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Sample records for amniotic fluid stem

  1. Stem cells from amniotic fluid - Potential for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P; De Coppi, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Regenerative medicine has recently been established as an emerging field focussing on repair, replacement or regeneration of cells, tissues and whole organs. The significant recent advances in the field have intensified the search for novel sources of stem cells with potential for therapy. Recently, researchers have identified the amniotic fluid as an untapped source of stem cells that are multipotent, possess immunomodulatory properties and do not have the ethical and legal limitations of embryonic stem cells. Stem cells from the amniotic fluid have been shown to differentiate into cell lineages representing all three embryonic germ layers without generating tumours, which make them an ideal candidate for tissue engineering applications. In addition, their ability to engraft in injured organs and modulate immune and repair responses of host tissues suggest that transplantation of such cells may be useful for the treatment of various degenerative and inflammatory diseases affecting major tissues/organs. This review summarises the evidence on amniotic fluid cells over the past 15 years and explores the potential therapeutic applications of amniotic fluid stem cells and amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:26542929

  2. Autologous transplantation of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells into sheep fetuses

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    Shaw, S. W. Steven; Bollini, Sveva; Nader, Khalil Abi; Gastadello, Annalisa; Mehta, Vedanta; Filppi, Elisa; Cananzi, Mara; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Qasim, Waseem; Coppi, Paolo; David, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term engraftment and phenotype correction has been difficult to achieve in humans after in utero stem cell transplantation mainly because of allogeneic rejection. Autologous cells could be obtained during gestation from the amniotic fluid with minimal risk for the fetus and the mother. Using a sheep model, we explored the possibility of using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) for autologous in utero stem cell/gene therapy. We collected amniotic fluid (AF) under ultrasound-gu...

  3. Amniotic fluid stem cells from second and third trimester, comparison and potency for regenerative medicine

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    Schiavo, Andrea Alex

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells (AFSCs) can be isolated from the amniotic fluid after amniocentesis that pregnant women undergo during the second trimester of pregnancy, this population has already been characterised and share common features between embryonic stem cells and adult mesenchymal stem cells. AFSCs are identified by specific markers; this study – as already published – focuses on the CD117 (c-Kit) positive fraction of AFSCs. Those cells are of great interest for regenerative medicine pu...

  4. Stem Cells in Amniotic Fluid - What are the Next Steps to Do?

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    Hengstschläger M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is the hope of patients and investigators that in future the characterisation and isolation of human stem cells will allow the establishment of new therapeutic concepts for a wide variety of diseases. Recently, we found a new source for stem cells. Human amniotic fluid contains cells, which express Oct-4, a marker for pluripotent stem cells. In addition, we described amniotic fluid cells expressing markers for neuronal stem cells. The latter harbour the potential to differentiate into neurogenic cells. This opened a new field in stem cell research. In this review I want to summarise the current knowledge about amniotic fluid cells focusing on the open questions, which need to be investigated in future.

  5. Characteristics of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and their tropism to human ovarian cancer.

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    Liru Li

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF have become an attractive stem cells source for cell-based therapy because they can be harvested at low cost and avoid ethical disputes. In human research, stem cells derived from AF gradually became a hot research direction for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity and their tumor tropism regardless of the tumor size, location and source. Our work aimed to obtain and characterize human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs and detect their ovarian cancer tropsim in nude mice model. Ten milliliters of twenty independent amniotic fluid samples were collected from 16-20 week pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for fetal genetic determination in routine prenatal diagnosis in the first affiliated hospital of Harbin medical university. We successfully isolated the AFMSCs from thirteen of twenty amniotic fluid samples. AFMSCs presented a fibroblastic-like morphology during the culture. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the cells were positive for specific stem cell markers CD73,CD90, CD105, CD166 and HLA-ABC (MHC class I, but negative for CD 45,CD40, CD34, CD14 and HLA-DR (MHC class II. RT-PCR results showed that the AFMSCs expressed stem cell marker OCT4. AFMSCs could differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes under certain conditions. AFMSCs had the high motility to migrate to ovarian cancer site but didn't have the tumorigenicity. This study enhances the possibility of AFMSCs as drug carrier in human cell-based therapy. Meanwhile, the research emphasis in the future can also put in targeting therapy of ovarian cancer.

  6. Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells: A Novel Source for Modeling of Human Genetic Diseases

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    Ivana Antonucci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the use of Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS for modeling of human genetic diseases, due to the possibility of reprogramming somatic cells of affected patients into pluripotent cells, enabling differentiation into several cell types, and allowing investigations into the molecular mechanisms of the disease. However, the protocol of iPS generation still suffers from technical limitations, showing low efficiency, being expensive and time consuming. Amniotic Fluid Stem cells (AFS represent a potential alternative novel source of stem cells for modeling of human genetic diseases. In fact, by means of prenatal diagnosis, a number of fetuses affected by chromosomal or Mendelian diseases can be identified, and the amniotic fluid collected for genetic testing can be used, after diagnosis, for the isolation, culture and differentiation of AFS cells. This can provide a useful stem cell model for the investigation of the molecular basis of the diagnosed disease without the necessity of producing iPS, since AFS cells show some features of pluripotency and are able to differentiate in cells derived from all three germ layers “in vitro”. In this article, we describe the potential benefits provided by using AFS cells in the modeling of human genetic diseases.

  7. Therapeutic outcomes of transplantation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in experimental ischemic stroke

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    Naoki eTajiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating preclinical evidence suggests the use of amnion as a source of stem cells for investigations of basic science concepts related to developmental cell biology, but also for stem cells’ therapeutic applications in treating human disorders. We previously reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS cells. Subsequently, we recently reported the therapeutic benefits of intravenous transplantation of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Parallel lines of investiagtions have provided safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for treating stroke and other neurological disorders. This review article highlights characterization of AFS cells’ phenotype and their transplant-mediated functional effects, the need for investigations of mechanisms underlying AFS cells’ therapeutic benefits and discusses lab-to-clinic translational gating items in an effort to optimize the clinical application of cell transplantation for stroke.

  8. Isolation and characterization of porcine amniotic fluid-derived multipotent stem cells.

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    Jiahuan Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize porcine amniotic fluid-derived multipotent stem cells (pAF-MSC. The porcine amniotic fluid (AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (at E35 was collected and centrifuged for 5-10 min at 400 g to pellet cells. The primary culture of AF showed the multiple cell types, including the epithelial-like cells and fibroblast-like cells. By culturing in AMM medium for 6 to 8 days, the epithelial-like cells disappeared and the remaining cells presented the fibroblastoid morphology. The doubling time of pAF-MSCs was about 34.6 h, and the cells had been continually cultured over 60 passages in vitro. The flow cytometry results showed that pAF-MSCs were positive for CD44, CD117 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45 and CD54. Meanwhile, pAF-MSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, Nanog, SSEA4, Tra-1-60 and Tra-1-81. The ratio of CD117(+ CD44(+ cells accounted for 98% of pAF-MSCs population. Three germ layer markers, including FGF5 (ectodermal marker, AFP (endodermal marker and Bra (mesodermal marker, were detected in embryoid bodies derived from pAF-MSCs. Under the different induction conditions, the pAF-MSCs were capable of differentiating into neurocytes, adipocytes and beating cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the pAF-MSCs didn't form teratoma when injected into immunodeficiency mice. These optimal features of pAF-MSCs provide an excellent alternative stem cell resource for potential cell therapy in regenerative medicine and transgenic animals.

  9. Isolation of Human Neural Stem Cells from the Amniotic Fluid with Diagnosed Neural Tube Defects.

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    Chang, Yu-Jen; Su, Hong-Lin; Hsu, Lee-Feng; Huang, Po-Jui; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Hsu, Li-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Song; Chen, Chih-Ping; Chang, Yao-Lung; Chao, An-Shine; Hwang, Shiaw-Min

    2015-08-01

    Human neural stem cells (NSCs) are particularly valuable for the study of neurogenesis process and have a therapeutic potential in treating neurodegenerative disorders. However, current progress in the use of human NSCs is limited due to the available NSC sources and the complicated isolation and culture techniques. In this study, we describe an efficient method to isolate and propagate human NSCs from the amniotic fluid with diagnosed neural tube defects (NTDs), specifically, anencephaly. These amniotic fluid-derived NSCs (AF-NSCs) formed neurospheres and underwent long-term expansion in vitro. In addition, these cells showed normal karyotypes and telomerase activity and expressed NSC-specific markers, including Nestin, Sox2, Musashi-1, and the ATP-binding cassette G2 (ABCG2). AF-NSCs displayed typical morphological patterns and expressed specific markers that were consistent with neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and dopaminergic neurons after proper induction conditions. Furthermore, grafted AF-NSCs improved the physiological functions in a rat stroke model. The ability to isolate and bank human NSCs from this novel source provides a unique opportunity for translational studies of neurological disorders. PMID:25923707

  10. Amniotic fluid embolism.

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    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  11. New miRNAs network in human mesenchymal stem cells derived from skin and amniotic fluid.

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    Lazzarini, R; Sorgentoni, G; Caffarini, M; Sayeed, M A; Olivieri, F; Di Primio, R; Orciani, M

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), isolated from different adult sources, have great appeal for therapeutic applications due to their simple isolation, extensive expansion potential, and high differentiative potential.In our previous studies we isolated MSCs form amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs) and skin (S-MSCs) and characterized them according to their phenotype, pluripotency, and mRNA/microRNAs (miRNAs) profiling using Card A from Life Technologies.Here, we enlarge the profiling of AF-MCSs and S-MSCs to the more recently discovered miRNAs (Card B by Life Technologies) to identify the miRNAs putative target genes and the relative signaling pathways. Card B, in fact, contains miRNAs whose role and target are not yet elucidated.The expression of the analyzed miRNAs is changing between S-MSCs and AF-MSCs, indicating that these two types of MSCs show differences potentially related to their source. Interestingly, the pathways targeted by the miRNAS deriving from Card B are the same found during the analysis of miRNAs from Card A.This result confirms the key role played by WNT and TGF-β pathways in stem cell fate, underlining as other miRNAs partially ignored up to now deserve to be reconsidered. In addition, this analysis allows including Adherens junction pathways among the mechanisms finely regulated in stem cell behavior. PMID:26684628

  12. Exosomal miR-10a derived from amniotic fluid stem cells preserves ovarian follicles after chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Guan-Yu Xiao; Chun-Chun Cheng; Yih-Shien Chiang; Winston Teng-Kuei Cheng; I-Hsuan Liu; Shinn-Chih Wu

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy (CTx)-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) in woman remains clinically irreversible. Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) have shown the potential to treat CTx-induced POF; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we demonstrate that AFSC-derived exosomes recapitulate the anti-apoptotic effect of AFSCs on CTx-damaged granulosa cells (GCs), which are vital for the growth of ovarian follicles. AFSC-derived exosomes prevent ovarian follicular atresia in CTx-treated mice vi...

  13. The human amniotic fluid stem cell secretome effectively counteracts doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

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    Lazzarini, Edoardo; Balbi, Carolina; Altieri, Paola; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Gambini, Elisa; Canepa, Marco; Varesio, Luigi; Bosco, Maria Carla; Coviello, Domenico; Pompilio, Giulio; Brunelli, Claudio; Cancedda, Ranieri; Ameri, Pietro; Bollini, Sveva

    2016-01-01

    The anthracycline doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used in oncology, but it may cause a cardiomyopathy with bleak prognosis that cannot be effectively prevented. The secretome of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFS) has previously been demonstrated to significantly reduce ischemic cardiac damage. Here it is shown that, following hypoxic preconditioning, hAFS conditioned medium (hAFS-CM) antagonizes senescence and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and cardiac progenitor cells, two major features of Dox cardiotoxicity. Mechanistic studies with mouse neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes (mNVCM) reveal that hAFS-CM inhibition of Dox-elicited senescence and apoptosis is associated with decreased DNA damage, nuclear translocation of NF-kB, and upregulation of the NF-kB controlled genes, Il6 and Cxcl1, promoting mNVCM survival. Furthermore, hAFS-CM induces expression of the efflux transporter, Abcb1b, and Dox extrusion from mNVCM. The PI3K/Akt signaling cascade, upstream of NF-kB, is potently activated by hAFS-CM and pre-treatment with a PI3K inhibitor abrogates NF-kB accumulation into the nucleus, modulation of Il6, Cxcl1 and Abcb1b, and prevention of Dox-initiated senescence and apoptosis in response to hAFS-CM. These results support the concept that hAFS are a valuable source of cardioprotective factors and lay the foundations for the development of a stem cell-based paracrine treatment of chemotherapy-related cardiotoxicity. PMID:27444332

  14. Amniotic fluid index: correlation with amniotic fluid volume.

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    Hoskins, I A; McGovern, P G; Ordorica, S A; Frieden, F J; Young, B K

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the amniotic fluid indexes (AFIs) of 310 women on 459 occasions. Normative data were analyzed and compared with data in several high-risk groups. In the normal gestations there was a progressive increase in AFI with advancing gestation until 32 weeks, after which there was a decline. The mean AFIs in abnormal gestations varied with the clinical diagnoses. These values were compared to those obtained by assessing amniotic fluid volume (AFV), that is a pocket more than 2 cm. There were 51 patients with abnormal AFVs. Forty-two had decreased fluid, six also had decreased AFIs; nine had increased AFVs and five (all with diabetes) also had increased AFIs. Thus, AFIs in normal pregnancies showed an orderly pattern of change with gestational age, and there was no accurate correlation between AFI and AFV. Thus, using AFV alone may lead to false interpretations of amniotic fluid status. PMID:1418123

  15. Amniotic fluid stem cells morph into a cardiovascular lineage: analysis of a chemically induced cardiac and vascular commitment

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    Maioli M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Margherita Maioli,1–3 Giovanni Contini,1 Sara Santaniello,1,2 Pasquale Bandiera,1 Gianfranco Pigliaru,1,2 Raimonda Sanna,5 Salvatore Rinaldi,3 Alessandro P Delitala,1 Andrea Montella,1,5 Luigi Bagella,1,6 Carlo Ventura2–41Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Stem Cell Engineering, National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems, Bologna, 3Department of Regenerative Medicine, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, 4Cardiovascular Department, S Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, 5Facility of Genetic and Developmental Biology, AOU Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 6Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Center for Biotechnology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Mouse embryonic stem cells were previously observed along with mesenchymal stem cells from different sources, after being treated with a mixed ester of hyaluronan with butyric and retinoic acids, to show a significant increase in the yield of cardiogenic and vascular differentiated elements. The aim of the present study was to determine if stem cells derived from primitive fetal cells present in human amniotic fluid (hAFSCs and cultured in the presence of a mixture of hyaluronic (HA, butyric (BU, and retinoic (RA acids show a higher yield of differentiation toward the cardiovascular phenotype as compared with untreated cells. During the differentiation process elicited by exposure to HA + BU + RA, genes controlling pluripotency and plasticity of stem cells, such as Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4, were significantly downregulated at the transcriptional level. At this point, a significant increase in expression of genes controlling the appearance of cardiogenic and vascular lineages in HA + BU + RA-treated cells was observed. The protein expression levels typical of cardiac and vascular phenotypes, evaluated by Western blotting

  16. Human amniotic fluid stem cells labeled with up-conversion nanoparticles for imaging-monitored repairing of acute lung injury.

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    Xu, Yunyun; Xiang, Jian; Zhao, He; Liang, Hansi; Huang, Jie; Li, Yan; Pan, Jian; Zhou, Huiting; Zhang, Xueguang; Wang, Jiang Huai; Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Human amniotic fluid stem (hAFS) cells have generated a great deal of excitement in cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine. Here, we examined the effect of hAFS cells labeled with dual-polymer-coated UCNP-PEG-PEI nanoparticles in a murine model of acute lung injury (ALI). We observed hAFS cells migration to the lung using highly sensitive in vivo upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging. We demonstrated that hAFS cells remained viable and retained their ability to differentiate even after UCNP-PEG-PEI labeling. More importantly, hAFS cells displayed remarkable positive effects on ALI-damaged lung tissue repair compared with mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs), which include recovery of the integrity of alveolar-capillary membrane, attenuation of transepithelial leukocyte and neutrophil migration, and down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression. Our work highlights a promising role for imaging-guided hAFS cell-based therapy in ALI. PMID:27244692

  17. Células-tronco do líquido amniótico Amniotic fluid stem cells

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    Sergio P. Bydlowski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde o primeiro isolamento e cultivo de células-tronco embrionárias humanas, há mais de 10 anos, seu uso na pesquisa e terapia foi inibida por considerações éticas complexas e pelo risco de transformação maligna destas células indiferenciadas após transplante no paciente. As células-tronco adultas são eticamente aceitas e o risco de transformação maligna é muito baixo. Entretanto, seu potencial de diferenciação e sua capacidade proliferativa são limitados. Cerca de 6 anos atrás, a descoberta de célulastronco no líquido amniótico que expressavam Oct-4, um marcador específico de pluripotencialidade, com alta capacidade de proliferação e diferenciação, iniciou um novo campo promissor na área das células-tronco. Estas células têm potencial de se diferenciar em células dos três folhetos germinativos. Não formam tumores in vivo e não levantam os questionamentos éticos associados com as células-tronco embrionárias humanas. Futuras investigações revelarão se as células-tronco do líquido amniótico realmente irão representar um tipo intermediário com vantagens em relação tanto às células-tronco embrionárias quanto às adultas. Este artigo faz uma revisão acerca destes tópicos e das características biológicas das células-tronco do líquido amniótico.Since the first successful isolation and cultivation of human embryonic stem cells about 10 years ago, their use for research and therapy has been constrained by complex ethical considerations as well as by the risk of development of malignancies of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells after transplantation into the patient. Adult stem cells are ethically acceptable and the risk of tumor development is low. However, their differentiation potential and proliferative capacity are limited. About 6 years ago, the discovery of Oct-4 expressing amniotic fluid stem cells, a specific marker of pluripotency, with a high proliferative capacity, and multilineage

  18. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

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    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  19. Human papillomavirus in amniotic fluid

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    Swan David C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence to suggest that human papillomavirus (HPV can cross the placenta resulting in in-utero transmission. The goal of this study was to determine if HPV can be detected in amniotic fluid from women with intact amniotic membranes. Methods Residual amniotic fluid and cultured cell pellets from amniocentesis performed for prenatal diagnosis were used. PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primers and GP5+/GP6+ primers were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction assay for HPV. Results There were 146 paired samples from 142 women representing 139 singleton pregnancies, 2 twin pregnancies, and 1 triplet pregnancy. The women were 78% Caucasian, 5% African American, 14% Asian, and 2% Hispanic. The average age was 35.2 years with a range of 23–55 years. All samples were β-globin positive. HPV was not detected in any of the paired samples. Conclusion Given the age range, race, and ethnicity of the study population, one would anticipate some evidence of HPV if it could easily cross the placenta, but there was none.

  20. Reprogramming human amniotic fluid stem cells to functional pluripotency by manipulation of culture conditions.

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    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Dafni Moschidou & Pascale V Guillot ### Abstract Pluripotent stem cells have potential applications in regenerative medicine, disease modelling and drug screening. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have first been generated from fibroblasts using retroviral insertion of OCT4A, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4. Since then, a number of methods have been developed to avoid the random integration of ectopic factors in the genome and the low efficiency of the process. Those include alt...

  1. Improved neurological outcome by intramuscular injection of human amniotic fluid derived stem cells in a muscle denervation model.

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    Chun-Jung Chen

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle develops various degrees of atrophy and metabolic dysfunction following nerve injury. Neurotrophic factors are essential for muscle regeneration. Human amniotic fluid derived stem cells (AFS have the potential to secrete various neurotrophic factors necessary for nerve regeneration. In the present study, we assess the outcome of neurological function by intramuscular injection of AFS in a muscle denervation and nerve anastomosis model.Seventy two Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 gm were enrolled in this study. Muscle denervation model was conducted by transverse resection of a sciatic nerve with the proximal end sutured into the gluteal muscle. The nerve anastomosis model was performed by transverse resection of the sciatic nerve followed by four stitches reconnection. These animals were allocated to three groups: control, electrical muscle stimulation, and AFS groups.NT-3 (Neurotrophin 3, BDNF (Brain derived neurotrophic factor, CNTF (Ciliary neurotrophic factor, and GDNF (Glia cell line derived neurotrophic factor were highly expressed in AFS cells and supernatant of culture medium. Intra-muscular injection of AFS exerted significant expression of several neurotrophic factors over the distal end of nerve and denervated muscle. AFS caused high expression of Bcl-2 in denervated muscle with a reciprocal decrease of Bad and Bax. AFS preserved the muscle morphology with high expression of desmin and acetylcholine receptors. Up to two months, AFS produced significant improvement in electrophysiological study and neurological functions such as SFI (sciatic nerve function index and Catwalk gait analysis. There was also significant preservation of the number of anterior horn cells and increased nerve myelination as well as muscle morphology.Intramuscular injection of AFS can protect muscle apoptosis and likely does so through the secretion of various neurotrophic factors. This protection furthermore improves the nerve

  2. Feasibility of Human Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells in Alleviation of Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Constrictive Injury Nerve Model.

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    Chien-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available The neurobehavior of neuropathic pain by chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve is very similar to that in humans, and it is accompanied by a profound local inflammation response. In this study, we assess the potentiality of human amniotic fluid derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs for alleviating the neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction nerve injury model.This neuropathic pain animal model was conducted by four 3-0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. The intravenous administration of hAFMSCs with 5x105 cells was conducted for three consecutive days.The expression IL-1β, TNF-α and synaptophysin in dorsal root ganglion cell culture was remarkably attenuated when co-cultured with hAFMSCs. The significant decrease of PGP 9.5 in the skin after CCI was restored by administration of hAFMSCs. Remarkably increased expression of CD 68 and TNF-α and decreased S-100 and neurofilament expression in injured nerve were rescued by hAFMSCs administration. Increases in synaptophysin and TNF-α over the dorsal root ganglion were attenuated by hAFMSCs. Significant expression of TNF-α and OX-42 over the dorsal spinal cord was substantially attenuated by hAFMSCs. The increased amplitude of sensory evoked potential as well as expression of synaptophysin and TNF-α expression was alleviated by hAFMSCs. Human AFMSCs significantly improved the threshold of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia as well as various parameters of CatWalk XT gait analysis.Human AFMSCs administration could alleviate the neuropathic pain demonstrated in histomorphological alteration and neurobehavior possibly through the modulation of the inflammatory response.

  3. Amniotic fluid stem cells inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via CCL2 modulation in bronchoalveolar lavage.

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    Orquidea Garcia

    Full Text Available The potential for amniotic fluid stem cell (AFSC treatment to inhibit the progression of fibrotic lung injury has not been described. We have previously demonstrated that AFSC can attenuate both acute and chronic-fibrotic kidney injury through modification of the cytokine environment. Fibrotic lung injury, such as in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, is mediated through pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity. Thus, we hypothesized that AFSC treatment might inhibit the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis through cytokine modulation. In particular, we aimed to investigate the effect of AFSC treatment on the modulation of the pro-fibrotic cytokine CCL2, which is increased in human IPF patients and is correlated with poor prognoses, advanced disease states and worse fibrotic outcomes. The impacts of intravenous murine AFSC given at acute (day 0 or chronic (day 14 intervention time-points after bleomycin injury were analyzed at either day 3 or day 28 post-injury. Murine AFSC treatment at either day 0 or day 14 post-bleomycin injury significantly inhibited collagen deposition and preserved pulmonary function. CCL2 expression increased in bleomycin-injured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, but significantly decreased following AFSC treatment at either day 0 or at day 14. AFSC were observed to localize within fibrotic lesions in the lung, showing preferential targeting of AFSC to the area of fibrosis. We also observed that MMP-2 was transiently increased in BAL following AFSC treatment. Increased MMP-2 activity was further associated with cleavage of CCL2, rendering it a putative antagonist for CCL2/CCR2 signaling, which we surmise is a potential mechanism for CCL2 reduction in BAL following AFSC treatment. Based on this data, we concluded that AFSC have the potential to inhibit the development or progression of fibrosis in a bleomycin injury model during both acute and chronic remodeling events.

  4. Spectral luminescence analysis of amniotic fluid

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    Slobozhanina, Ekaterina I.; Kozlova, Nataly M.; Kasko, Leonid P.; Mamontova, Marina V.; Chernitsky, Eugene A.

    1997-12-01

    It is shown that the amniotic fluid has intensive ultra-violet luminescence caused by proteins. Along with it amniotic fluid radiated in the field of 380 - 650 nm with maxima at 430 - 450 nm and 520 - 560 nm. The first peak of luminescence ((lambda) exc equals 350 nm; (lambda) em equals 430 - 440 nm) is caused (most probably) by the presence in amniotic fluid of some hormones, NADH2 and NADPH2. A more long-wave component ((lambda) exc equals 460 nm; (lambda) em equals 520 - 560 nm) is most likely connected with the presence in amniotic fluid pigments (bilirubin connected with protein and other). It is shown that intensity and maximum of ultra-violet luminescence spectra of amniotic fluid in normality and at pathology are identical. However both emission spectra and excitation spectra of long-wave ((lambda) greater than 450 nm) luminescence of amniotic fluid from pregnant women with such prenatal abnormal developments of a fetus as anencephaly and spina bifida are too long-wave region in comparison with the norm. Results of research testify that spectral luminescent analysis of amniotic fluid can be used for screening of malformations of the neural tube. It is very difficult for a practical obstetrician to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of the fetus. Apart from ultrasonic examination, cytogenetic examination of amniotic fluid and defumination of concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholin-esterases in the amniotic fluid and blood plasma are the most widely used diagnostic approaches. However, biochemical and cytogenetic diagnostic methods are time-consuming. In the present work spectral luminescence properties of the amniotic fluid are investigated to determine spectral parameters that can be used to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of their offsprings.

  5. Amniotic Fluid Cells Proliferation in Normal and Down Syndrome Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcea Adina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome/Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal anomaly, and it represents the most common congenital cause of infants’ intellectual disability. Subjects with this syndrome are affected by degenerative processes caused by accelerated aging or unknown ethyologies. In recent years, accumulating evidence revealed increased potential of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells to be used in regenerative therapy. Our aim was to assess differences in immunophenotype, cell morphology and proliferation of amniotic fluid cells from normal and Down Syndrome pregnancies using a quantitative cytometry approach. Results revealed the emergence of a population of small sized cells in Down Syndrome derived amniotic fluid cells that are readily visible upon microscopic inspection. Hence, the fluorescence–based quantitative image cytometry determinations showed a tendency of decrease in both cell and nuclei size in trisomy, with no significant modification in nuclei circularity, as measured following actin cytoskeleton and nuclei labeling. The propensity of Ki67 positive cells was found to be increased in Down Syndrome derived cells (48.92% as compared to normal specimens (28.68%. However, cells in S and G2/M cell cycle phases decreased from 32.91% to 4.49% in diseased cells. Further studies are devoted to understanding the molecular basis of the observed differences in the proliferation ability of Down Syndrome amniotic cells, in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of amniotic fluid stem cells for tissue regeneration in subjects with trisomy and to find correlations between amniotic cells phenotype and patient prognosis.

  6. CD44+/CD105+ Human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survive and Proliferate in the Ovary Long-Term in a Mouse Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Premature Ovarian Failure

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, TE; HUANG, YONGYI; Guo, Lihe; Cheng, Weiwei; Zou, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Stem cell transplantation has been reported to rescue ovarian function in a preclinical mouse model of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF); however, maintaining the survival and self-renewal of transplanted seed cells in ovarian tissues over the long-term remains a troublesome issue. In this study we aimed to determine whether the CD44+/CD105+ human amniotic fluid cell (HuAFCs) subpopulation represent potential seed cells for stem cell transplantation treatments i...

  7. Amniotic fluid stem cell-based models to study the effects of gene mutations and toxicants on male germ cell formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia Gundacker; Helmut Dolznig; Mario Mikula; Margit Rosner; Oliver Brandau; Markus Hengstschl(a)ger

    2012-01-01

    Male infertility is a major public health issue predominantly caused by defects in germ cell development.In the past,studies on the genetic regulation of spermatogenesis as well as on negative environmental impacts have been hampered by the fact that human germ cell development is intractable to direct analysis in vivo.Compared with model organisms including mice,there are fundamental differences in the molecular processes of human germ cell development.Therefore,an in vitro model mimicking human sperm formation would be an extremely valuable research tool.In the recent past,both human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been reported to harbour the potential to differentiate into primordial germ cells and gametes.We here discuss the pessibility to use human amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells as a biological model.Since their discovery in 2003,AFS cells have been characterized to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers,to be genomically stable,to have a high proliferative potential and to be non-tumourigenic.In addition,AFS cells are not subject of ethical concerns.In contrast to iPS cells,AFSs cells do not need ectopic induction of pluripotency,which is often associated with only imperfectly cleared epigenetic memory of the source cells.Since AFS cells can be derived from amniocentesis with disease-causing mutations and can be transfected with high efficiency,they could be used in probing gene functions for spermatogenesis and in screening for male reproductive toxicity.

  8. Intravenous grafts of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells induce endogenous cell proliferation and attenuate behavioral deficits in ischemic stroke rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Tajiri

    Full Text Available We recently reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS cells [1]. Here, we tested the therapeutic benefits of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. Thirty-five days later, animals exhibiting significant motor deficits received intravenous transplants of rat AFS cells or vehicle. At days 60-63 post-MCAo, significant recovery of motor and cognitive function was seen in stroke animals transplanted with AFS cells compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. Infarct volume, as revealed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, was significantly reduced, coupled with significant increments in the cell proliferation marker, Ki67, and the neuronal marker, MAP2, in the dentate gyrus (DG [2] and the subventricular zone (SVZ of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. A significantly higher number of double-labeled Ki67/MAP2-positive cells and a similar trend towards increased Ki67/MAP2 double-labeling were observed in the DG and SVZ of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals, respectively, compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. This study reports the therapeutic potential of AFS cell transplantation in stroke animals, possibly via enhancement of endogenous repair mechanisms.

  9. [Fulminant course of amniotic fluid embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Alvarez, M A; Fervienza, P; Corte-Torres, M G; Cosío, F; Jiménez-Gómez, L J; Hevía, A

    2006-02-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism is an obstetric complication that can present during pregnancy or labor and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The incidence is low but the mortality rates for both mother and fetus are high. A 34-year-old woman in the 41st week of gestation was admitted for induction of labor. While still in the labor room, she complained of pruritus around the mouth and tongue. Tonic-clonic convulsions, hypotension, and loss of consciousness followed. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers were started and an immediate cesarean section under general anesthesia was performed to deliver a live infant boy. The Apgar score at 5 minutes was 8. The mother was transferred for recovery to the intensive care unit (ICU), where rapid cardiocirculatory and pulmonary decline continued. After 2 episodes of electromechanical dissociation, exitus occurred 2 hours after ICU admission. The autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism. Keratin squames were found in the capillaries of both lungs and polymorphonuclear cells and proteinaceous material were observed in alveoli. Mechanical obstruction is not the only cause of amniotic fluid embolism. Circulating substances that affect myocardial contractility and coagulation are also implicated and the cause may even be an allergic reaction. The usual signs are acute respiratory failure, cardiovascular collapse, and occasionally convulsions and coagulopathy. Cardiac arrest occurs in 80% of the cases. Treatment is symptomatic to provide life-sustaining measures in response to the clinical picture as it develops. PMID:16553345

  10. Metabolism of vasopressin by human amnion and amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors previously have shown that vasopressin (VP) is metabolized by fetal guinea pig amnion and amniotic fluid into 2 distinct metabolites: M1, produced by amnionic membrane, and M2, produced in amniotic fluid. In this study the authors have examined whether VP can also be metabolized by human amnionic membrane and amniotic fluid collected at term. Tritiated VP (250 pg) was incubated in vitro with either amnionic membrane or amniotic fluid for 2 hours at 37 degrees C, followed by fractionation by HPLC. After incubation with amnionic membrane, tritiated VP was metabolized to Ml with no production of M2, similar to previous findings with guinea pig amnion. Human amniotic fluid, however, produced both M1 and M2 metabolites, unlike guinea pig amniotic fluid which metabolized VP to only M2 with no M1 production. No other metabolic products other than M1 or M2 were isolated. Also, like the M2 produced in guinea pig amniotic fluid, the M2 metabolite in human amniotic fluid comigrates on HPLC with desglycinamide VP. Thus, metabolic components in the human amniotic sac appear to be similar to those present in the guinea pig. These results indicate that the amniotic compartment may be an important clearance site for fetal VP in humans

  11. The transplantation of Akt-overexpressing amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, YAN; LI, YIGANG; SONG, LEI; LI, YANYAN; JIANG, SHAN; ZHANG, SONG

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) are an attractive cell source for applications in regenerative medicine, due to characteristics such as proliferative capacity and multipotency. In addition, Akt, a serine-threonine kinase, maintains stem cells by promoting viability and proliferation. Whether the transplantation of Akt-overexpressing AFMSCs protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has yet to be elucidated. Accordingly, the Akt gene was overexpressed in AFMSCs using lentiviral transduction, and Akt-AFMSCs were transplanted into the ischemic myocardium of rabbits prior to reperfusion. Any protective effects resulting from this procedure were subsequently sought after three weeks later. A histological examination revealed that there was a decrease in intramyocardial inflammation and ultrastructural damage, and an increase in capillary density and in the levels of GATA binding protein 4, connexin 43 and cardiac troponin T in the Akt-AFMSC group compared with the control group. A significant decrease in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, accompanying an increase in phosphorylated Akt and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and a decrease in caspase-3, was also observed. Furthermore, the left ventricular function was markedly augmented in the Akt-AFMSC group compared with the control group. These observations suggested that the protective effect of AFMSCs may be due to the delivery of secreted cytokines, promotion of neoangiogenesis, prevention of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes and promotion of the viability of AFMSCs, which are assisted by Akt gene modification. Taken together, the results of the present study have indicated that transplantation of Akt-AFMSCs is able to alleviate myocardial I/R injury and improve cardiac function. PMID:27151366

  12. Critical assessment of phospholipid measurement in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, L P; Worth, H G

    1975-09-01

    We assessed several methods of inorganic phosphate assay for their suitability in estimating phospholipids in digested extracts of amniotic fluids. The extraction and digestion procedures used for phospholipids from amniotic fluid were also examined critically. The effect of contamination by blood or obstetric cream has been examined. Accordingly, we suggest a method for measuring total phospholipids in amniotic fluids, and results of it are compared with the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio measurement in some clinical situations. PMID:1157310

  13. Current situation of research and prospects of human amniotic fluid-derived multipotential stem cells%羊水多潜能干细胞的研究现状及前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾潇; 陈必良

    2011-01-01

    由于强大的自我更新能力和多向分化的潜能,多潜能干细胞被广泛应用于再生医学的研究.胚胎干细胞的研究因伦理道德问题而受到限制.羊水多潜能干细胞的发现为多潜能干细胞的研究开辟了新的领域,引起了广大学者的关注.该文就羊水多潜能干细胞的生物学性状、分化潜能、临床应用前景等予以综述.%Because of a strong serf-renewal ability and multiplex differentiation potential, multipotential stem cells are widely used in researches on regenerative medicine. The research on embryonic stem cell is restricted because of ethical issues. The discovery of amniotic fluid-derived multipotential stem cells has open up a new field for multipotential stem cell research, and attracted attention of scholars. The article reviewed biological characteristics, differentiation potentiality and future clinical application of amniotic fluid-derived multipotential stem cells.

  14. Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells with a Renal Progenitor Phenotype Inhibit Interstitial Fibrosis in Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gabriela Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid (hAFSCs are a promising source for cellular therapy, especially for renal disorders, as a subpopulation is derived from the fetal urinary tract. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if hAFSCs with a renal progenitor phenotype demonstrate a nephroprotective effect in acute ischemia reperfusion (I/R model and prevent late stage fibrosis.A total of 45 male 12-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups;: rats subjected to I/R injury and treated with Chang Medium, rats subjected to I/R injury and treated with hAFSCs and sham-operated animals. In the first part of this study, hAFSCs that highly expressed CD24, CD117, SIX2 and PAX2 were isolated and characterized. In the second part, renal I/R injury was induced in male rats and cellular treatment was performed 6 hours later via arterial injection. Functional and histological analyses were performed 24 hours, 48 hours and 2 months after treatment using serum creatinine, urine protein to creatinine ratio, inflammatory and regeneration markers and histomorphometric analysis of the kidney. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey's test for multiple comparisons or by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn. Statistical significance level was defined as p <0.05.hAFSCs treatment resulted in significantly reduced serum creatinine level at 24 hours, less tubular necrosis, less hyaline cast formation, higher proliferation index, less inflammatory cell infiltration and less myofibroblasts at 48 h. The treated group had less fibrosis and proteinuria at 2 months after injury.hAFSCs contain a renal progenitor cell subpopulation that has a nephroprotective effect when delivered intra-arterially in rats with renal I/R injury, and reduces interstitial fibrosis on long term follow-up.

  15. Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cut Short the Acuteness of Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Husseiny, Fatma; Sobh, Mohamed Ahmed; Ashour, Rehab H.; Foud, Samah; Medhat, Tarek; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Elghannam, Doaa; Abdel-Ghaffar, Hassan; Saad, Mohamed-Ahdy; Sobh, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Cisplatin is a nephrotoxic chemotherapeutic agent. So, preventive measures worth to be evaluated. Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) in prevention or amelioration of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in Sprague-Dawley rates have been tested. Methods 80 Sprague-Dawley rats (250~300 g) were used and divided into 4 major groups, 20 rats each. Group I: Saline-injected group. Group II: Cisplatin-injected group (5 mg/kg I.P). Group III: Cisplatin-injected and hAFSCs-treated group (5×106 hAFSCs I.V. one day after cisplatin administration). Group IV: Cisplatin-injected and culture media-treated group. Each major group was further divided into 4 equal subgroups according to the timing of sacrifice; 4, 7, 11 and 30 days post-cisplatin injection. Renal function tests were done. Kidney tissue homogenate oxidative stress parameters malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were determined. Histopathological scoring systems for active injury, regenerative and chronic changes were analyzed separately. Results hAFSCs characterization and differentiation was proved. Cisplatin injection resulted in a significant increase in serum creatinine and MDA and decrease in SOD, GSH and creatinine clearance. These changes were attenuated early by day 4 with the use of hAFSCs. Cisplatin injection induced tubular necrosis, atrophy, inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis. The use of hAFSCs was associated with significantly lowered injury score at day 4, 7, 11 and 30 with marked regenerative changes starting from day 4. Conclusion hAFSCs have both a protective and regenerative activities largely through an antioxidant activity. This activity cut short the acuteness of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. PMID:27426088

  16. 人羊水干细胞分离方法及其生物学特性研究%Isolation and Biological Characterization of Human Amniotic Fluid-derived Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关婷; 谢晓砚; 刘珊玲; 陈新莲; 魏杨君; 赖怡; 谢良玉; 刘之英; 张雪梅; 刘洪倩; 张建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish in vitro culture procedure for human amniotic fluid-derived CD117 positive stem cells, and to identify the characteristics of CD117 positive stem cells. Methods 86 amniotic fluid samples (10 mL of each) were obtained by second-trimester amniocentesis. Isolation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells expressing CD117 antigen was performed via magnetic cell sorting using the CD117 MicroBead Kit. The karyotype of CD117 positive stem cells was analysed throughrepeated freezing. Adipogenic differentiation of these CD117 positive stem cells was displayed by Oil Red O staining. Osteogeneic differentiation of these CD117 positive stem cells was confirmed by Alizarin Red staining. Results The CD117 positive stem cells were successfully isolated and cultured from 61 samples, with all showing normal karyotype. Product analysis of specific staining confirmed that under specific culture mediums, these cells could be successfully induced to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes. Conclusion Based on this study, we estimate that isolating CD117 positive stem cells from second-trimester amniotic fluid obtained by amniocentesis has a success rate of 70. 93%. These cells maintain morphological and genetic stability in vitro. Human amniotic fluid-derived CD117 positive stem cells have the ability to differentiate in vitro into adipocytes and osteocytes under specific cuLture mediums and may be applied in cell transplantation and regenerative medicine.%目的 建立体外培养人羊水来源CD117阳性干细胞的方法,初步探讨CD117阳性干细胞的特性.方法 通过孕中期羊膜腔穿刺获得86例羊水标本.采用CD117磁珠分选表达CD117抗原的羊水干细胞.对经过反复冻存的CD117阳性干细胞进行核型分析.分别经成脂诱导和成骨诱导分化,再分别使用油红O染色、茜素红染色.结果 从61例标本中成功分离培养出CD117阳性细胞,经核型分析显示其染色体核型正常.CD117阳性细胞经

  17. Amniotic fluid embolism and isolated coagulopathy: atypical presentation of amniotic fluid embolism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Awad, I T

    2012-02-03

    A 41-year-old multigravida presented at 32 weeks of gestation with polyhydramnios and an anencephalic fetus. Abnormal bleeding as a result of disseminated intravascular coagulation complicated an emergency Caesarean section for severe abdominal pain thought to be due to uterine rupture. Massive transfusion with blood products was necessary and the abdomen packed to control bleeding. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit where she made a slow but complete recovery. Amniotic fluid embolism with atypical presentation of isolated coagulopathy is the likely diagnosis in this case. The case serves to demonstrate that amniotic fluid embolism may present with symptoms and signs other than the classical pattern of dyspnoea, cyanosis and hypotension.

  18. Amniotic fluid embolism: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Viswanathan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic Fluid Embolism (AFE is an obstetric catastrophe which occurs in 1 in 8000-80000 deliveries.1 It presents with shortness of breath, hypotension, hypoxemia, uterine atony, post-partum hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, convulsions, coma and death. Pathophysiology is not clearly understood. It may be due to anaphylactoid like reaction to fetal cells that enter maternal circulation. There are no proven risk factors though a few have been postulated. Treatment is mainly supportive. The corner stone of management is a multi-disciplinary approach with support given to the failing organ systems. The mortality and morbidity due to AFE is very high. Hence prompt diagnosis and effective supportive measures is the key in the management. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 304-309

  19. Glial origin of rapidly adhering amniotic fluid cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Aula, P; von Koskull, H; Teramo, K; Karjalainen, O; Virtanen, I.; Lehto, V P; Dahl, D

    1980-01-01

    Rapidly adhering cells (RA cells) from the amniotic fluid of a pregnancy with fetal anencephaly were investigated by immunofluorescence assay with an antiserum against glial cells. After 24 hours' cultivation a high proportion of the cells showed positive glial-specific fluorescence, whereas no staining was seen in cells from samples of normal amniotic fluid. At the 24th week the mother was delivered of a stillborn infant with anencephaly. Immunofluorescence staining of RA cells with glial-sp...

  20. Testosterone determination in amniotic fluid for sec diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried on 50 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from pregnant patients with gestation old of 38 to 40 weeks; diagnosis of the foetus sex was made by measuring the testosterone levels by radioimmunoassay technique. It was found that 94% of the cases were correctly diagnosed. The testosterone levels found in the amniotic fluid of male and female foetus were significantly different (L<0.01) these confirm the efficacy of the method. (author)

  1. Perinatal and neonatal outcome in meconium stained amniotic fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Shazia Qadir; Sami Jan; Javaid A Chachoo; Shameem parveen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Meconium passage in new born is a developmentally programmed event normally occurring within the first 24 to 48 hours after birth. Intrauterine meconium passage in near-term or term fetuses has been associated with fetomaternal stress factor like hypoxia and infection independent of fetal maturity. The incidence of meconium stained amniotic fluid is 1-18%. The objective of this study was to correlate the presence of meconium in amniotic fluid with perinatal outcome. Methods: A...

  2. INFLUENCE OF AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX ON FOETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In these days of smaller families and the obstetrician having to share the onus of giving a healthy child capable of independent existence as well as to ensure that the population is limited for further progress of this developing country, the estimation o f foetal maturity assumes greatest practical importance. As means to achieving the end, estimates of foetal maturity have been done by various clinical and laboratory methods of which assessment of amniotic fluid index assumes importance. The objective is to study the correlation of amniotic fluid index on foetal outcome at term gestation . MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on two hundred antenatal women who attended the institute of obstetrics and gynaecology at a Government Hospital for Wome n and Children in Visakhapatnam from Jan 2014 to Jan 2015. It is a comparative prospective study comparing 100 cases of Oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid index 5 cm as control group. RESU LTS : Perinatal outcome was inferred by noting the various parameters and Statistical Analysis was done by applying the chisquare (x2 test and the value of probability was taken . CONCLUSION: The goal of antepartum fetal surveillance is to identify the fetu s at increased risk. Amniotic fluid volume has been proved as an indirect measure of feto - placental function and hence the estimation of amniotic fluid volume assists the obstetrician in risk assessment

  3. Progressive Differentiation and Instructive Capacities of Amniotic Fluid and Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteomes following Neural Tube Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Kevin F; Springel, Mark W; Broadbelt, Kevin G; Park, Hye-Yeon; Topal, Salih; Lun, Melody P; Mullan, Hillary; Maynard, Thomas; Steen, Hanno; LaMantia, Anthony S; Lehtinen, Maria K

    2015-12-21

    After neural tube closure, amniotic fluid (AF) captured inside the neural tube forms the nascent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Neuroepithelial stem cells contact CSF-filled ventricles, proliferate, and differentiate to form the mammalian brain, while neurogenic placodes, which generate cranial sensory neurons, remain in contact with the AF. Using in vivo ultrasound imaging, we quantified the expansion of the embryonic ventricular-CSF space from its inception. We developed tools to obtain pure AF and nascent CSF, before and after neural tube closure, and to define how the AF and CSF proteomes diverge during mouse development. Using embryonic neural explants, we demonstrate that age-matched fluids promote Sox2-positive neurogenic identity in developing forebrain and olfactory epithelia. Nascent CSF also stimulates SOX2-positive self-renewal of forebrain progenitor cells, some of which is attributable to LIFR signaling. Our Resource should facilitate the investigation of fluid-tissue interactions during this highly vulnerable stage of early brain development. PMID:26702835

  4. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 deg. C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields. (note)

  5. Intrinsic factor in human amniotic fluid as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intrinsic factor (IF) concentration in 55 human amniotic fluid specimens was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The antiserum was produced by immunizing rabbits with the cobalamin-IF complex isolated from human gastric juice. The median concentration of IF was 0.17 nmol/l and the extreme values <0.07-2.51 nmol/l. Three specimens with a clearly elevated level (0.96, 1.11 and 2.51 nmol/l) were observed. The highest value was associated with a fetal malformation, viz. obstruction of the proximal gut. There was no evident correlation between the concentration of IF in amniotic fluid and gestational age. (author)

  6. CD44+/CD105+ Human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survive and Proliferate in the Ovary Long-Term in a Mouse Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Premature Ovarian Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Liu, Yongyi Huang, Lihe Guo, Weiwei Cheng, Gang Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stem cell transplantation has been reported to rescue ovarian function in a preclinical mouse model of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF; however, maintaining the survival and self-renewal of transplanted seed cells in ovarian tissues over the long-term remains a troublesome issue. In this study we aimed to determine whether the CD44+/CD105+ human amniotic fluid cell (HuAFCs subpopulation represent potential seed cells for stem cell transplantation treatments in POF. Materials and methods: The CD44+/CD105+ subpopulation were isolated from HuAFCs, cultured in vitro, and injected into a cyclophosphamide-induced mouse model of POF. Results: Under continuous subculture in vitro, CD44+/CD105+ cells proliferated rapidly and expressed high levels of the proliferative markers Ki67 and survivin, as well as high levels of a number of mesenchymal stem cell biomarkers. Moreover, when red fluorescence protein (RFP-transduced CD44+/CD105+ HuAFCs were transplanted into the ovaries of POF mice, the cells could be detected by fluorescence microscopy up to three weeks after injection. Furthermore, the BrdUrd incorporation assay and immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that CD44+/CD105+ HuAFCs underwent normal cycles of cell proliferation and self-renewal in the ovarian tissues of POF mice over the long-term. Conclusions: The mesenchymal stem cell properties and long-term in vivo survival of CD44+/CD105+ HuAFCs make them ideal seed cells for stem cell transplantation to treat POF.

  7. 羊水干细胞的研究现状及应用前景%Current status in research on amniotic fluid-derived stem cells and its application persnective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白璐; 陈必良

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells which emerged at the beginning of human life, have been widely used in medicine and many other fields. Compared with embryonic stem cells (ESC) and adult stem cells (ASC), amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFS) not only can be easily obtained but also are safe to the pregnant women and her fetus. Meanwhile, the isolated and amplified AFS have some surface markers as same as other stem cells and can differentiate into many cells. They can be used in fetus herseff or autologous transplantation, as well as other individuals which are compatible in immunity. At present, researches on AFS have attracted more and more attention. In this article, the related contents in researches on ASC were reviewed.%干细胞已被广泛用于医学及多个领域.与胚胎干细胞和成体干细胞相比,羊水取材方便,对孕妇及胎儿安全微创,分离扩增的羊水干细胞与其他干细胞一样存在一些表面标志物,且具有分化潜能.羊水干细胞不仅用于胎儿或自体移植,也可用于免疫相容的其他个体.目前对于羊水干细胞的研究已不断引起人们的关注,该文对羊水干细胞的相关内容作以综述.

  8. Risk factors for meconium stained amniotic fluid and its implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Sundaram

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Meconium stained amniotic fluid is associated with a higher incidence of operative deliveries resulting in an increased maternal morbidity. It is also associated with an increased neonatal morbidity due to birth asphyxia and respiratory depression at birth and a significant risk of neonatal mortality due to meconium aspiration syndrome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2503-2506

  9. Amniotic Fluid MMP-9 and Neurotrophins in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Pearce, Brad D; Larsen, Nanna;

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are caused by errors in brain plasticity. Given the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neurotrophins (NTs) in neuroplasticity, amniotic fluid samples for 331 ASD cases and 698...

  10. 21 CFR 884.1550 - Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amniotic fluid sampler (amniocentesis tray). 884.1550 Section 884.1550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... gestation for antepartum diagnosis of certain congenital abnormalities or anytime after 24 weeks...

  11. Amnioreduction in treatment of increased amniotic fluid volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Siniša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increased amniotic fluid volume may significantly increase the risk for preterm delivery. Amniodrainage is a symptomatic treatment by which excess amniotic fluid is reduced to provide fetal lung maturation. The aim of this study is to estimate the efficacy and safety of this procedure, our results and give a literature review. Material and methods Sonografic criteria were used (AFI> 400 ml, or the biggest amniotic fluid pocket > 150 mm to choose patients in whom 18G needle was used to allow leaking of excessive amniotic fluid. Results 10 patients underwent 26 procedures. The procedures were performed at 28.6th week gestation, on average and 6.25 weeks average gain or 1000 g. We had two sets of monochorionic twins with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS, where one child survived. One procedure was followed by premature placental abruption, and premature delivery in 28th week. The rest of procedures were uneventful. Conclusion In our series of 10 women, 26 procedures were performed to prolong pregnancies, enable fetal maturation and weight gain. In majority of cases amnioreduction was done without complications, so we could repeat the intervention and prolong the pregnancy. Survival of one child in two TTTS pregnancies should not be regarded unsuccessful in our conditions.

  12. Biochemical markers of trisomy 21 in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, K; Muller, F; Aitken, D A

    1997-01-01

    In a study of amniotic fluid from 91 Down's syndrome cases and 240 controls, we have shown that the median values of four biochemical markers (AFP, total hCG, free beta hCG, and unconjugated oestriol) in the amniotic fluid of pregnancies affected by Down's syndrome on the whole reflect those observed in the maternal serum of affected cases. The median MOM for AFP was lower than average (0.56), as was that for unconjugated oestriol (0.55), whilst those for total hCG (1.82) and free beta hCG (2.10) were increased on average. The width of the distribution of marker levels in amniotic fluid is similar to that in serum for free beta hCG and total hCG but between 1.5 and 2 times wider for unconjugated oestriol and AFP. Analysis of data by fetal sex showed a significantly higher median MOM in female control cases compared with male controls for the analytes free beta hCG, total hCG, and unconjugated oestriol, but not for AFP. Amongst the Down's syndrome cases, this trend was not statistically significant and we cannot confirm a previous study which reported that elevated levels of amniotic fluid total and free beta hCG were associated only with female fetuses. PMID:9021826

  13. In vitro osteogenic differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells on a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)–bladder submucosa matrix (BSM) composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cells have become an important component of tissue regeneration, as they are able to differentiate into various cell types if guided appropriately. It is well known that cellular differentiation is greatly influenced by the surrounding microenvironment. We have developed a composite scaffold system using a collagen matrix derived from porcine bladder submucosa matrix (BSM) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). In this study, we investigated whether a composite scaffold composed of naturally derived matrix combined with synthetic polymers would provide a microenvironment to facilitate the induction of osteogenic differentiation. We first showed that human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs) adhered to the composite scaffolds and proliferated over time. We also showed that the composite scaffolds facilitated the differentiation of hAFSCs into an osteogenic lineage. The expression of osteogenic genes, including RUNX2, osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) was upregulated in cells cultured on the composite scaffolds incubated in the osteogenic medium compared with ones without. Increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium content indicates that hAFSCs seeded on 3D porous BSM–PLGA composite scaffolds resulted in higher mineralization rates as the duration of induction increased. This was also evidenced by the mineralized matrix within the scaffolds. The composite scaffold system provides a proper microenvironment that can facilitate osteogenic differentiation of AFSCs. This scaffold system may be a good candidate material for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  14. The amniotic membrane as a source of stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, Carmen L; Blanquer, Miguel; Bleda, Patricia; Iniesta, Paqui; Majado, María J; Castellanos, Gregorio; Moraleda, José M

    2010-01-01

    Cellular therapy has emerged as a new potential tool for curing a wide range of degenerative diseases and tissue necrosis. Embryonic stem cells possess potential for differentiation into a wide range of cell lineages, but the ethical issues associated with establishment of this human cell line have to be resolved prior to any use. The bone marrow (BM) is the usual source of adult stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplants and cellular therapy, but the BM harvest is a surgical procedure that requires general anesthesia or sedation, and there seems to be a reduction of the proliferative potential and differentiation capacity of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells in older donors. For these reasons there is an increasing interest in other sources of stem cells from adult and fetal tissues. The amniotic membrane (AM) or amnion is a tissue of particular interest because its cells possess characteristics of stem cells with multipotent differentiation ability, and because of low immunogenicity and easy procurement from the placenta, which is a discarded tissue after parturition, thus avoiding the current controversies associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells. Therefore, amniotic membrane has been proposed as a good candidate to be used in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:19924645

  15. RIA of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An own modification of the double antibody radioimmunoassay for AFP using 125I-labelled AFP as a tracer, rabbit anti-AFP obtained from SEVAC, Prague and precipitating antibodies prepared by the authors is described. The AFP levels measured in the serum and the amniotic fluid using the method were in agreement with those obtained by the means of the AFPK RIA kit by SORIN in the Institute for the Care of Mother and Child in Prague. The AFP concentrations found in the cord serum and the amniotic fluid were confirmed also by the rocket electroimmunoassay according to Laurell. The described AFP RIA seems suitable for the clinical application in prenatal screening for congenital malformations, in difficult pregnancies, in hepatology and the diagnosis and the evaluation of therapy of some human malignancies. (author)

  16. Amniotic fluid: Source of trophic factors for the developing intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Soham; Arya, Shreyas; Choudhary, Sanjeev; Jain, Sunil K.

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a complex system, which changes in response to requirements of the body. GIT represents a barrier to the external environment. To achieve this, epithelial cells must renew rapidly. This renewal of epithelial cells starts in the fetal life under the influence of many GIT peptides by swallowing amniotic fluid (AF). Development and maturation of GIT is a very complex cascade that begins long before birth and continues during infancy and childhood by breast-fee...

  17. Phthalate Metabolites in Amniotic Fluid and Maternal Urine Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Tranfo; Enrico Paci; Daniela Pigini; Rossana Claudia Bonanni; Silvia Capanna; Caterina De Carolis; Sergio Iavicoli

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of the metabolites of four selected phthalates, widely used industrial chemicals which possess endocrine-disrupting properties, in samples of amniotic fluid and maternal urine collected in the same day, in order to verify if the latter can be considered a measure of the fetal exposure. The quantitative determination of the metabolites was carried out by HPLC-MS/MS with isotopic dilution from 70 pregnant volun...

  18. Ingested bovine amniotic fluid enhances morphine antinociception in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Corpening, James W.; Doerr, Jean C.; Kristal, Dr. Mark B.

    2000-01-01

    Ingestion by rats of rat placenta or amniotic fluid enhances opioid-mediated, or partly opioid-mediated, antinociception produced by morphine injection, vaginal or cervical stimulation, late pregnancy, and foot shock. This phenomenon is believed to be produced by a placental opioid-enhancing factor (POEF). Ingestion by rats of human or dolphin placenta has also been shown to enhance opioid antinociception, suggesting that POEF may be common to many mammalian species. We tested bovine amnio...

  19. AMNIOTIC FLUID EMBOLISM: AN EVIDENCE-BASED REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Romero, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We conducted an evidence-based review of information bout amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). The estimated incidence of AFE is 1:15,200 and 1:53,800 deliveries in North America and Europe, respectively. The case fatality rate and perinatal mortality associated with AFE are 13–30% and 9–44%, respectively. Risk factors associated with an increased risk of AFE include advanced maternal age, placental abnormalities, operative deliveries, eclampsia, polyhydramnios, cervical lacerations, and uterine ru...

  20. Not only a clinical nightmare: amniotic fluid embolism in court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardo, Francesco P; Gulino, Matteo; Di Luca, Natale M; Vergallo, Gianluca M; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; Frati, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an uncommon obstetric condition involving usually women in labour or in the early post-partum period. Clinical consequences of this unpredictable and unpreventable pathology may be extremely serious with high morbidity and mortality rates. Data obtained from the US Amniotic Fluid Embolism Registry show that the process is more similar to anaphylaxis than to embolism, and the term anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy has been suggested because foetal tissue or amniotic fluid components are not universally found in women who present signs and symptoms related to AFE. The first aim of this paper has been to focus on the medico-legal aspects concerning the misdiagnosis and the treatment of the AFE and the Authors, with this purpose in mind, reviewed the main national law cases on medical malpractice claims involving both physicians and hospitals. The second aim has been to highlight the need to introduce a National register as a useful tool to raise the awareness of this disease among physicians and to improve the quality of care, which can be achieved through a proper identification and reporting of AFE cases. The application of a national register may limit the number of medico-legal litigations, which according to the national and foreign Jurisprudence are not currently based in favour of the predictability of AFE, but they focus their discussion on the importance of a prompt medical assistance when the effects of this disorder occur. PMID:24804728

  1. Results of six years of cytogenetic studies in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: research into different genetic diseases is one of the preventive programs of paramount importance at public health level. The early detection of chromosomopathies and the establishment of an appropriate strategy reduce the morbidity-morality rate and improve the patients’ quality of life.Objective: to describe the behavior of the results of the cytogenetic studies in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women from Las Tunas province during six years: from 2008 to 2014.Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study was carried out to assess the results of cytogenetic studies in amniotic liquid during six years: from 2008 to 2014. The statistical records were checked and the results, the indication criteria, the behavior of the age groups in women advanced in age and the diagnosed chromosomopathies were assessed.Results: the samples with results that exceeded the non-conclusive and positive women prevailed; 2, 3 positive cases of chromosomopathies were diagnosed out of 100 studied women at risk; pregnant women of advanced gestational years prevailed as indication criterion, being the 37 to 40 years old age group the predominant one; in the positive cases, numeric chromosomopathies of the type trisomy 21 or Down’s syndrome prevailed, with a frequency of 1, 2 out of 100 pregnant women at risk.Conclusions: the program of the cytogenetic diagnosis in the amniotic fluid has been an effective tool to detect congenital prenatal defects by chromosomopathies, very useful in the process of genetic advice.

  2. Comparison of Polyfluoroalkyl Compound Concentrations in Maternal Serum and Amniotic Fluid: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Cheryl R.; Wolff, Mary S.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Engel, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are detectable in amniotic fluid is unknown. Using paired samples from 28 women, we compared the concentration of 8 PFCs measured in serum, the standard matrix for assessing human exposure, amniotic fluid from routine amniocentesis, and urine. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were detected in all maternal serum samples. The number of amniotic fluid ...

  3. 人羊水间充质干细胞分离培养方法的优化%Optimization of the isolation and cultivation method of human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素红; 苑春华; 侯毅鞠; 刘会玲

    2011-01-01

    背景:目前关于人羊水间充质干细胞的体外分离培养方法不一,获得较多数量的间充质干细胞仍有困难.目的:分离80份羊水标本,比较不同的体外培养方法,优化筛选到一种合适的培养纯化条件,为人羊水间充质干细胞的基础研究和临床广泛应用奠定基础.方法:无菌条件下采集足月分娩和终止妊娠引产的羊水,分离羊水细胞,比较孕期、不同培养基、接种密度、首次换液时间对人羊水间充质干细胞原代培养过程的影响,通过细胞化学染色方法检测细胞代谢情况,观察人羊水间充质干细胞的生物学特性.结果与结论:相同培养条件下,采用AmnioMAXⅡcomplete羊水专用细胞培养基,以5×104/cm2 的密度接种,首次换液时间为6 d时,人羊水间充质干细胞原代培养成功率较高.孕期为14~20周的人羊水间充质干细胞培养成功率高于晚期妊娠(21~36周)及足月分娩(37~42周)的羊水.人羊水间充质干细胞强表达过碘酸-雪夫、酸性磷酸酶、酸性α-醋酸萘酚酯酶染色,弱表达中性粒细胞碱性磷酸酶,不表达过氧化酶、苏丹黑染色.提示,优化筛选到一种合适的人羊水间充质干细胞培养纯化条件.%BACKGROUND: There are different methods of in vitro isolating culture for human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs). To gain most AF-MSCs is still difficult.OBJECTIVE: We had isolated 80 cases AF, and compared different in vitro culture methods for optimization and bolted a better method to establish foundation of AF-MSCs in clinical widespread application.METHODS: Amniotic fluid was collected from full-term deliveries and artificial labors under aseptic condition. The amniotic fluid cells were isolated by centrifugation. The influences of different pregnancy ages, culture media, incubation densities and the time points of the first medium change on the growth of AF-MSCs were analyzed. The cell metabolism was

  4. Cell-free fetal DNA in amniotic fluid supernatant for prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, M; Nemati, M; Maralani, M; Estiar, M A; Andalib, S; Fardiazar, Z; Sakhinia, E

    2016-01-01

    In widespread conviction, amniotic fluid is utilized for prenatal diagnosis. Amniotic fluid supernatant is usually discarded, notwithstanding being a good source of fetal DNA. The aim of the present study was to assess cell-free fetal DNA extracted from amniotic fluid supernatant for application in prenatal diagnosis such as gender determination and early diagnosis of β-thalassemia. Samples of amniotic fluid of 70 pregnant women were collected and went through routine tests along with tests for cell-free fetal DNA from amniotic fluid supernatant. The DNA in the amniotic fluid supernatant was extracted and analyzed for gender determination by PCR and Real-time PCR. ARMS-PCR was applied to test early diagnosis of IVS II-I mutation (common β-thalassemia mutation) and E7V mutation for sickle cell anemia using DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant. Using the cell-free fetal DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant, the sensitivity of PCR and Real-time PCR for gender detection was compared with the routine cytogenetic method. The fetus tested for sickle cell anemia and β-thalassemia was observed to be healthy but heterozygous for IVS II-I mutation. The findings indicated that cell-free fetal DNA from amniotic fluid supernatant can be a good source of fetal DNA and be used in early prenatal diagnosis since because of its fast and accurate application. Therefore, it would be suggested that the amniotic fluid supernatant's disposal is prevented because if the tests needs to be repeated, cell-free fetal DNA extracted from the amniotic fluid supernatant can be used as an alternative source for prenatal diagnosis. PMID:27188728

  5. Perinatal and neonatal outcome in meconium stained amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Qadir

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The significance of meconium in amniotic fluid is a widely debated subject. Traditionally meconium has been considered as a sign of fetal distress occurring due to hypoxia. However it is now recognized as a manifestation of a normally maturing gastrointestinal tract. In a global sense it is still considered a marker for adverse perinatal outcomes. The presence of thick meconium is associated with increase in the perinatal morbidity and mortality and hence its presence should not be overlooked. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1400-1405

  6. Amniotic fluid phthalate levels and male fetal gonad function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent;

    2015-01-01

    ) and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) exposure in relation to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and human fetal Leydig cell function. METHODS: We studied 270 cryptorchidism cases, 75 hypospadias cases, and 300 controls. Second-trimester amniotic fluid samples were available from a Danish pregnancy......BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to phthalates may pose a threat to human male reproduction. However, additional knowledge about the in vivo effect in humans is needed, and reported associations with genital abnormalities are inconclusive. We aimed to study prenatal di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP...

  7. Amniotic fluid volume and fetal swallowing rate in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate amniotic fluid (AF) dynamics and volume regulatory mechanisms, the authors measured the concentration of radioiodinated (125I) serum albumin (RISA), 51Cr-labeled red blood cells (Cr-RBC), and 103Ru-labeled microspheres after injection into the amniotic cavity and determined AF volume and fetal swallowing rate in 22 singleton pregnant sheep. Under normal conditions 2-3 h were required for complete mixing of RISA and Cr-RBC within AF; however, when the fetus was dead only 3-5 h were required. AF volume of 17 sheep on the 5th postoperative day averaged 975 +/- 128 ml by RISA and 986 +/- 130 ml by Cr-RBC. AF volume determined with RISA and Cr-RBC correlated well. In contrast, AF volume measurement with microspheres produced erratic results. The disappearance rate of the labels in 17 ewes on the 5th postoperative day averaged 4.9 +/- 0.7%/h for RISA and 5.5 +/- 0.7 for Cr-RBC, and the calculated rates of fetal swallowing were 935 +/- 78 ml/day by RISA and 1,085 +/- 102 by Cr-RBC. In dead fetuses the disappearance rates were almost zero, suggesting that the labels disappear mainly by swallowing. Absolute volume swallowed and swallowed volume per fetal weight correlated with gestational age. AF volume correlated with fetal weight. Radiolabeled albumin or red blood cells may be used to simultaneously measure amniotic fluid volume and the rate of fetal swallowing. Furthermore it appears that fetal swallowing increases with gestational age

  8. A comparative study on efficiency of adult fibroblasts and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells as donor cells for production of hand-made cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Em, Sadeesh; Kataria, Meena; Shah, Fozia; Yadav, P S

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of two cell types, namely adult fibroblasts, and amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells as nuclear donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer by hand-made cloning in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was compared. The in vitro expanded buffalo adult fibroblast cells showed a typical "S" shape growth curve with a doubling time of 40.8 h and stained positive for vimentin. The in vitro cultured undifferentiated AFS cells showed a doubling time of 33.2 h and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase, these cells were also found positive for undifferentiated embryonic stem cell markers like OCT-4, NANOG and SOX-2, which accentuate their pluripotent property. Further, when AFS cells were exposed to corresponding induction conditions, these cells differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages which was confirmed through alizaran, oil red O and alcian blue staining, respectively. Cultured adult fibroblasts and AFS cells of passages 10-15 and 8-12, respectively, were used as nuclear donors. A total of 94 embryos were reconstructed using adult fibroblast as donor cells with cleavage and blastocyst production rate of 62.8 ± 1.8 and 19.1 ± 1.5, respectively. An overall cleavage and blastocyst formation rate of 71.1 ± 1.2 and 29.9 ± 2.2 was obtained when 97 embryos were reconstructed using AFS cells as donor cells. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in reconstructed efficiency between the cloned embryos derived from two donor cells, whereas the results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in cleavage and blastocyst rates between the cloned embryos derived from two donor cell groups. Average total cell numbers for blastocyst generated using AFS cells (172.4 ± 5.8) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than from adult fibroblasts (148.2 ± 6.1). This study suggests that the in vitro developmental potential of the cloned embryos derived from AFS cells were higher than that of the cloned embryos

  9. Some considerations on Meconial Amniotic Fluid in the new born babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Cabrera Cuellar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many functions are attributed to amniotic liquid, there is no doubt, after all, about the negative consequences of its alteration. The differentiation between physiological meconium and pathological meconium can modify the perinatal results. Objectives: to determine if the presence of the meconium considered pathological, is significantly related to the morbimortality of the patients. Method: an analytic and prospective study was made, control case type, of 504 newborn children with meconial amniotic liquid, and the same number of newborn children with clear amniotic liquid. Results: the pathological meconial amniotic liquid was associated to a low Apgar percentage, in the first minute of 5,2 %. When the meconial amniotic liquid resulted physiological it was of 0,4 %. The morbility associated to perinatal hypoxia raised from 0,4 % when the meconial amniotic liquid was physiological, and to 4,85 when it was pathological. The necessity of ventilation, associated to the pathological meconial amniotic liquid, was of 3,1 %. There were 3 deaths in the pathological meconial amniotic liquid group, for a 1,3 % of mortality. When the meconial amniotic liquid colour was intensified during delivery labour, it was observed a low Apgar percentage of 11 %. Conclusions: the meconial amniotic fluid is presented in the 23% of the patients in our study increasing its incidence as long as the gestational age and the weight of the patient were higher. Preeclampsia is associated in a very significant way to the presence of meconium which is considered pathological.

  10. Current Concepts of Immunology and Diagnosis in Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Benson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Current thinking about pathophysiology has shifted away from embolism toward a maternal immune response to the fetus. Two immunologic mechanisms have been studied to date. Anaphylaxis appears to be doubtful while the available evidence supports a role for complement activation. With the mechanism remaining to be elucidated, AFE remains a clinical diagnosis. It is diagnosed based on one or more of four key signs/symptoms: cardiovascular collapse, respiratory distress, coagulopathy, and/or coma/seizures. The only laboratory test that reliably supports the diagnosis is the finding of fetal material in the maternal pulmonary circulation at autopsy. Perhaps the most compelling mystery surrounding AFE is not why one in 20,000 parturients are afflicted, but rather how the vast majority of women can tolerate the foreign antigenic presence of their fetus both within their uterus and circulation?

  11. IMPACT OF MECONIUM STAINED AMNIOTIC FLUID ON EARLY NEONATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To find out the incidence, neonatal outcome and associated maternal antepartum & intrapartum risk factors of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF. DESIGN: Prospective St udy. SETTINGS: Neonatal Unit of Hospital and PNC Ward. SUBJECTS & METHODS: Prospective Study was conducted including 100 babies born with meconium stained amniotic fluid who are admitted in NICU and with mother in PNC ward in a period of six months (April 2012 - October 2012 excluding those who born with congenital abnormalities. Detail history of babies and mother with MSAF noted with emphasis on antepartum and intrapartum risk factors and outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Incidence of M SAF in the study was 8. 98%. Out of 100, 24 babies were admitted to NICU with most common indications being birth asphyxia (16% and Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS (6%. Majority babies were delivered through thin Meconium Stained Liquor (MSL (44% fo llowed by thick (35% and moderate (21%. Total number of deaths were 9 and all these babies had thick meconium with severe birth asphyxia. Ninety one babies were born at >37 weeks of gestation and 57 had birth weight over 2. 5 Kg. Nineteen percent were no n vigorous requiring tracheal suctioning and positive pressure ventilation at birth. Common mode of delivery was emergency Cesarean in 83% patients. Common maternal and fetal risk factors were fetal distress (30% followed by Oligohydramnios (30%, Pregnan cy induced hypertension (PIH (24%, anemia (14%, severe anemia (5%, Antepartum hemorrhage (4% and Antepartum eclampsia (4%. CONCLUSIONS: Oligohydramnios, PIH, anemia and fetal distress were common antenatal and intranatal factors associated with MSAF. Major morbidity and indication for NICU admission was Birth asphyxia and non vigorous babies. Mortality rate was 9% which is commonly associated with thick meconium and severe birth asphyxia.

  12. Postnatal amniotic fluid intake reduces gut inflammatory responses and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggers, Jayda; Østergaard, Mette V.; Siggers, Richard H.;

    2013-01-01

    Preterm neonates are susceptible to gastrointestinal disorders such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Maternal milk and colostrum protects against NEC via growth promoting, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial factors. The fetal enteral diet amniotic fluid (AF), contains similar components, and we...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1455 - Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1455 Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid test system....

  14. Intrapartum Amnioinfusion in Meconium Stained Amniotic Fluid- A Randomized Control Study In a Tertiary Care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ashvin D Vachhani, Jitesh M Shah, Garima S Goel, Meghana N Mehta, Archish I Desai, Malati T Dalal

    2015-01-01

    "Objectives: The study was un-dertaken to evaluate maternal and Perinatal outcomes follow-ing transcervical intrapartum amnioinfusion in women with moderate to thick meconium stained amniotic fluid. Methods: A randomized control study was conducted on 200 women with moderate to thick meconium stained amniotic flu-id during labor. Group A (study group) of 100 cases received am-nioinfusion. Group B (control group) of 100 cases received standard obstetric care. Fetal heart rate monitori...

  15. Gamma-glutamyl transferase activity in fetal serum, maternal serum, and amniotic fluid during gestation.

    OpenAIRE

    Moniz, C; Nicolaides, K H; Keys, D.; Rodeck, C H

    1984-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyl transferase activity was measured in fetal serum, maternal serum, and amniotic fluid in 173 pregnancies from 15 to 40 weeks' gestation. Fetal serum was obtained in the second trimester by fetoscopy and in the third trimester by umbilical cord puncture at caesarian section or vaginal delivery. Enzyme activities in maternal blood (10 IU/1, SD 2) and fetal blood (88 IU/1, SD 20) remained relatively constant throughout gestation, whereas in the amniotic fluid there was a significan...

  16. Correlation Between Down Syndrome and the Level of Placental Alkaline Phosphatase in Amniotic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    UÇAR, Canan; Balci, Sevim; TUNÇBİLEK, Ergül; ÜNSAL, İbrahim

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between Down syndrome and the level of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) in amniotic fluid. A total of 279 amniotic fluid samples taken between 14 and 24 gestational weeks were investigated in this study. Karyotype analysis was made in all samples. In 10 samples trisomy 21 was determined, in one sample trisomy 18, in two samples 47,XXY, in six samples various structural chromosomal anomalies and in 260 samples normal karyotype. PLA...

  17. Maternal and fetal characteristics associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balchin, Imelda; Whittaker, John C; Lamont, Ronald F;

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF.......To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF....

  18. Phthalates and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid in Human Amniotic Fluid: Temporal Trends and Timing of Amniocentesis in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Morten Sondergaard; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Toft, Gunnar; Hougaard, David M.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Cohen, Arieh; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Ivell, Richard; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Lindh, Christian; Jönsson, Bo A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Measures of prenatal environmental exposures are important, and amniotic fluid levels may directly reflect fetal exposures during hypothesized windows of vulnerability. Objectives: We aimed to detect various phthalate metabolites and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in human amniotic fluid, to study temporal exposure trends, and to estimate potential associations with gestational week of amniocentesis and maternal age and parity at amniocentesis. Methods: We studied 300 randoml...

  19. Accumulation in murine amniotic fluid of halothane and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, B R; Ghantous, H; Dencker, L

    1984-11-01

    The distribution of radioactivity in pregnant mice was registered at 0, 4, and 24 hrs after a 10 min. period of inhalation of 14C-halothane. Autoradiographic methods were used to allow to distinguish between the distribution of volatile (non-metabolize) halothane, water-soluble metabolites, and firmly tissue-bound metabolites. While volatile radioactivity was seen predominantly at short survival intervals, e.g. in body fat, blood, brain and liver, metabolites accumulated with time. Peak values occurred at 4 hrs in most organs (measured with liquid scintillation as well). The most remarkable findings were the high concentrations of radioactivity in amniotic fluid (and the ocular fluids of adults) with peak values at 4 hrs and rather high concentrations still prevailing at 24 hrs after inhalation. It is assumed that this activity represents only partly volaile halothane and mostly non-volatile metabolites. High activity of metabolites was seen in the neuroepithelium of the embryo in early gestation. Firmly tissue-bound metabolites, still remaining after washing the tissues with trichloroacetic acid and organic solvents, were found in the nasal mucosa, trachea and bronchial tree and in (presumably centrilobular) zones of the liver of adults after inhalation and 5-day old mice after intraperitoneal injection, indicating the formation of reactive metabolites in these organs. Firmly tissue-bound activity was not observed in the corresponding foetal organs. PMID:6528811

  20. The Ratio of Testosteron and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in the Amniotic Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate fetal sex-hormonal status before delivery, testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured in 64 amniotic fluid samples at midgestation by radioimmunoassay method. The mean concentration of testosterone in amniotic fluid of 37 cases carrying male fetus was 90.7 pg/ml and 27 cases carrying female fetus was 62.3 pg/ml. The mean amniotic fluid FSH concentration of male fetus was 1.15 mIU/ml and of female fetus was 11.98 mIU/ml. The amniotic fluid testosterone and FSH' concentrations had statistical difference between male and female fetuses. The ratio of testosterone over FSH in the amniotic fluid was 231.2 in female, 9.8 in female respectively and very significant difference was noticed. The levels of testosterone/FSH greater than 25 were found over 92% of male fetus and lesser than 25 were found over 92% female fetus. Measurement of testosterone and FSH especially testosterone/FSH ratio in amniotic fluid in midgestation may be an adjunct to other method of fetal sex determination.

  1. An assessment of the accuracy of visual diagnosis of meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The assessment of meconium content in the amniotic fluid depends on visual observation by clinicians at the bedside. The aim of the present study was to compare visual evaluation of meconium-stained amniotic fluid with spectrophotometer evaluation. Study Design: Ten gram of meconium was added to 100 ml of amniotic fluid and mixed. The solution was serially two-fold diluted with amniotic fluid. The serially diluted tubes' absorbance spectrum was measured at 420 nm and thus a standard scale was established. Ninety five samples of meconium- stained amniotic fluid were collected from labouring women and the grade of meconium was deter- mined visually at the bedside. The samples' absorbance spectrum was measured at 420 nm and recorded. Spectrophotometer was considered gold standard and the ranges of optical density in the standard scale was used to test the accuracy of visual categorization of the samples. In the statistical analysis chi-square test was used and significance was p<0.05. Results: The accuracy rate of visual diagnosis of meconium-stained amniotic fluid were found as statistically significant (accuracy rate=54.74%, p<0.001). Visual evaluation was correct in 19.4% of thin, 53.1 % of moderate and 90.6% of thick meconium samples when examined with spectrophotometer. Conclusion: Visually diagnosed thin meconium can be moderate or thick meconium when examined objectively. The visual diagnosis at bedside is not always reliable and should be replaced with an objective method like spectrophotometry. (author)

  2. Proteomic profiling of the amniotic fluid to detect inflammation, infection, and neonatal sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin S Buhimschi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid shows the presence of biomarkers characteristic of intrauterine inflammation. We sought to validate prospectively the clinical utility of one such proteomic profile, the Mass Restricted (MR score. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled 169 consecutive women with singleton pregnancies admitted with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. All women had a clinically indicated amniocentesis to rule out intra-amniotic infection. A proteomic fingerprint (MR score was generated from fresh samples of amniotic fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization (SELDI mass spectrometry. Presence or absence of the biomarkers of the MR score was interpreted in relationship to the amniocentesis-to-delivery interval, placental inflammation, and early-onset neonatal sepsis for all neonates admitted to the Newborn Special Care Unit (n = 104. Women with "severe" amniotic fluid inflammation (MR score of 3 or 4 had shorter amniocentesis-to-delivery intervals than women with "no" (MR score of 0 inflammation or even "minimal" (MR score of 1 or 2 inflammation (median [range] MR 3-4: 0.4 d [0.0-49.6 d] versus MR 1-2: 3.8 d [0.0-151.2 d] versus MR 0: 17.0 d [0.1-94.3 d], p 100 cells/mm3, whereas the combination of Gram stain and MR score was best for rapid prediction of intra-amniotic infection (positive amniotic fluid culture. CONCLUSIONS: High MR scores are associated with preterm delivery, histological chorioamnionitis, and early-onset neonatal sepsis. In this study, proteomic analysis of amniotic fluid was shown to be the most accurate test for diagnosis of intra-amniotic inflammation, whereas addition of the MR score to the Gram stain provides the best combination of tests to rapidly predict infection.

  3. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid i...

  4. Radioimmunoassay of alpha-foeto protein in the amniotic fluid in normal and pathological pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay of AFP was developed and the normal amniotic concentrations of this protein were measured as a function of the gestation age. The specific reagents used included a rabbit anti-AFP serum and a highly purified preparation of AFP labelled with 125I, which also served as a standard. Amniotic fluid was drawn off by amniocentesis between the 11th and 40th week following the last menstrual period. Samples of amniotic fluid were also obtained in 2 cases of foetal death in utero and 3 cases of anencephaly. The normal amniotic AFP concentration limits were particularly well established between the 14th and 18th weeks, an ideal period to perform an amniocentesis both from a technical viewpoint and with regard to the bulk of information obtainable for the antenatal diagnosis of many congenital diseases. The concentrations observed in pathological cases were distinctly higher than the upper 95% confidence limit of normal values for the gestation age considered

  5. Amniotic fluid as a source of multipotent cells for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce K; Chan, Michael K; Liu, Li; Basch, Ross S

    2016-04-01

    Amniotic fluid cells (AFC) from 2nd trimester amniocentesis have been found to be a source of multipotent stem cells which might overcome the limitations of expansion, histocompatibility, tumorigenesis, and ethical issues associated with using human embryonic cells, umbilical cord, cord blood, bone marrow, and induced pluripotent cells. Previous work by our group and others demonstrated multipotency and the ability to grow well in culture. However, all these studies were done in media containing fetal calf serum. We sought to observe the properties of AFC grown in serum-free media as that would be required for clinical transplantation in humans. Fresh samples were obtained from three patients, and each sample divided into a culture whose cells were not exposed to fetal calf serum, and the other half into a standard culture medium containing fetal calf serum. Doubling time and stem cell marker expression by flow cytometry were assessed. Differentiation to neural, osteoid, and chondrogenic lineages was induced using appropriate media and confirmed by fluorescent microscopy, histology, and immunohistochemistry. There were no statistically significant differences between cells grown serum-free and in standard media in any of these parameters. The data supports the possibility of clinical use of AFC in stem cell transplantation. PMID:26115489

  6. Amniotic fluid - a source for clinical therapeutics in the newborn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Åsa; Qian, Hong; Westgren, Magnus; Le Blanc, Katarina; Fossum, Magdalena; Götherström, Cecilia

    2015-06-15

    Congenital malformations are the leading cause of deaths during the neonatal period. Infants with prenatally diagnosed soft tissue defects may benefit from readily available autologous tissue for surgical implantation perinatally. In this study we investigated the cell content of amniotic fluid (AF) and its suitability for isolation and expansion of autologous cells for clinical use. Second trimester AF was obtained at routine amniocentesis at mean gestational week+day 16+2 (n=54). To investigate the cell content, freshly harvested AF cells (AFC) were analyzed for different cell lineages by flow cytometry. To evaluate the isolation and expansion potential of AFC, isolation by plastic adherence was evaluated with three cell culture media and positive selection of CD117, CD133, CD271, and fibroblast cells were evaluated with minimum essential medium alpha culture media. Both the positive (+) and the negative (-) fractions were analyzed. Surface expression, senescence, immunogenicity, colony forming, proliferation, and differentiation capacity was examined. In the nonhematopoietic, nonendothelial fraction of freshly harvested AF (n=17), 0.13% cells were CD73(+)/CD117(+) and 0.12% CD73(+)/CD271(+). AF displayed large donor variability with varying isolation and expansion success (n=30). The proliferative, differentiative, colony forming capacity and time before senescence also showed high variance. AFC had a preference for osteogenic rather than adipogenic lineages. Most culture-expanded AFC expressed mesenchymal but not hematopoietic surface epitopes. AFC expanded in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium showed higher immunogenic characteristics. This study shows that AF is a heterogeneous cell source, with high donor variation. Therefore, it may not be the best source for autologous cell therapy. PMID:25668721

  7. The effect of amniotic membrane extract on umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell expansion: is there any need to save the amniotic membrane besides the umbilical cord blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Zahra; Babaei, Ali; Vasaghi, Attiyeh; Habibagahi, Mojtaba; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Umbilical cord blood is a good source of the mesenchymal stem cells that can be banked, expanded and used in regenerative medicine. The objective of this study was to test whether amniotic membrane extract, as a rich source of growth factors such as basic-fibroblast growth factor, can promote the proliferation potential of the umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. Materials and Methods: The study design was interventional. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from voluntary healthy infants from hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, cultured in the presence of basic-fibroblast growth factor and amniotic membrane extracts (from pooled - samples), and compared with control cultures. Proliferation assay was performed and duplication number and time were calculated. The expression of stem cell’s specific markers and the differentiation capacity toward osteogenic and adipogenic lineages were evaluated. Results: Amniotic membrane extract led to a significant increase in the proliferation rate and duplication number and a decrease in the duplication time without any change in the cell morphology. Both amniotic membrane extract and basic-fibroblast growth factor altered the expressing of CD44 and CD105 in cell population. Treating basic-fibroblast growth factor but not the amniotic membrane extract favored the differentiation potential of the stem cells toward osteogenic lineage. Conclusion: The amniotic membrane extract administration accelerated cell proliferation and modified the CD marker characteristics which may be due to the induction of differentiation toward a specific lineage. Amniotic membrane extract may enhance the proliferation rate and duplication number of the stem cell through changing the duplication time. PMID:27096069

  8. Amniotic fluid 'sludge' detected in patients with subchorionic hematoma: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskitishvili, E; Tomimatsu, T; Kanagawa, T; Sawada, K; Kinugasa, Y; Mimura, K; Kimura, T

    2009-04-01

    Amniotic fluid 'sludge' is defined as the presence of dense aggregates of particulate matter in close proximity to the internal cervical os. It is of clinical significance in asymptomatic patients at high risk for spontaneous delivery, and in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Subchorionic hematoma is another ultrasound finding that is associated with a higher incidence of threatened miscarriage and preterm delivery. We report two cases of occurrence of amniotic fluid sludge in patients with previously detected large subchorionic hematoma. In the first case subchorionic hematoma and amniotic fluid sludge were detected by ultrasonography at 13 + 1 and 18 + 6 weeks' gestation, respectively, followed by preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption and emergency Cesarean section. In the second case subchorionic hematoma and amniotic fluid sludge were detected by ultrasound at 11 + 3 and 15 + 5 weeks' gestation, respectively, followed by miscarriage with histological chorioamnionitis. The coincidence of subchorionic hematoma and amniotic fluid sludge in these cases points to a possible connection between these two significant ultrasound findings. PMID:19308930

  9. False positive gel-acetylcholinesterase results in blood-stained amniotic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, R D; Cuckle, H S; Wald, N J; Rodeck, C H

    1982-10-01

    The effect of blood contamination on the gel-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test used in the diagnosis of fetal open neural-tube defects was studied with amniotic fluid samples artificially contaminated with fetal or maternal blood in concentrations covering a range exceeding that usually found in clinical practice. Amniotic fluid samples contaminated with maternal blood gave negative gel-AChE results at all concentrations. Contamination with fetal blood yielded positive results if the erythrocyte concentration was greater than about 60 x 10(6) cells/ml. Thus contamination of amniotic fluid with blood is only likely to cause false positive gel-AChE results if this critical concentration is exceeded. Such samples will occur only rarely in clinical practice but when they do the diagnosis should be made with caution. PMID:7126503

  10. Human amniotic fluid derived cells can competently substitute dermal fibroblasts in a tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Hosper, Nynke; Luginbuehl, Joachim; Biedermann, Thomas; Reichmann, Ernst; Meuli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. In this experimental study, we investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid derived cells to substitute dermal fibroblasts and support epidermis formati

  11. Isolation and characterization of canine amniotic membrane-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Bum Park

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that amniotic membrane tissue is a rich source of stem cells in humans. In clinical applications, the amniotic membrane tissue had therapeutic effects on wound healing and corneal surface reconstruction. Here, we successfully isolated and identified multipotent stem cells (MSCs from canine amniotic membrane tissue. We cultured the canine amniotic membrane-derived multipotent stem cells (cAM-MSCs in low glucose DMEM medium. cAM-MSCs have a fibroblast-like shape and adhere to tissue culture plastic. We characterized the immunophenotype of cAM-MSCs by flow cytometry and measured cell proliferation by the cumulative population doubling level (CPDL. We performed differentiation studies for the detection of trilineage multipotent ability, under the appropriate culture conditions. Taken together, our results show that cAM-MSCs could be a rich source of stem cells in dogs. Furthermore, cAM-MSCs may be useful as a cell therapy application for veterinary regenerative medicine.

  12. Amniotic fluid and colostrum as potential diets in the critical care of preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Viberg Østergaard, Mette; Torp Sangild, Per

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic fluid is the enteral “diet” of the developing fetus, while the first mammary gland secretion, colostrum, is the natural diet of the newborn mammal. Both diets contain nutrients but also growth factors, immune-modulating components, and antibacterial agents that support perinatal organ...... species independent, maybe allowing colostrum from one species (i.e., lactating cows) to be used as the first enteral diet for infants for whom mother’s milk is lacking. The use of amniotic fluid and bovine colostrum in the critical care of neonates is still at an experimental stage, but animal studies...

  13. A new approach to the pathomechanism of amniotic fluid embolism:unknown role of amniotic cells in the induction of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mieczyslaw Uszyński; Waldemar Uszyński

    2012-01-01

    There are four concepts (theories) of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). The aim of the study was to perform their critical review and to popularize a novel integrated concept. We searched Medline (from its inception to 2011), using key words:amniotic fluid embolism, amniotic cells, tissue factor, leukotriene and microparticles. Articles most eligible for the study of etiopathomechanism of AFE were chosen by title and/or abstract contents. The analysis of the publications revealed that:(i) the integrated concept of AFE is an adequate tool to interpret the complication, being particularly useful for taking direct therapeutic decisions; (ii) disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in this complication is induced not by tissue factor (TF) of amniotic origin but by spectacular procoagulant activity of apoptosis-affected amniotic cells. Descriptions of molecular processes were provided. In clonclusioin, there are two independent pathways of AFE-the DIC pathway and the leukotriene pathway. It is not the TF but the apoptosis-affected amniotic cells that are responsible for the process of DIC in AFE. 3. One of the therapeutic conclusions of the new approach to the concept of AFE indicates that attempts to use heparin in AFE are justified (at the onset of the complication).

  14. Peptidomic Analysis of Amniotic Fluid for Identification of Putative Bioactive Peptides in Ventricular Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ventricular septal defect (VSD is one of the most common congenital heart diseases and to date the role of peptides in human amniotic fluid in the pathogenesis of VSD have been rarely investigated. Methods: To gain insight into the mechanisms of protein and peptides in cardiovascular development, we constructed a comparative peptidomic profiling of human amniotic fluid between normal and VSD fetuses using a stable isobaric labeling strategy involving tandem mass tag reagents, followed by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results: We identified and quantified 692 non-redundant peptides, 183 of which were differentially expressed in the amniotic fluid of healthy and VSD fetuses; 69 peptides were up regulated and 114 peptides were down regulated. These peptides were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA and identified putative roles in cardiovascular system morphogenesis and cardiogenesis. Conclusion: We concluded that 35 peptides located within the functional domains of their precursor proteins could be candidate bioactive peptides for VSD. The identified peptide changes in amniotic fluid of VSD fetuses may advance our current understanding of congenital heart disease and these peptides may be involved in the etiology of VSD.

  15. ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FETAL SERUM, AMNIOTIC-FLUID, AND MATERNAL SERUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLOON, AJ; MANTINGH, A; DEWOLF, BTHM; BREED, ASPM

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain more insight into the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and fetal chromosomal disorders, especially Down's syndrome, we measured AFP in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum at cordocentesis. We compared the concentration and gradient of AFP in these three compar

  16. EVALUATION OF AMNIOT IC FLUID VOLUME AND ITS RELATION TO PERINATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amniotic fluid is an indicator of placental function on the fetal development. The AFI is the most commonly used method of measuring amniotic fluid. AIMS: We aimed to study the amniotic fluid volume in pregnancies beyond 34 weeks of gestation and to evalu ate the predictive value of amniotic fluid index (AFI 5 cm during one year from August 2013 to July 2014. The women's history, clinical examination recorded and AFI were measured using the Phelan's technique and the perinatal outcome compared between the two groups i.e. AFI 5cm. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi - square test was carried out at 5% (  =0.05 level of significance to analyze the collected data for final outcome. RESULTS: Labour was induced in 30% in group A as compared to 18% in group B. Induction of labour was significantly less in cases with AFI>5 cm of same gestational age group. The non - reassuring fetal heart rate were recorded more often in group A i.e. AFI < 5 cm. The incidence of meconium sta ining in caesarean section and low 5 min Apgar score was higher in patients with oligohydramnios i.e. AFI < 5 cm (p=0.015, 0.012, 0.027 respectively. There was no significant difference in NICU admissions and perinatal death between the two groups. CONCLUSIO N: Amniotic fluid index is a helpful tool in determining the high risk patients during labour and AFI < 5 cm is one of the indicators of comparatively poor perinatal outcome.

  17. Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Boberg, Julie; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The...... pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides...... detected in urine demonstrated the exposure as well as the ability of the rat to excrete these compounds....

  18. Association between fetal weight and amniotic fluid index in women of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Wadnere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The placenta is important for fetal growth and well-being. Defective placentation and impaired placental circulation may result in anomalies in fetal growth. Placental volume in the second trimester appears to be closely related to the neonatal weight. The association of body weight with urine output has been observed in human neonates. Our goal is to assess the association of the amniotic fluid index (AFI with the estimated fetal weight (EFW. Materials and Methods : Thirteen hundred and ninety-three pregnant women were prospectively studied by means of an ultrasound over a 12-month period. The fetal weight (FW was estimated using a combination of fetal parameters - bi-parietal diameter, fetal trunk cross-sectional area, and femur length. AFI was assessed using the four quadrant method. The level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Result s: There was no statistically significant association between AFI and EFW (P > 0.05; r = 0.413. We also did not find a significant association between AFI and EFW for all subdivisions of gestation age, except in the 24 - 28 weeks and 29 - 32 weeks′ groups. Conclusion : The FW calculations and amniotic index show a variation in values in late pregnancy. There does not appear to be a linear association between the ultrasound estimate of FW and the amniotic index. The implication of this is that the fetal size need not be taken into cognizance when alterations in amniotic fluid values are noted.

  19. STUDY OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN AMNIOTIC FLUID FOR ASSESSMENT OF FOETAL MATURITY IN CASES OF NORMAL PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of foetal maturity had been proven of value in evaluating the foetal condition. Accurate assessment of foetal maturity is essential for the proper timing of delivery in various risk pregnancies. Amniotic Fluid analysis for foetal maturity had been of proven value. In the present study, study of biochemical parameters in amniotic fluid in respect of Creatinine, Uric Acid, Urea, Total Proteins, and Electrolytes i.e. Sodium, Potassium and Chloride has been done, along with Serum Electrolytes. Standard methodologies were adopted. The observations in the present study correlated with the works of Chadick et al and Pitkin and Zwirek. The levels of Creatinine, Uric Acid and Urea in Amniotic Fluid showed elevation, while Total Proteins and Serum Sodium showed a decline, as gestation progressed. The Serum and Amniotic Fluid Potassium and Chloride levels remain almost constant throughout the pregnancy. Thus, it is observed that the use of multiple parameters is desirable for accurate assessment of foetal maturity.

  20. Multidimensional proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid to provide insight into the mechanisms of idiopathic preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Buhimschi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though recent advancement in proteomics has provided a novel perspective on several distinct pathogenetic mechanisms leading to preterm birth (inflammation, bleeding, the etiology of most preterm births still remains elusive. We conducted a multidimensional proteomic analysis of the amniotic fluid to identify pathways related to preterm birth in the absence of inflammation or bleeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A proteomic fingerprint was generated from fresh amniotic fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorbtion ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a total of 286 consecutive samples retrieved from women who presented with signs or symptoms of preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Inflammation and/or bleeding proteomic patterns were detected in 32% (92/286 of the SELDI tracings. In the remaining tracings, a hierarchical algorithm was applied based on descriptors quantifying similarity/dissimilarity among proteomic fingerprints. This allowed identification of a novel profile (Q-profile based on the presence of 5 SELDI peaks in the 10-12.5 kDa mass area. Women displaying the Q-profile (mean+/-SD, gestational age: 25+/-4 weeks, n = 40 were more likely to deliver preterm despite expectant management in the context of intact membranes and normal amniotic fluid clinical results. Utilizing identification-centered proteomics techniques (fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, robotic tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry coupled with Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER ontological classifications, we determined that in amniotic fluids with Q-profile the differentially expressed proteins are primarily involved in non-inflammatory biological processes such as protein metabolism, signal transduction and transport. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid coupled with non-hierarchical bioinformatics algorithms identified a

  1. Amniotic fluid infection syndrome in private and non-private patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, G H; Woods, D L; Malan, A F; Sinclair-Smith, C C

    1987-11-01

    The incidence of placental histological evidence of amniotic fluid infection syndrome (AFIS) was studied in two groups of patients delivered at term. One group received private medical care during pregnancy, while the other patients were delivered at a midwife obstetric unit. There was no significant difference in histological evidence of AFIS in the private patient (22%) and non-private patient (28%) groups. PMID:3686296

  2. Maternal Serum and Amniotic Fluid Inhibin A Levels in Women who Subsequently Develop Severe Preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Shin-Young; Ryu, Hyun-Mee; Yang, Jae-Hyug; Kim, Moon-Young; Ahn, Hyun-Kyong; Shin, Joong-Sik; Choi, Jun-Seek; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Mi; Lee, Bom-Yi; Kim, Do-Jin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether maternal serum (MS) and amniotic fluid (AF) inhibin A levels are elevated in patients who subsequently develop severe preecalmpsia, and to investigate the correlation between MS and AF inhibin A levels in the second trimester. The study included 40 patients who subsequently developed severe preecalmpsia and 80 normal pregnant women. Inhibin A levels in MS and AF were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The MS and AF inhibi...

  3. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count

    OpenAIRE

    Višnjevac Jovana; Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra; Nikolić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondi...

  4. Modulation of intestinal inflammation by minimal enteral nutrition with amniotic fluid in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette V; Bering, Stine Brandt; Jensen, Michael L;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder, associated with the difficult transition from parenteral to enteral feeding after preterm birth. We hypothesized that minimal enteral nutrition (MEN) with amniotic fluid (AF), prior to enteral formula feeding, would...... in preterm pigs. Further studies are required to show if MEN feeding with species-specific AF, combined with an optimal enteral diet (eg, human milk), will improve adaptation during the transition from parenteral to enteral feeding in preterm neonates....

  5. Studies on the origin of human amniotic fluid cells by immunofluorescent staining of keratin filaments.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W. W.

    1982-01-01

    Cultivated cells obtained by amniocentesis for antenatal diagnosis were examined for the presence of keratin filaments by immunofluorescent staining techniques. In primary cultures, cells in fibroblast type colonies do not possess keratin filaments whereas cells in epithelial type colonies show positive staining of keratin fibres. The majority of cells in amniotic fluid type colonies also stain positively with antikeratin antibody. After the primary cells have been subcultured, most of them a...

  6. 人类羊水源类ES细胞多能性干细胞的分离培养%ISOLATION AND CUTURE EMBRYONIC STEM-LIKE CELLS DERIVED HUMAN AMNIOTIC FLUID CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华进联; 刘雨潇; 董武子

    2004-01-01

    @@ Stem cells are classified into embryonic stem (ES) cells and adult stem cells, which are the progenitors of any cell types of the body or tissues, and have the ability to self-renew and produce one or more differentiated cell types.

  7. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count

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    Višnjevac Jovana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondition for a good lung function after birth. Lamellar bodies are a form of stored surfactant, and their count in the amniotic fluid can be determined simply by a standard hematology analyzer. The method of determining lamellar body count has found an important place in prenatal diagnostics and is recommended as an initial method of a ”cascade” procedure of testing fetal lung maturity. However, considering the importance of procedure of sample collection, storage and centrifugation, which can significantly affect the results obtained for the lung maturity, the amniotic fluid samples must be absolutely free of contamination with blood, meconium, mucus, bacteria and leucocytes.

  8. Maternal Plasma and Amniotic Fluid Chemokines Screening in Fetal Down Syndrome

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    Piotr Laudanski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Chemokines exert different inflammatory responses which can potentially be related to certain fetal chromosomal abnormalities. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of selected chemokines in plasma and amniotic fluid of women with fetal Down syndrome. Method. Out of 171 amniocentesis, we had 7 patients with confirmed fetal Down syndrome (15th–18th weeks of gestation. For the purpose of our control, we chose 14 women without confirmed chromosomal aberration. To assess the concentration of chemokines in the blood plasma and amniotic fluid, we used a protein macroarray, which allows the simultaneous determination of 40 chemokines per sample. Results. We showed significant decrease in the concentration of 4 chemokines, HCC-4, IL-28A, IL-31, and MCP-2, and increase in the concentration of CXCL7 (NAP-2 in plasma of women with fetal Down syndrome. Furthermore, we showed decrease in concentration of 3 chemokines, ITAC, MCP-3, MIF, and increase in concentration of 4 chemokines, IP-10, MPIF-1, CXCL7, and 6Ckine, in amniotic fluid of women with fetal Down syndrome. Conclusion. On the basis of our findings, our hypothesis is that the chemokines may play role in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. Defining their potential as biochemical markers of Down syndrome requires further investigation on larger group of patients.

  9. Concentrations of Mineral in Amniotic Fluid and Their Relations to Selected Maternal and Fetal Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, J; Kocyłowski, R; Komorowicz, I; Grzesiak, M; Bogdański, P; Barałkiewicz, D

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of various trace elements in amniotic fluid (AF) change over the course of pregnancy, with gestational age and fetus growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of selected essential and toxic elements in AF and their relations to maternal and fetal parameters. The study was carried out in 39 pregnant women, aged 34.6 ± 4.7 years, between weeks 16 and 26 of gestation. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained during the standard procedure of amniocentesis in high-risk patients for chromosomal abnormalities. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique was used to determine the levels of Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, U, and V in AF. Body mass and blood pressure were measured in all the women. The basic parameters of fetal development were also assayed. It was found that the age of the mother, the gender of the fetus, and the week of the pregnancy may affect the concentrations of mineral in the amniotic fluid. Moreover, several significant correlations between the essential and toxic elements and maternal and fetal parameters were observed. In particular, negative and positive correlations between fetal parameters and magnesium and copper levels in AF, respectively, were seen. The present findings demonstrate the association between minerals in AF and fetal development. PMID:26547910

  10. The ways of amniotic fluid sampling and its influence on lamellar body count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnjevac, Jovana; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Even though artificial surfactant is now available, respiratory distress syndrome still remains a serious problem in neonatology. Prenatal analysis of the amniotic fluid can provide data giving insight into the fetal lung maturity, which enables planning of the further outcome of high-risk pregnancies. Surfactant prevents atelectasis by forming a layer rich in phospholipids between the air and liquid phase in alveoli thus leading to increased surface tension in them, which is a precondition for a good lung function after birth. Lamellar bodies are a form of stored surfactant, and their count in the amniotic fluid can be determined simply by a standard hematology analyzer. The method of determining lamellar body count has found an important place in prenatal diagnostics and is recommended as an initial method of a "cascade" procedure of testing fetal lung maturity. However, considering the importance of procedure of sample collection, storage and centrifugation, which can significantly affect the results obtained for the lung maturity, the amniotic fluid samples must be absolutely free of contamination with blood, meconium, mucus, bacteria and leucocytes. PMID:21443154

  11. Free dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone in human amniotic fluid and prediction of gonadal pex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to correlate the gonadal production of male sex hormones with overall steroidogenic activity of the fetus, unconjugated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone were measured in amniotic fluids from midpregnancies with male and female fetuses by highly specific radioimmunoassay. The antiserum was raised in rabbits with 3β-hydroxy-17-oxo-5-androsten-19-al 19-carboxymethyloxime BSA as immunogen and its cross reactions with several steroids were checked. Significantly higher testosterone level was found in amniotic fluid from male fetuses (average concentration 249 +- 109 pg.ml-1 from males as compared with 70 +- 38 pg.ml-1 from females), whereas the difference in DHEA concentration was insignificant (184 +- 96 pg.ml-1 for males vs. 177+-92 pg.ml-1 for females). The positive correlation between testosterone and DHEA concentrations (r=0.53) was found only in amniotic fluids from pregnancies bearing male fetuses indicating that in males more DHEA may originate from fetal gonads. (author)

  12. Human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal cells from fetuses with a neural tube defect do not deposit collagen type i protein after TGF-β1 stimulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosper, Nynke A; Bank, Ruud A; van den Berg, Paul P

    2014-03-01

    In spina bifida, the neural tube fails to close during the embryonic period. Exposure of the neural tube to the amniotic fluid during pregnancy causes additional neural damage. Intrauterine tissue engineering using a biomaterial seeded with stem cells might prevent this additional damage. For this purpose, autologous cells from the amniotic fluid are an attractive source. To close the defect, it is important that these cells deposit an extracellular matrix. However, it is not known if amniotic fluid mesenchymal cells (AFMCs) from a fetus with a neural tube defect (NTD) share the same characteristics as AFMCs from a healthy fetus. We found that cells derived from fetuses with a NTD, in contrast to healthy human amniotic fluid cells, did not deposit collagen type I. Furthermore, the NTD cells showed, compared with both healthy amniotic fluid cells and fetal fibroblasts, much lower mRNA expression levels of genes that are involved in collagen biosynthesis [procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer proteins (PCOLCE), PCOLCE2, ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 2 (ADAMTS2), ADAMTS14]. This indicates that NTD-AFMCs have different characteristics compared with healthy AFMCs and might not be suitable for fetal therapy to close the defect in spina bifida patients. PMID:24171700

  13. Rapid Detection of Group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli in Amniotic Fluid Using Real-Time Fluorescent PCR

    OpenAIRE

    David Stamilio; Stephen Golden; David Streitman; Sara Stassen; Oswald Johnson; Camille Blackmon; Wifred Dela Cruz; Michele Straka

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish reliability and validity of real-time fluorescent PCR for early detection of bacterial invasion of the amniotic cavity. METHODS: Amniotic fluid samples from 40 patients undergoing mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis were incubated for 6 h at 37 degrees C and were cultured on media specific for group B streptococcus (GBS) and E. coli. Concurrently, samples were analyzed with real-time fluorescent PCR (Roche LightCycler) using DNA primers and probes designed to detect th...

  14. Polyhydramnios in Lrp4 knockout mice with bilateral kidney agenesis: Defects in the pathways of amniotic fluid clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Hiroshi; Tian, Qing-Bao; Hara, Yoshinobu; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Endo, Shogo; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid volume during mid-to-late gestation depends mainly on the urine excretion from the foetal kidneys and partly on the fluid secretion from the foetal lungs during foetal breathing-like movements. Urine is necessary for foetal breathing-like movements, which is critical for foetal lung development. Bilateral renal agenesis and/or obstruction of the urinary tract lead to oligohydramnios, which causes infant death within a short period after birth due to pulmonary hypoplasia. Lrp4, which functions as an agrin receptor, is essential for the formation of neuromuscular junctions. Herein, we report novel phenotypes of Lrp4 knockout (Lrp4−/−) mice. Most Lrp4−/− foetuses showed unilateral or bilateral kidney agenesis, and Lrp4 knockout resulted in polyhydramnios. The loss of Lrp4 compromised foetal swallowing and breathing-like movements and downregulated the expression of aquaporin-9 in the foetal membrane and aquaporin-1 in the placenta, which possibly affected the amniotic fluid clearance. These results suggest that amniotic fluid removal was compromised in Lrp4−/− foetuses, resulting in polyhydramnios despite the impairment of urine production. Our findings indicate that amniotic fluid removal plays an essential role in regulating the amniotic fluid volume. PMID:26847765

  15. Polyhydramnios in Lrp4 knockout mice with bilateral kidney agenesis: Defects in the pathways of amniotic fluid clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Hiroshi; Tian, Qing-Bao; Hara, Yoshinobu; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Endo, Shogo; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid volume during mid-to-late gestation depends mainly on the urine excretion from the foetal kidneys and partly on the fluid secretion from the foetal lungs during foetal breathing-like movements. Urine is necessary for foetal breathing-like movements, which is critical for foetal lung development. Bilateral renal agenesis and/or obstruction of the urinary tract lead to oligohydramnios, which causes infant death within a short period after birth due to pulmonary hypoplasia. Lrp4, which functions as an agrin receptor, is essential for the formation of neuromuscular junctions. Herein, we report novel phenotypes of Lrp4 knockout (Lrp4(-/-)) mice. Most Lrp4(-/-) foetuses showed unilateral or bilateral kidney agenesis, and Lrp4 knockout resulted in polyhydramnios. The loss of Lrp4 compromised foetal swallowing and breathing-like movements and downregulated the expression of aquaporin-9 in the foetal membrane and aquaporin-1 in the placenta, which possibly affected the amniotic fluid clearance. These results suggest that amniotic fluid removal was compromised in Lrp4(-/-) foetuses, resulting in polyhydramnios despite the impairment of urine production. Our findings indicate that amniotic fluid removal plays an essential role in regulating the amniotic fluid volume. PMID:26847765

  16. Isolamento, caracterização e diferenciação de células-tronco mesenquimais do líquido amniótico equino obtido em diferentes idades gestacionais Isolation, characterization and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine amniotic fluid obtained from different gestacional ages

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    Bruna De Vita

    2013-04-01

    potencial de diferenciação em linhagens extra mesodermais já relatados na literatura.The interest in stem cells derived from fetal annexes of many species has exponentially increased during the last decades, because they are adult stem cell sources with potential of differentiation in several cell lineages; which present little or no immunogenicity and are an alternative with great importance for storage cell banks. Despite the rising interest, studies for the equine species are still rare. The aim of this study was to isolate, characterize and differentiate mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine amniotic fluid obtained from initial, middle and late third of gestation (AF-MSCs, and compare their results. Twenty three samples from equine amniotic fluid were evaluated by morphological, immunocytochemical and immunophenotypical (Flow cytometer assays and osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. All samples demonstrated plastic adhesion and fibroblastoid morphology. The immunocytochemical assay demonstrated cells from all the studied groups were positive for CD44, PCNA and vimentin and negative for cytokeratin and Oct-4. Flow cytometry demonstrated expression of CD44 and CD90 and no expression of CD34, where CD44 and CD90 markers presented decreasing pattern of expression in relation to the gestational development. All samples collected from all gestational phases were capable to differentiate in osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages. Thus, cells obtained from equine amniotic fluid presented morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics and potential of differentiation typical of MSCs showing that the collection can be performed at any stage of pregnancy. However, more studies should be performed about the expression of pluripotent markers as Oct-4 and the differentiation potential for extra mesodermal lineages prior demonstrated in the literature.

  17. Soluble leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 in amniotic fluid is of fetal origin and positively associates with lung compliance.

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    Michiel L Houben

    Full Text Available The soluble form of the inhibitory immune receptor leukocyte-Associated Ig-like Receptor-1 (sLAIR-1 is present in plasma, urine and synovial fluid and correlates to inflammation. We and others previously showed inflammatory protein expression in normal amniotic fluid at term. We hypothesized that sLAIR-1 is present in amniotic fluid during term parturition and is related to fetal lung function development. sLAIR-1 was detectable in all amniotic fluid samples (n=355 collected during term spontaneous deliveries. First, potential intra-uterine origins of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 were explored. Although LAIR-1 was expressed on the surface of amniotic fluid neutrophils, LAIR-1 was not secreted upon ex vivo neutrophil stimulation with LPS, or PMA/ionomycin. Cord blood concentrations of sLAIR-1 were fourfold lower than and not related to amniotic fluid concentrations and placentas showed no or only sporadic LAIR-1 positive cells. Similarly, in post-mortem lung tissue of term neonates that died of non-pulmonary disorders LAIR-1 positive cells were absent or only sporadically present. In fetal urine samples, however, sLAIR-1 levels were even higher than in amniotic fluid and correlated with amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 concentrations. Second, the potential relevance of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 was studied. sLAIR-1 concentrations had low correlation to amniotic fluid cytokines. We measured neonatal lung function in a convenient subset of 152 infants, using the single occlusion technique, at a median age of 34 days (IQR 30-39. The amniotic fluid concentration of sLAIR-1 was independently correlated to airway compliance (ρ=0.29, P=.001. Taken together, we show the consistent presence of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid, which originates from fetal urine. Concentrations of sLAIR-1 in amniotic fluid during term deliveries are independent from levels of other soluble immune mediators. The positive association between concentrations of amniotic fluid sLAIR-1 and neonatal lung

  18. Transcriptome adaptation of group B Streptococcus to growth in human amniotic fluid.

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    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus is a bacterial pathogen that causes severe intrauterine infections leading to fetal morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of GBS infection in this environment is poorly understood, in part because we lack a detailed understanding of the adaptation of this pathogen to growth in amniotic fluid. To address this knowledge deficit, we characterized the transcriptome of GBS grown in human amniotic fluid (AF and compared it with the transcriptome in rich laboratory medium. METHODS: GBS was grown in Todd Hewitt-yeast extract medium and human AF. Bacteria were collected at mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic and stationary growth phase. We performed global expression microarray analysis using a custom-made Affymetrix GeneChip. The normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates at each growth point were obtained. AF/THY transcript ratios representing greater than a 2-fold change and P-value exceeding 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have discovered that GBS significantly remodels its transcriptome in response to exposure to human amniotic fluid. GBS grew rapidly in human AF and did not exhibit a global stress response. The majority of changes in GBS transcripts in AF compared to THY medium were related to genes mediating metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides. The majority of the observed changes in transcripts affects genes involved in basic bacterial metabolism and is connected to AF composition and nutritional requirements of the bacterium. Importantly, the response to growth in human AF included significant changes in transcripts of multiple virulence genes such as adhesins, capsule, and hemolysin and IL-8 proteinase what might have consequences for the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides extensive new information about how the transcriptome of GBS responds

  19. Using PRP and human amniotic fluid combination for osteogenesis in rabbit socket preservation

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    Amir Hossein Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is used as an adjunct treatment during periodontal grafting surgery because of its capability of enhancing healing process. Amniotic fluid is a rich source of growth factors and hyaluronic acid (HA and a good point to study its properties of wound healing and bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of a combination of amniotic fluid and PRP in rabbit′s dental socket preservation. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 24 healthy male laboratory rabbits (average weight 3,125 ± 185 gr that were randomly allocated into four groups. PRP for the first group, human amniotic fluid (HAF for the second group, a combination of PRP and HAF (PRHA for the third group was used. In the fourth (control group, no biomaterial was used. In each group, half of the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks following surgery and the rest were sacrificed after 8 weeks. Histological analysis of biopsies of the sockets was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software (version 16 and P-value <0.05 was considered significance. Results: All three experimental groups showed positive effect on bone formation in terms of area of trabecular bone and number of osteocytes and also vessel formation. Socket preservation using HAF and PRHA showed the highest impact on bone formation. Socket preservation using HAF also had the highest impact on vessel formation. Conclusion: PRHA and HAF appear to be useful for enhancing bone formation. Since there was no difference between HAF and PRHA, it seems beneficial to use HAF due to its simplicity of application.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of methylmalonic aciduria by analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA )is the most frequent disease of organic aciduria in China.Various biochemical strategies are followed for the prenatal diagnosis of MMA.However,since fetuses affected by MMA have decreased excretion of methylmalonic acid,the difficulties of prenatal biochemical diagnosis are obvious.Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS) have allowed us to identify the disease in affected fetuses.The aim of this study was to determine the value of analysis of organic acids and total homocysteine in amniotic fluid in prenatal diagnosis of MMA.Methods The clinical diagnoses and outcomes of nine probands with MMA and the prenatal diagnoses based on biochemical analysis of nine fetuses at risk for MMA were investigated.Amniotic fluid samples from pregnancies at risk for MMA and metabolically normal pregnancies were obtained at 16-24 weeks of gestation.Methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid were measured by GC/MS,propionylcarnitine was analyzed by ESI/MS/MS,and total homocysteine was determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.Results In two pregnancies,high levels of methylmalonic acid,methylcitric acid,propionylcarnitine,and total homocysteine indicated combined MMA and homocysteinemia in the fetuses.One of the mothers continued pregnancy and received cobalamin supplement as prenatal treatment,and the other terminated her pregnancy.In one pregnancy,significantly elevated levels of methylmalonic acid,methylcitric acid,and propionylcarnitine,and normal level of total homocysteine was found indicating isolated MMA in the fetus;abortion was performed on this case.In the other six pregnancies,all the levels of the above mentioned metabolites were normal suggesting that the fetuses were not affected by MMA. The diagnoses were confirmed after delivery by testing urinary organic acids and plasma total homocysteine.Conclusions The metabolic abnormalities of MMA occur early in gestation.The level of

  1. Does amniotic fluid volume affect fetofetal transfusion in monochorionic twin pregnancies? Modelling two possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umur, Asli; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Ross, Michael G.

    2002-06-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that increased amniotic fluid volume due to polyhydramnios increases placental vascular resistance. We have sought to model the possible effects of an increased amniotic fluid volume on the net fetofetal transfusion in monochorionic twin pregnancies. We wanted to compare these effects with the results of previous simulations, which aimed to explain why the twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) placentas more often include bidirectional arteriovenous (AV) rather than AV plus arterioarterial (AA) anastomoses. We extended our mathematical model of TTTS by simulating two different mechanisms that increase the placental vascular resistance as a consequence of polyhydramnios. First, there is an increase in the placental capillary resistance and hence in deep AV and opposite AV (denoted as VA) resistances due to polyhydramnios. Second, there is an increase in the resistance of chorionic veins due to polyhydramnios, assuming that these veins act as Starling resistors. We then simulated the effects of polyhydramnios on different placental anastomotic patterns. The results were as follows. In the first mechanism (polyhydramnios affects AV-VA resistances), an increased amniotic fluid volume hardly affected bidirectional AV, but slightly decreased fetofetal transfusion in AV plus AA anastomoses. However, for these effects to change the natural development of the pregnancy, polyhydramnios needed to persist for approximately 4 weeks, and by comparing the effects of polyhydramnios with the effects of amnioreduction, amnioreduction was more beneficial for normalizing the donor amniotic fluid volume. Therefore, these beneficial effects due to polyhydramnios have no practical clinical significance. In the second mechanism (Starling resistor for chorionic veins), polyhydramnios slightly increased fetofetal transfusion and hence slightly increased TTTS severity in bidirectional AV and AV plus VV, but did not affect AV plus AA anastomoses. In conclusion, we

  2. Isolation of a somatomedin binding protein from human preterm amniotic fluid: development of a radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis investigates the nature and biological behaviour of a somatomedin binding protein, identified in preterm amniotic fluid (AF). For that purpose a double antibody radioimmunoassay was developed. Purified AF binding protein (AFBP) was iodinated by the chloramine-T method, and dilutions of partially purified AFBP were designated as the standard, with the results expressed in μg equivalent protein/ml. The sensitivity of the assay was improved by adoption of the nonequilibrium procedure. AFBP values were twice as high in preterm AF as in term AF. (Auth.)

  3. The Effects of Intravenous Hydration on Amniotic Fluid Volume and Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Term Pregnancy and Oligohydramnios: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Mahnaz Shahnazi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amniotic fluid is an important factor in the prediction of fetal survival. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of intravenous hydration of mothers on amniotic fluid volume and in turn on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: The current single blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 20 pregnant mothers with amniot-ic fluid index of lower or equal to 5 cm and gestational age of 37-41 weeks. The subjects were divided into two groups of case and control through simple random sampling. Am-niotic fluid index was measured in all participants. The case group received one liter of isotonic saline during 30 minutes by the bolus method. Reevaluations of amniotic fluid index in both groups were made 90 minutes after baseline measurement. Independent t-test and paired t-test were used to compare the two groups and mean amniotic fluid in-dex before and after treatment, respectively. Results: Hydration of mothers significantly increased the amniotic fluid index in the case group (mean change: 1.5 cm; 95%CI: 0.46 - 2.64; P = 0.01. The mean change of amniotic fluid index in the control group did not significantly increase (P = 0.06. The elevation of amniotic fluid index in the hydra-tion group (32% was significantly higher than the control group (1% (P = 0.03. Conclusion: In this study intravenous hydration increased amniotic fluid index of mothers with term pregnancy and oligohydramnios. Since it caused no complications for the moth-er and the fetus, it can be used as an effective method in management of oligohydramnios.

  4. ROLE OF ECHOGENIC AMNIOTIC FLUID PARTICLES AND OPTICAL DENSITY IN PREDICTION OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME AND LABOR

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    Dr. Shankar H S Ram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to correlate echogenic amniotic fluid particle size (AFPS in late third trimester to fetal lung maturity and amniotic fluid optical density (AFOD at labor. AFPS were measured with specified criteria by real time transabdominal USG (3.5MHz while Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI was measured during routine antenatal visits. The criteria for AFPS score which are taken into account are the amniotic fluid particle size, number and distribution. Serial AFPS measurements were done till onset of labor. AFPS was correlated to AFOD value at spontaneous labor in 123 women. Uncentrifuged fresh amniotic fluid samples were obtained during ARM/amniotomy and used for AFOD estimation at 650 nm. The mean AFPS and AFOD at onset of labor was found to be 5.14 ± 0.69 mm (3.67 – 6.7 CI 95% and 1.03 ± 0.31 (0.35 -1.69 CI 95% respectively in 116 women who delivered normal babies devoid of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Serial AFPS measurements showed a definite AFOD surge after a value in the region of 3.8 mm which is obtained culminating in onset of Labor. 28 women (24.1% had dense clusters of free floating particles across the vertical pool in amniotic fluid with mean AFPS and AFOD of 5.6 ± 0.68 mm and 1.12 ± 0.21 respectively. In 123 women, AFPS < 3.8 mm had sensitivity of 85.74% and positive predictive value of 66.67% in predicting RDS. AFPS serves as a sonological marker for fetal lung maturity and labor. The range of AFOD values can be measured in terms of AFPS (r =0.6, F = 69.8, β= + 0.23, p < 0.001. Serial AFPS estimation predicts fetal maturity and onset of labor.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of thyroxine and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3) in human amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of amniotic fluid iodothyronine concentrations may enable antenatal detection of fetal thyroid abnormalities; however, the delineation of normal ranges is complicated by methodological problems associated with strong and highly variable protein-binding, and specificity of antisera. Improved radioimmunoassays of thyroxine (T4) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3, rT3) have been developed to overcome these problems. In normal pregnancy, mean rT3 concentrations at <17 weeks, 17-22 weeks and 35-42 weeks gestation were 3.6 nmol/l (n=21), 6.1 nmol/l (n=14) and 0.66 nmol/l (n=39) respectively; corresponding mean T4 concentrations were 2.4 nmol/l, 6.5 nmol/l and 3.6 nmol/l. rT3 concentrations showed a strong positive correlation with T4 concentration in each age range; however, the molar ratio of rT3 : T4 decreased progressively with gestational age, from 1.69 at <17 weeks to 0.19 at 35-42 weeks. In both mid- and late gestation, rT3 and T4 concentrations were strongly correlated with total amniotic fluid protein concentrations. (Auth.)

  6. (15S)-15 methyl prostaglandin F2α levels in amniotic fluid and blood in second trimester abortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single intra-amniotic injection of (15S)-15 methyl prostaglandin F2α (THAM) was used to induce second trimester abortion in five patients. Serial levels of (15S)-15 methyl prostaglandin F2α were subsequently measured in amniotic fluid and plasma by radioimmunoassay. The slow removal of this drug from the amniotic fluid was documented. Plasma levels of (15S)-15 methyl prostaglandin F2α increased fourfold to sevenfold after clinical rupture of the membranes in three patients, supporting the fact that prostaglandins are well absorbed from the vagina. Because this analogue of prostaglandin can cause marked peripheral bronchoconstriction when administered systemically, it is best to avoid its use in patients with a history of asthma

  7. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics . 24th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2040: ... SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. A Comparison of Culture Characteristics between Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Dental Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, Nurul Hidayat; Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Azlina, Ahmad; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Hamid, Suzina Sheikh Abdul

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the field of stem cell biology is of major interest among researchers due to its broad therapeutic potential. Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialised cell types. Stem cells can be classified into two main types: adult stem cells (adult tissues) and embryonic stem cells (embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development). This review will discuss two types of adult mesenchymal stem cells, dental ...

  9. Human gut colonisation may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Rautava, Samuli; Aakko, Juhani; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Interaction with intestinal microbes in infancy has a profound impact on health and disease in later life through programming of immune and metabolic pathways. We collected maternal faeces, placenta, amniotic fluid, colostrum, meconium and infant faeces samples from 15 mother-infant pairs in an effort to rigorously investigate prenatal and neonatal microbial transfer and gut colonisation. To ensure sterile sampling, only deliveries at full term by elective caesarean section were studied. Microbiota composition and activity assessment by conventional bacterial culture, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, quantitative PCR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the placenta and amniotic fluid harbour a distinct microbiota characterised by low richness, low diversity and the predominance of Proteobacteria. Shared features between the microbiota detected in the placenta and amniotic fluid and in infant meconium suggest microbial transfer at the foeto-maternal interface. At the age of 3-4 days, the infant gut microbiota composition begins to resemble that detected in colostrum. Based on these data, we propose that the stepwise microbial gut colonisation process may be initiated already prenatally by a distinct microbiota in the placenta and amniotic fluid. The link between the mother and the offspring is continued after birth by microbes present in breast milk. PMID:27001291

  10. Chest computed tomography of a patient revealing severe hypoxia due to amniotic fluid embolism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui Daisuke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amniotic fluid embolism is one of the most severe complications in the peripartum period. Because its onset is abrupt and fulminant, it is unlikely that there will be time to examine the condition using thoracic computed tomography (CT. We report a case of life-threatening amniotic fluid embolism, where chest CT in the acute phase was obtained. Case presentation A 22-year-old Asian Japanese primiparous woman was suspected of having an amniotic fluid embolism. After a Cesarean section for cephalopelvic disproportion, her respiratory condition deteriorated. Her chest CT images were examined. CT findings revealed diffuse homogeneous ground-glass shadow in her bilateral peripheral lung fields. She was therefore transferred to our hospital. On admission to our hospital's intensive care unit, she was found to have severe hypoxemia, with SpO2 of 50% with a reservoir mask of 15 L/min oxygen. She was intubated with the support of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. She was successfully extubated on the sixth day, and discharged from the hospital on the twentieth day. Conclusion This is the first case report describing amniotic fluid embolism in which CT revealed an acute respiratory distress syndrome-like shadow.

  11. Characterisation of non-maternal serum proteins in amniotic fluid at weeks 16 to 18 of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drøhse, H; Christensen, H; Myrhøj, Vibeke;

    1998-01-01

    Proteins found in amniotic fluid are mainly serum proteins, probably of maternal origin. About 5% of the total protein concentration has the potential of being fetal or decidual in origin. Only a few of these proteins have been isolated and characterised. In order to describe the foetal and decid...

  12. Biological half-life and transfer of maternal corticosteroid-binding globulin to amniotic fluid in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbit corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) from the serum of pregnant and nonpregnant females differs in terms of charge microheterogeneity, and both forms were, therefore, radiolabeled and injected iv into 23- to 27-day pregnant rabbits (n = 6) to assess their biological half-lives and possible transfer to the fetal compartment. After an initially rapid distribution phase, the serum half-lives of both forms of [125I]CBG were essentially identical (approximately 13 h) and did not vary at different gestational ages. There was also no difference in the transfer of either form of [125I]CBG from maternal to fetal compartments in any of the animals studied. Moreover, [125I]CBG showed no sign of degradation and retained its steroid-binding activity in fetal urine and amniotic fluid. Twenty-two hours after administration of [125I]CBG to rabbits (n = 2) at 23 days gestation, its mean level in fetal urine (7 cpm/microliter) and amniotic fluid (2.5 cpm/microliter) was much higher than that in fetal blood (0.6 cpm/microliter). More importantly, the specific activities of [125I]CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid were comparable to that in maternal serum, and approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that in fetal serum. Taken together, these results suggest that CBG in fetal urine and amniotic fluid is largely of maternal origin, and that maternal CBG crosses the fetal kidney preferentially

  13. The Salivary Scavenger and Agglutinin in Early Life: Diverse Roles in Amniotic Fluid and in the Infant Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichhardt, M.P.; Jarva, H.; Been, de M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Quintana, E.J.; Loimaranta, V.; Vos, de W.M.; Meri, S.

    2014-01-01

    The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as gp340 and dmbt1, is an antimicrobial and inflammation-regulating molecule located at the mucosal surfaces. The present study revealed that SALSA was present in the amniotic fluid (AF) and exceptionally enriched in both meconium and feces o

  14. The development of a radioimmunoassay for reverse triiodothyronine sulfate in human serum and amniotic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sing-Yung (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Long Beach, CA (United States)); Huang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Lian (Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)); Polk, D.; Reviczky, A.; Williams, J. III; Chopra, I.J.; Fisher, D.A. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Sulfated iodothyronines including T[sub 4]-sulfate (T[sub 4]S) and T[sub 3]-sulfate (T[sub 3]S) have been identified in human serum and amniotic fluid. Little is know, however, about the existence of sulfate conjugation of reverse T[sub 3] (rT[sub 3]S) in man. In this report, the authors employed a novel, sensitive, and specific rT[sub 3]S RIA to address this question. The rabbit antiserum to rT[sub 3]S was highly specific; T[sub 4], T[sub 3], rT[sub 3], and 3,3'-T[sub 2] showed less than 0.002% cross-reaction with the antiserum. Only T[sub 4]S and T[sub 3]S cross-reacted significantly (0.3% and 0.01%, respectively); other analogs cross-reacted less than 0.0001%. The detection threshold of the RIA was 14 pmol/L (1.0 ng/dL). The mean serum rT[sub 3]S concentration (pmol/L) was 40 in euthyroid subjects. Values were similar in hypothyroid patients (38) and pregnant women (52) but significantly (P < 0.01) elevated to 176 in hyperthyroid patient, 74 in patients with nonthyroid illnesses, and 684 in cord sera of newborns. Serum rT[sub 3]S increased significantly in hyperthyroid patients 1 day after administration of 1 g sodium ipodate orally. Reverse T[sub 3]S was detected consistently in amniotic fluid at 14 to 22 weeks of gestation and showed a marked rise 1-3 weeks after intraamniotic administration of 500-1000 [mu]g T[sub 4]. The various data suggest that : (1) rT[sub 3]S is a normal component of human serum and amniotic fluid; (2) it is derived from metabolism of T[sub 4] or rT[sub 3]; (3) circulating rT[sub 3]S increases in hyperthyroidism and in circumstances where type I 5'-monodeiodinating activity is low, e.g. nonthyroid illnesses, fetal life, and after administration of ipodate. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Nukbone® promotes proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Nayeli; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana G. [Depto. Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico City 04510 (Mexico); Enríquez-Jiménez, Juana [Depto. Biología de la Reproducción, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), México City 14000 (Mexico); Alcántara-Quintana, Luz E. [Subd. de Investigación, Centro Nacional de la Transfusión Sanguínea, Secretaria de Salud, Mexico City 07370 (Mexico); Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth [Depto. Biología Molecular e Histocompatibilidad, Hospital General “Dr. Manuel Gea González”, México City 4800 (Mexico); Piña-Barba, María C. [Depto. Materiales Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México City 04510 (Mexico); Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando [Depto. Biología Celular y Tisular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México City 04510 (Mexico); and others

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Nukbone showed to be a good scaffold for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. •Nukbone induced osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. •Results showed that Nukbone offer an excellent option for bone tissue regeneration due to properties. -- Abstract: Bovine bone matrix Nukbone® (NKB) is an osseous tissue-engineering biomaterial that retains its mineral and organic phases and its natural bone topography and has been used as a xenoimplant for bone regeneration in clinics. There are not studies regarding its influence of the NKB in the behavior of cells during the repairing processes. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that NKB has an osteoinductive effect in human mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic membrane (AM-hMSCs). Results indicated that NKB favors the AM-hMSCs adhesion and proliferation up to 7 days in culture as shown by the scanning electron microscopy and proliferation measures using an alamarBlue assay. Furthermore, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, it was detected that two gene expression markers of osteoblastic differentiation: the core binding factor and osteocalcin were higher for AM-hMSCs co-cultured with NKB in comparison with cultivated cells in absence of the biomaterial. As the results indicate, NKB possess the capability for inducing successfully the osteoblastic differentiation of AM-hMSC, so that, NKB is an excellent xenoimplant option for repairing bone tissue defects.

  16. Nukbone® promotes proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Nukbone showed to be a good scaffold for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. •Nukbone induced osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. •Results showed that Nukbone offer an excellent option for bone tissue regeneration due to properties. -- Abstract: Bovine bone matrix Nukbone® (NKB) is an osseous tissue-engineering biomaterial that retains its mineral and organic phases and its natural bone topography and has been used as a xenoimplant for bone regeneration in clinics. There are not studies regarding its influence of the NKB in the behavior of cells during the repairing processes. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that NKB has an osteoinductive effect in human mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic membrane (AM-hMSCs). Results indicated that NKB favors the AM-hMSCs adhesion and proliferation up to 7 days in culture as shown by the scanning electron microscopy and proliferation measures using an alamarBlue assay. Furthermore, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, it was detected that two gene expression markers of osteoblastic differentiation: the core binding factor and osteocalcin were higher for AM-hMSCs co-cultured with NKB in comparison with cultivated cells in absence of the biomaterial. As the results indicate, NKB possess the capability for inducing successfully the osteoblastic differentiation of AM-hMSC, so that, NKB is an excellent xenoimplant option for repairing bone tissue defects

  17. Amniotic Fluid Chemokines and Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study Utilizing a Danish Historic Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Thorsen, Poul; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Hougaard, David M.

    2012-01-01

    controls was sufficient for Luminex analysis. Including all individuals in the cohort yielded no significant differences in chemokine levels in cases versus controls. Logistic regression analyses, performed on individuals diagnosed using ICD-10 only, showed increased risk for ASD with elevated MCP-1......Introduction: Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls. Material and...... Methods A Danish historic birth cohort (HBC) kept at Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen was utilized. Using data from Danish nation-wide health registers, a case-control study design of 414 cases and 820 controls was adopted. Levels of MCP-1, MIP-1α and RANTES were analyzed using Luminex xMAP technology...

  18. STUDY OF AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX AT THE ONSET OF LABOUR ON PERINATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study is to determine amniotic fluid index in labour and to assess the course of labour, mode of delivery and perinatal outcome in relation to AFI. Objective of the study is the early detection of fetal distress and prevention of neonatal morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada from October, 2011 to October 2013, to evaluate perinatal outcome in relation to AFI with a gestational age between 37 - 42 weeks. AFI was measured and the perinatal o utcome compared between three groups. The cesarean section rate for fetal distress and low birth weight babies, <2.5 kgs was higher in patients with oligohydroamnios. There was a significant difference in meconium staining, APGAR at 1 & 5 mins <7 at the time of birth between three groups. Oligohydroamnios has a significant correlation with cesarean section for fetal distress and low birth weight babies.

  19. Identification of Symptomatic Fetuses Infected with Cytomegalovirus Using Amniotic Fluid Peptide Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Ramirez-Torres, Adela; Lacroix, Chrystelle; Breuil, Benjamin; Froment, Carine; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Ville, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection, and is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurological disabilities. Evaluating the risk for a CMV infected fetus to develop severe clinical symptoms after birth is crucial to provide appropriate guidance to pregnant women who might have to consider termination of pregnancy or experimental prenatal medical therapies. However, establishing the prognosis before birth remains a challenge. This evaluation is currently based upon fetal imaging and fetal biological parameters, but the positive and negative predictive values of these parameters are not optimal, leaving room for the development of new prognostic factors. Here, we compared the amniotic fluid peptidome between asymptomatic fetuses who were born as asymptomatic neonates and symptomatic fetuses who were either terminated in view of severe cerebral lesions or born as severely symptomatic neonates. This comparison allowed us to identify a 34-peptide classifier in a discovery cohort of 13 symptomatic and 13 asymptomatic neonates. This classifier further yielded 89% sensitivity, 75% specificity and an area under the curve of 0.90 to segregate 9 severely symptomatic from 12 asymptomatic neonates in a validation cohort, showing an overall better performance than that of classical fetal laboratory parameters. Pathway analysis of the 34 peptides underlined the role of viral entry in fetuses with severe brain disease as well as the potential importance of both beta-2-microglobulin and adiponectin to protect the injured fetal brain infected with CMV. The results also suggested the mechanistic implication of the T calcium channel alpha-1G (CACNA1G) protein in the development of seizures in severely CMV infected children. These results open a new field for potential therapeutic options. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amniotic fluid peptidome analysis can effectively predict the severity of congenital CMV infection. This

  20. Identification of Symptomatic Fetuses Infected with Cytomegalovirus Using Amniotic Fluid Peptide Biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Desveaux

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common cause of congenital infection, and is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurological disabilities. Evaluating the risk for a CMV infected fetus to develop severe clinical symptoms after birth is crucial to provide appropriate guidance to pregnant women who might have to consider termination of pregnancy or experimental prenatal medical therapies. However, establishing the prognosis before birth remains a challenge. This evaluation is currently based upon fetal imaging and fetal biological parameters, but the positive and negative predictive values of these parameters are not optimal, leaving room for the development of new prognostic factors. Here, we compared the amniotic fluid peptidome between asymptomatic fetuses who were born as asymptomatic neonates and symptomatic fetuses who were either terminated in view of severe cerebral lesions or born as severely symptomatic neonates. This comparison allowed us to identify a 34-peptide classifier in a discovery cohort of 13 symptomatic and 13 asymptomatic neonates. This classifier further yielded 89% sensitivity, 75% specificity and an area under the curve of 0.90 to segregate 9 severely symptomatic from 12 asymptomatic neonates in a validation cohort, showing an overall better performance than that of classical fetal laboratory parameters. Pathway analysis of the 34 peptides underlined the role of viral entry in fetuses with severe brain disease as well as the potential importance of both beta-2-microglobulin and adiponectin to protect the injured fetal brain infected with CMV. The results also suggested the mechanistic implication of the T calcium channel alpha-1G (CACNA1G protein in the development of seizures in severely CMV infected children. These results open a new field for potential therapeutic options. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amniotic fluid peptidome analysis can effectively predict the severity of congenital CMV

  1. Fetoplacental Discrepancy with Normal Karyotype in Amniotic Fluid and Two Different Cell Lines in Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of fetoplacental discrepancy in a second-trimester fetus with normal karyotype in amniotic fluid and two different Robertsonian translocations in placenta. A 41-year-old woman of Middle-Eastern origin, gravida 2, para 1, underwent amniocentesis at 16-week gestation because of advanced maternal age. Amniotic fluid karyotype showed a normal 46,XX karyotype with a homozygous inv(9. Parental chromosome analysis showed both parents to be carriers of inv(9 and the parents are not consanguineous. Fetal ultrasound was normal. The mother presented to the clinic 4 weeks later with intrauterine fetal demise. Chromosome analysis from the placenta showed two different cell lines: a balanced (15;21 Roberstonian translocation in 11 cells and an unbalanced (21;21 Robertsonian translocation in 9 cells. The karyotype was interpreted as mos 45,XX,inv(9(p11q13x2,der(15;21(q10;q10[11]/46,XX,inv(9(p11q13x2,+21,der(21;21(q10;q10. Mother was a carrier for the Cystic Fibrosis (delta F508, Factor V Leiden mutations, HbD-Los Angeles and HbQ-India variants. She also had a sibling with term stillbirth. Her husband’s history was unremarkable. Our case appears to be another example of confined placental mosaicism (CPM with normal fetal karyotype. However, we could not confirm the possibility that CPM contributed to the IUFD in our case given the complex medical history of the mother.

  2. Polyhydramnios in Lrp4 knockout mice with bilateral kidney agenesis: Defects in the pathways of amniotic fluid clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Tanahashi; Qing-Bao Tian; Yoshinobu Hara; Hiroyuki Sakagami; Shogo Endo; Tatsuo Suzuki

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid volume during mid-to-late gestation depends mainly on the urine excretion from the foetal kidneys and partly on the fluid secretion from the foetal lungs during foetal breathing-like movements. Urine is necessary for foetal breathing-like movements, which is critical for foetal lung development. Bilateral renal agenesis and/or obstruction of the urinary tract lead to oligohydramnios, which causes infant death within a short period after birth due to pulmonary hypoplasia. Lrp4, ...

  3. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by TXRF and EDXRF: child weight and aging mother dependences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the age's mother in trace elemental concentration in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during the delivery, from healthy mothers and healthy infants. According to the age of the mother three different groups were considered: from 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40. Only two mothers were aged more than 35. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg. The organic matrices of the amniotic fluid samples were removed by wet ashing with HNO3 in oxygen plasma. Yttrium was used as internal standard, for TXRF analysis. For EDXRF placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni, and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, independently of age of the mother and child weight. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in the newborn health, was not significantly different in the analyzed samples, however, was related, though weakly, to birth weigh. The obtained concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/L and 30 to 65 μg/g in amniotic fluid and placenta respectively. The only two elements seemed to be significantly affected with age mother and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both kind of samples: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and elder mothers, however Fe increased with the increase of the age mother but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated in its function in the organism with Fe and has a similar behavior with this element, however not so pronounced. (author)

  4. Transplantation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells promotes neurological recovery in an intracerebral hemorrhage rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Honglong; Zhang, Hongri; Yan, Zhongjie; Xu, Ruxiang

    2016-06-24

    Human amniotic membrane mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) have recently been suggested as ideal candidate stem cells for cell-based therapy. Many studies have reported the therapeutic effects of hAMSCs in numerous disease models. However, no studies have used hAMSCs to treat intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the present study, we examined the therapeutic potential of hAMSCs in a rat model of ICH, and characterized the possible mechanisms of action. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to ICH by intrastriatal injection of VII collagenase, and then were intracerebrally administered hAMSCs, fibroblasts, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 24 h after ICH. Compared with the fibroblasts and the PBS control, hAMSCs treatment significantly promoted neurological recovery, and reduced the numbers of ED1(+) activated microglia, as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO(+)), and caspase-3(+) cells in the brain injury model. In addition, hAMSCs treatment significantly increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the injured brain, and promoted neurogenesis and angiogenesis, compared with the fibroblasts and the PBS control. The transplanted hAMSCs survived for at least 27 days and were negative for β-tubulin III and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Taken together, the results suggest that hAMSCs treatment significantly promotes neurological recovery in rats after ICH. The mechanism of action could be mediated by inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis, increasing neurotrophic factor expression, and promotion of neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Thus, hAMSCs are candidate stem cells for the treatment of ICH. PMID:27188654

  5. Assessment of DNA Damage by RAPD in Paracentrotus lividus Embryos Exposed to Amniotic Fluid from Residents Living Close to Waste Landfill Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Guida; Marco Guida; Bruna De Felice; Daniela Santafede; Raffaella D'Alessandro; Attilio Di Spiezio Sardo; Marianna Scognamiglio; Cinzia Ferrara; Giuseppe Bifulco; Carmine Nappi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental chemicals on residents living near landfills. The study was based on samples of amniotic fluid from women living in the intensely polluted areas around the Campania region of Italy compared to a nonexposed control group. We evaluated the genetic effects that this amniotic fluids collected in contaminated sites had on Paracentrotus lividus embryos. DNA damage was detected through changes in RAPD (Random Amplified Polymo...

  6. Second trimester amniotic fluid cytokine concentrations, Ureaplasma sp. colonisation status and sexual activity as predictors of preterm birth in Chinese and Australian women

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Matthew S.; Feng, Zhenhua; Li, Shaofu; Doherty, Dorota A; Xu, Biyun; Li, Jie; Liu, Lenan; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Zhou, Yi Hua; Dickinson, Jan E.; HU, YALI; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study tested if second trimester amniotic fluid cytokine levels, Ureaplasma sp. colonisation and sexual activity predict preterm birth and explain the differential preterm birth rates in Chinese compared to Australian women. Methods Amniotic fluid was collected by amniocentesis (Chinese 480, Australian 492). Cytokines were measured by multiplex assay and Ureaplasma sp. DNA was detected by PCR analysis. Lifestyle factors, including history of smoking and sexual activity during ...

  7. Human gut colonisation may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carmen Collado; Samuli Rautava; Juhani Aakko; Erika Isolauri; Seppo Salminen

    2016-01-01

    Interaction with intestinal microbes in infancy has a profound impact on health and disease in later life through programming of immune and metabolic pathways. We collected maternal faeces, placenta, amniotic fluid, colostrum, meconium and infant faeces samples from 15 mother-infant pairs in an effort to rigorously investigate prenatal and neonatal microbial transfer and gut colonisation. To ensure sterile sampling, only deliveries at full term by elective caesarean section were studied. Micr...

  8. Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid as an Independent Risk Factor for Fever and Postpartum Infection in Term Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Valadan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to statistically evaluate the hypothesis that the presence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid is associated with postpartum maternal infection.Methods: This prospective cohort study included 573 term pregnant women in labor, with no other medical problems, that underwent cesarean section for pregnancy termination. Women with prolonged active-phase labor, prolonged rupture of membranes, complicated cesarean section and pre-operative infections were excluded from this study.The subjects were divided into two groups: 280 women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (M group, and 293 women with clear amniotic fluid (C group. A comparison was done regarding postpartum fever, endometritis and wound infection between the two groups. Students t-test and chi square test were used for data analysis, along with linear regression, with p<0.05 indicating significance.Results: Among the 573 women, a total of 82 women (14% had fever after cesarean; 42 women from the M group, and 40 women from the C group (p= 0.3. Among the 82 women who had fever, 33 women had continuous fever, 6.5% in group M and 2.7% in group C (p<0.05, RR: 1.98, 95% CI 1.3-3.1. Among the 573 women, 4% developed endometritis 5% in group M and 2% in group C (p<0.05, RR: 2.3, 95%, CI 1.3-3.4. Similarly, among the 573 women, a total of 5 women (1% developed wound infection, 1.7% in group M and 0.68% in group C (p=0.7.Conclusion: Meconium-stained amniotic fluid is associated with increased postpartum infection independent of other risk factors for infection.

  9. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Validity of PCR Using Amniotic Fluid against Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay in Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    M Assmar; F Yassaei; A Terhovanesian; AR Esmaeili; Hassan, N.; Z Farzanehnezhaad; SR Naddaf

    2004-01-01

    Maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii acquired during pregnancy may result in congenital infection of developing fetuses. Up to now, decision on informed therapeutic abortion of fetuses suspected of having T. gondii infection in Iran has been made based on serological findings in mothers. This might have led to unnecessary abortion of many uninfected children. We evaluated the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay on amniotic fluids against serological findings in mothers. PCR results in ...

  10. Intrapartum Amnioinfusion in Meconium Stained Amniotic Fluid- A Randomized Control Study In a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin D Vachhani, Jitesh M Shah, Garima S Goel, Meghana N Mehta, Archish I Desai, Malati T Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Results: 66% of women were in the age group of 21-25 years. Av-erage cervical dilatation at detec-tion of meconium and detection of meconium to delivery interval was similar in both groups. In the study group, 68% women had normal vaginal delivery as compared to 49% in the control group (p<0.01. Operative deliv-ery was required in 32% and 51% cases in groups A and B respectively. Meconium aspira-tion syndrome was developed in 5% cases in group A and 15% cases in group B, which was significant (p=0.02, Odds ratio 0.29 (0.1-0.85. There were no significant differences in Apgar scores, NICU admissions and Perinatal mortality between two groups. No any maternal com-plications were noted due to amnioinfusion. Conclusion: Intrapartum amnio-infusion in meconium stained amniotic fluid is simple, safe and inexpensive intervention to reduce the rates of meconium aspiration syndrome and its complications."

  11. Postnatal amniotic fluid intake reduces gut inflammatory responses and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggers, Jayda; Ostergaard, Mette V; Siggers, Richard H; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mølbak, Lars; Thymann, Thomas; Schmidt, Mette; Møller, Hanne K; Purup, Stig; Fink, Lisbeth N; Frøkiær, Hanne; Boye, Mette; Sangild, Per T; Bering, Stine B

    2013-05-15

    Preterm neonates are susceptible to gastrointestinal disorders such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Maternal milk and colostrum protects against NEC via growth promoting, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial factors. The fetal enteral diet amniotic fluid (AF), contains similar components, and we hypothesized that postnatal AF administration reduces inflammatory responses and NEC in preterm neonates. Preterm pigs (92% gestation) were delivered by caesarean section and fed parental nutrition (2 days) followed by enteral (2 days) porcine colostrum (COLOS, n = 7), infant formula (FORM, n = 13), or AF supplied before and after introduction of formula (AF, n = 10) in experiment 1, and supplied only during the enteral feeding period in experiment 2 (FORM, n = 16; AF, n = 14). The NEC score was reduced in both AF and COLOS pigs, relative to FORM, when AF was provided prior to full enteral feeding (9.9 and 7.7 compared with 17.3, P colostrum, AF may reduce NEC development in preterm neonates by suppressing the proinflammatory responses to enteral formula feeding and gut colonization when provided before the onset of NEC. PMID:23518680

  12. Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in anatomical sanctuary sites: the fetal compartment (placenta and amniotic fluid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Laura J; Taylor, Stephen; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H

    2011-01-01

    HIV resides within anatomical 'sanctuary sites' where local drug exposure and viral dynamics may differ significantly from the systemic compartment. Widespread implementation of antiretroviral therapy has seen a significant decline in the incidence of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. In addition to suppression of maternal plasma/genital viral loads, antiretroviral agents that cross the placenta and achieve adequate concentrations in the fetal compartment may exert a greater prophylactic effect. Penetration of antiretrovirals in the fetal compartment is expressed by accumulation ratios derived from the measurement of drug concentrations in paired maternal plasma and umbilical cord samples. The nucleoside analogues and nevirapine accumulate extensively in cord blood and in the surrounding amniotic fluid, whereas the protease inhibitors (PIs) exhibit low-to-moderate placental accumulation. Early data suggest that high placental/neonatal concentrations are achieved with raltegravir, but to a lesser extent with etravirine and maraviroc (rank order of accumulation: raltegravir/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [tenofovir > zidovudine/lamivudine/emtricitabine/stavudine/abacavir] > non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [nevirapine > etravirine] > PI > maraviroc/enfuvirtide). More comprehensive in vivo pharmacokinetic data are required to justify the potential use of these agents as safe and effective options during pregnancy. PMID:22155898

  13. Low amniotic fluid index in high risk pregnancy and poor apgar score at birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the accuracy of antepartum Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) of 5 cm was labeled as predictor of good outcome at birth. The subjects in both the groups were demographically matched and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Apgar score was calculated at 5 minutes of birth. The newborns, with Apgar score 6 were labeled as healthy. AFI was compared with Apgar score, using Chi-square and a p-value was calculated to determine the statistical significance. Sensitivity, specificity, efficiency and the predictive values of AFI at a cut off point of < 5 cm as a predictor of adverse outcome at birth (Apgar score of < 6 at 5 minutes of birth) in high-risk pregnancy were calculated. Only 8 neonates of 50 women with low AFI had low Apgar score. Similarly, 6 neonates of 50 women with normal AFI had poor Apgar score. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency of AFI as test were 57.1%, 51.3%, 16%, 88% and 52% respectively. Low AFI is a poor predictor of adverse outcome for high-risk term patients. AFI is not a good screening test for high-risk pregnant women at term for birth of an infant with low Apgar score. (author)

  14. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and protein levels in Amniotic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calabrese Francesca

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is a neurotrophin which plays survival- and growth-promoting activity in neuronal cells and it is involved in cellular plasticity mechanisms as it controls activity dependent synaptic transmission. A functional polymorphism (Val66Met in the pro-region of BDNF, which affects the intracellular trafficking of proBDNF has been associated with memory and cognitive deficits as well as to an increased susceptibility for several psychiatric disorders especially those with a neurodevelopmental origin. To date, no study has evaluated the influence of the Val66Met polymorphism on BDNF levels in a peripheral system that may reflect fetal neurodevelopment. Therefore we investigated in amniotic fluids (AF obtained from 139 healthy women during 15-17 week of pregnancy, BDNF protein levels in correlation with the Val66Met polymorphism. Results Interestingly we found a significant BDNF protein levels reduction in 55 Met carriers (Val/Met and Met/Met (p = 0.002 as compared to 84 non carriers (Val/Val, and no effect of fetus gender, maternal age or gestation week on BDNF levels has been observed. Conclusion These results, although explorative, indicate that during fetal life the Val66Met genotype might influences BDNF protein levels in AF supporting the involvement of this polymorphism in behavioral and functional brain individual differences in the adulthood.

  15. Prenatal diagnosis of single gene disorders using amniotic fluid as the starting material for PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Li, Shuo; Lu, Shuolian; Ge, Hongshan; Sun, Lizhou

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method for fetal genetic diagnosis using amniotic fluid (AF) as the starting material was demonstrated in this study. Raw AF was added directly to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mixtures with HpH buffer (a high pH buffer), without any pre-treatment. Amplified products were detected by gel electrophoresis and then subjected to Sanger sequencing. The AF from four fetuses, each expressing a single gene disorder (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia, or X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia), were analyzed. DNA fragments of different lengths were efficiently amplified from 8 μl of AF, allowing each of these single gene disorders to be successfully diagnosed. Although the amplification efficiency of the AF-PCR method is comparable to that of the Chelex method, the amount of the AF sample required was considerably lower than that required for the Chelex method (10 ml). This proposed method of diagnosis is more efficient, simpler, and less expensive, and reduces the chance of cross-contamination relative to the Chelex method, which requires purified DNA or other pre-treatment processes. Our method offers a promising tool that can be used for the diagnosis of various gene disorders in fetuses. PMID:26587643

  16. Adenovirus E1A/E1B Transformed Amniotic Fluid Cells Support Human Cytomegalovirus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Krömmelbein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV replicates to high titers in primary human fibroblast cell cultures. A variety of primary human cells and some tumor-derived cell lines do also support permissive HCMV replication, yet at low levels. Cell lines established by transfection of the transforming functions of adenoviruses have been notoriously resistant to HCMV replication and progeny production. Here, we provide first-time evidence that a permanent cell line immortalized by adenovirus type 5 E1A and E1B (CAP is supporting the full HCMV replication cycle and is releasing infectious progeny. The CAP cell line had previously been established from amniotic fluid cells which were likely derived from membranes of the developing fetus. These cells can be grown under serum-free conditions. HCMV efficiently penetrated CAP cells, expressed its immediate-early proteins and dispersed restrictive PML-bodies. Viral DNA replication was initiated and viral progeny became detectable by electron microscopy in CAP cells. Furthermore, infectious virus was released from CAP cells, yet to lower levels compared to fibroblasts. Subviral dense bodies were also secreted from CAP cells. The results show that E1A/E1B expression in transformed cells is not generally repressive to HCMV replication and that CAP cells may be a good substrate for dense body based vaccine production.

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of amniotic membrane stem cells and adipose tissue stem cells in rats with chemically induced ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Hanan; Sabry, Dina; Elsetohy, Khaled; Fathy, Naglaa

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to compare between the therapeutic efficacies of human amniotic membrane-derived stem cells (hAM-MSCs) vs. adipose tissue derived stem cells (AD-MSCs) in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced ovarian failure in rats. Forty-eight adult female rats were included in the study; 10 rats were used as control group. Thirty-eight rats were injected with CTX to induce ovarian failure and divided into four groups: ovarian failure (IOF) (IOF group), IOF + phosphate buffer saline (PBS group), IOF + hAM-MSCs group and IOF + AD-MSCs group. Serum levels of FSH and estradiol (E2) were assessed. Histopathological examination of the ovarian tissues was performed and quantitative gene expressions of Oct-4, Stra8 and integrin beta-1 genes were conducted by quantitative real time PCR. Results showed that IOF and IOF + PBS rat groups exhibited decreased ovarian follicles, increased interstitial fibrosis with significant decrease of serum E2, significant increase serum FSH level and significant down-regulation of Stra8 and integrin beta-1. In hAM-MSCs and AD-MSCs rat groups, there were increased follicles and corpora with evident the presence of oocytes, significant increase in serum E2, significant decrease in serum FSH levels (in hAM-MSCs treated group only) and significant up-regulation of the three studied genes with higher levels in hAM-MSCs treated rats group when compared to AD-MSCs treated rats group. In Conclusion, administration of either hAM-derived MSCs or AD-MSCs exerts a significant therapeutic efficacy in chemotherapy induced ovarian insult in rats. hAM-MSCs exert higher therapeutic efficacy as compared to AD-MSCs. PMID:26966564

  18. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanie-Jahromi Fatemeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells with amniotic fluid (AF, RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1 confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  19. Amniotic fluid inhibin-A in chromosomally normal and Down's syndrome pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E M; Crossley, J A; Groome, N P; Aitken, D A

    1997-01-01

    Recently, inhibin-A has been shown to be a useful new prenatal marker of Down's syndrome, significantly increasing detection rates. While the placenta is believed to be the major source of inhibin in pregnancy, there are actually very limited data available on specific inhibin dimers in pregnancy. Using a sensitive and specific ELISA we have measured the inhibin-A content of amniotic fluid (AF) to investigate further the biology of inhibin-A in chromosomally normal and abnormal pregnancies. AF from 51 Down's syndrome and 161 chromosomally normal pregnancies between 16 and 19 weeks of gestation were analysed, blinded as to whether the sample was from a Down's syndrome or normal pregnancy. There were no sex differences in inhibin-A content in either the control or Down's syndrome pregnancies. The median (10-90th percentiles) inhibin-A level in the control pregnancies increased from 339.6 (175.2-649.1) pg/ml at 16 weeks to 592.9 (256.4-1027.3) pg/ml at 19 weeks of gestation. The median (95% confidence interval) inhibin-A in the Down's syndrome pregnancies, expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) to correct for gestation, was 0.77 (0.68-0.89) MoM, significantly lower than the controls (P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). We believe that these data are compatible with more than one source of inhibin-A in pregnancy and suggest that the fetal membranes may be contributing significantly to AF inhibin-A content. Further, our data would suggest that the endocrine function of the placenta and the other inhibin source(s) are differentially regulated. PMID:9014845

  20. Relationship between leptin levels in maternal blood,amniotic fluid,arterial and venous cord blood and fetal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽莎; 薛昭卿; 宋岩峰; 何晓宇

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between leptin concentration and fetal growth.Methods: Levels of leptin in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, arterial and venouscord blood of 65 normal parturients (gestational age 37-42weeks) were measured by ra-dioimmunoassay (RIA) method. At the same time, maternal blood lipids were detected.Neonates were divided into three groups: small for gestational age (SGA) group (n=10), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=45), large for gestational age(LGA) group (n= 10). Statistical analysis was performed by t test, variance analysisand correlation analysis.Results: (1) There was no obvious correlation between leptin concentrations in ma-ternal serum and arterial/ venous cord blood, amniotic fluid, and also no correlationwith birth weight and placental weight (P>0.05). Maternal body mass index signifi-cantly correlated with birth weight and neonatal length and leptin levels in arterial andvenous cord blood (P<0.01). Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood positivelycorrelated significantly with placental and neonatal weight and body length (P<0.01)and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (P<0. 01). There was no obvi-ous correlation between fetal gender and leptin concentrations in maternal serum, arteri-al and venous cord blood and amniotic fluid; (2) Leptin levels in arterial and venouscord blood , placental weight in LGA group were significantly higher than those in SGAand AGA group (P<0.05). Among three groups, leptin concentrations in maternalblood were significantly higher than those in arterial and venous cord blood (P<0.05).Conclusions: (1)Fetal leptin is synthesized in uterus, born of itself and placenta.Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood are related to the intrauterine growthpattern. It might positively regulate birth weight and body fat content. (2)Either mater-nal or fetal leptin was not correlated with fetal gender. There is no gender difference infetal leptin

  1. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 in a baby with trisomy 2 mosaicism in amniotic fluid culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.B. [Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States); Eisenger, K.; Brown, S. [Columbia Univ., NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We describe the first case of a baby with maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 2. Growth failure, hypothyroidism and hyaline membrane disease were present at birth, and the first year of life was complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 14 months, motor and intellectual development appear to be normal, but growth remains below the 10th percentile. The baby was investigated for uniparental disomy because trisomy 2 mosaicism had been detected in a second trimester amniocentesis. This is the first reported case in which amniotic fluid chromosome mosaicism has been associated with uniparental disomy. Implications for prenatal diagnosis are considered.

  2. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2 in a baby with trisomy 2 mosaicism in amniotic fluid culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K. [Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States); Eisenger, K.; Brown, S. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-28

    We describe the first case of a baby with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 2. Growth failure, hypothyroidism, and hyaline membrane disease were present at birth, and the first year of life was complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At age 14 months, motor and intellectual development were normal, but growth remained below the 10th centile. The baby was investigated for uniparental disomy because trisomy 2 mosaicism had been detected in a second trimester amniocentesis. This is the first reported case in which amniotic fluid chromosome mosaicism has been associated with uniparental disomy. Implications for prenatal diagnosis are considered. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Comparison of human amniotic fluid-derived and umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells: Characterization and myocardial differentiation capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Bai; Yuan Hu; Yi-Ru Wang; Li-Feng Liu; Jie Chen; Shao-Ping Su; Yu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the characterization and myocardial differentiation capacity of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AF MSCs) and umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ MSCs). Methods The human AF MSCs were cultured from amniotic fluid samples obtained by amniocentesis. The umbilical cord WJ MSCs were obtained from Wharton's Jelly of umbilical cords of infants delivered full-term by normal labor. The morphology, growth curves, and analyses by flow cytometry of cell surface markers were compared between the two types of cells. Myocardial genes (GATA-4, c-TnT, α-actin, and Cx43) were detected by real-time PCR and the corresponding protein expressions were detected by Western blot analysis after myocardial induced in AF MSCs and WJ MSCs. Results Our findings revealed AF MSCs and WJ MSCs shared similar morphological characteristics of the fibroblastoid shape. The AF MSCs were easily obtained than the WJ MSCs and had a shorter time to reach adherence of 2.7 ± 1.6 days to WJ MSCs of 6.5 ± 1.8 days. The growth curves by MTT cytotoxic assay showed the AF MSCs had a similar proliferative capacity at passage 5 and passage 10. However, the proliferative capacities of WJ MSCs were decreased at 5 passage relative to 10 passage. Both AF stem cells and WJ stem cells had the characteristics of mesenchymal stromal cells with some characteristics of embryonic stem cells. They express CD29 and CD105, but not CD34. They were positive for Class I major histocompatibility (MHC I) antigens (HLA-ABC), and were negative, or mildly positive, for MHC Class II (HLA-DR) antigen. Oct-4 was positive in all the two cells types. Both AF MSCs and WJ MSCs could differentiate along myocardium. The differentiation capacities were detected by the expression of GATA-4, c-TnT, α-actin, Cx43 after myocardial induction. Conclusions Both AF MSCs and WJ MSCs have the potential clinical application for myogenesis in cardiac regenerative therapy.

  4. Term Amniotic membrane is a high throughput source for multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alviano, Francesco; Fossati, Valentina; Marchionni, Cosetta;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Term Amniotic membrane (AM) is a very attractive source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) due to the fact that this fetal tissue is usually discarded without ethical conflicts, leading to high efficiency in MSC recovery with no intrusive procedures. Here we confirmed that term AM, as...

  5. Amniotic fluid embolism incidence, risk factors and outcomes: a review and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Marian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is a rare but severe complication of pregnancy. A recent systematic review highlighted apparent differences in the incidence, with studies estimating the incidence of AFE to be more than three times higher in North America than Europe. The aim of this study was to examine population-based regional or national data from five high-resource countries in order to investigate incidence, risk factors and outcomes of AFE and to investigate whether any variation identified could be ascribed to methodological differences between the studies. Methods We reviewed available data sources on the incidence of AFE in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the USA. Where information was available, the risk factors and outcomes of AFE were examined. Results The reported incidence of AFE ranged from 1.9 cases per 100 000 maternities (UK to 6.1 per 100 000 maternities (Australia. There was a clear distinction between rates estimated using different methodologies. The lowest estimated incidence rates were obtained through validated case identification (range 1.9-2.5 cases per 100 000 maternities; rates obtained from retrospective analysis of population discharge databases were significantly higher (range 5.5-6.1 per 100 000 admissions with delivery diagnosis. Older maternal age and induction of labour were consistently associated with AFE. Conclusions Recommendation 1: Comparisons of AFE incidence estimates should be restricted to studies using similar methodology. The recommended approaches would be either population-based database studies using additional criteria to exclude false positive cases, or tailored data collection using existing specific population-based systems. Recommendation 2: Comparisons of AFE incidence between and within countries would be facilitated by development of an agreed case definition and an agreed set of criteria to minimise inclusion of false positive cases for

  6. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid, Biomarkers of Fetal Leydig Cell Function, and Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias in Danish Boys (1980-1996)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Gunnar; Jönsson, Bo A G; Bonde, Jens Peter;

    2016-01-01

    prevalence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias. METHODS: Using the Danish National Patient Registry, we selected 270 cryptorchidism cases, 75 hypospadias cases, and 300 controls with stored maternal amniotic fluid samples available in a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank (1980-1996). We used mass spectrometry...... associations with fetal hormone levels may have long-term implications for reproductive health. CITATION: Toft G, Jönsson BA, Bonde JP, Nørgaard-Pedersen B, Hougaard DM, Cohen A, Lindh CH, Ivell R, Anand-Ivell R, Lindhard MS. 2016. Perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations in amniotic fluid, biomarkers of fetal...

  7. Radioimmunoassay of thyroxine and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3) in human amniotic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.; Anderson, A.; Bennett, M.J.; MacLennan, A.H.; Stirrat, G.M.; Burke, C.W. (Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (UK))

    1982-01-05

    Measurements of amniotic fluid iodothyronine concentrations may enable antenatal detection of fetal thyroid abnormalities; however, the delineation of normal ranges is complicated by methodological problems associated with strong and highly variable protein-binding, and specificity of antisera. Improved radioimmunoassays of thyroxine (T4) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3, rT3) have been developed to overcome these problems. In normal pregnancy, mean rT3 concentrations at <17 weeks, 17-22 weeks and 35-42 weeks gestation were 3.6 nmol/l (n=21), 6.1 nmol/l (n=14) and 0.66 nmol/l (n=39) respectively; corresponding mean T4 concentrations were 2.4 nmol/l, 6.5 nmol/l and 3.6 nmol/l. rT3 concentrations showed a strong positive correlation with T4 concentration in each age range; however, the molar ratio of rT3 : T4 decreased progressively with gestational age, from 1.69 at <17 weeks to 0.19 at 35-42 weeks. In both mid- and late gestation, rT3 and T4 concentrations were strongly correlated with total amniotic fluid protein concentrations.

  8. Levels of Adipokines in Amniotic Fluid and Cord Blood Collected from Dichorionic-Diamniotic Twins Discordant for Fetal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joong Shin; Norwitz, Errol R.; Panyavatthanasinh, Sitthysack; Kim, Sun Min; Lee, JoonHo; Park, Chan-Wook; Kim, Byoung Jae; Jun, Jong Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the concentrations of adipokines in amniotic fluid (AF) and cord blood collected from discordant dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA) twin fetuses. Study Design The study population included DCDA twins discordant for fetal growth (birth weight difference >10%) who either underwent mid-trimester amniocentesis for routine clinical indication (Cohort 1) or whose amniotic fluid was collected at the time of delivery (Cohort 2). In both cohorts, cord blood was collected at delivery. Results A total of 92 twin pairs were enrolled (n = 49 in Cohort 1; n = 43 in Cohort 2). In Cohort 1, the concentrations of adiponectin (median, 68.5 ng/mL vs 61.4 ng/mL; ptwins. In Cohort 2, the concentration of serpin E1 (median, 246.0 ng/mL vs 182.8 ng/mL; ptwins, but no difference was noted in adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Levels of adiponectin (median, 10425.5 ng/mL vs 11552.0 ng/mL; ptwins whereas cord blood concentrations of serpin E1 (median, 15.5 ng/mL vs 13.3 ng/mL; ptwins. Conclusion In discordant DCDA twin pairs, concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and serpin E1 in mid-trimester AF, AF at delivery, and cord blood at birth vary significantly but predictably between the smaller and larger twins. PMID:27135745

  9. Windowed direct exponential curve resolution quantification of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with applications to amniotic fluid metabonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botros, L.L

    2007-07-01

    This thesis presents a quantitative protocol of proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) that allows the determination of human amniotic fluid metabolite concentrations, which are then used in a metabonomic study to establish patient health during gestation. {sup 1}H NMR free inductive decays (FIDs) of 258 human amniotic fluid samples from a 500MHz spectrometer are acquired. Quantitative analyses methods in both the frequency- and time-domain are carried out and compared. Frequency-domain analysis is accomplished by integration of the metabolite peaks before and after the inclusion of a known standard addition of alanine. Time-domain analysis is accomplished by the direct exponential curve resolution algorithm (DECRA). Both techniques are assessed by applications to calibration biological solutions and a simulated data set. The DECRA method proves to be a more accurate and precise route for quantitative analysis, and is included in the developed protocol. Well-defined peaks of various components are visible in the frequency-domain {sup 1}H NMR spectra, including lactate, alanine, acetate, citrate, choline, glycine, and glucose. All are quantified with the proposed protocol. Statistical t-test and notched box and whisker plots are used to compare means of metabolite concentrations for diabetic and normal patients. Glucose, glycine, and choline are all found to correlate with gestational diabetes mellitus early in gestation. With further development, time-domain quantitative {sup 1}H NMR has potential to become a robust diagnostic tool for gestational health. (author)

  10. Windowed direct exponential curve resolution quantification of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with applications to amniotic fluid metabonomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents a quantitative protocol of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) that allows the determination of human amniotic fluid metabolite concentrations, which are then used in a metabonomic study to establish patient health during gestation. 1H NMR free inductive decays (FIDs) of 258 human amniotic fluid samples from a 500MHz spectrometer are acquired. Quantitative analyses methods in both the frequency- and time-domain are carried out and compared. Frequency-domain analysis is accomplished by integration of the metabolite peaks before and after the inclusion of a known standard addition of alanine. Time-domain analysis is accomplished by the direct exponential curve resolution algorithm (DECRA). Both techniques are assessed by applications to calibration biological solutions and a simulated data set. The DECRA method proves to be a more accurate and precise route for quantitative analysis, and is included in the developed protocol. Well-defined peaks of various components are visible in the frequency-domain 1H NMR spectra, including lactate, alanine, acetate, citrate, choline, glycine, and glucose. All are quantified with the proposed protocol. Statistical t-test and notched box and whisker plots are used to compare means of metabolite concentrations for diabetic and normal patients. Glucose, glycine, and choline are all found to correlate with gestational diabetes mellitus early in gestation. With further development, time-domain quantitative 1H NMR has potential to become a robust diagnostic tool for gestational health. (author)

  11. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla;

    2008-01-01

    Parabens are a group of antimicrobial preservatives widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in foods. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown weak estrogenic effects of some parabens. Thus, especially, exposure of fetus and infants via the mother is a matter of concern. In order...... to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...

  12. Assessment of DNA Damage by RAPD in Paracentrotus lividus Embryos Exposed to Amniotic Fluid from Residents Living Close to Waste Landfill Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Guida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental chemicals on residents living near landfills. The study was based on samples of amniotic fluid from women living in the intensely polluted areas around the Campania region of Italy compared to a nonexposed control group. We evaluated the genetic effects that this amniotic fluids collected in contaminated sites had on Paracentrotus lividus embryos. DNA damage was detected through changes in RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA profiles. The absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicated deletions in Paracentrotus lividus DNA exposed to the contaminated amniotic fluids when compared to equal exposure to uncontaminated fluids. These results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate DNA sequences representing genetic alterations induced in P. lividus embryos. Using this method, we identified two candidate target regions for DNA alterations in the genome of P. lividus. Our research indicates that RAPD-PCR in P. lividus embryo DNA can provide a molecular approach for studying DNA damage from pollutants that can impact human health. To our knowledge, this is the first time that assessment of DNA damage in P. lividus embryos has been tested using the RAPD strategy after exposure to amniotic fluid from residents near waste landfill sites.

  13. [Cytological-energetic principle of the amniotic fluid examination on female patients with diagnosisof preterm premature rupture of membranes - up to now experiences and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, K; Kelbich, P; Švecová, M

    2016-12-01

    In our study we have dealt with the amniotic fluid examination on female patients with diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). For one of the most important task in the feto-maternal medicine we consider the discovered method of amniotic fluid examination which is capable of the earliest possible detection in an intraamniotic inflammatory response. Unnoticed could harm or in the most serious cases threat the life of fetus or its mother. This was also the main reason why we chose this topic for our study. We have not been interested only in already known interleu-kin-6 (IL-6), but we have approached the examination comprehensively. We used the cytological-energetic principle supplemented by the examination of aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), in which already are long-term experiences in investigating other extracellular fluids. We have monitored values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and leucocytes in maternal serum, IL-6, AST and energetic score ratio (KEB) in amniotic fluid. Further we have investigated which imunocompetent cells have been dominant in amniotic fluid at different types of inflamantory reaction. According to the results of the examination of the control groups, it was necessary to correct the KEB limit in comparison to KEB limits of other extracellular fluids. Although our study includes untill now only 44 patients - 21 controls and 23 investigated persons, we have been already able to find out some trends of changes in observed parametres. As a very impotant discovery we consider the fact, that KEB, AST and cytological examination of amniotic fluid seem to be the methods for prediction of chorioamnionitis as reliable as the examination of IL-6. These methods are besides less expensive and therefore more suitable for the use in the small hospitals and developing countries. We continue in our study to confirm the previously found trends on the larger numbers of patients. PMID:26741155

  14. Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Validity of PCR Using Amniotic Fluid against Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay in Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Assmar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii acquired during pregnancy may result in congenital infection of developing fetuses. Up to now, decision on informed therapeutic abortion of fetuses suspected of having T. gondii infection in Iran has been made based on serological findings in mothers. This might have led to unnecessary abortion of many uninfected children. We evaluated the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR assay on amniotic fluids against serological findings in mothers. PCR results in this study indicated that only about one third of Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA positive mothers had passed the infection to their children. It was a sigh of relief for the majority of mothers who learned that their infants were uninfected. On the other hand it helped the mothers of infected fetuses out of an awkward predicament by making them able to make a solid decision to terminate the pregnancy or carry their children to term.

  15. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “ni...

  16. Levels of Adipokines in Amniotic Fluid and Cord Blood Collected from Dichorionic-Diamniotic Twins Discordant for Fetal Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Mi Lee

    Full Text Available To compare the concentrations of adipokines in amniotic fluid (AF and cord blood collected from discordant dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA twin fetuses.The study population included DCDA twins discordant for fetal growth (birth weight difference >10% who either underwent mid-trimester amniocentesis for routine clinical indication (Cohort 1 or whose amniotic fluid was collected at the time of delivery (Cohort 2. In both cohorts, cord blood was collected at delivery.A total of 92 twin pairs were enrolled (n = 49 in Cohort 1; n = 43 in Cohort 2. In Cohort 1, the concentrations of adiponectin (median, 68.5 ng/mL vs 61.4 ng/mL; p<0.05 and leptin (median, 13.9 ng/mL vs 11.2 ng/mL; p<0.1 in mid-trimester AF were significantly higher in smaller compared with larger twins. In Cohort 2, the concentration of serpin E1 (median, 246.0 ng/mL vs 182.8 ng/mL; p<0.01 in AF at delivery was significantly higher in smaller twins, but no difference was noted in adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Levels of adiponectin (median, 10425.5 ng/mL vs 11552.0 ng/mL; p<0.005 and leptin (median, 2.1 ng/mL vs 2.6 ng/mL; p<0.005 were significantly lower in the cord blood of smaller twins whereas cord blood concentrations of serpin E1 (median, 15.5 ng/mL vs 13.3 ng/mL; p<0.05 was higher in the smaller twins.In discordant DCDA twin pairs, concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and serpin E1 in mid-trimester AF, AF at delivery, and cord blood at birth vary significantly but predictably between the smaller and larger twins.

  17. Two-Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis to Identify Protein Biomarkers in Amniotic Fluid of Edwards Syndrome (Trisomy 18 Pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Yao Hsu

    Full Text Available Edwards syndrome (ES is a severe chromosomal abnormality with a prevalence of about 0.8 in 10,000 infants born alive. The aims of this study were to identify candidate proteins associated with ES pregnancies from amniotic fluid supernatant (AFS using proteomics, and to explore the role of biological networks in the pathophysiology of ES.AFS from six second trimester pregnancies with ES fetuses and six normal cases were included in this study. Fluorescence-based two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS were used for comparative proteomic analysis. The identified proteins were further validated by Western blotting and the role of biological networks was analyzed.Twelve protein spots were differentially expressed by more than 1.5-fold in the AFS of the ES pregnancies. MALDI-TOF/MS identified one up-regulated protein: apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1, and four under-regulated proteins: vitamin D binding protein (VDBP, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1, and transthyretin (TTR. Western blot and densitometric analysis of ApoA1, A1AT, IGFBP-1, and TTR confirmed the alteration of these proteins in the amniotic fluid samples. Biological network analysis revealed that the proteins of the ES AFS were involved mainly in lipid and hormone metabolism, immune response, and cardiovascular disease.These five proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of ES. Further studies are needed to explore.

  18. Relationship of amniotic fluid index (AFI) in third trimester with fetal weight and gender in a southeast Nigerian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Anthony C; Shem, Samuel L; Abba, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Amniotic fluid (AF) is one of the major determinants of fetal biophysical profile and can predict pregnancy outcome. Abnormal value of amniotic fluid index (AFI) may indicate fetal and maternal disorders. Purpose To establish reference standards for AFI for this population after 28 weeks of pregnancy and evaluate the relationship between AFI, the estimated fetal weight (EFWT), and fetal gender. Material and Methods A prospective cross-sectional estimation of AFI and FWT was done in 385 apparently healthy pregnant women in the gestational age range of 28–42 weeks. General scanning in longitudinal, transverse, and oblique directions of the abdomen was done to assess the fetal wellbeing and determine the fetal gender for each participant. AF was measured in each of the quadrants of the abdomen. The four values of the AF were summed to get the AFI. Measurement of the head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femoral length of the fetus were obtained. The EFWT was calculated using Hadlock’s formula. The data were divided into five groups: 28–30 weeks 6 days; 31–33 weeks 6 days; 34–36 weeks 6 days; 37–39 weeks 6 days; and 40–42 weeks. AFI for the different gestational age group studied and their percentiles were obtained. Results AFI normogram for the local population was established. Positive and significant correlations of AF and EFWT were seen in all the gestational age groups of the women. No significant correlations between AF and EFWT was seen in male fetuses. Regression equations of EFWT and AFI were obtained for female fetuses. Conclusion The normal range for AFI values for the third trimester was established and could be used to evaluate AFI in the studied population. Established fetal weight should be taken into account when interpreting AFI for female fetuses but this need not be applied for male fetuses. PMID:27570636

  19. [Differentiation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-secreting cells induced by regenerating pancreatic extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmei; Wang, Dianliang; Zeng, Hongyan; Wang, Lieming; Sun, Jinwei; Zhang, Zhen; Dong, Shasha

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the natural biological inducer, rat regenerating pancreatic extract (RPE), was used to induce human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) into insulin-secreting cells. We excised 60% of rat pancreas in order to stimulate pancreatic regeneration. RPE was extracted and used to induce hAMSCs at a final concentration of 20 microg/mL. The experiment methods used were as follows: morphological-identification, dithizone staining, immumofluorescence analysis, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose. The results show that the cell morphology of passge3 hAMSCs changed significantly after the induction of RPE, resulting in cluster shape after induction for 15 days. Dithizone staining showed that there were scarlet cell masses in RPE-treated culture. Immumofluorescence analysis indicated that induced cells were insulin-positive expression. RT-PCR showed the positive expression of human islet-related genes Pdx1 and insulin in the induced cells. The result of insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose indicated that insulin increasingly secreted and then kept stable with prolongation of high glucose stimulation. In conclusion, hAMSCs had the potential to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells induced by RPE in vitro. PMID:22667123

  20. Bacterial Growth in Amniotic Fluid Is Dependent on the Iron-Availability and the Activity of Bacterial Iron-Uptake System

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Young-Joon; Park, Sang-Kee; Oh, Jae-Wook; Sun, Hui-Yu; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the relationship among iron-availability, antibacterial activity, role of meconium as an iron source and the activity of bacterial iron-uptake system (IUS) for bacterial growth in amniotic fluid (AF) were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and its streptonigrin-resistant (SR) mutant with defective IUS were used as the test strains. The growth of S. aureus in AF was stimulated dosedependently by addition of meconium. Bacterial growth stimulated by meconium was ...

  1. An Update on Maternal Hydration Strategies for Amniotic Fluid Improvement in Isolated Oligohydramnios and Normohydramnios: Evidence from a Systematic Review of Literature and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gizzo, Salvatore; NOVENTA, MARCO; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Dall’Asta, Andrea; D’Antona, Donato; Aldrich, Clive J.; Quaranta, Michela; Frusca, Tiziana; Patrelli, Tito Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several trials aimed at evaluating the efficacy of maternal hydration (MH) in increasing amniotic-fluid-volume (AFV) in pregnancies with isolated oligohydramnios or normohydramnos have been conducted. Unfortunately, no evidences support this intervention in routine-clinical-practice. The aim of this systematic-literature-review and meta-analysis was to collect all data regarding proposed strategies and their efficacy in relation to each clinical condition for which MH-therapy was pe...

  2. Comparison of the effect of betamethasone versus dexamethasone on the amniotic fluid index in the women at risk of preterm labor

    OpenAIRE

    Hatav Ghasemi Tehrani; Behnaz Khani1; Zahra Komrani

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the biophysical profile parameters (BPP), especially amniotic fluid index (AFI), before and after administration of corticosteroids (dexamethasone and betamethasone) and these two groups with each other. Materials and Methods: This double-blind clinical trial study was done on 70 patients for 28-34 weeks women having at least one preterm labor in their previous pregnancy has been submitted in Al Zahra and Shahid Beheshti clinic in 2012-2013. 70...

  3. Analysis of nifedipine in human plasma and amniotic fluid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to clinical pharmacokinetics in hypertensive pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Gabriela Campos de Oliveira; Filgueira, Osmany Alberto Silva; Carvalho, Daniela Miarelli; Marques, Maria Paula; Moisés, Elaine Christine Dantas; Duarte, Geraldo; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Nifedipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used for the treatment of hypertension in pregnant women. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for analysis of nifedipine in human plasma and amniotic fluid. Separation of nifedipine and nitrendipine (IS) was performed using a LiChroCART(®) RP-Select B column and a mixture of water:acetonitrile:glacial acetic acid (30:70:0.5 v/v) as the mobile phase. Aliquots of 500μL of biological samples were extracted at pH 13 using dichloromethane:n-pentane (3:7 v/v). The validated method was applied to a study of the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in human plasma and amniotic fluid samples collected up to 12h after administration of the last slow-release nifedipine (20mg/12h) dose to 12 hypertensive pregnant women. The estimated pharmacokinetic parameters of nifedipine showed a mean AUC(0-12) of 250.2ngh/mL, ClT/F of 89.2L/h, Vd/F of 600.0L and t1/2 5.1h. The mean amniotic fluid/plasma concentration ratio was 0.05. The methods proved to be highly sensitive by showing a lower quantification limit of 0.1ng/mL for both matrices. And this study reports for the first time the complete development and validation of the method to quantify nifedipine in amniotic fluid using LC-MS-MS. PMID:25984962

  4. Radioimmunologic determination of SP-1 (gestational beta-1-glycoprotein) in the serum and amniotic fluid during normal and pathological courses of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While determinations of SP-1 in the amniotic fluid were found to be of rather limited diagnostic usefulness, both single and repeated measurements in the serum provided valuable information that permitted to predict the presumable patient outcome in cases of imminent abortion attributable to such conditions as diabetic fetopathy or severe gestosis associated with deficient fetal development (one limitation of the method's usefulness being a comparatively high percentage of false-positive results). (TRV)

  5. Investigation of Efficacy of Mitomycin-C, Sodium Hyaluronate and Human Amniotic Fluid in Preventing Epidural Fibrosis and Adhesion Using a Rat Laminectomy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bolat, Elif; Kocamaz, Erdoğan; Kulahcilar, Zeki; Yilmaz, Ali; Topcu, Abdullah; Ozdemir, Mevci; Coskun, Mehmet Erdal

    2013-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose The aim of this study was to evalute the effects of mitomycin-C, sodium hyaluronate and human amniotic fluid on preventing spinal epidural fibrosis. Overview of Literature The role of scar tissue in pain formation is not exactly known, but it is reported that scar tissue causes adhesions between anatomic structures. Intensive fibrotic tissue compresses on anatomic structures and increases the sensitivity of the nerve root for recurrent herniation an...

  6. Progress in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Amniotic Fluid Embolism%羊水栓塞诊断治疗的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世芬

    2007-01-01

    羊水栓塞(amniotic fluid embolism,AFE)是一种极为凶险的产科并发症。AFE已上升为产科死因的首位Ⅲ。近几年来对AFE的发病机制已有了更新的认识,现就AFE的诊断、治疗新进展进行讨论。

  7. Utilization of a single antiserum for the direct radioimmunoassay of prostaglandins E and F in semen and prostaglandin F in amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibodies to both prostaglandin F (PGF) and prostaglandin E (PGE) were raised in rabbits after they were immunized with prostaglandin F/sub 2a/ conjugated to bovine serum albumin (PGF/sub 2a/--BSA). The antisera were group specific although the antibodies to the F group of prostaglandins showed greater specificity than those to the E group. The antisera were sufficiently specific however to allow the direct radioimmunoassay of PGF and PGE in human semen and PGF in amniotic fluid during induced abortion. Specificity of the direct radioimmunoassay was checked by chromatographic separation of the prostaglandins prior to analysis. Estimation of the prostaglandins in the semen of 30 men attending the infertility clinic showed that 19 of the men had normal semen levels of PGE and PGF of 68 +- 7 (SE) and 6.0 +- 0.6 μg/ml respectively, as compared with data on normal fertile males, whilst the other 11 men had lower levels of 16 +- 2 (SE) and 0.8 +- 0.1 μg/ml respectively. Application of the method to amniotic fluid showed that the PGF concentration in amniotic fluid during the induction of abortion with extra-ovular saline increased from less than 0.6 ng/ml to 6.4 ng/ml when the induction-abortion intervals ranged from 6 to 48 hours. (U.S.)

  8. Predictive value of mid-trimester amniotic fluid high-sensitive C-reactive protein, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Sedigheh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR is surprisingly common with placental dysfunction occurring in about 3% of pregnancies and despite advances in obstetric care, FGR remains a major problem in developed countries. Aim: The purpose of this study is to find out the predictive value of amniotic fluid high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH for FGR. Materials and Methods: This prospective strategy of this study has been conducted on pregnant women who underwent genetic amniocentesis between 15th and 20th weeks of gestation. All patients were followed up on until delivery. Patients with abnormal karyotype and iatrogenic preterm delivery for fetal and maternal indications were excluded. The samples were immediately sent to laboratory for cytogenetic and biochemical examination. Non-parametric tests and receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis were used for statistical purpose. Results: A significant correlation between incremental amniotic fluid alpha fetoprotein (αFPr and LDH levels and FGR at gestational weeks 15th-20th was found out. We also found an optimum cut-off value> 140 IU/L for the amniotic fluid LDH concentration with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 82.4% for the prediction of FGR. Conclusion: Once the LDH value is confirmed, it could serve as a prediction factor for FGR at the time of genetic amniocentesis at gestational weeks 15-20.

  9. Multielemental analysis of human amniotic fluid by use of Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Rutherford Forward Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Correlation studies between the concentrations of certain elements present in human amniotic fluid (A F) and fetal disorders are important. There is a need for a technique or a group of complementary techniques for the reliable elemental analysis of A F. In order to study the reliability of Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF), a comparison between TXRF and the well established technique of Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has been carried out by measuring the concentrations of Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br in 10 common samples of A F. Different degrees of consistency have been obtained depending on the element being analyzed. There is a need to establish the experimental conditions under which a complete agreement between TXRF and PIXE is achieved. A common weakness of TXRF and PIXE is the difficulty to obtain adequate signals from elements lighter than Aluminum. To overcome this problem, a method based on Rutherford Forward Scattering (RFS) for the quantification of elements as light as Lithium is under development. Details on the experimental configuration (beam type, beam energy, detector angle, sample preparation, etc) that leads to an appropriate mass separation by using RFS will be given. Both TXRF and RFS are extremely convenient for correlating physical and medical data because they are non-destructive multielemental techniques which require small amounts of the sample to be analyzed

  10. Mercury concentrations in human placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid and their relations with body parameters of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on samples taken from giving birth women (n = 40) living in Poland, representing three age groups: 19–25, 26–30 and 31–38 years old. Mercury concentrations were measured with CV-AAS in placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood and amniotic fluid. The placentas weight did not exceed the 750 g value and was heavier than 310 g. Mean values of Hg concentrations in blood, placenta and umbilical cord were similar (c.a. 9 μg/g). High levels of mercury were noted in cord blood which in 75% of all observations exceeded (up to 17 μg/L) the safe dose set by US EPA (5.8 μg/L). No statistically significant differences in medium level of Hg in all the studied tissues among age groups of women were observed. Positive correlations between Hg concentrations in placenta and umbilical cord and cord blood were revealed as well as some negative ones between mercury concentrations and pregnancy parameters. -- Highlights: •Concentrations of mercury in cord blood exceed the safety threshold level. •Maternal age was not an influential factor of Hg concentrations in studied samples. •Positive correlations between Hg levels in different tissues were observed. •Negative correlation between Hg concentrations and pregnancy parameters were noted. -- Maternal age was not an influential factor of mercury concentrations in studied samples. 75% of cord blood samples exceeded the Hg threshold concentration

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome using cell-free fetal DNA in amniotic fluid by quantitative fluorescent polymersase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Dan; Chi Hongbin; Shao Minjie; Wu Yao; Jin Hongyan; Wu Baiyan; Qiao Jie

    2014-01-01

    Backgroud Amniotic fluid (AF) supernatant contains cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) fragments.This study attempted to take advantage of cffDNA as a new material for prenatal diagnosis,which could be combined with simple quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) to provide an ancillary method for the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 syndrome.Methods AF supernatant samples were obtained from 27 women carrying euploid fetuses and 28 women carrying aneuploid fetuses with known cytogenetic karyotypes.Peripheral blood samples of the parents were collected at the same time.Short tandem repeat (STR) fragments on chromosome 21 were amplified by QF-PCR.Fetal condition and the parental source of the extra chromosome could be determined by the STR peaks.Results The sensitivity of the assay for the aneuploid was 93% (26/28; confidence interval,CI:77%-98%) and the specificity was 100% (26/26; CI:88%-100%).The determination rate of the origin of the extra chromosome was 69%.The sensitivity and the specificity of the assay in the euploid were 100% (27/27).Conclusions Trisomy 21 can be prenatally diagnosed by the QF-PCR method in AF supernatant.This karyotype analysis method greatly reduces the requirement for the specimen size.It will be a benefit for early amniocentesis and could avoid pregnancy complications.The method may become an ancillary method for prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21.

  12. Effect of Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid on Perinatal Complications in Low-Risk Pregnancies at Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiersch, Liran; Krispin, Eyal; Aviram, Amir; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv; Ashwal, Eran

    2016-03-01

    Objective This study aims to determine the impact of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) in low-risk pregnancies at term on pregnancy outcome. Study Design A retrospective cohort study of women with MSAF during labor who delivered in a tertiary hospital at 37 to 41(+6) weeks of gestation (2007-2013). Exclusion criteria included: multiple gestations, noncephalic presentation, fetal structural/chromosomal anomalies, hypertensive disorders, diabetes, oligohydramnios, or small for gestational age. Pregnancy outcome of women with MSAF (N = 4,893) was compared with a control group of women without MSAF (N = 39,651). Neonatal respiratory morbidity was defined as the presence of any of the following: respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of the newborn, meconium aspiration syndrome, or need for ventilatory support. Results Overall, 10.9% of low-risk pregnancies at term were diagnosed with MSAF. Compared with the controls, women with MSAF had higher rates of nulliparity, gestational age at delivery ≥ 41 weeks, induction of labor, nonreassuring fetal heart rate, and operative deliveries. In multivariate analysis MSAF was associated with operative delivery (odds ratio [OR], 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63-2.09; p outcome even in low-risk pregnancies at term. PMID:26479168

  13. Cell-free DNA Fragmentation Patterns in Amniotic Fluid Identify Genetic Abnormalities and Changes due to Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Inga; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lapaire, Olav; Johnson, Kirby L.; Bianchi, Diana W.; Terrin, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has become a promising biomarker in prenatal diagnosis. However, despite extensive studies in different body fluids, cfDNA predictive value is uncertain owing to the confounding factors that can affect its levels, such as gestational age, maternal weight, smoking status, and medications. Residual fresh and archived amniotic fluid (AF) supernatants were obtained from gravid women (mean gestational age 17 wk) carrying euploid (N = 36) and aneuploid (N = 29) fetuses, to characterize cfDNA-fragmentation patterns with regard to aneuploidy and storage time (−80°C). AF cfDNA was characterized by the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, gel electrophoresis, and pattern recognition of the DNA fragmentation. The distributions of cfDNA fragment lengths were compared using 6 measures that defined the locations and slopes for the first and last peaks, after elimination of the confounding variables. This method allowed for the unique classification of euploid and aneuploid cfDNA samples in AF, which had been matched for storage time. In addition, we showed that archived euploid AF samples gradually lose long cfDNA fragments: this loss accurately distinguishes them from the fresh samples. We present preliminary data using cfDNA-fragmentation patterns, to uniquely distinguish between AF samples of pregnant women with regard to aneuploidy and storage time, independent of gestational age and initial DNA amount. In addition to potential applications in prenatal diagnosis, these data suggest that archived AF samples consist of large amounts of short cfDNA fragments, which are undetectable using standard real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification. PMID:18382362

  14. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells alleviate lung injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Yong; Liang, Guiyou; Yu, Limei

    2016-05-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells may inhibit pathological immune processes contributing to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study aimed to assess the capacity of human amniotic MSC (hAMSCs) to ameliorate I/R injury in a dog model of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Dissociated hAMSCs were cultured ex vivo, and their immunophenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. A dog model of CPB was established by surgical blockage of the aorta for 1 h. Dogs either underwent mock surgery (Sham group), CPB (model group), or CPB, followed by femoral injection of 2 × 10(7) hAMSCs (n=6). Anti-human nuclei staining revealed hAMSCs in the lungs 3 h after surgery. Oxygen index (OI) and respiratory index (RI) of arterial blood were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Venous blood TNF-α, IL-8, MMP-9, and IL-10 concentrations were measured by ELISA. Pathological changes in the lung were assessed by light microscopy. Third-generation-cultured hAMSCs expressed high levels of CD29, CD44, CD49D, CD73, and CD166 levels, but low CD34 or CD45 amounts and their cytoplasm contained Vimentin. In CPB model animals, OI was elevated and RI reduced; TNF-α, IL-8, and MMP-9 levels were elevated, and IL-10 levels reduced within 3h (P<0.05), but hAMSC transplantation significantly ameliorated these changes (P<0.05). Pathological changes observed in the hAMSC group were significantly less severe than those in the CPB group. In conclusion, hAMSC transplantation can downregulate proinflammatory factors and reduce MMP-9 levels, whereas upregulating the anti-inflammatory molecule IL-10, thus reducing I/R lung injury in a dog model of CPB. PMID:26927516

  15. A specific immunophenotype and an increased adipogenic potential characterized human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs) isolated from obese pregnant women at delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Iaffaldano, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated to increased fetal risk of obesity and other metabolic diseases. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSC) have not been characterized in obese women. The aim of this study was to isolate and compare hA-MSC immunophenotypes from obese (Ob-) and normal weight control (Co-) women to identify alterations possibly predisposing the foetus to obesity. We enrolled 16 Ob- and 7 Co-women at delivery (mean/SEM pre-pregnancy BMI: 40.3/1.8 kg/m2 and 22.4/1.0 kg/m2, res...

  16. High Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Levels Characterize Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Drive Their Increased Adipogenic Potential in Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Iaffaldano, Laura; Nardelli, Carmela; Raia, Maddalena; Mariotti, Elisabetta; Ferrigno, Maddalena; Quaglia, Filomena; Labruna, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Valentina; Capone, Angela; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Pastore, Lucio; Di Noto, Rosa; Martinelli, Pasquale; Sacchetti, Lucia; Del Vecchio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated to increased fetal risk of obesity and other metabolic diseases. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs) have not been characterized in obese women. The aim of this study was to isolate and compare hA-MSC immunophenotypes from obese (Ob-) and normal weight control (Co-) women, to identify alterations possibly predisposing the fetus to obesity. We enrolled 16 Ob- and 7 Co-women at delivery (mean/SEM prepregnancy body mass index: 40.3/1.8 and 22.4/1.0 kg/m...

  17. Amniotic fluid is important for the maintenance of maternal responsiveness and the establishment of maternal selectivity in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindron, P; Otal, J; Ferreira, G; Keller, M; Guesdon, V; Nowak, R; Lévy, F

    2010-12-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) is important for the establishment of maternal behaviour in inexperienced ewes, but its role in experienced mothers remains to be studied. Here, the maintenance of post-partum maternal responsiveness and the establishment of exclusive bonding was investigated in multiparous ewes when AF was removed from the neonate or/and physical contact with the young was precluded for the first 4 h post partum. Maintenance of maternal responsiveness and establishment of exclusive bonding were measured by the proportion of mothers accepting their own lamb and alien lambs that had been either washed or not washed, and by comparing an acceptance score for each type of lamb. The acceptance score was computed by summing standardised variables of acceptance (low bleats, acceptance at udder, nursing and licking time) and subtracting standardised variables of rejection (high-pitched bleats, rejection at the udder and aggressive behaviour). Washing the neonate reduced its acceptance score, but the proportion of mothers rejecting their own lamb was reduced only when washing the neonate and prevention of physical contact for 4 h were combined (7/15 v. 0/10 in controls, P = 0.02). In addition, washing the neonate increased the acceptance score of the washed alien lamb, but not of the unwashed alien. However, washing and privation of physical contact did not increase significantly the proportion of mothers accepting an alien lamb at 4 h post partum. We conclude that AF is important in experienced ewes for the establishment of maternal responsiveness, as already found in primiparous mothers. In addition, our results indicate that AF also carries some chemosensory information facilitating exclusive bonding. PMID:22445380

  18. Intramuscular Transplantation of Pig Amniotic Fluid-Derived Progenitor Cells Has Therapeutic Potential in a Mouse Model of Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shao-Yu; Chou, Chih-Jen; Cheng, Po-Jen; Tseng, Tse-Yang; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kui; Shaw, S W Steven; Wu, Shinn-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a fatal event that causes a large number of deaths worldwide. MI results in pathological remodeling and decreased cardiac function, which could lead to heart failure and fatal arrhythmia. Cell therapy is a potential strategy to repair the damage through enhanced angiogenesis or by modulation of the inflammatory process via paracrine signaling. Amniotic fluid-derived progenitor cells (AFPCs) have been reported to differentiate into several lineages and can be used without ethical concerns or risk of teratoma formation. Since pigs are anatomically, physiologically, and genetically similar to humans, and pregnant pigs can be an abundant source of AFPCs, we used porcine AFPCs (pAFPCs) as our target cells. Intramyocardial injection of AFPCs has been shown to cure MI in animal models. However, intramuscular transplantation of cells has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of intramuscular injection of pAFPCs on acute MI. MI mice were divided into 1) PBS control, 2) medium cell dose (1 × 10(6) cells per leg; cell-M), and 3) high cell dose (4 × 10(6) cells per leg; cell-H) groups. Cells or PBS were directly injected into the hamstring muscle 20 min after MI surgery. Four weeks after MI surgery, the cell-M and cell-H groups exhibited significantly better ejection fraction, significantly greater wall thickness, smaller infarct scar sizes, and lower LV expansion index compared to the PBS group. Using in vivo imaging, we showed that the hamstring muscles from animals in the cell-M and cell-H groups had RFP-positive signals. In summary, intramuscular injection of porcine AFPCs reduced scar size, reduced pathological remodeling, and preserved heart function after MI. PMID:24667157

  19. Morphometric characteristics of periodontal and gum mucosa structures of rats after injection of the antigen in amniotic fluid in the antenatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshin N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to establish and examine the dynamics of changes in morphometric parameters of structure formation of periodontal and gingival mucosa of rats after injection of the antigen in amniotic fluid in the antenatal period. Work founds that prenatal antigenic action delays the rate of formation of the structures of periodontal and gingival mucosa of rats from the 1st to 11th day, and on the 30th day postnatal life. The imbalance in the formation of structures and periodontal gum mucosa of rats maintained for months and leveled on the 45th day of life.

  20. Combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation as a prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Capozzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if the use of combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT is a safe and effective prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft after penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Methods. We report the case of a 17 years old patient with a history of congenital glaucoma, trabeculectomy and multiple corneal graft rejections, presenting total limbal cell deficiency. To reduce the possibility of graft rejection in the left eye after a new PK, a two step procedure was performed. At first the patient underwent a combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft (LAT and AMT and then, 10 months later, a new PK. Results. During 12 months of follow-up, the corneal graft remained stable and smooth, with no sign of graft rejection. Conclusions. In our patient, the prophylactic use of LAT from HLA-matched donors and AMT before PK, may result in a better prognosis of corneal graft survival.

  1. Prediction markers for respiratory distress syndrome: evaluation of the stable microbubble test, surfactant protein-A and hepatocyte growth factor levels in amniotic fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumazawa K

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant treatment in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS has decreased neonatal mortality. With the advent of this therapy, it has become important to predict accurately the fetal lung maturity of a fetus before delivery. We evaluated the stable microbubble test (SMT, surfactant protein-A (SP-A and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF in amniotic fluid as predicting markers for RDS. Of 55 amniotic fluid samples obtained by amniocentesis from women less than 37 weeks pregnant, the SMT values were as follows: sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 84.2%, positive predictive value 68.4%, negative predictive value 88.9% and overall accuracy 81.8%. For SP-A, the values were 88.2%, 65.8%, 53.6%, 92.6% and 72.7%, respectively. If we used both SMT and SP-A, we could diagnose with 100% accuracy that a case with measurements of SMT > or = 2 and SP-A > or = 420 ng/ml would not complicate with RDS (24/24. However, the RDS diagnostic accuracy of HGF does not equal to those of SMT and SP-A levels. We concluded that the rapidity, simplicity and reliability of SMT was very useful during 24-36 weeks of gestation as a bedside procedure to predict fetuses likely to develop RDS. We also noted the additive effect of SP-A in improving the accuracy of lung maturity diagnosis.

  2. Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A New Source for Hepatocyte-Like Cells and Induction of CFTR Expression by Coculture with Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Paracchini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene, with lung and liver manifestations. Because of pitfalls of gene therapy, novel approaches for reconstitution of the airway epithelium and CFTR expression should be explored. In the present study, human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs were isolated from term placentas and characterized for expression of phenotypic and pluripotency markers, and for differentiation potential towards mesoderm (osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Moreover, hAMSCs were induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, as demonstrated by mixed function oxidase activity and expression of albumin, alpha1-antitrypsin, and CK19. We also investigated the CFTR expression in hAMSCs upon isolation and in coculture with CF airway epithelial cells. Freshly isolated hAMSCs displayed low levels of CFTR mRNA, which even decreased with culture passages. Following staining with the vital dye CM-DiI, hAMSCs were mixed with CFBE41o- respiratory epithelial cells and seeded onto permeable filters. Flow cytometry demonstrated that 33–50% of hAMSCs acquired a detectable CFTR expression on the apical membrane, a result confirmed by confocal microscopy. Our data show that amniotic MSCs have the potential to differentiate into epithelial cells of organs relevant in CF pathogenesis and may contribute to partial correction of the CF phenotype.

  3. Amniotic Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman is at an increased risk for premature delivery or an early birth is necessary for the baby or mother's health. The tests are based upon the presence of adequate protective liquid substances called surfactants in the lungs, which are necessary for proper ...

  4. Cultivation, identification and directional differentiation potency of human anmiotic fluid-derived multipotential stem cells%羊水来源多潜能干细胞的培养鉴定及其定向分化能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾潇; 张建芳; 郭倩; 吴珊珊; 陈必良

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立人羊水来源多潜能干细胞的体外培养体系,探讨其生物学特性和定向分化能力.方法 取人孕中期羊水标本进行原代培养,采用贴壁法分离获得干细胞.以流式细胞仪检测细胞表面抗原的表达,并使用特定培养基诱导羊水多潜能干细胞向成骨细胞、脂肪细胞、神经细胞分化.结果 体外培养的羊水干细胞呈纺锤形,增长迅速,细胞表达Oct-4、SSEA-4、CD29、CD44、CD105、CD117,但不表达造血干细胞表面标志CD45、CD133.羊水干细胞在体外诱导可以分化出成骨细胞、脂肪细胞和神经细胞.结论 分离获得的干细胞体外增殖能力强,可表达多潜能干细胞和胚胎干细胞的标志基因,符合多潜能干细胞的特点.在适宜的培养条件下,羊水多潜能干细胞具有向成骨细胞、脂肪细胞、神经细胞分化的能力.%Objective To establish a procedure for culturing amniotic fluid-derived multipotential stem cells in vitro, and study their biological characteristics and differentiation potency. Methods Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells were isolated from second-trimester arnniotuc fluid by adherence. The phenotypes of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells were detected by flow cytometry. The amniotic fluidderived stem cells were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and neurocytes by specific culture medium. Results The stem cells were successfully isolated from 8 of 10 second-trimester amniotic fluid samples. The amniotic fluid-derived stem cells were spindle in shape and proliferated rapidly. Primary cultured cells grew slowly, and then the growth became rapid following passaging. The chromosome karyotype of the 20th passage was normal, remaining to be 46, XX or 46, XY. These cells shared immunophenotype of both multipotential stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers, as they were positive for Oct-4, SSEA-4, CD29, CD44, CD105 and CD117 expressions, and negative for CD45 and CD133 expressions

  5. An Update on Maternal Hydration Strategies for Amniotic Fluid Improvement in Isolated Oligohydramnios and Normohydramnios: Evidence from a Systematic Review of Literature and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gizzo

    Full Text Available Several trials aimed at evaluating the efficacy of maternal hydration (MH in increasing amniotic-fluid-volume (AFV in pregnancies with isolated oligohydramnios or normohydramnos have been conducted. Unfortunately, no evidences support this intervention in routine-clinical-practice. The aim of this systematic-literature-review and meta-analysis was to collect all data regarding proposed strategies and their efficacy in relation to each clinical condition for which MH-therapy was performed with the aim of increasing amniotic-fluid (AF and improving perinatal outcomes.A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic-database MEDLINE, EMBASE, ScienceDirect and the Cochrane-Library in the time interval between 1991 and 2014. Following the identification of eligible trials, we estimated the methodological quality of each study (using QADAS-2 and clustered patients according to the following outcome measures: route of administration (oral versus intravenous versus combined, total daily dose of fluids administered (2000, duration of hydration therapy: (1 day, >1 day but 1 week, type of fluid administered (isotonic versus hypotonic versus combination.In isolated-oligohydramnios (IO, maternal oral hydration is more effective than intravenous hydration and hypotonic solutions superior to isotonic solutions. The improvement in AFV appears to be time-dependent rather than daily-dose dependent. Regarding normohydramnios pregnancies, all strategies seem equivalent though the administration of hypotonic-fluid appears to have a slightly greater effect than isotonic-fluid. Regarding perinatal outcomes, data is fragmentary and heterogeneous and does not allow us to define the real clinical utility of MH.Available data suggests that MH may be a safe, well-tolerated and useful strategy to improve AFV especially in cases of IO. In view of the numerous obstetric situations in which a reduced AFV may pose a threat, particularly to the fetus, the possibility

  6. Transcapillary permeability and subendothelial distribution of endothelial and amniotic fluid insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.S.; Clemmons, D.R.; Boes, M.; Busby, W.H.; Booth, B.A.; Dake, B.L.; Sandra, A. (Veterans Administration Hospital, Iowa City, IA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBP) were purified from conditioned media of cultured bovine endothelial cells (ECBP) and from human amniotic fluid (IGFBP-1), and then labeled by radioiodination. 125I-ECBP and 125I-IGFBP-1 were perfused through isolated beating rat hearts for 1 and 5 min, and the hearts fixed and analyzed for 125I-BP content and distribution. One to 4% of the perfused 125I-ECBP and 125I-IGFBP-1 crossed the capillary boundary. The ECBPs predominantly localized as intact 125I-BP in connective tissue elements of the heart with less 125I-BP in cardiac muscle. The ratio of 125I-ECBP in connective tissue: muscle (normalized to percent vol of these compartments) was greater than or equal to 10:1. In contrast, the IGFBP-1 had a greater affinity for cardiac muscle with ratios of 125I-IGFBP-1 in connective tissue:muscle of approximately 1:2. When 125I-IGF-I, in the absence of any BPs, was perfused through the hearts approximately 3-5% left the microcirculation and was found in subendothelial tissues. 125I-IGF-I localized primarily to cardiac muscle with a distribution of connective tissue:cardiac muscle of about 1:3. The findings in the isolated perfused heart were confirmed in intact animals. After 125I-IGFBP-1 was injected into anesthetized rats and allowed to circulate for 5 min, substantial radioactivity was associated with the heart. As in the isolated heart, the IGFBP-1 preferentially localized to cardiac muscle with a connective tissue:cardiac muscle ratio of 1:3. We conclude that IGFBPs produced by endothelial cells and the IGFBP-1 contained in amniotic fluid can cross the capillary boundaries of the rat heart, and that the ECBPs preferentially localize in connective tissue elements of the myocardium, whereas IGFBP-1 predominantly localizes in cardiac muscle.

  7. Transcapillary permeability and subendothelial distribution of endothelial and amniotic fluid insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in the rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBP) were purified from conditioned media of cultured bovine endothelial cells (ECBP) and from human amniotic fluid (IGFBP-1), and then labeled by radioiodination. 125I-ECBP and 125I-IGFBP-1 were perfused through isolated beating rat hearts for 1 and 5 min, and the hearts fixed and analyzed for 125I-BP content and distribution. One to 4% of the perfused 125I-ECBP and 125I-IGFBP-1 crossed the capillary boundary. The ECBPs predominantly localized as intact 125I-BP in connective tissue elements of the heart with less 125I-BP in cardiac muscle. The ratio of 125I-ECBP in connective tissue: muscle (normalized to percent vol of these compartments) was greater than or equal to 10:1. In contrast, the IGFBP-1 had a greater affinity for cardiac muscle with ratios of 125I-IGFBP-1 in connective tissue:muscle of approximately 1:2. When 125I-IGF-I, in the absence of any BPs, was perfused through the hearts approximately 3-5% left the microcirculation and was found in subendothelial tissues. 125I-IGF-I localized primarily to cardiac muscle with a distribution of connective tissue:cardiac muscle of about 1:3. The findings in the isolated perfused heart were confirmed in intact animals. After 125I-IGFBP-1 was injected into anesthetized rats and allowed to circulate for 5 min, substantial radioactivity was associated with the heart. As in the isolated heart, the IGFBP-1 preferentially localized to cardiac muscle with a connective tissue:cardiac muscle ratio of 1:3. We conclude that IGFBPs produced by endothelial cells and the IGFBP-1 contained in amniotic fluid can cross the capillary boundaries of the rat heart, and that the ECBPs preferentially localize in connective tissue elements of the myocardium, whereas IGFBP-1 predominantly localizes in cardiac muscle

  8. miR-410 Inhibition Induces RPE Differentiation of Amniotic Epithelial Stem Cells via Overexpression of OTX2 and RPE65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soon Won; Kim, Jae-Jun; Seo, Min-Soo; Park, Sang-Bum; Kang, Tae-Wook; Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Byung-Chul; Kang, Insung; Shin, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Yu, Kyung-Rok; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2015-06-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a highly specialized cell type located between the choroid and neural retina of the eye. RPE degeneration causes irreversible visual impairment, extending to blindness. Cell therapy has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for retinal degeneration. MicroRNA-based differentiation of stem cells is a new strategy for producing tissue-specific cell types. In this study, we developed a novel microRNA-based strategy for RPE induction from human amniotic epithelial stem cells (AESCs). We identified microRNAs involved in RPE development in AESCs. Of 29 putative human RPE-relevant microRNAs, microRNA-410 (miR-410) was predicted to target multiple RPE development-relevant genes. Inhibition of miR-410 induces overexpression of immature and mature RPE-specific factors, including OTX2, RPE65, Bestrophin and EMMPRIN. These RPE-like cells were morphologically altered toward a cobblestone-like shape and were able to phagocytize microbeads. We showed that miR-410 directly regulates predicted target genes OTX2 and RPE65. Our microRNA-based strategy demonstrated RPE differentiation in AESCs by treatment of an antisense microRNA-410 (anti-miR-410), without the use of additional factors or exogenous transduction. These findings suggest that miR-410 inhibition can be a useful tool for directed cell differentiation and an attractive method for cell therapy in human retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:25351180

  9. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2001-11-01

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 μg/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism

  10. Neural Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin FARIVAR*

    2015-01-01

    chick embryos. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol 2004 Apr 1;301(4:280-9.Mitchell KE, Weiss ML. Matrix cells from Wharton’s jelly form neurons and glia. Stem Cells 2003;21(1:50-60.Marcus AJ, Woodbury D. Fetal stem cells from extra-embryonic tissues: do not discard. J Cell Mol Med 2008 Jun;12(3:730-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1582- 4934.2008.00221.x. Epub 2008 Jan 11.Miao Z, Jin J, Chen L, Zhu J, Huang W, Zhao J, Quian H, Zhang X. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from human placenta: comparison with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cell Biol Int 2006 Sep;30(9:681-7. Epub 2006 Apr 22.In ‘tAnker PS, Scherjon SA, Kleijburg-van der Keur C, Noort WA, Claas FHJ, Willemze R, Fibbe WE, Kanhai HHH. Amniotic fluid as a novel source of mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutic transplantation. Blood 2003;102(4:1548-49.Magatti M, De Munari S, Vertua E, Gibelli L, Wengler GS, Parolini O. Human amnion mesenchyme harbors cells with allogeneic T-cell suppression and stimulation capabilities. Stem Cells 2008 Jan;26(1:182-92. Epub 2007 Sep 27.Kang XQ, Zang WJ, Bao LJ, Li DL, Xu XL, Yu XJ. Differentiating characterization of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Cell Biol Int 2006 Jul;30(7:569-75. Epub 2006 Mar 6.Kern S, Eichler H, Stoeve J, Kluter H, Bieback K. Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, or adipose tissue. Stem Cells 2006 May;24(5:1294-301. Epub 2006 Jan 12.Wagner W, Wein F, Seckinger A, Frankhauser M, Wirkner U, Krause U, et al. Comparative characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood. Exp Hematol 2005 Nov;33(11:1402-16.Jackson JS, Golding JP, Chapon C, Jones WA, Bhakoo KK: Homing of stem cells to sites of inflammatory brain injury after intracerebral and intravenous administration: a longitudinal imaging study. Stem Cell Res Ther 2010 Jun 15;1(2:17. doi: 10.1186/scrt17.Romanov YA, Svintsitskaya VA, Smirnov VN. Searching for alternative

  11. Intra-amniotic thyroxine to treat fetal goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jung; Chae, Yong-Hwa; Park, So-Young; Kim, Moon-Young

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old pregnant woman visited our department and had been treated with 100 µg of daily oral levothyroxine for hypothyroidism. An ultrasonography screening was performed at 25 weeks gestation and revealed a fetal goiter and an increased amniotic fluid volume. Fetal hypothyroidism was confirmed by cordocentesis and amniotic hormone levels at 26 weeks gestation. We treated the mother with 200 µg of daily oral levothyroxine to optimize the transplacental transfer. A total of four intra-amniotic injections of levothyroxine were administered, resulting in progressive reduction in the fetal thyroid volume of goiter as measured by 3D ultrasonography and increased amniotic fluid volume. Following birth, neonatal serum thyroid stimulating hormone level was within the normal range, but free T4 was reduced. Based on this case, we suggest that monitoring amniotic fluid thyroid hormone concentration and intra-amniotic levothyroxine injection can be used to reduce the thyroid volume of goiters and to prevent polyhydramnios. PMID:26866040

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II: response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in amniotic fluid cells and fetal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Y; Jaccard, N; Legum, C; Spirer, Z; Yedwab, G; Even, L; Edelstein, S; Kaye, A M; Hochberg, Z

    1990-10-01

    Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II (VDDR-II; hereditary resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]), an autosomal recessive genetic disease that results from a failure to respond to 1,25-(OH)2D3, is characterized by severe rickets, hypocalcemia, growth retardation, and high prevalence of alopecia. We used amniotic fluid cells in the 17th week of gestation to detect VDDR-II in fetuses at risk for the defect. First, we demonstrated in cells obtained from 15 control pregnancies the presence of a specific high affinity 1,25-(OH)2D3 receptor (Kd = 0.3 x 10(-11) mol/L; maximal number of binding sites, 6.1 fmol/mg protein) and 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase activity (up to 30-fold increase). Amniotic fluid cells from a woman who had already given birth to a child with VDDR-II contained receptors that bound [3H]1,25-(OH)2D3 normally and responded to 1,25-(OH)2D3 stimulation with a 10-fold increase in 24-hydroxylase activity. The fetus was, therefore, judged unaffected, and a normal baby girl was born. At the age of 16 months she did not demonstrate clinical or biochemical features of VDDR-II. Amniotic fluid cells from another mother of a child with VDDR-II were unable to bind [3H]1,25-(OH)2D3, and the hormone failed to stimulate 24-hydroxylase activity. VDDR-II in this fetus was confirmed after termination of pregnancy by the total inability of 1,25-(OH)2D3 to stimulate 24-hydroxylase activity in tissue explants and cell cultures prepared from the fetus's kidney and skin. In contrast, tissues from dead control fetuses responded to stimulation by 1,25-(OH)2D3 with a 3- to 10-fold increase in 24-hydroxylase activity. Fetal kidney and skin explants and cell cultures also synthesized a [3H]1,25-(OH)2D3-like metabolite from [3H]25-OHD3 as early as the 17th week of gestation. 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10 nM) decreased the in vitro synthesis of the [3H]1,25-(OH)2D3-like metabolite in tissues from dead control fetuses, but not from the affected fetus. Thus

  13. Amniotic epithelial stem cell biocompatibility for electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide), poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(lactic acid) scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Valentina; Tammaro, Loredana; Di Marcantonio, Lisa; Sorrentino, Andrea; Ancora, Massimo; Valbonetti, Luca; Turriani, Maura; Martelli, Alessandra; Cammà, Cesare; Barboni, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Three biodegradable thermoplastic polymers, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(l-lactide-co-d,l-lactide) (PLA) and poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), have been used to produce nonwovens scaffolds with uniform micrometer fibres. Scaffolds' physical and morphological characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Contact-Angle test. Morphological investigations revealed that all produced fibres were randomly orientated with interconnected pores ranging between 5 and 12μm in diameter. An average fibre diameter of 1.5, 0.75 and 1.2μm was found for PCL, PLA and PLGA, respectively. Moreover, experiments were designed to verify whether the fabricated electrospun substrates were biocompatible for ovine amniotic epithelial stem cells (oAECs) under in vitro conditions. Cell adhesion, survival, spatial organization on fibres, proliferation index, and DNA quantification after 48h culture, showed an enhanced adhesion and proliferation, especially for PLGA scaffolds. The favourable interaction between oAECs and the fibrous scaffolds was attributed to the greatly improved porosity and pore size distribution of the electrospun scaffolds. In addition, AECs can be considered ideal for tissue engineering especially when using biocompatible and opportunely produced scaffolds. PMID:27612719

  14. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Minjuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM. The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration.

  15. Amniotic Fluid Embolism "Medical Trouble" Analysis and Consideration of the Case%羊水栓塞"医闹"案件的分析与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红莲; 张鸿慧; 刘艳; 官丽波; 紫云芝

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解羊水栓塞"医闹"的相关因素.方法 在百度和Google中输入"羊水栓塞,医疗纠纷,医闹"等关键词进行检索,将羊水栓塞医疗纠纷、"医闹"的案件认真阅读后摘录、编号并列表统计分析.结果 ①案件网上发表时间为1986年10月25日至2009年3月18日,共78起,羊水栓塞医疗纠纷、"医闹"案件随年度增长其构成比增加.②56.41%明确记载医院名称,37.18%记载某医院,6.41%记载其他.③"医闹"占23.08%;其中66.67%停尸医院,摆放花圈,设灵堂,奏哀乐,放鞭炮,烧纸钱,点香烛等;殴打医务人员及严重威胁相关医务人员人身安全分别占22.22%;将刚出生女儿丢弃医院长达3个月之久占5.56%."医闹"导致医院停业并转诊孕产妇10余人到其他医院占5.56%.参加"医闹"人数为数十人、几百人,甚至上千人."医闹"形式:大批社会人员冲击医院、占据医院多处工作场所,集会,捣毁办公室,砸领导家门窗."医闹"持续时间为20多小时至断断续续3个月不等.④10.26%案件报警:其中62.50%医院报警,37.50%家属报警.87.50%案件公安部门介入,12.50%案件警察袖手旁观.拘捕及拘留分别占12.50%;25.00%追究刑事责任.⑤32.05%家属提出赔偿要求:赔偿金5 ~300万元;要求新生儿由医院扶养至18周岁占4.00%.40.00%案件医院给予补偿:补偿金3000元至42万元;述及医院无过错,补偿出于无奈占30.00%.结论 产科医务人员勤于学习相关法律知识,以严肃科学的诊疗规范,及早发现羊水栓塞的征兆,及早诊断,及早急救,尽最大可能维持孕产妇生命,保障产科医疗工作及时准确,安全有效,是从根本上避免羊水栓塞医疗纠纷、"医闹"的关键.%Objective TO investigate the relevant factors of amniotic fluid embolism" medical trouble".Methods In Baidu and Google,type "amniotic fluid embolism,medical malpractice, medical trouble" and other keyword search,the amniotic fluid embolism medical dispute

  16. Performance of Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of the Amniotic Fluid of Pregnant Women for Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Congenital infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii can cause serious damage that can be diagnosed in utero or at birth, although most infants are asymptomatic at birth. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis considerably improves the prognosis and outcome for infected infants. For this reason, an assay for the quick, sensitive, and safe diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis is desirable. Goal To systematically review the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the amniotic fluid of pregnant women with recent serological toxoplasmosis diagnoses for the diagnosis of fetal toxoplasmosis. Method A systematic literature review was conducted via a search of electronic databases; the literature included primary studies of the diagnostic accuracy of PCR analysis of amniotic fluid from pregnant women who seroconverted during pregnancy. The PCR test was compared to a gold standard for diagnosis. Results A total of 1.269 summaries were obtained from the electronic database and reviewed, and 20 studies, comprising 4.171 samples, met the established inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The following results were obtained: studies about PCR assays for fetal toxoplasmosis are generally susceptible to bias; reports of the tests’ use lack critical information; the protocols varied among studies; the heterogeneity among studies was concentrated in the tests’ sensitivity; there was evidence that the sensitivity of the tests increases with time, as represented by the trimester; and there was more heterogeneity among studies in which there was more time between maternal diagnosis and fetal testing. The sensitivity of the method, if performed up to five weeks after maternal diagnosis, was 87% and specificity was 99%. Conclusion The global sensitivity heterogeneity of the PCR test in this review was 66.5% (I2). The tests show low evidence of heterogeneity with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 99% when performed up to five weeks

  17. 角膜缘干细胞移植治疗翼状胬肉切除联合羊膜移植术后羊膜溶解%Clinical observation of the corneal limbus stem cell transplantation on treating amniotic membrane dissolving after pterygium resection with amniotic membrane transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋青山; 范慧雅; 陈子林

    2016-01-01

    •AIM:To observe the efficacy of the corneal limbus stem cell transplantation on treating amniotic membrane dissolving after pterygium resection with amniotic membrane transplantation.•METHODS:One hundred and twenty-four patients (135 eyes) with amniotic membrane dissolving after pterygium resection and amniotic membrane transplantation were randomly divided into groups A, B and C.In group A, 36 cases (38 eyes) took the conservative treatment.In group B, 42 cases ( 45 eyes ) accepted amniotic membrane transplantation again.In group C, 46 cases ( 52 eyes ) were performed corneal limbal stem cell transplantation. Postoperative follow-up periods were 6~18mo.•RESULTS:Twenty-four eyes in group A were recurred and the recurrence rate was 63.2%.Seven eyes in group B were recurred and the recurrence rate was 15.6%.Two eyes in group C were recurred and the recurrence rate was 3.8%.The differences on recurrence rate between group A and group B, between group B and group C were statistically significant (P<0.05).•CONCLUSION: Autologous corneal limbus stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for amniotic membrane dissolving after pterygium resection with amniotic membrane transplantation.%目的:观察角膜缘干细胞移植术治疗翼状胬肉切除联合羊膜移植术后羊膜溶解的临床效果。方法:翼状胬肉切除术联合羊膜移植术后出现羊膜溶解的患者124例135眼随机分成A、B、C三组,A组36例38眼采取保守治疗, B组42例45眼再次行羊膜移植术, C组46例52眼行自体角膜缘干细胞移植术。术后随访6~18mo比较各组胬肉复发情况。结果:A组38眼中24眼复发,复发率63.2%。 B组45眼中术后7眼胬肉复发,复发率15.6%。 C组52眼2眼复发,复发率3.8%,A组与B组比较,B组与C组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:自体角膜缘干细胞移植术是治疗翼状胬肉切除联合羊膜移植术后羊膜溶解的有效方法。

  18. Reference intervals for N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in amniotic fluid between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waltraut M Merz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adult and pediatric cardiology, n-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (nt-proBNP serves as biomarker in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular dysfunction. Elevated levels of circulating nt-proBNP are present in fetal conditions associated with myocardial pressure or volume load. Compared to fetal blood sampling, amniocentesis is technically easier and can be performed from early pregnancy onwards. We aimed to investigate amniotic fluid (AF nt-proBNP concentrations in normal pregnancies between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Nt-proBNP and total protein (TP was measured in AF by chemiluminescence assay (photometry, respectively. To adjust for a potential dilutional effect, the AF-nt-proBNP/AF-TP ratio was analyzed. Reference intervals were constructed by regression modeling across gestational age. RESULTS: 132 samples were analyzed. A negative correlation between AF-nt-proBNP/AF-TP ratio and gestational age was observed. Curves for the mean and the 5% and 95% reference interval between 10 and 34 weeks of gestation were established. CONCLUSION: In normal pregnancy, nt-proBNP is present in AF and decreases during gestation. Our data provide the basis for research on AF-nt-proBNP as biomarker in fetal medicine.

  19. Progress on the pathogenesis diagnosis and treatment of amniotic fluid embolism%羊水栓塞发病机理及诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤华

    2008-01-01

    羊水栓塞(amniotic Fluid embolism,AFE)是指羊水物质进入母血循环引起肺栓塞、休克、弥漫性血管内凝血(disseminated intravascular coagulation,DIC)等一系列严重症状的综合征。Clark报道AFE发病率约1:8000,80000,死亡率高达80%以上。AFE引起死亡的孕产妇数占孕产妇死亡总数的10%,20%。近年孕产妇病死率显著下降,而导致产妇直接死因的AFE一直未改变。可见AFE是一种发病率低,病死率高,但又不可预料且极其凶险的产科并发症。近年来通过临床病例的总结、研究,对AFE的发病原因及相关因素有了新的认识,并对早期诊断及治疗也有了新的进展。

  20. Significant performance variation among PCR systems in diagnosing congenital toxoplasmosis in São Paulo, Brazil: analysis of 467 amniotic fluid samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Suely Okay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Performance variation among PCR systems in detecting Toxoplasma gondii has been extensively reported and associated with target genes, primer composition, amplification parameters, treatment during pregnancy, host genetic susceptibility and genotypes of different parasites according to geographical characteristics. PATIENTS: A total of 467 amniotic fluid samples from T. gondii IgM- and IgG-positive Brazilian pregnant women being treated for 1 to 6 weeks at the time of amniocentesis (gestational ages of 14 to 25 weeks. METHODS: One nested-B1-PCR and three one-round amplification systems targeted to rDNA, AF146527 and the B1 gene were employed. RESULTS: Of the 467 samples, 189 (40.47% were positive for one-round amplifications: 120 (63.49% for the B1 gene, 24 (12.69% for AF146527, 45 (23.80% for both AF146527 and the B1 gene, and none for rDNA. Fifty previously negative one-round PCR samples were chosen by computer-assisted randomization analysis and re-tested (nested-B1-PCR, during which nine additional cases were detected (9/50 or 18%. DISCUSSION: The B1 gene PCR was far more sensitive than the AF146527 PCR, and the rDNA PCR was the least effective even though the rDNA had the most repetitive sequence. Considering that the four amplification systems were equally affected by treatment, that the amplification conditions were optimized for the target genes and that most of the primers have already been reported, it is plausible that the striking differences found among PCR performances could be associated with genetic diversity in patients and/or with different Toxoplasma gondii genotypes occurring in Brazil. CONCLUSION: The use of PCR for the diagnosis of fetal Toxoplasma infections in Brazil should be targeted to the B1 gene when only one gene can be amplified, preferably by nested amplification with primers B22/B23.

  1. Comparison of the effect of betamethasone versus dexamethasone on the amniotic fluid index in the women at risk of preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatav Ghasemi Tehrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the biophysical profile parameters (BPP, especially amniotic fluid index (AFI, before and after administration of corticosteroids (dexamethasone and betamethasone and these two groups with each other. Materials and Methods: This double-blind clinical trial study was done on 70 patients for 28-34 weeks women having at least one preterm labor in their previous pregnancy has been submitted in Al Zahra and Shahid Beheshti clinic in 2012-2013. 70 women were randomly allocated in two groups. The first group were received 8 mg each 12 h for 4 doses dexamethasone when the patient at risk of preterm labor admitted in clinic or hospitalized and the second group were received 12 mg betamethasone each 24 h similarly. Nonstress test (NST and BPP and sonography AFI were done in all cases, and then NST was done in the before and 3 days after intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 20 using t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher′s test. Results: There was no significant difference between the range of AFI before and after the drug intervention (P > 0.05. Two groups had no significant difference in AFI before and after administration of corticosteroids. No significant difference was seen in NST acceleration tests between the two groups before and after corticosteroids administration. Conclusion: Biophysical profile had a significant difference in dexamethasone group respect to that of betamethasone group. Furthermore, the biophysical profile had a significant difference before and after the administration of corticosteroids in two groups. It is noted that AFI had no role in this matter.

  2. The Association between N-terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in the Umbilical Vein and Amniotic Fluid Volume Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Ozler, Sibel; Oztas, Efser; Ersoy, Ebru; Ergin, Merve; Erkaya, Salim; Uygur, Dilek

    2016-04-01

    Purpose The amniotic fluid volume (AFV) is known as a predictor for the wellness of a fetus. We aimed to investigate whether N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels reflect AFV abnormalities in otherwise normal fetuses. Methods We recruited 24 women with isolated oligohydramnios, 23 women with isolated polyhydramnios, and 36 women with normal AFV at a tertiary referral center. NT-proBNP levels in umbilical venous samples and the individual characteristics of the three groups were compared. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were used for multi-group comparisons of continuous variables. When a significant difference was detected, the Scheffe test was performed as a post-hoc analysis. Proportions were compared using the Chi-square (χ2) test. Results Maternal age, body mass indices, weight gained in pregnancy and NT-proBNP levels were similar among the three groups. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes significantly correlated with NT-proBNP levels in all newborns (Spearman's r = 0.23; p = 0.03 and Spearman's r = 0.24; p = 0.02, respectively). The umbilical venous NT-proBNP levels did not differ between newborns who needed mechanical ventilation and those who didn't (p = 0.595). Conclusions NT-proBNP is a biomolecule that may provide insights into the pathogenesis of fetal circulatory problems and subsequent renal failure. Further investigations are warranted. PMID:27096950

  3. 足月分娩羊水栓塞6例临床分析%Clinical analysis of six cases with full-term amniotic fluid embolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌定文

    2013-01-01

    Objective Through the clinical analysis of 6 cases with full-term amniotic fluid embolism (AFE), to explore the predisposing factor of AFE and emphasize on strict control of oxytocin indication. Methods Retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 6 cases of full-term AFE, from May 2010 to December 2012, in Yangzhou County and Township Hospital. Results Incorrect static drop of oxytocin was the causative factor of AFE. 5 cases died, 1 case was successfully rescued, and the mortality was 83.3%. Conclusion Prevention is the emphasis on AFE. Strict control on oxytocin induction and reduction of unnecessary medical intervention are effective action to prevent AFE from occurring.%目的:通过对6例足月分娩羊水栓塞(AFE)患者的临床分析,找出诱发因素,强调严格掌握催产素应用指征。方法对2010年5月~2012年12月在扬州县乡级医院发生的6例足月分娩羊水栓塞患者的临床资料回顾性分析。结果不正确静滴催产素是导致6例患者羊水栓塞的诱发因素,6例中5例死亡,1例抢救成功,死亡率为83.3%。结论AFE重在预防,严格掌握催产素应用指征,减少不必要的医疗干预是预防AFE发生的有效措施。

  4. Rat amniotic epithelial cells are induced to differentiate into neural-like stem cells in vitro%大鼠羊膜上皮细胞体外诱导可分化为类神经干细胞*★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兵; 许家军

    2013-01-01

      背景:以往研究发现修复神经损伤的细胞来源主要有许旺细胞、嗅鞘细胞、神经干细胞、激活的巨噬细胞等,但这些细胞存在着来源困难、有成瘤性、异体排斥等缺点。而羊膜上皮细胞不存在以上缺陷,且具有多向分化潜能,经诱导后可向心肌样细胞、神经干细胞、肝细胞、成骨和软骨细胞等分化。目的:体外培养大鼠羊膜上皮细胞,并诱导其向类神经干细胞方向分化。方法:取妊娠晚期大鼠,采用胰酶消化法获得羊膜上皮细胞,用无血清的神经干细胞条件培养基对细胞进行诱导分化,并用免疫细胞化学法和RT-PCR对诱导前后的细胞相关标志物进行鉴定。结果与结论:形态学观察结果显示,条件培养基诱导后的羊膜上皮细胞胞体回缩,胞核部分折光性增强,出现类似于树突及轴突样结构,这些突起可交织成网状,细胞贴壁牢靠。免疫细胞化学检测结果显示,与诱导前相比,条件培养基诱导后的羊膜上皮细胞中巢蛋白、胶质纤维酸性蛋白荧光强度较强,而特异性胚胎抗原4、波形蛋白荧光强度较弱。RT-PCR检测显示,与诱导前相比,条件培养基诱导后的羊膜上皮细胞的巢蛋白、胶质纤维酸性蛋白、微管相关蛋白 mRNA 的表达增强,而平滑肌22α、Sox-2及Nanog mRNA的表达减弱。说明体外诱导的大鼠羊膜上皮细胞可成功分化为类神经干细胞。%BACKGROUND:Previous studies have found that Schwann cel s, olfactory ensheathing cel s, neural stem cel s and activated macrophages may repair nerve injuries, but these cel s have some deficiencies, such as source restrictions, tumorigenicity, and al ograft rejection. Amniotic epithelial cel s have no above-mentioned limits, and possess multiple-differentiation potential. After the induction, amniotic epithelial cel s may differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cel s, neural stem

  5. Application of FISH in prenatal diagnosis of chromosome number abnormality in amniotic fluid cells%FISH在产前羊水细胞染色体数目异常诊断中的应用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳丽; 李华锋; 高刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe effect of fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) on prenatal diagnosis of abnormal number of chromosomes in amniotic fluid cells. Methods The amniotic fluid of 1 121 cases of pregnant women with down syndrome screening in high-risk or age higher than 35 years old, were got by amniocentesis, and udenvent rapid prenatal diagnosis by FISH. Then the G banding karyotypes from standard cytogenetic analysis after cultured amniotic fluid cells were compared to the FISH results. Results 16 cases were found abnormal result, including 7 cases of trisomy 21 , 4 cases of trisomy 21, and other 5 cases with abnormal. It was consistent with G banding karyotypes results. Conclusion Prenatal diagnosis of chromosome humber sbnormality by FISH is satisfactory.%目的 观察应用荧光原位杂交( FISH)技术产前诊断羊水细胞染色体数目异常的效果.方法 唐氏综合征筛查高危或高龄(≥35岁)孕妇1 121例,经腹部穿刺抽取羊水,应用FISH技术进行羊水细胞染色体数目检测,并将其结果与羊水细胞常规G显带核型分析结果作比较.结果 均获得诊断结果,发现16例异常胎儿,其中7例为21三体,4例为18三体,5例为其他异常.FISH检测与核型分析结果一致.结论 用FISH产前诊断羊水细胞染色体数目异常效果满意.

  6. 359 cases of prenatal diagnosis by amniotic fluid cell karyotype analysis in Guangxi%广西地区产前诊断359例羊水细胞染色体异常核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 郑陈光; 杜娟; 蒙达华; 陈科; 甘腾华; 黄红倩; 周元圆

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对有产前诊断指征的中期妊娠孕妇自愿进行羊水细胞遗传学分析,检出染色体异常核型胎儿,从而减少异常缺陷儿的出生.方法 采用我室的改良羊水细胞原位培养方法进行培养和G显带染色体核型分析.结果 在6085例羊水细胞培养中.发现染色体异常核型359例.异常检出率为5.90%,其中常染色体数目异常72例占异常核型的20.06%,常染色体结构异常237例(含正常变异的倒位和异染色质增加等多态性变异)占异常核型的66.02%,性染色体数目异常39例,占异常核型的10.86%.性染色体结构异常11例,占异常核型的3.06%.结论 通过进行产前诊断,发现胎儿染色体核型异常时,在患者自愿的情况下,采取相应的措施,防止先天缺陷儿的出生.%Objective; In order to reduce birth defect of newborn, karatyping was employed to analyze in maternal amniotic fluid cell. Methods; Amniotic fluid cells were cultured karyotype analysis by a modified method of in situ culture and C - banding. Results; Out of 6085 cases of matema amniotic fluid cell, 359 cases individual had chromosome abnormalities. Among them, 72 (20. 06% ) cases were abnormal number of autosomes, 237 (66. 02% ) cases were autosomal structural abnormalities, 39 ( 10. 86% ) cases were abnormal number of sexual chromosomes, 11 (3. 06% ) cases were sexual chromosome structure abnormal. Conclusion; karatyping maternal amniotic fluid cellis an effective methods to reduce birth defects.

  7. Amniotic Band Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Prathvi; Menezes, Leo Theobald; Tauro, Leo Francis; Diddigi, Kumar Arun

    2012-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome is an uncommon congenital disorder without any genetic or hereditary disposition. It involves fetal entrapment in strands of amniotic tissue and causes an array of deletions and deformations. Primary treatment is plastic and reconstructive surgery after birth with in utero fetal surgery also coming in vogue.

  8. Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Brittney; Triantafillu, Ursula; Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be the source of tumor formation, are exposed to fluid shear stress as a result of blood flow within the blood vessels. It was theorized that CSCs would be less susceptible to cell death than non-CSCs after both types of cell were exposed to a fluid shear stress, and that higher levels of fluid shear stress would result in lower levels of cell viability for both cell types. To test this hypothesis, U87 glioblastoma cells were cultured adherently (containing smaller populations of CSCs) and spherically (containing larger populations of CSCs). They were exposed to fluid shear stress in a simulated blood flow through a 125-micrometer diameter polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing using a syringe pump. After exposure, cell viability data was collected using a BioRad TC20 Automated Cell Counter. Each cell type was tested at three physiological shear stress values: 5, 20, and 60 dynes per centimeter squared. In general, it was found that the CSC-enriched U87 sphere cells had higher cell viability than the CSC-depleted U87 adherent cancer cells. Interestingly, it was also observed that the cell viability was not negatively affected by the higher fluid shear stress values in the tested range. In future follow-up studies, higher shear stresses will be tested. Furthermore, CSCs from different tumor origins (e.g. breast tumor, prostate tumor) will be tested to determine cell-specific shear sensitivity. National Science Foundation Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  9. 大剂量甲强龙在羊水栓塞抢救早期应用的优势%Advantages of large doses of methylprednisolone early application in rescue for amniotic fluid embolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周竞旭

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the method of improving rescue success rate for the amniotic fluid embolization (AFE).Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out based on clinical data of 12 cases of AFE in our hospital.Results 5 cases using methylprednisolone as imported cases were rescued,while among those 7 without using methylpreduisolone,4 of imported cases died.Conclusion The early application of large doses of methylpreduisolone can improve the rescue success rate.%目的 探讨提高羊水栓塞(amniotic fluid embolism,AFE)抢救成功率的方法.方法 回顾性分析我院抢救的12例重症AFE患者临床资料.结果 5例输入性病人使用甲强龙均获救,未使用甲强龙的7例病人中4例输入性病例死亡.结论 早期使用大剂量甲强龙可提高抢救成功率.

  10. Meta-analysis of limbal stem cell transplantation and amniotic membrane transplantation for pterygium%角膜缘干细胞移植与羊膜移植治疗翼状胬肉的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓明; 吴欣怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of limbal stem cell transplantation and amniotic membrane transplantation in the treatment of pterygium by evidence based medicine. Methods Clinical data of effect in limbal stem cell transplantation and amniotic membrane transplantation were collected from computer literature searching, which was carried out in PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang and VIP database etc, also performed searching based on www. baidu. com and www. google. com. Meta analysis that recommended by Cochrane Collaboration was done for the data obtained that 3 126 eyes that met with the eleven criteria of enrollment were included in this study. Publication bias was assessed by using a funnel plot. Results The results of meta-analysis showed that 35 RCTs evaluated the pterygium recurrent rate after grafting including 3 126 eyes, the incidence rate including 1 108 eyes, and the mean time of corneal epithelium wound healing including 900 eyes. In comparison with the amniotic membrane transplantation group, the recurrent rates of pterygium (P < 0.000 01) and the total complication rate (P = 0.01) were lower in the limbal stem cell transplantation group. Moreover , the mean time of corneal epithelium wound healing was shorter in the limbal stem cell transplantation group. Conclusion Corneal limbal stem cell autograft is an effective way to reduce the recurrent rate of pterygium and the incidence of symblepharon and to accelerate the healing of corneal wound comparing with amniotic membrane transplantation.%目的 以循证医学证据评价角膜缘干细胞移植和羊膜移植治疗翼状胬肉的临床疗效.方法 通过计算机检索Pubmed数据库、EMBASE、万方数据库、中国期刊全文数据库和维普数据库,并结合文献追溯的方法,收集关于角膜缘干细胞移植和羊膜移植治疗翼状胬肉临床疗效的随机前瞻性对照试验(RCT),并按Cochrane协作网推荐的方法对符合纳入标准的35个研究,共3 126只眼进

  11. Detection of fetal keratin with high molecular weight cytokeratin immunostaining in lung biopsy material from a patient with amniotic fluid embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Hacivelioglu, Servet; Oguzalp, Huseyin; Muratli, Asli; Asgun, Fatih; Kirilmaz, Bahadir; Omur, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Amniotic fluidembolism (AFE) is a rare and fatal disorder in which the diagnosis can bechallenging for clinicians and pathologists. A healthy 36-year-old woman(gravida 4, para 2) was admitted for delivery in the 40th week of gestation. Atthe fifth minute following birth, during expulsion of the placenta, the patientsuddenly collapsed with bradycardia, shallow respiration, and loss ofconsciousness. After evaluation, an emergent pulmonary embolectomy for acutethrombo-embolism was perf...

  12. Clinical Analysis of 16 Patients with Amniotic Fluid Embolism%羊水栓塞16例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玉蓉; 游一平

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the high risk factors, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of amniotic fluid embolism( AFE). [Methods] The pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment of 16 AFE patients in our hospital from Jan. 2006 to Oct. were analyzed retrospectively. [Results]Different degrees of cardiac and pulmonary function disorders such as difficult breathing and dyspnea occurred in 14 patients with acute AFE. Only vaginal bleeding combined with coagulation disorder was found in 2 patients with late-onset AFE. Among 16 patients, 13 patients were primiparas(including 1 case of twins) and 3 patients were pluriparas. Seven patients(43. 75%) received the labor intervention including oxytocin intervention for 3 patients and artificial membrane rupture for 4 patients. Heparin 6. 25~25mg was used in 7 patients. Blynch suture was operated in 8 patients and uterine subtotal resection was operated in 2 patients. Fifteen patients were rescued successfully. One patient undergoing hysterectomy died. [Conclusion]The key to rescue AFE patients is early i-dentification of symptoms and precaution of the incidence of untypical AFE. Labor should be correctly treated, and obstetric intervention should be reduced. Heparin should be selectively used. Microdose and small dose of heparin are recommended.%[目的]探讨羊水栓塞(AFE)发病的高危因素、临床表现、诊断与处理.[方法]对本院2006年1月至2012年10月31日收治的16例AFE患者的发病情况、临床经过及治疗进行回顾性分析.[结果]14例急性AFE患者均出现不同程度的呼吸困难、胸闷等心肺功能障碍,2例迟发型AFE仅表现为阴道流血伴凝血功能障碍;其中初产妇13例(含双胎1例),经产妇3例;产程中干预7例(43.75%)(催产素干预3例,人工破膜4例).应用肝素7例,剂量在6.25~25 mg之间;行Blynch缝合术8例,子宫次全切除2例;抢救成功15例,死亡1例(行子宫切除术).[结论]抢救羊水栓塞患者的关键

  13. 桂林地区526例遗传咨询者羊水细胞染色体核型分析%Karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid cells in 526 cases for genetic consult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋群芳; 唐娟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨羊水细胞培养及染色体核型分析在唐氏综合征等染色体病干预中的价值.方法 对526例孕妇行羊膜腔穿刺术,羊水细胞培养、染色体制备及核型分析.结果 羊水细胞培养成功率为99.43%,检出异常核型31例,其中21-三体6例,包括嵌合型1例,13-三体1例,性染色体数目异常3例,嵌合体4例,染色体结构异常14例,多态性变异4例.结论 采用羊水细胞进行染色体核型分析对唐氏综合征等染色体异常进行产前诊断,是控制和减少出生缺陷的发生地有效措施.%Objective; To investigate the value of amniotic fluid cell culture and chromosome kaiyotype analysis in interventing Down's syndrome and other chromosomal disease. Methods; The amniocentesis were implemented among 526 cases gravidas, and amniotic fluid cell were cultured, and there karyotype were analyed. Results; The rate of training success is 99.43%. The abnormal chromosome karyotypes of 31 cases were as follows; 6 cases for trisomy 21, including 1 case for the chimeric type, 1 case for trisomy 13, 3 cases for sex chromosome abnormalities, 4 cases for mosaicism, 14 cases for structural chromosomal abnormality, 4 cases fin-polymorphic variation. Conclusion; In order to control and reduce the incidence of birth defects, it is effective measure to use amniotic fluid cell chromosome karyotype analysis for diagnosising Down's syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities.

  14. 人羊膜间充质干细胞生物学特征及向多巴胺能神经元样细胞的分化%Biological characteristics and dopaminergic neural-like cell differentiation potential of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文然; 李新; 王文波; 谢燕霞; 唐娜; 阎影

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) are considered to be one kind of adult stem cells that can be easily obtained in large quantities without using an invasive method. Because of their low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties, multipotency of differentiation and without ethical issue, human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been proposed as a good candidate to be used in celltherapy and regenerative medicine. However, the biological properties and the differentiation capacity of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells are stil poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE:To establish a practical method for isolation and purification of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and to study the biological characteristics and dopaminergic neural-like celldifferentiation potential of the human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells. METHODS:Human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells were disassociated and isolated from the amniotic membrane by trypsin and col agenase based enzymic digestion, and purified by percol mediated density gradient centrifugation. Expressions of surface antigens and transcription factors of the human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells were determined by flow cytometry and western blot assays. Based on the osteogenic and adipogenic induction, the multipotent differentiation capability of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells was determined. Induction of neural celldifferentiation of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells was conducted in Neurabasal conditioning medium with ATRA supplement. Neural cellassociated bio-markers were determined by immunofluoresence staining and confocal microscope. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:In this study, we performed a practical method to isolate and purify human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic epithelial cells simultaneously, with high

  15. Intra-amniotic thyroxine to treat fetal goiter

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-Jung; Chae, Yong-Hwa; Park, So-young; Kim, Moon-Young

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old pregnant woman visited our department and had been treated with 100 µg of daily oral levothyroxine for hypothyroidism. An ultrasonography screening was performed at 25 weeks gestation and revealed a fetal goiter and an increased amniotic fluid volume. Fetal hypothyroidism was confirmed by cordocentesis and amniotic hormone levels at 26 weeks gestation. We treated the mother with 200 µg of daily oral levothyroxine to optimize the transplacental transfer. A total of four intra-amn...

  16. Células-tronco do líquido amniótico Amniotic fluid stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bydlowski, Sergio P; Adriana A. Debes; Sergio A. Duarte; Janz, Felipe L; Rita de Cássia Cavaglieri; Luciana M. F. Maselli

    2009-01-01

    Desde o primeiro isolamento e cultivo de células-tronco embrionárias humanas, há mais de 10 anos, seu uso na pesquisa e terapia foi inibida por considerações éticas complexas e pelo risco de transformação maligna destas células indiferenciadas após transplante no paciente. As células-tronco adultas são eticamente aceitas e o risco de transformação maligna é muito baixo. Entretanto, seu potencial de diferenciação e sua capacidade proliferativa são limitados. Cerca de 6 anos atrás, a descoberta...

  17. Periostin as a Biomarker of the Amniotic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya P. Dobreva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracing the precise developmental origin of amnion and amnion-derived stem cells is still challenging and depends chiefly on analyzing powerful genetic model amniotes like mouse. Profound understanding of the fundamental differences in amnion development in both the disc-shaped primate and human embryo and the cup-shaped mouse embryo is pivotal in particular when sampling amniotic membrane from nonprimate species for isolating candidate amniotic stem cells. The availability of molecular marker genes that are specifically expressed in the amniotic membrane and not in other extraembryonic membranes would be instrumental to validate unequivocally the starting material under investigation. So far such amniotic markers have not been reported. We postulated that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP target genes are putative amniotic membrane markers mainly because deficiency in one of several components of the BMP signaling cascade in mice has been documented to result in defective development of the early amnion. Comparative gene expression analysis of acknowledged target genes for BMP in different extraembryonic tissues, combined with in situ hybridization, identified Periostin (Postn mRNA enrichment in amnion throughout gestation. In addition, we identify and propose a combination of markers as transcriptional signature for the different extraembryonic tissues in mouse.

  18. Bladder cancer cell in co-culture induces human stem cell differentiation to urothelial cells through paracrine FGF10 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Seyung S.; Koh, Chester J.

    2013-01-01

    FGF10 is required for embryonic epidermal morphogenesis including brain development, lung morphogenesis, and initiation of limb bud formation. In this study, we investigated the role of FGF10 as a lead induction factor for stem cell differentiation toward urothelial cell. To this end, human multi-potent stem cell in vitro system was employed. Human amniotic fluid stem cells were co-cultured with immortalized bladder cancer lines to induce directed differentiation into urothelial cells. Urothe...

  19. 先天显性脊柱裂胎鼠羊水蛋白谱差异性分析%Comparative proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid in rats with spina bifida aperta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单立平; 李慧; 范洋; 周凤华; 顾卉; 袁正伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential biomarker for early diagnosis of spina bifida aperta by analyzing of proteomic profile of amniotic fluid in rats with spina bifida aperta (SBA) induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA).Methods The pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups:SBA group (24 rats) and normal group (9 rats).SBA was induced by a single intragastric administration of ATRA to the pregnant rats on gestational day 10 (E10).All pregnant rats were sacrificed by an overdose chloral hydrate on E17 day,and fetuses and amniotic fluid were collected.Albumin and IgG were removed using Protein A/G kit to increase the concentration of target proteins.The proteomic profiles of amniotic fluid were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/mass spectrometry (MS).Results Six proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the amnioticfluid of SBA rats.Of the 6 proteins,transferrin,alpha-1 antiproteinase and signal recognition particle receptor were unregulated,and apolipoprotein A Ⅳ and Srprb 77 kDa were down-regulated.Additionally,46 protein fragments in SBA amniotic fluid were found,including 11 were upregulated and 35 were downregulated.A Western blot analysis confirmed the 2-DE/MS data,indicating the 6 isoforms of AFP (69-,52-,36-,24-and 14-kDa) were associated with SBA.Moreover,the 69-kDa AFP was the most abundant protein in the amniotic fluid of SBA,which was increased by 1.42-fold (P<0.05).Conclusions Six proteins in amniotic fluid are correlated with spinal bifida aperta,and may be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis of spina bifida aperta.%目的 采用2-D/质谱电泳方法,比较孕17d正常组胎鼠和全反式维甲酸诱导的显性脊柱裂胎鼠羊水蛋白表达谱的变化,筛查先天性显性脊柱裂相关羊水标记物.方法 孕10d大鼠,采用全反式维甲酸胃管灌饲的方法建立先天显性脊柱裂动物模型24只(脊柱裂组),正常对照组9只(正常组).孕17d晨,麻醉孕鼠,显微镜下获取每

  20. miR-145 modulates lncRNA-ROR and Sox2 expression to maintain human amniotic epithelial stem cell pluripotency and β islet-like cell differentiation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Gang; Liu, Te; Guo, Lihe; Huang, Yongyi; Feng, Ya; Huang, Qin; Duan, Tao

    2016-10-10

    In this study, we observed a great reduction in the expression of the endogenous long noncoding RNA ROR (lncRNA-ROR) and the stem cell transcription factor Sox2, in contrast to a marked increase in miR-145 expression, during the course of in vitro induced differentiation of human amniotic epithelial stem cells (HuAECs). Bioinformatics analysis and the luciferase reporter assay revealed binding of miR-145 to specific sites in lncRNA-ROR and Sox2, silencing their expression. Overexpression of a lncRNA-ROR-specific siRNA effectively downregulated the expression levels of Sox2 and other stem cell markers in HuAECs while weakening the efficiency of HuAEC differentiation into β islet-like cells. Moreover, the in vitro response of HuAEC-derived β islet-like cells to extracellular stimuli and C-peptide release by these cells were markedly weakened in the siRNA-ROR transfection group. Furthermore, the in vivo expression of β islet-like cell biomarkers was substantially reduced in HuAECs in the siRNA-ROR transfection group, and their in vivo β islet-like cell differentiation and insulin release capacities were reduced in a streptozocin-induced diabetic rat model. The experimental results indicate that lncRNA-ROR effectively maintains Sox2 gene expression through competitive binding to miR-145, achieving pluripotency maintenance in HuAECs and regulation of their directed β islet-like cell differentiation efficiency. PMID:27346547

  1. Amniotic membrane seeded with mesenchymal adipose-derived stem cell for coverage of wound in third degree burn: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Fatemi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Acellular amnion seeded with adipose-derived stem cell can result in faster wound healing and better histopathology characteristic. The amnion as a scaffold and the fat derived stem cells as healing accelerator are recommended for coverage of the 3rd degree burn wounds after excision and it may reduce the need for skin graft.

  2. A Three-Dimensional Skeletal Reconstruction of the Stem Amniote Orobates pabsti (Diadectidae: Analyses of Body Mass, Centre of Mass Position, and Joint Mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Nyakatura

    Full Text Available Orobates pabsti, a basal diadectid from the lower Permian, is a key fossil for the understanding of early amniote evolution. Quantitative analysis of anatomical information suffers from fragmentation of fossil bones, plastic deformation due to diagenetic processes and fragile preservation within surrounding rock matrix, preventing further biomechanical investigation. Here we describe the steps taken to digitally reconstruct MNG 10181, the holotype specimen of Orobates pabsti, and subsequently use the digital reconstruction to assess body mass, position of the centre of mass in individual segments as well as the whole animal, and study joint mobility in the shoulder and hip joints. The shape of most fossil bone fragments could be recovered from micro-focus computed tomography scans. This also revealed structures that were hitherto hidden within the rock matrix. However, parts of the axial skeleton had to be modelled using relevant isolated bones from the same locality as templates. Based on the digital fossil, mass of MNG 10181 was estimated using a model of body shape that was varied within a plausible range to account for uncertainties of the dimension. In the mean estimate model the specimen had an estimated mass of circa 4 kg. Varying of the mass distribution amongst body segments further revealed that Orobates carried most of its weight on the hind limbs. Mostly unrestricted joint morphology further suggested that MNG 10181 was able to effectively generate propulsion with the pelvic limbs. The digital reconstruction is made available for future biomechanical studies.

  3. A Three-Dimensional Skeletal Reconstruction of the Stem Amniote Orobates pabsti (Diadectidae): Analyses of Body Mass, Centre of Mass Position, and Joint Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakatura, John A; Allen, Vivian R; Lauströer, Jonas; Andikfar, Amir; Danczak, Marek; Ullrich, Hans-Jürgen; Hufenbach, Werner; Martens, Thomas; Fischer, Martin S

    2015-01-01

    Orobates pabsti, a basal diadectid from the lower Permian, is a key fossil for the understanding of early amniote evolution. Quantitative analysis of anatomical information suffers from fragmentation of fossil bones, plastic deformation due to diagenetic processes and fragile preservation within surrounding rock matrix, preventing further biomechanical investigation. Here we describe the steps taken to digitally reconstruct MNG 10181, the holotype specimen of Orobates pabsti, and subsequently use the digital reconstruction to assess body mass, position of the centre of mass in individual segments as well as the whole animal, and study joint mobility in the shoulder and hip joints. The shape of most fossil bone fragments could be recovered from micro-focus computed tomography scans. This also revealed structures that were hitherto hidden within the rock matrix. However, parts of the axial skeleton had to be modelled using relevant isolated bones from the same locality as templates. Based on the digital fossil, mass of MNG 10181 was estimated using a model of body shape that was varied within a plausible range to account for uncertainties of the dimension. In the mean estimate model the specimen had an estimated mass of circa 4 kg. Varying of the mass distribution amongst body segments further revealed that Orobates carried most of its weight on the hind limbs. Mostly unrestricted joint morphology further suggested that MNG 10181 was able to effectively generate propulsion with the pelvic limbs. The digital reconstruction is made available for future biomechanical studies. PMID:26355297

  4. Serum-Free Cryopreservation of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niknejad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the important issues in long term storage of cells is removal of animal serum from cell culture environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate amni-otic fluid (AF, which is full of growth factors, as substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS in the cryopreservation protocol. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study human amniotic epithelial cells were isolated from placentas which were seronegative for microbial infections. The cells were preserved in 24 different patterns for 12 months in -196 ?C (liquid nitrogen and viability of cells were determined before and after cryopreservation by trypan blue and MTT assay. Moreover, Oct-4 expression was studied to determine pluripotency before and after cryopreservation with immunocytochemistry. Results were compared between groups with ANOVA (Tukey Post-Test. P.value under 0.01 and 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The presence of DMEM, FBS or AF is necessary for amniotic cell cryopreservation. Trypan-blue, MTT and immunocytochemistry showed that there isn’t significant difference between using AF and FBS in viability and pluripotency of cells. Moreover, results showed that DMSO is a better cryoprotectant compared to glycerol. Conclusion : Results showed that amniotic fluid can be a proper substitute for FBS in amniotic epithelial cells cryopreservation. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (1:15-24

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal dysplastic kidney with normal amniotic fluid volume by ultrasonography%羊水量正常时胎儿肾发育不良的超声诊断及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟华; 姜玉新; 戴晴; 杨萌; 张一休; 朱庆莉; 陈彦

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨产前超声检查对于羊水量正常时胎儿肾发育不良的诊断价值和临床意义.方法 于孕中晚期对羊水量正常胎儿中发现的单侧或双侧肾超声表现异常(包括大小、回声、形态异常,出现囊肿等)病例进行系统二维超声检查、孕期及生后随访观察、病理学检查等,并进行总结分析.仅有肾盂增宽的胎儿不包括在本组研究中.结果 发现羊水量正常但单侧或双侧肾发育不良的胎儿11例.其中单侧多囊性肾发育不良5例,4例不合并其他异常,1例合并同侧手缺如;单侧肾缺如2例,其中1例不合并其他畸形,另1例合并多发畸形包括脑积水、骶尾部脊柱裂、同侧桡骨缺失及单脐动脉,符合VACTERL综合征;盆腔.肾1例,马蹄肾1例,生后超声证实;常染色体显性遗传多囊肾1例,胎儿一侧肾可见多发囊肿,合并心脏横纹肌瘤,孕妇为双侧多囊肾;双侧肾发育不良1例,产前超声表现为双侧肾回声增强.结论 单侧多囊性肾发育不良是羊水量正常时产前超声最常检出的胎儿肾发育不良性疾病.根据产前超声表现并结合家族史,能在大多数胎儿肾发育不良病例中进行病因学诊断并帮助判断预后.%Objective To determine the diagnostic value and clinical significance of sonographically detected fetal dysplastic kidney with normal amniotic fluid volume. Methods At the 2nd or 3rd trimester of gestation,the fetuses with unilateral or bilateral renal anomalies (ahnormal size,echo,shape or cyst of the kidney) and normal amniotic fluid volume received systemic ultrasound examination,autopsy or follow-up until after birth. The fetus with only dilated renal pelvis was not included. Results Eleven fetuses of dysplastic renal anomalies with normal amniotic fluid volume were identified by prenatal ultrasound. Among the five fetuses affected by unilateral multicystic kidney dysplasia (MCKD),the renal anomaly was isolated in four fetuses,and the

  6. Amniotic membrane allografts: development and clinical utility in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzuti A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Allison Rizzuti,1,2 Adam Goldenberg,1 Douglas R Lazzaro1,2 1SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 2Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA Abstract: Amniotic membrane, the innermost layer of the placenta, is a tissue that promotes epithelialization, while decreasing inflammation, neovascularization, and scarring. It is used in the surgical management of a wide variety of ophthalmic conditions where it functions as a graft or patch in ocular surface reconstruction. The development of new preservation techniques, as well as a sutureless amniotic membrane, has allowed for easier, in-office placement, without the disadvantages of an operating room procedure. The purpose of this review is to describe the historical development of amniotic membrane in ophthalmology and to describe its current clinical applications, particularly focusing on recent advances. Keywords: ocular surface, cornea, stem cells, prokera, allograft, patch, transplantation

  7. Corneal Differentiation Following HSC70 and HSP72 Expression in Air-Exposed Limbal Stem Cells Cultured on Denuded Amniotic Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to create an ex vivo model to examine the expressionof two heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 family members, heat shock protein 72 (HSP72and heat shock constitute protein 70 (HSC70, at the mRNA and protein levels in differentiatingcorneal cells from air exposed limbal stem cells.Materials and Methods: Limbal biopsies were cultured as explants on a cellular amnioticmembrane for 14 days. The cells were then exposed to air for 16 extra additional days.The proposed expression of limbal stem cell markers (p63, ABCG2, corneal markers(K3/12, connexin 43, as well as HSP72 and HSC70 were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR at the mRNA level, and by immunocytochemistryand flowcytometry at the protein level both pre and post air exposure. Fresh limbal andcorneal tissues were used as control group.Results: Air exposure decreased expression of p63 and increased expression of K3/K12 indicating an increase in the number of corneal cells. Our data showed that HSP72and HSC70 were expressed at the mRNA level before and after air exposure while theirexpression significantly increased post air exposure at the protein level.Conclusion: We assume HSC70 expression may be related to early and terminal stagesof differentiation in cultured limbal stem cells. In addition, limbal stem cells were protectedduring normal development against oxidative stress thru increased HSP72 expression.These findings may have broader implications in development of therapeutic strategiesfor treating wound healing disorders by induction of HSPs.

  8. 人羊膜移植联合自体角膜缘干细胞移植治疗中重度眼部碱烧伤%Amniotic Membrane Transplantation and Combination Stem Cell of Self-limbal Graft for Medium and Severe Ocular Alkaline Burn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明红; 李兴珍; 李成霞; 胡亚丽

    2001-01-01

    目的观察人羊膜移植联合自角膜缘干细胞移植治疗中重度眼部碱烧伤的临床效果。方法对8眼中重度眼部碱烧伤早期进行人羊膜移植联合自体角膜缘干细胞移植。结果 8眼中,7眼眼表面重建成功,4眼角膜透明,3眼角膜半透明,仅1眼发生轻度睑球粘连。结论人羊膜移植联合自体角膜缘干细胞移植治疗中重度眼部碱烧伤。对于重建眼表面,提高视功能,早期应用疗效较好。%ObjectiveTo observe the clinical effects of amniotic membrane transplantation and combination stem cell of self-limbal graft for medium and severe ocular alkaline burn.Methods 8 eyes in patients who had early medium or severe ocular alkaline burn were treated with amniotic membrane transplantation and ocular stem cell of self-limbal graft.Resulsts Among 8 eyes,the epithelia healed with stability without neovascularization in 7 eyes,there was corneal thansparency in 4 eyes,there was semitransparency in 3 eyes,and there was a little adhesion between eyetid and eyeball in 1 eye.Conclusion The clinical effects of amniotic membrane transplantation and combination stem cell of self-limbal graft for medium and severe ocular alkaline burn is satisfactory.

  9. 翼状胬肉手术中羊膜移植与自体角膜缘干细胞移植的效果对比%The comparation between amniotic membrane grafting and auto transplantation of the corneal limbal stem cells in treatment of pterygium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉宁; 姜文浩; 吴畅; 唐玉花; 罗远芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effects of amniotic membrane grafting and auto transplantation of the corneal limbal stem cells in the treatment of pterygium. Methods There were 70 patients (76 eyes) with pterygium, all being excised under operating microscope, and they were divided randomly into two groups:the treatment of pterygium with amniotic membrane grafting( group A,40 cases and 42 eyes) and the treatment of pterygium with transplantation of the corneal limbal stem cells ( group B, 30 cases and 34eyes). The postoperative follow-up period was from 12 to 18 months. Results Four eyes of 42 eyes (9.52%) in group A and three eyes of 34 eyes (8.82%) in group B recurred with pterygium. Conclusion The clinical effects between amniotic membrane grafting and transplantation of the corneal limbal stem cells in the treatment of pterygium are closed to each other.%目的 观察翼状胬肉手术中羊膜移植术与自体角膜缘干细胞移植的临床疗效.方法 翼状胬肉70例(76眼),均在手术显微镜下切除.其中羊膜移植组40例(42眼),自体角膜缘干细胞移植组30例(34眼).术后随访观察12~18月.结果 羊膜移植组有4眼复发,复发率为9.52%,自体角膜缘干细胞移植组有3眼复发,复发率8.82%.结论 羊膜移植与角膜干细胞移植在治疗翼状胬肉中的疗效相近.

  10. Investigation on Chromosomal Karyotypes of Amniotic Fluid Cells for 2 414 Cases%2414例胎儿羊水细胞的体外培养及染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽华; 邹德学; 胡飞雪

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the application of karyotypes of amniotic fluid cells in prenatal diagnosis.Methods:A total of 2 414 pregnant women received amniocenteiss via B ultranound in sterile condition.A volume of 20 ml amniotic fluid was extracted from each case.Then the amniotic fluid cells were in vitro cultrued and their karyotypes were analysed by G band.Results:There were 124 cases with chromosomal abnormalities and it was 5.1% over all 2 414 cases.There were 46 cases with chromosomal numberical abnormality and 38 cases with trisomy syndrome,accounting for 82.6% of chromosomal numberical abnormality.There were 56 cases with chromosomal structural abnormality and 47 cases with balanced chromosome rearrangements including balanced translocation,Rob's translocation and inversion,accounting for 83.9% of chromosomal structural abnormality.There were 22 cases with mosaicism and they had normal chromosome of umbilical cord blood follow-up.The constituent ratios of Down's high-risk group and advanced matemal age group were 48.3% and 36.6%,respectively,which were significantly higher than those of other groups (P<0.05).The abnormal ratios in fetus abnormal ultra-sonographic group,nuchal translucency (NT) enhancement group and parental balanced chromosome rearrangements group were 25.5%,19.0% and 17.2%,respectively,which were significantly different from other groups (P<0.05).Conclusion:The improvement of amniocytes cultured in vitro was more practicability,and karyotypes of amnioc fluid cells were more important for prenatal diagnosis.%目的:探讨羊水细胞染色体分析在产前诊断中的应用价值.方法:无菌条件下,经B超介导,对2 414名孕16~25周的孕妇行羊膜腔穿刺术,每例抽取羊水20 ml,经体外培养后进行G显带,显微镜下做核型分析,并了解异常核型的相应高危因素分布情况.结果:共收集到2 414例羊水标本,2 407例培养成功,成功率为99.7%.核型异常124例,异常率为5

  11. The CT appearances of delayed amniotic fluid clearance from the lungs in an infant with absent pulmonary valve and congenital lobar emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a cause of severe neonatal respiratory distress. Overexpansion of the affected pulmonary lobe in the fetus is due to narrowing of the airway, with a resultant 'ball-valve' effect. At birth, there may be delayed clearance of fetal lung fluid. Early chest radiographs show opacification of the hyperexpanded lobe. The CT findings in the immediate neonatal period have not been previously reported. We describe the imaging in a neonate with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve with secondary CLE. CT demonstrates the hyperexpanded lobe with initial thickening of the interlobular septa and alveolar ground glass attenuation, with subsequent clearing. This resorption of fetal lung fluid via the pulmonary interstitium should not be confused with interstitial lung disease. (orig.)

  12. The CT appearances of delayed amniotic fluid clearance from the lungs in an infant with absent pulmonary valve and congenital lobar emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, A. Michelle [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Edis, Brian [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Massie, John [University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a cause of severe neonatal respiratory distress. Overexpansion of the affected pulmonary lobe in the fetus is due to narrowing of the airway, with a resultant 'ball-valve' effect. At birth, there may be delayed clearance of fetal lung fluid. Early chest radiographs show opacification of the hyperexpanded lobe. The CT findings in the immediate neonatal period have not been previously reported. We describe the imaging in a neonate with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve with secondary CLE. CT demonstrates the hyperexpanded lobe with initial thickening of the interlobular septa and alveolar ground glass attenuation, with subsequent clearing. This resorption of fetal lung fluid via the pulmonary interstitium should not be confused with interstitial lung disease. (orig.)

  13. 脐血中 Caspase7蛋白在羊水量异常产妇中的表达%Expression of Caspase7 in umbilical serum of pregnant women with abnormal amniotic fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小琴; 白彩云

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the difference in expression of Caspase 7 in umbilical serum between pregnant women with abnormal amniotic fluid and normal pregnant women .Methods ELISA was performed to determine the concentration of Caspase 7 protein in umbilical serum of 30 cases of oligohydramnios , 30 cases of polyhydramnios and 30 normal cases .Results Caspase7 was positively expressed in umbilical serum of three groups.The expression of Caspase7 was higher in the oligohydramnios group (160.2 ±25.8 ng/mL) than in the normal group (142.9 ±18.4 ng/mL), and there was significant difference (t=2.99,P<0.05).The expression of Caspase7 was lower in the polyhydramnios group (119.2 ±21.5 ng/mL) than in the normal group (142.9 ±18.4 ng/mL) with significant difference (t=4.59, P<0.05 ) .Conclusion The expression of Caspase 7 in umbilical serum of pregnant women of oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios is abnormal, which indicates that it might be correlated with abnormal amniotic fluid .%目的:探讨Caspase7蛋白在羊水量异常和正常的产妇血清中的表达差异。方法采用酶联免疫吸附法( ELISA)分别检测30例羊水过少、30例羊水过多和30例羊水量正常产妇脐带血中Caspase7蛋白表达水平的情况,并加以分析。结果Caspase7蛋白在3组产妇血清中均有阳性表达。羊水过少组血清中Caspase7蛋白平均浓度(160.2±25.8ng/mL)比对照组高(142.9±18.4ng/mL),差异有统计学意义(t=2.99,P<0.05)。羊水过多组血清中Caspase7蛋白平均浓度(119.2±21.5ng/mL)比对照组低(142.9±18.4ng/mL),差异也有统计学意义(t=4.59,P<0.05)。结论羊水过少或过多产妇血清中Caspase7蛋白表达异常,提示其可能与羊水量异常的发生有关。

  14. Alfafetoproteína: valores normais no líquido amniótico entre 14 e 21 semanas Alphafetoprotein: amniotic fluid normal values between 14 and 21 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maestri

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Definir uma curva de normalidade dos valores de alfafetoproteína (AFP no líquido amniótico em gestantes entre 14 e 21 semanas de gravidez no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Nas 137 mulheres que procuraram o diagnóstico pré-natal e tiveram indicação de coleta de líquido amniótico. A alfafetoproteína foi dosada em todas as amostras por enzima imunoensaio. Foram selecionadas 109 gestações normais (sem malformações, cariótipo normal, não-gemelares e cujas amostras de líquido amniótico não eram sanguinolentas. Essas foram divididas quanto à idade gestacional e tiveram calculadas as medianas dos valores de AFP e seus múltiplos. RESULTADOS: As medianas da alfafetoproteína (KUI/ml para cada idade gestacional foram as seguintes: 14 semanas:16,32; 15 semanas:14,36; 16 semanas: 13,43; 17 semanas:10,93; 18 semanas: 8,22; 19 semanas: 7,35; 20 semanas: 5,62; 21 semanas:4,47. CONCLUSÃO: O estabelecimento de uma curva normal de AFP em nosso serviço permite a utilização deste exame para pacientes em risco de defeitos de fechamento de tubo neural. Permite também que sejam analisadas amostras enviadas para estudos citogenéticos ou metabólicos de maneira a identificar fetos com níveis elevados de AFP que necessitarão de estudos ultrasonográficos mais detalhados pela possibilidade de defeitos morfológicos.BACKGROUND: To define the normal values of amniotic fluid alphafetoprotein in pregnant women, whose gestational ages range from 14 to 21 weeks, in the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred thirty seven women with indication for amniocentesis were studied. The alphafetoprotein was measured in all samples using enzyme immunoassay. One hundred and nine normal pregnancies were selected. All of these fetuses had normal cariotype and had no malformation. They were not twins and their amniotic fluid samples were not bloody. These samples were divided by their

  15. Explore the relationship between excess amniotic fluid and fetal malformations between ultrasound%胎儿畸形与羊水过多的超声之间的关系探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文波

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨胎儿畸形与羊水过多之间关系。方法取我院2010年6月至2012年12月3000例16~40孕周孕妇给予 B 超检查,统计羊水过多例数以及胎儿畸形发生率,并统计羊水过多胎儿畸形种类。结果经超声检查后,130例患者羊水过多共有34例胎儿畸形,占26.15%。此外,羊水过多中胎儿畸形依次为:中枢神经畸形、骨骼畸形、消化系统畸形、合并畸形、面部异常。结论超声检查为发现羊水过多的主要方法,必须加强超声检查,及时发现和处理畸形。%Objective to investigate the relationship between fetal malformations and polyhydramnios between. Methods Hospital June 2010 to 2012 in december 3000 cases of pregnant women 16-40 weeks of gestation to give B-ultrasound, the number of cases and statistics polyhydramnios incidence of fetal malformations and fetal malformations polyhydramnios statistical categories. Results After ultrasonography, 130 cases of patients with a total of 34 cases of excessive amniotic fluid fetal malformation, accounting for 26.15%. in addition, polyhydramnios fetal malformations were: central nervous system malformations, skeletal deformities, digestive abnormalities, malformations, facial abnormalities. Conclusion Ultrasonography is the primary method of discovery polyhydramnios must strengthen ultrasound to detect and deal with deformities.

  16. Amniotic membrane for burn trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amniotic membranes are derived from human placentae at birth. They have two layers mainly the amniotic and the chorionic surfaces which are separated by a thin layer of connective tissues. The two layers are separated during procurement, the placenta and the chorionic side are discarded and the amnion membranes are then further processed. Amnion membranes are normally procured from placentae which are normally free of infections, i.e; the mothers are antenatally screened for sexually transmitted diseases or AlDs related diseases. Intrapartum the mother should not be having chorioamnionitis or jaundice. Sometimes the amniotic membranes are acquired from fresh elective caeserian sections. After processing, the amniotic membranes are packed in two layers of polypropylene and radiated with cobalt 60 at a dose of about 25 kGy. The amniotic membranes are clinically used to cover burn surfaces especially effective for superficial or partial thickness burns. The thin membranes adhered well to the trauma areas and peeled off automatically by the second week. No change of dressing were necessary during these times because of the close adherence, there were less chance of external contamination or infections of these wounds. Due to their flexibility they are very useful to cover difference contours of the human body for example the face, body, elbows or knees. However our experience revealed that amniotic membranes are not useful for third degree bums because the membranes dissolves by the enzymes present in the wounds

  17. A altura uterina é capaz de diagnosticar os desvios do volume de líquido amniótico? Is uterine height able to diagnose amniotic fluid volume deviations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire

    2013-02-01

    deveriam ter esse exame realizado.PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of a Brazilian reference curve of fundal height (FH regarding its capacity of screening the deviations of volume of amniotic fluid using a Brazilian reference curve of amniotic fluid index (AFI as gold standard. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study evaluating 753 pregnant women receiving prenatal care at the public health services of João Pessoa (PB, from March to October 2006, who had a routine ultrasound exam scheduled for after 26 weeks of gestational age. Cases with diagnoses of twin pregnancy, intrauterine fetal death and major fetal malformations were excluded. Besides socio-demographic information, data regarding fundal height measured in a standard way, estimated fetal weight, AFI and gestational age at the time of the ultrasound exam were also collected. The capacity of the FH curve to predict deviations of the amniotic fluid volume was assessed using the Brazilian curve of AFI according to gestational age as the gold standard. For this purpose, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were estimated for different cut-off points. RESULTS: The measurement of FH identified 10.5% of women as having low FH possibly associated with oligohydramnios and 25.2% as having high FH possibly associated with polyhydramnios. Using a Brazilian reference curve of AFI, the FH was able to poorly predict the occurrence of oligohydramnios (sensitivity ranging from 37 to 28% and to reasonably predict the occurrence of polyhydramnios (sensitivity ranging from 88 to 69%. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of fundal height showed a poor performance for predicting oligohydramnios and a reasonable performance for predicting polyhydramnios. Its use for this purpose is then only supported in settings where the ultrasound exam is not easily or routinely available in order to help define priorities for cases that should have this exam performed.

  18. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Jin; Qi Yang; Feng Ji; Ya-jie Zhang; Yan Zhao; Min Luo

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C 6 root avul...

  19. Diagnóstico do oligoâmnio pela ultra-sonografia: uso de diferentes medidas do maior bolsão comparadas ao ILA Diagnostic capacity of oligohydramnios by ultrasound using different measures of the maximum pool depth of amniotic fluid in comparison to AFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Machado Perrotti

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar a capacidade de diagnosticar oligoâmnio pela ultra-sonografia por meio de diferentes valores do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico, em comparação ao índice de líquido amniótico (ILA, em gestantes normais, de 36 a 42 semanas de gestação. Métodos: realizou-se um estudo descritivo de validação de método diagnóstico, incluindo 875 gestantes normais. Mediante um exame ultra-sonográfico obstétrico de rotina, foi feita a medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico para o diagnóstico de oligoâmnio, utilizando como padrão-ouro o índice de líquido amniótico. Os dados foram analisados por meio do cálculo da sensibilidade e da especificidade da medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico, utilizando os diferentes pontos de corte de 10, 20 e 30 mm, em comparação aos valores normais do índice de líquido amniótico determinados pelos percentis 2,5 e 10 nas respectivas idades gestacionais. Resultados: a medida do maior bolsão de líquido amniótico apresenta baixa sensibilidade para diagnosticar oligoâmnio quando se adotam os pontos de corte 10 e 20 mm, e boa sensibilidade e especificidade quando se adota 30 mm, quando comparadas às medidas do índice de líquido amniótico nos percentis 2,5 e 10 da curva normal. A sensibilidade e especificidade da medida do maior bolsão são melhores, quando se adota o ponto de corte de 30 mm para diagnosticar oligoâmnio em comparação ao percentil 2,5. Conclusões: a capacidade de diagnosticar oligoâmnio pela medida do maior bolsão é satisfatória apenas com o ponto de corte em 30 mm.Purpose: to compare the capacity of diagnosing oligohy-dramnios by ultrasound using different measures of the maximum pool depth of amniotic fluid in comparison to the amniotic fluid index among normal pregnant women from the 36th to the 42nd week of gestation. Methods: a descriptive study of diagnostic validity was perfomed, on 875 normal pregnant women who were studied through

  20. Synovial fluid and synovial membrane mesenchymal stem cells: latest discoveries and therapeutic perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, Eduardo Branco; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Neto, Vivaldo Moura; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes, and even myoblasts. Most studies have focused on finding MSCs in different parts of the body for medical treatment. Every joint structure, including bone, joint fat, articular cartilage, and synovium, potentially contains resident MSCs. Recently, a progenitor cell population has been found in synovial fluid and showed similarities with both bone marrow and synovial membrane MSCs. Synov...

  1. Embolia pulmonar por líquido amniótico: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Pulmonary amniotic fluid embolism syndrome: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilton Pereira de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    ório, hipotensão arterial, sintomatologia neurológica e coagulopatia que se iniciou durante ou em 30 min do trabalho de parto. O diagnóstico é de exclusão de outras afecções mais comuns, tais como eclâmpsia, sepse, miocardiopatia periparto, anafilaxia, tromboembolismo pulmonar, reações transfusionais, complicações anestésicas e estenose mitral, que podem surgir ou agravar-se durante o trabalho de parto. Pode ocorrer durante ou logo após aborto cirúrgico, amniocentese ou colocação de transdutor de pressão na cavidade uterina. O tratamento é o de suporte hemodinâmico, ventilatório e correção dos distúrbios de coagulação. A interrupção imediata da gestação, através de cesariana, parece trazer benefícios para a mãe e concepto. Os intensivistas e obstetras devem estar atentos para esta entidade com o intuito de diagnóstico e tratamento imediatos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare complication of pregnancy whose physiopathology is not completely known and still not frequently remembered by intensive care physicians and obstetricians. The main aim of this case report was to emphasize the need of better knowledge of this disease by physicians. CASE REPORT: A 15 years old, primigravida, 35th week of gestation was admitted in our intensive care unit (ICU with a sudden respiratory distress. Soon after admission she was intubated and put on mechanical ventilation. After stabilization she was transferred to the operating room and a cesarean section was undertaken. During the operation, instead of fluid reposition with crystalloids in large amounts, her hemodynamic status deteriorated and it was necessary to use vasoactive drugs. After three days on mechanical ventilation she was successfully weaned and discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU after 6 days. She and her baby were discharged from hospital on13th day of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare and catastrophic complication of pregnancy, at

  2. Avaliação da maturidade pulmonar fetal pela contagem dos corpos lamelares no líquido amniótico Evaluation of fetal lung maturity by lamellar bodies counting in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Maykot Kuerten Gil

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar o teste de contagem de corpos lamelares (CCL no líquido amniótico com o teste da polarização fluorescente (PF como parâmetro diagnóstico para avaliação da maturidade pulmonar fetal. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, analítico e controlado realizado com 60 gestantes atendidas no período de março de 2002 a dezembro de 2007. Foram colhidas amostras de líquido amniótico e realizados os testes de CCL e PF (TDxFLM II, considerados de referência, e comparados à presença ou ausência da Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório (SDR. Foram estabelecidos valores de corte para maturidade de 30 mil corpos lamelares/µL para o teste da CCL e 55 mg/g de albumina para o PF. Foram avaliadas as características maternas e perinatais, a evolução neonatal e o desempenho dos testes diagnósticos para predição da maturidade pulmonar fetal. Na análise estatística, foram utilizadas medidas descritivas e calculados os valores referentes à sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e negativo dos testes, considerando-se significativos valores de pPURPOSE: to compare the lamellar body number density (LBND count in amniotic fluid using the fluorescent polarization (FP test as a diagnostic parameter for the assessment of fetal pulmonary maturity. METHOD: this was an analytical, controlled cross-sectional study conducted on 60 pregnant women from March 2002 to December 2007. Amniotic fluid specimens were obtained by amniocentesis or at the time of caesarean section, and submitted to the LBND and FP tests (TDxFLM®, Abbott Laboratories, the latter considered to be a reference test, and compared in terms of the presence or absence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Cut-off values for maturity were established at 30,000 lamellar bodies/µL for the LBND test and 55 mg/g albumin for the FP test. Maternal and perinatal characteristics and neonatal evolution were evaluated, and the performance of the diagnostic tests regarding

  3. Effects of transforming growth factor-β1 on acute lung injury by amniotic fluid embolis in rabbit%转化生长因子-β1在家兔羊水栓塞后肺损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳艳; 范丽; 刘伯毅

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the pathogenesis of lung injury caused by amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) and the effects of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 ) on AFE caused acute lung injury .Methods 20 healthy late pregnancy rabbits were randomly divided into the control group (10 cases ,injected with normal saline) and the amni-otic group(10 cases ,injected with amniotic fluid) to establish the animal model of AFE .The pulmonary tissue of AFE rabbits was taken out after 1h for preparing the lung tissue sections .The pulmonary tissue pathological changes were observed .The streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex(SABC) method was adopted to conduct the immunohistochemi-cal staining on lung bronchiole epithelial cells TGF-β1 protein expression ,and the MIAS-2000 image analysis system was adopted to perform the semi-quantitative analysis of proteins ,with the maximum gray value for reflecting the a-mount of TGF-β1 protein expression .Results Lung tissue edema could be fined in lung tissue biopsy of the amniotic group .The TGF-β1 protein content was(19 .85 ± 1 .92)μg/L in the control group and(5 .02 ± 0 .76)μg/L in the amni-otic group ,the TGF-β1 content of lung tissue in the amniotic group was significantly increased (P< 0 .05) .Conclusion AFE caused acute lung injury is closely related with the TGF-β1 level .%目的:探讨羊水栓塞(AFE)肺损伤发病机制,探讨转化生长因子-β1(TGF-β1)在 AFE 肺损伤中的作用。方法将20只健康妊娠晚期家兔随机分为对照组(生理盐水组,10只)及羊水组(10只),建立 AFE 动物模型,1 h 后取家兔肺组织制作病理切片观察肺组织病理变化,采用链霉素亲和-生物素-过氧化酶复合物法对肺组织细支气管上皮细胞 TGF-β1蛋白表达进行免疫组织化学染色,采用 MIAS-2000医学图像分析系统进行蛋白半定量分析,以最大灰度值反映 TGF-β1蛋白表达量。结果羊水组肺组织病理切片

  4. 区域生长法在胎儿磁共振羊水量测量中的应用%Application of the Region Growing Method in Measuring the Amniotic Fluid in Fetal MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡立伟; 薛潋滟; 董素贞; 钟玉敏; 朱铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨磁共振成像中利用区域生长法测量胎儿羊水量的可行性。方法选取26例胎儿的磁共振图像,采用传统方法和区域生长法对胎儿的羊水量进行测量,测量误差值并计算回归线性方程。结果羊水过少时的测量误差为10%~15%,而羊水量正常和过多时的测量误差为1.2%~8%,最后计算得到的回归线性方程为Y=0.975X-9.748。线性方程矫正后的平均羊水量误差仅为2.32%。结论对胎儿进行磁共振检查后,采用区域生长法测量胎儿的羊水量具有操作简单、测量数据真实等优点,可以作为临床对于胎儿羊水量评估的有效手段。%Objective To study the feasibility of the region growing method in measuring the amniotic lfuid in fetal MRI. Methods Altogether 26 foetuses were selected and scanned by MRI. Then, the amniotic lfuid in fetal MRI was measured respectively through the region growing method and the traditional method so as to measure the error value and calculate the linear regression equation. Results The measurement error was 10%to 15%under the conditions of oligohydramnios;while the error was in excess of 1.2%to 8%under the conditions of normality and polyhydramnios. The linear regression equation was calculated as Y=0.975X-9.748. After rectiifcation of the amniotic lfuid value through the linear regression equation, the average error was reduced to only 2.32%. Conclusion The region growing was an easy-to-operate method for precise measurement of the amniotic lfuid after foetuses were scanned by MRI, which should be used as an effective clinical method to measure the fetal amniotic lfuid.

  5. Comparative microRNA profile analysis of amniotic fluid in rats with congenital spina bifida%先天性脊柱裂子鼠羊水微小RNA谱差异性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦攀; 王家祥; 刘秋亮; 张大; 杨合英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the differentially expressed microRNA of amniotic fluid in rats with congenital spina bifida (CSB).Methods Rats with CSB were induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA).microRNA (miRNA) microarray was applied to compare the miRNA expression profile between rats with CSB (n =6) and normal controls (n =6).Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR)was used to confirm the results of microarray.Results As compared with normal controls,the expression of three microRNAs including miRNA-9,miRNA-124a and miRNA-138 was significantly decreased (more than 4 times),while that of miRNA-134 was significantly increased in rats with CSB (more than 4 times).Cluster analysis showed that the expression of these four miRNAs could distinguish the CSB group and the normal control group.Conclusion The differential expression miRNAs in rats with CSB maybe play an important role in the development of CSB.%目的 探讨先天性脊柱裂子鼠与正常发育子鼠羊水中的差异表达的微小RNA(miRNA).方法 利用全反式维甲酸构建先天性脊柱裂子鼠动物模型,采用miRNA芯片技术检测6例脊柱裂子鼠和6例正常发育子鼠羊水中的miRNA表达谱,筛选差异性表达miRNA,并采用实时定量聚合酶链反应(Real-time PCR)技术验证miRNA芯片结果的可靠性.结果 相对于正常发育子鼠组,脊柱裂子鼠羊水中miRNA-9、miRNA-124a、miRNA-138表达显著下调(大于4倍),miRNA-134表达显著上调(大于4倍).聚类分析显示,通过该4个差异表达显著的miRNA,可以将脊柱裂子鼠组和正常发育子鼠区分开.结论 筛选得到的先天性脊柱裂相关miRNA可能在脊柱裂的发生过程中起重要调控作用.

  6. Evaluation of fluorescence in situ hybridization in prenatal diagnosis of uncultured amniotic fluid cells%荧光原位杂交技术在未培养羊水细胞产前诊断中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莉; 钟进; 陈志华; 郭晓玲; 邓秀珍; 邓露莎

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)技术在产前诊断中的优缺点及临床应用价值.方法 用FISH技术检测163例孕17 - 33周孕妇的未培养羊水细胞,每例均行常规染色体核型分析.结果 应用FISH法,所有样本均在24h内获得检测结果,除4例羊水培养失败外,其余样本均在3周内获得细胞遗传学诊断.两种方法均检测出3例非整倍体,FISH结果与核型分析结果一致.9例染色体结构异常,FISH法未能检出.结论 FISH技术应用于产前诊断染色体非整倍体,成功率高,准确可靠,较常规核型分析方法有效缩短报告时间.FISH不能完全替代常规染色体核型分析,疑有染色体结构异常者,必须行羊水细胞染色体核型分析.母血清唐氏征筛查异常孕妇产前诊断倾向选择FISH检测.%Objective: To evaluate clinical application value of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Methods: Amniotic fluid samples were taken from 163 women at 17 +4 ~ 33 +1 weeks of pregnancy; FISH was performed for diagnosing aneuploidies of five chromosomes (13, 18, 21, X and Y). The routine kaiyotypes analysis was performed at the same time. Results: The FISH diagnosis of all species was achieved in 24h, while 161 chromosome kaiyotypes diagnosis acquired in 3 weeks, since failed cell culture occurred in 2 amniotic fluid cases. 3 aneuploidies found by FISH and chromosome karyotypes. For the two methods, the diagnosis of aneuploidies matched perfectly. 9 Structural abnormalitic of chromosome were missed by FISH. Conclusion; FISH is a rapid and accurate method for prenatal diagnosis of chromosome aneuploidies, but it can't completely replace the conventional chromosome karyotype analysis. If structural abnormalities of chromosome was suspected to be, Amniotic fluid cell cultures and karyotype analysis must be performed. FISH could be choiced when biochemical data for Down's syndrome were positive.

  7. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine transfusion. The severity of anemia can be predicted by measurement of bilirubin in amniotic fluid. We showed that this concentration is based on bilirubin in fetal blood and on albumin concentrations. Albumin...

  8. Amniotic membrane transplantation for ocular surface reconstruction in Siriraj Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amniotic membrane transplantation has been used since 1910 for many purposes such as a graft for burned skin and vaginal reconstruction, preventing tissue adhesion in the surgery of head, abdomen, pelvic cavity and otolarynx. In ophthalmology, it has been used as grafts for pterygia and conjunctival defect since 1940. Recently the membrane has been widely used for many purposes. In corneal surface reconstruction, it has been shown to be effective in promoting ephitelial healing in persistent in Steven Johnson's Syndrome and chemical bum. In conjunctival surface reconstruction has also reported to use as a graft in pterygia excision, symblepharon and conjuctival tumors. To study the effect of amniotic membrane transplantation in ophthalmology for ocular surface reconstruction. Amniotic membrane transplantations have been performed in Siriraj Hospital since September 1997. The amniotic membrane, obtained from the Bangkok Biomaterial Centre, was preserved in i: I glycerol: DMEM and stored at -70 degree C. From September 1997 to October 1998, amniotic membrane transplantation were performed in 90 eyes of 82 patients for corneal surface and conjunctival reconstructive purposes. The indication for surgeries in 45 eyes (40 patients) of the corneal surface group were as follow: bullous and band keratopathy in 19 eyes, limbal stem cell deficiency due to Steven Johnson's Syndrome or chemical bum in 18 eyes. Persistent epithelial defect and dallen in 6 eyes, corneal ulcer in one eye and acute chemical burn in one eye. In 45 eyes (42 patients) of the conjunctival group, surgeries were indicated as list: graft for pterygia excision 27 eyes, conjunctival tumors 10 eyes, symblepharon 6 eyes, and covering the scieral grafts in two eyes. Satisfactory result were achieved after the surgeries in 82.2% (74/90) during the mean follow-up time 7.9 months ( range from one to 12 months). The success rates were 91.1% (41/45) in the corneal surface group and 72.3% (33/45) in the conjunctival

  9. Determination of trace elements in body fluids by XRF spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray emission spectroscopy is used for trace element analysis of body fluids. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and XRF setup are described for the analysis of blood serum and amniotic fluid samples for different gravidity stages. The comparison between the distribution of these elements in amniotic fluid and serum is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  10. Stem cell glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Makoto

    2011-09-01

    Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety. Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will introduce glycolipids expressed in pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic-like stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and multilineage-differentiating stress enduring cells), multipotent stem cells (neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, fetal liver multipotent progenitor cells, and hematopoietic stem cells), and cancer stem cells (brain cancer stem cells and breast cancer stem cells), and discuss their availability as biomarkers for identifying and isolating stem cells. PMID:21161592

  11. Fluid balance of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and intensive care unit admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Geneviève; Phan, Véronique; Duval, Michel; Champagne, Martin; Litalien, Catherine; Merouani, Aicha

    2007-03-01

    Fluid administration is essential in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Admission to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is required for 11-29% of pediatric HSCT recipients and is associated with high mortality. The objective of this study was to determine if a positive fluid balance acquired during the HSCT procedure is a risk factor for PICU admission. The medical records of 87 consecutive children who underwent a first HSCT were reviewed retrospectively for the following periods: from admission for HSCT to PICU admission for the first group (PICU group), and from admission for HSCT to hospital discharge for the second group (non-PICU group). Fluid balance was determined on the basis of weight gain (WG) and fluid overload (FO). PICU group consisted of 19 patients (21.8%). Among these, 13 (68.4%) developed>or=10% WG prior to PICU admission compared with 15 (22.1%) in the non-PICU group (por=10% FO prior to PICU admission compared with 31 (45.6%) in the non-PICU group (p=0.075). Following multivariate analysis, >or=10% WG (p=0.018) and cardiac dysfunction on admission for HSCT (p=0.036) remained independent risk factors for PICU admission. Smaller children (p=0.033) and patients with a twofold increase in serum creatinine (p=0.026) were at risk of developing>or=10% WG. This study shows that WG is a risk factor for PICU admission in pediatric HSCT recipients. Further research is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of WG in these patients and to determine the impact of WG prevention on PICU admission. PMID:17123119

  12. Stem cells from foetal adnexa and fluid in domestic animals: an update on their features and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, E; Rossi, B; Merlo, B

    2015-06-01

    Over the past decade, stem cell research has emerged as an area of major interest for its potential in regenerative medicine applications. This is in constant need of new cell sources to conceive regenerative medicine approaches for diseases that are still without therapy. Scientists drew the attention towards alternative sources such as foetal adnexa and fluid, as these sources possess many advantages: first of all, cells can be extracted from discarded foetal material and it is non-invasive and inexpensive for the patient; secondly, abundant stem cells can be obtained; and finally, these stem cell sources are free from ethical considerations. Cells derived from foetal adnexa and fluid preserve some of the characteristics of the primitive embryonic layers from which they originate. Many studies have demonstrated the differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo towards mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal cell types; in addition, the immune-modulatory properties make these cells a good candidate for allo- and xenotransplantation. Naturally occurring diseases in domestic animals can be more ideal as disease model of human genetic and acquired diseases and could help to define the potential therapeutic use efficiency and safety of stem cells therapies. This review offers an update on the state of the art of characterization of domestic animals' MSCs derived from foetal adnexa and fluid and on the latest findings in pre-clinical or clinical setting of the stem cell populations isolated from these sources. PMID:25703812

  13. Detection and analysis of thalassemia gene of the fetal amniotic fluid in baise city%广西百色市胎儿羊水地中海贫血基因检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宏成; 王春芳; 向阳; 雷茗; 邓鹰; 韦叶生

    2015-01-01

    simple alpha thalassaemia which accout For 47.3%,the Medium and heavy of alpha thalas-saemia accout for 36.2%,and 16 case of Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis tire having heavy alpha thalassaemia accout for 11.3%,36 cases were diagnosed with HbH disease which accout for 24.8%;145 cases were diagnosed with simple Beta thalassaemia which accout for 33.6%,and the Medium and heavy of Beta thalassaemia accout for 27.2%;21 cases were diagnosed with the Compound of alpha and beta thalassae-mia which accout for 6.8%;The incidence of alpha thalassaemia in Zhuang populations was 56.6%, 27.6% in Yao populations,and 15.8% in Han populations;The incidence of Beta thalassaemia in Zhuang populations was 66.0%,21.4% in Yao populations,and 12.6% in Han populations.Conclu-sion:The positivty of fetal amniotic fluid with thalassemia is higher in Baise city.Especially,the positive rate of Medium and heavy of fetal is also high;The incidence of alpha thalassaemia was significant differ-ence in Zhuang,Yao,Han Populations (P 0.05).Couples who will give birth to baby in the re-gion should make prenatal genetic of thalassemia screening and breeding knowledge guide.

  14. Líquido amniótico, atividade física e imersão em água na gestação Amniotic fluid, physical activity and water immersion during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia San Juan Dertkigil

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão foi avaliar a inter-relação entre volume do líquido amniótico, atividade física e imersão em água na gestação. Utilizando diferentes combinações desses termos, foram consultadas as bases de dados do MedLine e do Scielo, no período de 1980 a 2005 para a identificação de artigos relevantes ao assunto. O líquido amniótico é fundamental no desenvolvimento dos sistemas músculo-esquelético, gastrointestinal e respiratório fetal. Sua avaliação no passado era imprecisa, mas com o advento da ultra-sonografia, tornou-se fácil e não invasiva. Surgiram técnicas para a aferição do seu volume e curvas de normalidade. Mais recentemente, têm-se tentado diversas técnicas para a correção do seu volume, na tentativa de diminuir a morbidade associada. Um método não invasivo muito utilizado no Brasil é a hiperhidratação materna. Outros autores sugerem medidas como a imersão estática ou com atividade física em água, muito na moda nos dias de hoje. Ainda são poucos os estudos relativos à prática da atividade física na água para gestantes e seus benefícios maternos, fetais e perinatais. A presente revisão visa aprofundar os conhecimentos acerca dos exercícios aeróbicos sob imersão de gestantes em água, no que diz respeito ao volume de líquido amniótico e bem-estar fetal durante a gestação.The objective of this paper was to assess the relationship between amniotic liquid volume, physical activity and immersion in water during pregnancy. By using different combinations of these terms MedLine and Scielo databases were consulted in the period of 1980 and 2005 for subject related articles. Amniotic liquid is fundamental for fetal muscle skeletal, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems development. In the past amniotic liquid evaluation was poor but with the introduction of ultrasonography it has become easy and non-invasive. New techniques to measure volume and normality curves emerged. More

  15. 自体角膜缘干细胞移植联合双层生物羊膜移植治疗翼状胬肉%Auto - corneal limbus stem cell transplantation combined with double biological amniotic membrane transplantation in the treatment of pterygium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇列玲; 杨立平; 刘伟; 张海波; 李明

    2014-01-01

    To observe the effectiveness and safety of auto-corneallimbus stem cell transplantation combined double biological amniotic membrane transplantation in the treatment of pterygium ●METHODS: The patients performed pterygium surgeries in our hospital between 2010 - 06 and 2013 - 12 were selected, according to different pterygium classification grading, different surgical methods were taken. Group A: autologous corneal limbus stem cell transplantation was conducted. Group B: autologous corneal limbus stem cell transplantation combined double biological amniotic membrane transplantation were conducted. The patients were followed up 6-36mo after operation, the postoperative recurrence rate was observed. ●RESULTS: A total of 149 cases with 155 eyes included in this study, including 75 eyes in group A with the application of autologous limbal stem cell transplantation: thin type grade 2, 10 eyes ( 1 eye recurred ), grade 3, 14 eyes ( 2 eyes recurred );Hypertrophic 17 eyes (2 eyes recurred); Recurrence type 21 eyes (3 eyes recurred); Recovered 68 eyes (8 eyes recurred, the total recurrence rate was 10. 67%); Group B: 80 eyes treated with autologous limbal stem cell transplantation combined double biological amniotic membrane transplantation, thin type above grade 3 and grade 4 ( no recurrence); Hypertrophic 21 eyes (1 eye recurred); Recurrence type 37 eyes (2 eyes recurred);Recovered 77 eyes (3 eyes recurred, the recurrence rate was 3. 75%). Two groups of hypertrophic type, recurrence is significant in reducing the recurrence rate (P ●CONCLUSlON: lt indicates that recurrence rates are different when adopting different ways of operations. Autologous corneal limbus stem cell transplantation is applicable for no root type, pterygium of thin type below grade 2; Autologous corneal limbus stem cell transplantation with double biological amniotic membrane transplantation is suitable for thin type above grade 2, hypertrophic type, recurrent type of pterygium, with low

  16. Identification and culture of neural stem cells isolated from adult rat subventricular zone following fluid percussion brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze proliferation and differentiation of glial fibrillary acid protein(GFAP)-and nestin-positive(GFAP+/nestin+)cells isolated from the subventricular zone following fluid percussion brain injury to determine whether GFAP+/nestin+ cells exhibit characteristics of neural stem cells.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 12 weeks and weighing 200-250 g,were randomly and evenly assigned to normal control group and model group.In the model group,a rat model of fluid percussion brain injury was es...

  17. Amniotic Band Syndrome - A Dreaded Condition

    OpenAIRE

    R, Durga; Renukadevi, T. K.

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome is a unique condition in which amnion a normal structure causes complications. A case of second gravid, obese who is a known diabetic came to OPD at 13 weeks pregnancy for regular antenatal check up. A routine ultrasonogram was advised in which multiple anomalies were noted and the diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome was made. The parents were counseled for medical termination of pregnancy and after obtaining the consent termination were performed and the parents were a...

  18. Expression of c-jun in brain stem following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of c-jun in brain stem following moderate lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats, and to observe the temporal patterns of its expressions following percussion.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control, sham operation control and injury groups. The rats of injury group subjected to moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (0.2 mPa), and then were subdivided into 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h and 12 h groups according to the time elapsed after injury. The expression of c-jun was studied by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. RESULTS: After percussion for 15 min, Jun positive neurons increased in brain stem progressively, and peaked at 12h. At 5min after percussion, the induction of c-jun mRNA was increased, and remained elevated up to 1h-2h after brain injury. CONCLUSION: The induction and expression of the c-jun in brain stem after fluid percussion brain injury were increased rapidly and lasted for a long time.

  19. Transplante de células-tronco epiteliais límbicas alógenas expandidas ex vivo sobre membrana amniótica: relato de caso Transplantation of allogenic limbal epithelial stem cells cultivated ex vivo on amniotic membrane: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Álvaro Pereira Gomes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Paciente apresentou falência de transplante de limbo e conjuntiva de doador vivo alógeno no olho direito após ceratoconjuntivite epidêmica. Após alguns meses, foi submetida a transplante de células-tronco epiteliais límbicas alógenas cultivadas ex vivo sobre membrana amniótica (primeiro caso no Brasil, tendo evoluído com epitelização total da córnea e melhora da acuidade visual. Após o 3º mês da cirurgia, iniciou-se neovascularização superficial periférica com piora da transparência corneana. A visão manteve-se 0,1 após um ano de cirurgia.Case report of a patient who developed failure of an allogenic living related conjunctival limbal transplantation in the right eye after an episode of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis. After a few months, she underwent transplantation of allogenic limbal epithelial stem cells cultivated ex vivo on amniotic membrane (first case in Brazil. The patient evolved with total corneal epithelialization and improvement of the visual acuity. Three months after the surgery, peripheral superficial neovascularization with worsening of the corneal transparency was observed. The vision remained 0.1 after one year of the transplantation.

  20. Volume do líquido amniótico associado às anomalias fetais diagnosticadas em um centro de referência do nordeste brasileiro Amniotic fluid volume associated with fetal anomalies diagnosed in a reference center in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Noronha Neto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar fatores associados ao volume de líquido amniótico e frequências de anomalias fetais em um centro de referência. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo de corte transversal, com gestantes de risco, avaliadas pela ultrassonografia morfológica, no período de março de 2002 a março de 2006, em uma instituição em Recife (PE Brasil. O diagnóstico intraútero foi confirmado no pós-parto. As características sociodemográficas e obstétricas, o índice de líquido amniótico e a presença de anomalias fetais foram variáveis estudadas. Para verificar associação entre variáveis, foram utilizados testes χ2, exato de Fisher e t de Student, a um nível de significância de 5%. Foram calculados a razão de prevalência e o intervalo de confiança a 95%. Análise de regressão logística múltipla foi realizada, a um nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: foram incluídas no estudo 257 (56,2% gestantes com anomalias congênitas e 200 sem anomalias confirmadas no pós-natal. As médias das idades maternas e gestacionais do parto foram 24,8±6,5 anos e 35,9±3,7 semanas, respectivamente. As anomalias fetais foram mais encontradas no sistema nervoso central (50,6% e trato geniturinário (23,0%. A presença de anomalias congênitas esteve associada significativamente ao líquido diminuído/oligohidrâmnio (p=0,0002 e líquido aumentado/polihidrâmnio (pPURPOSE: to determine factors associated to amniotic fluid volume and frequencies of fetal anomalies, in a reference center in Pernambuco. METHODS: a transversal study performed in high-risk pregnant women submitted to obstetrical morphological ultrasound, from March 2002 to March 2006, at an institution from Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. The intrauterine diagnosis was confirmed after birth. Sociodemographic and obstetrical characteristics, amniotic liquid volume and presence of fetal anomalies were the variables studied. Fisher's exact, χ2, and Student's t tests, at a significance

  1. 广州地区6000例羊水细胞染色体核型分析及其产前诊断价值探讨%Investigation on 6 000 cases of chromosomal karyotypes of amniotic fluid cells and their prenatal dianostic values in Guangzhou area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海波; 丘文君; 郑育红; 赖炜强; 孙筱放

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析羊水细胞染色体,比较不同异常核型的发生率及其在产前诊断中的应用价值。方法选择2010年1月至2013年9月到该院就诊有产前诊断指征的孕妇6000例,行羊膜腔穿刺术、传代法羊水细胞培养及胎儿染色体核型分析。结果6000例羊水培养成功5994例(99.90%),异常核型193例(3.22%)。其中,染色体数目异常108例,占异常核型的55.96%,以21三体为主,占数目异常的67.59%(73/108);结构异常60例,占异常核型的31.09%,其中平衡性结构重排38例(19.69%),非平衡性结构重排22例(11.40%);嵌合体25例(12.95%)。将孕妇按进行穿刺的首要指征分为6组,血清学筛查高风险组和高龄组分别占受检人数41.62%和33.70%,B超检查示胎儿异常组和夫妇一方染色体异常组的核型异常检出率分别为5.56%和20.00%,与其他组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论传代法羊水细胞体外培养对核型分析具有实用性。羊水染色体核型分析是安全、有效的诊断胎儿染色体病的方法。%Objective To analyze the chromosoms of amniotic fluid cells ,to compare the occurrence rate of different karyo‐types an dto investigate their application values in prenatal diagnosis .Methods A total of 6 000 pregnant women with the prenatal diagnostic indications came to our hospital from January 2010 to September 2013 were performed the amniocentesis ,amniotic fluid cell passage culture and fetal chromosomal karyotypes analysis .Results Among 6 000 cases of amniotic fluid cell culture ,5 594 ca‐ses(99 .90% ) were succeeded and 193 cases(3 .22% ) were abnormal karyotypes ,in which 108 cases were the chromosomal number‐ical abnormality ,acounting for 55 .96% of abnormal karyotypes ,Down′s syndrome was predominant and accounted for 67 .59% of chromosomal numberical abnormality .There were 60 cases (31

  2. Effect of the Human Amniotic Membrane on Liver Regeneration in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Mesut; Şahin, Sevinç; Arslan, Ergin; Börekci, Hasan; Metin, Bayram; Cantürk, Nuh Zafer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Operations are performed for broader liver surgery indications for a better understanding of hepatic anatomy/physiology and developments in operation technology. Surgery can cure some patients with liver metastasis of some tumors. Nevertheless, postoperative liver failure is the most feared complication causing mortality in patients who have undergone excision of a large liver mass. The human amniotic membrane has regenerative effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of the human amniotic membrane on regeneration of the resected liver. Methods. Twenty female Wistar albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups and underwent a 70% hepatectomy. The human amniotic membrane was placed over the residual liver in the experimental group. Relative liver weight, histopathological features, and biochemical parameters were assessed on postoperative day 3. Results. Total protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. No difference in relative liver weight was observed between the groups. Hepatocyte mitotic count was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Hepatic steatosis was detected in the experimental group. Conclusion. Applying the amniotic membrane to residual liver adversely affected liver regeneration. However, mesenchymal stem cell research has the potential to accelerate liver regeneration investigations. PMID:26457000

  3. Effect of the Human Amniotic Membrane on Liver Regeneration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sipahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Operations are performed for broader liver surgery indications for a better understanding of hepatic anatomy/physiology and developments in operation technology. Surgery can cure some patients with liver metastasis of some tumors. Nevertheless, postoperative liver failure is the most feared complication causing mortality in patients who have undergone excision of a large liver mass. The human amniotic membrane has regenerative effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of the human amniotic membrane on regeneration of the resected liver. Methods. Twenty female Wistar albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups and underwent a 70% hepatectomy. The human amniotic membrane was placed over the residual liver in the experimental group. Relative liver weight, histopathological features, and biochemical parameters were assessed on postoperative day 3. Results. Total protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. No difference in relative liver weight was observed between the groups. Hepatocyte mitotic count was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Hepatic steatosis was detected in the experimental group. Conclusion. Applying the amniotic membrane to residual liver adversely affected liver regeneration. However, mesenchymal stem cell research has the potential to accelerate liver regeneration investigations.

  4. Fluid-Structure Interactions Analysis of Shear-Induced Modulation of a Mesenchymal Stem Cell: An Image-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Roza Vaez; Vahidi, Bahman; Sabour, Mohammad Hossein; Haghighipour, Nooshin; Alihemmati, Zakieh

    2016-03-01

    Although effects of biochemical modulation of stem cells have been widely investigated, only recent advances have been made in the identification of mechanical conditioning on cell signaling pathways. Experimental investigations quantifying the micromechanical environment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are challenging while computational approaches can predict their behavior due to in vitro stimulations. This study introduces a 3D cell-specific finite element model simulating large deformations of MSCs. Here emphasizing cell mechanical modulation which represents the most challenging multiphysics phenomena in sub-cellular level, we focused on an approach attempting to elicit unique responses of a cell under fluid flow. Fluorescent staining of MSCs was performed in order to visualize the MSC morphology and develop a geometrically accurate model of it based on a confocal 3D image. We developed a 3D model of a cell fixed in a microchannel under fluid flow and then solved the numerical model by fluid-structure interactions method. By imposing flow characteristics representative of vigorous in vitro conditions, the model predicts that the employed external flow induces significant localized effective stress in the nucleo-cytoplasmic interface and average cell deformation of about 40%. Moreover, it can be concluded that a lower strain level is made in the cell by the oscillatory flow as compared with steady flow, while same ranges of effective stress are recorded inside the cell in both conditions. The deeper understanding provided by this study is beneficial for better design of single cell in vitro studies. PMID:26333040

  5. Cryopreserved Amniotic Suspension for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Jeremy B; Aliprantis, Antonios O; Gomoll, Andreas H; Farr, Jack

    2016-08-01

    There are few treatment options for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Human amniotic suspension allografts (ASA) have anti-inflammatory and chondroregenerative potential and thus represent a promising treatment strategy. In anticipation of a large, placebo-controlled trial of intra-articular ASA for symptomatic knee OA, an open-label prospective feasibility study was performed. Six patients with Kellgren-Lawrence grades 3 and 4 tibiofemoral knee OA were administered a single intra-articular ASA injection containing cryopreserved particulated human amnion and amniotic fluid cells. Patients were followed for 12 months after treatment. No significant injection reactions were noted. Compared with baseline there were (1) no significant effect of the ASA injection on blood cell counts, lymphocyte subsets, or inflammatory markers and (2) a small, but statistically significant increase in serum IgG and IgE levels. Patient-reported outcomes including International Knee Documentation Committee, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores were collected throughout the study and evaluated for up to 12 months. Overall, this study demonstrates the feasibility of a single intra-articular injection of ASA for the treatment of knee OA and provides the foundation for a large placebo-controlled trial of intra-articular ASA for symptomatic knee OA. PMID:26683979

  6. The Lineage Specification of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Directed by the Rate of Fluid Shear Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juan; Fan, Yijuan; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Zhou, Xin; Yi, Caixia; Zhang, Yinxing; Pan, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The effective regulation of fluid shear stress (FSS) on the lineage specification of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remains to be addressed. We hypothesized that when MSCs are recruited to musculoskeletal system following stimulation, their differentiation into osteogenic or chondrogenic cells is directed by the rate of FSS (ΔSS) through modulation of the mechanosensitive, cation-selective channels (MSCCs), intracellular calcium levels, and F-actin. To this end, MSCs were exposed to laminar FSS linearly increased from 0 to 10 dyn/cm(2) in 0, 2, or 20 min and maintained at 10 dyn/cm(2) for a total of 20 min (termed as ΔSS 0-0', 0-2', and 0-20', respectively, representing more physiological (0-0') and non-physiological (0-2' and 0-20') ΔSS treatments). Our results showed 0-0' facilitated MSC differentiation towards chondrogenic and not osteogenic phenotype, by promoting moderate intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) increase from the calcium channels with the exception of MSCCs or intracellular calcium stores, and F-actin organization. In contrast, 0-2' promoted MSCs towards osteogenic and not chondrogenic phenotype, by inducing significant [Ca(2+) ]i increase mainly from the MSCCs, and F-actin assembly. However, 0-20' elicited the modest osteogenic and chondrogenic phenotypes, as it induced the lowest [Ca(2+) ]i increase mainly from MSCCs, and F-actin assembly. Our results suggest that compared to the more physiological ΔSS, the non-physiological ΔSS favors [Ca(2+) ]i influx from MSCCs. An appropriate non-physiological ΔSS (0-2') even elicits a large [Ca(2+) ]i influx from the MSCCs that reverses the lineage specification of MSCs, providing validation for the high mechanosensitivity of MSCs and guidance for training osteoporosis and osteoarthritis patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1752-1760, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26636289

  7. Tissue Banking in Malaysia-amniotic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn treatment using amniotic membranes in some of our patients initiate our own tissue bank starting with a pilot project on procurement, processing and clinical application of irradiated amniotic membrane. The irradiation of amniotic membrane was made possible by the availability of cobalt source at the Nuclear Energy Agency (UTN). With the technical help from the Inter-national Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) we soon should be able to embark on bone bank to supply local surgeons. Thus the establishment of tissue bank at our institution will further enhance our programme which will include keratinocytes culture for burn, osteocytes culture for bone replacement as well as the use of animal skin for temporary coverage of open wounds

  8. Mermaid syndrome with amniotic band disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managoli, Sanjeev; Chaturvedi, Pushpa; Vilhekar, Krishna Y; Iyenger, Janaki

    2003-01-01

    An association of Amniotic Band Disruption Sequence and Mermaid Syndrome in a newborn having multiple congenital anomalies is being reported. The newborn had aberrant string like tissues attached to the amputed fingers and toes. Adhesions of amniotic bands had disrupted the fetal parts especially anteriorly in the midline, causing multiple anomalies. Apart from these features of Amniotic Band Disruption Sequence, the newborn had complete fusion of the lower limbs by cutaneous tissue, a characteristic of Mermaid Syndrome (Sirenomelia). Associated malformations were anal stenosis, rectal atresia, small horseshoe kidney, hypoplastic urinary bladder and a bicomuate uterus. The single umbilical artery had a high origin, arising directly from the aorta just distal to the celiac axis, which is unique to sirenomelia. Theories put forward regarding the etiopathogenesis of both the conditions are discussed. PMID:12619964

  9. Analysis on Karyotype of Amniotic Fluid Cells from 3 800 Fetus and Related Genetic Counseling%3800例羊水细胞染色体核型分析及相关遗传咨询

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立娟; 李岩; 张秀玲; 史云芳; 李晓洲; 张颖

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨染色体异常核型与产前诊断指征的关系及羊膜腔穿刺术的安全性,为产前遗传咨询提供客观的实验依据.方法:3 800例具备产前诊断指征的妊娠妇女,在知情选择的情况下行羊膜腔穿刺术及染色体核型检测.分析相关数据,追踪羊膜腔穿刺术的结局.结果:羊水细胞一次培养成功率为99.26%(3772/3 800),两次培养成功率为99.97%(3 795/3 796).在3 795例羊水细胞培养成功的染色体核型中,检出异常核型120例,异常率为3.16%,其中染色体数目异常率1.61%(61/3 795),结构异常率O.58%(22/3 795),多态性变异异常率0.97%(37/3 795).产前诊断指征中,按羊膜腔穿刺例数.位于前3位的分别是唐氏综合征筛查高危人群组(以下简称唐筛高危组,3 54l 例)、不良妊娠分娩史组(95例)和单纯高龄组(≥35岁,83例).检出染色体异常核型例数前3位的分别是唐筛高危组(103例)、夫妻单方染色体异常组(8例)和单纯高龄组(4例).染色体核型异常率前3位的分别是夫妻单方染色体异常组(38.10%,8/21,仅1例有临床意义)、超声提示胎儿异常组(9.38%.3/32)和单纯高龄组(4.82%.4/83).唐筛高危组中,高龄和低龄妊娠妇女染色体核型异常率差异有统计学意义(x2=4.342,P0.05).胎儿丢失率0.237%(9/3 800).胎死宫内率0.053%(2/3 800).结论:①唐筛高危、高龄、超声提示胎儿异常及夫妻单方染色体异常者均有必要进行产前诊断.②羊膜腔穿刺术相对安全.③根据相关实验数据对高危妊娠妇女进行个体化遗传咨询是必要的.%Objective: In order to constitute a basis for genetic counseling, we studied the relationship between fetal chromosomal aberrations and prenatal diagnosis indications, and analyzed the security of amniocentesis. Methods:Fetal chromosomal karyotypes were examined in 3 800 pregnant women with amniotic cell culture in accordance with the indications for prenatal diagnosis. We studied the

  10. Optimization of In Vitro Culture Conditions for Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells and Expression of Stem Cell Markers%羊膜上皮细胞体外培养条件的优化及其干细胞标志的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宥艺; 陆琰; 王科; 王琰; 吴东颖; 刘兵; 杨瑛; 吕双红

    2011-01-01

    本研究优化人足月胎盘羊膜上皮细胞(human amniotic epithelium cells,hAEC)的体外培养方法并现察hAEC的干细胞标志的表达情况.取健康产妇足月剖宫产术后的羊膜,采用胰酶多次消化获取hAEC,分别应用10% FBS的DMEM、类似胚胎干细胞的培养条件及添加表皮细胞生长因子(epidermal growth factor,EGF)的类似胚胎干细胞的培养条件对其进行原代和传代培养,观察培养后细胞形态,并通过流式细胞术检测、细胞免疫荧光染色等方法对培养细胞的干细胞多能性标志进行鉴定.结果表明:在类似胚胎干细胞培养条件的基础上添加10 ng/ml EGF可提高hAEC原代细胞的贴壁率和增殖能力,与广泛应用的10% FBS的DMEM培养条件相比,在此培养条件下细胞传代能力显著增强,传至5代仍保持上皮细胞表型,细胞形态在传代过程中改变不明显,并且表达胚胎干细胞全能性的表面标志SSEA-4同时细胞免疫荧光染色显示培养后的hAEC表达波形蛋白(vimentin).结论:采用类似胚胎干细胞的培养条件有利于hAEC在体外的扩增和传代,EGF对其增殖和传代有促进作用,培养的hAEC表达胚胎干细胞多能性标志.%This study was purposed to optimize the culture conditions of the human amniotic epithelium cells (hAEC) in vitro, and detect the expression of hAEC pluripotent markers.Amnion tissues were separated from the underlying chorion through the spongy layer immediately after elective cesarean section of healthy pregnancy women at term.After the subsequent exposure to trypsin digestion, hAEC were cultured in DMEM with different supplements.The growth and proliferation potential of hAEC was evaluated, and the expression of cultured hAEC pluripotent markers was detected by using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry methods.The results indicated that when being cultured in the mediums similar to that of embryonic stem cell culture supplemented with 10 ng/ml EGF, the h

  11. Differentiation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-secreting cells induced by regenerating pancreatic extract%再生胰腺提取物诱导人羊膜间充质干细胞定向分化为胰岛素分泌细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳梅; 王佃亮; 曾虹燕; 王烈明; 孙晋伟; 张珍; 东莎莎

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the natural biological inducer, rat regenerating pancreatic extract (RPE), was used to induce human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) into insulin-secreting cells. We excised 60% of rat pancreas in order to stimulate pancreatic regeneration. RPE was extracted and used to induce hAMSCs at a final concentration of 20 ug/mL. The experiment methods used were as follows: morphological-identification, dithizone staining, immumofluorescence analysis, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose. The results show that the cell morphology of passge3 hAMSCs changed significantly after the induction of RPE, resulting in cluster shape after induction for 15 days. Dithizone staining showed that there were scarlet cell masses in RPE-treated culture. Immumofluorescence analysis indicated that induced cells were insulin-positive expression. RT-PCR showed the positive expression of human islet-related genes Pdxl and insulin in the induced cells. The result of insulin secretion stimulated by high glucose indicated that insulin increasingly secreted and then kept stable with prolongation of high glucose stimulation. In conclusion, hAMSCs had the potential to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells induced by RPE in vitro.%利用天然生物诱导剂大鼠再生胰腺提取物(Rgenerating pancreatic extract,RPE)定向诱导人羊膜间充质干细胞(Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells,hAMSCs)向胰岛素分泌细胞分化.切除大鼠60%胰腺刺激胰腺再生,而后制备RPE,以终浓度为20 mg/L的RPE诱导hAMSCs.实验通过形态学鉴定、双硫腙染色、免疫荧光分析、RT-PCR基因检测和高糖刺激胰岛素分泌等实验鉴定细胞诱导结果.实验结果显示P3代hAMSCs经RPE诱导后形态变化明显,诱导15d后细胞呈簇状生长,经双硫腙染色可见棕红色细胞团;免疫荧光染色结果显示诱导细胞呈胰岛素阳性表达;RT-PCR实验证明诱导细胞阳

  12. Effect of Varying Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability & Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun; Dozier, David; Triantafillu, Ursula

    2013-11-01

    Cancer stem cells cultured in vitro in stirred bioreactors are exposed to shear stress. By observing the effect of shear stress on cancer stem cell viability, laboratory cell growth could be optimized. In addition, metastasized cancer stem cells in vivo are naturally exposed to shear stress, a factor influencing stem cell differentiation, while circulating in the bloodstream. Changes in protein expression after exposure to shear stress could allow for identification and targeting of circulating cancer cells. In this study, blood flow through capillaries was simulated by using a syringe pump to inject suspensions of Kasumi-1 leukemia stem cells into model blood vessels composed of PEEK tubing 125 microns in diameter. The Hagen-Poisseuille equation was used to solve for operating flow rates based on specified amounts of shear stress. After exposure, cell counts and viabilities were observed using an optical microscope and proteins were analyzed using Western blotting. It was observed that at a one minute exposure to stress, cell viability increased as the amount of shear was increased from 10 to 60 dynes per square centimeter. Results from this research are applicable to optimization of large-scale stem cell growth in bioreactors as well as to the design of targeted cancer therapies. Funding from NSF REU grant #1062611 is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Multicenter Comparative Evaluation of Five Commercial Methods for Toxoplasma DNA Extraction from Amniotic Fluid▿

    OpenAIRE

    Yera, H; Filisetti, D.; Bastien, P.; Ancelle, T; Thulliez, P; Delhaes, L.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years, a number of new nucleic acid extraction methods and extraction platforms using chemistry combined with magnetic or silica particles have been developed, in combination with instruments to facilitate the extraction procedure. The objective of the present study was to investigate the suitability of these automated methods for the isolation of Toxoplasma gondii DNA from amniotic fluid (AF). Therefore, three automated procedures were compared to two commercialized manual ...

  14. Associação entre perfil glicêmico materno e o índice de líquido amniótico em gestações complicadas pelo Diabetes mellituspré-gestacional Association between maternal glycemic profile and amniotic fluid index in pregnancies complicated by pregestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Maganha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estudar a relação entre o volume de líquido amniótico e o perfil glicêmico em gestantes com Diabetes mellitus tipo 1 e tipo 2 acompanhadas em ambulatório especializado e multidisciplinar. MÉTODOS: Este estudo observacional foi realizado entre janeiro de 2001 e dezembro de 2004. Os critérios de inclusão adotados foram: gestação única, diagnóstico de Diabetes mellitus pré-gestacional, início do pré-natal antes da 26ª semana, ausência de anomalias fetais. Foram excluídos os casos em que o recém-nascido apresentou-se pequeno para a idade gestacional. O índice de líquido amniótico (ILA foi avaliado semanalmente a partir da 27ª semana de gestação até o parto e comparado com o perfil glicêmico da semana precedente ao exame ultrassonográfico. O perfil glicêmico foi analisado pela média glicêmica. A correlação entre o perfil glicêmico e ILA foi analisada pelo índice de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 60 gestantes, perfazendo um total de 659 correlações entre o ILA e o perfil glicêmico. Em nenhuma idade gestacional estudada houve correlação entre o ILA e o perfil glicêmico. No grupo com ILA 18 cm a média glicêmica foi de 103,67 mg/dl (DP=11,46, não apresentando diferença significativa. CONCLUSÃO: Em gestantes diabéticas tipo 1 e 2, com tratamento padronizado e controle rigoroso metabólico, não houve relação entre o ILA e o perfil glicêmico materno no terceiro trimestre de gestação.BACKGROUND: to study the relation between amniotic fluid volume and glycemic control in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, followed in a specialized multidisciplinary prenatal care service. METHODS: This descriptive study was performed between January 2001 and December 2004. Inclusion criteria were: simple pregnancy, diagnosis of pregestational diabetes, beginning of prenatal care before the 26th week and absence of fetal anomaly. Cases with newborns small for gestational age were

  15. Association of pregnancy management with fetal weight, amniotic fluid volume, and placental function in gestational impaired glucose tolerance%妊娠期糖耐量异常的孕期管理与胎儿体重、羊水及胎盘功能的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰珍; 吴爱华

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨妊娠期糖耐量异常孕期管理对胎儿生长发育的影响,以便获得恰当、有效的处理方法 和监护措施.方法 对我院2006年1月-2008年1月常规产检,并在本院分娩的、材料完整的妊娠期糖耐量异常孕妇80例,进行OGTY检查,并对胎儿体重、羊水情况及胎盘成熟度进行追踪.结果 GDM组孕妇空腹血糖异常者占20%,GIGT组中3小时血糖异常占44%;血糖管理组胎儿体重及羊水指数较未管理组明显下降;管理组低体重儿较未管理组明显增多,未管理组巨大儿明显增多;巨大儿组羊水过多明显增多,低体重儿组羊水过少及胎盘Ⅲ级者明显增多.结论 OGTT中3小时血糖检查在GIGT诊断中具有重要意义,血糖管理在减少巨大儿、羊水过多发生的同时增加了低体重儿的发生率,且进行血糖管理时要考虑胎盘的功能,减少低体重儿的发生.%Objective To obtain proper,effective therapies and monitoring approach by exploring the effect of pregnancy management on fetal growth and development in women with gestational impaired glucose tolerance.Methods Oral glucose tolerance test was performed on eighty women with gestational impaired glucose tolerance who had had regular prenatal vists during January 2006 to January 2008.Fetal weight,amniotic fluid indices,and placental maturation were determined.Results Abnormal levels of fasting plasma glucose developed in 20% of the women in GDM group and abnormal 3—hour glucose levels occurred in 44% of the women in GIGT group.Fetal weight and amniotic fluid indices were markedly lower in the group with management of glucose than in the group without management.The incidence of polyhydramnios and fetal macrosomia increased signifiantly in the group without managemnet.Conclusions 3—our OGTT plays an important role in the incidence of polyhydramnios and fetal macrosomia diagnosis of gestational impaired glucose tolerance.Management of glucose reduces but increase

  16. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C 6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C 6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 10 6 cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C 6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  17. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve:evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jin; Qi Yang; Feng Ji; Ya-jie Zhang; Yan Zhao; Min Luo

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as em-bryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C6root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 106 cells/mL, 3μL/injection, 25 injections) immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also signiifcantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effec-tively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  18. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson's disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases. PMID:26201864

  19. Construction of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium by culturing human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells in vitro%人羊膜间充质干细胞体外构建组织工程角膜上皮层的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖盼; 陈剑

    2015-01-01

    ,but the shortage of cornea donor limits its application.Tissue-engineered cornea is being a new approach to corneal diseases.Objective This study was to investigate the possibility of construction of tissue-engineered corneal epithelium by culturing human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) in vitro.Methods Fresh human amniotic membranes were obtained under the approval of Ethic Committee of Affiliated First Hospital of Jinan University and informed consent of maternal women.The 6 cm×6 cm amniotic membrane tissue explant was digested using trypsin+ EDTA,and then the amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) were scraped before putting into collagenase Ⅱ digestion medium to isolate hAMSCs.hAMSCs of passage 3 were cultured to achive 80%-90% confluence,and then the ceils were incubated on rabbit deepithelial corneal stroma at a 1 ×105/ml density.The corneal stroma was co-cuhured with hAMSCs at an air-liquid interface till 14 days.Rabbit deepithelial corneal stroma with and without hAMSCs (experimental group and control group) were fixed in 4% para formaldehyde, and sections were prepared for histopathological examination.Immunochemistry and immunofluorescence were empoyed to detect the expressions of cytokeratin3 (CK3) and CK12 in hAMSCs.Results hAMSCs grew well and formed a stratified epidermal structure resembling native corneal epithelium on rabbit corneal stroma in cultured 14 days in the experimental group,with the oval nucleus at basement and fusiform nucleus on the surface of corneal stroma.There was no cell structure in the control group.Immunochemistry revealed brown staining for CK3, CK12 in cytoplasm of hAMSCs on the rabbits corneal stroma,and the green fluorescence for CK3 and CK12 was also seen in the hAMSCs.However,the response for CK3 and CK12 was absent in the control sections either immunochemistry or immunofluorescence test.Conclusions hAMSCs can be induced to differentiate into corneal epithelioid cells at an air-liquid interface on the rabbit

  20. Experience of Using Amniotic Membrane After Circumcision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is compulsory, for boys to undergone circumcision before getting adult in Moslem region. It can be done by General Surgeon, General Practitioner, Nurse, Midwife or Quack. The place to carry out the circumcision can be inside or outside hospital. The utmost problems are injections, point for secondary wound covering and delay of using underpants. To overcome those problem amniotic membranes can be used as wound covering, based on : they are soft, easy to shape wound surface, satisfactory adhesive properties, good elasticity and sufficient, transparency which allows wound control without redressing of the wound. From January until December 1999, 165 boys at an age between 6-10 years, which have been carried out circumcision, were evaluated. Radiation sterilized lyophilized amniotic membranes were used in this work as wound covering Result show that amniotic membrane gave a good result in wound healing. All the patients observed, showed early mobilization as well as early using underpants. There is no different result between circumcision which had been done either inside or out hospital, carried out by surgeon or non-surgeon

  1. No detection of BK virus, JC virus, KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomaviruses in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurological complications after hematopoetic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J; Giraud, G; Priftakis, P; Wide, K; Gustafsson, B; Ramqvist, T; Dalianis, T

    2011-10-01

    Neurological complications, often due to viral reactivation, after allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are associated with increased mortality. Here, cerebrospinal fluid from 20 HSCT patients with neurological symptoms were analyzed and found to be negative by PCR for BK virus, JC virus, KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA. PMID:21965766

  2. Amniotic Epithelial Cells from the Human Placenta Potently Suppress a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Han Liu; Vijesh Vaghjiani; Jing Yang Tee; Kelly To; Peng Cui; Ding Yuan Oh; Ursula Manuelpillai; Ban-Hock Toh; James Chan

    2012-01-01

    Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) have stem cell-like features and immunomodulatory properties. Here we show that hAEC significantly suppressed splenocyte proliferation in vitro and potently attenuated a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Central nervous system (CNS) CD3(+) T cell and F4/80(+) monocyte/macrophage infiltration and demyelination were significantly reduced with hAEC treatment. Besides the known secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), we report the novel finding that hAEC...

  3. FGF2 plays a key role in embryonic cerebrospinal fluid trophic properties over chick embryo neuroepithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, C; Bueno, D; Alonso, M I; Moro, J A; Callejo, S; Parada, C; Martín, P; Carnicero, E; Gato, A

    2006-09-15

    During early stages of brain development, neuroepithelial stem cells undergo intense proliferation as neurogenesis begins. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has been involved in the regulation of these processes, and although it has been suggested that they work in an autocrine-paracrine mode, there is no general agreement on this because the behavior of neuroepithelial cells is not self-sufficient in explants cultured in vitro. In this work, we show that during early stages of development in chick embryos there is another source of FGF2, besides that of the neuroepithelium, which affects the brain primordium, since the cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) contains several isoforms of this factor. We also demonstrate, both in vitro and in vivo, that the FGF2 from the E-CSF has an effect on the regulation of neuroepithelial cell behavior, including cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In order to clarify putative sources of FGF2 in embryonic tissues, we detected by in situ hybridization high levels of mRNA expression in notochord, mesonephros and hepatic primordia, and low levels in brain neuroectoderm, corroborated by semiquantitative PCR analysis. Furthermore, we show that the notochord segregates several FGF2 isoforms which modify the behavior of the neuroepithelial cells in vitro. In addition, we show that the FGF2 ligand is present in the embryonic serum; and, by means of labeled FGF2, we prove that this factor passes via the neuroepithelium from the embryonic serum to the E-CSF in vivo. Considering all these results, we propose that, in chick embryos, the behavior of brain neuroepithelial stem cells at the earliest stages of development is influenced by the action of the FGF2 contained within the E-CSF which could have an extraneural origin, thus suggesting a new and complementary way of regulating brain development. PMID:16916506

  4. Early mesozoic coexistence of amniotes and hepadnaviridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Suh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepadnaviridae are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect some species of birds and mammals. This includes humans, where hepatitis B viruses (HBVs are prevalent pathogens in considerable parts of the global population. Recently, endogenized sequences of HBVs (eHBVs have been discovered in bird genomes where they constitute direct evidence for the coexistence of these viruses and their hosts from the late Mesozoic until present. Nevertheless, virtually nothing is known about the ancient host range of this virus family in other animals. Here we report the first eHBVs from crocodilian, snake, and turtle genomes, including a turtle eHBV that endogenized >207 million years ago. This genomic "fossil" is >125 million years older than the oldest avian eHBV and provides the first direct evidence that Hepadnaviridae already existed during the Early Mesozoic. This implies that the Mesozoic fossil record of HBV infection spans three of the five major groups of land vertebrates, namely birds, crocodilians, and turtles. We show that the deep phylogenetic relationships of HBVs are largely congruent with the deep phylogeny of their amniote hosts, which suggests an ancient amniote-HBV coexistence and codivergence, at least since the Early Mesozoic. Notably, the organization of overlapping genes as well as the structure of elements involved in viral replication has remained highly conserved among HBVs along that time span, except for the presence of the X gene. We provide multiple lines of evidence that the tumor-promoting X protein of mammalian HBVs lacks a homolog in all other hepadnaviruses and propose a novel scenario for the emergence of X via segmental duplication and overprinting of pre-existing reading frames in the ancestor of mammalian HBVs. Our study reveals an unforeseen host range of prehistoric HBVs and provides novel insights into the genome evolution of hepadnaviruses throughout their long-lasting association with amniote hosts.

  5. Fetal antigen 2: an amniotic protein identified as the aminopropeptide of the alpha 1 chain of human procollagen type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teisner, B; Rasmussen, H B; Højrup, P;

    1992-01-01

    Fetal antigen (FA2) was purified from second trimester human amniotic fluid by immunospecific chromatography, gel filtration and reversed-phase chromatography. Gel filtration revealed two molecular forms of FA2 eluting at volumes corresponding to an M(r) of approximately 100 kDa and 30 kDa. SDS...... aminopropeptide of the alpha 1 chain of human procollagen type I as determined by nucleotide sequences. After oxidative procedures normally employed for radio-iodination (iodogen and chloramine-T), FA2 lost its immunoreactivity. An antigen which cross-reacted with polyclonal rabbit anti-human FA2 was demonstrated...... in fetal calf serum. Gel filtration with analysis of fractions by inhibition ELISA showed that the bovine homologue was present in the same molecular forms as those in human amniotic fluid, and immunohistochemical analysis with anti-human FA2 showed that its distribution in bovine skin was identical...

  6. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  7. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  8. Amniotic fluid and development of the immature intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette Viberg

    nutrition (MEN), and slow advancement of enteral feeds. Human breast milk is the gold standard of enteral nutrition (EN) of the newborn and protects against NEC in premature infants, but is often unavailable or limited after preterm birth. Innovative nutrition strategies and novel sources of the first EN...... effects ex utero as first EN and protect against NEC in preterm infants. The primary objective of this thesis was to evaluate the applicability of AF as a novel sourceof first EN in premature infants and thereby to address the main hypothesis: “Enteral feeding with AF reduces the incidence and severity of......Premature birth is a health concern worldwide as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality of the newborn. In the most developed countries, improved neonatal care has allowed for the survival of ever smaller premature infants and raised the survival rates of infants born very...

  9. Three-dimensional printing of stem cell-laden hydrogels submerged in a hydrophobic high-density fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade, bioprinting technologies have begun providing important tissue engineering strategies for regenerative medicine and organ transplantation. The major drawback of past approaches has been poor or inadequate material-printing device and substrate combinations, as well as the relatively small size of the printed construct. Here, we hypothesise that cell-laden hydrogels can be printed when submerged in perfluorotributylamine (C12F27N), a hydrophobic high-density fluid, and that these cells placed within three-dimensional constructs remain viable allowing for cell proliferation and production of extracellular matrix. Human mesenchymal stem cells and MG-63 cells were encapsulated into agarose hydrogels, and subsequently printed in high aspect ratio in three dimensional structures that were supported in high density fluorocarbon. Three-dimensional structures with various shapes and sizes were manufactured and remained stable for more than six months. Live/dead and DAPI stainings showed viable cells 24 h after the printing process, as well as after 21 days in culture. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses after 14 and 21 days revealed viable cells with marked matrix production and signs of proliferation. The compressive strength values of the printed gels consequently increased during the two weeks in culture, revealing encouraging results for future applications in regenerative medicine. (paper)

  10. Karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid cells and comparison of chromosomal abnormality rate during second trimester%孕中期羊水细胞染色体核型分析及其异常核型发生率的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月萍; 伍俊萍; 李笑天; 雷彩霞; 徐建忠; 殷民

    2011-01-01

    ,占全部异常核型的35.6%( 138/388),其次为常染色体平衡性结构重排为20.6% (80/388)、嵌合体为12.4% (48/388)、18三体为11.3% (44/388),其他较常见的异常核型包括常染色体非平衡性结构重排和45,X0,各为4.1%(16/388),47,XXY为3.9%(15/388)。(3)父母淋巴细胞核型分析:153个胎儿进行了其父母淋巴细胞的核型分析,并最终确定了胎儿异常核型来源:家族性异常58个,新发生的异常95个。78个胎儿的荧光原位杂交技术诊断结果与G显带核型全部一致,其中2个为21三体。结论不同检查指征孕妇的胎儿异常核型的构成不同;孕中期胎儿异常核型种类繁多,致畸风险与异常核型种类有关。%Objective To investigate the karyotypes of amiotic fluid cells and compare the incidence of chromosomal abnormality as well as to evaluate the clinical significance of abnormal karyotypes. Methods A total of 13 648 pregnant women came to Shanghai Jiai Genetics and IVF Institute, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fuclan University to do amniocentesis from September 1998 to November 2010, and 13 795 amniotic fluid specimens were successfully extracted and cultured, thus 13 795 fetuses received karyotype diagnosis. These fetuses were grouped according to different indications. If maternal age was ≥ 35, the fetuses were grouped into the advanced maternal age group (4065) ; and if maternal serum screening test revealed high-risk of trisomy 18 or trisomy 21, the fetuses were grouped into the high-risk serum screening group (6462) ; and those with abnormal signs of ultrasound screening were grouped into the abnormal ultrasound signs group (1539); and if either of the parents was with chromosome abnormalities, the fetus was grouped into the paternal/maternal abnormality group ( 108 ) ; whereas the remainder were grouped in other factors group ( 1621 ). The amniotic fluid cells were in-situ cultured on coverslips, harvested by conventional G-banded methods

  11. Correlation between meconium-stained amniotic gluid and amniotic infections%羊水粪染及与羊膜腔感染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑俊虎; 郑骆颖; 王大化; 吴方春; 何根华; 翁小芳; 舒雪梅; 高国慧

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical effect of cleaning up respiratory with Ⅲ degree meconium-stained amniotic fluid of the full-term newborns without vigor by using disposable suction tube inserted into the trachea under direct vision of laryngoscope so as to validate the correlation between the meconium-stained amniotic fluid and amniotic infection. METHODS A total of 120 full term newborns without vigor born who were delivered in the obstetrics department from Nov 2010 to Sep 2012 were enrolled in the study. The newborns with Ⅲ degree meconium-stained amniotic fluid were divided into the test group and the control group with 60 cases in each. The time to complete suction, the apgar score at five minutes after birth, ventilation of recovery capsule-mask positive pressure ventilation rate, and recurrence rate of endotracheal intubation were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The time required for completion of once suction was (16. 88 ± 2. 11) s in the test group and (20. 70± 3. 02) s in the control group; the time of concurrent MAS of use of oxygen was (54. 25 ± 21. 23) h and was (99. 75 ± 36. 87) h in the control group; the reoccurrence rate of endotracheal intubation and the incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) were lower in the test group than in the control group, the difference was statistically significant(P<0. 05) ; the difference in the apgar score at five minutes after birth or the rate of chest compression between the two groups was statistically significant; the difference in the IL-6 content in amniotic fluid or inflammatory cell infiltration between the test group and the amniotic fluid group was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION Cleaning up respiratory by using disposable suction tube inserted into the trachea under direct vision of laryngoscope could be faster and more effective and reduce the reoccurrence rate of endotracheal intubation and the incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). There is almost no

  12. Human mesenchymal stem cells - current trends and future prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Imran; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are cells specialized cell, capable of renewing themselves through cell division and can differentiate into multi-lineage cells. These cells are categorized as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adult stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells which can be isolated from human and animal sources. Human MSCs (hMSCs) are the non-haematopoietic, multipotent stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal lineage such as osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes as well ectodermal (neurocytes) and endodermal lineages (hepatocytes). MSCs express cell surface markers like cluster of differentiation (CD)29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105 and lack the expression of CD14, CD34, CD45 and HLA (human leucocyte antigen)-DR. hMSCs for the first time were reported in the bone marrow and till now they have been isolated from various tissues, including adipose tissue, amniotic fluid, endometrium, dental tissues, umbilical cord and Wharton's jelly which harbours potential MSCs. hMSCs have been cultured long-term in specific media without any severe abnormalities. Furthermore, MSCs have immunomodulatory features, secrete cytokines and immune-receptors which regulate the microenvironment in the host tissue. Multilineage potential, immunomodulation and secretion of anti-inflammatory molecules makes MSCs an effective tool in the treatment of chronic diseases. In the present review, we have highlighted recent research findings in the area of hMSCs sources, expression of cell surface markers, long-term in vitro culturing, in vitro differentiation potential, immunomodulatory features, its homing capacity, banking and cryopreservation, its application in the treatment of chronic diseases and its use in clinical trials. PMID:25797907

  13. Amniotic Membrane Transplantation for Conjunctival Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhicong Chen; Jianhua Yan; Huasheng Yang; Zhongyao Wu; Youjian Pang; Shiming Ai; Yuxiang Mao

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the possibility of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for the treatment of conjunctival tumor.Methods: Preserved AMT was performed in 26 patients (26 eyes) with conjunctival tumor, including 9 eyes (34.62%) with malignant tumor (conjunctival malignant melanoma,corneal and conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, conjunctival lymphoma), 17 eyes(65.38%) with benign tumor(conjunctival papilloma, conjunctival dermoid tumor, conjunctival nevus, hemangioma etc.).Result: All the patients are followed up for 1 ~53 months. No acute rejection was observed after preserved AMT. Ideal healing was found in conjunctiva wound.Conclusion: Preserved AMT is a very effective method to repair wound after giant conjunctival tumor operation. Complete removal of tumor and perfect fixation are the key of ocular surface reconstruction.

  14. Oral Rehabilitation for Amniotic Band Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hotwani, Kavita; Sharma, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a congenital disorder caused by entrapment of fetal parts in fibrous amniotic bands while in utero. The syndrome is underdiagnosed and its presentation is variable. The syndrome has been well described in the pediatric, orthopedic and obstetric literature; however, despite the discernable craniomaxillofacial involvement, ABS has not been reported in the dental literature very often. The present report describes a case of a patient with ABS and concomit...

  15. Evolutionary Origin and Diversification of Epidermal Barrier Proteins in Amniotes

    OpenAIRE

    Strasser, Bettina; Mlitz, Veronika; Hermann, Marcela; Rice, Robert H; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Tschachler, Erwin; Eckhart, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of amniotes has involved major molecular innovations in the epidermis. In particular, distinct structural proteins that undergo covalent cross-linking during cornification of keratinocytes facilitate the formation of mechanically resilient superficial cell layers and help to limit water loss to the environment. Special modes of cornification generate amniote-specific skin appendages such as claws, feathers, and hair. In mammals, many protein substrates of cornification are encod...

  16. Fetal stem cells and skeletal muscle regeneration: a therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Piccoli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 40% of the body mass is represented by muscle tissue, which possesses the innate ability to regenerate after damage through the activation of muscle specific stem cell, namely satellite cells. Muscle diseases, in particular chronic degenerative state of skeletal muscle such as dystrophies, lead to a perturbation of the regenerative process, which causes the premature exhaustion of satellite cell reservoir due to continue cycles of degeneration/regeneration. Nowadays, the research is focused on different therapeutic approaches, ranging from gene and cell to pharmacological therapy, but still there is not a definitive cure in particular for genetic muscle disease. Taking this in mind, in this article we will give special consideration to muscle diseases and the use of fetal derived stem cells as new approach for therapy. Cells of fetal origin, from cord blood to placenta and amniotic fluid, can be easily obtained without ethical concern, expanded and differentiated in culture, and possess immunemodulatory properties. The in vivo approach in animal models can be helpful to study the mechanism underneath the operating principle of the stem cell reservoir, namely the niche, which holds great potential to understand the onset of muscle pathologies.

  17. Biocompatible fluorescent nanoparticles for in vivo stem cell tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient application of stem cells to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases requires safe cell tracking to follow stem cell fate over time in the host environment after transplantation. In this work, for the first time, fluorescent and biocompatible methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based nanoparticles (fluoNPs) were synthesized through a free-radical co-polymerization process with a fluorescent macromonomer obtained by linking Rhodamine B and hydroxyethyl methacrylate. We demonstrate that the fluoNPs produced by polymerization of MMA–Rhodamine complexes (1) were efficient for the labeling and tracking of multipotent human amniotic fluid cells (hAFCs); (2) did not alter the main biological features of hAFCs (such as viability, cell growth and metabolic activity); (3) enabled us to determine the longitudinal bio-distribution of hAFCs in different brain areas after graft in the brain ventricles of healthy mice by a direct fluorescence-based technique. The reliability of our approach was furthermore confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging analyses, carried out by incubating hAFCs with both superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and fluoNPs. Our data suggest that these finely tunable and biocompatible fluoNPs can be exploited for the longitudinal tracking of stem cells. (paper)

  18. Allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amniotic membrane contains a multipotential stem cell population and is expected to possess the machinery to regulate immunological reactions. We investigated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (AMSC transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia as a preclinical trial. Methods. Porcine AMSCs were isolated from amniotic membranes obtained by cesarean section just before delivery and were cultured to increase their numbers before transplantation. Chronic myocardial ischemia was induced by implantation of an ameroid constrictor around the left circumflex coronary artery. Four weeks after ischemia induction, nine swine were assigned to undergo either allogeneic AMSC transplantation or normal saline injection. Functional analysis was performed by echocardiography, and histological examinations were carried out by immunohistochemistry 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Results. Echocardiography demonstrated that left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly improved and left ventricular dilatation was well attenuated 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Histological assessment showed a significant reduction in percentage of fibrosis in the AMSC transplantation group. Injected allogeneic green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing AMSCs were identified in the immunocompetent host heart without the use of any immunosuppressants 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry revealed that GFP colocalized with cardiac troponin T and cardiac troponin I. Conclusions. We have demonstrated that allogeneic AMSC transplantation produced histological and functional improvement in the impaired myocardium in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia. The transplanted allogeneic AMSCs survived without the use of any immunosuppressants and gained cardiac phenotype through either their transdifferentiation or cell fusion.

  19. Thyroid hormones and postembryonic development in amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Guillaume; Laudet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In chordates, metamorphosis is a developmental event well described in amphibians in which thyroid hormone triggers this event. Interestingly, among amphibians, several variations upon the eggs/tadpole/frog developmental sequence are observed such as direct development or neoteny. The fact that TH-regulated metamorphosis is conserved in invertebrate chordates such as amphioxus implies that this event is an ancient feature of all vertebrates. This allows us to propose that TH may play an important role in coordinating the postembryonic development of apparently nonmetamorphosing vertebrates such as mammals or sauropsids. Indeed, the observations of thyroid hormone levels in mammals and sauropsids draw interesting parallels with what is observed during amphibian metamorphosis. At the physiological level, the increase of thyroid hormone signaling is required for the normal development particularly for the intestine and the brain. At the behavioral level, a peak of TH often precedes the autonomy of the young from parental care. At the ecological level, offspring with a TH peak close to birth/hatching tends to be precocial young whereas offspring with a TH peak long after birth/hatching tends to be altricial young. Taken together, these observations in amniotes, which are not considered as undergoing metamorphosis during their development, are consistent with the idea of a late developmental step controlled by TH and allowing the accession to the adult ecological niche. Thus, according to this view, at the molecular level all vertebrates undergo a period of remodeling controlled by TH that is reminiscent of metamorphosis. PMID:23347527

  20. Cryopreservation of blood mononuclear leukocytes and stem cells suspended in a large fluid volume. A preclinical model for a blood stem cell bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, T M; Körbling, M; Calvo, W; Bruch, C; Herbst, E

    1977-09-29

    It was the purpose of this study to establish and evaluate a freezing-and-thawing method for preservation of hemopoietic stem cells from the peripheral blood. Blood leukocytes collected by means of an IBM Blood-Cell-Separator were frozen in plastic bags using 10% DMSO and controlled cooling rates. Thawing was performed rapidly, and DMSO was diluted and removed prior to the in-vitro and in-vivo assays. The mean recovery of mononuclear cells collected from 82 leukaphereses was 86%. To assess the recovery of cryopreserved hemopoietic stem cells, the soft agar culture method adapted for the dog was used. There was no significant difference in the CFUc recovery per 1 X 10(6) mononuclear cells or in per leukapheresis after different cryopreservation times (1--6 and 7--27 months). To evaluate the hemopoietic repopulation capability of cryopreserved blood stem cells, leukapheresis-derived leukocytes were transfused into 1200 R whole body x-irradiated dogs. The hemopoietic repopulation pattern at day 10 after transfusion of comparable numbers of fresh or frozen leukocytes was not significantly different, as measured in bone marrow smears and sections and by granulocyte concentration in the peripheral blood. PMID:912104

  1. Therapeutic effect of human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation into the lateral ventricle of hemiparkinsonian rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xin-xin; XUE Shou-ru; DONG Wan-li; Kong Yan

    2009-01-01

    cells in the substantia nigra of the HAEC group and the NS group were decreased compared to the untreated group (P <0.01).Dopamine and DOPAC levels in the striatum of the HAECs group increased significantly compared to the NS group (P <0.05). Homovanillic acid (HVA) levels in the striatum of the HAECs group increased significantly compared to the NS group (P<0.01). In addition dopamine, DOPAC, and HVA levels in the striatum and dopamine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of the HAECs group and the NS group were decreased compared to the untreated group (P <0.05).Conclusions Human amniotic epithelial cells could be used to ameliorate the rotational asymmetry induced by apomorphine of the PD models. This could have been due to the increased content of dopamine and its metabolic products, DOPAC and HVA, in the striatum in the PD models.

  2. Elaboration of amniotic membrane dressing dried by air and irradiated - Peruvian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to prepare dressings from the amniotic membrane to be used in cases of skin damage principally due to superficial and intermediate second-degree burns. The amnion is a transparent membrane that lines the chorion. It is resistant and rich in collagen. Due to these characteristics it can be well used as biological dressing as it diminishes the loss of fluids, electrolytes and proteins, it also protects the growing epithelium and adheres well to the surface of the wound, improves mobility of the patient, diminishing pain and stimulating neovascularization. The ISN-IPEN Tissue Bank promoted by IAEA has processed amniotic membrane since July 1997. Initially dressings were prepared using antibiotics, after IAEA training at the MINT of Malaysia, it is processed dried by air, lyophylized and in both presentations, sterilized by gamma-rays. Amniotic membranes are procured from Lima Maternity. Tissues must comply with VDRL, HIV, Hepatitis B and C exclusion tests. The process is held in a laminar flow hood and amnion already separated from the chorion is washed with sterile distilled water, a solution of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite, and normal saline. Then it is cut into appropriate sizes and double packed in PE films. The dressings are then carried to the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy for irradiation, depending on the number of samples either irradiated with gamma-rays at the Gammacell 220 or at the Irradiation Facility located in Santa Anita. The delivered dose is 25 kGy. The product is only released if it complies with the end product quality controls. Meanwhile, microbiological tests are carried out during all the processing stages, in order to monitor the microbial load during production. In conclusion we can state that dressings prepared as above mentioned have the following advantages: not complicated preparation; reliable and safe for clinical use; diminish infection rates and days spent in the hospital; easy to storage; and can be

  3. Endocrine activity of extraembryonic membranes extends beyond placental amniotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori C Albergotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During development, all amniotes (mammals, reptiles, and birds form extraembryonic membranes, which regulate gas and water exchange, remove metabolic wastes, provide shock absorption, and transfer maternally derived nutrients. In viviparous (live-bearing amniotes, both extraembryonic membranes and maternal uterine tissues contribute to the placenta, an endocrine organ that synthesizes, transports, and metabolizes hormones essential for development. Historically, endocrine properties of the placenta have been viewed as an innovation of placental amniotes. However, an endocrine role of extraembryonic membranes has not been investigated in oviparous (egg-laying amniotes despite similarities in their basic structure, function, and shared evolutionary ancestry. In this study, we ask whether the oviparous chorioallantoic membrane (CAM of chicken (Gallus gallus has the capability to synthesize and receive signaling of progesterone, a major placental steroid hormone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified mRNA expression of key steroidogenic enzymes involved in progesterone synthesis and found that 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts pregnenolone to progesterone exhibited a 464 fold increase in the CAM from day 8 to day 18 of embryonic development (F(5, 68 = 89.282, p<0.0001. To further investigate progesterone synthesis, we performed explant culture and found that the CAM synthesizes progesterone in vitro in the presence of a steroid precursor. Finally, we quantified mRNA expression and performed protein immunolocalization of the progesterone receptor in the CAM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, our data indicate that the chick CAM is steroidogenic and has the capability to both synthesize progesterone and receive progesterone signaling. These findings represent a paradigm shift in evolutionary reproductive biology by suggesting that endocrine activity of extraembryonic membranes is not a novel characteristic of

  4. Using Amniotic Membrane as Wound Covering After Cesarean Section Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early mobilization and good wound operation healing are the other aim of all treatment for cesarean section operation. Especially for wound healing we can use amniotic membrane which is soft, easy to shape wound surface, satisfactory adhesive properties, good elasticity and sufficient transparency which allows wound control without secondary redressing. From July 1999 until December 1999 total of 196 patients undergoing cesarean section with amnion as would covering were evaluated for injection of amnion, sign of wound injection, and duration of wound healing. Amniotic membrane gives best results in wound healing, no sing of rejection and there is no different results between emergency operation and elective operation, clean and dirty operation

  5. 人羊膜负载猪骨髓间充质干细胞体外生长的形态特点%Morphological study on the growth of human amniotic membrane loaded with porcine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国和; 艾国平; 汪代杰; 邹仲敏; 冉新泽; 王军平; 李蓉; 粟永萍; 程天民

    2007-01-01

    充质干细胞在人羊膜的基质面生长4 d切面,骨髓间充质干细胞在人羊膜上大多呈双层生长,细胞呈纺锤状,胞核两端胞浆突起较长,互相重叠,染色质以常染色质为主,核仁明显,可见丰富细胞器,如粗面内质网,线粒体.结论:人羊膜对骨髓间充质干细胞有明显的促增殖作用,骨髓间充质干细胞可以人羊膜为载体在体外进行培养,人羊膜是骨髓间充质干细胞的良好载体.%BACKGROUND: Human amniotic membrane (HAM) contains various ingredents such as collagen, glycoprotein,proteoglycan, integrin and laminated body, and so on, and expresses many kinds of growth factors and mRNA-associated proteins. And these ingredents can supply abundant nutriments for cellular proliferation and differentiation, and benefit cells to grow and propagate. Whether or not HAM can load porcine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to well grow on it deserves to be further investigated.OBJECTIVE: To set up a method of tissue engineering of human amniotic membrane loading porcine BMSCs and observe the morphological characteristics of growth and proliferation of BMSCs seeded on HAM.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation.SETTING: State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, General Institute of Combined Injuries, Academy of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: This experiment was carried out in the State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury,General Institute of Combined Injuries, Academy of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between January and November 2003. Three Guizhou minipigs of either gender, aged 2 to 3 months, weighing from 6 to 8 kg, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. Main reagent:ISCOVE'S modified DULBECCO'S medium (IMDM) culture medium (Hyclone, USA); high-quality fetal bovine serum PAA (Germany

  6. 羊膜带综合征相关畸形的相关因素、诊断及处理结果分析%Amniotic band syndrome deformity related factors, diagnosis, and treatment results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莉; 黄桂芳; 黄贞; 陆启升

    2013-01-01

    , abdominal wall defect edge for amniotic membrane gradually to cutaneous squamous epithelial migration ( amniotic - ectoderm transition zone). Another example is a simple meningoencephalocele malformations, all cases of B ultrasound imaging in amniotic fluid can be seen floating band echo, the part attached to the fetus; amniotic band adhesions of fetal limb portion of visible deformity deformity, often to scan the amniotic band echo & the adhesion. Conclusion: ABS mainly for outer surface of tissue and organ defects; involvement of tissue and organ because of its occurrence in the critical period, because of the amniotic sac and amniotic membrane rupture with adhesions interference and teratogenicity j the severity of the deformity and range depends on the amnion rupture time and site. ABS prevention, pregnancy trimester routine ultrasound screening, early diagnosis, early intervention.

  7. Chronic Liver Disease: Stem Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal MA Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic liver diseases (CLD affect hundreds of millions of patientsworldwide. Stem Cells (SCs therapy to treat chronic liver diseasesis resorted and is considered as the dream of the future. AlthoughSCs are a promising means for treatment of liver diseases, studiesare still at the beginning of this era. SCs are undifferentiatedcells capable of renewing themselves throughout their life and ofgenerating one or more types of differentiated cells. Different typesof SCs with hepatic differentiation potential are theoretically eligiblefor liver cell replacement. These include Embryonic and fetal liverSCs, induced pluripotent SCs, hepatoblasts, annex SCs (pluripotentSCs obtained from umbilical cord and umbilical cord blood,placenta and amniotic fluid, and adult SCs, such hepatic progenitorcells, hematopoietic SCs, and mesenchymal stem cell. The optimalSCs delivery route should be easy to perform, less invasive andtraumatic, minimum side effects, and with high cells survival rate.Liver SCs can be transplanted through several routes: Intraperitonealand percutaneous intrahepatic artery catheterization in acute liverfailure, and umbilical vein catheterization, percutaneous intrahepaticroute, and portal vein or intrahepatic artery catheterization inmetabolic liver diseases. Whatever the source or delivery route ofSCs, how they can be manipulated for therapeutic interventionsin a variety of hepatic diseases is of course of great interest infuture studies. Although all clinical trials to date have shown someimprovement in liver function and CD34+ cells have been usedsafely for bone marrow transplantation for over 20 years, onlyrandomized controlled clinical trials will be able to fully assess thepotential clinical benefit of adult SCs therapy for patients with CLD.

  8. Differentiation factors that influence neuronal markers expression in vitro from human amniotic epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Niknejad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of neural cells from embryonic stem cells is influenced by several growth factors. Amniotic epithelial cells (AECs share many of the same characteristics as embryonic stem cells, and therefore those factors may similarly affect the derivation of neural cells from AECs. In this study, we examined the differentiation of neural cells in vitro from AECs following AECs treatment with retinoic acid (RA, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF as well as investigation of bFGF withdrawal on neuronal differentiation. We also studied whether blocking bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling using its antagonist, noggin, affects the derivation of neuronal cells from AECs. The effects of serum on the rate of neural markers expression were also examined. Analysis of AECs derived neurons was performed at some neural markers expression level by immunocytochemistry. All cultures treated with noggin showed the higher levels of neural markers expression than noggin free cultures. Combined treatment with bFGF and RA showed the highest level of neural markers in all treatment groups with or without noggin. bFGF withdrawal did not promote expression of neural markers, while its maintenance increased the expression of these markers. Serum-free condition decreased the viability of cells but increased the rate of neural markers expression. These results show the capability of AECs to express neural cell markers and this ability is affected by some factors including serum, noggin, bFGF and RA.

  9. Transdifferentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells into acinar cells using a double-chamber system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gui-Lin; Zhang, Ni-Ni; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Yao, Li; Zhao, Yu-Jie; Wang, Yu-Ying

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the transdifferentiation of stem cells from human amnion tissue into functional acinar cells (ACs) using a co-culture system. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) were isolated from amnion tissue by mechanical mincing and enzymatic digestion. After primary culture, the phenotype of the cells was identified by flow cytometry (FCM) and immunocytochemical staining. hAECs were co-cultured with submandibular gland acinar cells of SD rats using a double-chamber system. The expression of α-amylase was determined by immunocytochemical method and fluorescent real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after induction for 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Digestion with trypsin is an effective method for isolating hAECs from amnion tissue. These cells were positive for CD29 and CK19 and weakly positive for CD44 and α-amylase. Within 2 weeks, α-amylase in hAECs increased with induction time. The expression of α-amylase in hAECs was increased 3.38-fold after co-culturing for 1 week. This ratio increased to 6.6-fold, and these cells were positive for mucins, after co-culturing for 2 weeks. hAECs possess the potential to differentiate into ACs in vitro. They might be a stem cell resource for clinical applications of cell replacement therapy in salivary gland dysfunction diseases. PMID:22800093

  10. Tissue engineering and the use of stem/progenitor cells for airway epithelium repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Roomans

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem/progenitor cells can be used to repair defects in the airway wall, resulting from e.g., tumors, trauma, tissue reactions following long-time intubations, or diseases that are associated with epithelial damage. Several potential sources of cells for airway epithelium have been identified. These can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of endogenous progenitor cells present in the respiratory tract. This group can be subdivided according to location into (a a ductal cell type in the submucosal glands of the proximal trachea, (b basal cells in the intercartilaginous zones of the lower trachea and bronchi, (c variant Clara cells (Clarav-cells in the bronchioles and (d at the junctions between the bronchioles and the alveolar ducts, and (e alveolar type II cells. This classification of progenitor cell niches is, however, controversial. The second group consists of exogenous stem cells derived from other tissues in the body. This second group can be subdivided into: (a embryonic stem (ES cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, or amniotic fluid stem cells, (b side-population cells from bone marrow or epithelial stem cells present in bone marrow or circulation and (c fat-derived mesenchymal cells. Airway epithelial cells can be co-cultured in a system that includes a basal lamina equivalent, extracellular factors from mesenchymal fibroblasts, and in an air-liquid interface system. Recently, spheroid-based culture systems have been developed. Several clinical applications have been suggested: cystic fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary hypertension. Clinical applications so far are few, but include subglottic stenosis, tracheomalacia, bronchiomalacia, and emphysema.

  11. Activation of regulatory T cells during inflammatory response is not an exclusive property of stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Hendrik Gosemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sepsis and systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome (SIRS remain major causes for fatalities on intensive care units despite up-to-date therapy. It is well accepted that stem cells have immunomodulatory properties during inflammation and sepsis, including the activation of regulatory T cells and the attenuation of distant organ damage. Evidence from recent work suggests that these properties may not be exclusively attributed to stem cells. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory potency of cellular treatment during acute inflammation in a model of sublethal endotoxemia and to investigate the hypothesis that immunomodulations by cellular treatment during inflammatory response is not stem cell specific. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Endotoxemia was induced via intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in wild type mice (C3H/HeN. Mice were treated with either vital or homogenized amniotic fluid stem cells (AFS and sacrificed for specimen collection 24 h after LPS injection. Endpoints were plasma cytokine levels (BD™ Cytometric Bead Arrays, T cell subpopulations (flow-cytometry and pulmonary neutrophil influx (immunohistochemistry. To define stem cell specific effects, treatment with either vital or homogenized human-embryonic-kidney-cells (HEK was investigated in a second subset of experiments. Mice treated with homogenized AFS cells showed significantly increased percentages of regulatory T cells and Interleukin-2 as well as decreased amounts of pulmonary neutrophils compared to saline-treated controls. These results could be reproduced in mice treated with vital HEK cells. No further differences were observed between plasma cytokine levels of endotoxemic mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results revealed that both AFS and HEK cells modulate cellular immune response and distant organ damage during sublethal endotoxemia. The observed effects support the hypothesis, that immunomodulations are not

  12. Comparison of viscoelasticity between normal human sciatic nerve and amniotic membrane★

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Donghui; ZHAO, CONGHAI; Ma, Huili; Wei, Jun; Li, Dongyuan

    2013-01-01

    Sciatic nerve tissue was obtained from the gluteus maximus muscle segment of normal human cadavers and amniotic membrane tissue was obtained from healthy human puerperant placentas. Both tissues were analyzed for their stress relaxation and creep properties to determine suitability for transplantation applications. Human amniotic membrane and sciatic nerve tissues had similar tendencies for stress relaxation and creep properties. The stress value of the amniotic membrane stress relaxation gro...

  13. Amniotic membrane as a battlefield dressing for the ocular surface

    OpenAIRE

    Clare, Gerald Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The use of amniotic membrane (AM) as a dressing for ocular surface injuries has attracted the interest of the military ophthalmological community. First applied in the 1930s, the tissue is widely used today, although clinical indications for treatment are incompletely defined. While AM is most commonly stored frozen and thawed before use, dried AM is preferred for logistical reasons. Optimal preservation of the tissue is necessary to preserve its quality. The effect of drying on the physical ...

  14. Evo-Devo of Amniote Integuments and Appendages

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ping; Hou, Lianhai; Plikus, Maksim; Hughes, Michael; Scehnet, Jeffrey; Suksaweang, Sanong; Widelitz, Randall B; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Integuments form the boundary between an organism and the environment. The evolution of novel developmental mechanisms in integuments and appendages allows animals to live in diverse ecological environments. Here we focus on amniotes. The major achievement for reptile skin is an adaptation to the land with the formation of a successful barrier. The stratum corneum enables this barrier to prevent water loss from the skin and allowed amphibian/reptile ancestors to go onto the land. Overlapping ...

  15. Radiosensitivity of angiogenic and mitogenic factors in human amniotic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amniotic membrane as a temporary biological dressing remains as a beneficial and cost-effective means of treating burns in developing countries. This medical application is attributed mainly to placental structural and biochemical features that are important for maintaining proper embryonic development. Since fresh amnions are nevertheless for straightforward clinical use and for preservation, radiation-sterilization is been performed to improve the safety of this placental material. However, like any other sterilization method, gamma-radiation may induce physical and chemical changes that may influence the biological property of the material. Thus, the aim of this study is to compare the effects of various levels of radiation-sterilization protocols for human amnions on angiogenic (neovascularization) and epithelial-mitogenic activities, both of which are physiological processes fundamental to wound healing. Water-soluble extract of non-irradiated amnions demonstrates a strong stimulatory effect on both cell proliferation and angiogenesis. No change in biological activity is seen in amnions irradiated at 25 kGy, the sterilization dose used by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) for the production of radiation-sterilized human amniotic membranes (RSHAM). However, it appears that amniotic angiogenic factors are more radiosensitive than its mitogenic components, evident from the depressed vascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) exposed to 35 kGy-irradiated amnions. The dose of 35 kGy is at present the medical sterilization dose used at the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw (Poland) for the preparation of their amnion allografts. (Authors)

  16. Amniotic Membrane Transplantation for Exuberant Bleb Following Filtration Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Hsin Chuang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of antimetabolites in filtration surgery, cystic, large, leaking blebs often lead tocomplications. We report a case of glaucoma that received amniotic membrane transplantationfor repairing the exuberant bleb. This female patient had a history of several eye surgeries,including a scleral buckle and cyclocryotherapy for one eye and the other received filteringsurgery. The latter had been revised once with autologous conjunctival advancementafter an episode of bleb leakage. The large bleb, overlaying the cornea 3 mm from the limbus,had caused corneal erosion beneath the bleb and the patient suffered burning sensations.Further conjunctival advancement of the exuberant bleb is difficult to achive, because it hadbeen revised once with this treatment. Amniotic membrane was used for further reconstructionafter the excision of the pre-existing bleb. A normal intraocular pressure was regained.The symptom of burning sensations subsequently subsided. A ten-month follow-up was conducted.Amniotic membrane transplantation is a feasible option for exuberant or late onsetbleb leakage, to prevent further destruction of ocular surface tissue and to maintain theintraocular pressure.

  17. Photo-cross-linking of amniotic membranes for limbal epithelial cell cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we developed photo-cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) as a limbal stem cell niche. After ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for varying time periods, the biological tissues were studied by determinations of cross-linking structure, degradability, and nutrient permeation ability. Our results showed that the number of cross-links per unit mass of AM significantly increased with increasing illumination time from 5 to 50 min. However, the cross-link formation was inhibited by longer irradiation time (i.e., 150 min), probably due to the scission of tissue collagen chains through irradiation. The biological stability and matrix permeability of photo-cross-linked AM materials strongly depended on their cross-linking densities affected by the UV irradiation. In vitro biocompatibility studies including cell viability and pro-inflammatory gene expression analyses demonstrated that, irrespective of the irradiation time employed, the physically cross-linked biological tissues exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and similar interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels. The data clearly indicate that these AM matrices do not cause potential harm to the corneal epithelial cells. After the growth of limbal epithelial cells (LECs) on AM substrates, Western blot analyses were conducted to examine the expression of ABCG2. It was found that the ability of UV-irradiated AM to maintain the undifferentiated precursor cell phenotype was significantly enhanced with increasing extent of photo-cross-linking. In summary, the UV irradiation time may have a profound influence on the fabrication of photo-cross-linked AM matrices for LEC cultivation. - Highlights: • We report the development of photo-cross-linked AM as a limbal stem cell niche. • Cross-linked structure of tissue materials was controlled by UV irradiation time. • Biostability and matrix permeability of AM depended on cross-linking density. • All the studied photo-cross-linked AM showed good in vitro biocompatibility.

  18. Photo-cross-linking of amniotic membranes for limbal epithelial cell cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we developed photo-cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) as a limbal stem cell niche. After ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for varying time periods, the biological tissues were studied by determinations of cross-linking structure, degradability, and nutrient permeation ability. Our results showed that the number of cross-links per unit mass of AM significantly increased with increasing illumination time from 5 to 50 min. However, the cross-link formation was inhibited by longer irradiation time (i.e., 150 min), probably due to the scission of tissue collagen chains through irradiation. The biological stability and matrix permeability of photo-cross-linked AM materials strongly depended on their cross-linking densities affected by the UV irradiation. In vitro biocompatibility studies including cell viability and pro-inflammatory gene expression analyses demonstrated that, irrespective of the irradiation time employed, the physically cross-linked biological tissues exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and similar interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels. The data clearly indicate that these AM matrices do not cause potential harm to the corneal epithelial cells. After the growth of limbal epithelial cells (LECs) on AM substrates, Western blot analyses were conducted to examine the expression of ABCG2. It was found that the ability of UV-irradiated AM to maintain the undifferentiated precursor cell phenotype was significantly enhanced with increasing extent of photo-cross-linking. In summary, the UV irradiation time may have a profound influence on the fabrication of photo-cross-linked AM matrices for LEC cultivation. - Highlights: • We report the development of photo-cross-linked AM as a limbal stem cell niche. • Cross-linked structure of tissue materials was controlled by UV irradiation time. • Biostability and matrix permeability of AM depended on cross-linking density. • All the studied photo-cross-linked AM showed good in vitro biocompatibility.

  19. X-ray microanalysis in STEM of short-term physico-chemical reactions at bioactive glass particles / biological fluids interface. Determination of O/Si atomic ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet, V; Michel, J; Wortham, L; Laurent-Maquin, D; Balossier, G

    2004-01-01

    Short-term physico-chemical reactions at the interface between bioactive glass particles and biological fluids are studied and we focus our attention on the measurements of O/Si atomic ratio. The studied bioactive glass is in the SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-K2O-Al2O3-MgO system. The elemental analysis is performed at the submicrometer scale by STEM associated with EDXS and EELS. We previously developed an EDXS quantification method based on the ratio method and taking into account local absorption corrections. In this way, we use EELS data to determine, by an iterative process, the local mass thickness which is an essential parameter to correct absorption in EDXS spectra. After different delays of immersion of bioactive glass particles in a simulated biological solution, results show the formation of different surface layers at the bioactive glass periphery. Before one day of immersion, we observe the presence of an already shown (Si,O,Al) rich layer at the periphery. In this paper, we demonstrate that a thin electron...

  20. Human adult stem cells from diverse origins: an overview from multiparametric immunophenotyping to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Bruna R; Parreira, Ricardo C; Fonseca, Emerson A; Amaya, Maria J; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Lacerda, Samyra M S N; Lalwani, Pritesh; Santos, Anderson K; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Kihara, Alexandre H; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells are known for their capacity to self-renew and differentiate into at least one specialized cell type. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated initially from bone marrow but are now known to exist in all vascularized organ or tissue in adults. MSCs are particularly relevant for therapy due to their simplicity of isolation and cultivation. The International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) has proposed a set of standards to define hMSCs for laboratory investigations and preclinical studies: adherence to plastic in standard culture conditions; in vitro differentiation into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondroblasts; specific surface antigen expression in which ≥95% of the cells express the antigens recognized by CD105, CD73, and CD90, with the same cells lacking (≤2% positive) the antigens CD45, CD34, CD14 or CD11b, CD79a or CD19, and HLA-DR. In this review we will take an historical overview of how umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, adipose-derived, placental and amniotic fluid, and menstrual blood stem cells, the major sources of human MSC, can be obtained, identified and how they are being used in clinical trials to cure and treat a very broad range of conditions, including heart, hepatic, and neurodegenerative diseases. An overview of protocols for differentiation into hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, neuronal, adipose, chondrocytes, and osteoblast cells are highlighted. We also discuss a new source of stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) and some pathways, which are common to MSCs in maintaining their pluripotent state. PMID:24700575

  1. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M R; Kemp, Matthew W; Hornef, Mathias W; Payne, Matthew S; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P; Janssen, Leon E W; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 10(7) colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3(+) lymphocytes, MPO(+) cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  2. To research application of the reforming of amniotic cells culture on the methods in prenatal diagnosis%改良羊水细胞培养方法在产前诊断中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向文秀

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究改良羊水细胞培养法在产前诊断中的应用.方法 采用改良多种处理方式的经典羊水细胞培养法和原位培养法对280例孕16-32周的孕妇进行羊水产前诊断.结果 成功率99.7%,培养收获时间5-7天,最短收获5天,最长7天.有效的细胞染色体核型>60个/例,发现异常核型15例,染色体异常栓出率5.4%.结论 两种改良羊水细胞培养技术,培养成功率高,细胞培养时间短,可供分析染色体核型多,培养适用范围宽,可满足临床产前诊断的需要.%objective: To research application of the reforming of amniotic fluid cells culture in different methods in prenatal diagnosis. Methods: 280 samples of amniotic fluid from pregnant women during 16 -32th -week gestation were cultured in the reforming of diverse ways to deal with of amniotic cell culture in classical method of amniotic fluid cell culture and method of situ cultivation. Results: The successful rate was 99. 7%. Culture Collection time: 5 -7days, the shortest time: 5 days, The most time: 7days. Effective karyotypes in each case were more than the 60. Discovered 15 cases of abnormal karyotype. 5.4% rate of chromosomal abnormalities detected. Conclusion: The reforming of two amniotic fluid cell culture techniques were superior than the classical method of amniotic fluid cell culture in training success rate, cell culture time, providing the number of analysis of karyotype and training scope. They can meet the needs of clinical prenatal diagnosis.

  3. Effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the functional characteristics of amniotic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation viz. 25, 36 and 50 kGy on the chemical and functional characteristics of the amniotic membrane was studied. The change in the chemical structure of amniotic membranes at high doses of gamma irradiation was evaluated by means of Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy. The degradation of amnion on irradiation with gamma rays could produce a relative variation in IR absorption troughs. This kind of variation was absent in the samples irradiated to doses of 25, 36 and 50 kGy indicating no qualitative change in the material property of amnion. No significant differences in the water absorption capacity and water vapour transmission rate of amniotic membranes irradiated to different doses were observed. Impermeability of the amniotic membranes to different microorganisms was also not affected at high doses of gamma radiation. Gamma irradiation at doses of 25-50 kGy did not evoke undesirable changes in the functional properties of the amniotic membrane

  4. Evolutionary origin and diversification of epidermal barrier proteins in amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Bettina; Mlitz, Veronika; Hermann, Marcela; Rice, Robert H; Eigenheer, Richard A; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Tschachler, Erwin; Eckhart, Leopold

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of amniotes has involved major molecular innovations in the epidermis. In particular, distinct structural proteins that undergo covalent cross-linking during cornification of keratinocytes facilitate the formation of mechanically resilient superficial cell layers and help to limit water loss to the environment. Special modes of cornification generate amniote-specific skin appendages such as claws, feathers, and hair. In mammals, many protein substrates of cornification are encoded by a cluster of genes, termed the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC). To provide a basis for hypotheses about the evolution of cornification proteins, we screened for homologs of the EDC in non-mammalian vertebrates. By comparative genomics, de novo gene prediction and gene expression analyses, we show that, in contrast to fish and amphibians, the chicken and the green anole lizard have EDC homologs comprising genes that are specifically expressed in the epidermis and in skin appendages. Our data suggest that an important component of the cornified protein envelope of mammalian keratinocytes, that is, loricrin, has originated in a common ancestor of modern amniotes, perhaps during the acquisition of a fully terrestrial lifestyle. Moreover, we provide evidence that the sauropsid-specific beta-keratins have evolved as a subclass of EDC genes. Based on the comprehensive characterization of the arrangement, exon-intron structures and conserved sequence elements of EDC genes, we propose new scenarios for the evolutionary origin of epidermal barrier proteins via fusion of neighboring S100A and peptidoglycan recognition protein genes, subsequent loss of exons and highly divergent sequence evolution. PMID:25169930

  5. Amniotic epithelial cells from the human placenta potently suppress a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han Liu

    Full Text Available Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC have stem cell-like features and immunomodulatory properties. Here we show that hAEC significantly suppressed splenocyte proliferation in vitro and potently attenuated a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Central nervous system (CNS CD3(+ T cell and F4/80(+ monocyte/macrophage infiltration and demyelination were significantly reduced with hAEC treatment. Besides the known secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, we report the novel finding that hAEC utilize transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β for immunosuppression. Neutralization of TGF-β or PGE2 in splenocyte proliferation assays significantly reduced hAEC-induced suppression. Splenocytes from hAEC-treated mice showed a Th2 cytokine shift with significantly elevated IL-5 production. While transferred CFSE-labeled hAEC could be detected in the lung, none were identified in the CNS or in lymphoid organs. This is the first report documenting the therapeutic effect of hAEC in a MS-like model and suggest that hAEC may have potential for use as therapy for MS.

  6. Cell source-dependent in vivo immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the bone marrow and synovial fluid of minipigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won-Jae [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hah, Young-Sool [Biomedical Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ock, Sun-A. [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon 441-706, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Hoon; Jeon, Ryong-Hoon; Park, Ji-Sung [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Il [Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Na-Young [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 4S7 (Canada); Rho, Gyu-Jin [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Lim, E-mail: sllee@gnu.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    The in vitro differentiation and immunosuppressive capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovial fluid (SF-MSCs) and bone marrow extract (BM-MSCs) in an isogenic background of minipigs were comparatively analyzed in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The proliferation capacity and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct3/4 and Sox2) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in SF-MSCs than in BM-MSCs. The differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into adipocytes, osteocytes and neurocytes was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of BM-MSCs, and the differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into chondrocytes was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of BM-MSCs. Systemic injection of BM- and SF-MSCs significantly (P<0.05) ameliorated the clinical symptoms of CIA mice, with SF-MSCs having significantly (P<0.05) higher clinical and histopathological recovery scores than BM-MSCs. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive properties of SF-MSCs in CIA mice were associated with increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, and decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and osteoclast-related sRANKL. In conclusion, SF-MSCs exhibited eminent pluripotency and differentiation capacity into chondrocytes, addition to substantial in vivo immunosuppressive capacity by elevating IL-10 and reducing IL-1β levels in CIA mice. - Highlights: • Immunosuppressive capacity of BM-, SM-, and SF-MSCs was evaluated in an RA model. • Proliferation, pluripotency and chondrogenic differentiation capacity were higher in SF-MSCs. • SF-MSCs exhibited improved therapeutic effects than BM-MSCs. • SF-MSCs may have applications as immunosuppressive therapy in autoimmune diseases.

  7. Cell source-dependent in vivo immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the bone marrow and synovial fluid of minipigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vitro differentiation and immunosuppressive capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovial fluid (SF-MSCs) and bone marrow extract (BM-MSCs) in an isogenic background of minipigs were comparatively analyzed in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The proliferation capacity and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct3/4 and Sox2) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in SF-MSCs than in BM-MSCs. The differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into adipocytes, osteocytes and neurocytes was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of BM-MSCs, and the differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into chondrocytes was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of BM-MSCs. Systemic injection of BM- and SF-MSCs significantly (P<0.05) ameliorated the clinical symptoms of CIA mice, with SF-MSCs having significantly (P<0.05) higher clinical and histopathological recovery scores than BM-MSCs. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive properties of SF-MSCs in CIA mice were associated with increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, and decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and osteoclast-related sRANKL. In conclusion, SF-MSCs exhibited eminent pluripotency and differentiation capacity into chondrocytes, addition to substantial in vivo immunosuppressive capacity by elevating IL-10 and reducing IL-1β levels in CIA mice. - Highlights: • Immunosuppressive capacity of BM-, SM-, and SF-MSCs was evaluated in an RA model. • Proliferation, pluripotency and chondrogenic differentiation capacity were higher in SF-MSCs. • SF-MSCs exhibited improved therapeutic effects than BM-MSCs. • SF-MSCs may have applications as immunosuppressive therapy in autoimmune diseases

  8. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

  9. Amniotic membrane transplantation for porous sphere orbital implant exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study is aimed at describing the clinical outcome ofamniotic membrane transplantation for exposure of porous sphere implants. Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive cases of porous sphere orbital implant exposure was carried out. Eight cases were presented between May 2004 and Oct. 2006 (5 males, 3 females; mean age 44.5 years). Six had enucleation and two had evisceration. Exposure occurred in two primary and six secondary. Orbital implant diameter was 22 mm in seven cases and 20 mm in one case. Six patients are with hydroxyapatite and two with high-density porous polyethylene (Medpor) orbital implants. The mean time from implantation to exposure was 1.1 months (range 0.8~2 months). All patients required surgical intervention. Results: The time of follow-up ranged from 3.0 to 28.0 months (mean 16.5 months). Amniotic membrane grafting successfully closed the defect without re-exposure in all of these patients. The grafts were left bare with a mean time to conjunctiva of about 1 month (range 0.8~1.5 months). Conclusion: Exposed porous sphere implants were treated successfully with amniotic membrane graft in all of patients. The graft is easy to harvest. This technique is useful, dose not lead to prolonged socket inflammation and infection, and it is valuable application extensively.

  10. Prey processing in amniotes: biomechanical and behavioral patterns of food reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, S M; McBrayer, L D; White, T D

    2001-03-01

    In this paper we examine the biomechanics of prey processing behavior in the amniotes. Whether amniotes swallow prey items whole or swallow highly processed slurries or boluses of food, they share a common biomechanical system where hard surfaces (teeth or beaks) are brought together on articulated jaws by the actions of adductor muscles to grasp and process food. How have amniotes modified this basic system to increase the chewing efficiency of the system? To address this question we first examine the primitive condition for prey processing representative of many of the past and present predatory amniotes. Because herbivory is expected to be related to improved prey processing in the jaws we review patterns of food processing mechanics in past and present herbivores. Herbivory has appeared numerous times in amniotes and several solutions to the task of chewing plant matter have appeared. Birds have abandoned jaw chewing in favor of a new way to chew--with the gut--so we will detour from the jaws to examine the appearance of gut chewing in the archosaurs. We will then fill in the gaps among amniote taxa with a look at some new data on patterns of prey processing behavior and jaw mechanics in lizards. Finally, we examine evolutionary patterns of amniote feeding mechanism and how correlates of chewing relate to the need to increase the efficiency of prey processing in order to facilitate increased metabolic rate and activity. PMID:11246036

  11. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  12. Biomechanical assays amniotic membrane preserved in glycerol correlating with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernando Augusto N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Martino Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: fernandonevessoares@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energetias Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Amnion or amniotic membranes (AM) are interchangeable terms used in the literature being internal part of the fetal membranes, non-vascular and multicellular tissue. The amnion has been widely used as a graft ophthalmic surgical as well as carrier substrate stem cell tissue equivalent for ocular surface reconstruction. The AM reduces scar formation and inflammation on the ocular surface, promotes epithelization also been used as a biological bandage covering the wound or burns, reducing dehydration and allowing regeneration of these areas. The amnion has usually 0.02 to 0.5 mm thick and consists of five subsequent layers: epithelium, basement membrane, compact layer, fibroblast layer and spongy layer. The mechanical strength from the membrane structure as well as the elasticity are factors attractive to the use of amnion as a surgical graft. Higher levels of rigidity and strength may improve the graft resistance necessary to resist the stress induced during growth of the new tissue formed. The amniotic membrane is obtained at elective caesarean section and subsequently, under sterile conditions, sectioned and separated from chorion and placenta, and free blood clots. The serological tests are done at the time of collection of tissue and 6 months after delivery to confirm the results. There are different methods for storing MA in tissue banks as fresh, high concentrations of glycerol, among others. The use of fresh membrane has some limitations due to the need to rapid use and high risk of contamination, however the amniotic membrane in glycerol has antiviral and antibacterial property which is dependent on the concentration, time and temperature. The AM used in transplants must be sterile to prevent the transmission of any disease. Although sterilization by radiation is an effective procedure, it can interfere on the membrane structure. Thus, verification of potential changes caused by ionizing radiation in amnion was made using the tensile test by calculating the

  13. Biomechanical assays amniotic membrane preserved in glycerol correlating with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amnion or amniotic membranes (AM) are interchangeable terms used in the literature being internal part of the fetal membranes, non-vascular and multicellular tissue. The amnion has been widely used as a graft ophthalmic surgical as well as carrier substrate stem cell tissue equivalent for ocular surface reconstruction. The AM reduces scar formation and inflammation on the ocular surface, promotes epithelization also been used as a biological bandage covering the wound or burns, reducing dehydration and allowing regeneration of these areas. The amnion has usually 0.02 to 0.5 mm thick and consists of five subsequent layers: epithelium, basement membrane, compact layer, fibroblast layer and spongy layer. The mechanical strength from the membrane structure as well as the elasticity are factors attractive to the use of amnion as a surgical graft. Higher levels of rigidity and strength may improve the graft resistance necessary to resist the stress induced during growth of the new tissue formed. The amniotic membrane is obtained at elective caesarean section and subsequently, under sterile conditions, sectioned and separated from chorion and placenta, and free blood clots. The serological tests are done at the time of collection of tissue and 6 months after delivery to confirm the results. There are different methods for storing MA in tissue banks as fresh, high concentrations of glycerol, among others. The use of fresh membrane has some limitations due to the need to rapid use and high risk of contamination, however the amniotic membrane in glycerol has antiviral and antibacterial property which is dependent on the concentration, time and temperature. The AM used in transplants must be sterile to prevent the transmission of any disease. Although sterilization by radiation is an effective procedure, it can interfere on the membrane structure. Thus, verification of potential changes caused by ionizing radiation in amnion was made using the tensile test by calculating the

  14. Optimizing amniotic membrane tissue banking protocols for ophthalmic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, D; Dissanayake, V H W; Goonasekera, H W W

    2016-09-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM) due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-scarring and anti-angiogenic properties is used as corneal and wound grafts. When developing AM tissue banks, cell viability, membrane morphology and genomic stability should be preserved following cryopreservation. To analyze the changes rendered to the AM during the process of cryopreservation by comparing different combinations of standard cryopreservation media; fetal bovine serum (FBS), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Dulbecco's modified eagle's medium (DMEM) and glycerol at -80 °C and at -196 °C for a period of 6 weeks and at 4 °C in 70 % alcohol for 6 weeks. Following informed consent, placentae of healthy term pregnancies delivered by elective Cesarean section were collected and AM separated into 5 × 5 cm size sections and under sterile conditions stored in 9:1 DMSO:FBS and 1:1 DMEM:Glycerol at -196 and -80 °C for 6 weeks. Similar sections were also stored at 4 °C in 70 % alcohol for 6 weeks. After storage periods following were assessed; AM epithelial cell viability by trypan blue vital stain, epithelial cell proliferation capacity by cell doubling time, membrane morphology by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain and genomic stability by conventional G-banded karyotyping. Human amniotic epithelial cells were cultured in DMEM and 10 % FBS in humidified atmosphere of 5 % carbon dioxide at 37 °C and were characterized using RT-PCR for Octamer-binding protein 4 (Oct-4) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) genes. All the above parameters were also assessed in fresh AM. AM obtained from 4 term placentae. Mean cell count and mean cell doubling times in days respectively; for fresh AM 3.8 × 10(6); 1.59, after 6 weeks in DMSO:FBS at -196 °C 3.0 × 10(6); 2.38 and at -80 °C 2.1 × 10(6); 1.60, in DMEM:Glycerol at -196 °C 3.6 × 10(6); 2.33 at -80 °C 23 × 10(6); 1.66 and at 4 °C 3.3 × 10(6); 2.14. Histology analysis of the fresh AM showed an intact epithelial

  15. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    A series of circumstances has once more created an opportunity for technology educators to develop and implement new integrative approaches to STEM education championed by STEM education reform doctrine over the past two decades.

  16. What was the ancestral sex-determining mechanism in amniote vertebrates?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, L.

    Singapore : HGM, 2013. [ Human Genome Meeting/ International Congress of Genetics. 13.04.2013-18.04.2013, Singapore] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : amniote vertebrates Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  17. Sex Chromosome Evolution in Amniotes: Applications for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Daniel E.; Valenzuela, Nicole; Ezaz, Tariq; Amemiya, Chris; Edwards, Scott V.

    2011-01-01

    Variability among sex chromosome pairs in amniotes denotes a dynamic history. Since amniotes diverged from a common ancestor, their sex chromosome pairs and, more broadly, sex-determining mechanisms have changed reversibly and frequently. These changes have been studied and characterized through the use of many tools and experimental approaches but perhaps most effectively through applications for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Individual BAC clones carry 100–200 kb of sequence from one individual of a target species that can be isolated by screening, mapped onto karyotypes, and sequenced. With these techniques, researchers have identified differences and similarities in sex chromosome content and organization across amniotes and have addressed hypotheses regarding the frequency and direction of past changes. Here, we review studies of sex chromosome evolution in amniotes and the ways in which the field of research has been affected by the advent of BAC libraries. PMID:20981143

  18. Bronchial stump closure with amniotic membrane in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coverage of the bronchial stumps (BSs with adjacent tissues can improve healing and reduce bronchial complications in complex thoracic surgery. There is no evidence for the application of human amnion allograft for prevention of air leak from the BS. The comparison of the amniotic membrane (AM and pleural patch for BS healing after lobectomy in dogs was our aim in this study. Materials and Methods: A total of eight males and females 12-24-month-old dogs between 17 and 22 kg body-weight were used in this study in 2010, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Animals were separated into two groups: group A (n = 4; amniotic membrane and group P (n = 4; pleural patch according to the BS closure technique performed. After lobectomy of the right middle lobe, the BS was closed, while a small bronchopleural fistula (BPF was created by inserting a catheter via edges of closed stump. Then, it was covered with a piece of AM3 × 3 cm in group A and with a pedicle graft of pleura in group P. Rethoracotomy was performed after 15 days of observation, and the BS was removed for histological examination. Histological healing was classified as complete or incomplete healing. Neoangiogenesis was measured by Von Willebrand expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 using Fisher′s exact test, Mann-Whitney test, and T tests. Results: BPF complications were not seen during observation period. There was no significant difference in histological healing between two groups. Similarly, no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of neoangiogenesis based on IHC examination (P value = 0.69. Conclusion: Human amnion allograft could be as effective as pleural patch for BS wrapping following pulmonary resections.

  19. Case report of non-healing surgical wound treated with dehydrated human amniotic membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Riordan, Neil H; George, Ben A; Chandler, Troy B; McKenna, Randall W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-healing wounds can pose a medical challenge as in the case of vasculopathic venostasis resulting in a surgical ulcer. When traditional approaches to wound care fail, an amniotic patch (a dehydrated tissue allograft derived from human amnion) can function as a biologic scaffold to facilitate and enhance tissue regeneration and rehabilitation. Background Amniotic AlphaPatches contain concentrated molecules of PGE2, WNT4, and GDF-11 which have angiogenic, trophic, and anti-infla...

  20. Sex Chromosome Evolution in Amniotes: Applications for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Janes, Daniel E.; Nicole Valenzuela; Tariq Ezaz; Chris Amemiya; Edwards, Scott V.

    2011-01-01

    Variability among sex chromosome pairs in amniotes denotes a dynamic history. Since amniotes diverged from a common ancestor, their sex chromosome pairs and, more broadly, sex-determining mechanisms have changed reversibly and frequently. These changes have been studied and characterized through the use of many tools and experimental approaches but perhaps most effectively through applications for bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. Individual BAC clones carry 100–200 kb of seque...

  1. Molecular decay of enamel matrix protein genes in turtles and other edentulous amniotes

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith Robert W; Gatesy John; Springer Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Secondary edentulism (toothlessness) has evolved on multiple occasions in amniotes including several mammalian lineages (pangolins, anteaters, baleen whales), birds, and turtles. All edentulous amniote clades have evolved from ancestors with enamel-capped teeth. Previous studies have documented the molecular decay of tooth-specific genes in edentulous mammals, all of which lost their teeth in the Cenozoic, and birds, which lost their teeth in the Cretaceous. By contrast wi...

  2. Comparison of Amniotic Membrane Grafts and Intraoperative Mitomycin C for Primary Pterygium Excision

    OpenAIRE

    Bilek, Bağdagül; Keklikçi, Uğur; Şakalar, Yıldırım Bayazıt; Ünlü, M. Kaan; Çaça, İhsan

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness and safety of the human amniotic membrane graft with intraoperative application of Mitomycin C in primary pterygium surgery. In 60 consecutive patients, 60 eyes were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, primary pterygium excision with intraoperative itomycin C (0.2 mg/ml) were applied to the 30 patients and amniotic membrane grafts were applied to the other 30 patients. Recurrence was detected in two patients (%...

  3. Amniotic band syndrome at 14 weeks of gestation: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Lalitha N; Reena Abraham; Umamaheswari G

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic band syndrome comprises of a group of congenital anomalies involving the limbs, trunk, head and face characterised by asymmetry of involvement and varying severity. While mild variants have a good prognosis with normal life expectancy, severe cases may be incompatible with life. It is sporadic in occurrence with many theories postulated towards the pathogenesis. We report a case of amniotic band syndrome diagnosed at 14 weeks gestation in a 22 year old low risk primigravida-the foetu...

  4. Egg shape changes at the theropod–bird transition, and a morphometric study of amniote eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Deeming, D Charles; Ruta, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The eggs of amniotes exhibit a remarkable variety of shapes, from spherical to elongate and from symmetrical to asymmetrical. We examine eggshell geometry in a diverse sample of fossil and living amniotes using geometric morphometrics and linear measurements. Our goal is to quantify patterns of morphospace occupation and shape variation in the eggs of recent through to Mesozoic birds (neornithe plus non-neornithe avialans), as well as in eggs attributed to non-avia...

  5. A new surgical technique to treat corneal perforations using amniotic membrane and surgical adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C.S. Pontes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare surgical techniques and the effects of using n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate and bovine amniotic membrane to repair perforated lesions in corneas. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in sixty New Zealand White rabbits under general anesthesia. Group 1 (G1 was treated with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate, group 2 (G2 received a fragment of amniotic membrane through the anterior chamber and application of n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate over the lesion, group 3 (G3 was treated with the same technique as G2 with the addition of an amniotic membrane bandage covering the cornea and sutured in the limbus region, and group 4 (G4 was treated with an amniotic membrane sutured to the lesion and an amniotic membrane bandage sutured in the limbus region. Clinical, histological and histomorphometric examinations of the corneas were performed. The membrane acted as a barrier for aqueous humor in G2 and G3, thereby keeping the surface dry for adhesive application; it also prevented the adhesive from contacting intraocular structures. The groups treated with amniotic membrane and surgical adhesive showed better results than the groups treated with either material alone. Thus, the combination of the membrane with the adhesive is recommended for this type of lesion.

  6. Fetoscopic Amniotic Band Release in a Case of Chorioamniotic Separation: An Innovative New Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Michael A.; Whitehead, William E.; Ball, Robert; Silver, Robert; Shamshirsaz, Alireza; Ruano, Rodrigo; Espinoza, Jimmy; Becker, Judith; Olutoye, Olutoyin; Hollier, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fetoscopic release of amniotic bands has proved its life- and limb-saving potential. Rupture of the amnion and separation of chorion from the amnion and uterine wall can however preclude the standard fetoscopic approach to release the amniotic bands using a single port. Methods and Materials A 28-year-old G1P0 woman was referred to our unit at 19 weeks due to amniotic band syndrome involving the left ankle, the infrapatellar region of the right leg, and the umbilical cord. Of note, part of the fetus was seen outside the amniotic cavity by ultrasonography and the left ankle and foot were severely swollen. The patient underwent a laparotomy and fetoscopic release of the amniotic bands as well as partial amnionectomy using two uterine ports and CO2 as distention. Results The surgery and postoperative recovery course were uneventful. At 341/7 weeks the patient went into labor, which was augmented resulting vaginal delivery of a 2,460-g male infant. The infant was noted to have a shallow skin indentation on the left lower extremity near the ankle. The infant was discharged in excellent condition. Conclusion In those cases where release of an amniotic band is impossible due to membrane separation, surgery in a CO2-filled uterus offers an option.

  7. Effect of Amniotic Membrane Combined with Ciprofloxacin in Curing the Primary Stages of Pseudomonal Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Sharifi Yazdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keratitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often resulted in severe corneal ulcers and perforation, which leads to losses of vision. Human amniotic membrane (HAM forms the inner wall of the membranous sac which surrounds and protects the embryo during gestation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the amniotic membrane's healing in rabbits with pseudomonas keratitis.Methods: In total 14 rabbits divided in 2 groups of: 1 as Control and 2 as experimental amniotic membrane combined with ciprofloxacin. A 0.05 ml suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 was injected into rabbit’s corneal stroma, with no interference in control group. In the second group, the amniotic membrane in pieces of 1.5 × 1.5 cm transplanted to the entire corneal surface by eight interrupted 10.0 nylon sutures. In the first day ciprofloxacin drop was injected to the second group every 30 minutes and through second to seventh days every 2 hours. The results of perforation in cornea and the amount of infiltration were registered.Results: The results showed that amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT + ciprofloxacin group had 0% perforation and the control group 85.6%. Average infiltrations were 5 mm in AMT + ciprofloxacin groups and 23.75 mm in control.Conclusion: The use of amniotic membrane with ciprofloxacin was effective in prevention of cornea perforation and controlling the process of pseudomonal keratitis remission. The improvement of inflammation rapidly happened in ciprofloxacin + AMT group.

  8. Technique of cultivating limbal derived corneal epithelium on human amniotic membrane for clinical transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The technique of transplantation of cultivated limbal epithelium rather than direct limbal tissue isa novel method of "cell therapy" involved in reconstructing the ocular surface in severe limbal stem celldeficiency [LSCD], caused by chemical burns. Aim : To describe a simple feeder-cell free technique of cultivating limbal epithelium on human amniotic membrane[HAM]. Materials and Methods : The limbal tissues (2 mm were harvested from patients with LSCD. These tissueswere proliferated in vitro on HAM supplemented by human corneal epithelial cell medium and autologousserum. Cultures covering more ?50% area of 2.5x5 cm HAM were considered adequate for clinical use. Thecultured epithelium was characterized by histopathology and immunophenotyping.Results: A total of 542 cultures out of 250 limbal tissues were cultivated in the laboratory from January 2001through July 2005. The culture explants showed that clusters of cells emerging from the edge of the explantsin one-three days formed a complete monolayer within 10-14 days. In 86% of cultures (464 of 542, thegrowth was observed within one-two days. Successful explant cultures were observed in 98.5% (534 of 542cultures with 91% explant cultures showing an area of ?6.25 cm2 (6.25 - 12.5 cm2 range. The cultivatedepithelium was terminated between 10-14 days for clinical transplantation. The problems encountered wereinadequate growth (2 of 542 and contamination (2 of 542. Conclusions : We demonstrate a simple technique of generating a sheet of corneal epithelium from a limbalbiopsy. This new technique could pave the way for a novel form of cell therapy.

  9. Genetic reprogramming of human amniotic cells with episomal vectors: neural rosettes as sentinels in candidate selection for validation assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G. Wilson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The promise of genetic reprogramming has prompted initiatives to develop banks of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from diverse sources. Sentinel assays for pluripotency could maximize available resources for generating iPSCs. Neural rosettes represent a primitive neural tissue that is unique to differentiating PSCs and commonly used to identify derivative neural/stem progenitors. Here, neural rosettes were used as a sentinel assay for pluripotency in selection of candidates to advance to validation assays. Candidate iPSCs were generated from independent populations of amniotic cells with episomal vectors. Phase imaging of living back up cultures showed neural rosettes in 2 of the 5 candidate populations. Rosettes were immunopositive for the Sox1, Sox2, Pax6 and Pax7 transcription factors that govern neural development in the earliest stage of development and for the Isl1/2 and Otx2 transcription factors that are expressed in the dorsal and ventral domains, respectively, of the neural tube in vivo. Dissociation of rosettes produced cultures of differentiation competent neural/stem progenitors that generated immature neurons that were immunopositive for βIII-tubulin and glia that were immunopositive for GFAP. Subsequent validation assays of selected candidates showed induced expression of endogenous pluripotency genes, epigenetic modification of chromatin and formation of teratomas in immunodeficient mice that contained derivatives of the 3 embryonic germ layers. Validated lines were vector-free and maintained a normal karyotype for more than 60 passages. The credibility of rosette assembly as a sentinel assay for PSCs is supported by coordinate loss of nuclear-localized pluripotency factors Oct4 and Nanog in neural rosettes that emerge spontaneously in cultures of self-renewing validated lines. Taken together, these findings demonstrate value in neural rosettes as sentinels for pluripotency and selection of promising candidates for advance

  10. Transparent, resilient human amniotic membrane laminates for corneal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariya, Takehiro; Tanaka, Yuji; Yokokura, Shunji; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated a new technique to toughen and optically clarify human amniotic membrane (AM) tissue, which is naturally thin and clouded, and determined the suitability of the altered tissue for corneal transplantation. The technique created a tissue laminate by repeatedly depositing wet layers of AM and dehydrating them, followed by chemical cross-linking to tighten integration at the layer interfaces and within the layers, thereby improving the physical properties of the laminates by increasing light transmittance and mechanical strength. Interestingly, this improvement only occurred in laminates with at least 4 layers. Cross-linking also improved the resistance of the laminates to collagenase degradation, such as occurs in corneal melting. This study also confirmed that the AM tissue was biocompatible by inserting AM monolayers into the corneal stroma of rabbits, and by performing lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits with cross-linked AM laminates. The laminates were sufficiently thick and resilient to need only one set of sutures, whereas in previously described multi-layer AM transplantation technique, each layer required separate sutures. The current findings are a promising advance in the engineering of novel biomaterials and the alteration of existing tissues for medical use. PMID:27267629

  11. The Anolis Lizard Genome: An Amniote Genome without Isochores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Maria; Greif, Gonzalo; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Two articles published 5 years ago concluded that the genome of the lizard Anolis carolinensis is an amniote genome without isochores. This claim was apparently contradicting previous results on the general presence of an isochore organization in all vertebrate genomes tested (including Anolis). In this investigation, we demonstrate that the Anolis genome is indeed heterogeneous in base composition, since its macrochromosomes comprise isochores mainly from the L2 and H1 families (a moderately GC-poor and a moderately GC-rich family, respectively), and since the majority of the sequenced microchromosomes consists of H1 isochores. These families are associated with different features of genome structure, including gene density and compositional correlations (e.g., GC3 vs flanking sequence GC and intron GC), as in the case of mammalian and avian genomes. Moreover, the assembled Anolis chromosomes have an enormous number of gaps, which could be due to sequencing problems in GC-rich regions of the genome. In conclusion, the Anolis genome is no exception to the general rule of an isochore organization in the genomes of vertebrates (and other eukaryotes). PMID:26992416

  12. Use of amniotic membrane in ophthalmology surgery, first cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained with the implant of amniotic membranes have propitiated their use in different medical fields.One of the most important barriers that have to be solved is the risk to transmit illness from donor to patient. A cooperative work between the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN) and the Complejo de Salud San Borja Arriaran (CSSBA) has been done to prepare the membranes with the main purpose of assuring the quality and effectiveness of the tissue, since the procurement to the moment that it is used as biological apposite. In the production of this radiation sterilized tissue, we have followed a strict protocol that considers selection criteria for each donor, obtainment and processing of each membrane in aseptic conditions including the washing steps, cutting,drying in laminar flow hood, packing and identification.This is followed by sterilization with gamma radiation,quality controls which include the count of colonies formation units and the assurance of sterility. The average size of each membrane was 2 x 2 cm. The membranes have been used in 57 patients since 2002 up to date on surgical procedures of ophthalmology specialty: 38 Pterigeon, 3 Recoverment of anophthalmic cavity, 4 Corneal perforations, 2 Sclera ulcers, 1 extirpation of a conjunctiva inclusion cyst and 1 Reconstruction of Lachrymal sac, with very good results

  13. Comparison of Efficacy of Storage of Amniotic Membrane at -20 and -80 Degrees Centigrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of storage of amniotic membrane at -20 and -80 degrees centigrade. Study Design: Interventional quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Unit 1, Dow University of Health Sciences and Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: Amniotic membrane was obtained from patients undergoing elective Caesarean section screened for HIV, Hepatitis B and C and gave informed consent. It was washed with solutions containing benzyl penicillin, streptomycin and amphotericin B and frozen at -20 degrees centigrade for upto 6 weeks or at -80 degrees centigrade for upto 6 months. Fisher's exact test was used to check significance. P-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Amniotic membrane was stored at -20 degrees centigrade on four occasions and was used in 25 (48.07%) patients. On 3 other occasions it was stored at -80 degrees centigrade and was successfully used in 27 (51.92%) patients. The association between different degrees of storage of graft and type of cases is insignificant (p = 0.99). Conclusion: Compared to use of fresh amniotic membrane use of amniotic membrane stored at -20 and -80 degrees is safe and cost effective. It also excludes the chances of disease transmission. Although freezing at both temperatures is equally efficacious, freezing at -80 degrees centigrade can preserve the graft upto 6 months compared to -20 degrees centigrade which can be used only for 6 weeks. (author)

  14. A Comparative Study of Growth Kinetics, In Vitro Differentiation Potential and Molecular Characterization of Fetal Adnexa Derived Caprine Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somal, Anjali; Bhat, Irfan A.; B., Indu; Pandey, Sriti; Panda, Bibhudatta S. K.; Thakur, Nipuna; Sarkar, Mihir; Chandra, Vikash; Saikumar, G.; Sharma, G. Taru

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted with an objective of isolation, in vitro expansion, growth kinetics, molecular characterization and in vitro differentiation of fetal adnexa derived caprine mesenchymal stem cells. Mid-gestation gravid caprine uteri (2–3 months) were collected from abattoir to derive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from fetal adnexa {amniotic fluid (cAF), amniotic sac (cAS), Wharton’s jelly (cWJ) and cord blood (cCB)} and expanded in vitro. These cultured MSCs were used at the 3rd passage (P3) to study growth kinetics, localization as well as molecular expression of specific surface antigens, pluripotency markers and mesenchymal tri-lineage differentiation. In comparison to cAF and cAS MSCs, cWJ and cCB MSCs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher clonogenic potency, faster growth rate and low population doubling (PDT) time. All the four types of MSCs were positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP) and differentiated into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. These stem cells expressed MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) and pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, KLF, cMyc, FoxD3) but did not express CD34, a hematopoietic stem cell marker (HSC) as confirmed by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. The relative mRNA expression of MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ MSCs compared to the other cell lines. The mRNA expression of Oct4 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ, whereas mRNA expression of KLF and cMyc was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ and cAF than that of cAS and cCB. The comparative assessment revealed that cWJ MSCs outperformed MSCs from other sources of fetal adnexa in terms of growth kinetics, relative mRNA expression of surface antigens, pluripotency markers and tri-lineage differentiation potential, hence, these MSCs could be used as a preferred source for regenerative medicine. PMID:27257959

  15. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guide the needle into position. This is called fluoroscopy. Lumbar puncture with fluid collection may also be ... the brain stem. It is always done with fluoroscopy. Ventricular puncture may be recommended in people with ...

  16. Bovine placental lactogen: isolation purification and measurement in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted to isolate and purify bovine placental lactogen (bPL) and to develop a radioimmunoassay to this protein. Bovine placental lactogen was isolated from culture medium after a 24 hr culture of fetal cotyledonary tissue. Cotyledonary explants were stimulated to secrete bPL by either addition of bovine growth hormone (NIH-B8) to the medium or co-culture of cotyledon and caruncular tissue. Production of bPL was greatly affected by explant size and 70% of that produced in a 48 hr culture was released in the first 12 hr. Purification of bPL was accomplished using a column chromatographic scheme that involved gel filtration, ion exchange and chromatofocusing chromatography. A radioimmunoassay to bPL was developed using an antibody raised at the USDA Beltsville (F56). Dose response curves of amniotic or allantoic fluid or fetal and maternal serum were parallel to the standard curve and bPL was quantitatively recovered at from 82-125%. Using the radioimmunoassay, samples of amniotic and allantoic fluids and fetal and maternal serum were measured for bPL. Concentrations of bPL ranged from undetectable to 50 ng/ml, with fetal blood having the highest concentrations and amniotic fluid the lowest

  17. The epithelial mesenchymal transition process may contribute to the pathogenesis of amniotic band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Valdovinos, M; Bobadilla-Sandoval, N; Flisser, A; Vadillo-Ortega, F

    2014-09-01

    The etiology of the amniotic band syndrome is unknown, and has been subject of debate since the time of Hippocrates. The most accepted theories fail to cover all the abnomalities found in affected children. During organogenesis the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process (EMTP) participates in adequate formation of different organs from three embryo layers. Altered activation of EMTP occurs when the epithelial homeostasis is disturbed, the resulting myofibroblasts are able to secrete extracellular matrix proteins and deposit them on the tissues contributing to a fibrotic phenotype. If injury occurs during organogenesis, wound healing could be exaggerated and fibrotic response could be triggered. The molecule that regulates both of these processes (EMTP and fibrosis) is the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ); indeed null animals for TGFβ isoforms show similar defects than those seen in the amniotic band syndrome. Based on documented evidence this review intends to explain how the epithelial mesenchymal transition process may contribute to the pathogenesis of amniotic band syndrome. PMID:24998668

  18. Ultrastructural study of the neovagina following the utilization of human amniotic membrane for treatment of congenital absence of the vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Bleggi-Torres

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an ultrastructural study of the utilization of human amniotic membrane in the treatment of congenital absence of the vagina in 10 patients. All patients were surgically treated with application of an amniotic membrane graft using the modified McIndoe and Bannister technique. Sixty days after surgery, samples of the vaginal neo-epithelium were collected for transmission electron microscopy analysis. The ultrastructural findings consisted of a lining of mature squamous epithelium indicating the occurrence of metaplasia of the amniotic epithelium into the vaginal epithelium. The cells were arranged in layers as in the normal vaginal epithelium, i.e., superficial, intermediate and deep layers. There were desmosomes and cytoplasmic intermediate cytokeratin filaments, as well as some remnant features of the previous amniotic epithelium. These findings suggest that human amniotic membrane is able to complete metaplasia into squamous cells but the mechanism of this cellular transformation is unknown

  19. Investigation of lithium forward scattering for the analysis of carbon and oxygen in human amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium forward elastic scattering is investigated as an additional method for Z 6,7Li beams and the elastically scattered beam is detected at 16.45 deg, 20.45 deg and 28.0 deg simultaneously. The quality of elastic spectra improves with sample dilution. The content of C and O in the backing is subtracted. Carbon and oxygen concentrations of the non-diluted AF sample are determined by assuming that elemental concentration varies linearly with dilution. (author)

  20. Perinatal outcome in oligohydramnios and borderline amniotic fluid index: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pradip R. Gaikwad; Mona S. Oswal; Manisha R. Gandhewar; Binti R. Bhatiyani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oligohydramnios is associated with adverse perinatal outcome in the form of meconium staining, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), caesarean section for abnormal fetal heart rate tracing, low Apgar score and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Methods: This was a prospective study of 100 singleton pregnancies beyond 28 weeks of gestation with AFI< 8 cm, delivered within seven days of admission. Patients were divided in two groups, those with AFI and #8804; 5 cm ...

  1. Insulin-like factor 3 levels in second-trimester amniotic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Cohen, Arieh S; Jørgensen, Finn Stener;

    2008-01-01

    According to animal studies, the testicular Leydig cell hormone insulin-like factor 3 (Insl3) exerts a fundamental role in abdominal testis translocation, which occurs in the beginning of the second trimester in humans. Despite this, human prenatal INSL3 production has been poorly investigated....

  2. Proteomic Profiling of the Amniotic Fluid to Detect Inflammation, Infection, and Neonatal Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Buhimschi, Catalin S; Vineet Bhandari; Benjamin D Hamar; Mert-Ozan Bahtiyar; Guomao Zhao; Anna K Sfakianaki; Pettker, Christian M.; Lissa Magloire; Edmund Funai; Errol R Norwitz; Michael Paidas; Copel, Joshua A.; Weiner, Carl P; Lockwood, Charles J.; Buhimschi, Irina A.

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. A preterm delivery, or premature birth, is normally defined as one that occurs before 37 weeks after the last menstrual cycle (an average pregnancy lasts around 40 weeks). Premature birth is fairly common, with around 12% of births in the US fitting this definition. However, it has serious consequences, being responsible for around 70% of infant deaths and other adverse outcomes for the baby. It is not clear in all cases what directly causes premature birth or how...

  3. Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Syndrome is Expressed in Amniotic Fluid Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Julian C; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Morris, Andrew M. M.; Gray, R. George F.; Cooper, J. Mark; McKiernan, Patrick J.; Leonard, James V; Schapira, Anthony H. V.

    1999-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome is an autosomal inherited disease associated with grossly reduced cellular levels of mitochondrial DNA in infancy. Most patients are born after a full and uncomplicated pregnancy, are normal at birth, but develop symptoms in the early neonatal period. These observations have led to the suggestion that the patients have a defect affecting the control of mitochondrial DNA copy number after birth. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we demonstrated that the ...

  4. Prophylaxis of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome by intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平; 王英兰; 王蕴慧; 张睿; 陈环; 苏浩彬

    2004-01-01

    Background Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) is caused by a deficiency in pulmonary surfactant (PS) and is one of the main reasons of neonatal mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant for prophylaxis of NRDS.Methods Forty-five pregnant women who were due for preterm delivery and whose fetuses' lungs proved immature were divided into two groups. Fifteen women (study group) were administered one dose of pulmonary surfactant injected into the amniotic cavity and delivered within several hours. Nothing was injected into the amniotic cavity of 30 women of the control group. The proportion of neonatal asphyxia, NRDS, mortality and the time in hospital were analyzed to determine if there was any difference between the two groups. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups for neonatal asphyxia. Foam tests showed that higher proportion of neonates in the study group than in the control group (56.3% vs 13.3%, P<0.05) had lung maturity. A greater number of control neonates (11/30, 32.3%) had NRDS, compared with the neonates given PS via the amniotic cavity before delivery (1/16, 6.3%, P<0.05). The neonates in the study group spent nearly 10 days less in hospital than the control group [(32.4±7.6) days vs (42.0±15.7) days, P<0.05], but the difference in mortality between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions Intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant can significantly reduce the proportion of NRDS and the time in hospital of preterm neonates. Whether this method can reduce the mortality of preterm neonates needs to be evaluated further. Intra-amniotic administration of pulmonary surfactant provides an additional effectual means for NRDS prophylaxis.

  5. Adult neurogenesis: VCAM stems the tide

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Maria K.

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Kokovay et al., uncover that VCAM1 expression in neural stem cells regulates adult neurogenesis. Cerebrospinal fluid-borne IL-1β upregulates VCAM1 expression, which in turn regulates the architecture of the stem cell niche, redox homeostasis, and neurogenesis.

  6. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells improves hindlimb function in rats with spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhi-yuan; HUI Guo-zhen; LU Yi; WU Xin; GUO Li-he

    2006-01-01

    Background Human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs), which have several characteristics similar to stem cells,therefore could possibly be used in cell therapy without creating legal or ethical problems. In this study, we transplanted HEACs into the injured spinal cord of rats to investigate if the cells can improve the rats' hindlimb motor function.Methods HAECs were obtained from a piece of fresh amnion, labeled with Hoechst33342, and transplanted into the site of complete midthoracic spinal transections in adult rats. The rats (n=21) were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-operation group (n=7), cells-graft group (n=7), and PBS group (n=7). One rat of each group was killed for histological analysis at the second week after the transplantation. The other six rats of each group were killed for histological analysis after an 8-week behavioral testing. Hindlimb motor function was assessed by using the open-field BBB scoring system. Survival rate of the graft cells was observed at second and eighth weeks after the transplantation. We also detected the myelin sheath fibers around the lesions and the size of the axotomized red nucleus. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare the means among the groups. The significance level was set at P<0.05.Results The graft HAECs survived for a long time (8 weeks) and integrated into the host spinal cord without immune rejection. Compared with the control group, HAECs can promote the regeneration and sprouting of the axons, improve the hindlimb motor function of the rats (BBB score: cells-graft group 9.0± 0.89 vs PBS group 3.7± 1.03, P<0.01), and inhibit the atrophy of axotomized red nucleus [cells-graft group (526.47 ± 148.42) μm2 vs PBS group (473.69±164.73) μm2, P<0.01].Conclusion Transplantation of HAECs can improve the hindlimb motor function of rats with spinal cord injury.

  7. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Extraembryonic Tissues of Fetuses Affected by Monogenic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalieri, Paola; Talarico, Rosa V; Botta, Annalisa; Murdocca, Michela; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Orlandi, Augusto; Giardina, Emiliano; Santoro, Massimo; Brancati, Francesco; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from an autologous extraembryonic fetal source is an innovative personalized regenerative technology that can transform own-self cells into embryonic stem-like ones. These cells are regarded as a promising candidate for cell-based therapy, as well as an ideal target for disease modeling and drug discovery. Thus, hiPSCs enable researchers to undertake studies for treating diseases or for future applications of in utero therapy. We used a polycistronic lentiviral vector (hSTEMCCA-loxP) encoding OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC genes and containing loxP sites, excisible by Cre recombinase, to reprogram patient-specific fetal cells derived from prenatal diagnosis for several genetic disorders, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), β-thalassemia (β-Thal), lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as from wild-type (WT) fetal cells. Because cell types tested to create hiPSCs influence both the reprogramming process efficiency and the kinetics, we used chorionic villus (CV) and amniotic fluid (AF) cells, demonstrating how they represent an ideal cell resource for a more efficient generation of hiPSCs. The successful reprogramming of both CV and AF cells into hiPSCs was confirmed by specific morphological, molecular, and immunocytochemical markers and also by their teratogenic potential when inoculated in vivo. We further demonstrated the stability of reprogrammed cells over 10 and more passages and their capability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers, as well as into neural cells. These data suggest that hiPSCs-CV/AF can be considered a valid cellular model to accomplish pathogenesis studies and therapeutic applications. PMID:26474030

  8. Bacterial aetiological agents of intra-amniotic infections and preterm birth in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Louis Mendz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection-related preterm birth is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity; knowledge of bacterial populations invading the amniotic cavity and the routes of invasion is required to make progress in the prevention of preterm birth. Significant advances have been made in understanding bacterial communities in the vagina, but much less studied are intra-uterine bacterial populations during pregnancy. A systematic review of data published on the intra-uterine microbiome was performed; molecular information and summaries of species found in healthy individuals and in women with diagnosed infections served to construct a database and to analyse results to date. Thirteen studies fulfilled the review's inclusion criteria. The data of various investigations were collated, organised and re-analysed to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of microbial populations in the intra-amniotic space. The most common intra-amniotic bacterial taxa were species that can colonise the vagina in health and disease; there were others associated with the habitats of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. The results suggest a central role for the ascending route of infections during pregnancy, and points to a possible secondary contribution via haematogenous invasion of the intra-amniotic space. The census of the intra-uterine microbiome awaits completion.

  9. Preserved xenogenic amniotic membrane as a patch on the repair of superficial corneal ulcers in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristine de Sousa Pontes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of canine amniotic membrane, previously preserved in glycerin, used as a patch on the repair of experimentally-made superficial corneal ulcers and to compare corneal epithelization between the treated and non-treated groups. Xenogeneic amniotic membranes were collected aseptically and preserved in 99% glycerin at room temperature. Each animal was anesthetized and submitted to superficial corneal keratectomy of the left eye. The treated group received a fragment of canine amniotic membrane as a patch, while the control group had no treatment. The treated group showed blepharospasm, ocular discharge and conjunctival congestion. The membrane accelerated corneal repair in the beginning of the process, however, it delayed its conclusion (p<0.05. Treated eyes showed greater vessel formation and decreased corneal transparency (p<0.05. The stroma of the control group was thicker than that of the treated group (p<0.05. We suggest that amniotic membrane used in this manner can be applied as a therapy for superficial corneal ulcers in the beginning phases of the repair process.

  10. Freeze-dried radiation sterilized human amniotic membrane in the treatment of burn wound - Algerian experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out in order to evaluate the usefulness of human amniotic membrane as a biological dressing and its efficacy in the management of bum wound. Fresh human amniotic membranes were procured from donors exempted of any infection. We reported the practical methods of collection, preparation and preservation by freeze-drying. Radiation sterilisation was applied to freeze-dried human arymiotic membrane, doubly packed in polyethylene bags. Sterility control was carried out in two steps: i) Bacteriological test done on three representative samples of each batch. ii) Viability control of a radioresistant micro-organism: B. pimulus E601. The methodology of clinical application was reported. Eighty patients were treated as outpatients in the Bums Centre 'Sidi Bennour', Algiers. Pain, infection, and the progress of healing were monitored. Covering the wound with the amniotic membrane showed some good results in ten-ns of increased rate of healing, pain relief and absence of infection. It is concluded that freeze-dried radiation sterilized human amniotic membrane should be more widely used in the treatment of bum wound in respect to its good therapeutic effect

  11. APLASIA CUTIS CONGENITAL WITH AMNIOTIC BAND DISRUPTION COMPLEX: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipprava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC is congenital absence of skin, most commonly affecting scalp. Etiology is multifactorial like intrauterine infection, teratogens, vascular causes, genetic syndromes etc. We here represent an infant with ACC involving extremities and associated with amniotic band disruption complex. He was treated conservatively and discharged.

  12. Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Madhukar Thakur

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in ...

  13. Synthetic vs natural scaffolds for human limbal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominac Trcin, Mirna; Dekaris, Iva; Mijović, Budimir; Bujić, Marina; Zdraveva, Emilija; Dolenec, Tamara; Pauk-Gulić, Maja; Primorac, Dragan; Crnjac, Josip; Špoljarić, Branimira; Mršić, Gordan; Kuna, Krunoslav; Špoljarić, Daniel; Popović, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the impact of synthetic electrospun polyurethane (PU) and polycaprolactone (PCL) nanoscaffolds, before and after hydrolytic surface modification, on viability and differentiation of cultured human eye epithelial cells, in comparison with natural scaffolds: fibrin and human amniotic membrane. Methods Human placenta was taken at elective cesarean delivery. Fibrin scaffolds were prepared from commercial fibrin glue kits. Nanoscaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning. Limbal cells were isolated from surpluses of human cadaveric cornea and seeded on feeder 3T3 cells. The scaffolds used for viability testing and immunofluorescence analysis were amniotic membrane, fibrin, PU, and PCL nanoscaffolds, with or without prior NaOH treatment. Results Scanning electron microscope photographs of all tested scaffolds showed good colony spreading of seeded limbal cells. There was a significant difference in viability performance between cells with highest viability cultured on tissue culture plastic and cells cultured on all other scaffolds. On the other hand, electrospun PU, PCL, and electrospun PCL treated with NaOH had more than 80% of limbal cells positive for stem cell marker p63 compared to only 27%of p63 positive cells on fibrin. Conclusion Natural scaffolds, fibrin and amniotic membrane, showed better cell viability than electrospun scaffolds. On the contrary, high percentages of p63 positive cells obtained on these scaffolds still makes them good candidates for efficient delivery systems for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26088849

  14. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  15. Retrospective analysis of the use of amniotic membranes and xenografts in spinal surgery and anterior cranial fossa operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the suitability of amniotic membrane an bovine bone xenografts for the use in spinal surgery and anterior cranial for a generations. Fifteen patients with anterior cranial fossa defects and spinal bone fractures received bovine bone xenografts and 10 patients with meningomyeloceles received amniotic membranes (produced by the Malaysian National Tissue Bank) were analysed retrospectively. Clinical criterias like fever, signs of inflammation, breakdown of graft implant, non specific reaction to the nervous tissue were analysed haematological and radiologically. All patients who received the bovine grafts and amniotic membranes did not show any evidence of inflammation or fever. There were no graft implant breakdowns. There was no radiological or clinical evidence of specific or non specific reaction to the nervous tissue after 12-36 months followup Amniotic membranes and bovine xenografts may be used in the healing and reconstruction of spinal and cranial defects. Despite no evidence of rejection and infection after 36 months, a long term followup is still needed

  16. Labor induction in nulliparous women: a randomized controlled trial of foley catheter with extra-amniotic saline infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mandana M. Ghanaei; Hajar Sharami; Alaeddin Asgari

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to determine whether the addition of extra-amniotic saline infusion improves the efficacy of the Foley catheter in nulliparous woman undergoing cervical ripening and induction of labor with an unfavorable cervix.Material and Methods: 152 nulliparous women with a Bishop score less than ≤4 with singleton gestation, vertex presentation, intact membranes referred for labor induction were randomly assigned to 2 groups: Foley catheter alone or extra-amniotic sa...

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Foley Catheter Extra-Amniotic Saline Infusion and Prostaglandin E2 Suppository for Labor Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Mandana Mansour Ghanaie; Mina Jafarabadi; Forozan Milani; Seyed Alaedin Asgary; Morteza Fallah Karkan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to further compare the efficacy of PGE2 suppository, the intracervical foley catheter and extra-amniotic saline infusion in nulliparous women referred for labor induction. Materials and methods Totally 368 nulliparous women with a Bishop score ≤ 4 with singleton gestation, vertex presentation and intact membrane referred for labor induction were randomly assigned to 3 groups; Foley catheter alone, Extra-amniotic saline infusion (EASI) and PGE2 suppository. A...

  18. Prenatal imaging of amniotic band sequence: utility and role of fetal MRI as an adjunct to prenatal US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, Jeremy [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Bitters, Constance; Merrow, Arnold C.; Guimaraes, Carolina V.A. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Fetal Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Amniotic band sequence and its US manifestations have been well-described. There is little information, however, regarding the accuracy and utility of fetal MRI. To describe the MRI findings in amniotic band sequence and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MRI and US. Prenatal MRI and US studies were retrospectively reviewed in 14 consecutive pregnancies with confirmed amniotic band sequence. Both studies were evaluated for amniotic band visualization, body part affected, type of deformity, umbilical cord involvement and vascular abnormality. Amniotic bands were confidently identified with MRI in 8 fetuses (57%), suggested with MRI in 3 fetuses (21%) and confidently seen by US in 13 fetuses (93%). Neither modality detected surgically proven bands on one fetus. Both techniques were equally able to define the body part affected and the type of deformity. At least one limb abnormality was visualized in all cases and truncal involvement was present in two cases. Cord involvement was identified in seven cases, with one case detected only by MRI. Fetal MRI is able to visualize amniotic bands and their secondary manifestations and could be complementary to prenatal US when fetal surgery is contemplated. (orig.)

  19. Stem system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajmardanova L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the stem cells from the point of view of systemic anatomy, where they are united into an entire stem system. This integration shows various advantages for better understanding the stem cells role in the body. Authors, considering functions and action mechanism of stem cells, phylogeny, ontogeny, regulation of functions, explain the base for stem cells system existance. The definition and terminology, age peculiarities, relationship with other systems of organs and differences are offered. The theoretical proof of primary-integrative role of stem system is provided for all other systems in body. Of particular importance is the role of stem system as a link between neural and endocrine systems. The work helps to sistematize data on investigations of stem cells, their entire-system perception, that will ease the goals determining for further research and their clinical use.

  20. A Case Report of Ablepharon-Macrostomia Syndrome with Amniotic Membrane Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Eric; Traish, Aisha S; Aakalu, Vinay; Kassem, Iris S

    2015-01-01

    We describe a rare case of an infant who was born with multiple congenital anomalies, including the absence of eyelids. This patient had many dysmorphic features consistent with a severe phenotype of ablepharon-macrostomia syndrome (AMS) including a fish-like appearance of the mouth, rudimentary ears, absence of body hair, thin skin, absent nipples, abdominal distension, and genital abnormalities. Upon presentation, there was severe exposure keratopathy causing large bilateral sterile ulcers culminating in corneal melting of both eyes. An amniotic membrane graft was used to attempt to maintain the corneal surface integrity. However, because of the late presentation, the corneas could not be salvaged. Extensive surgical reconstruction of both eyelids and bilateral penetrating keratoplasty was ultimately performed successfully to protect the ocular surfaces while trying to maximize the visual potential. Early amniotic membrane grafting may be done at the bedside and may help preserve the ocular in patients with severe eyelid deformities until more definitive treatment is performed. PMID:26600791

  1. Thoraco-amniotic shunting for fetal pleural effusion--a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, J

    2011-11-15

    Fetal pleural effusion is a rare occurrence, with an incidence of 1 per 10-15,000 pregnancies. The prognosis is related to the underlying cause and is often poor. There is increasing evidence that in utero therapy with thoraco-amniotic shunting improves prognosis by allowing lung expansion thereby preventing hydrops and pulmonary hypoplasia. This is a review of all cases of fetal pleural effusion managed over an eight year period the National Maternity Hospital Dublin. Over the nine year period there were 21 cases of fetal pleural effusion giving an overall incidence of 1 per 9281 deliveries. Of these, 15 underwent thoraco-amniotic shunting. There were associated anomalies diagnosed in 5 (33%) of cases. The overall survival in our cohort was 53%. The presence of hydrops was a poor prognostic factor, with survival in cases with hydrops of 33% (3\\/9) compared to 83% (5\\/6) in those cases without associated hydrops.

  2. Amniotic band syndrome at 14 weeks of gestation: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha N

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic band syndrome comprises of a group of congenital anomalies involving the limbs, trunk, head and face characterised by asymmetry of involvement and varying severity. While mild variants have a good prognosis with normal life expectancy, severe cases may be incompatible with life. It is sporadic in occurrence with many theories postulated towards the pathogenesis. We report a case of amniotic band syndrome diagnosed at 14 weeks gestation in a 22 year old low risk primigravida-the foetus was seen as an amorphous mass with multiple anomalies, confirmed by autopsy. While early ultrasound helped detect lethal anomalies, correlation with autopsy provided an insight into possible disruptions in early foetal development leading to the various anomalies. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1142-1145

  3. Treatment of ligneous conjunctivitis with amniotic membrane transplantation and topical cyclosporine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Yalcin Tok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ligneous conjunctivitis (LC is a rare form of bilateral chronic recurrent disease in which thick membranes form on the palpebral conjunctiva and other mucosal sites. We report the clinical features and describe the management of two cases. Case 1 was an 8-month-old patient with bilateral membranous conjunctivitis. Case 2 was a 5-year-old patient with unilateral membranous conjunctivitis, esotropia, mechanical ptosis and complicated cataract, and had been treated with a number of medications. Histological investigation of the membrane in both cases showed LC. Treatments with amniotic membrane transplantation and institution of topical cyclosporine have shown good response. There has been complete resolution of the membranes with no recurrence at the end of 40- and 28-month follow-ups, respectively. No treatment related side effects were seen. Thus, it appears that amniotic membrane transplantation and topical cyclosporine are effective alternatives for the treatment of LC.

  4. Conditioned Medium From Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Limits Infarct Size and Enhances Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Danieli, Patrizia; Malpasso, Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Cervio, Elisabetta; Calvillo, Laura; Copes, Francesco; Pisano, Federica; Mura, Manuela; Kleijn, Lennaert; De Boer, Rudolf A.; Viarengo, Gianluca; Rosti, Vittorio; Spinillo, Arsenio; Roccio, Marianna; Gnecchi, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate whether human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMCs) can exert beneficial paracrine effects on infarcted rat hearts. In particular, the administration of hAMC-conditioned medium repaired ischemic damage through cardioprotection and angiogenesis. Finally, several putative active paracrine mediators that might account for the effects observed were identified by gene and protein arrays.

  5. A comparative examination of odontogenic gene expression in both toothed and toothless amniotes

    OpenAIRE

    Lainoff, Alexis J.; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E.; Hu, Diane; Kallonen, Aki; Marcucio, Ralph S.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2015-01-01

    A well-known tenet of murine tooth development is that BMP4 and FGF8 antagonistically initiate odontogenesis, but whether this tenet is conserved across amniotes is largely unexplored. Moreover, changes in BMP4-signaling have previously been implicated in evolutionary tooth loss in Aves. Here we demonstrate that Bmp4, Msx1, and Msx2 expression is limited proximally in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) mandible at stages equivalent to those at which odontogenesis is initiated in ...

  6. Neuroinflammation and structural injury of the fetal ovine brain following intra-amniotic Candida albicans exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Ophelders, Daan R. M. G.; Gussenhoven, Ruth; Lammens, Martin; Küsters, Benno; Kemp, Matthew W.; Newnham, John P; Payne, Matthew S.; Suhas G Kallapur; Jobe, Allan H.; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Boris W Kramer; Tim G A M Wolfs

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-amniotic Candida albicans (C. Albicans) infection is associated with preterm birth and high morbidity and mortality rates. Survivors are prone to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The mechanisms leading to these adverse neonatal brain outcomes remain largely unknown. To better understand the mechanisms underlying C. albicans-induced fetal brain injury, we studied immunological responses and structural changes of the fetal brain in a well-established translational ovine mod...

  7. Application of Amniotic Membrane in Ocular Surface Diseases: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cindarik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To investigate the effectiveness of amniotic membrane transplantation in cases with corneal thinning, desmatocele and refractive corneal ulcer. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients who were applied amniotic membrane transplantation for various ocular surface disease between January 2004 and February 2009 in Çukurova University Ophthalmology Department were included in the study. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed. Corneal culture and corneal cytology samples were collected from the patients with the diagnosis of corneal ulcers. The patients were informed about the surgical procedure and the possible complications and informed consent was obtained. The amniotic membranes that were prepared under optimal conditions and protected in frozen forms were used in the operations. Follow-up examinations were done at postoperative 1st day, 1st week, 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and then once in a year. Re sults: Of 54 patients, 26 (48.1% were men and 28 (51.8% were women. The mean age of patients was 52.53±19.75 (2-87 years. The cases were separated into 2 groups according to the etiology: group 1 - eyes with corneal ulcer (n:26 and group 2 - eyes with corneal stromal thinning, persistent epithelial defects and desmatocel (n:28. The transplantations were performed using cover technique in 17 eyes (31.4%, graft technique in 37 eyes (68.5% and graft technique with corneal patch in 2 eyes (3.7%. Partial penetrating keratoplasty was required in 38 of 54 eyes (70.3%. One eye was enucleated. Dis cus si on: The amniotic membrane transplantation has advantages like: it can be prepared easily and is cost-effective. It is a safe and effective procedure in ocular surface disease. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 177-82

  8. Effect of the Human Amniotic Membrane on Liver Regeneration in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Sipahi; Sevinç Şahin; Ergin Arslan; Hasan Börekci; Bayram Metin; Nuh Zafer Cantürk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Operations are performed for broader liver surgery indications for a better understanding of hepatic anatomy/physiology and developments in operation technology. Surgery can cure some patients with liver metastasis of some tumors. Nevertheless, postoperative liver failure is the most feared complication causing mortality in patients who have undergone excision of a large liver mass. The human amniotic membrane has regenerative effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of the hu...

  9. Development and Evolution of the Amniote Integument: Current Landscape and Future Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Dominique G. Homberger

    2003-01-01

    This special issue on the development and evolution of the amniote integument begins with a discussion of the adaptations to terrestrial conditions, the acquisition of water-impermeability by the reptilian integument, and the initial formation of filamentous integumentary appendages that pave the way towards avian flight. Recent feather fossils are reviewed and a definition of feathers is developed. Hierarchical models are proposed for the formation of complex structures, such as feathers. Mo...

  10. Human Amniotic Epithelial Cell Transplantation Induces Markers of Alternative Macrophage Activation and Reduces Established Hepatic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ursula Manuelpillai; Dinushka Lourensz; Vijesh Vaghjiani; Jorge Tchongue; Derek Lacey; Jing-Yang Tee; Padma Murthi; James Chan; Alexander Hodge; William Sievert

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatic inflammation from multiple etiologies leads to a fibrogenic response that can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) from term delivered placenta has been shown to decrease mild to moderate hepatic fibrosis in a murine model. To model advanced human liver disease and assess the efficacy of hAEC therapy, we transplanted hAEC in mice with advanced hepatic fibrosis. Immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice were administered carbon t...

  11. Use of trimetasphere metallofullerene MRI contrast agent for the non-invasive longitudinal tracking of stem cells in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean V; Hale, Austin; Reid, Tanya; Olson, John; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Tan, Josh; Zhou, Zhiguo; Jackson, John; Atala, Anthony

    2016-04-15

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a commonly used, non-invasive imaging technique that provides visualization of soft tissues with high spatial resolution. In both a research and clinical setting, the major challenge has been identifying a non-invasive and safe method for longitudinal tracking of delivered cells in vivo. The labeling and tracking of contrast agent labeled cells using MRI has the potential to fulfill this need. Contrast agents are often used to enhance the image contrast between the tissue of interest and surrounding tissues with MRI. The most commonly used MRI contrast agents contain Gd(III) ions. However, Gd(III) ions are highly toxic in their ionic form, as they tend to accumulate in the liver, spleen, kidney and bones and block calcium channels. Endohedral metallofullerenes such as trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerenes (Trimetasphere®) are one unique class of fullerene molecules where a Gd3N cluster is encapsulated inside a C80 carbon cage referred to as Gd3N@C80. These endohedral metallofullerenes have several advantages over small chelated Gd(III) complexes such as increased stability of the Gd(III) ion, minimal toxic effects, high solubility in water and high proton relativity. In this study, we describe the evaluation of gadolinium-based Trimetasphere® positive contrast agent for the ​in vitro labeling and in vivo tracking of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells within lung tissue. In addition, we conducted a 'proof-of-concept' experiment demonstrating that this methodology can be used to track the homing of stem cells to injured lung tissue and provide longitudinal analysis of cell localization over an extended time course. PMID:26546729

  12. Inducing of Angiogenesis is the Net Effect of the Amniotic Membrane Without Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Niknejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic membrane (AM, the nearest layer of placenta to the fetus, has some biological properties important for the experimental and clinical applications including anti-microbial, anti-fibrosis, anti-scarring, as well as low immunogenicity. The basement membrane of the AM contains several extracellular matrix components such as types І, III, IV, V collagen, laminin, fibronectin and perlecan which can induce proliferation of endothelial cells. The stormal side of the AM consists of mesenchymal cells which have capability to differentiate into endothelial cells. Moreover, several angiogenic factors such as interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, growth-related oncogene (GRO, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and intravascular adhesion molecule (ICAM are secreted by the amniotic mesenchymal cells. Since the majority of anti-angiogenic factors are released by amniotic epithelial cells and due to the advantages of basement membrane and stromal side for inducing of angiogenesis, we have suggested here that the AM without epithelial layer would promote angiogenesis, an effect that would be a beneficial therapeutic approach for ischemic vascular diseases. To evaluate the hypothesis, the AM with or without epithelial cells will be implanted onto the striated muscle tissue of rats. The dorsal skinfold chamber model will be employed for intravital microscopic observation of the angiogenic host tissue response to implanted biomaterials throughout a time period of 7-14 days.

  13. Phylogenetic, functional, and structural components of variation in bone growth rate of amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Jorge; Legendre, Pierre; de Ricqlès, Armand; Montes, Laëtitia; de Margerie, Emmanuel; Castanet, Jacques; Desdevises, Yves

    2008-01-01

    The biological features observed in every living organism are the outcome of three sets of factors: historical (inherited by homology), functional (biological adaptation), and structural (properties inherent to the materials with which organs are constructed, and the morphogenetic rules by which they grow). Integrating them should bring satisfactory causal explanations of empirical data. However, little progress has been accomplished in practice toward this goal, because a methodologically efficient tool was lacking. Here we use a new statistical method of variation partitioning to analyze bone growth in amniotes. (1) Historical component. The variation of bone growth rates contains a significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting that the observed patterns are partly the outcome of shared ancestry. (2) Functional causation. High growth rates, although energy costly, may be adaptive (i.e., they may increase survival rates) in taxa showing short growth periods (e.g., birds). In ectothermic amniotes, low resting metabolic rates may limit the maximum possible growth rates. (3) Structural constraint. Whereas soft tissues grow through a multiplicative process, growth of mineralized tissues is accretionary (additive, i.e., mineralization fronts occur only at free surfaces). Bone growth of many amniotes partially circumvents this constraint: it is achieved not only at the external surface of the bone shaft, but also within cavities included in the bone cortex as it grows centrifugally. Our approach contributes to the unification of historicism, functionalism, and structuralism toward a more integrated evolutionary biology. PMID:18315815

  14. In vivo studies of antibacterial effect of human amniotic membrane use in treatment of burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study consist to put in evidence one of essential characteristic of amniotic membrane in occurrence the antibacterial effect. The article describes a study which compared the microbiological and clinical results of the application of freeze-dried gamma sterilized amniotic membrane with that of the conventional treatment(flamazine, greased gauze), in 100 patients with intermediate burns and deep burns with small surface, the bacterial population of various types of microorganisms was well controlled using quantitative bacterial culture techniques, immediately after accident, during treatment and at the last of treatment. The bacterial counts were significantly diminished mean of 10 4 UFC/cm2 to mean of 10 3 UFC/cm2, after 4 days in no infected burns and mean of 10 6 UFC/cm2 to mean of 10 3 UFC/cm2, after 5 days in infected burns, the same reduction was registered after 16 to 25 days with the conventional treatment. It is concluded that use of amniotic membrane control infection, minimize pain and promote wound healing

  15. Fresh Amniotic Membrane Transplantation Combined Lamellar Keratoplasty for Patients with Recurrent Mooren's Ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiyou Zhou; Jiaqi Chen; Bess Fung; Longshan Chen

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the possibility of amniotic membrane as an immunologicalinsulating band to reduce the recurrent frequency of Mooren's ulcer.Methods: Twelve cases(12 eyes)with recurrent Mooren's Ulcer were observed. Amongthem, 4 cases(4 eyes)were male and 8 cases(8 eyes) female, ranging in age between 26and 51 years[mean(41 ± 3)years]. Three eyes recurred once, 5 eyes twice, and 4 eyesthree before. Eleven of 12 cases (11/12 eyes)with frequently recurrent Mooren's ulcerunderwent lamellar keratoplasty combined amniotic membrane transplantation(AMT).One patient who had entire corneal ulceration accepted AMT alone.Results: Follow-up time is 12 to 29 months, [mean (23 ± 6) months]. Before AMT, therecurrent frequency of Mooren's Ulcer of all cases after corneal surgery was 1 ~ 7 months[mean(3 ± 2)months]. Nine of 12 eyes with lamellar keratoplasty combined AMT did notrecur within the observation period; 2 eyes recurred 11 months after the surgery. Threemonths postoperatively, neovascularization was observed, which made it nearly impossibleto decipher between amniotic membrane and its nearby conjunctiva, only at the junctionof the transplant can some trails be observed. One case with entire AMT alone showedgraft resolution and neovascularization in 1 month.Conclusion:AMT combined with lamellar keratoplasty and lesion excision may delayrecurrence of Mooren's Ulcer, reduce its recurrent frequency. Besides the effects ofdecreasing inflammation, it may have immunological insulating function as well. Thisconclusion should be proven by further clinical comparative study of much moresamples.

  16. Ectopic Osteogenesis of Macroscopic Tissue Constructs Assembled from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Laden Microcarriers through In Vitro Perfusion Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Maiqin Chen; Min Zhou; Zhaoyang Ye; Yan Zhou; Wen-Song Tan

    2014-01-01

    We had previously demonstrated the feasibility of preparing a centimeter-sized bone tissue construct by following a modular approach. In the present study, the objectives were to evaluate osteogenesis and tissue formation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells-laden CultiSpher S microcarriers during in vitro perfusion culture and after subcutaneous implantation. Microtissues were prepared in dynamic culture using spinner flasks in 28 days. In comparison with 1-week perfusion culture, microt...

  17. Human amniotic membrane, best healing accelerator, and the choice of bone induction for vestibuloplasty technique (an animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Khoshzaban

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad H Samandari1, Shahriar Adibi2, Ahad Khoshzaban3, Sara Aghazadeh5, Parviz Dihimi4, Siamak S Torbaghan6, Saeed H Keshel5, Zohreh Shahabi71Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dentistry Faculty, 2Dental Research of Torabinejad Research Centre, 3Iranian Tissue Bank Research and Preparation Centre, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Dentistry Faculty, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; 5Stem Cells Preparation Unit, Eye Research Center, Farabi Hospital, 6Department of Pathology, Imam Khomeini Medical Centre, 7BMT Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranObjective: To investigate the effects of amniotic membrane (AM in bone induction and wound healing after vestibuloplasty surgery on animal samples while receptacle proteins such as growth factors were considered as accelerators for wound healing and bone induction after these operations.Material and methods: Ten adult dogs (5 females, 5 males; race, Iranian mixed; weight, 44 pounds were included, which underwent surgery for transplantation on mandible and maxillary. AM was used for promoting bone induction and healing.Results: The tissue samples were obtained after 2, 8, and 12 weeks for histology survey. No significant differences were observed between male and female or left and right jaws. AM decreased fibrinoleukocytic exudates and inflammation in the experimental group, had significant effects on bone formation, considerably improves wound healing, and gives rise to bone induction (P < 0.0001.Conclusions: Our study findings indicate that the AM is a suitable cover for different injuries and acellular AM has the potential for rapid improvement and bone induction. The AM contains collagen, laminin, and fibronectin, which provide an appropriate substrate for bone induction. This substrate promoted bone induction and might contribute to induction of the progenitor cells and/or stem

  18. Impedance-matching hearing in Paleozoic reptiles: evidence of advanced sensory perception at an early stage of amniote evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insights into the onset of evolutionary novelties are key to the understanding of amniote origins and diversification. The possession of an impedance-matching tympanic middle ear is characteristic of all terrestrial vertebrates with a sophisticated hearing sense and an adaptively important feature of many modern terrestrial vertebrates. Whereas tympanic ears seem to have evolved multiple times within tetrapods, especially among crown-group members such as frogs, mammals, squamates, turtles, crocodiles, and birds, the presence of true tympanic ears has never been recorded in a Paleozoic amniote, suggesting they evolved fairly recently in amniote history. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed a morphological examination and a phylogenetic analysis of poorly known parareptiles from the Middle Permian of the Mezen River Basin in Russia. We recovered a well-supported clade that is characterized by a unique cheek morphology indicative of a tympanum stretching across large parts of the temporal region to an extent not seen in other amniotes, fossil or extant, and a braincase specialized in showing modifications clearly related to an increase in auditory function, unlike the braincase of any other Paleozoic tetrapod. In addition, we estimated the ratio of the tympanum area relative to the stapedial footplate for the basalmost taxon of the clade, which, at 23:1, is in close correspondence to that of modern amniotes capable of efficient impedance-matching hearing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using modern amniotes as analogues, the possession of an impedance-matching middle ear in these parareptiles suggests unique ecological adaptations potentially related to living in dim-light environments. More importantly, our results demonstrate that already at an early stage of amniote diversification, and prior to the Permo-Triassic extinction event, the complexity of terrestrial vertebrate ecosystems had reached a level that

  19. Evaluation of clinical, antiinflammatory and antiinfective properties of amniotic membrane used for guided tissue regeneration: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory, antiinfective and clinical properties of amniotic membrane (AM when used for guided tissue regeneration (GTR in contained interdental defects. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects participated in this study. Two sites in each subject were randomly assigned into each of the following experimental groups; test group: AM with bone graft and control group: Bone graft only. Clinical parameters included recording site-specific measures of plaque, gingivitis, probing pocket depth (PPD, and clinical attachment loss (CAL. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2 levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF from the test and control sites were measured by using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. The evaluation of bone fill was performed by using digital subtraction technique and morphometric area analysis. One-way analysis of variance followed by the post-hoc test was used for intragroup and intergroup comparison. A P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Combination therapy using an AM increased bone fill and reduced PPD and CAL when compared to controls. AM also resulted in a significant reduction of GCF IL-1β levels and insignificant increase in the hBD-2 levels. Conclusion: From this trial conducted over a period of 24 weeks, AM demonstrated a marked antiinflammatory effect and its use resulted in an improvement in periodontal parameters. AM has the potential to function as a barrier for GTR and the unique properties associated with this material can augment its potential as a matrix for periodontal regeneration.

  20. Amniotic fluid: Source of trophic factors for the developingintestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a complex system,which changes in response to requirements of the body.GIT represents a barrier to the external environment.To achieve this, epithelial cells must renew rapidly. Thisrenewal of epithelial cells starts in the fetal life underthe influence of many GIT peptides by swallowingamniotic fluid (AF). Development and maturation of GITis a very complex cascade that begins long before birthand continues during infancy and childhood by breastfeeding.Many factors like genetic preprogramming,local and systemic endocrine secretions and manytrophic factors (TF) from swallowed AF contribute andmodulate the development and growth of the GIT.GIT morphogenesis, differentiation and functionaldevelopment depend on the activity of various TF in theAF. This manuscript will review the role of AF borne TFin the development of GIT.

  1. Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Thakur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in the body. Often called as Magic Seeds, stem cells are produced in bone marrow and circulate in blood, albeit at a relatively low concentration. These virtues together with the ability of stem cells to grow in tissue culture have paved the way for their applications to generate new and healthy tissues and to replace diseased or injured human organs. Although possibilities of stem cell applications are many, much remains yet to be understood of these remarkable magic seeds. Conclusion: This presentation shall briefly cover the origin of stem cells, the pros and cons of their growth and division, their potential application, and shall outline some examples of the contributions of radiolabeled stem cells, in this rapidly growing branch of biomedical science

  2. Efficacy of Gamma-radiated freeze dried amniotic membrane in prevention of 1ry pterygium recurrence after surgical excision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pterygium is a fibrovascular degenerative growth of conjunctiva extended across the limbus and invading the cornea. The aim is to evaluate the efficacy of Amniotic Membrane Transplantation (AMT) in prevention of recurrence after 1ry pterygium surgery. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on 31 patients with primary pterygia were randomly selected, most of them from rural areas. After obtaining their verbal consent, they went under surgical excision with sutureless freeze dried amniotic membrane transplantation onto bare sclera. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months and the results were evaluated in terms of recurrent pterygium growth. Results: Among the 31 subjects studied, 23 subjects were females and 8 males, 2 cases had recurrence, rest of the cases had a smooth follow up with no complications. Conclusions: Primary pterygium excision with amniotic membrane transplantation is a safe and effective surgical technique with low recurrence rate

  3. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Te, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shanghai Geriatric Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200031 (China); Cheng, Weiwei [International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Huang, Yongyi [Laboratoire PROTEE, Batiment R, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, 83957 LA GARDE Cedex (France); Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Guo, Lihe, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs feeder

  4. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: ► microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. ► microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. ► HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. ► HuAECs feeder layers maintain human iPS cells pluripotency. ► HuAECs negatively regulates the synthesis of

  5. Life History Traits, Protein Evolution, and the Nearly Neutral Theory in Amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuet, Emeric; Nabholz, Benoît; Bonneau, Manon; Mas Carrio, Eduard; Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Ellegren, Hans; Galtier, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that small populations should accumulate deleterious mutations at a faster rate than large populations. The analysis of nonsynonymous (dN) versus synonymous (dS) substitution rates in birds versus mammals, however, has provided contradictory results, questioning the generality of the nearly neutral theory. Here we analyzed the impact of life history traits, taken as proxies of the effective population size, on molecular evolutionary and population genetic processes in amniotes, including the so far neglected reptiles. We report a strong effect of species body mass, longevity, and age of sexual maturity on genome-wide patterns of polymorphism and divergence across the major groups of amniotes, in agreement with the nearly neutral theory. Our results indicate that the rate of protein evolution in amniotes is determined in the first place by the efficiency of purifying selection against deleterious mutations-and this is true of both radical and conservative amino acid changes. Interestingly, the among-species distribution of dN/dS in birds did not follow this general trend: dN/dS was not higher in large, long-lived than in small, short-lived species of birds. We show that this unexpected pattern is not due to a more narrow range of life history traits, a lack of correlation between traits and Ne, or a peculiar distribution of fitness effects of mutations in birds. Our analysis therefore highlights the bird dN/dS ratio as a molecular evolutionary paradox and a challenge for future research. PMID:26944704

  6. Identification of a novel Gig2 gene family specific to non-amniote vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bing Zhang

    Full Text Available Gig2 (grass carp reovirus (GCRV-induced gene 2 is first identified as a novel fish interferon (IFN-stimulated gene (ISG. Overexpression of a zebrafish Gig2 gene can protect cultured fish cells from virus infection. In the present study, we identify a novel gene family that is comprised of genes homologous to the previously characterized Gig2. EST/GSS search and in silico cloning identify 190 Gig2 homologous genes in 51 vertebrate species ranged from lampreys to amphibians. Further large-scale search of vertebrate and invertebrate genome databases indicate that Gig2 gene family is specific to non-amniotes including lampreys, sharks/rays, ray-finned fishes and amphibians. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny analysis reveal lineage-specific expansion of Gig2 gene family and also provide valuable evidence for the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD hypothesis. Although Gig2 family proteins exhibit no significant sequence similarity to any known proteins, a typical Gig2 protein appears to consist of two conserved parts: an N-terminus that bears very low homology to the catalytic domains of poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs, and a novel C-terminal domain that is unique to this gene family. Expression profiling of zebrafish Gig2 family genes shows that some duplicate pairs have diverged in function via acquisition of novel spatial and/or temporal expression under stresses. The specificity of this gene family to non-amniotes might contribute to a large extent to distinct physiology in non-amniote vertebrates.

  7. Isolated cranial distortion mimicking caput succedenum from amniotic band disruption without any neurological abnormality

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Urmila; Ray, Kausik; Garg, Anil

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a term newborn with isolated distortion in the left parietal bone without any other visible congenital anomaly, due to amniotic band disruption. A skull x-ray, ultrasound scan and subsequent MRI scan of the brain did not show any apparent distortion apart from depression and concavity in the left parietal bone. The purpose of this case report is to raise awareness of this possible, mild outcome of this little-known entity, which may mimic caput succedaneum (moulding of t...

  8. Molecular decay of enamel matrix protein genes in turtles and other edentulous amniotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary edentulism (toothlessness has evolved on multiple occasions in amniotes including several mammalian lineages (pangolins, anteaters, baleen whales, birds, and turtles. All edentulous amniote clades have evolved from ancestors with enamel-capped teeth. Previous studies have documented the molecular decay of tooth-specific genes in edentulous mammals, all of which lost their teeth in the Cenozoic, and birds, which lost their teeth in the Cretaceous. By contrast with mammals and birds, tooth loss in turtles occurred in the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 Ma, providing an extended time window for tooth gene degradation in this clade. The release of the painted turtle and Chinese softshell turtle genomes provides an opportunity to recover the decayed remains of tooth-specific genes in Testudines. Results We queried available genomes of Testudines (Chrysemys picta [painted turtle], Pelodiscus sinensis [Chinese softshell turtle], Aves (Anas platyrhynchos [duck], Gallus gallus [chicken], Meleagris gallopavo [turkey], Melopsittacus undulatus [budgerigar], Taeniopygia guttata [zebra finch], and enamelless mammals (Orycteropus afer [aardvark], Choloepus hoffmanni [Hoffmann’s two-toed sloth], Dasypus novemcinctus [nine-banded armadillo] for remnants of three enamel matrix protein (EMP genes with putative enamel-specific functions. Remnants of the AMBN and ENAM genes were recovered in Chrysemys and retain their original synteny. Remnants of AMEL were recovered in both testudines, although there are no shared frameshifts. We also show that there are inactivated copies of AMBN, AMEL and ENAM in representatives of divergent avian lineages including Galloanserae, Passeriformes, and Psittaciformes, and that there are shared frameshift mutations in all three genes that predate the basal split in Neognathae. Among enamelless mammals, all three EMP genes exhibit inactivating mutations in Orycteropus and Choloepus. Conclusions Our results

  9. Corneal Neovascularization Suppressed by TIMP2 Released from Human Amniotic Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Ma; Jun Li

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of culture medium of human amniotic membrane (AM) on corneal neovascularization (CNV) induced by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in mice.Methods: Culture medium of amniotic membrane was prepared by cultivating AM (with epithelium side up) in EGM basic medium for 3 days, and was collected separately to three groups, e.g. Control (EGM only), AM with epithelium (AM) and AM without epithelium (De-AM). Corneal neovascularization was induced in mice by using micropocket assay with Hydron polymer pellets containing 100 ng bFGF. Migration and proliferation of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were performed in Boyden chambers and by using the CyQUANT fluorescence binding assay respectively.The levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 (TIMP1, TIMP2) in culture medium were determined by ELISA assay.Results: CNV induced by bFGF was significantly suppressed by culture medium of amniotic membrane. When the medium was applied as an eyedrop 4 times a day for 7 days,the area of CNV was (2.48±0.76) mm2,(0.64±0.52) mm2 and (1.96±0.65) mm2 incontrol, AM and De-AM group respectively. The migration and proliferation of HUVEC were strongly inhibited by culture medium of AM with epithelium, while the De-AM had no effect on the migration of HUVEC cells. The high level of TIMP2 was found in AM group, but not in De-AM group, while there was no difference in the amount of TIMP1 in medium among three groups.Conclusion: Culture medium of amniotic membrane significantly suppresses the corneal nevovascularization induced by bFGF. The mechanism of which at least in part is that high level of TIMP2 protein secreted or released into the culture medium of AM and inhibition of migration and growth of vascular endothelial cells.

  10. Clinical observation of cryotherapy and amniotic membrane transplantation in the management of Fusarium corneal ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Qiong Xie; Ming-Hong Gao; Hai Yu

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To examine the efficacy and safety of cryotherapy in the management of Fusarium corneal ulcer. METHODS: Retrospective contract analysis of the clinical data of 41 patients(41 eyes)who infected with Fusarium corneal ulcer. All of them underwent focal lesion keratectomy combined with amniotic membrane transplantation between January 2010 and May 2013. The cryotherapy treatment group of 22 cases(22 eyes), non-cryotherapy group of 19 cases(19 eyes). All the cases were followed up for 3~12mo. ...

  11. Novel techniques for the surgical management of abdominopelvic constriction rings in amniotic band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Avery C; Balasundaram, Naveen; Caouette-Laberge, Louise; Papay, Frank A; Lucas, Armand R; Seifarth, Federico G; Doumit, Gaby D

    2015-02-01

    Constriction rings are associated with amniotic band syndrome and most often present in the extremities. Constriction bands of the trunk are rare, and a standard of surgical care remains elusive. Traditional methods of constriction ring excision rely on soft-tissue rearrangement with multiple Z-plasties, but renewed interest in linear closure and limited Z-plasty has emerged. The authors review contemporary literature and report two cases of abdominopelvic constriction ring reconstruction with long-term follow-up. Novel techniques including anterior sheath Y-V plasty, pteruges release of the Scarpa fascia, and limited Z-plasty closure may minimize the need for serrated scar patterns. PMID:25626800

  12. Amniotic membrane induces apoptosis of interferon-γ activated macrophages in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; He, Hua; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Espana, Edgar M.; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.

    2005-01-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM) used as a temporary or permanent graft for ocular surface reconstruction has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. We would like to investigate the mechanism whereby AM induces macrophage apoptosis in vitro. Mouse macrophages, Raw 264.7 cells, were cultured on plastic, type I collagen, corneal stromal slice or AM stromal matrix in serum-free medium with or without interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Cells were stained by LIVE/DEAD assay, Hoechst-33342, and TUNEL assay for cell death and...

  13. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics: Introduction Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Stem Cell Basics Introduction: What are stem cells, and why ...

  14. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... ISSCR Get Involved Media © 2015 International Society for Stem Cell Research Terms of Use Disclaimer Privacy Policy

  15. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  16. Improvement of Amniotic Membrane Method for the Treatment of Corneal Perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Junhua; Wang, Meihua; Zhong, Fulu

    2016-01-01

    In our retrospective study we evaluated the efficacy of an improved amniotic membrane (AM) roll-in filling technique (AMR) combined with multilayer amniotic membrane cover to treat corneal perforation and included 46 cornea perforations ≤ 3 mm in diameter treated with AMR and 20% C3F8 mixed gas filling of the anterior chamber. Anterior chamber depth, aqueous leakage, bubble maintenance time, and cornea morphology were monitored after each operation. The mean diameter of corneal perforation was 1.60 ± 0.55 mm (range 0.5–3) and the success rate of the AMR method for corneal perforation reconstruction was 100% after a single operation. Anterior chamber depth was normally reconstructed without AMR break-off, aqueous leak, or other complications. The mean time of the C3F8 gas bubble in the anterior chamber was 8.6 ± 2.0 days (range 4–12). At the last follow-up, all patients' visual acuity was improved to varying degrees. The mean follow-up time was 11.0 ± 5.6 months (range 3–36). The AMR plugging combined with multilayer AM cover is a secure and easy intervention, which led to 100% success in our study. Various perforations ranging from trauma to infection can be treated with AMR, which is especially practical in those countries where donor cornea availability is limited. PMID:27314009

  17. Recent advances on the functional and evolutionary morphology of the amniote respiratory apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Increased organismic complexity in metazoans was achieved via the specialization of certain parts of the body involved in different faculties (structure-function complexes). One of the most basic metabolic demands of animals in general is a sufficient supply of all tissues with oxygen. Specialized structures for gas exchange (and transport) consequently evolved many times and in great variety among bilaterians. This review focuses on some of the latest advancements that morphological research has added to our understanding of how the respiratory apparatus of the primarily terrestrial vertebrates (amniotes) works and how it evolved. Two main components of the respiratory apparatus, the lungs as the "exchanger" and the ventilatory apparatus as the "active pump," are the focus of this paper. Specific questions related to the exchanger concern the structure of the lungs of the first amniotes and the efficiency of structurally simple snake lungs in health and disease, as well as secondary functions of the lungs in heat exchange during the evolution of sauropod dinosaurs. With regard to the active pump, I discuss how the unique ventilatory mechanism of turtles evolved and how understanding the avian ventilatory strategy affects animal welfare issues in the poultry industry. PMID:27037667

  18. Co-effect of silk and amniotic membrane for tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Kwon; Kim, Jun-Hyung; Eo, Su-Rak

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the feasibility and biocompatibility of a silk scaffold and a composite silk scaffold in terms of new tendon generation using a rabbit Achilles tendon model. The silk scaffold was constructed using a weaving machine, then soaked in a 1% collagen-hyaluronan (HA) solution and air-dried, whereas the composite silk scaffold was composed of a silk scaffold containing a lyophilized collagen-HA substrate. Tenocytes were cultured in vitro to compare cell populations in the two groups. The cellular densities on composite silk scaffolds were 40% higher on average than those on silk scaffolds in 30-day tenocyte cultures. The tendon scaffolds had implanted into Achilles tendon defects in 16 white New Zealand rabbits. Rabbits were randomly divided into the following three groups: group I, silk scaffold alone; group II, composite silk scaffold; and group III, composite silk scaffold wrapped by an amniotic membrane. Implants were harvested 2, 8, and 12 weeks post-implantation. Histological examinations were conducted using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome, and by performing immunohistochemical staining for CD34. After 12 weeks, the three groups were distinguishable based on gross examination. The histological examination revealed more organized collagen fibrils in groups III, which showed a dense, parallel, linear organization of collagen bundles. CD34 staining revealed neoangiogenesis in groups III. The results of this research showed that collagen-HA substrates with amniotic membrane accelerate cellular migration and angiogenesis in neotendons. PMID:27188627

  19. Limbal stem cell transplantation: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atallah MR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marwan Raymond Atallah, Sotiria Palioura, Victor L Perez, Guillermo Amescua Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Regeneration of the corneal surface after an epithelial insult involves division, migration, and maturation of a specialized group of stem cells located in the limbus. Several insults, both intrinsic and extrinsic, can precipitate destruction of the delicate microenvironment of these cells, resulting in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD. In such cases, reepithelialization fails and conjunctival epithelium extends across the limbus, leading to vascularization, persistent epithelial defects, and chronic inflammation. In partial LSCD, conjunctival epitheliectomy, coupled with amniotic membrane transplantation, could be sufficient to restore a healthy surface. In more severe cases and in total LSCD, stem cell transplantation is currently the best curative option. Before any attempts are considered to perform a limbal stem cell transplantation procedure, the ocular surface must be optimized by controlling causative factors and comorbid conditions. These factors include adequate eyelid function or exposure, control of the ocular surface inflammatory status, and a well-lubricated ocular surface. In cases of unilateral LSCD, stem cells can be obtained from the contralateral eye. Newer techniques aim at expanding cells in vitro or in vivo in order to decrease the need for large limbal resection that may jeopardize the “healthy” eye. Patients with bilateral disease can be treated using allogeneic tissue in combination with systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Another emerging option for this subset of patients is the use of noncorneal cells such as mucosal grafts. Finally, the use of keratoprosthesis is reserved for patients who are not candidates for any of the aforementioned options, wherein the choice of the type of keratoprosthesis depends on

  20. Intra amniotic administration and dietary inulin affect the iron status and intestinal functionality of iron deficient broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inulin, a linear beta-fructan, is present in a variety of plants, with relatively high levels of up to 20% in chicory root. It exhibits prebiotic properties and was shown to enhance mineral absorption. Our objectives were to assess the effect of intra-amniotic administration of inulin at 17d of incu...

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXTRA AMNIOTIC FOLEYS CATHETER AND INTRACERVICAL PGE 2 GEL FOR PRE - LABOUR CERVICAL RIPENING

    OpenAIRE

    Digvijay A.; Kshirsagar; Sanjay Kumar; Yamini,

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of extra amniotic Foleys catheter and intra cervical PGE 2 gel in cervical ripening for the successful induction of labor. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, prospective study was conducted in the Dept . of OBGY, KIMS, Karad from M ay 2012 to May 2014. 140 patients at term w...

  2. Identification of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD-inducible genes in human amniotic epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokame Koichi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to dioxins results in a broad range of pathophysiological disorders in human fetuses. In order to evaluate the effects of dioxins on the feto-placental tissues, we analyzed the gene expression in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD treated primary cultures of human amniotic epithelial cells. Methods Human amniotic epithelial cells were dispersed by trypsin from amniotic membranes and cultured in DME/Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 10% FBS. Two weeks after plating, cells were treated with 50 nM TCDD or DMSO (control, further incubated for 48 hrs, and the gene expression was analyzed by DNA microarray technology and quantitative real-time PCR. Results Thirty eight TCDD-inducible genes, including cytochromeP4501A1 and cytochromeP4501B1, were identified. One of the remarkable profiles of the gene expression was the prominent up-regulation of interferon-inducible genes. The genes involved in the interferon gene expression and interferon signaling pathways were also up-regulated. Furthermore, the expression of genes related to collagen synthesis or degradation was enhanced by TCDD. Conclusion Using DNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses, we identified TCDD-inducible genes, including interferon-inducible genes and genes related to collagen synthesis or degradation, in human amniotic epithelial cells.

  3. Atomized Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Direct Delivery to the Airway for Treatment of Lung Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sally Yunsun; Burgess, Janette K; Wang, Yiwei; Kable, Eleanor P W; Weiss, Daniel J; Chan, Hak-Kim; Chrzanowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current treatment regimens for inhalation injury are mainly supportive and rely on self-regeneration processes for recovery. Cell therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is increasingly being investigated for the treatment of inhalation injury. Human amniotic MSCs (hAMSCs) were use

  4. Optimizing Treatment of Intra-amniotic Infection and Early-Onset Postpartum Endometritis: Advantages of Single-Agent Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Stiglich, Norma; Alston, Meredith; vanSwam, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-amniotic infection (IAI) and early-onset postpartum endometritis (PPE) require prompt antibiotic treatment and are generally treated by either of two regimens. A complicated multi-agent regimen is most commonly used, despite a lack of clear evidence that it produces better outcomes than a simpler single-agent regimen.

  5. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  6. Globin gene structure in a reptile supports the transpositional model for amniote α- and β-globin gene evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vidushi S; Ezaz, Tariq; Deakin, Janine E; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2010-12-01

    The haemoglobin protein, required for oxygen transportation in the body, is encoded by α- and β-globin genes that are arranged in clusters. The transpositional model for the evolution of distinct α-globin and β-globin clusters in amniotes is much simpler than the previously proposed whole genome duplication model. According to this model, all jawed vertebrates share one ancient region containing α- and β-globin genes and several flanking genes in the order MPG-C16orf35-(α-β)-GBY-LUC7L that has been conserved for more than 410 million years, whereas amniotes evolved a distinct β-globin cluster by insertion of a transposed β-globin gene from this ancient region into a cluster of olfactory receptors flanked by CCKBR and RRM1. It could not be determined whether this organisation is conserved in all amniotes because of the paucity of information from non-avian reptiles. To fill in this gap, we examined globin gene organisation in a squamate reptile, the Australian bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae). We report here that the α-globin cluster (HBK, HBA) is flanked by C16orf35 and GBY and is located on a pair of microchromosomes, whereas the β-globin cluster is flanked by RRM1 on the 3' end and is located on the long arm of chromosome 3. However, the CCKBR gene that flanks the β-globin cluster on the 5' end in other amniotes is located on the short arm of chromosome 5 in P. vitticeps, indicating that a chromosomal break between the β-globin cluster and CCKBR occurred at least in the agamid lineage. Our data from a reptile species provide further evidence to support the transpositional model for the evolution of β-globin gene cluster in amniotes. PMID:21116705

  7. Substance P combined with epidermal stem cells promotes wound healing and nerve regeneration in diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Fei-bin Zhu; Xiang-jing Fang; De-wu Liu; Ying Shao; Hong-yan Zhang; Yan Peng; Qing-ling Zhong; Yong-tie Li; De-ming Liu

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous substance P accelerates wound healing in diabetes, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we established a rat model by intraperitoneally injecting streptozotocin. Four wounds (1.8 cm diameter) were drilled using a self-made punch onto the back, bilateral to the vertebral column, and then treated using amniotic membrane with epidermal stem cells and/or substance P around and in the middle of the wounds. With the combined treatment the wound-healing rate was 100% at 14 da...

  8. Textured fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Gerhard K.

    1995-01-01

    The rheology and development morphology of textured fluids have been investigated. The first fluid considered in this work was a liquid crystalline polymer consisting of isotropic and anisotropic solutions of poly-p-phenyleneterephthalamide (PPT) in sulfuric acid. The second textured fluid considered in this work was an immiscible polymer blend consisting of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and nylon 6,6. The role played by liquid crystalline order (LCO) and a polydomain ...

  9. Fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Pijush K; Dowling, David R

    2011-01-01

    Fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids behave and interact under various forces and in various applied situations-whether in the liquid or gaseous state or both-is introduced and comprehensively covered in this widely adopted text. Revised and updated by Dr. David Dowling, Fluid Mechanics, 5e is suitable for both a first or second course in fluid mechanics at the graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Along with more than 100 new figures, the text has been reorganized and consolidated to provide a better flow and more cohesion of topics.Changes made to the

  10. A prospective study of effect of amniotic fluid index less than 5 at term on perinatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Padmini C. P.; Chaitra R; Indra N; Sriram Adithya M

    2016-01-01

    Background: To study the effect of oligohydramnios in pregnancy and its value in predicting adverse perinatal outcome. Methods: A prospective case control study of pregnancy outcome in 100 cases with ultrasound diagnosis of oligohydramnios at term compared with 100 controls with no oligohydramnios. The study was done over a period of 3 years at SSMC Tumkur, India. Results: Oligohydramnios at term is associated with poor perinatal outcome. Significant increase in abnormal foetal heart ra...

  11. The association between the acute psychobiological stress reactivity in second-trimester pregnant women and amniotic fluid cortisol and cortisone

    OpenAIRE

    Pearl Ghaemmaghami; Dainese, Sara M.; Roberto La Marca; Roland Zimmermann; Ulrike Ehlert

    2012-01-01

    Rationale/statement of the problem : Scientific evidence indicating that excessive stress during human pregnancy can have long-lasting effects on mother and child is increasing. But the underlying biological mechanisms remain elusive. Recent findings suggest a key role of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and the placental enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 2 (11β-HSD2). This enzyme inactivates cortisol (F) to cortisone (E), thereby protecting the f...

  12. A transgenic quail model that enables dynamic imaging of amniote embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, David; Benazeraf, Bertrand; Wallingford, Allison; Filla, Michael; Yang, Jennifer; Fraser, Scott E; Lansford, Rusty

    2015-08-15

    Embryogenesis is the coordinated assembly of tissues during morphogenesis through changes in individual cell behaviors and collective cell movements. Dynamic imaging, combined with quantitative analysis, is ideal for investigating fundamental questions in developmental biology involving cellular differentiation, growth control and morphogenesis. However, a reliable amniote model system that is amenable to the rigors of extended, high-resolution imaging and cell tracking has been lacking. To address this shortcoming, we produced a novel transgenic quail that ubiquitously expresses nuclear localized monomer cherry fluorescent protein (chFP). We characterize the expression pattern of chFP and provide concrete examples of how Tg(PGK1:H2B-chFP) quail can be used to dynamically image and analyze key morphogenetic events during embryonic stages X to 11. PMID:26209648

  13. Phacoemulsification after penetrating keratoplasty with autologous limbal transplant and amniotic membrane transplant in chemical burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Ritu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient who had earlier penetrating keratoplasty with amniotic membrane transplant and autologous limbal cell transplant for chemical injury who underwent cataract surgery by phacoaspiration. A posterior limbal incision with corneal valve was made superotemporally with extreme caution to avoid damage to the limbal graft. Aspiration flow rates and vacuum were kept low to avoid any turbulence during surgery. A 6.0 mm optic diameter acrylic foldable intraocular lens was inserted in the bag. The patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 6/12 at 10 months′ follow-up with a clear corneal graft. We conclude that caution during wound construction and phacoaspiration can help preserve corneal and limbal graft integrity in patients undergoing cataract surgery after corneal graft and limbal transplantation.

  14. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    In his influential essay on markets, An essay on framing and overflowing (1998), Michel Callon writes that `the growing complexity of industrialized societies [is] due in large part to the movements of the technosciences, which are causing connections and interdependencies to proliferate'. This p...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products.......'. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...

  15. The use of Amniotic membrane in the treatment of Burns in Children a clinical trial at the university Teaching Hospital, Lusaka

    CERN Document Server

    Katebe, K R

    1995-01-01

    This is a clinical trial which was carried out at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka from the 1st of July to the 31st December, 1994. It involved treatment of burns in forty children using gamma irradiated amniotic membrane produced at the hospital. The results showed that it is feasible to produce Gamma irradiated biological dressings from amniotic membrane at this hospital. The amniotic membrane was easy to apply on burns and the treatment was acceptable to the majority of parents with burnt children. The use of amniotic membrane was non inflammatory to the wounds in all forty patients (100%), reduced wound infection in thirty three patients (82.5%), increased the rate of wound healing in thirty nine patients (97.5%), and resulted in good quality wound healing in thirty one patients (77.5%). Therefore, the treatment offers a good alternative in the treatment of burns in children at the hospital

  16. The use of Amniotic membrane in the treatment of Burns in Children: a clinical trial at the university Teaching Hospital, Lusaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a clinical trial which was carried out at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka from the 1st of July to the 31st December, 1994. It involved treatment of burns in forty children using gamma irradiated amniotic membrane produced at the hospital. The results showed that it is feasible to produce Gamma irradiated biological dressings from amniotic membrane at this hospital. The amniotic membrane was easy to apply on burns and the treatment was acceptable to the majority of parents with burnt children. The use of amniotic membrane was non inflammatory to the wounds in all forty patients (100%), reduced wound infection in thirty three patients (82.5%), increased the rate of wound healing in thirty nine patients (97.5%), and resulted in good quality wound healing in thirty one patients (77.5%). Therefore, the treatment offers a good alternative in the treatment of burns in children at the hospital

  17. Primary Adult Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Cultures on Human Amniotic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhal Shweta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells grow well on surfaces that provide an extracellular matrix. Our aim was to establish primary adult human RPE cell cultures that retain their epithelial morphology in vitro using human amniotic membrane (hAM as substrate. Materials and Methods: Human cadaver eyeballs (16 were obtained from the eye bank after corneal trephination. RPE cells were harvested by a mechanical dissection of the inner choroid surface (10, group 1 or by b enzymatic digestion using 0.25% Trypsin/0.02% EDTA (6, group 2. The cells were explanted onto de-epithelialized hAM, nourished using DMEM/HAMS F-12 media and monitored for growth under the phase contrast microscope. Cell cultures were characterised by whole mount studies and paraffin sections. Growth data in the two groups were compared using the students′ ′t′ test. Results: Eleven samples (68.75% showed positive cultures with small, hexagonal cells arising from around the explant which formed a confluent and progressively pigmented monolayer. Whole mounts showed closely placed polygonal cells with heavily pigmented cytoplasm and indistinct nuclei. The histologic sections showed monolayers of cuboidal epithelium with variable pigmentation within the cytoplasm. Growth was seen by day 6-23 (average 11.5 days in the mechanical group, significantly earlier ( P Conclusions: Primary adult human RPE cell cultures retain epithelial morphology in vitro when cultured on human amniotic membranes . Mechanical dissection of the inner choroid surface appears to be an effective method of isolating RPE cells and yields earlier growth in cultures as compared to isolation by enzymatic digestion

  18. The evolution of epigenetic regulators CTCF and BORIS/CTCFL in amniotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A Hore

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available CTCF is an essential, ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein responsible for insulator function, nuclear architecture, and transcriptional control within vertebrates. The gene CTCF was proposed to have duplicated in early mammals, giving rise to a paralogue called "brother of regulator of imprinted sites" (BORIS or CTCFL with DNA binding capabilities similar to CTCF, but testis-specific expression in humans and mice. CTCF and BORIS have opposite regulatory effects on human cancer-testis genes, the anti-apoptotic BAG1 gene, the insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 imprint control region (IGF2/H19 ICR, and show mutually exclusive expression in humans and mice, suggesting that they are antagonistic epigenetic regulators. We discovered orthologues of BORIS in at least two reptilian species and found traces of its sequence in the chicken genome, implying that the duplication giving rise to BORIS occurred much earlier than previously thought. We analysed the expression of CTCF and BORIS in a range of amniotes by conventional and quantitative PCR. BORIS, as well as CTCF, was found widely expressed in monotremes (platypus and reptiles (bearded dragon, suggesting redundancy or cooperation between these genes in a common amniote ancestor. However, we discovered that BORIS expression was gonad-specific in marsupials (tammar wallaby and eutherians (cattle, implying that a functional change occurred in BORIS during the early evolution of therian mammals. Since therians show imprinting of IGF2 but other vertebrate taxa do not, we speculate that CTCF and BORIS evolved specialised functions along with the evolution of imprinting at this and other loci, coinciding with the restriction of BORIS expression to the germline and potential antagonism with CTCF.

  19. The Evolution of Epigenetic Regulators CTCF and BORIS/CTCFL in Amniotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Timothy A.; Deakin, Janine E.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    CTCF is an essential, ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein responsible for insulator function, nuclear architecture, and transcriptional control within vertebrates. The gene CTCF was proposed to have duplicated in early mammals, giving rise to a paralogue called “brother of regulator of imprinted sites” (BORIS or CTCFL) with DNA binding capabilities similar to CTCF, but testis-specific expression in humans and mice. CTCF and BORIS have opposite regulatory effects on human cancer-testis genes, the anti-apoptotic BAG1 gene, the insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 imprint control region (IGF2/H19 ICR), and show mutually exclusive expression in humans and mice, suggesting that they are antagonistic epigenetic regulators. We discovered orthologues of BORIS in at least two reptilian species and found traces of its sequence in the chicken genome, implying that the duplication giving rise to BORIS occurred much earlier than previously thought. We analysed the expression of CTCF and BORIS in a range of amniotes by conventional and quantitative PCR. BORIS, as well as CTCF, was found widely expressed in monotremes (platypus) and reptiles (bearded dragon), suggesting redundancy or cooperation between these genes in a common amniote ancestor. However, we discovered that BORIS expression was gonad-specific in marsupials (tammar wallaby) and eutherians (cattle), implying that a functional change occurred in BORIS during the early evolution of therian mammals. Since therians show imprinting of IGF2 but other vertebrate taxa do not, we speculate that CTCF and BORIS evolved specialised functions along with the evolution of imprinting at this and other loci, coinciding with the restriction of BORIS expression to the germline and potential antagonism with CTCF. PMID:18769711

  20. The evolution of epigenetic regulators CTCF and BORIS/CTCFL in amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Timothy A; Deakin, Janine E; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2008-08-01

    CTCF is an essential, ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein responsible for insulator function, nuclear architecture, and transcriptional control within vertebrates. The gene CTCF was proposed to have duplicated in early mammals, giving rise to a paralogue called "brother of regulator of imprinted sites" (BORIS or CTCFL) with DNA binding capabilities similar to CTCF, but testis-specific expression in humans and mice. CTCF and BORIS have opposite regulatory effects on human cancer-testis genes, the anti-apoptotic BAG1 gene, the insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 imprint control region (IGF2/H19 ICR), and show mutually exclusive expression in humans and mice, suggesting that they are antagonistic epigenetic regulators. We discovered orthologues of BORIS in at least two reptilian species and found traces of its sequence in the chicken genome, implying that the duplication giving rise to BORIS occurred much earlier than previously thought. We analysed the expression of CTCF and BORIS in a range of amniotes by conventional and quantitative PCR. BORIS, as well as CTCF, was found widely expressed in monotremes (platypus) and reptiles (bearded dragon), suggesting redundancy or cooperation between these genes in a common amniote ancestor. However, we discovered that BORIS expression was gonad-specific in marsupials (tammar wallaby) and eutherians (cattle), implying that a functional change occurred in BORIS during the early evolution of therian mammals. Since therians show imprinting of IGF2 but other vertebrate taxa do not, we speculate that CTCF and BORIS evolved specialised functions along with the evolution of imprinting at this and other loci, coinciding with the restriction of BORIS expression to the germline and potential antagonism with CTCF. PMID:18769711

  1. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  2. Applications of Microfluidics in Stem Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiucen; Austin, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell research can significantly benefit from recent advances of microfluidics technology. In a rationally designed microfluidics device, analyses of stem cells can be done in a much deeper and wider way than in a conventional tissue culture dish. Miniaturization makes analyses operated in a high-throughput fashion, while controls of fluids help to reconstruct the physiological environments. Through integration with present characterization tools like fluorescent microscope, microfluidics...

  3. Strain and stress variations in the human amniotic membrane and fresh corpse autologous sciatic nerve anastomosis in a model of sciatic nerve injury☆

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Chuangang; Zhang, Qiao; Yang, Qi; Zhu, QingSan

    2012-01-01

    A 10-mm long sciatic nerve injury model was established in fresh normal Chinese patient cadavers. Amniotic membrane was harvested from healthy maternal placentas and was prepared into multilayered, coiled, tubular specimens. Sciatic nerve injury models were respectively anastomosed using the autologous cadaveric sciatic nerve and human amniotic membrane. Tensile test results showed that maximal loading, maximal displacement, maximal stress, and maximal strain of sciatic nerve injury models an...

  4. Why STEM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…

  5. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the......A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... model reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and...

  6. Fluid juggling

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 66th Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamics Division of the American Physical Society. We show the curious behaviour of a light ball interacting with a liquid jet. For certain conditions, a ball can be suspended into a slightly inclined liquid jet. We studied this phenomenon using a high speed camera. The visualizations show that the object can be `juggled' for a variety of flow conditions. A simple calculation showed that the ball remains at a stable position due to a Bernoulli-like effect. The phenomenon is very stable and easy to reproduce.

  7. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  8. 羊水过多孕妇胎膜组织中水通道蛋白-1、3、8、9 mRNA的表达%Expression of aquaporin-1,3,8,9 mRNA in human amniotic membranes in polyhydranmios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧姝; 郝荣增; 熊正方

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨水通道蛋白-1、3、8、9在羊水平衡分子机制中的可能作用.方法 收集足月选择性剖宫产分娩的羊水过多和正常孕妇的胎膜组织样本各5例,运用RT-PCR方法检测胎膜组织中水通道蛋白-1、3、8、9 mRNA的表达.结果 水通道蛋白-9 mRNA的表达水平在羊水过多组胎膜组织的水平(1.1403±0.0831)显著高于对照组(0.5903±0.1909)(P=0.002);水通道蛋白-1、3和8 mRNA在羊水过多组和对照组胎膜的表达差异无统计学意义(P=0.972,0.242,0.608).结论 水通道蛋白-9 mRNA在人羊水过多病例的胎膜组织表达显著升高,在维持羊水量及羊水成分的平衡中可能发挥重要作用.%Objective To determine the expression of aquaporin-1,3,8,9 mRNA (AQP-1,3,8, 9) in amniotic membranes in pregnant women with polyhydramnios. Methods Amniotic membranes were collected from women who presented with either polyhydramnios (n= 5)or normal amniotic fluid volume (control, n= 5) underwent elective cesarean sections at term. The AQP-1,3,8,9 mRNA expression were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The expression of AQP-9 mRNA on fetal membranes were significantly higher in polyhydramnios groups (1. 1403±0. 0831) than that of control (0. 5903±0. 1909) (P = 0. 002), although the expression of AQP-1, 3 and 8 showed no significant difference between the two groups (P= 0. 972, 0. 242,0. 608, respectively). Conclusions AQP-9 may play an important role in maintaining the volume and the balance of different components of amniotic fluid in polyhydramnios cases.

  9. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  10. Fibrin-glue assisted multilayered amniotic membrane transplantation in surgical management of pediatric corneal limbal dermoid: a novel approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pirouzian, Amir; Ly, Hang; Holz, Huck; Sudesh, Rattehalli S.; Chuck, Roy S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To report a new surgical technique for excising pediatric corneal limbal dermoid and the post-resection ocular surface reconstruction. Methods We describe a method of deep lamellar excision followed by sutureless multilayered amniotic membrane transplantation in surgical management of corneal limbal dermoid. Result This technique achieves a rapid corneal re-epithelization, reduces post-operative pain, and will diminish post-operative scarring. Preoperative corneal astigmatism will per...

  11. Limb body wall complex, amniotic band sequence, or new syndrome caused by mutation in IQ Motif containing K (IQCK)?

    OpenAIRE

    Kruszka, Paul; Uwineza, Annette; Mutesa, Leon; Martinez, Ariel F; Abe, Yu; Zackai, Elaine H.; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Chung, Brian; Stevenson, Roger E.; Adelstein, Robert S.; Ma, Xuefei; Mullikin, James C.; Hong, Sung-Kook; Muenke, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Limb body wall complex (LBWC) and amniotic band sequence (ABS) are multiple congenital anomaly conditions with craniofacial, limb, and ventral wall defects. LBWC and ABS are considered separate entities by some, and a continuum of severity of the same condition by others. The etiology of LBWC/ABS remains unknown and multiple hypotheses have been proposed. One individual with features of LBWC and his unaffected parents were whole exome sequenced and Sanger sequenced as confirmation of the muta...

  12. Radiosterilization of freeze-dried human amniotic Membrane and its use in the treatment of burn wound. Algerian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study evaluates the usefulness of human amniotic membrane as biological dressing and its efficacy in the treatment of burns comparatively to the conventional dressing. We reported the practical methods of preparation, preservation and radiation sterilisation of amnion, and the clinical results of its successful use in the treatment of 80 cases of superficial and intermediate depth dermal burns. The increased rate of healing, pain relief, good adhesion to the bed wound and absence of infection were observed

  13. Inference of the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes from comparative gene mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Uno

    Full Text Available Comparative genome analysis of non-avian reptiles and amphibians provides important clues about the process of genome evolution in tetrapods. However, there is still only limited information available on the genome structures of these organisms. Consequently, the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes in tetrapods remain poorly understood. We constructed chromosome maps of functional genes for the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis, the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis, and the Western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis and compared them with genome and/or chromosome maps of other tetrapod species (salamander, lizard, snake, chicken, and human. This is the first report on the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes inferred from comparative genomic analysis of vertebrates, which cover all major non-avian reptilian taxa (Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines. The eight largest macrochromosomes of the turtle and chicken were equivalent, and 11 linkage groups had also remained intact in the crocodile. Linkage groups of the chicken macrochromosomes were also highly conserved in X. tropicalis, two squamates, and the salamander, but not in human. Chicken microchromosomal linkages were conserved in the squamates, which have fewer microchromosomes than chicken, and also in Xenopus and the salamander, which both lack microchromosomes; in the latter, the chicken microchromosomal segments have been integrated into macrochromosomes. Our present findings open up the possibility that the ancestral amniotes and tetrapods had at least 10 large genetic linkage groups and many microchromosomes, which corresponded to the chicken macro- and microchromosomes, respectively. The turtle and chicken might retain the microchromosomes of the amniote protokaryotype almost intact. The decrease in number and/or disappearance of microchromosomes by repeated

  14. The Limb-Abdominal Wall Complex Defects, a form of Amniotic Band Sydrome: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sudhanshu Ku.; Maharana, Sidharth Sankar; Subudhi, Monalisa; Rao, P. V. Subha

    2013-01-01

    The limb-body wall complex defects a form of amniotic band syndrome which consists of a polymal formation with a thoracic and /or an abdominal-schisis, eventration of the internal organ and anomalies of the extremities. We are presenting a case of a limb-body wall complex defect with the phenotype of a placenta-abdominal attachment, anomalies of the abdominal wall defect, absence of the right lower limb and genitourinary defects.

  15. The Limb-Abdominal Wall Complex Defects, a form of Amniotic Band Sydrome: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudhanshu Ku; Maharana, Sidharth Sankar; Subudhi, Monalisa; Rao, P V Subha

    2013-03-01

    The limb-body wall complex defects a form of amniotic band syndrome which consists of a polymal formation with a thoracic and /or an abdominal-schisis, eventration of the internal organ and anomalies of the extremities. We are presenting a case of a limb-body wall complex defect with the phenotype of a placenta-abdominal attachment, anomalies of the abdominal wall defect, absence of the right lower limb and genitourinary defects. PMID:23634417

  16. Amniotic membrane transplant with a special technique (Motowa′s sandwich technique in Mooren′s ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Al Motowa

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic membrane transplant with "Motowa′s sandwich technique" resulted in the preservation of the anatomical integrity and progression of disease was halted along with an improved vision. This technique is a novel surgical modality in treating Mooren′s ulcer. Further study on a large cohort of patients is required for evidence-based data to verify the outcome of this initial case report.

  17. Pluripotent stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Junying; Thomson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The derivation of human embryonic stem cells 10 years ago ignited an explosion of public interest in stem cells, yet this achievement depended on prior decades of research on mouse embryonic carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells. In turn, the recent derivation of mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells depended on the prior studies on mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can self-renew indefinitely in vitro while ma...

  18. Method, apparatus and system for controlling fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Burch, Joesph V.

    2007-10-30

    A system, apparatus and method of controlling the flow of a fluid are provided. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a flow control device includes a valve having a flow path defined therethrough and a valve seat in communication with the flow path with a valve stem disposed in the valve seat. The valve stem and valve seat are cooperatively configured to cause mutual relative linear displacement thereof in response to rotation of the valve stem. A gear member is coupled with the rotary stem and a linear positioning member includes a portion which complementarily engages the gear member. Upon displacement of the linear positioning member along a first axis, the gear member and rotary valve stem are rotated about a second axis and the valve stem and valve seat are mutually linearly displaced to alter the flow of fluid through the valve.

  19. Reconstruction of Rabbit Corneal Layer Composed of Corneal Fibroblasts and Corneal Epithelium on the Lyophilized Amniotic Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers have employed the cryopreserved amniotic membrane(CAM) and corneal epithelial cells in the treatment of a severely damaged burned cornea, with corneal epithelial cells cultured on an amniotic membrane (AM). The lyophilized amniotic membrane (LAM) has a higher graft take and a longer shelf life; it is easier to store and safer because of gamma irradiation. Two Teflon rings(Ahn's supporter) were made for culturing the cells on the LAM, and were then used to support the LAM. To reconstruct a corneal layer composed of corneal fibroblasts and epithelium, the corneal fibroblasts were first cultivated on the stromal side of LAM for five days, followed by epithelial cells culture on the epithelial side, by using the air-liquid interface culture. The reconstructed corneal layer composed of corneal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells has a much healthier basal layer of corneal epithelium than the reconstructed corneal epithelium, which was got by using only corneal epithelial cells, and resembles the epithelium of normal corneas, without the horny layer. Thus, the reconstruction of the corneal layer by using a LAM is considered to be a good in vitro model, not only for its application in toxicological test kits, but also for transplantation in patients with a severely damaged cornea.

  20. Pathogenesis of diabetic foot and stem cells transplantation%糖尿病足的发病机制及干细胞移植治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于江苏; 王颜刚

    2011-01-01

    背景:干细胞移植治疗糖尿病足主要是根据干细胞可以在体内分化为血管内皮细胞和平滑肌细胞,分泌大量的促血管生成因子,形成新生血管的原理,改善和恢复下肢血流,达到治疗下肢缺血的目的.目的:总结近年来在糖尿病足发病机制和干细胞治疗方面取得的研究进展.方法:应用计算机检索1997-01/2011-01 PubMed、Sciencedirect数据库相关文章,检索词为"diabetic foot,lower limb ischemia,neuropathy,microangiopathy,macroangiopathy,stem cell therapy",并限定文章语言种类为English.分类筛选符合研究目的文献进行评价,最终纳入32篇文献.结果与结论:通过对不同来源干细胞生物学特性及移植效果的比较,得出脐带、脂肪组织、羊水来源间充质干细胞,取材方便,分离容易,增殖能力强,具有与骨髓干细胞相似的生物学特性,有望成为干细胞移植的理想选择.还需要对干细胞的生物学特性、移植剂量、时机、疗程和致瘤性等方面进行研究.%BACKGROUND: Stem cell transplantation for treatment of diabetic foot is mainly based on in vivo differentiation of stem cells tovascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells to secrete a large amount of angiogenic factors to form new blood vessels,improves and restores lower limb blood flow to achieve the purpose of treating lower limb ischemia.OBJECTIVE: To summarize recent research achievements at pathogenesis of diabetic foot and stem cell transplantation andprovide direction for further research.METHODS: We retrieved PubMed and Sciencedirect Databases for relevant articles published from January 1997 to January2011. The key words were "diabeticfoot, lowerlimbischemia, neuropathy, microangiopathy, macroangiopathy, stem cell therapy"inEnglish. Finally, a total of 32 articles were included.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord, fat tissue and amniotic fluid may be optimal choicesby comparison of biological

  1. Biomechanical and physical properties of human amniotic membrane after gamma irradiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At MINT Tissue Bank, amniotic membranes are procured routinely from placenta of screened healthy mothers. They are processed, dried, packed and sterilised using gamma irradiation at minimum dose of 17 kGy. The sterilised membranes are delivered to several hospitals and clinics, locally and even abroad. The membranes are effectively used on patients with first and second degree bums, superficial wounds and scalds. At present the membrane is given 2 years expiry date if stored in dark and cool place. A study was carried to validate this expiry period under the quality system by determining any changes in biomechanical properties of amnion after irradiation and at various storage times. Random samples of amnion, stored at room temperature in dark were picked up for physical tests including tensile strength and elongation using Instron Universal Testing Instrument (Model 43 1 0) at MINT. After 4 months storage, irradiated freeze-dried amnion (79.79+20.27 kg/cm sup 2) had significantly lower tensile strength compared to air-dried amnion (304.97+66.92 kg/cm sup 2) at P<0.05. As for elongation, there was no significant different between air-dried and freeze dried. Further studies on the stability of air-dried amnion over storage time showed that there was no significant reduction in tensile strength (432.37 +208.1 1 kg/cm sup 2) and elongation (I 1.68+1.63%) for radiation sterilised amnion up to 12 months storage. Combination of radiation and storage at room temperature also did not alter the stability of the products stored up to 20 months when compared to newly processed amnion. We could not find any changes in physical appearance such as colour for amnion which have been kept for almost 5 years. Therefore the expiry date of 2 years (24 months) given to our amnion is acceptable. At present, MINT Tissue Bank only process air-dried amnion since the cost of processing of amniotic membranes can be reduced by 40% compared to freeze drying. Water content for both drying

  2. R Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A theory of collisionless fluids is developed in a unified picture, where nonrotating $(widetilde{Omega_1}=widetilde{Omega_2}= widetilde{Omega_3}=0$ figures with some given random velocity component distributions, and rotating $(widetilde{Omega_1} ewidetilde{Omega_2} e widetilde{Omega_3} $ figures with a different random velocity component distributions, make adjoint configurations to the same system. R fluids are defined as ideal, self-gravitating fluids satisfying the virial theorem assumptions, in presence of systematic rotation around each of the principal axes of inertia. To this aim, mean and rms angular velocities and mean and rms tangential velocity components are expressed, by weighting on the moment of inertia and the mass, respectively. The figure rotation is defined as the mean angular velocity, weighted on the moment of inertia, with respectto a selected axis. The generalized tensor virial equations (Caimmi and Marmo 2005 are formulated for R fluidsand further attention is devoted to axisymmetric configurations where, for selected coordinateaxes, a variation in figure rotation has to be counterbalanced by a variation in anisotropy excess and viceversa. A microscopical analysis of systematic and random motions is performed under a fewgeneral hypotheses, by reversing the sign of tangential or axial velocity components of anassigned fraction of particles, leaving the distribution function and other parametersunchanged (Meza 2002. The application of the reversion process to tangential velocitycomponents is found to imply the conversion of random motion rotation kinetic energy intosystematic motion rotation kinetic energy. The application ofthe reversion process to axial velocity components is found to imply the conversionof random motion translation kinetic energy into systematic motion translation kinetic energy, and theloss related to a change of reference frame is expressed in terms of systematic motion (imaginary rotation kinetic

  3. Conditioned medium from human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells limits infarct size and enhances angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Patrizia; Malpasso, Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Cervio, Elisabetta; Calvillo, Laura; Copes, Francesco; Pisano, Federica; Mura, Manuela; Kleijn, Lennaert; de Boer, Rudolf A; Viarengo, Gianluca; Rosti, Vittorio; Spinillo, Arsenio; Roccio, Marianna; Gnecchi, Massimiliano

    2015-05-01

    The paracrine properties of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMCs) have not been fully elucidated. The goal of the present study was to elucidate whether hAMCs can exert beneficial paracrine effects on infarcted rat hearts, in particular through cardioprotection and angiogenesis. Moreover, we aimed to identify the putative active paracrine mediators. hAMCs were isolated, expanded, and characterized. In vitro, conditioned medium from hAMC (hAMC-CM) exhibited cytoprotective and proangiogenic properties. In vivo, injection of hAMC-CM into infarcted rat hearts limited the infarct size, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ventricular remodeling, and strongly promoted capillary formation at the infarct border zone. Gene array analysis led to the identification of 32 genes encoding for the secreted factors overexpressed by hAMCs. Among these, midkine and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine were also upregulated at the protein level. Furthermore, high amounts of several proangiogenic factors were detected in hAMC-CM by cytokine array. Our results strongly support the concept that the administration of hAMC-CM favors the repair process after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25824141

  4. Clinical application of amniotic membranes on a patient with epidermolysis bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pardo, M E; Reyes Frías, M L; Ramos Durón, L E; Gutiérrez Salgado, E; Gómez, J C; Marín, M A; Luna Zaragoza, D

    1999-01-01

    The case of a patient with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa treated with radiosterilised amniotic membranes is presented. The disorder is a congenital disease characterised by a poor desmosomal junction in the keratinocyte membrane. After proper donor screening, amnios were collected at Hospital Central Sur de Alta Especialidad (HCSAE), PEMEX and microbiological analysis was performed at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, FQUNAM, (Biology Dept. of the Chemistry Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico), before and after radiation sterilisation. Processing, packaging and sterilisation were performed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, (National Nuclear Research Institute). The patient, a ten-year-old boy with severe malnutrition, extensive loss of skin and pseudomonad infection in the whole body, was treated with gentle debridement in a Hubbard bath. Later amnion application was performed with sterilised amnios by using two different processes, in one of which the amnion was sterilised with paracetic acid, preserved in glycerol, kindly donated by the German Institute for Tissue and Cell Replacement and applied by Dr. Johannes C. Bruck, IAEA visiting expert, and the other amnion was processed at ININ: air dried and sterilised by gamma radiation at dose of 30 kGy. After spontaneous epithelisation was successfully promoted for seven days, the pain was alleviated and mobility was improved in a few hours and the patient's general condition was so improved that in a month he was discharged. Unfortunately, because this disease is revertive and has malignant degeneration, the prognosis is not good. PMID:10853786

  5. Optical mechanical refinement of human amniotic membrane by dehydration and cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuji; Kubota, Akira; Yokokura, Shunji; Uematsu, Masafumi; Shi, Dong; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Quantock, Andrew J; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for refining the optical and mechanical properties of human amniotic membrane (AM) to provide ophthalmic transparent implants for use during severe donor cornea shortages. AM was allowed to gradually dehydrate at 4-8 °C with and without chemical cross-linking. To improve the transparency of AM, a simple dehydration process using a refrigerator at 4-8 °C overnight was examined. For further improvements, dehydrated AM was then cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxy-succimide before rehydration. Light transmittance and tensile strength of individual specimens were evaluated. Light transmittance of AM improved from 50.9-77.7% at 550 nm by this simple low temperature dehydration process. Its high light transmittance was partially maintained at 70.1%, even after rehydration with normal saline. Interestingly, chemically cross-linked AM showed a significantly greater light transmittance of 81.5% under wet conditions. In addition, tensile strength was significantly increased after cross-linking from 2.32 N/mm(2) (native tissue) to 11.78 N/mm(2) (cross-linked specimens). Light transmittance and tensile strength were successfully improved by these approaches, including low temperature dehydration with and without chemical cross-linking. The use of refined AM could be feasible for use in current and future ophthalmic treatments. PMID:22489071

  6. Bioreactor systems for tissue engineering II. Strategies for the expansion and directed differentiation of stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, Cornelia [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Griensven, Martijn van [Ludwig Boltzmann Institut fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Traumatologie, Wien (Austria); Poertner, Ralf (eds.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. Biotechnologie und Verfahrenstechnik

    2010-07-01

    Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane, by S. Wolbank, M. van Griensven, R. Grillari-Voglauer, and A. Peterbauer-Scherb; - Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Tissues: Primitive Cells with Potential for Clinical and Tissue Engineering Applications, by P. Moretti, T. Hatlapatka, D. Marten, A. Lavrentieva, I. Majore, R. Hass and C. Kasper; - Isolation, Characterization, Differentiation, and Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, by J. W. Kuhbier, B. Weyand, C. Radtke, P. M. Vogt, C. Kasper and K. Reimers; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Characteristics and Perspectives, by T. Cantz and U. Martin; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Regenerative Medicine and Biology, by D. Pei, J. Xu, Q. Zhuang, H.-F. Tse and M. A. Esteban; - Production Process for Stem Cell Based Therapeutic Implants: Expansion of the Production Cell Line and Cultivation of Encapsulated Cells, by C. Weber, S. Pohl, R. Poertner, P. Pino-Grace, D. Freimark, C. Wallrapp, P. Geigle and P. Czermak; - Cartilage Engineering from Mesenchymal Stem Cells, by C. Goepfert, A. Slobodianski, A.F. Schilling, P. Adamietz and R. Poertner; - Outgrowth Endothelial Cells: Sources, Characteristics and Potential Applications in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, by S. Fuchs, E. Dohle, M. Kolbe, C. J. Kirkpatrick; - Basic Science and Clinical Application of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine, by I. Ribitsch, J. Burk, U. Delling, C. Geissler, C. Gittel, H. Juelke, W. Brehm; - Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Clinical Application: Harnessing Paracrine Roles and Niche Mechanisms, by R. M. El Backly, R. Cancedda; - Clinical Application of Stem Cells in the Cardiovascular System, C. Stamm, K. Klose, Y.-H. Choi. (orig.)

  7. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Spongy Denuded Amniotic Membrane Based Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Taghiabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As a biological tissue material, amniotic membrane (AM has low immunogenicity and to date has been widely adopted in clinical practice. However, some features such as low biomechanical consistency and rapid biodegradation is limited the application of AM. Therefore, in this study, we fabricated a novel three-dimensional (3D spongy scaffold made of the extracellular matrix (ECM of denuded AM. Due to their unique characteristics which are similar to the skin, these scaffolds can be considered as an alternative option in skin tissue engineering. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, cellular components of human amniotic membrane (HAM were removed with 0.03% (w/v sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS. Quantitative analysis was performed to determine levels of Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, collagen, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. To increase the low efficiency and purity of the ECM component, especially collagen and GAG, we applied an acid solubilization procedure hydrochloridric acid (HCl 0.1 M with pepsin (1 mg/ml. In the present experiment 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS cross linker agent was used to improve the mechanical properties of 3D lyophilized AM scaffold. The spongy 3D AM scaffolds were specified, by scanning electron microscopy, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, a swelling test, and mechanical strength and in vitro biodegradation tests. Human fetal fibroblast culture systems were used to establish that the scafolds were cytocompatible. Results: Histological analysis of treated human AM showed impressive removal of cellular components. DNA content was diminished after treatment (39 ± 4.06 μg/ml vs. 341 ± 29.60 μg/ml. Differences were observed between cellular and denude AM in matrix collagen (478 ± 18.06 μg/mg vs. 361 ± 27.47 μg/mg.With the optimum concentration of 1 mM NHS/EDC ratio1:4, chemical cross-linker agent could significantly increase the

  9. New Amniotic Membrane Based Biocomposite for Future Application in Reconstructive Urology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Adamowicz

    Full Text Available Due to the capacity of the amniotic membrane (Am to support re-epithelisation and inhibit scar formation, Am has a potential to become a considerable asset for reconstructive urology i.e., reconstruction of ureters and urethrae. The application of Am in reconstructive urology is limited due to a poor mechanical characteristic. Am reinforcement with electrospun nanofibers offers a new strategy to improve Am mechanical resistance, without affecting its unique bioactivity profile. This study evaluated biocomposite material composed of Am and nanofibers as a graft for urinary bladder augmentation in a rat model.Sandwich-structured biocomposite material was constructed from frozen Am and covered on both sides with two-layered membranes prepared from electrospun poly-(L-lactide-co-E-caprolactone (PLCL. Wistar rats underwent hemicystectomy and bladder augmentation with the biocomposite material.Immunohistohemical analysis (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], anti-smoothelin and Masson's trichrome staining [TRI] revealed effective regeneration of the urothelial and smooth muscle layers. Anti-smoothelin staining confirmed the presence of contractile smooth muscle within a new bladder wall. Sandwich-structured biocomposite graft material was designed to regenerate the urinary bladder wall, fulfilling the requirements for normal bladder tension, contraction, elasticity and compliance. Mechanical evaluation of regenerated bladder wall conducted based on Young's elastic modulus reflected changes in the histological remodeling of the augmented part of the bladder. The structure of the biocomposite material made it possible to deliver an intact Am to the area for regeneration. An unmodified Am surface supported regeneration of the urinary bladder wall and the PLCL membranes did not disturb the regeneration process.Am reinforcement with electrospun nanofibers offers a new strategy to improve Am mechanical resistance without affecting its unique bioactivity profile.

  10. New Amniotic Membrane Based Biocomposite for Future Application in Reconstructive Urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworkiewicz, Jakub; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; van Breda, Shane V.; Tyloch, Dominik; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Bodnar, Magda; Skopinska-Wisniewska, Joanna; Marszałek, Andrzej; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Malgorzata; Kowalewski, Tomasz A.; Drewa, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Objective Due to the capacity of the amniotic membrane (Am) to support re-epithelisation and inhibit scar formation, Am has a potential to become a considerable asset for reconstructive urology i.e., reconstruction of ureters and urethrae. The application of Am in reconstructive urology is limited due to a poor mechanical characteristic. Am reinforcement with electrospun nanofibers offers a new strategy to improve Am mechanical resistance, without affecting its unique bioactivity profile. This study evaluated biocomposite material composed of Am and nanofibers as a graft for urinary bladder augmentation in a rat model. Material and Methods Sandwich-structured biocomposite material was constructed from frozen Am and covered on both sides with two-layered membranes prepared from electrospun poly-(L-lactide-co-E-caprolactone) (PLCL). Wistar rats underwent hemicystectomy and bladder augmentation with the biocomposite material. Results Immunohistohemical analysis (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], anti-smoothelin and Masson’s trichrome staining [TRI]) revealed effective regeneration of the urothelial and smooth muscle layers. Anti-smoothelin staining confirmed the presence of contractile smooth muscle within a new bladder wall. Sandwich-structured biocomposite graft material was designed to regenerate the urinary bladder wall, fulfilling the requirements for normal bladder tension, contraction, elasticity and compliance. Mechanical evaluation of regenerated bladder wall conducted based on Young’s elastic modulus reflected changes in the histological remodeling of the augmented part of the bladder. The structure of the biocomposite material made it possible to deliver an intact Am to the area for regeneration. An unmodified Am surface supported regeneration of the urinary bladder wall and the PLCL membranes did not disturb the regeneration process. Conclusions Am reinforcement with electrospun nanofibers offers a new strategy to improve Am mechanical resistance without

  11. A novel amniote model of epimorphic regeneration: the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Katherine E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimorphic regeneration results in the restoration of lost tissues and structures from an aggregation of proliferating cells known as a blastema. Among amniotes the most striking example of epimorphic regeneration comes from tail regenerating lizards. Although tail regeneration is often studied in the context of ecological costs and benefits, details of the sequence of tissue-level events are lacking. Here we investigate the anatomical and histological events that characterize tail regeneration in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. Results Tail structure and tissue composition were examined at multiple days following tail loss, revealing a conserved pattern of regeneration. Removal of the tail results in a consistent series of morphological and histological events. Tail loss is followed by a latent period of wound healing with no visible signs of regenerative outgrowth. During this latent period basal cells of the epidermis proliferate and gradually cover the wound. An additional aggregation of proliferating cells accumulates adjacent to the distal tip of the severed spinal cord marking the first appearance of the blastema. Continued growth of the blastema is matched by the initiation of angiogenesis, followed by the re-development of peripheral axons and the ependymal tube of the spinal cord. Skeletal tissue differentiation, corresponding with the expression of Sox9, and muscle re-development are delayed until tail outgrowth is well underway. Conclusions We demonstrate that tail regeneration in lizards involves a highly conserved sequence of events permitting the establishment of a staging table. We show that tail loss is followed by a latent period of scar-free healing of the wound site, and that regeneration is blastema-mediated. We conclude that the major events of epimorphic regeneration are highly conserved across vertebrates and that a comparative approach is an invaluable biomedical tool for ongoing

  12. Comparison of pterygium resection combined with biotic amniotic membrane transplantation versus preserved human amniotic membrane transplantation%翼状胬肉切除联合生物羊膜或保存羊膜移植治疗翼状胬肉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双; 付汛安

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨并比较翼状胬肉切除联合生物羊膜移植和翼状胬肉切除联合保存羊膜移植在治疗翼状胬肉中的治疗效果.方法 对100例翼状胬肉患者,随机行翼状胬肉切除联合生物羊膜移植(n=57)或翼状胬肉切除联合保存羊膜移植(n=56),随访6个月,观察手术治疗效果.结果 手术治疗后6个月,翼状胬肉切除联合生物羊膜移植组有6只眼(10.5%)复发,翼状胬肉切除联合保存羊膜移植组有5只眼(8.9%)复发.两组相比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).翼状胬肉切除联合保存羊膜移植组患者术后恢复较快,异物感、不适感较轻微.所有患者无感染、排斥及其他并发症.结论 翼状胬肉切除联合生物羊膜移植或翼状胬肉切除联合保存羊膜移植手术均能有效地治疗翼状胬肉,两者有着相似的复发率.翼状胬肉切除联合保存羊膜移植组患者术后相对恢复较快,自觉异物感、不适感较轻微.%ObJective To compare the efficacy of pterygium resection combined with biotic amniotic membrane transplantation versus pterygium resection combined with preserved human amniotic membrane transplantation in the treatment of pterygium.Methods A total of 100 cases (113 eyes) were randomly assigned to receive pterygium resection combined with biotic amniotic membrane transplantation (n =57) or pterygium resection combined with preserved human amniotic membrane transplantation (n =56).Comeal wound healing,neovascularization,the presence or absence of conjunctival proliferation and hyperemia were analyzed at 6 months post-operatively.Results Six months after surgery,in the biotic amniotic membrane transplantation group,6 eyes (10.5%) had recurrent pterygium,while in the preserved amniotic membrane transplantation group,5 eyes showed recurrence (8.9%,P >0.05).However,patients in the preserved human amniotic membrane transplantation recovered significantly faster compared with those in the biotic amniotic

  13. Stem Cell Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a general computational theory of stem cell networks and their developmental dynamics. Stem cell networks are special cases of developmental control networks. Our theory generates a natural classification of all possible stem cell networks based on their network architecture. Each stem cell network has a unique topology and semantics and developmental dynamics that result in distinct phenotypes. We show that the ideal growth dynamics of multicellular systems generated by stem cell ...

  14. Limbal stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Merle; Sangwan Virender; Rao Srinivas; Basti Surendra; Sridhar Mittanamalli; Bansal Aashish; Dua Harminder

    2004-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in limbal stem cell transplantation. In addition to harvesting stem cells from a cadaver or a live related donor, it is now possible to cultivate limbal stem cells in vitro and then transplant them onto the recipient bed. A clear understanding of the basic disease pathology and a correct assessment of the extent of stem cell deficiency are essential. A holistic approach towards management of limbal stem cell deficiency is needed. This ...

  15. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is th...

  16. Stem Cell Separation Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Beili; Murthy, Shashi K

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy and translational stem cell research require large-scale supply of stem cells at high purity and viability, thus leading to the development of stem cell separation technologies. This review covers key technologies being applied to stem cell separation, and also highlights exciting new approaches in this field. First, we will cover conventional separation methods that are commercially available and have been widely adapted. These methods include Fluorescence-activated cell so...

  17. Stem cell biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment. PMID:20560026

  18. Pericardial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pericardial Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pericardial Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid Analysis , ...

  19. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid Analysis , ...

  20. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi;

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...