subjected to I/R injury and treated with Chang Medium, rats subjected to I/R injury and treated with hAFSCs and sham-operated animals. In the first part of this study, hAFSCs that highly expressed CD24, CD117, SIX2 and PAX2 were isolated and characterized. In the second part, renal I/R injury was induced in male rats and cellular treatment was performed 6 hours later via arterial injection. Functional and histological analyses were performed 24 hours, 48 hours and 2 months after treatment using serum creatinine, urine protein to creatinine ratio, inflammatory and regeneration markers and histomorphometric analysis of the kidney. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey's test for multiple comparisons or by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn. Statistical significance level was defined as p <0.05.hAFSCs treatment resulted in significantly reduced serum creatinine level at 24 hours, less tubular necrosis, less hyaline cast formation, higher proliferation index, less inflammatory cell infiltration and less myofibroblasts at 48 h. The treated group had less fibrosis and proteinuria at 2 months after injury.hAFSCs contain a renal progenitor cell subpopulation that has a nephroprotective effect when delivered intra-arterially in rats with renal I/R injury, and reduces interstitial fibrosis on long term follow-up.

  11. Non-integrating episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of human amniotic fluid stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells in chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamecka, Jaroslav; Salimova, Lilia; McClellan, Steven; van Kelle, Mathieu; Kehl, Debora; Laurini, Javier; Cinelli, Paolo; Owen, Laurie; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Weber, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) represent an attractive potential cell source for fetal and pediatric cell-based therapies. However, upgrading them to pluripotency confers refractoriness toward senescence, higher proliferation rate and unlimited differentiation potential. AFSC were observed to rapidly and efficiently reacquire pluripotency which together with their easy recovery makes them an attractive cell source for reprogramming. The reprogramming process as well as the resulting iPSC epigenome could potentially benefit from the unspecialized nature of AFSC. iPSC derived from AFSC also have potential in disease modeling, such as Down syndrome or β-thalassemia. Previous experiments involving AFSC reprogramming have largely relied on integrative vector transgene delivery and undefined serum-containing, feeder-dependent culture. Here, we describe non-integrative oriP/EBNA-1 episomal plasmid-based reprogramming of AFSC into iPSC and culture in fully chemically defined xeno-free conditions represented by vitronectin coating and E8 medium, a system that we found uniquely suited for this purpose. The derived AF-iPSC lines uniformly expressed a set of pluripotency markers Oct3/4, Nanog, Sox2, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 in a pattern typical for human primed PSC. Additionally, the cells formed teratomas, and were deemed pluripotent by PluriTest, a global expression microarray-based in-silico pluripotency assay. However, we found that the PluriTest scores were borderline, indicating a unique pluripotent signature in the defined condition. In the light of potential future clinical translation of iPSC technology, non-integrating reprogramming and chemically defined culture are more acceptable.

  12. Senescence-Associated Molecular and Epigenetic Alterations in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Cultures from Amniotic Fluid of Normal and Fetus-Affected Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Savickienė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs are interesting for their multilineage differentiation potential and wide range of therapeutic applications due to the ease of culture expansion. However, MSCs undergo replicative senescence. So far, the molecular mechanisms that underlie fetal diseases and cell senescence are still poorly understood. Here, we analyzed senescence-associated morphologic, molecular, and epigenetic characteristics during propagation of MSCs derived from AF of normal and fetus-affected pregnancy. AF-MSCs cultures from both cell sources displayed quite similar morphology and expression of specific cell surface (CD44, CD90, and CD105 and stemness (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1 markers but had interindividual variability in proliferation capability and time to reach senescence. Within passages 4 and 8, senescent cultures exhibited typical morphological features, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, increased levels of p16, and decreased levels of miR-17 and miR-21 but showed differential expression of p21, p53, and ATM dependently on the onset of cell senescence. These differences correlated with changes in the level of chromatin modifiers (DNMT1 and HDAC1 and polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, and BMI1 paralleling with changes in the expression of repressive histone marks (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 and stemness markers (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1. Therefore epigenetic factors are important for AF-MSCs senescence process that may be related with individuality of donor or a fetus malignancy status.

  13. Amniotic fluid stem cell-based models to study the effects of gene mutations and toxicants on male germ cell formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia Gundacker; Helmut Dolznig; Mario Mikula; Margit Rosner; Oliver Brandau; Markus Hengstschl(a)ger

    2012-01-01

    Male infertility is a major public health issue predominantly caused by defects in germ cell development.In the past,studies on the genetic regulation of spermatogenesis as well as on negative environmental impacts have been hampered by the fact that human germ cell development is intractable to direct analysis in vivo.Compared with model organisms including mice,there are fundamental differences in the molecular processes of human germ cell development.Therefore,an in vitro model mimicking human sperm formation would be an extremely valuable research tool.In the recent past,both human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been reported to harbour the potential to differentiate into primordial germ cells and gametes.We here discuss the pessibility to use human amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells as a biological model.Since their discovery in 2003,AFS cells have been characterized to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers,to be genomically stable,to have a high proliferative potential and to be non-tumourigenic.In addition,AFS cells are not subject of ethical concerns.In contrast to iPS cells,AFSs cells do not need ectopic induction of pluripotency,which is often associated with only imperfectly cleared epigenetic memory of the source cells.Since AFS cells can be derived from amniocentesis with disease-causing mutations and can be transfected with high efficiency,they could be used in probing gene functions for spermatogenesis and in screening for male reproductive toxicity.

  14. The targeted inhibitory effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells carrying CXCR4 promoter and DAL-1 on non-small cell lung carcinoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Li, S; Cai, T; Wang, H; Xie, X; Liu, Z; Zhang, Y

    2016-02-01

    The differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung-1 (DAL-1) protein has been demonstrated to be suppressive to various types of tumors including lung cancer. This study aimed to determine the targeted effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFS cells) carrying CXCR4 promoter driven conditionally replicable adenovirus vector overexpressing DAL-1 (Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1) on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) growth. The apoptotic effects of virus vectors were assessed using flow cytometry, and the cytotoxicity analyzed by CCK-8 assay. In vivo imaging system was used to determine the homing capability of hAFS cells. A549 cell xenograft mouse model was created to assess the in vivo effect of DAL-1 overexpression on NSCLC growth. We found that infection of Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 increased the apoptosis of A549 NSCLC cells but not 16HBE normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 administered via intratumoral injection led to significant reduced growth and greater necrosis of A549 xenograft tumors comparing to null vector treated animals. When infused via tail vein, hAFS cells carrying Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 homed to lung cancer xenografts, caused virus replication and DAL-1 overexpression, and led to significant lower growth and greater necrosis of A549 cell xenografts comparing to non-treatment control. In conclusion, hAFS cells are capable of carrying Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 vectors, specifically targeting to lung cancer, and causing oncolytic effects when administered in vivo.

  15. Culture of mouse amniotic fluid-derived cells on irradiated STO feeders results in the generation of primitive endoderm cell lines capable of self-renewal in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Aleksandar M; Jang, Sunyoung; Nicolov, Eugenia; Voicu, Horatiu; Luckey, Chance J

    2013-01-01

    The cells present in amniotic fluid (AF) are currently used for prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies but are also a potential source of cells for cell therapy. To better characterize putative progenitor cell populations present in AF, we used culture conditions that support self-renewal to determine if these promoted the generation of stable cell lines from AF-derived cells (AFC). Cells isolated from E11.5 mouse were cultured on irradiated STO fibroblast feeder layers in human embryonic germ cell derivation conditions. The cultures grew multicellular epithelial colonies that could be repropagated from single cells. Reverse transcription semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction of established cell lines revealed that they belonged to the extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn) expressing high levels of Gata6, Gata4, Sox17, Foxa2 and Sox7 mRNA. Hierarchical clustering based on the whole transcriptome expression profile of the AFC lines (AFCL) shows significant correlation between transcription profiles of AFCL and blastocyst-derived XEN, an ExEn cell line. In vitro differentiation of AFCL results in the generation of cells expressing albumin and α-fetoprotein (AFP), while intramuscular injection of AFCL into immunodeficient mice produced AFP-positive tumors with primitive endodermal appearance. Hence, E11.5 mouse AF contains cells that efficiently produce XEN lines. These AF-derived XEN lines do not spontaneously differentiate into embryonic-type cells but are phenotypically stable and have the capacity for extensive expansion. The lack of requirement for reprogramming factors to turn AF-derived progenitor cells into stable cell lines capable of massive expansion together with the known ability of ExEn to contribute to embryonic tissue suggests that this cell type may be a candidate for banking for cell therapies. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. The transplantation of Akt-overexpressing amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Yigang; Song, Lei; Li, Yanyan; Jiang, Shan; Zhang, Song

    2016-07-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) are an attractive cell source for applications in regenerative medicine, due to characteristics such as proliferative capacity and multipotency. In addition, Akt, a serine‑threonine kinase, maintains stem cells by promoting viability and proliferation. Whether the transplantation of Akt-overexpressing AFMSCs protects the heart against ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R) injury has yet to be elucidated. Accordingly, the Akt gene was overexpressed in AFMSCs using lentiviral transduction, and Akt‑AFMSCs were transplanted into the ischemic myocardium of rabbits prior to reperfusion. Any protective effects resulting from this procedure were subsequently sought after three weeks later. A histological examination revealed that there was a decrease in intramyocardial inflammation and ultrastructural damage, and an increase in capillary density and in the levels of GATA binding protein 4, connexin 43 and cardiac troponin T in the Akt‑AFMSC group compared with the control group. A significant decrease in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, accompanying an increase in phosphorylated Akt and B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and a decrease in caspase‑3, was also observed. Furthermore, the left ventricular function was markedly augmented in the Akt‑AFMSC group compared with the control group. These observations suggested that the protective effect of AFMSCs may be due to the delivery of secreted cytokines, promotion of neoangiogenesis, prevention of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes and promotion of the viability of AFMSCs, which are assisted by Akt gene modification. Taken together, the results of the present study have indicated that transplantation of Akt-AFMSCs is able to alleviate myocardial I/R injury and improve cardiac function.

  17. Significant performance variation among PCR systems in diagnosing congenital toxoplasmosis in São Paulo, Brazil: analysis of 467 amniotic fluid samples

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    Thelma Suely Okay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Performance variation among PCR systems in detecting Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively reported and associated with target genes, primer composition, amplification parameters, treatment during pregnancy, host genetic susceptibility and genotypes of different parasites according to geographical characteristics. PATIENTS: A total of 467 amniotic fluid samples from T. gondii IgM- and IgG-positive Brazilian pregnant women being treated for 1 to 6 weeks at the time of amniocentesis (gestational ages of 14 to 25 weeks. METHODS: One nested-B1-PCR and three one-round amplification systems targeted to rDNA, AF146527 and the B1 gene were employed. RESULTS: Of the 467 samples, 189 (40.47% were positive for one-round amplifications: 120 (63.49% for the B1 gene, 24 (12.69% for AF146527, 45 (23.80% for both AF146527 and the B1 gene, and none for rDNA. Fifty previously negative one-round PCR samples were chosen by computer-assisted randomization analysis and re-tested (nested-B1-PCR, during which nine additional cases were detected (9/50 or 18%. DISCUSSION: The B1 gene PCR was far more sensitive than the AF146527 PCR, and the rDNA PCR was the least effective even though the rDNA had the most repetitive sequence. Considering that the four amplification systems were equally affected by treatment, that the amplification conditions were optimized for the target genes and that most of the primers have already been reported, it is plausible that the striking differences found among PCR performances could be associated with genetic diversity in patients and/or with different Toxoplasma gondii genotypes occurring in Brazil. CONCLUSION: The use of PCR for the diagnosis of fetal Toxoplasma infections in Brazil should be targeted to the B1 gene when only one gene can be amplified, preferably by nested amplification with primers B22/B23.

  18. Amniotic Fluid Infection, Cytokine Levels, and Mortality and Adverse Pulmonary, Intestinal, and Neurologic Outcomes in Infants at 32 Weeks' Gestation or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    To what extent the risks of neonatal morbidities are directly related to premature birth or to biological mechanisms of preterm birth remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the effect of exposure to amniotic fluid (AF) infection and elevated cytokine levels on the mortality and pulmonary, intestinal, and neurologic outcomes of preterm infants, and whether these associations persist after adjustment for gestational age at birth. This retrospective cohort study included 152 premature singleton infants who were born at ≤ 32 weeks. AF obtained by amniocentesis was cultured; and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels in AF were determined. The primary outcome was adverse perinatal outcome defined as the presence of one or more of the followings: stillbirth, neonatal death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and periventricular leukomalacia. Logistic regression analysis was adjusted for gestational age at birth and other potential confounders. In bivariate analyses, elevated AF IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcome. These results were not changed after adjusting for potential confounders, such as low Apgar scores, mechanical ventilation, and surfactant application. However, the independent effect of elevated cytokine levels in AF disappeared when additionally adjusted for low gestational age at birth; consequently, low gestational age remained strongly associated with the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. In conclusion, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in AF are associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, but this risk is not independent of low gestational age at birth. Culture-proven AF infection is not associated with this risk. PMID:28145652

  19. Senescence-Associated Molecular and Epigenetic Alterations in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Cultures from Amniotic Fluid of Normal and Fetus-Affected Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickienė, Jūratė; Baronaitė, Sandra; Zentelytė, Aistė; Treigytė, Gražina

    2016-01-01

    Human amniotic-fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) are interesting for their multilineage differentiation potential and wide range of therapeutic applications due to the ease of culture expansion. However, MSCs undergo replicative senescence. So far, the molecular mechanisms that underlie fetal diseases and cell senescence are still poorly understood. Here, we analyzed senescence-associated morphologic, molecular, and epigenetic characteristics during propagation of MSCs derived from AF of normal and fetus-affected pregnancy. AF-MSCs cultures from both cell sources displayed quite similar morphology and expression of specific cell surface (CD44, CD90, and CD105) and stemness (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1) markers but had interindividual variability in proliferation capability and time to reach senescence. Within passages 4 and 8, senescent cultures exhibited typical morphological features, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, increased levels of p16, and decreased levels of miR-17 and miR-21 but showed differential expression of p21, p53, and ATM dependently on the onset of cell senescence. These differences correlated with changes in the level of chromatin modifiers (DNMT1 and HDAC1) and polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, and BMI1) paralleling with changes in the expression of repressive histone marks (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3) and stemness markers (Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex1). Therefore epigenetic factors are important for AF-MSCs senescence process that may be related with individuality of donor or a fetus malignancy status. PMID:27803714

  20. Mechanistic study of CBT-Cys click reaction and its application for identifying bioactive N-terminal cysteine peptides in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhen; Chen, Peiyao; Li, Gongyu; Zhu, Yunxia; Shi, Zhonghua; Luo, Yufeng; Zhao, Chun; Fu, Ziyi; Cui, Xianwei; Ji, Chenbo; Wang, Fuqiang; Huang, Guangming; Liang, Gaolin

    2017-01-01

    CBT-Cys click condensation reaction has a high second-order reaction rate constant and has found wide applicability in recent years. However, its reaction mechanism has not been experimentally validated and its application for identifying bioactive N-terminal Cys peptides in real clinical samples has not been reported. Herein, firstly, by employing induced nanoelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (InESI-MS) and a home-built micro-reactor, we successfully intercepted and structurally characterized the crucial intermediate in this click reaction for the first time. With the intermediate, the proposed mechanism of this reaction was corroborated. Moreover, we also applied this MS setup to monitor the reaction in real time and obtained the second-order reaction rate constants of this reaction at different pH values. After mechanistic study, we applied this click reaction for identifying bioactive N-terminal cysteine peptides in amniotic fluid (AF). Eight unique N-terminal Cys peptides in AF, three of which are located in the functional domain regions of their corresponding proteins, were identified with a false positive rate less than 1%. One of the three peptides was found able to inhibit the growth of uterine endometrial cancer HEC-1-B cells but not the endometrial normal cells via a typical apoptotic pathway. With its mechanism satisfactorily elucidated, the kinetic parameters obtained, as well as its application for fishing bioactive N-terminal Cys peptides from vast complex clinical samples, we anticipate that this CBT-Cys click reaction could be applied more widely for the facile isolation, site-specific identification, and quantification of N-terminal Cys-containing peptides in complex biological samples.

  1. 过期妊娠合并羊水过少72例临床分析%Expired Pregnancy with Amniotic Fluid Reduce 72 Cases of Clinical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜春彦; 龙玲玲

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过临床观察分析过期妊娠合并羊水过少对围产儿的影响.方法:对我院于2009年2月~2011年2月间收治的72例过期妊娠的临床资料进行分析,通过比较羊水过少和适量羊水对胎儿的影响,监测的羊水量范围,进行临床观察.结果:过期妊娠羊水过少的胎儿容易发生胎儿呼吸窘迫、新生儿窒息,而分娩后的羊水胎粪污染率比正常要高.结论:监测羊水量的对预测围产儿的预后有着非常重要的意义.%Objective:Through clinical observation and analysis overdue pregnancy oligohydramnios on perinatal effects. Methods:Our hospital in February 2009~February 2011 72 patients were treated between the clinical data of prolonged pregnancy were analyzed by comparing the amount of amniotic fluid,oligohydramnios,and the impact on the fetus,amniotic fluid volume monitoring the scope of clinical observation.Results:Oligohydramnios in prolonged pregnancy the fetus vulnerable to fetal respiratory distress,neonatal asphyxia,and meconium-stained amniotic fluid after delivery is higher than normal.Conclusion:Monitoring of water to predict the sheep surrounded the prognosis of product has a very important significance.

  2. chromosome karyotype analysis of pregnant amniotic fluid in Qingdao area 1206 cases%青岛地区1206例孕妇羊水染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 俞冬熠; 韩美艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of amniotic fluid cells karyotype analysis on second trimester of pregnant women at risk for prenatal diagnosis. Method: From 19 to 23 weeks of pregnancy in pregnant women at risk of amniocentesis and cell culture karyotype analysis. Result: Amniotic fluid cell culture success rate of 99. 9% , detection of chromosome abnormalities in 47 cases, including 23 cases of trisomy 21, 18 — trisomy 2 cases, 5 cases with sex chromosome abnormalities, trisomy 22 in 1 cases and other structural chromosomal abnormality in 16 cases. Conclusion; Pregnant amniotic fluid cell karyotype, can be safe and effective for fetal chromosome abnormalities for prenatal diagnosis, chromosome disease patients to reduce the birth has an important guiding significance.%目的 评价羊水细胞的染色体核型分析对妊娠中期的高危孕妇进行产前诊断的意义.方法 对妊娠19~ 23周的高危孕妇进行羊膜腔穿刺术并进行细胞培养染色体核型分析.结果 羊水细胞培养成功率99.9%,检出染色体异常47例,包括21-三体23例,18-三体2例,性染色体异常5例,22-三体1例以及其他染色体结构异常16例.结论 孕妇羊水细胞染色体核型检查,能安全有效的对胎儿染色体异常进行产前诊断,对于减少具有染色体病患儿的出生具有重要的指导意义.

  3. Application of FISH in prenatal diagnosis of chromosome number abnormality in amniotic fluid cells%FISH在产前羊水细胞染色体数目异常诊断中的应用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳丽; 李华锋; 高刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe effect of fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) on prenatal diagnosis of abnormal number of chromosomes in amniotic fluid cells. Methods The amniotic fluid of 1 121 cases of pregnant women with down syndrome screening in high-risk or age higher than 35 years old, were got by amniocentesis, and udenvent rapid prenatal diagnosis by FISH. Then the G banding karyotypes from standard cytogenetic analysis after cultured amniotic fluid cells were compared to the FISH results. Results 16 cases were found abnormal result, including 7 cases of trisomy 21 , 4 cases of trisomy 21, and other 5 cases with abnormal. It was consistent with G banding karyotypes results. Conclusion Prenatal diagnosis of chromosome humber sbnormality by FISH is satisfactory.%目的 观察应用荧光原位杂交( FISH)技术产前诊断羊水细胞染色体数目异常的效果.方法 唐氏综合征筛查高危或高龄(≥35岁)孕妇1 121例,经腹部穿刺抽取羊水,应用FISH技术进行羊水细胞染色体数目检测,并将其结果与羊水细胞常规G显带核型分析结果作比较.结果 均获得诊断结果,发现16例异常胎儿,其中7例为21三体,4例为18三体,5例为其他异常.FISH检测与核型分析结果一致.结论 用FISH产前诊断羊水细胞染色体数目异常效果满意.

  4. Correlation analysis of outcome of pregnancy according to the residual amount of amniot-ic fluid after full-term premature rupture of fetal membranes%足月胎膜早破残余羊水量对妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石海霞; 杭木兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:回顾性分析足月胎膜早破后残余羊水量对妊娠结局的影响。方法收集143例足月胎膜早破孕产妇临床资料,根据产前B超检测的残余羊水指数(AFI)分为三组:A组(8 cm≤AFI<25 cm)75例,B组(5 cm≤AFI<8 cm)38例,C组( AFI<5 cm )30例,比较三组孕妇在分娩方式、宫内感染率、胎儿窘迫率、新生儿发病率和羊水粪染率等方面的差异。结果 C组剖宫产率高于A组(70.00%vs 37.30%,P<0.05);A组自然分娩率高于B组和C组,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。 C组宫内感染发生率、新生儿疾病发生率、羊水粪染率、胎儿窘迫发生率均高于A组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),其他组间比较均无统计学差异。 Logistic回归分析表明,残余羊水量(OR=2.912)、破膜至分娩时间(OR=2.356)与羊水粪染( OR=1.833)是产妇宫内感染率、新生儿疾病发病率的影响因素。结论足月胎膜早破后残余羊水量的多少与妊娠结局密切相关,羊水残余量越少对母婴的威胁越大。%Objective To analyze and discuss the impacts of the outcome of pregnancy according to the residual amount of am-niotic fluid after full-term premature rupture of fetalmembranes.Methods 143 puerperas were divided into three groups according to their prenatal B ultrasound detection of residual amniotic fluid index(AFI) results, including Group A (8 cm≤AFI<25 cm) 75 ca-ses,Group B(5 cm≤AFI<8 cm) 38 cases and Group C(AFI <5 cm) 30 cases.Thedifferenceswere comparedbetween the three groups of pregnant women in mode of delivery, intrauterine infection, fetal distress, neonatal morbidity and meconium stained amniotic fluid rate.Results The cesarean section rate in Group C was significantly higher than in Group A (70.00%vs 37.30%,P<0.05). The spontaneous vaginal delivery rates in Group C and Group B were lower than in Group A, with a significant

  5. Effects of amniotic fluid stem cell transplantation on immune tolerance and oxidative stress in kidney transplantation Effects of amniotic fluid stem cell transplantation on immune tolerance and oxidative stress in kidney transplantation%羊水干细胞诱导肾移植免疫耐受及对氧化应激的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓春阳; 冯建勋; 张海英; 陈庭芳; 李静

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Stem cels can induce immune tolerance, prolong graft survival time and reduce rejection in organ transplantation, which have become a hot research. OBJECTIVE:To induce immune tolerance to alogenic kidney transplantation with amniotic fluid stem cels in recipient rats and to explore the mechanism underlying immune tolerance. METHODS: Amniotic fluid stem cels were isolated from Wistar rats. Two inbred male rat strains, Wistar rats and Sprague-Dawley rats, were selected as donors and recipients of kidney transplantation. The rat models of renal orthotopic transplantation were divided into the folowing four groups: a sham-operated group (n=10, Sprague-Dawley rats); an isograft group (n=10, Sprague-Dawley to Sprague-Dawley rats); a control group (n=10, Wistar to Sprague-Dawley rats, treated with 1 mL saline); and an experimental group (n=10, Wistar to Sprague-Dawley rats, treated with 1 mL of 3×106/L amniotic fluid stem cels). Serum levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, interleukin-2, interferon-γ, parameters of oxidative stress were detected at 5 days after operation. Flow cytometry was employed to determine the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Kidney transplants were observed pathologicaly. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Compared with the control group, the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, interleukin-2, interferon-γ, parameters of oxidative stress and proteinuria were lower in the experimental group (P < 0.05). Percentages of CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were also significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group. However, the rate of cretinemia clearance in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the degree of kidney injury in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group. Our findings demonstrate that the amniotic fluid stem cel transplantation can induce immune tolerance, extenuate oxidative stress

  6. Tentative research on the human amniotic fluid proteomics%人羊水特异蛋白质组学的探讨研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌; 陈芳; 侯常; 黎丽红; 黄素华

    2014-01-01

    目的:寻找人羊水中特异性表达的蛋白质。方法羊膜腔穿刺获取3份正常孕妇的羊水,同时采集其外周肘静脉血,分离血清。提取羊水及血清中的蛋白质,用双向凝胶电泳观察人羊水和血清中蛋白质表达情况,并选取羊水中表达量较血清中高2倍以上的蛋白斑点行基质辅助激光解吸/离子化飞行时间质谱分析。结果在pH 4~7、相对分子质量10~55 kDa区域里,羊水中约(613±29)个蛋白点,血清中约(785±64)个蛋白点。在羊水中表达但血清中不表达的蛋白点约50个,羊水中表达量较血清高2倍以上的蛋白点约50个。结论羊水中存在特异性表达蛋白质,其在妊娠相关生理、病理学中可能起重要作用。%Objective To explore the specific expression of proteomics in amniotic fluid (AF ).Methods Three samples were collected from normal AF by amniocentesis and peripheral venous blood sam-ples were collected simultaneously from which the serum was isolated. Proteins were extracted from both sam-ples and analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The protein blots expressed in normal AF twice as high as that in serum were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionizafion time-of-flight mass spectrometry.Results At pH 4-7 and within a molecular mass of 10-55 kDa,(613 ±29)protein blots were i-dentified in normal AF and (785 ±64)in serum. Approximately 50 protein blots were expressed in normal AF rather than serum. Roughly 50 blots were expressed in normal AF twice as high as that in serum. Conclusion Specific protein expression was observed in normal AF,which probably plays a vital role in pregnancy-related physiology and pathology.

  7. Amniotic fluid stem cells rescue both in vitro and in vivo growth, innervation, and motility in nitrofen-exposed hypoplastic rat lungs through paracrine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederiva, F; Ghionzoli, M; Pierro, A; De Coppi, P; Tovar, J A

    2013-01-01

    Lung hypoplasia can be prevented in vitro by retinoic acid (RA). Recent evidence suggests that amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells may integrate injured lungs and influence their recovery. We tested the hypothesis that AFS cells might improve lung growth and motility by paracrine mechanisms. Pregnant rats received either nitrofen or vehicle on E9.5. In vitro E13 embryonic lungs were cultured in the presence of culture medium alone or with RA, basophils, or AFS cells. In vivo green fluorescent protein-expressing (GFP(+)) rat AFS cells were transplanted in nitrofen-exposed rats on E10.5. E13 lung explants were cultured before analysis. The surface, the number of terminal buds, and the frequency of bronchial contractions were assessed. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and α-actin protein levels were measured. The lung explants transplanted with AFS cells were stained for α-actin, PGP 9.5, and TTF-1. The levels of FGF-10, VEGFα, and TGF-β1 secreted by the AFS cells in the culture medium were measured. Comparison between groups was made by ANOVA. In vitro, the surface, the number of terminal buds, and the bronchial peristalsis were increased in nitrofen+AFS cell explants in comparison with nitrofen-exposed lungs. While nitrofen+RA lungs were similar to nitrofen+AFS ones, basophils did not normalize these measurements. PGP 9.5 protein was decreased in nitrofen lungs, but after adding AFS cells, the value was similar to controls. No differences were found in the expression of α-actin. In vivo, the surface, number of terminal buds, and peristalsis were similar to control after injection of AFS cells in nitrofen-exposed rats. Colocalization with TTF-1-positive cells was found. The levels of FGF-10 and VEGFα were increased in nitrofen+AFS cell explants, while the levels of TGF-β1 were similar to controls. Lung growth, bronchial motility, and innervation were decreased in nitrofen explants and rescued by AFS cells both in vitro and in vivo, similarly to that observed

  8. 大剂量甲强龙在羊水栓塞抢救早期应用的优势%Advantages of large doses of methylprednisolone early application in rescue for amniotic fluid embolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周竞旭

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the method of improving rescue success rate for the amniotic fluid embolization (AFE).Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out based on clinical data of 12 cases of AFE in our hospital.Results 5 cases using methylprednisolone as imported cases were rescued,while among those 7 without using methylpreduisolone,4 of imported cases died.Conclusion The early application of large doses of methylpreduisolone can improve the rescue success rate.%目的 探讨提高羊水栓塞(amniotic fluid embolism,AFE)抢救成功率的方法.方法 回顾性分析我院抢救的12例重症AFE患者临床资料.结果 5例输入性病人使用甲强龙均获救,未使用甲强龙的7例病人中4例输入性病例死亡.结论 早期使用大剂量甲强龙可提高抢救成功率.

  9. Current situation of research and prospects of human amniotic fluid-derived multipotential stem cells%羊水多潜能干细胞的研究现状及前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾潇; 陈必良

    2011-01-01

    由于强大的自我更新能力和多向分化的潜能,多潜能干细胞被广泛应用于再生医学的研究.胚胎干细胞的研究因伦理道德问题而受到限制.羊水多潜能干细胞的发现为多潜能干细胞的研究开辟了新的领域,引起了广大学者的关注.该文就羊水多潜能干细胞的生物学性状、分化潜能、临床应用前景等予以综述.%Because of a strong serf-renewal ability and multiplex differentiation potential, multipotential stem cells are widely used in researches on regenerative medicine. The research on embryonic stem cell is restricted because of ethical issues. The discovery of amniotic fluid-derived multipotential stem cells has open up a new field for multipotential stem cell research, and attracted attention of scholars. The article reviewed biological characteristics, differentiation potentiality and future clinical application of amniotic fluid-derived multipotential stem cells.

  10. 人羊水干细胞分离方法及其生物学特性研究%Isolation and Biological Characterization of Human Amniotic Fluid-derived Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关婷; 谢晓砚; 刘珊玲; 陈新莲; 魏杨君; 赖怡; 谢良玉; 刘之英; 张雪梅; 刘洪倩; 张建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish in vitro culture procedure for human amniotic fluid-derived CD117 positive stem cells, and to identify the characteristics of CD117 positive stem cells. Methods 86 amniotic fluid samples (10 mL of each) were obtained by second-trimester amniocentesis. Isolation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells expressing CD117 antigen was performed via magnetic cell sorting using the CD117 MicroBead Kit. The karyotype of CD117 positive stem cells was analysed throughrepeated freezing. Adipogenic differentiation of these CD117 positive stem cells was displayed by Oil Red O staining. Osteogeneic differentiation of these CD117 positive stem cells was confirmed by Alizarin Red staining. Results The CD117 positive stem cells were successfully isolated and cultured from 61 samples, with all showing normal karyotype. Product analysis of specific staining confirmed that under specific culture mediums, these cells could be successfully induced to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes. Conclusion Based on this study, we estimate that isolating CD117 positive stem cells from second-trimester amniotic fluid obtained by amniocentesis has a success rate of 70. 93%. These cells maintain morphological and genetic stability in vitro. Human amniotic fluid-derived CD117 positive stem cells have the ability to differentiate in vitro into adipocytes and osteocytes under specific cuLture mediums and may be applied in cell transplantation and regenerative medicine.%目的 建立体外培养人羊水来源CD117阳性干细胞的方法,初步探讨CD117阳性干细胞的特性.方法 通过孕中期羊膜腔穿刺获得86例羊水标本.采用CD117磁珠分选表达CD117抗原的羊水干细胞.对经过反复冻存的CD117阳性干细胞进行核型分析.分别经成脂诱导和成骨诱导分化,再分别使用油红O染色、茜素红染色.结果 从61例标本中成功分离培养出CD117阳性细胞,经核型分析显示其染色体核型正常.CD117阳性细胞经

  11. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of mineral nanoparticles derived from human body fluids and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Chen, Chi-De; Yu, Jau-Song; Young, John D

    2011-11-01

    Mineralo-protein nanoparticles (NPs) formed spontaneously in the body have been associated with ectopic calcifications seen in atherosclerosis, chronic degenerative diseases, and kidney stone formation. Synthetic NPs are also known to become coated with proteins when they come in contact with body fluids. Identifying the proteins found in NPs should help unravel how NPs are formed in the body and how NPs in general, be they synthetic or naturally formed, interact within the body. Here, we developed a proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography (LC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine the protein composition of carbonate-apatite NPs derived from human body fluids (serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, ascites, pleural effusion, and synovial fluid). LC-MS/MS provided not only an efficient and comprehensive determination of the protein constituents, but also a semiquantitative ranking of the identified proteins. Notably, the identified NP proteins mirrored the protein composition of the contacting body fluids, with albumin, fetuin-A, complement C3, α-1-antitrypsin, prothrombin, and apolipoproteins A1 and B-100 being consistently associated with the particles. Since several coagulation factors, calcification inhibitors, complement proteins, immune regulators, protease inhibitors, and lipid/molecule carriers can all become NP constituents, our results suggest that mineralo-protein complexes may interface with distinct biochemical pathways in the body depending on their protein composition. We propose that LC-MS/MS be used to characterize proteins found in both synthetic and natural NPs.

  12. Validation of analysis of amphetamines, opiates, phencyclidine, cocaine, and benzoylecgonine in oral fluids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Subbarao V; Harris, Steve E; Freijo, Tom D; Gerlich, Stan

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a method for the detection and quantitation of drugs of abuse in oral fluids. Fortified oral fluid samples (made in-house) and samples from donors collected with Quantasil oral fluid collection kits from Immunalysis were screened on an Olympus 5400 using reagents purchased from Immunalysis. Amphetamines (AMPs), opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), and cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in oral fluids were quantitated by an Applied Biosystems 3200 QTRAP liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS-MS). AMPs, opiates, PCP, cocaine, and BE were extracted from samples using liquid-liquid or solid-phase extractions and the extracts were separated on a Shimadzu high-performance liquid chromatograph prior to the MS-MS analysis. For each drug, two multiple reaction mode transitions were monitored using positive electrospray ionization coupled to an MS-MS detector. Corresponding d3, d5, d6, and d11 internal standards were used to quantitate the results. The limit of detection/quantitation for AMPs, opiates, PCP, cocaine, and its metabolite BE were 10, 10, 2, 2, and 2 ng/mL of oral fluid, respectively, on a signal-to-noise ratio > 4. This corresponded to 25, 25, 5, 5, and 5 pg on column. The method was verified by participating in the North America Oral Fluid Proficiency Testing administered by Research Triangle Institute and by analyzing real samples from donors. In conclusion, LC-MS-MS provided a simple way to analyze and quantitate drugs of abuse in oral fluids.

  13. Significance of amniotic fluid cells culture in the prenatal diagnosis for chromosomal diseases%羊水细胞培养用于染色体病产前诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慈; 刘义辉; 刘学军; 王振海; 张晓艳; 辛虹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and necessity of amniotic fluid cells culture in the prenatal diagnosis for chromosomal diseases in order to prevent the birth of fetus with chromosomal diseases .Methods The 293 specimens of amniotic cell obtained by amniocentesis from 293 pregnant women with prenatal diagnosis indications were cultured and analyzed .Results Among the 293 specimens of amniotic cell ,14 cases of chromosome abnormality were found , with the chromosome abnormality rate being 4.78%,including 9 cases of chromosome number abnormality and 5 cases of chromosomal structure abnormality .The chromosome abnormality rates were different in different groups with different prenatal diagnosis indications ,in which the chromosome abnormality rates were the highest in the group with one party of the couple with chromosome abnormality .Conclusion The amniotic cell culture and chromosome karyotype analysis are the effective means in prenatal diagnosis for chromosomal diseases in the pregnant women with prenatal diagnosis indications at mid trimester of pregnancy, moreover, the combined detection of serological screening , chromosome examination and ultrasonic inspection plays an important role in the prevention of child birth defects .%目的:探讨羊水细胞培养对孕中期孕妇进行产前诊断的可行性及必要性,防止染色体病患儿的出生。方法对293例有产前诊断指征的孕妇进行羊膜腔穿刺,采取羊水细胞培养,制备中期染色体,分析胎儿核型,进行产前诊断。结果发现染色体异常14例,异常率4.78%,其中数目异常9例,结构异常5例,不同产前诊断指征分组中的异常率不同,以夫妇一方为染色体异常组异常率最高。结论妊娠中期对有产前诊断指征的孕妇进行羊水细胞培养染色体核型分析是产前诊断的重要手段,而血清学筛查,染色体检查和超声检查三者相互结合对于预防出生缺陷意义重大。

  14. 荷斯坦牛羊水来源干细胞分离培养及其表面标志检测%Isolation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells from Holstein cow and test of the cell markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小英; 张涌; 郑月茂

    2011-01-01

    利用羊水来源干细胞培养技术体系,从胎龄285 d荷斯坦奶牛胎儿羊水中分离培养干细胞;采用RT-PCR技术检测干细胞表面标志或相关基因.成功分离培养出奶牛羊水采源干细胞,干细胞中CD-90、Nanog、Oct4、TERT、Sox2、Desmin和HES1表达阳性.从奶牛胎儿羊水中分离干细胞具有可行性和有效性,为进行转基因研究提供靶细胞奠定了基础.%The aim of this study was to get amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells from cow which may be used as target cells for transgenic research in future. AFS cells were isolated from amniotic fluid of a 285-day-old Holstein cow fetus. Expanded AFS cells were harvested for analysis of markers using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that AFS cells were abtained from amniotic fluid. AFS cells expressed CD-90, Nanog,Oct4,TERT, Sox2,Desmin and HES1. We have demonstrated that stem cells isolated from amniotic fluid of cow may be used as target cells for transgenic research in future.

  15. Some considerations on Meconial Amniotic Fluid in the new born babies Algunas consideraciones acerca del líquido amniótico meconial en el recién nacido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Molina Lamothe

    Full Text Available Background: Many functions are attributed to amniotic liquid, there is no doubt, after all, about the negative consequences of its alteration. The differentiation between physiological meconium and pathological meconium can modify the perinatal results. Objectives: to determine if the presence of the meconium considered pathological, is significantly related to the morbimortality of the patients. Method: an analytic and prospective study was made, control case type, of 504 newborn children with meconial amniotic liquid, and the same number of newborn children with clear amniotic liquid. Results: the pathological meconial amniotic liquid was associated to a low Apgar percentage, in the first minute of 5,2 %. When the meconial amniotic liquid resulted physiological it was of 0,4 %. The morbility associated to perinatal hypoxia raised from 0,4 % when the meconial amniotic liquid was physiological, and to 4,85 when it was pathological. The necessity of ventilation, associated to the pathological meconial amniotic liquid, was of 3,1 %. There were 3 deaths in the pathological meconial amniotic liquid group, for a 1,3 % of mortality. When the meconial amniotic liquid colour was intensified during delivery labour, it was observed a low Apgar percentage of 11 %. Conclusions: the meconial amniotic fluid is presented in the 23% of the patients in our study increasing its incidence as long as the gestational age and the weight of the patient were higher. Preeclampsia is associated in a very significant way to the presence of meconium which is considered pathological.
    Fundamento: Son numerosas las funciones que se atribuyen al líquido amniótico; cualquier alteración que presente, tiene consecuencias desfavorables. La diferenciación entre meconio fisiológico o patológico, puede modificar los resultados perinatales.

  16. Identification and quantitation of amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine in oral fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, Dean; Blum, Kristen; Nonnemacher, Sheena; Haggerty, Brenda J; Sullivan, Matthew P; Cone, Edward J

    2009-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring multiple licit and illicit drugs and metabolites in oral fluid require high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. With the limited volume available for testing, comprehensive methodology is needed for simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes in a single aliquot. This report describes the validation of a semi-automated method for the simultaneous extraction, identification, and quantitation of 21 analytes in a single oral fluid aliquot. The target compounds included are amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, codeine, norcodeine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, norhydrocodone, dihydrocodeine, hydromorphone, oxycodone, noroxycodone, oxymorphone, and phencyclidine. Oral fluid specimens were collected with the Intercept device and extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Drug recovery from the Intercept device averaged 84.3%, and SPE extraction efficiency averaged 91.2% for the 21 analytes. Drug analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the positive electrospray mode using ratios of qualifying product ions within +/-25% of calibration standards. Matrix ion suppression ranged from -57 to 8%. The limit of quantitation ranged from 0.4 to 5 ng/mL using 0.2 mL of diluted oral fluid sample. Application of the method was demonstrated by testing oral fluid specimens from drug abuse treatment patients. Thirty-nine patients tested positive for various combinations of licit and illicit drugs and metabolites. In conclusion, this validated method is suitable for simultaneous measurement of 21 licit and illicit drugs and metabolites in oral fluid.

  17. 地塞米松防治羊水栓塞的效果探究%Explore the effect of dexamethasone on prevention and cure of amniotic fluid embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑青

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of dexamethasone on prevention and cure of amniotic fluid embolism.Methods:300 women with cesarean section were selected from January 2011 to January 2014.According to the different preoperative medication, they were divided into the control group and the observation group.The control group was given 5% sodium bicarbonate before operation,and the observation group was given dexamethasone before surgery.We observed the probability of prodromal symptoms of amniotic fluid embolism of the two groups.Results:Mild chills,severe chills,chills rate,chills time,operation time,amount of bleeding during operation,risk of postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia of the two groups were compared,and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Before caesarean operation,intravenous injection of dexamethasone can effectively prevent the amniotic fluid embolism and postpartum hemorrhage,but also can prevent neonatal asphyxia,and it had high clinical value.%目的:探讨地塞米松对羊水栓塞的防治效果.方法:2011年1月-2014年1月收治剖宫产产妇300例,按照术前用药的不同分为对照组与观察组,对照组术前给予5%碳酸氢钠处理,观察组术前给予地塞米松处理,观察两组产妇发生羊水栓塞前驱症状的几率.结果:比较两组产妇的轻度寒颤、重度寒颤、总寒颤率、寒颤时间、手术时间、术中出血量、产后出血率及新生儿窒息情况,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:剖宫产手术前静脉注射地塞米松能有效防止羊水栓塞及产后出血的发生,还能预防新生儿窒息,具有较高的临床推广价值.

  18. 孕足月胎膜早破残余羊水量与母儿预后的关系%Residue amniotic fluid volume after premature rupture of membranes and maternal-fetal outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑琳; 吴艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between the residue amniotic fluid volume after premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and maternal-fetal prognosis. Methods 162 pregnant women with PROM were studied , hospitalized in department of Obstetrics and Gynecology ,the Affiliated Hefei Hospital of Anhui Medical University from Jun . 2011 to Dec. 2011. According to Amniotic fluid index (AFl)by ultrasound,patients were assigned into three groups :(1)Group of normal amniotic fluid;90 pregnant women(80 mm≤ AFI 0. 05 ). The rupture distance delivery time of three groups had no significant difference (P >0. 05). The puerperal morbidity of three groups had no significant difference (P >0. 05). The Neonatal asphyxia of oligohydramnios group was significantly higher than that of normal amniotic fluid group ( P 0. 05 ). There was no significant difference between borderline oligohydramnios group and oligohydramnios group (P >0. 05). Conclusion Oligohydramnios after prom increase neonatal asphyxia and cesarean section rate . The amniotie fluid volume might be an important prognostic indicator to assess the maternal and neonatal outcomes when PROM happened .%目的 探讨足月胎膜早破残余羊水量与母儿预后关系.方法 采用回顾性研究方法选择该院2011年6-12月162例孕足月胎膜早破病例,根据破膜后残余羊水的羊水指数(AFI)将162例孕妇分成三组,其中羊水指数正常组90例(80 mm≤AFI<180 mm),可疑羊水过少组40例(50 mm≤AFI<80 mm),羊水过少组32例(AFI<50 mm).比较其分娩方式及母儿结局.结果 羊水过少组剖宫产率明显高于羊水指数正常组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).可疑羊水过少组与羊水指数正常组相比剖宫产率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),三组破膜距分娩时间相比差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),三组产后产褥病率发生率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),羊水过少组新生儿窒息率明显高于羊水指数正常

  19. Analysis of 427 chromosomal karyotype in amniotic fluid of high risk pregnancy%宜昌地区427例高危孕妇羊水细胞染色体核型结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆勇; 付爱红

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析宜昌地区羊水染色体核型,总结宜昌地区羊水细胞染色体核型异常核型出现的类型、发生率及相关影响因素,为产前诊断提供依据.方法 对产前筛查高危孕妇进行羊水穿刺、细胞培养、染色体制备、G显带以及核型分析.结果 羊水细胞培养成功率为99.1% (427/431),发现异常核型25例,异常检出率为5.9% (25/427).其中,21-三体7例,18-三体3例,13-三体1例,46,XX[16]/47,XX+mar [2];47,XXY;46,XY[1]/47,XXY [24];46,XX [7]/47,XXX[1];46,XXq-[14]/45,Xo [6];45,XO;46,XN inv (9)各1例,染色体多态7例.结论 宜昌地区产前筛查高危孕妇羊水细胞染色体核型异常检出率较高,主要为常见的三体综合症,性染色体异常及染色体多态.其中,21-三体发生率和染色体多态较高,性染色体异常次之.%Objective:To analyze the amniotic fluid karyotype type and summary incidence rate and related factors of the abnormal karyotype in Yichang.Methods:The amniotic fluid samples were obtained through amniocentesis for cell culture,chromosomal preparation and G-banding karyotype analysis.Results:The achievement rate of amniotic fluid cell culture was 99.1% (427/431),25 abnormal karyotypes were found in 427 anniotic fluid samples.The occurrence was 5.9% (25/427).Among them,7 cases of 21 trisomy,3 eases of 18 trisomy,1 case of 13 trisomy,1 case of 46,XX [16] / 47,XX + mar [2];47,XXY;46,XY [1] / 47,XXY [24];46,XX [7] / 47,XXX [1];46,XXq-[14] / 45,XO [6];45,XO;46,XN inv (9).7 cases of Chromosome polymorphism.Conclusion:Amniotic fluid cells detection rate of chromosome abnormalities of high-risk pregnant women was higher,mainly trisomy,sex chromosome abnormalities and chromosomal polymorphism in Yichang region.Among them,the incidence of trisomy 21 and chromosome polymorphism were higher,followed by sex chromosome abnormalities.

  20. 磁共振弥散成像对妊娠中晚期羊水监测的价值研究%The investigation on value of monitoring the magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging in the amniotic fluid of mid to late gestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志铭; 陈焱淼; 谭理连; 张志兴; 黄勇; 余林; 杨慧

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the value of monitoring the magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the amniotic fluid of mid to late gestation.Methods: 13 pregnant women in mid to late gestation were scanned by the magnetic resonance imaging, whose amniotic fluids were abnormal by ultrasound examination. Measuring the values of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of meconium stained amniotic fluid was to study the corresponding relation between the values of ADC and its classification, and contrast with the normal pregnant women.Results: The values of the meconium-stained amniotic fluid have significant differences with the normal group in the group ofⅡ° andⅢ°. The values of the meconium-stained amniotic fluid have no significant differences with the normal group in the group ofⅠ°. The results showed that the values of ADC associated with the classification of the meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Conclusion: The properties changes of amniotic fluid in mid to late gestation associated with the meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and magnetic resonance imaging can effectively monitor the change of the amniotic fluid properties in medium and late pregnancy, and tip the change of amount and the properties as early as possible. It can provide the scientific evidence for clinical early intervention, reducing the various complications caused by the meconium-stained amniotic fluid and improving the survival rate of perinatal fetus.%目的:探讨磁共振弥散成像对羊水监测在妊娠中晚期围产保健的价值。方法:选取通过磁共振弥散成像扫描13名妊娠中晚期产检超声提示羊水异常的孕妇,测量其羊水的表观弥散系数(ADC)值来研究粪染羊水的ADC值与其羊水分级的对应关系,并与正常孕妇进行对比。结果:羊水粪染Ⅱ度和Ⅲ度均与正常组的羊水ADC值有显著差异,而羊水粪染Ⅰ度则与正常组无显著差异,且ADC值与羊水分级具有相关性关系。

  1. A fetal lamb model of temperature reduction through amniotic fluid%宫内羊水降温诱导胎羊低温动物模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许刚; 庄建; 周成斌; 陈寄梅; 岑坚正

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish a fetal lamb model of temperature reduction through amniotic fluid and study the influence on the fetus and ewe. To search for an effective and safe method to change the body temperature of fetal lamb. Methods Six ewes at 120 to 140 days of gestation were anesthetized intramuscularly with katamine hydrochloride, incubated and ventilated with a respirator. Anesthesia was maintained with fentanyl and vecuronium. Transfusion of Lactated Ringer's solution and magnesium sulfate were made to maintain the mean blood pressure over 70 mmHg and uterine relaxation. A midline laparotomy was performed and the uterus was exposed. Fetal lamb received fentanyl and vecuronium anesthesia drugs intramuscularly via uterine. A hysterotomy was made after the disappear of fetal movement. A plastic tube was put into utero and the pipe was connected with the variable temperature unit and water tank, which could pump warm and cold normal saline into utero and change the temperature of amniotie fluid. Thus the temperature of the fetus could be regulated. The heart rate, blood pressure and arterial blood gas data of mothers and fetus were recorded. Results The average body weight of fetal lamb was (1.76±0.25) kg and that of maternal lamp was(25.00±5.90)kg. All the ewes and the fetal lambs were kept alive during the experiment.signs of ewes were stable. The heart rate and blood pressure were normal, and the data of arterial blood gas analysis were in their physiological level. The heart rate and blood pressure of fetal lambs were also stable during the experiment. The data of arterial blood gas analysis of fetal lambs were also in their physiological level. The pH value decreased significantly and PaCO2increased remarkably when the temperature decreased. When the nasopharyngeal temperature of fetal lambs reached 28℃, the pH value of arterial blood sample was 7.29±0.05, which was significantly lower than that before temperature reduction 7.41±0.03(P<0.05). The PaCO2

  2. Enantioselective simultaneous analysis of selected pharmaceuticals in environmental samples by ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid based chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-08-31

    In order to assess the true impact of each single enantiomer of pharmacologically active compounds (PACs) in the environment, highly efficient, fast and sensitive analytical methods are needed. For the first time this paper focuses on the use of ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid based chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer to develop multi-residue enantioselective methods for chiral PACs in environmental matrices. This technique exploits the advantages of supercritical fluid chromatography, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Two coated modified 2.5 μm-polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases were investigated: an amylose tris-3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate column and a cellulose tris-3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate column. The effect of different chromatographic variables on chiral recognition is highlighted. This novel approach resulted in the baseline resolution of 13 enantiomers PACs (aminorex, carprofen, chloramphenicol, 3-N-dechloroethylifosfamide, flurbiprofen, 2-hydroxyibuprofen, ifosfamide, imazalil, naproxen, ofloxacin, omeprazole, praziquantel and tetramisole) and partial resolution of 2 enantiomers PACs (ibuprofen and indoprofen) under fast-gradient conditions (supercritical fluid based chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

  3. Release of arachidonic acid metabolites from bloodby cultivation of human amniotic fluid with oneself blood%羊水与自体血培养后刺激花生四烯酸代谢物的释放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鉴; 余艳红; 周凤琴; 钟梅

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of human amniotic fluid on the release of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) and Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) from blood cells. METHODS: 1 mL human amniotic fluid and 10 mL oneself blood collected from 38 - 41 weeks with cesarean section were cultured at 37℃ for 30 min, and then centrifuged. The supernatants were taken and stored at - 70℃. TXB2 and 6 - Keto - PGF1α of the supernrants were determined by radioimmunoassay and LTC4 by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: It was found that the levels of TXB2 and LTC4 in blood were elevated from (63.5 + 52.0) ng/L and (40.1 + 39.2) ng/L to (189.1 + 102.0) ng/L and (293.5 + 206.1) ng/L respectively ( P 0.05 ). CONCLUSION: Amniotic fluid might stimulate the release of TXA2 and LTC4 from blood, it might affect the balance of TXA2 and PGI2 in blood, which might play an important role in the pathogenesis of amniotic fluid embolism.%目的:探讨人羊水在体外刺激自体血细胞释放前列环素(PGI2)、血栓素A2(TXA2)和白三烯C4(LTC4)等花生四烯酸代谢物的作用。方法:取产妇羊水与自体血进行培养,用放射免疫分析法检测血中血栓素B2(TXB2)和6-酮前列腺素F1α(6-Keto-PGF1α)的含量,用酶联免疫法检测LTC4。结果:羊水能刺激血细胞释放TXA2和LTC4,胎粪污染的羊水作用更为明显。TXB2的含量由加羊水培养前的(63.5±52.0)ne/L增加到培养后的(189.1±l02.0)ng/L(P0.05)。结论:羊水能刺激血细胞释放花生四烯酸类生物活性物质,使其正常的平衡状态被破坏,可能与羊水栓塞的发生机理有关。

  4. The traits of the amniotic fluid after induced labor by oxytocin in full-term pregnancy%足月妊娠缩宫素引产对羊水性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婵娟; 赵玉华

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价足月妊娠用缩宫素引产对羊水性状的影响,指导缩宫素引产的临床应用。方法将足月妊娠采用缩宫素引产的孕妇123例分为3组,缩宫素引产48 h内分娩(Ⅰ组),48 h~72 h内分娩(Ⅱ组),>72 h分娩(Ⅲ组),观察其羊水性状。结果Ⅰ组,羊水性状为:清,Ⅰ~Ⅱ度,Ⅲ度,分别为60.0%,29.3%,9.8%;Ⅱ组为45.0%,37.5%,17.5%,Ⅲ组为23.8%,28.6%,47.6%。结论足月妊娠采用缩宫素引产>72 h分娩比72 h内分娩的孕妇,其羊水明显污染。对于缩宫素引产>72 h分娩的孕妇要加强监护,或改用其他方式终止妊娠。%Objective To evaluate influences of induced labor by oxytocin in the full-term pregnancy on the traits of the amniotic fluid,and guide the clinical application of induced labor by oxytocin. Methods To observe 123 pregnant women who were induced labor by oxytocin in full-term pregnancy and divided into three groups:delivery within 48 hours because of induced labor by oxytocin(groupⅠ),delivery within 48-72 hours(groupⅡ),longer than 72 hours of birth (groupⅢ).And observe properties of the amniotic fluid in each group.Results Amniotic fluid properties in groupⅠwere as follows:clear, Ⅰ-Ⅱdegree andⅢdegree which were 60.0%,29.3%and 9.8%respectively;that in groupⅡwere 45.0%,45.0%,and 45.0%respectively;and that in groupⅢwere 23.8%,28.6%and 47.6%respectively. Conclusion The amniotic fluid of women after induced labor by oxytocin in full-term pregnancy is contaminated more obviously in delivery longer than 72 hours than that within 72 hours. Pregnant women after induced labor by oxytocin longer than 72 hours should be strengthened to monitor, or switch to other methods.

  5. 羊水间充质干细胞在肿瘤治疗中的研究进展%The research progress of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells in cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德君(综述); 张广美(审校)

    2014-01-01

    羊水间充质干细胞是多能的非造血祖细胞,具有自我修复及多向分化潜能,如成骨细胞、成软骨细胞及成脂肪细胞。尽管其具有高度增殖能力,但是其在体内并没有成瘤的报道,甚至多次传代后其核型也正常。 AF-MSCs对肿瘤的趋向性及其作为治疗多种肿瘤的细胞载体已经被很多研究证实。本文总结近期国内外的相关文献,就羊水间充质干细胞在肿瘤治疗中的研究进展进行综述。%Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells(AF-MSCs)are multipotential,nonhemato-poietic progenitor cells that have an inherent ability to self -renew and to differentiate into many cell types ,inclu-ding osteoblasts,chondrocytes and adipocytes.Despite their high proliferation rate,no in vivo tumorigenicity has been reported and their karyotype was normal even after extensive expansion in culture .Several studies have dem-onstrated the inherent tumortropic properties of MSCs and their successful use as cellular vehicles of therapeutic agents for the treatment of several types of cancer .This article reviews recent articles on studying the role of amni-otic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells in cancer therapy .

  6. 先天显性脊柱裂胎鼠羊水蛋白谱差异性分析%Comparative proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid in rats with spina bifida aperta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单立平; 李慧; 范洋; 周凤华; 顾卉; 袁正伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential biomarker for early diagnosis of spina bifida aperta by analyzing of proteomic profile of amniotic fluid in rats with spina bifida aperta (SBA) induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA).Methods The pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups:SBA group (24 rats) and normal group (9 rats).SBA was induced by a single intragastric administration of ATRA to the pregnant rats on gestational day 10 (E10).All pregnant rats were sacrificed by an overdose chloral hydrate on E17 day,and fetuses and amniotic fluid were collected.Albumin and IgG were removed using Protein A/G kit to increase the concentration of target proteins.The proteomic profiles of amniotic fluid were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/mass spectrometry (MS).Results Six proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the amnioticfluid of SBA rats.Of the 6 proteins,transferrin,alpha-1 antiproteinase and signal recognition particle receptor were unregulated,and apolipoprotein A Ⅳ and Srprb 77 kDa were down-regulated.Additionally,46 protein fragments in SBA amniotic fluid were found,including 11 were upregulated and 35 were downregulated.A Western blot analysis confirmed the 2-DE/MS data,indicating the 6 isoforms of AFP (69-,52-,36-,24-and 14-kDa) were associated with SBA.Moreover,the 69-kDa AFP was the most abundant protein in the amniotic fluid of SBA,which was increased by 1.42-fold (P<0.05).Conclusions Six proteins in amniotic fluid are correlated with spinal bifida aperta,and may be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis of spina bifida aperta.%目的 采用2-D/质谱电泳方法,比较孕17d正常组胎鼠和全反式维甲酸诱导的显性脊柱裂胎鼠羊水蛋白表达谱的变化,筛查先天性显性脊柱裂相关羊水标记物.方法 孕10d大鼠,采用全反式维甲酸胃管灌饲的方法建立先天显性脊柱裂动物模型24只(脊柱裂组),正常对照组9只(正常组).孕17d晨,麻醉孕鼠,显微镜下获取每

  7. Visfatin/Pre-B Cell Colony-Enhancing Factor in Amniotic Fluid in Normal Pregnancy, Spontaneous Labor at Term, Preterm Labor and Prelabor Rupture of Membranes: an Association with Subclinical Intrauterine Infection in Preterm Parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Gotsch, Francesca; Mittal, Pooja; Than, Nandor Gabor; Nhan-Chang, Chia-lang; Hamill, Neil; Vaisbuch, Edi; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Edwin, Samuel S.; Nien, Jyh Kae; Gomez, Ricardo; Espinoza, Jimmy; Kendal-Wright, Claire; Hassan, Sonia S.; Bryant-Greenwood, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Objective Visfatin, a novel adipokine originally discovered as a pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor, is expressed by amniotic epithelium, cytotrophoblast, and decidua and is over-expressed when fetal membranes are exposed to mechanical stress and/or pro-inflammatory stimuli. Visfatin expression by fetal membranes is dramatically up-regulated after normal spontaneous labor. The aims of this study were to determine if visfatin is detectable in amniotic fluid (AF) and whether its concentration changes with gestational age, spontaneous labor, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (preterm PROM) and in the presence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC). Methods In this cross-sectional study, visfatin concentration in AF was determined in patients in the following groups: 1) mid-trimester (n=75); 2) term not in labor (n=27); 3) term in spontaneous labor (n=51); 4) patients with preterm labor with intact membranes (PTL) without MIAC who delivered at term (n=35); 5) patients with PTL without MIAC who delivered preterm (n=52); 6) patients with PTL with MIAC (n=25); 7) women with preterm PROM without MIAC (n=26); and 8) women with preterm PROM with MIAC (n=26). Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results 1) The median AF concentration of visfatin was significantly higher in patients at term than in midtrimester; 2) Among women with PTL who delivered preterm, the median visfatin concentration was significantly higher in patients with MIAC than those without MIAC; 3) Similarly, patients with PTL and MIAC had a higher median AF visfatin concentration than those with PTL who delivered at term; 4) Among women with preterm PROM, the median AF visfatin concentration was significantly higher in patients with MIAC than those without MIAC. Conclusions 1) Visfatin is a physiologic constituent of AF; 2) The concentration of AF visfatin increases with advancing gestational age; 3) AF visfatin concentration is elevated in patients with MIAC, regardless of the

  8. Isolation, proliferation, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization and in vitro differentiation potency of canine stem cells from foetal adnexa: a comparative study of amniotic fluid, amnion, and umbilical cord matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filioli Uranio, M; Valentini, L; Lange-Consiglio, A; Caira, M; Guaricci, A C; L'Abbate, A; Catacchio, C R; Ventura, M; Cremonesi, F; Dell'Aquila, M E

    2011-05-01

    The possibility to isolate canine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from foetal adnexa is interesting since several canine genetic disorders are reported to resemble similar dysfunctions in humans. In this study, we successfully isolated, cytogenetically and molecularly characterized, and followed the differentiation potency of canine MSCs from foetal adnexa, such as amniotic fluid (AF), amniotic membrane (AM), and umbilical cord matrix (UCM). In the three types of cell lines, the morphology of proliferating cells typically appeared fibroblast-like, and the population doubling time (DT) significantly increased with passage number. For AF- and AM-MSCs, cell viability did not change with passages. In UCM-MSCs, cell viability remained at approximately constant levels up to P6 and significantly decreased from P7 (P < 0.05). Amnion and UCM-MSCs expressed embryonic and MSC markers, such as Oct-4 CD44, CD184, and CD29, whereas AF-MSCs expressed Oct-4, CD44. Expression of the hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 was not found. Dog leucocyte antigens (DLA-DRA1 and DLA-79) were expressed only in AF-MSCs at P1. Isolated cells of the three cell lines at P3 showed multipotent capacity, and differentiated in vitro into neurocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte, as demonstrated by specific stains and expression of molecular markers. Cells at P4 showed normal chromosomal number, structure, and telomerase activity. These results demonstrate that, in dog, MSCs can be successfully isolated from foetal adnexa and grown in vitro. Their proven stemness and chromosomal stability indicated that MSCs could be used as a model to study stem cell biology and have an application in therapeutic programs.

  9. [Amniotic membrane in conjunctivoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoila, O; Lacramioara, Totu; Mihu, D

    2012-01-01

    The basic principles of conjunctival reconstruction are similar in all pathologies that inflict conjunctival tissue loss. Large conjunctival defects are difficult to treat, with little conjunctival reserve that can be used to close the defect. The study had the objective to find alternatives to conjunctival autograft. Frozen amniotic membrane was investigated. From 27 cases, 22 cases were reconstructed using amniotic membrane alone, but in 5 cases conjunctival autograft was also needed. Bulbar conjunctiva was reconstructed in 23 cases, of which 19 with pterygium, 3 with conjunctival tumors, one operatory plague. Fornix reconstruction was carried out in 4 cases, one tumor and 3 symblepharons (2 after conjunctival burns and one pemfigus). The rate of pterygium recurrence was 7,14%. Amniotic membrane can heal large defects of the conjunctiva, either bulbar or forniceal.

  10. 羊水栓塞医疗纠纷案件中医疗事故技术鉴定的效力思考%Amniotic Fluid Embolism in Cases of Medical Disputes the Validity of Thinking Medical Malpractice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿慧; 李雪琼; 杨晓娟; 钟开祥; 赵云娥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate medical malpractice cases in amniotic fluid embolism effectiveness of medical disputes. Methods In Baidu and Google, type “amniotic fluid embolism, medical malpractice,medical trouble” and other keyword search, the amniotic fluid embolism after medical malpractice cases read excerpts,number and a list of statistical analysis. Results ① Amniotic fluid embolism were 78 cases of medical malpractice, published online time is October 25,1986 to March 18,2009, its composition than with the annual growth increase. ② 56.41% of cases the name clearly documented hospital,37.18% recorded in a hospital,6.41% recorded in the other. ③ 78.20% of cases referred to maternal outcome, maternal mortality rate was 88. 52%. ④ 33. 33% autopsy cases, 77. 78% pathological “amniotic fluid embolism”. ⑤ 50.00% of cases identified through medical technology, medical constitute 35.90%,28.21% of which a medical malpractice, medical malpractice Ⅱ 5.13% ,2.56% tertiary medical malpractice; 41.03% does not constitute medical malpractice. 10.26% of cases after 3 to 5 times identified,their conclusions are different.⑥ 10.26% of cases after a judicial appraisal, 100% define responsibilities in the medical side. Conclusion Sound scientific appraisal of medical technology and impartiality, sound legal liability associated with the establishment of the wrong Kam Medical Malpractice accountability system is to improve the effectiveness of medical expert conclusion of the strong initiatives.%目的 了解医疗事故技术鉴定结论在羊水栓塞医疗纠纷案件中的效力.方法 在百度和Google中输入"羊水栓塞,医疗纠纷,医闹"等关键词进行检索,将羊水栓塞医疗纠纷案件认真阅读后摘录、编号并列表统计分析.结果 ①羊水栓塞医疗纠纷案件共78起,网上发表时间为1986年10月25日至2009年3月18日,其构成比随年度增长而增加.② 56.41%

  11. 羊水栓塞医疗纠纷案件中司法鉴定的效力与思考%Amniotic Fluid Embolism in Medical Malpractice Cases and Thinking the Effectiveness of Forensic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红莲; 张鸿慧; 曹辉琴; 杨晓娟; 刀荟新; 白庭富

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate forensic medical dispute cases in the amniotic fluid embolism in effect. Methods In Baidu and Google, type "amniotic fluid embolism, medical malpractice, medical trouble" and other keyword search, the amniotic fluid embolism after medical malpractice cases read excerpts, number and a list of statistical analysis. Results ① Amniotic fluid embolism were 78 cases of medical malpractice, published online time is October 25,1986 to March 18,2009, its composition than with the annual growth increase. ② 35.90% of cases using the contractions induced or strengthened measures, more than 42.86% of cases using two methods, using two or more intravenous oxytocin and intramuscular injection. ③ 78.20% of cases referred to maternal outcome, maternal mortality 88. 52%. ④ 50. 00% after Medical Malpractice cases, 35.90% constitute medical malpractice. ⑤ 10.26% of cases after a judicial appraisal, 100% responsibility for defining the medical side. ⑥46.15% of cases to resolve medical disputes through litigation, prosecution of patients in 83.33% cases ,70.00% of the cases the court or the Health Department doctors in the name of the variety of damages or compensation for the loss suffered;7 thousand dollars in damages to ranging from 520,000 yuan; decision held criminally medical side 3, the responsible persons 5 persons, sentenced to 1 year to 8 years. ⑦ use of legal documents," Medical Malpractice Bill" ," General Principles of Civil Law" ," Supreme Court case on compensation for personal injury trial law applicable to a number of issues of interpretation." Conclusions 100% of forensic patients be viable,100% guilt verdict medical side. Effectively improve the quality of obstetric health care, strengthen the quality of obstetric medical records management, reduce or eliminate the amniotic fluid embolism is a valid medical malpractice wrong facilities.%目的 了解司法鉴定在羊水栓塞医疗

  12. Genome Wide Expression of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells in Early and Late Passage during in Vitro Culture%羊水干细胞体外培养早期和后期基因表达谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦扬; 刘建军; 冯国华; 于明; 赵洪波

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was purposed to investigate the changes of biological properties and expression patterns of the amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) during in vitro culture.Methods The gene chip data of amniotic fluid stem cells were obtained from GEO database and statistically analyzed using R and Bioconductor to identify the differentially expressed genes,then do the Gene Ontology analysis and KEGG pathway analysis.Results We did not find differentially expressed genes by linear model using limma package,but 495 differentially expressed probes were identified by RankProd,including 217 up-regulated and 278 down-regulated probes.Further analysis with Gene Ontology functional categories showed that the up-regulated genes were concentrated in those related to collagen fibril organization,extracellular matrix organization,extracellular structure organization,skeletal system development,cell adhesion and biological adhesion and the down-regulated probes in late passage were associated with nuclear division,mitosis,and cell cycle.The up-regulated pathway was ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion.Cell cycle,cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction,p53 signaling pathway and oocyte meiosis were down-regulated.Conclusion AFSCs maintain their genome-wide expression profile during in-vitro culture.%目的 探讨羊水干细胞(amniotic fluid stem cells,AFSCs)体外培养早期和后期全基因组表达规律.方法 在公共基因芯片数据库GEO中找到羊水干细胞相关的基因芯片数据,使用R和Bioconductor软件包对其进行统计学分析,筛选差异表达基因,并进行GO分析和KEGG通路分析.结果 通过线性模型没有找到差异表达基因,而通过秩积法找到217个上调探针,278个下调探针.对这些差异表达基因进行功能富集,上调的生物过程是胶原纤维组织相关过程、细胞外基质组织、胞外结构组织、骨骼系统发育、细胞粘附等.下调过程最显著的是核分裂过程,有丝分

  13. Karyotype analysis of second-trimester amniotic fluid cells in 572 high-risk pregnant women%高危孕妇572例妊娠中期羊水细胞染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱蕊; 曾爱群; 杜晶春

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨产前诊断指征与羊水细胞染色体核型异常的关系及羊膜腔穿刺术的安全性,为产前遗传咨询提供实验依据。方法:对2012年1月至2015年8月期间我院572例具备产前诊断指征的高危孕妇行羊膜腔穿刺术及羊水细胞染色体核型检查。结果:羊水细胞培养一次性成功率为99.83%;在572例培养成功的羊水细胞中,异常核型20例,异常率为3.50%,其中染色体数目异常17例,占85%,染色体结构异常3例,占15%。以高龄为产前诊断指征的299例孕妇中,异常核型7例,异常率为2.34%;在273例非高龄孕妇中,异常核型13例,异常率为4.76%。结论:(1)唐氏或无创DNA筛查高危、高龄、超声异常及不良孕产史者有必要进一步行产前诊断。(2)羊水细胞核型分析是一种相对安全性高,准确性高的诊断方法,其对降低新生儿出生缺陷,提高人口素质,减轻家庭和社会负担具有重要意义。%Objective To explore the relationship between prenatal diagnosis indications and fetal chromosomal aberrations , and the security of amniocentesis. Methods The amniotic fluid cells were sampled by amniocentesis and cultured in 572 high-risk pregnant women from January 2012 to August 2015. The chromosomal karyotypes were examined by G-banding. Results The success rate of the first amniotic fluid cells culture reached 99.83%. In all the 572 valid samples , there were 20 cases of chromosomal aberrations and the abnormal rate was 3.50%, including 17 of numeric aberrations and 3 of structural aberrations. There were 7 cases of chromosomal aberrations in all the 299 elderly parturient in high-risk indications and the abnormal rate was 2.34%, and there were 13 cases of chromosomal aberrations in all the 273 non-elderly parturient and the abnormal rate was 4.76%. Conclusions (1)It is necessary to further diagnose in pregnant women with high-risk factors

  14. Clinical significance of using urinary low molecular weight proteins in the detection of neonatal renal damage associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid%尿低分子量蛋白联合检测在新生儿羊水粪染肾损害中的预警作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 陈敬国

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨尿低分子量蛋白联合检测在新生儿羊水粪染肾损害中的临床意义.方法 采用病例对照研究的方法,选择120例足月新生儿,其中90例羊水粪染新生儿为研究组,按污染程度分为3组,30名正常羊水新生儿为对照组.测定血气分析、血清尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Cr)、尿β2-微球蛋白(β2-MG)、尿α1-微球蛋白(α1-MG)及尿微量白蛋白(MALB)水平.结果 随着羊水粪染程度加重,BUN、Cr、尿β2-MG、尿α1-MG及尿MALB水平逐渐增高.研究组和对照组中的BUN和Cr水平比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).脐带血pH值(血气分析)、尿β2-MG、尿α1-MG及尿MALB在羊水Ⅲ度粪染组中的含量明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而在Ⅰ、Ⅱ度粪染组与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 尿低分子量蛋白联合检测对羊水粪染引起的肾功能损害早期发现及评估其程度有一定的意义.%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of using urinary low molecular weight proteins in the detection of neonatal renal damage caused by meconium-stained amniotic fluid.Methods 120 full-term newborn baby were selected for this study.90 cases were equally divided into three study groups according to the degree of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF),and the other 30 cases with normal amniotic fluid were used as control.The levels of blood gases,serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN),creatinine (Cr),urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-MG),urinary α1-microglobulin (α1-MG) and urinary microalbumin (MALB) were compared.Results With the increase in the severity of meconium-stained amniotic fluid,the levels of BUN,Cr,urinary β2-MG,urinary α1-MG and urinary microalbumin were increased gradually.The levels of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine in the amniotic fluid Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ degree of MSAF group compared with the control group had no statistical significance (P>0.05).The values of cord blood pH,urinary

  15. Research on Two-dimensional Ultrasonography in Detection of Amniotic Fluid Volume of Fetus at 7 to 13 Weeks%二维超声检测孕7~13周胎儿羊水体积的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁耀园; 马小燕; 饶腾子; 黄苑铭; 梁耀佳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship of amniotic fluid volume and crown rump length (CRL) in normal fetus at 7 to 13 weeks. Methods 281 cases of normal fetus with 10 to 65 mm CRL at 7 to 13 weeks were selected, their amniotic fluid volume and CRL were measured by two-dimensional ultrasonography, and the relationship of amniotic fluid volume and CRL was analyzed. Results The amniotic fluid volume of fetus was positively correlated with CRL (r=0.913, P<0.001), the regression equation was:amniotic fluid volume (cm3)=-12.41+1.25íCRL (mm). Of 281 fetus, the mean and median value of CRL was (35.42±15.74) mm and 32.00 mm respectively, the mean and median value of amniotic fluid volume was (31.692±21.458) cm3 and 29.029 cm3 respectively;the median predictive value of CRL increased from 10 mm to 65 mm, the median predictive value of amniotic fluid volume increased from 0.188 cm3 (0.140~0.278 cm3) to 65.236 cm3 (58.660~74.723 cm3). Conclusions The variation law and metrical data of amniotic fluid volume in normal fetus at 7 to 13 weeks can provide important basis for early evaluation of fetal prognosis.%目的:分析7~13周正常胎儿羊水体积及其头臀径的关系。方法选取P7~13周头臀径为10~65皂皂的正常胎儿281例,利用二维超声测量其羊水体积和头臀径(CRL),并对头臀径与羊水体积进行相关性研究。结果胎儿羊水体积与头臀径呈正相关(则越0.913,P<0.001),回归方程为:羊水体积(糟皂3)越-12.41+1.25×头臀径(皂皂)。281例胎儿头臀径平均测值为(35.42±15.74)皂皂,中位数为32.00皂皂;羊水体积的平均体积为(31.692±21.458)糟皂3,中位数为29.029糟皂3;中位数预测值从头臀径为10皂皂时的0.188糟皂3(范围0.140~0.278糟皂3)增加至头臀径为65皂皂时的65.236糟皂3(范围58.660~74.723糟皂3)。结论P7~13周正常胎儿羊水体积的变化规律及其正常测量数据可为临床早期评价胎儿的预后提供重要的依据。

  16. Clinical observation of umbilical artery blood gas pH and blood glucose results in neonatus with amniotic fluid contamination by meconium%羊水胎粪污染新生儿的脐动脉血气pH值与血糖结果临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建国; 孙庆霞; 于普丽; 袁星堂; 胡美莲; 顾艳华; 宋燕玲; 赵香丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察不同程度羊水胎粪污染新生儿的脐动脉血气pH值与血糖结果关系。方法:2013年5月1日-2014年6月1日产科分娩484例不同程度羊水胎粪污染的新生儿,其中羊水胎粪污染Ⅰ°160例、羊水胎粪污染Ⅱ°135例、羊水胎粪污染Ⅲ°189例。对新生儿进行脐动脉血气pH值及血糖检测结果分析。结果:脐动脉血血气指标pH值及血糖结果差异显著,Ⅰ°、Ⅱ°羊水胎粪污染程度与脐动脉血血气指标pH值及血糖成正比关系,Ⅲ°羊水胎粪污染的新生儿脐动脉血血气指标pH值及血糖成反比关系。结论:不同程度羊水胎粪污染新生儿的脐动脉血气pH值与血糖结果差异显著,且与新生儿窒息缺氧的程度有密切联系,有助于判断胎儿血气异常的性质及其严重程度,对于分析胎儿娩出前的状态、评价产科处理经过,指导新生儿治疗、评估新生儿预后等有着极其重要的意义,并针对问题对产科、新生儿科提出积极预防干预措施。%Objective:To explore the relationship between the umbilical artery blood gas pH and blood glucose results in neonatus with different degree amniotic fluid contamination by meconium.Methods:484 cases of different degree amniotic fluid contamination by meconium were selected from 1 April 2013 to 1 June 2014.Ⅰ°amniotic fluid contamination by meconium was in 160 patients,Ⅱ°amniotic fluid contamination by meconium was in 135 cases,Ⅲ°amniotic fluid contamination by meconium was in 189 cases.We analyzed the relationship between the umbilical artery blood gas pH and blood glucose results in neonatus. Results:Differences in blood gas index pH value and blood glucose results of umbilical arterial blood were remarkable.Ⅰ°andⅡ°amniotic fluid contamination by meconium were directly proportional relationship with umbilical artery blood gas index pH value and glucose.Blood gas index pH value was inversely proportional

  17. Determination of acrylamide in coffee and chocolate by pressurised fluid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, O; Yusà, V; Coscollà, C; León, N; Pastor, A

    2007-07-01

    A selective and sensitive procedure has been developed and validated for the determination of acrylamide in difficult matrices, such as coffee and chocolate. The proposed method includes pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) with acetonitrile, florisil clean-up purification inside the PFE extraction cell and detection by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to atmospheric pressure ionisation in positive mode tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS-MS). Comparison of ionisation sources (atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and the combined APCI/APPI) and clean-up procedures were carried out to improve the analytical signal. The main parameters affecting the performance of the different ionisation sources were previously optimised using statistical design of experiments (DOE). PFE parameters were also optimised by DOE. For quantitation, an isotope dilution approach was used. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 1 microg kg(-1) for coffee and 0.6 microg kg(-1) for chocolate. Recoveries ranged between 81-105% in coffee and 87-102% in chocolate. The accuracy was evaluated using a coffee reference test material FAPAS T3008. Using the optimised method, 20 coffee and 15 chocolate samples collected from Valencian (Spain) supermarkets, were investigated for acrylamide, yielding median levels of 146 microg kg(-1) in coffee and 102 microg kg(-1) in chocolate.

  18. Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cells from cord blood in coculture with mesenchymal stroma cells from amnion, chorion, Wharton's jelly, amniotic fluid, cord blood, and bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Caroline; Strobel, Julian; Zingsem, Jürgen; Richter, Richard H; Goecke, Tamme W; Beckmann, Matthias W; Eckstein, Reinhold; Weisbach, Volker

    2013-12-01

    In most cases, the amount of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in a single cord blood (CB) unit is not sufficient for allogenic transplantation of adults. Therefore, two CB units are usually required. The ex vivo expansion of HSPCs from CB in coculture with mesenchymal stroma cells (MSCs) might be an alternative. It was investigated, whether bone marrow-derived MSCs, which have to be obtained in an invasive procedure, introduce a further donor and increases the risk of transmissible infectious diseases for the patient can be replaced by MSCs from amnion, chorion, Wharton's jelly, amniotic fluid, and CB, which can be isolated from placental tissue which is readily available when CB is sampled. In a two-step ex vivo coculture mononuclear cells from cryopreserved CB were cultured with different MSC-feederlayers in a medium supplemented with cytokines (stem cell factor, thrombopoietin [TPO], and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor). Expansion rates were analyzed as well, by long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) and colony-forming unit (CFU) assays, as by measuring CD34(+)- and CD45(+)-cells. Due to the comparably low number of 5×10(2) to 1×10(4) CD34(+)-cells per cm(2) MSC-monolayer, we observed comparably high expansion rates from 80 to 391,000 for CFU, 70 to 313,000 for CD34(+)-, and 200 to 352,000 for CD45(+)-cells. Expansion of LTC-IC was partly observed. Compared to the literature, we found a better expansion rate of CD34(+)-cells with MSCs from all different sources. This is probably due to the comparably low number of 5×10(2) to 1×10 CD34(+)-cells per cm(2) MSC-monolayer we used. Comparably, high expansion rates were observed from 80 to 391,000 for CFUs, 70 to 313,000 for CD34(+)-, and 200 to 352,000 for CD45(+)-cells. However, the expansion of CD34(+)-cells was significantly more effective with MSCs from bone marrow compared to MSCs from amnion, chorion, and Wharton's jelly. The comparison of MSCs from bone marrow with MSCs from CB and

  19. A new method for immediate derivatization of hydroxyl groups by fluoroalkyl chloroformates and its application for the determination of sterols and tocopherols in human serum and amniotic fluid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řimnáčová, L; Hušek, P; Šimek, P

    2014-04-25

    A new method has been described for efficient derivatization of secondary alicyclic hydroxyl groups in steroids by alkyl chloroformates (RCFs). Cholesterol, an essential human sterol and a steroid precursor in eukaryotic cells, was used as a model for treatment with various RCFs in an aqueous and non-aqueous environment. While the cholesterol hydroxyl group did not react completely with any of the tested RCFs reagents in the former case, trifluoroethyl chloroformate (TFECF) or heptafluorobutyl chloroformate (HFBCF) fully converts cholesterol and related metabolites into the corresponding mixed carbonates under anhydrous conditions in seconds. The acylation reaction was combined with liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) between isooctane and acetonitrile phase. The sample preparation requires just a stepwise addition of 50μl isooctane with 5μl of a pyridine catalyst, 100μl acetonitrile and 100μl isooctane with dissolved 5μl of the fluoroalkyl chloroformate reagent to a dried sample. The protocol developed in this study was successfully tested for GC-MS analysis of 12 important model steroids and four main tocopherols. Each analyte provided a single peak with excellent GC separation properties, well defined EI spectra containing diagnostic fragment ions suitable for their identification and quantitation. The new method was further validated for the determination of six diagnostic non-cholesterol sterols and four main tocopherols in human serum and in amniotic fluid. Satisfactory data were obtained in terms of calibration, quantitation limits (for sterols and tocopherols, 0.05 and 0.15μg/ml, respectively), within-run precision (0.9-19.5%) and between-run precision (0.2-19.0%), accuracy (82-115%) and recovery (90-110%). The validated method was successfully applied to GC-MS analysis of the analytes in woman sera and amniotic fluids and the results are well-comparable with those reported by other authors. The presented work demonstrates for the first time

  20. An analysis on karyotype of amniotic fluid cells from 1262 fetus%1262例孕中期羊水细胞染色体检查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小燕; 卢守莲; 王珏; 黄欢; 孙丽洲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the relationship between the abnormal karyotype and amniocentesis indication for providing a basis for genetic counseling.Methods The amniotic fluid samples were taken from 1262 outpatients with the indications of prenatal diagnosis.After the cells in amniotic fluid were cultured,the karyotyping was performed with G-banding stain and grouped according to different indications.The incidence of abnormal karyotype was analyzed and the parents of fetal structural abnormalities chromosomes were checked to search for the origin of abnormal karyotype.Results A total of 65 patients with abnormal karyotype was detected in 1262 fetuses karyotype with an abnormal rate of 5.3 %,of which aneuploidy rate was 44.6 % (29/65),chromosome structural abnormality rate was 41.5 % (27/65),and marker chromosome rate was 10.8 % (7/65).Conclusion Abnormal karyotype composition is different according to different maternal amniocentesis indications,indicating the importance of mastering the indications for amniocentesis.%目的 了解异常核型与产前诊断指征的关系,为临床遗传咨询提供依据.方法 抽取1262例有产前诊断指征的孕妇孕中期羊水,细胞培养后G显带染色,分析胎儿染色体核型,并根据不同产前诊断指征进行分组.分析不同指征的发病率,并对染色体结构异常胎儿的父母染色体进行检查,以确定结构异常来源.结果 1262例羊水细胞染色体检查者,共检出65例异常核型,异常核型发生率为5.3%.其中,以非整倍体最多见,共检出29例(44.6%);其次为染色体结构异常,共检出27例(41.5%);检出染色体多态性改变7例(10.8%).结论 不同产前诊断指征染色体异常的检出比例有所不同,说明严格把握产前诊断指征的重要性.

  1. Stereoselective Determination of Tebuconazole in Water and Zebrafish by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Chen, Zenglong; Tao, Yan; Pan, Xinglu; Chen, XiXi; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-07-22

    A simple and sensitive method for the enantioselective determination of tebuconazole enantiomers in water and zebrafish has been established using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)-MS/MS. The effects of the chiral stationary phases, mobile phase, auto back pressure regulator (ABPR) pressure, column temperature, flow rate of the mobile phase, and compensation pump solvent were evaluated. Finally, the optimal SFC-MS/MS working conditions were determined to include a CO2/MeOH mobile phase (87:13, v/v), 2.0 mL/min flow rate, 2200 psi ABPR, and 30 °C column temperature using a Chiralpak IA-3 chiral column under electrospray ionization positive mode. The modified QuEChERS method was applied to water and zebrafish samples. The mean recoveries for the tebuconazole enantiomers were 79.8-108.4% with RSDs ≤ 7.0% in both matrices. The LOQs ranged from 0.24 to 1.20 μg/kg. The developed analytical method was further validated by application to the analysis of authentic samples.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal dysplastic kidney with normal amniotic fluid volume by ultrasonography%羊水量正常时胎儿肾发育不良的超声诊断及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟华; 姜玉新; 戴晴; 杨萌; 张一休; 朱庆莉; 陈彦

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨产前超声检查对于羊水量正常时胎儿肾发育不良的诊断价值和临床意义.方法 于孕中晚期对羊水量正常胎儿中发现的单侧或双侧肾超声表现异常(包括大小、回声、形态异常,出现囊肿等)病例进行系统二维超声检查、孕期及生后随访观察、病理学检查等,并进行总结分析.仅有肾盂增宽的胎儿不包括在本组研究中.结果 发现羊水量正常但单侧或双侧肾发育不良的胎儿11例.其中单侧多囊性肾发育不良5例,4例不合并其他异常,1例合并同侧手缺如;单侧肾缺如2例,其中1例不合并其他畸形,另1例合并多发畸形包括脑积水、骶尾部脊柱裂、同侧桡骨缺失及单脐动脉,符合VACTERL综合征;盆腔.肾1例,马蹄肾1例,生后超声证实;常染色体显性遗传多囊肾1例,胎儿一侧肾可见多发囊肿,合并心脏横纹肌瘤,孕妇为双侧多囊肾;双侧肾发育不良1例,产前超声表现为双侧肾回声增强.结论 单侧多囊性肾发育不良是羊水量正常时产前超声最常检出的胎儿肾发育不良性疾病.根据产前超声表现并结合家族史,能在大多数胎儿肾发育不良病例中进行病因学诊断并帮助判断预后.%Objective To determine the diagnostic value and clinical significance of sonographically detected fetal dysplastic kidney with normal amniotic fluid volume. Methods At the 2nd or 3rd trimester of gestation,the fetuses with unilateral or bilateral renal anomalies (ahnormal size,echo,shape or cyst of the kidney) and normal amniotic fluid volume received systemic ultrasound examination,autopsy or follow-up until after birth. The fetus with only dilated renal pelvis was not included. Results Eleven fetuses of dysplastic renal anomalies with normal amniotic fluid volume were identified by prenatal ultrasound. Among the five fetuses affected by unilateral multicystic kidney dysplasia (MCKD),the renal anomaly was isolated in four fetuses,and the

  3. 人羊水间充质干细胞分离培养方法的优化%Optimization of the isolation and cultivation method of human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素红; 苑春华; 侯毅鞠; 刘会玲

    2011-01-01

    背景:目前关于人羊水间充质干细胞的体外分离培养方法不一,获得较多数量的间充质干细胞仍有困难.目的:分离80份羊水标本,比较不同的体外培养方法,优化筛选到一种合适的培养纯化条件,为人羊水间充质干细胞的基础研究和临床广泛应用奠定基础.方法:无菌条件下采集足月分娩和终止妊娠引产的羊水,分离羊水细胞,比较孕期、不同培养基、接种密度、首次换液时间对人羊水间充质干细胞原代培养过程的影响,通过细胞化学染色方法检测细胞代谢情况,观察人羊水间充质干细胞的生物学特性.结果与结论:相同培养条件下,采用AmnioMAXⅡcomplete羊水专用细胞培养基,以5×104/cm2 的密度接种,首次换液时间为6 d时,人羊水间充质干细胞原代培养成功率较高.孕期为14~20周的人羊水间充质干细胞培养成功率高于晚期妊娠(21~36周)及足月分娩(37~42周)的羊水.人羊水间充质干细胞强表达过碘酸-雪夫、酸性磷酸酶、酸性α-醋酸萘酚酯酶染色,弱表达中性粒细胞碱性磷酸酶,不表达过氧化酶、苏丹黑染色.提示,优化筛选到一种合适的人羊水间充质干细胞培养纯化条件.%BACKGROUND: There are different methods of in vitro isolating culture for human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs). To gain most AF-MSCs is still difficult.OBJECTIVE: We had isolated 80 cases AF, and compared different in vitro culture methods for optimization and bolted a better method to establish foundation of AF-MSCs in clinical widespread application.METHODS: Amniotic fluid was collected from full-term deliveries and artificial labors under aseptic condition. The amniotic fluid cells were isolated by centrifugation. The influences of different pregnancy ages, culture media, incubation densities and the time points of the first medium change on the growth of AF-MSCs were analyzed. The cell metabolism was

  4. 湘潭地区344例遗传咨询高危孕妇羊水染色体分析在产前诊断中的应用%Application of amniotic fluid's chromosome analysis in prenatal diagnosis for 344 cases of genetic counseling high risk pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊敏; 王淑嫒; 孙辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the application of amniotic fluid's chromosome analysis in prenatal diagnosis. Methods; Am-niotic fluid (20-30 ml) was drawn from fetuses of 344 pregnant mothers who were diagnosed in prepotency department, Xiangtan MCH Hospital from Jun. 2007 to Aug. 2010 with high risks of genetic counseling, by amniocentesis under ultrasound monitoring at 18 -28 gestational age, and then amniotic - fluid cell culture's C - banding was examed by using amniotic - fluid chromosomal karyo-type analysis. Results; Amniotic cell culture was successfully undertaken in 342 among the 344 cases. The success rate of amniotic cell culture was 99. 41% (342/344). There were 15 cases found karyotype abnormal, the abnormal rate was 4. 39% (15/342) which includes 3 of 21 -trisomy, 2 of 18 -trisomy, 2 of Turner Syndrome (TS) , 1 of 48, XXY, +21, 4 of balanced translocation, 1 of inversion, lof trisomy, 1 of monosomy, 10 of genetic diversity. The abnormal karyotype analysis for karyotype of amniotic cell was consistent with the results of succedent visit. Conclusion; Amniotic fluid's chromosome analysis plays an important part when diagnosing chromosome diseases in prenatal diagnosis.%目的 探讨羊水染色体分析在产前诊断中的应用.方法 对344例2007年6月至2010年8月湖南省湘潭市妇幼保健院遗传咨询高危孕妇,于孕18~28周在B超引导下进行羊膜腔穿刺,抽取羊水20~30ml,羊水细胞培养G显带进行羊水染色体核型分析.结果 344例孕妇羊水羊水细胞培养成功342例,成功率为99.41%(342/344),发现异常核型15例,异常率为4.39%(15/342),其中21-三体3例、18-三体2例、特纳综合征2例、48,XXY,+21 1例、平衡易位4例、倒位1例、部分染色体三体1例、部分染色体单体1例;遗传多态性10例.羊水染色体异常核型分析与随访结果一致.结论 说明羊水染色体分析在产前诊断染色体病中起着重要的作用.

  5. Serum-Free Cryopreservation of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niknejad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the important issues in long term storage of cells is removal of animal serum from cell culture environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate amni-otic fluid (AF, which is full of growth factors, as substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS in the cryopreservation protocol. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study human amniotic epithelial cells were isolated from placentas which were seronegative for microbial infections. The cells were preserved in 24 different patterns for 12 months in -196 ?C (liquid nitrogen and viability of cells were determined before and after cryopreservation by trypan blue and MTT assay. Moreover, Oct-4 expression was studied to determine pluripotency before and after cryopreservation with immunocytochemistry. Results were compared between groups with ANOVA (Tukey Post-Test. P.value under 0.01 and 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The presence of DMEM, FBS or AF is necessary for amniotic cell cryopreservation. Trypan-blue, MTT and immunocytochemistry showed that there isn’t significant difference between using AF and FBS in viability and pluripotency of cells. Moreover, results showed that DMSO is a better cryoprotectant compared to glycerol. Conclusion : Results showed that amniotic fluid can be a proper substitute for FBS in amniotic epithelial cells cryopreservation. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (1:15-24

  6. The CT appearances of delayed amniotic fluid clearance from the lungs in an infant with absent pulmonary valve and congenital lobar emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, A. Michelle [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Edis, Brian [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Massie, John [University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a cause of severe