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Sample records for amnestic mild cognitive

  1. Visual Personal Familiarity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Jurjanz; Markus Donix; Amanatidis, Eva C.; Shirin Meyer; Katrin Poettrich; Thomas Huebner; Damaris Baeumler; Michael N Smolka; Vjera A. Holthoff

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Besides episodic memory dysfunction they show deficits in accessing contextual knowledge that further specifies a general concept or helps to identify an object or a person. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural networks associated with the perception of personal familiar faces and places in patients with amnestic m...

  2. Visual personal familiarity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Luisa Jurjanz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Besides episodic memory dysfunction they show deficits in accessing contextual knowledge that further specifies a general concept or helps to identify an object or a person. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural networks associated with the perception of personal familiar faces and places in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy control subjects. Irrespective of stimulus type, patients compared to control subjects showed lower activity in right prefrontal brain regions when perceiving personally familiar versus unfamiliar faces and places. Both groups did not show different neural activity when perceiving faces or places irrespective of familiarity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight changes in a frontal cortical network associated with knowledge-based personal familiarity among patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. These changes could contribute to deficits in social cognition and may reduce the patients' ability to transition from basic to complex situations and tasks.

  3. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Soo Ryon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1 between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and normal adults and (2 between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy. Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI.

  4. Evaluating Different Aspects of Prospective Memory in Amnestic and Nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez Cardenache, Rene; Burguera, Lizmar; Acevedo, Amarilis; Curiel, Rosie; Loewenstein, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory, the inability to remember an intended action, is a common complaint, but not formally assessed in most clinical and research studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), non-amnestic cognitive impairment (naMCI), and cognitively normal (CN) elders were assessed using the Miami Prospective Memory Test (MPMT). A unique aspect of the paradigm was that participants were scored for intention to perform, accu...

  5. Emotional face recognition deficit in amnestic patients with mild cognitive impairment: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

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    Yang L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Yang, Xiaochuan Zhao, Lan Wang, Lulu Yu, Mei Song, Xueyi Wang Department of Mental Health, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Medical University Institute of Mental Health, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been conceptualized as a transitional stage between healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, understanding emotional face recognition deficit in patients with amnestic MCI could be useful in determining progression of amnestic MCI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of emotional face processing in amnestic MCI by using event-related potentials (ERPs. Patients with amnestic MCI and healthy controls performed a face recognition task, giving old/new responses to previously studied and novel faces with different emotional messages as the stimulus material. Using the learning-recognition paradigm, the experiments were divided into two steps, ie, a learning phase and a test phase. ERPs were analyzed on electroencephalographic recordings. The behavior data indicated high emotion classification accuracy for patients with amnestic MCI and for healthy controls. The mean percentage of correct classifications was 81.19% for patients with amnestic MCI and 96.46% for controls. Our ERP data suggest that patients with amnestic MCI were still be able to undertake personalizing processing for negative faces, but not for neutral or positive faces, in the early frontal processing stage. In the early time window, no differences in frontal old/new effect were found between patients with amnestic MCI and normal controls. However, in the late time window, the three types of stimuli did not elicit any old/new parietal effects in patients with amnestic MCI, suggesting their recollection was impaired. This impairment may be closely associated with amnestic MCI disease. We conclude from our data that face recognition processing and emotional memory is

  6. Relative power and coherence of EEG series are related to amnestic mild cognitive impairment in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhijie Bian; Qiuli Li; Xiaoli Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes is a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether some features of resting-state EEG (rsEEG) could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish the subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from normal cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls) were investigated. Recording of the rsEEG series and neurops...

  7. Validation of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and intact elders

    OpenAIRE

    Duff, Kevin; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Adams, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Although the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) is frequently used as a screening measure of cognition in dementia and aging studies, it has not been validated in individuals with milder cognitive impairments. The current study compared two groups (amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment [n=61] and cognitively intact elders [n=62]) on the mTICS and used regression models to predict baseline scores on standardized memory tests using baseline mTICS scores. Baseline mTICS score...

  8. Multimodal MRI Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Cognitive Normal Adults, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease

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    Ai-Ling Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been developed to noninvasively measure structural, metabolic, hemodynamic and functional changes of the brain. These advantages have made MRI an important tool to investigate neurodegenerative disorders, including diagnosis, disease progression monitoring, and treatment efficacy evaluation. This paper discusses recent findings of the multimodal MRI in the context of surrogate biomarkers for identifying the risk for AD in normal cognitive (NC adults, brain anatomical and functional alterations in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. Further developments of these techniques and the establishment of promising neuroimaging biomarkers will enhance our ability to diagnose aMCI and AD in their early stages and improve the assessment of therapeutic efficacy in these diseases in future clinical trials.

  9. Electrophysiological correlates of amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a simon task.

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    Jesús Cespón

    Full Text Available Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI represents a prodromal stage of Alzheimer`s disease (AD, especially when additional cognitive domains are affected (Petersen et al., 2009. Thus, single-domain amnestic MCI (sdaMCI and multiple-domain-amnestic MCI (mdaMCI biomarkers are important for enabling early interventions to help slow down progression of the disease. Recording event-related potentials (ERPs is a non-invasive and inexpensive measure of brain activity associated with cognitive processes, and it is of interest from a clinical point of view. The ERP technique may also be useful for obtaining early sdaMCI and mdaMCI biomarkers because ERPs are sensitive to impairment in processes that are not manifested at behavioral or clinical levels. In the present study, EEG activity was recorded in 25 healthy participants and 30 amnestic MCI patients (17 sdaMCI and 13 mdaMCI while they performed a Simon task. The ERPs associated with visuospatial (N2 posterior-contralateral - N2pc - and motor (lateralized readiness potential - LRP - processes were examined. The N2pc amplitude was smaller in participants with mdaMCI than in healthy participants, which indicated a decline in the correlates of allocation of attentional resources to the target stimulus. In addition, N2pc amplitude proved to be a moderately good biomarker of mdaMCI subtype (0.77 sensitivity, 0.76 specificity. However, the LRP amplitude was smaller in the two MCI groups (sdaMCI and mdaMCI than in healthy participants, revealing a reduction in the motor resources available to execute the response in sdaMCI and mdaMCI patients. Furthermore, the LRP amplitude proved to be a valid biomarker (0.80 sensitivity, 0.92 specificity of both amnestic MCI subtypes.

  10. Plasma Levels of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 3 and Beta-Nerve Growth Factor Increase with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Soo Lee; Ji Hyung Chung; Kyung Hye Lee; Min-Jeong Shin; Byoung Hoon Oh; Soo Hyung Lee; Chang Hyung Hong

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated peripheral inflammatory indices, including plasma cytokines and related molecules according to subtypes of dementia, but not in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we used multiplex cytokine assay to assess the plasma levels of 22 cytokines in patients with MCI subtyped as amnestic and non-amnestic, according to cognitive features. When comparing the levels of plasma growth factors, chemokines and cytokines, plasma levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3), and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in these two groups, they were found to be significantly higher in amnestic MCI patients than in non-amnestic MCI patients, after adjusting for age and gender. This suggests that plasma MCP-3 and β-NGF may be useful in differentiating subtypes of MCI. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  11. Movements Execution in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Rosolino Camarda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between motor and neuropsychological deficits in subjects affected by amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI and early Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Kinematics of goal-directed movement of aMCI and AD subjects were compared to those of age-matched control subjects. AD showed a slowing down of motor performance compared to aMCI and controls. No relationships were found between motor and cognitive performances in both AD and aMCI. Our results suggest that the different motor behaviour between AD and aMCI cannot be related to memory deficits, probably reflecting the initial degeneration of parietal-frontal circuits for movement planning. The onset of motor dysfunction in early AD could represent the transition from aMCI to AD.

  12. Regional cingulum disruption, not gray matter atrophy, detects cognitive changes in amnestic mild cognitive impairment subtypes.

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    Chang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Ta-Fu; Shih, Yao-Chia; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Yan, Sui-Hing; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which has a high risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD), can be classified into single domain (S-aMCI) and multiple domain (M-aMCI) subtypes. We investigated the integrity of regional gray matter and segments of the cingulum bundle with diffusion spectrum imaging tract-specific analysis, and their relationships to neuropsychological functioning, in 46 individuals with aMCI (S-aMCI n = 24; M-aMCI n = 22) and 36 healthy controls (HC). Results demonstrated that although both aMCI groups were impaired on all memory measures relative to HCs, the M-aMCI group demonstrated worse performance on paired association memory and on selective executive function relative to the S-aMCI group. The two aMCI groups did not show significant atrophy in regional gray matter indices as compared to the HC group, but the M-aMCI group showed significant disruption in white matter of the left anterior and inferior cingulum bundles relative to the S-aMCI and HC groups. Furthermore, disruption in the inferior cingulum bundles was significantly associated with executive function and attention/processing speed in all aMCI participants above and beyond the contribution of bilateral hippocampal volumes. Overall, these results indicate that the degeneration of cingulum fibers did not appear to arise from degeneration of the corresponding cerebral cortex. It also suggests relatively greater sensitivity of a white matter biomarker and comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation over gray matter biomarkers in early detection of AD.

  13. Deficits in episodic memory retrieval reveal impaired default mode network connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Cameron J. Dunn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI is believed to represent a transitional stage between normal healthy ageing and the development of dementia. In particular, aMCI patients have been shown to have higher annual transition rates to Alzheimer's Disease (AD than individuals without cognitive impairment. Despite intensifying interest investigating the neuroanatomical basis of this transition, there remain a number of questions regarding the pathophysiological process underlying aMCI itself. A number of recent studies in aMCI have shown specific impairments in connectivity within the default mode network (DMN, which is a group of regions strongly related to episodic memory capacities. However to date, no study has investigated the integrity of the DMN between patients with aMCI and those with a non-amnestic pattern of MCI (naMCI, who have cognitive impairment, but intact memory storage systems. In this study, we contrasted the DMN connectivity in 24 aMCI and 33 naMCI patients using seed-based resting state fMRI. The two groups showed no statistical difference in their DMN intra-connectivity. However when connectivity was analysed according to performance on measures of episodic memory retrieval, the two groups were separable, with aMCI patients demonstrating impaired functional connectivity between the hippocampal formation and the posterior cingulate cortex. We provide evidence that this lack of connectivity is driven by impaired communication from the posterior cingulate hub and does not simply represent hippocampal atrophy, suggesting that posterior cingulate degeneration is the driving force behind impaired DMN connectivity in aMCI.

  14. Changes in Parahippocampal White Matter Integrity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

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    E. J. Rogalski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, changes in the parahippocampal white matter (PWM, in the region that includes the perforant path, were investigated, in vivo, in 14 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI compared to 14 elderly controls with no cognitive impairment (NCI. For this purpose, (1 volumetry; (2 diffusion tensor imaging (DTI derived measures of mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA; and (3 tractography were used. In addition, regression models were utilized to examine the association of PWM measurements with memory decline. The results from this study confirm previous findings in our laboratory and others, showing that compared to controls, individuals with aMCI have PWM volume loss. In addition to volume reduction, participants with aMCI demonstrated a significant increase in MD, but no difference in FA, both in the PWM region and in fibers modeled to pass through the PWM region. Further, the DTI metric of MD was associated with declarative memory performance, suggesting it may be a sensitive marker for memory dysfunction. These results indicate that there is general tissue loss and degradation (decreased volume; increased MD in individuals with aMCI compared to older people with normal cognitive function. However, the microstructural organization of remaining fibers, as determined by measures of anisotropic diffusion, is not significantly different from that of controls.

  15. Weighted-Permutation Entropy Analysis of Resting State EEG from Diabetics with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Zhijie Bian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a significant public health issue as it increases the risk for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In this study, we aim to investigate whether weighted-permutation entropy (WPE and permutation entropy (PE of resting-state EEG (rsEEG could be applied as potential objective biomarkers to distinguish type 2 diabetes patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from those with normal cognitive function. rsEEG series were acquired from 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls, and neuropsychological assessments were performed. The rsEEG signals were analysed using WPE and PE methods. The correlations between the PE or WPE of the rsEEG and the neuropsychological assessments were analysed as well. The WPE in the right temporal (RT region of the aMCI diabetics was lower than the controls, and the WPE was significantly positively correlated to the scores of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT (AVLT-Immediate recall, AVLT-Delayed recall, AVLT-Delayed recognition and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Digit Span Test (WAIS-DST. These findings were not obtained with PE. We concluded that the WPE of rsEEG recordings could distinguish aMCI diabetics from normal cognitive function diabetic controls among the current sample of diabetic patients. Thus, the WPE could be a potential index for assisting diagnosis of aMCI in type 2 diabetes.

  16. The use of the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M) in the detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah E; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin J M

    2009-06-01

    Many screening tools for detecting cognitive decline require in-person assessment, which is often not cost-effective or feasible for those with physical limitations. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status has been used for screening dementia, but little is known about its usefulness in detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Community-dwelling participants (mean age=74.9, mean education = 16.1 years) were administered the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status during initial screening and subsequently given a multidomain neuropsychological battery. Participants were classified by consensus panel as cognitively normal older adult (noMCI, N=54) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (N=17) based on neuropsychological performance and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale interview, but independent of Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score. There was a significant difference between groups in Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score (t=8.04, PTICS-M alone correctly classified 85.9% of participants into their respective diagnostic classification (sensitivity=82.4%, specificity=87.0%). Receiver operating characteristics analysis resulted in cutoff score of 34 that optimized sensitivity and specificity of amnestic mild cognitive impairment classification. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is a brief, cost-effective screening measure for identifying those with and without amnestic mild cognitive impairment. PMID:19417219

  17. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: a preliminary investigation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irish, Muireann

    2011-08-04

    Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient\\'s daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants\\' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory), associative memory (face-name pairings), spatial memory (route learning and recall), and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months), 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  18. Relative power and coherence of EEG series are related to amnestic mild cognitive impairment in diabetes

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    Zhijie eBian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes is a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether some features of resting-state EEG (rsEEG could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish the subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls were investigated. Recording of the rsEEG series and neuropsychological assessments were performed. The rsEEG signal was first decomposed into delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma frequency bands. The relative power of each given band/sum of power and the coherence of waves from different brain areas were calculated. The extracted features from rsEEG and neuropsychological assessments were analyzed as well. Results: The main findings of this study were that: 1 compared with the control group, the ratios of power in theta band (P(theta versus power in alpha band (P(alpha (P(theta/P(alpha in the frontal region and left temporal region were significantly higher for aMCI, and 2 for aMCI, the alpha coherences in posterior, fronto-right temporal, fronto-posterior, right temporo-posterior were decreased; the theta coherences in left central-right central (LC-RC and left posterior-right posterior (LP-RP regions were also decreased; but the delta coherences in left temporal-right temporal (LT-RT region were increased. Conclusion: The proposed indexes from rsEEG recordings could be employed to track cognitive function of diabetic patients and also to help in the diagnosis of those who develop aMCI.

  19. Functional Disorganization of Small-World Brain Networks in mild Alzheimer’s Disease and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: An EEG Study using Relative Wavelet Entropy (RWE)

    OpenAIRE

    Frantzidis, Christos A.; Vivas, Ana B.; Anthoula eTsolaki; Klados, Manousos A.; Magda eTsolaki; Panagiotis D Bamidis

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroscientific findings have linked Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with less efficient information processing and brain network disorganization. However, pathological alterations of the brain networks during the preclinical phase of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) remain largely unknown. The present study aimed at comparing patterns of the detection of functional disorganization in MCI relative to Mild Dementia (MD). Participants consisted of 23 cognitively healthy adults, 17 aM...

  20. Differences and the Relationship in Default Mode Network Intrinsic Activity and Functional Connectivity in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Weiler, Marina; Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Nogueira, Mateus Henrique; de Campos, Brunno Machado; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that the default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and few studies also reported a decrease in DMN intrinsic activity, measured by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs). In this study, we analyzed the relationship between DMN intrinsic activity and functional connectivity, as well as their possible implications on cognition in patients with mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy control...

  1. Card-placing test in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and its neural correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Backgroud We investigated anatomical correlates of the card-placing test (CPT) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods Fifteen aMCI patients underwent part A and part B of the CPT and FDG-PET. The CPT scores and MMSE scores of 29 cognitively normal people were used for comparison. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) correlation analysis was used to extract the regions whose changes in regional cerebral metabolism correlated significantly with part A and B of the CPT with adjustment of age, education and sex of patients. Results The aMCI patients had significantly lower MMSE scores (26.0 ± 2.0 vs. 28.2 ± 1.4, p < 0.001), CPT A (25.5 ± 3.5 vs. 27.7 ± 2.7, p = 0.026) and CPT B scores (16.3 ± 4.4 vs. 19.7 ± 3.7, p = 0.011) compared to the normal population. The test scores of part B of the CPT correlated well with hypometabolism of the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. Conclusions This study suggests that the CPT B may reflect the functional status of the posterior cingulate gyrus in patients with aMCI. PMID:24906452

  2. Association study of candidate gene polymorphisms with amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a Chinese population.

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    Xiaoyan Liu

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and candidate gene polymorphisms in a Chinese population, 116 aMCI patients and 93 normal controls were recruited. Multi-dimensional neuropsychological tests were used to extensively assess the cognitive functions of the subjects. MassARRAY and iPLEX systems were used to measure candidate single nucleotide polymorohisms (SNPs and analyse allelic, genotypic or haplotypic distributions. The scores of the neuropsychological tests were significantly lower for the aMCI patients than for the normal controls. The distributions of SNPs relating to the amyloid cascade hypothesis (TOMM40 rs157581 G and TOMM40 rs2075650 G, to the cholesterol metabolism hypothesis (ApoE rs429358 C, LDLR rs11668477 G and CH25H rs7091822 T and PLAU rs2227564 CT and to the tau hypothesis (MAPT/STH rs242562 GG in aMCI were significantly different than those in normal controls. Interactions were also found in aMCI amongst SNPs in LDLR rs11668477, PLAU rs2227564, and TOMM40 rs157581, between SNPs in TOMM40 rs157580 and BACE2 rs9975138. The study suggests that aMCI is characterised by memory impairment and associated with SNPs in three systems relating to the pathogenesis of AD--those of the amyloid cascade, tau and cholesterol metabolism pathways. Interactions were also observed between genes in the amyloid pathway and between the amyloid and cholesterol pathways.

  3. Short-Term Memory Depends on Dissociable Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Das, Sandhitsu R; Mancuso, Lauren; Olson, Ingrid R; Arnold, Steven E; Wolk, David A

    2016-05-01

    Short-term memory (STM) has generally been thought to be independent of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in contrast to long-term memory (LTM). Prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a condition in which the MTL is a major early focus of pathology and LTM is thought disproportionately affected relative to STM. However, recent studies have suggested a role for the MTL in STM, particularly hippocampus, when binding of different elements is required. Other work has suggested involvement of extrahippocampal MTL structures, particularly in STM tasks that involve item-level memory. We examined STM for individual objects, locations, and object-location conjunctions in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), often associated with prodromal AD. Relative to age-matched, cognitively normal controls, MCI patients not only displayed impairment on object-location conjunctions but were similarly impaired for non-bound objects and locations. Moreover, across all participants, these conditions displayed dissociable correlations of cortical thinning along the long axis of the MTL and associated cortical nodes of anterior and posterior MTL networks. These findings support the role of the MTL in visual STM tasks and the division of labor of MTL in support of different types of memory representations, overlapping with findings in LTM.

  4. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

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    Li Hui-jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.

  5. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

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    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia. PMID:26655068

  6. Functional neural correlates of attentional deficits in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Nicholas T Van Dam

    Full Text Available Although amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; often considered a prodromal phase of Alzheimer's disease, AD is most recognized by its implications for decline in memory function, research suggests that deficits in attention are present early in aMCI and may be predictive of progression to AD. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in the brain during the attention network test between 8 individuals with aMCI and 8 neurologically healthy, demographically matched controls. While there were no significant behavioral differences between groups for the alerting and orienting functions, patients with aMCI showed more activity in neural regions typically associated with the networks subserving these functions (e.g., temporoparietal junction and posterior parietal regions, respectively. More importantly, there were both behavioral (i.e., greater conflict effect and corresponding neural deficits in executive control (e.g., less activation in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Although based on a small number of patients, our findings suggest that deficits of attention, especially the executive control of attention, may significantly contribute to the behavioral and cognitive deficits of aMCI.

  7. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia.

  8. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the prediction of early conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to dementia: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro J. Modrego; Fayed, Nicolas; Sarasa, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of an amnestic type is a common condition in older people and highly predictive of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, there is no clear consensus regarding the best antecedent biomarker to predict early conversion to AD. Objective The aim of the study is to demonstrate that 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain in MCI patients may predict early conversion to dementia within the 2-year period after baseline assessment. Methods A cohort...

  9. Specifically progressive deficits of brain functional marker in amnestic type mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deficits of the default mode network (DMN have been demonstrated in subjects with amnestic type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI who have a high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, no longitudinal study of this network has been reported in aMCI. Identifying links between development of DMN and aMCI progression would be of considerable value in understanding brain changes underpinning aMCI and determining risk of conversion to AD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resting-state fMRI was acquired in aMCI subjects (n = 26 and controls (n = 18 at baseline and after approximately 20 months follow up. Independent component analysis was used to isolate the DMN in each participant. Differences in DMN between aMCI and controls were examined at baseline, and subsequent changes between baseline and follow-up were also assessed in the groups. Posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu hyper-functional connectivity was observed at baseline in aMCI subjects, while a substantial decrement of these connections was evident at follow-up in aMCI subjects, compared to matched controls. Specifically, PCC/PCu dysfunction was positively related to the impairments of episodic memory from baseline to follow up in aMCI group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The patterns of longitudinal deficits of DMN may assist investigators to identify and monitor the development of aMCI.

  10. Investigating virtual reality navigation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment using fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migo, E M; O'Daly, O; Mitterschiffthaler, M; Antonova, E; Dawson, G R; Dourish, C T; Craig, K J; Simmons, A; Wilcock, G K; McCulloch, E; Jackson, S H D; Kopelman, M D; Williams, S C R; Morris, R G

    2016-01-01

    Spatial navigation requires a well-established network of brain regions, including the hippocampus, caudate nucleus, and retrosplenial cortex. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) is a condition with predominantly memory impairment, conferring a high predictive risk factor for dementia. aMCI is associated with hippocampal atrophy and subtle deficits in spatial navigation. We present the first use of a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) navigation task in aMCI, using a virtual reality analog of the Radial Arm Maze. Compared with controls, aMCI patients showed reduced activity in the hippocampus bilaterally, retrosplenial cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Reduced activation in key areas for successful navigation, as well as additional regions, was found alongside relatively normal task performance. Results also revealed increased activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in aMCI patients, which may reflect compensation for reduced activations elsewhere. These data support suggestions that fMRI spatial navigation tasks may be useful for staging of progression in MCI. PMID:26234803

  11. A combined electrophysiological and morphological examination of episodic memory decline in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Michael eHoppstädter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD are characterized by neuropathological changes within the medial temporal lobe cortex (MTLC, which lead to characteristic impairments in episodic memory, i.e., amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Here, we tested the neural correlates of this memory impairment using event-related potentials (ERPs and voxel-based morphometry. Twenty-four participants were instructed to encode lists of words and were tested in a yes/no recognition memory task. The dual-process model of recognition memory dissociates between acontextual familiarity and recollection of contextual details. The early frontal ERP old/new-effect, which is thought to represent a neural correlate of familiarity-based memory, was absent in aMCI, whereas the control group showed a significant early old/new effect at frontal electrodes. This effect was positively correlated with behavioral episodic memory performance. Analyses of brain morphology revealed a focused gray matter loss in the inferior and medial temporal lobes in aMCI versus healthy controls. Moreover, the positive correlation between gray matter volume in the MTLC and the familiarity-related early frontal old/new effect supports the notion that this effect relies upon the integrity of the MTLC. Thus, the present findings might provide a further functional marker for prodromal AD.

  12. Posterior Cingulate Lactate as a Metabolic Biomarker in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Kurt E. Weaver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a central factor within the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD spectrum. We hypothesized that in vivo measurements of lactate (lac, a by-product of glycolysis, would correlate with functional impairment and measures of brain health in a cohort of 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI individuals. Lac was quantified from the precuneus/posterior cingulate (PPC using 2-dimensional J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Additionally, standard behavioral and imaging markers of aMCI disease progression were acquired. PPC lac was negatively correlated with performance on the Wechsler logical memory tests and on the minimental state examination even after accounting for gray matter, cerebral spinal fluid volume, and age. No such relationships were observed between lac and performance on nonmemory tests. Significant negative relationships were also noted between PPC lac and hippocampal volume and PPC functional connectivity. Together, these results reveal that aMCI individuals with a greater disease progression have increased concentrations of PPC lac. Because lac is upregulated as a compensatory response to mitochondrial impairment, we propose that J-resolved MRS of lac is a noninvasive, surrogate biomarker of impaired metabolic function and would provide a useful means of tracking mitochondrial function during therapeutic trials targeting brain metabolism.

  13. Executive dysfunction and gray matter atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dongming; Sun, Hongzan; Dong, Xiaoyu; Liu, Baiwei; Xu, Yongchuan; Chen, Sipan; Song, Lichun; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that impairment in executive function (EF) is common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the neuroanatomic basis of executive impairment in patients with aMCI remains unclear. In this study, multiple regression voxel-based morphometry analyses were used to examine the relationship between regional gray matter volumes and EF performance in 50 patients with aMCI and 48 healthy age-matched controls. The core EF components (response inhibition, working memory and task switching, based on the EF model of Miyake et al) were accessed with computerized tasks. Atrophic brain areas related to decreases in the three EF components in patients with aMCI were located in the frontal and temporal cortices. Within the frontal cortex, the brain region related to response inhibition was identified in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Brain regions related to working memory were located in the left anterior cingulate gyrus, left premotor cortex, and right inferior frontal gyrus, and brain regions related to task shifting were distributed in the bilateral frontal cortex. Atrophy in the right inferior frontal gyrus was most closely associated with a decrease in all three EF components in patients with aMCI. Our data, from the perspective of brain morphology, contribute to a better understanding of the role of these brain areas in the neural network of EF.

  14. Structural Neuroimaging of Concomitant Depressive Symptoms in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study

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    Jean-François Morin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Late-life depression (LLD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI can both denote prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. While the two concepts share common clinical features, differential diagnosis between them is crucial. The objective of this pilot study was to explore differences in terms of the hippocampal (HC and entorhinal cortex (EC volume reduction between LLD and aMCI patients with (aMCI/D+ group or without (aMCI group depressive symptoms. Six LLD, 6 aMCI, and 6 aMCI/D+ participants were assessed using a structural magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Manual segmentation of HC and EC was carried out. The results of volumetric comparisons suggest that the HC was larger in aMCI/D+ and LLD subjects compared to aMCI participants. The left EC mean volume was slightly lower in aMCI/D+ subjects. Power analyses revealed that 36 participants per group would suffice to confirm these findings. Overall, these pilot findings suggest that aMCI can be distinguished from LLD based on cerebral atrophy measures, and that HC and EC atrophy in aMCI varies according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms.

  15. Recognition Memory in Amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment: Insights from Event-Related Potentials

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    David A Wolk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory loss is the hallmark cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (a-MCI frequently represents a transitional stage between normal aging and early AD. A better understanding of the qualitative features of memory loss in a-MCI may have important implications for predicting those most likely to harbor AD-related pathology and for disease monitoring. Dual process models of memory argue that recognition memory is subserved by the dissociable processes of recollection and familiarity. Work studying recognition memory in a-MCI from this perspective has been controversial, particularly with regard to the integrity of familiarity. Event-related potentials (ERPs offer an alternative means for assessing these functions without the associated assumptions of behavioral estimation methods. ERPs were recorded while a-MCI patients and cognitively normal (CN age-matched adults performed a recognition memory task. When retrieval success was measured (hits versus correct rejections in which performance was matched by group, a-MCI patients displayed similar neural correlates to that of the CN group, including modulation of the FN400 and the late parietal complex (LPC which are thought to index familiarity and recollection, respectively. Alternatively, when the integrity of these components were measured based on retrieval attempts (studied versus unstudied items, a-MCI patients displayed a reduced FN400 and LPC. Furthermore, modulation of the FN400 correlated with a behavioral estimate of familiarity and the LPC with a behavioral estimates of recollection obtained in a separate experiment in the same individuals, consistent with the proposed mappings of these indices. These results support a global decline of recognition memory in a-MCI, which suggests that the memory loss of prodromal AD may be qualitatively distinct from normal aging.

  16. Microstructural white matter changes, not hippocampal atrophy, detect early amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Lin Zhuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is generally considered to be characterized by pathology in gray matter of the brain, but convergent evidence suggests that white matter degradation also plays a vital role in its pathogenesis. The evolution of white matter deterioration and its relationship with gray matter atrophy remains elusive in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, a prodromal stage of AD. METHODS: We studied 155 cognitively normal (CN and 27 'late' aMCI individuals with stable diagnosis over 2 years, and 39 'early' aMCI individuals who had converted from CN to aMCI at 2-year follow up. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI tractography was used to reconstruct six white matter tracts three limbic tracts critical for episodic memory function - the fornix, the parahippocampal cingulum, and the uncinate fasciculus; two cortico-cortical association fiber tracts - superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus; and one projection fiber tract - corticospinal tract. Microstructural integrity as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, radial diffusivity (RD and axial diffusivity (AxD was assessed for these tracts. RESULTS: Compared with CN, late aMCI had lower white matter integrity in the fornix, the parahippocampal cingulum, and the uncinate fasciculus, while early aMCI showed white matter damage in the fornix. In addition, fornical measures were correlated with hippocampal atrophy in late aMCI, whereas abnormality of the fornix in early aMCI occurred in the absence of hippocampal atrophy and did not correlate with hippocampal volumes. CONCLUSIONS: Limbic white matter tracts are preferentially affected in the early stages of cognitive dysfunction. Microstructural degradation of the fornix preceding hippocampal atrophy may serve as a novel imaging marker for aMCI at an early stage.

  17. Association of the interleukin 1 beta gene and brain spontaneous activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Zhuang Liying

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The inflammatory response has been associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the rs1143627 polymorphism of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β gene moderates functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-measured brain regional activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Eighty older participants (47 with aMCI and 33 healthy controls were recruited for this study. All of the participants were genotyped for variant rs1143627 in the IL1B gene and were scanned using resting-state fMRI. Brain activity was assessed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF. Results aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions, including decreases in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior temporal lobe and the middle temporal lobe, and increases in the occipital cortex (calcarine, parietal cortex (Pcu and cerebellar cortex. The regions associated with an interaction of group X genotypes of rs1143627 C/T were the parietal cortex (left Pcu, frontal cortex (left superior, middle, and medial gyrus, right anterior cingulum, occipital cortex (left middle lobe, left cuneus and the bilateral posterior lobes of the cerebellum. Regarding the behavioral significance, there were significant correlations between ALFF in different regions of the brain and with the cognitive scores of each genotype group. Conclusions The present study provided evidence that aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions. Specifically, the rs1143627 C/T polymorphism of the IL1B gene may modulate regional spontaneous brain activity in aMCI patients.

  18. Individual cerebral metabolic deficits in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was the identification of group and individual subject patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) studies and neuropsychological tests were performed in 16 aMCI patients (ten women, age 75 ± 8 years) and in 14 AD patients (ten women, age 75 ± 9 years). Comparisons between patient subgroups and with a control population were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Clusters of low CMRGlu were observed bilaterally in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus of AD patients. In aMCI patients, reduced CMRGlu was found only in PCC. Areas of low CMRGlu in PCC were wider in AD compared to aMCI and extended to the precuneus, while low CMRGlu was found in the lateral parietal cortex in AD but not in aMCI patients. Individual subject pattern analysis revealed that 86% of AD patients had low CMRGlu in the PCC (including the precuneus in 71%), 71% in the temporal cortex, 64% in the parietal cortex and 35% in the frontal cortex. Among the aMCI patients, 56% had low CMRGlu in the PCC, 44% in the temporal cortex, 18% in the frontal cortex and none in the parietal cortex. This study demonstrates that both AD and aMCI patients have highly heterogeneous metabolic impairment. This potential of individual metabolic PET imaging in patients with AD and aMCI may allow timely identification of brain damage on individual basis and possibly help planning tailored early interventions. (orig.)

  19. Spatial memory impairments in amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a virtual radial arm maze

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    Lee JY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jun-Young Lee,1,2 Sooyeon Kho,1,2 Hye Bin Yoo,1,2 Soowon Park,1,2 Jung-Seok Choi,1,2 Jun Soo Kwon,3 Kyung Ryeol Cha,4 Hee-Yeon Jung1,21Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University, 2Seoul Metropolitan Government – Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Osan Mental Hospital, Gyeonggi, South KoreaObjective: This study aims to apply the virtual radial arm maze (VRAM task to find spatial working memory and reference memory impairments in patients of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Spatial memory functions between aMCI converters and nonconverters are also compared using VRAM results.Methods: We assessed the spatial memory in 20 normal controls, 20 aMCI, and 20 mild AD subjects using VRAM. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale, and other neuropsychological tests were given to the subjects in conjunction with the VRAM test. Scores in working memory errors and reference memory errors were compared among the three groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, aMCI patients were followed-up after 5 years and surveyed for AD conversion rate.Results: In AD patients, both spatial working and reference memory were impaired. However, in aMCI subjects, only spatial reference memory was impaired. Significant spatial reference memory impairment was found in the aMCI converter group when compared to the nonconverter group.Conclusion: Spatial working memory is less impaired in aMCI while reference memory is similarly damaged in AD. In aMCI patients, more severe spatial reference memory deficit is a neuropsychological marker for AD conversion. VRAM may be well utilized in humans to assess spatial memory in normal aging, in aMCI, and in AD.Keywords: spatial behavior, Alzheimer's disease, user computer interface, cognition

  20. The Use of the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M) in the Detection of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Sarah E.; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Many screening tools for detecting cognitive decline require in-person assessment, which is often not cost effective or feasible for those with physical limitations. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M) has been used for screening dementia, but little is known about its usefulness in detecting amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Community-dwelling participants (mean age= 74.9, mean education= 16.1 years) were administered the TICS-M during initial screening an...

  1. Characteristics of Agraphia in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiong Zhou; Biao Jiang; Xian-Hong Huang; Lin-Lin Kong; Hong-Lei Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest progressive decline in writing abilities.Most studies on agraphia in AD have been performed in the alphabetic system,such as English.However,these findings may not be applicable to other written language systems.The unique features of the Chinese written script could affect the patterns of agraphia in Chinese AD patients.The aim of this study was to explore the features of writing errors in Chinese patients with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI),as well as to study the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions.Methods:In this study,we performed an observational study in a group of subjects including 17 AD patients,14 patients with a-MCI,and 16 elderly healthy controls.We analyzed the writing errors in these subjects and also studied the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions.Results:Our study showed that in patients whose mother tongue is Chinese,writing ability was comparatively well preserved in the MCI phase but significantly impaired when the disease progressed to the stage of AD.The writing errors showed corresponding increase with the severity of cognition decline,both in the types of errors and rate of occurrence.Analysis of the writing errors showed that word substitution and unintelligible words were the most frequent error types that occurred in all the three study groups.The occurrence rate of unintelligible words was significantly higher in the AD group compared with the a-MCI group (P =0.024) and control group (P =0.018).In addition,the occurrence rates of word substitution were also significantly higher in AD (P =0.013) and a-MCI groups (P =0.037) than that of control group.However,errors such as totally no response,visuospatial impairment,paragraph agraphia,ideograph,and perseverative writing errors were only seen in AD group.Besides,we also found a high occurrence rate of visuoconstructional errors (13.3

  2. Characteristics of Agraphia in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiong; Jiang, Biao; Huang, Xian-Hong; Kong, Lin-Lin; Li, Hong-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest progressive decline in writing abilities. Most studies on agraphia in AD have been performed in the alphabetic system, such as English. However, these findings may not be applicable to other written language systems. The unique features of the Chinese written script could affect the patterns of agraphia in Chinese AD patients. The aim of this study was to explore the features of writing errors in Chinese patients with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), as well as to study the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions. Methods: In this study, we performed an observational study in a group of subjects including 17 AD patients, 14 patients with a-MCI, and 16 elderly healthy controls. We analyzed the writing errors in these subjects and also studied the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions. Results: Our study showed that in patients whose mother tongue is Chinese, writing ability was comparatively well preserved in the MCI phase but significantly impaired when the disease progressed to the stage of AD. The writing errors showed corresponding increase with the severity of cognition decline, both in the types of errors and rate of occurrence. Analysis of the writing errors showed that word substitution and unintelligible words were the most frequent error types that occurred in all the three study groups. The occurrence rate of unintelligible words was significantly higher in the AD group compared with the a-MCI group (P = 0.024) and control group (P = 0.018). In addition, the occurrence rates of word substitution were also significantly higher in AD (P = 0.013) and a-MCI groups (P = 0.037) than that of control group. However, errors such as totally no response, visuospatial impairment, paragraph agraphia, ideograph, and perseverative writing errors were only seen in AD group. Besides, we also found a high occurrence rate of

  3. The Primacy Effect in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Associations with Hippocampal Functional Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggen, Katharina; Kasper, Elisabeth; Dyrba, Martin; Bruno, Davide; Pomara, Nunzio; Ewers, Michael; Duering, Marco; Bürger, Katharina; Teipel, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The “primacy effect,” i.e., increased memory recall for the first items of a series compared to the following items, is reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Memory task-fMRI studies demonstrated that primacy recall is associated with higher activation of the hippocampus and temporo-parietal and frontal cortical regions in healthy subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at resting state revealed that hippocampus functional connectivity (FC) with neocortical brain areas, including regions of the default mode network (DMN), is altered in aMCI. The present study aimed to investigate whether resting state fMRI FC between the hippocampus and cortical brain regions, especially the DMN, is associated with primacy recall performance in aMCI. Methods: A number of 87 aMCI patients underwent resting state fMRI and verbal episodic memory assessment. FC between the left or right hippocampus, respectively, and all other voxels in gray matter was mapped voxel-wise and used in whole-brain regression analyses, testing whether FC values predicted delayed primacy recall score. The delayed primacy score was defined as the number of the first four words recalled on the California Verbal Learning Test. Additionally, a partial least squares (PLS) analysis was performed, using DMN regions as seeds to identify the association of their functional interactions with delayed primacy recall. Results: Voxel-based analyses indicated that delayed primacy recall was mainly (positively) associated with higher FC between the left and right hippocampus. Additionally, significant associations were found for higher FC between the left hippocampus and bilateral temporal cortex, frontal cortical regions, and for higher FC between the right hippocampus and right temporal cortex, right frontal cortical regions, left medial frontal cortex and right amygdala (p < 0.01, uncorr.). PLS analysis revealed positive associations of delayed primacy recall with FC between

  4. Hydrogen Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Multidomain Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Cognitive Impairment Without Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Qing; Cai, Qing; Shen, Yu-Ying; Xu, Chuan-Xiao; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the value of hydrogen proton magnet resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the differential diagnosis of multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (M-aMCI) and vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND); (1)H-MRS was performed in patients with M-aMCI and VCIND. The level was determined for N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), inositol (mI), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr). Compared with the normal control group, the NAA-Cr ratio in all regions studied was significantly lower in the M-aMCI and VCIND groups. The Glu-Cr ratio in the posterior cingulate gyrus of the M-aMCI group was significantly lower than in the VCIND. The mI-Cr ratio in the frontal white matter of the VCIND was significantly higher than in the M-aMCI group. In the white matter adjacent to the lateral ventricles, the Cho-Cr ratio was significantly higher in the VCIND than the M-aMCI. Our results suggested (1)H-MRS is an effective method in the differential diagnosis of M-aMCI and VCIND. PMID:26980718

  5. Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial

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    Suzuki Takao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on the cognitive function of older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Design: Twelve months, randomized controlled trial; Setting: Community center in Japan; Participants: Fifty older adults (27 men with aMCI ranging in age from 65 to 93 years (mean age, 75 years; Intervention: Subjects were randomized into either a multicomponent exercise (n = 25 or an education control group (n = 25. Subjects in the multicomponent exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, for a total of 80 times over 12 months. The exercises included aerobic exercises, muscle strength training, and postural balance retraining, and were conducted using multiple conditions to stimulate cognitive functions. Subjects in the control group attended three education classes regarding health during the 12-month period. Measurements were administered before, after the 6-month, and after the 12-month intervention period; Measurements: The performance measures included the mini-mental state examination, logical memory subtest of the Wechsler memory scale-revised, digit symbol coding test, letter and categorical verbal fluency test, and the Stroop color word test. Results The mean adherence to the exercise program was 79.2%. Improvements of cognitive function following multicomponent exercise were superior at treatment end (group × time interactions for the mini-mental state examination (P = 0.04, logical memory of immediate recall (P = 0.03, and letter verbal fluency test (P = 0.02. The logical memory of delayed recall, digit symbol coding, and Stroop color word test showed main effects of time, although there were no group × time interactions. Conclusions This study indicates that exercise improves or supports, at least partly, cognitive performance in older adults with aMCI.

  6. Brain structural, functional, and cognitive correlates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Clémence Tomadesso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old and recent (the ten last years autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD.

  7. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer’s Disease in an Asian Memory Clinic – Evidence for a Clinical Spectrum

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    M. Chan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine if mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents a continuum of cognitive and functional deficits. Methods: Clinical data of 164 subjects with no dementia (ND, n = 52, uncertain dementia (n = 69, and mild probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n = 43 were reviewed. Uncertain dementia patients were classified as pre-MCI (n = 11, early amnestic MCI (e-aMCI, n = 15 and late amnestic MCI (l-aMCI, n = 15. Cognitive assessments [Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE and a validated neuropsychological battery], functional assessments (Lawton’s scale for instrumental activities of daily living and neuroimaging (ischemic lesions and medial temporal lobe atrophy were reviewed. Results: ND, aMCI and mild AD subjects demonstrated a significant trend for worsening performance for all cognitive and functional measures (ANOVA, p Conclusions: Clinical delineation of aMCI allows the differentiation of those likely to progress for better correlation to biomarker development.

  8. Differences in functional brain connectivity alterations associated with cerebral amyloid deposition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Dahyun eYi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite potential implications for the early detection of impending AD, very little is known about the differences of large scale brain networks between amnestic MCI (aMCI with high cerebral amyloid beta protein (Aβ deposition (i.e., aMCI+ and aMCI with no or very little Aβ deposition (i.e., aMCI-. We first aimed to extend the current literature on altering intrinsic functional connectivity (FC of the default mode network (DMN and salience network (SN from CN to AD dementia. Second, we further examined the differences of the DMN and the SN between aMCI-, aMCI+, and CN. Forty-three older adult (12 CN, 10 aMCI+, 10 aMCI-, and 11 AD dementia subjects were included. All participants received clinical and neuropsychological assessment, resting state functional MRI, structural MRI, and Pittsburgh compound-B-PET scans. FC data were preprocessed using Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components of FSL. Group comparisons were carried out using the dual-regression approach. In addition, to verify presence of grey matter (GM volume changes with intrinsic functional network alterations, Voxel Based Morphometry was performed on the acquired T1-weighted data. As expected, AD dementia participants exhibited decreased FC in the DMN compared to CN (in precuneus and cingulate gyrus. The degree of alteration in the DMN in aMCI+ compared to CN was intermediate to that of AD. In contrast, aMCI- exhibited increased FC in the DMN compared to CN (in precuneus as well as aMCI+. In terms of the SN, aMCI- exhibited decreased FC compared to both CN and aMCI+ particularly in the inferior frontal gyrus. FC within the SN in aMCI+ and AD did not differ from CN. Compared to CN, aMCI- showed atrophy in bilateral superior temporal gyri whereas aMCI+ showed atrophy in right precuneus. The results indicate that despite of the similarity in cross-sectional cognitive features aMCI- has quite different functional brain connectivity compared to

  9. Altered functional connectivity of fusiform gyrus in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a resting state fMRI study

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    SuPing eCai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual cognition such as face recognition requires a high level of functional interaction between distributed regions of a network. It has been reported that the fusiform gyrus (FG is an important brain area involved in facial cognition; altered connectivity of FG to some other regions may lead to a deficit in visual cognition especially face recognition. However, whether functional connectivity between the FG and other brain regions changes remains unclear during the resting state in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI subjects. Here, we employed a resting state functional MRI (fMRI to examine changes in functional connectivity of left/right FG comparing aMCI patients with age-matched control subjects. Forty-eight aMCI and thirty-eight control subjects from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI were analyzed. We focused on the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the FG and those in all other brain regions. Compared to the control group, we found some discrepant regions in the aMCI group which presented increased or decreased connectivity with the left/right FG including the left precuneus, left lingual gyrus, right thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, left supplementary motor area, left inferior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampus. More importantly, we also obtained that both left and right FG have increased functional connections with the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG and right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC in aMCI patients. That was not a coincidence and might imply that the MOG and ACC also play a critical role in visual cognition, especially face recognition. These findings in a large part supported our hypothesis and provided a new insight in understanding the important subtype of MCI.

  10. A longitudinal study of atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal aging revealed by cortical thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Yao

    Full Text Available In recent years, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI has attracted significant attention as an indicator of high risk for Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the pathology of aMCI may benefit the development of effective clinical treatments for dementia. In this work, we measured the cortical thickness of 109 aMCI subjects and 99 normal controls (NC twice over two years. The longitudinal changes and the cross-sectional differences between the two types of participants were explored using the vertex thickness values. The thickness of the cortex in aMCI was found significantly reduced in both longitudinal and between-group comparisons, mainly in the temporal lobe, superolateral parietal lobe and some regions of the frontal cortices. Compared to NC, the aMCI showed a significantly high atrophy rate in the left lateral temporal lobe and left parahippocampal gyrus over two years. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between brain atrophy and the decline of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores was also found in the left superior and left middle temporal gyrus in aMCI. These findings demonstrated specific longitudinal spatial patterns of cortical atrophy in aMCI and NC. The higher atrophy rate in aMCI might be responsible for the accelerated functional decline in the aMCI progression process.

  11. A longitudinal study of atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal aging revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chuanjiang; Zhao, Lina; Jackson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) has attracted significant attention as an indicator of high risk for Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the pathology of aMCI may benefit the development of effective clinical treatments for dementia. In this work, we measured the cortical thickness of 109 aMCI subjects and 99 normal controls (NC) twice over two years. The longitudinal changes and the cross-sectional differences between the two types of participants were explored using the vertex thickness values. The thickness of the cortex in aMCI was found significantly reduced in both longitudinal and between-group comparisons, mainly in the temporal lobe, superolateral parietal lobe and some regions of the frontal cortices. Compared to NC, the aMCI showed a significantly high atrophy rate in the left lateral temporal lobe and left parahippocampal gyrus over two years. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between brain atrophy and the decline of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores was also found in the left superior and left middle temporal gyrus in aMCI. These findings demonstrated specific longitudinal spatial patterns of cortical atrophy in aMCI and NC. The higher atrophy rate in aMCI might be responsible for the accelerated functional decline in the aMCI progression process.

  12. Differences and the relationship in default mode network intrinsic activity and functional connectivity in mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Marina; Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Nogueira, Mateus Henrique; de Campos, Brunno Machado; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo

    2014-10-01

    There is evidence that the default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and few studies also reported a decrease in DMN intrinsic activity, measured by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs). In this study, we analyzed the relationship between DMN intrinsic activity and functional connectivity, as well as their possible implications on cognition in patients with mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls. In addition, we evaluated the differences both in connectivity and ALFF values between these groups. We recruited 29 controls, 20 aMCI, and 32 mild AD patients. To identify the DMN, functional connectivity was calculated by placing a seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Within the DMN mask obtained, we calculated regional average ALFFs. Compared with controls, aMCI patients showed decreased ALFFs in the temporal region; compared with AD, aMCI showed higher values in the PCC but lower in the temporal area. The mild AD group had lower ALFFs in the PCC compared with controls. There was no difference between the connectivity in the aMCI group compared with the other groups, but AD patients showed decreased connectivity in the frontal, parietal, and PCC. Also, PCC ALFFs correlated to functional connectivity in nearly all subregions. Cognitive tests correlated to connectivity values but not to ALFFs. In conclusion, we found that DMN connectivity and ALFFs are correlated in these groups. Decreased PCC ALFFs disrupt the DMN functional organization, leading to cognitive problems in the AD spectrum.

  13. Relation between aerobic fitness and brain structures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Rezende, Thiago J R; Weiler, Marina; Nogueira, Mateus H; Campos, Brunno M; Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Vicentini, Jessica E; Scriptore, Gabriela; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio L F

    2016-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition, with high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise may have positive effect on cognition and brain structure in older adults. However, it is still under research whether these influences are true on aMCI subjects with low Ab_42 and high total tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is considered a biomarker for AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible relation between aerobic fitness (AF) and gray matter (GM) volume and AF and white matter (WM) integrity in aMCI with a CSF biomarker. Twenty-two participants with aMCI acquired the images on a 3.0-T MRI. AF was assessed by a graded exercise test on a treadmill. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistic methods were used to analyze the GM volume and WM microstructural integrity, respectively. We correlated AF and GM volume and WM integrity in aMCI (p < 0.05, FWE corrected, cluster with at least five voxels). There was a positive relation between AF and GM volume mostly in frontal superior cortex. In WM integrity, AF was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy and negatively correlated with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, all in the same tracts that interconnect frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas (longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corpus callosum). These results suggest that aerobic fitness may have a positive influence on protection of brain even in aMCI CSF biomarker, a high-risk population to convert to AD. PMID:27106271

  14. Ill-defined problem solving in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: linking episodic memory to effective solution generation.

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    Sheldon, S; Vandermorris, S; Al-Haj, M; Cohen, S; Winocur, G; Moscovitch, M

    2015-02-01

    It is well accepted that the medial temporal lobes (MTL), and the hippocampus specifically, support episodic memory processes. Emerging evidence suggests that these processes also support the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems which are those that do not have a set routine or solution. To test the relation between episodic memory and problem solving, we examined the ability of individuals with single domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition characterized by episodic memory impairment, to solve ill-defined social problems. Participants with aMCI and age and education matched controls were given a battery of tests that included standardized neuropsychological measures, the Autobiographical Interview (Levine et al., 2002) that scored for episodic content in descriptions of past personal events, and a measure of ill-defined social problem solving. Corroborating previous findings, the aMCI group generated less episodically rich narratives when describing past events. Individuals with aMCI also generated less effective solutions when solving ill-defined problems compared to the control participants. Correlation analyses demonstrated that the ability to recall episodic elements from autobiographical memories was positively related to the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems. The ability to solve these ill-defined problems was related to measures of activities of daily living. In conjunction with previous reports, the results of the present study point to a new functional role of episodic memory in ill-defined goal-directed behavior and other non-memory tasks that require flexible thinking. Our findings also have implications for the cognitive and behavioural profile of aMCI by suggesting that the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems is related to sustained functional independence. PMID:25575452

  15. Ill-defined problem solving in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: linking episodic memory to effective solution generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Vandermorris, S; Al-Haj, M; Cohen, S; Winocur, G; Moscovitch, M

    2015-02-01

    It is well accepted that the medial temporal lobes (MTL), and the hippocampus specifically, support episodic memory processes. Emerging evidence suggests that these processes also support the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems which are those that do not have a set routine or solution. To test the relation between episodic memory and problem solving, we examined the ability of individuals with single domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition characterized by episodic memory impairment, to solve ill-defined social problems. Participants with aMCI and age and education matched controls were given a battery of tests that included standardized neuropsychological measures, the Autobiographical Interview (Levine et al., 2002) that scored for episodic content in descriptions of past personal events, and a measure of ill-defined social problem solving. Corroborating previous findings, the aMCI group generated less episodically rich narratives when describing past events. Individuals with aMCI also generated less effective solutions when solving ill-defined problems compared to the control participants. Correlation analyses demonstrated that the ability to recall episodic elements from autobiographical memories was positively related to the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems. The ability to solve these ill-defined problems was related to measures of activities of daily living. In conjunction with previous reports, the results of the present study point to a new functional role of episodic memory in ill-defined goal-directed behavior and other non-memory tasks that require flexible thinking. Our findings also have implications for the cognitive and behavioural profile of aMCI by suggesting that the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems is related to sustained functional independence.

  16. Quantitative multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy study of brain metabolites in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhong-Xian; Cheng, Xiao-Fang; Xu, Zhi-Feng; Cao, Zhen; Xiao, Ye-Yu; You, Ke-Zeng; Liu, Yan-Yan [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Huo, Shan-Shan [Science College of Shantou University, Department of Physics, Shantou (China); Zeng, Jie-Xia; Chen, Wei [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Wu, Ren-Hua [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Medical College of Shantou University, Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging, Guangdong, Shantou (China)

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate brain metabolic changes in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MVS). Fourteen aMCI patients and fifteen healthy control subjects participated in this experiment. All MR measurements were acquired using a 1.5-T GE scanner. {sup 1}H-MVS point resolved spectroscopy (2D PROBE-CSI PRESS) pulse sequence (TE = 35 ms; TR = 1,500 ms; phase x frequency, 18 x 18) was used for acquiring MRS data. All data were post-processed using Spectroscopy Analysis by General Electric software and linear combination of model (LCModel). The absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myoinositol (MI), creatine (Cr), and the metabolite ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, and NAA/MI were measured bilaterally in the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG), inferior precuneus (Pr), paratrigonal white matter (PWM), dorsal thalamus (DT), and lentiform nucleus (LN). Patients with aMCI displayed significantly lower NAA levels in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01), PWM (p < 0.05), and left inferior Pr (p < 0.05). The metabolite ratio of NAA/MI was decreased in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01) and PWM (p < 0.05) and in the left DT (p < 0.01). NAA/Cr was decreased in the left PCG (p < 0.01), DT (p < 0.05), right PWM (p < 0.05), and LN (p < 0.05). However, MI/Cr was elevated in the right PCG (p < 0.01) and left PWM (p < 0.05). Significantly increased Cho level was also evident in the left PWM (p < 0.05). Our observations of decreased NAA, NAA/Cr, and NAA/MI, in parallel with increased Cho and MI/Cr might be characteristic of aMCI patients. (orig.)

  17. Individual cerebral metabolic deficits in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sole, Angelo; Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni [Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital San Paolo, Institute of Radiological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Clerici, Francesca; Mariani, Claudio; Maggiore, Laura [University of Milan, Center for Research and Treatment on Cognitive Dysfunctions, Institute of Clinical Neurology, Department of Clinical Sciences, ' Luigi Sacco' Hospital, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Clinical Institute Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Mosconi, Lisa [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The purpose of the study was the identification of group and individual subject patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) studies and neuropsychological tests were performed in 16 aMCI patients (ten women, age 75 {+-} 8 years) and in 14 AD patients (ten women, age 75 {+-} 9 years). Comparisons between patient subgroups and with a control population were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Clusters of low CMRGlu were observed bilaterally in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus of AD patients. In aMCI patients, reduced CMRGlu was found only in PCC. Areas of low CMRGlu in PCC were wider in AD compared to aMCI and extended to the precuneus, while low CMRGlu was found in the lateral parietal cortex in AD but not in aMCI patients. Individual subject pattern analysis revealed that 86% of AD patients had low CMRGlu in the PCC (including the precuneus in 71%), 71% in the temporal cortex, 64% in the parietal cortex and 35% in the frontal cortex. Among the aMCI patients, 56% had low CMRGlu in the PCC, 44% in the temporal cortex, 18% in the frontal cortex and none in the parietal cortex. This study demonstrates that both AD and aMCI patients have highly heterogeneous metabolic impairment. This potential of individual metabolic PET imaging in patients with AD and aMCI may allow timely identification of brain damage on individual basis and possibly help planning tailored early interventions. (orig.)

  18. The overall impairment of core executive function components in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Dongming

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear how executive function (EF is affected in the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Previous studies using different methods to assess EF in patients with aMCI have reached inconsistent conclusions. The aim of the study was to explore the characteristics of EF impairments in patients with aMCI. Methods We investigated three core components of EF (i.e., working memory, response inhibition and task switching based on the theoretical model of EF proposed by Miyake et al. (2000 in 34 aMCI patients and 36 healthy elderly controls using computerized tasks programmed with E-prime (the 2-back task and the keep track task for working memory, the stop-signal task and the Stroop task for response inhibition and the more-odd shifting task for task switching. The overall EF and the three individual EF components were compared between groups. For EF components that were impaired, the extent of impairment was compared using a paired analysis. The aMCI group was further divided into EF-intact and EF-deficit groups according to their performances on the EF tests in clinical neuropsychological assessments. We tested for group differences among the normal controls and the EF-intact and EF-deficit aMCI groups and paid special attention to the comparisons between the EF-intact aMCI group and the control group. Results Compared to the control group, overall EF was significantly impaired in patients with aMCI (Wilks’ λ=0.572,P Conclusions Both the overall EF and all of the core EF components in the Miyake model of EF (working memory, response inhibition and task switching were significantly impaired in aMCI patients, regardless of whether they had shown obvious clinical executive dysfunction.

  19. Quantitative multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy study of brain metabolites in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate brain metabolic changes in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MVS). Fourteen aMCI patients and fifteen healthy control subjects participated in this experiment. All MR measurements were acquired using a 1.5-T GE scanner. 1H-MVS point resolved spectroscopy (2D PROBE-CSI PRESS) pulse sequence (TE = 35 ms; TR = 1,500 ms; phase x frequency, 18 x 18) was used for acquiring MRS data. All data were post-processed using Spectroscopy Analysis by General Electric software and linear combination of model (LCModel). The absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myoinositol (MI), creatine (Cr), and the metabolite ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, and NAA/MI were measured bilaterally in the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG), inferior precuneus (Pr), paratrigonal white matter (PWM), dorsal thalamus (DT), and lentiform nucleus (LN). Patients with aMCI displayed significantly lower NAA levels in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01), PWM (p < 0.05), and left inferior Pr (p < 0.05). The metabolite ratio of NAA/MI was decreased in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01) and PWM (p < 0.05) and in the left DT (p < 0.01). NAA/Cr was decreased in the left PCG (p < 0.01), DT (p < 0.05), right PWM (p < 0.05), and LN (p < 0.05). However, MI/Cr was elevated in the right PCG (p < 0.01) and left PWM (p < 0.05). Significantly increased Cho level was also evident in the left PWM (p < 0.05). Our observations of decreased NAA, NAA/Cr, and NAA/MI, in parallel with increased Cho and MI/Cr might be characteristic of aMCI patients. (orig.)

  20. Inhibition deficit in the spatial tendency of the response in multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment. An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespón, Jesús; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that a high percentage of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prodromal AD is known to involve deficits in executive control processes. In the present study, we examined such deficits by recording EEG in 13 single-domain amnestic MCI (sdaMCI), 12 multiple-domain amnestic MCI (mdaMCI) and 18 healthy elderly (control group, CG) participants while they performed a Simon task. The Simon task demands deployment of executive processes because participants have to respond to non-spatial features of a lateralized stimulus and inhibit the more automatic spatial tendency of the response. We specifically focused on the negativity central contralateral (N2cc), an event-related potential (ERP) component related to brain activity that prevents the cross-talk between direction of spatial attention and manual response preparation. The reaction time (RT) was not significantly different among the three groups of participants. The percentage of errors (PE) was higher in mdaMCI than in CG and sdaMCI participants. In addition, N2cc latency was delayed in mdaMCI (i.e., delayed implementation of mechanisms for controlling the spatial tendency of the response). The N2cc latency clearly distinguished among mdaMCI and CG/sdaMCI participants (area under curve: 0.91). Longer N2cc was therefore associated with executive control deficits, which suggests that N2cc latency is a correlate of mdaMCI. PMID:25999853

  1. Observation of Effect of Huanshao Tang in Treatment of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment%还少汤治疗遗忘型轻度认知障碍疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小黎; 侯秀娟; 扈新刚; 李侠

    2010-01-01

    @@ 本课题组于2009-01-2010-06应用中药古方还少丹治疗中医辨证为脾肾亏虚证的遗忘型MCI(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)患者,取得了较好疗效,现总结报告如下.

  2. How Does the Hippocampal Formation Mediate Memory for Stimuli Processed by the Magnocellular and Parvocellular Visual Pathways? Evidence from the Comparison of Schizophrenia and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Szabolcs; Szamosi, Andras; Benedek, Gyorgy; Kelemen, Oguz

    2012-01-01

    Paired associates learning is impaired in both schizophrenia and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which may reflect hippocampal pathology. In addition, schizophrenia is characterized by the dysfunction of the retino-geniculo-striatal magnocellular (M) visual pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between…

  3. Is the WMS-IV verbal paired associates as effective as other memory tasks in discriminating amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kerryn E; Kinsella, Glynda J; Ong, Ben; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth; Storey, Elsdon; Ames, David; Saling, Michael; Clare, Linda; Parsons, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Paired associate learning tasks are reportedly particularly sensitive to preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of the recently updated Wechsler Memory Scale verbal paired associates (VPA) in distinguishing the earliest stages of memory impairment (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI), and the clinical application at the case level, compared with other episodic memory tasks. Participants were 77 people with aMCI and 77 matched healthy older adults (HOA). VPA performance distinguished aMCI from HOA at the group level with large effect sizes, of similar size to the other tasks at immediate recall, but smaller than the CVLT-II list-learning task at delayed recall. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated good discrimination, similar to other tasks, but again with CVLT-II more accurate at delayed recall. Although group differences remained for normative data, on a case basis using existing normative data the VPA failed to identify 70% of aMCI as impaired. The findings suggest further examination of the normative data is required before the VPA is useful in clinical practice, and highlight the importance of comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in detecting mild memory changes in older adults.

  4. Abnormal intrinsic brain activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment revealed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Qian; ZHAO Xiao-hu; WANG Pei-jun; GUO Qi-hao; HE Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that brain functional activity in the resting state is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.However,alterations in intrinsic brain activity patterns in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients are poorly understood.This study aimed to explore the differences in regional intrinsic activities throughout the whole brain between aMCI patients and controls.Methods In the present study,resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 18 amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients,18 mild AD patients and 20 healthy elderly subjects.And amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method was used.Results Compared with healthy elderly subjects,aMCI patients showed decreased ALFF in the right hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex,left lateral temporal cortex,and right ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and increased ALFF in the left temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and inferior parietal Iobule (IPL).Mild AD patients showed decreased ALFF in the left TPJ,posterior IPL (plPL),and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared with aMCI patients.Mild AD patients also had decreased ALFF in the right posterior cingulate cortex,right vMPFC and bilateral dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) compared with healthy elderly subjects.Conclusions Decreased intrinsic activities in brain regions closely related to episodic memory were found in aMCI and AD patients.Increased TPJ and IPL activity may indicate compensatory mechanisms for loss of memory function in aMCI patients.These findings suggest that the fMRI based on ALFF analysis may provide a useful tool in the study of aMCI patients.

  5. Pattern of cerebral hyperperfusion in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment using voxel-based analysis of 3D arterial spin-labeling imaging: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bei Ding,1 Hua-wei Ling,1 Yong Zhang,2 Juan Huang,1 Huan Zhang,1 Tao Wang,3 Fu Hua Yan11Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, 3Department of Gerontology, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaPurpose: A three-dimensional (3D continuous pulse arterial spin labeling (ASL technique was used to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and age- and sex-matched healthy controls.Materials and methods: Three groups were recruited for comparison, 24 AD patients, 17 MCI patients, and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Three-dimensional ASL scans covering the entire brain were acquired with a 3.0 T magnetic resonance scanner. Spatial processing was performed with statistical parametric mapping 8. A second-level one-way analysis of variance analysis (threshold at P<0.05 was performed on the preprocessed ASL data. An average whole-brain CBF for each subject was also included as group-level covariates for the perfusion data, to control for individual CBF variations.Results: Significantly increased CBF was detected in bilateral frontal lobes and right temporal subgyral regions in aMCI compared with controls. When comparing AD with aMCI, the major hyperperfusion regions were the right limbic lobe and basal ganglia regions, including the putamen, caudate, lentiform nucleus, and thalamus, and hypoperfusion was found in the left medial frontal lobe, parietal cortex, the right middle temporo-occipital lobe, and particularly, the left anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found decreased CBF in the bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortices and left limbic lobe in AD patients, relative to the control group. aMCI subjects showed decreased blood flow in the left occipital lobe, bilateral inferior temporal cortex, and right middle temporal cortex

  6. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity.

  7. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity. PMID:25156204

  8. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Using voxel-based morphometry to examine the relationship between regional brain volumes and memory performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric eMeyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder, in which morphological alterations of brain tissue develop many years before the first neuropsychological and clinical changes occur. Among the first and most prominent symptoms are deficiencies of declarative memory functions. This stage of precursory symptoms to AD has been described as amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and is discussed as a potential AD prodrome. As therapy in the later stages of AD has been shown to be of limited impact, aMCI would be the key target for early intervention. For that purpose a comprehensive neuropsychological and anatomical characterization of this group is necessary. Previous neuropsychological investigations identified tests which are highly sensitive in diagnosing aMCI and very early AD. However, the sensitivity of those neuropsychological tests to the particular structural neuropathology in aMCI remains to be specified. To this end we investigated 25 patients with single-domain aMCI. All participants underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and anatomical scanning with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was performed to identify brain regions that show a significant correlation between regional brain volume and behavioral measures of memory and executive functioning. We found that performance in a variety of mnemonic tests was directly related to the integrity of the medial temporal lobe cortex (MTLC. Moreover, impairment of memory subfunctions in aMCI might be detected earlier than overt structural damage. By this, these findings contribute to the identification of cerebral structures associated with memory deficits in aMCI.

  10. Multimodal imaging in diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, perfusion, and diffusion tensor imaging of the posterior cingulate region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, Anna; Szewczyk, Pawel; Trypka, Elzbieta; Wojtynska, Renata; Noga, Leszek; Leszek, Jerzy; Sasiadek, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess metabolic, perfusion, and microstructural changes within the posterior cingulate area in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using advanced MR techniques such as: spectroscopy (MRS), perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Thirty patients with AD (mean age 71.5 y, MMSE 18), 23 with aMCI (mean age 66 y, MMSE 27.4), and 15 age-matched normal controls (mean age 69 y, MMSE 29.5) underwent conventional MRI followed by MRS, PWI, and DTI on 1.5 Tesla MR unit. Several metabolite ratios (N-acetylaspartate [NAA]/creatine [Cr], choline [Ch]/Cr, myoinositol [mI]/Cr, mI/NAA, mI/Cho) as well as parameters of cerebral blood volume relative to cerebellum and fractional anisotropy were obtained in the posterior cingulate region. The above parameters were correlated with the results of neuropsychological tests. AD patients showed significant abnormalities in all evaluated parameters while subjects with aMCI showed only perfusion and diffusion changes in the posterior cingulate area. Only PWI and DTI measurements revealed significant differences among the three evaluated subject groups. DTI, PWI, and MRS results showed significant correlations with neuropsychological tests. DTI changes correlated with both PWI and MRS abnormalities. Of neuroimaging methods, DTI revealed the highest accuracy in diagnosis of AD and aMCI (0.95, 0.79) followed by PWI (0.87, 0.67) and MRS (0.82, 0.47), respectively. In conclusion, AD is a complex pathology regarding both grey and white matter. DTI seems to be the most useful imaging modality to distinguish between AD, aMCI, and control group, followed by PWI and MRS. PMID:21841260

  11. A pilot study on utility of Malayalam version of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination in detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A critical insight into utility of learning and recall measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This pilot study sought to determine whether the Malayalam adaptation of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination (M-ACE can effectively identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI and the impact of measures of learning and free recall. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 23 patients with a-MCI aged between 55-80 years diagnosed as per current criteria and 23 group matched cognitively normal healthy controls (CNHC were studied. The measures of acquisition and delayed recall were the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III (verbal and visual subsets and Delayed Matching-to-sample Test (DMS-48. Test scores of M-ACE registration and recall scores were included. To examine the differences in test performances between the groups, we compared the number of subjects with test scores less than 1.5 standard deviation (SD of the control scores. Comparisons between a-MCI and controls were drawn using Fisher′s exact test and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: M-ACE registration component ascertained on a 24-point scale failed to demonstrate any differences between a-MCI and controls (P = 0.665 as opposed to recall judged on a cumulative 10-point scale (P = 0.001. Significant differences were noted in RAVLT list learning (P < 0.001 and list recall (P = 0.003, WMS-III paragraph learning (P <0.001 and recall (P = 0.007, visual learning (P = 0.004 and recall (P = 0.001. Conclusions: M-ACE recall scores are an effective screening tool to identify patients with suspected a-MCI. Both word list and paragraph learning and recall components have been found to be sensitive to concretely identify a-MCI and impairment on at least 2 tests should be considered in the diagnostic criteria of MCI rather than rely on a single screening battery.

  12. Cognitive and functional neuroimaging correlate for anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Gade, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  13. Cognitive and functional neuroimaging correlate for anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Gade, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD).......To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  14. The Default Mode Network is functionally and structurally disrupted in amnestic mild cognitive impairment — A bimodal MEG–DTI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Garcés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, several studies on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD have reported Default Mode Network (DMN deficits. This network is attracting increasing interest in the AD community, as it seems to play an important role in cognitive functioning and in beta amyloid deposition. Attention has been particularly drawn to how different DMN regions are connected using functional or structural connectivity. To this end, most studies have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Positron Emission Tomography (PET or Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI. In this study we evaluated (1 functional connectivity from resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG and (2 structural connectivity from DTI in 26 MCI patients and 31 age-matched controls. Compared to controls, the DMN in the MCI group was functionally disrupted in the alpha band, while no differences were found for delta, theta, beta and gamma frequency bands. In addition, structural disconnection could be assessed through a decreased fractional anisotropy along tracts connecting different DMN regions. This suggests that the DMN functional and anatomical disconnection could represent a core feature of MCI.

  15. 遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍的执行功能损害%Executive function deficits in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑东明; 董晓宇; 孙洪赞; 徐永川; 马英; 王晓明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍患者执行功能变化的特点.方法 依据Miyake的执行功能三因素模型(工作记忆、任务转换、反应抑制),使用E-prime软件对这三种执行功能核心成分编写检测任务:利用2-back任务和Keep-track任务检测工作记忆,Stop-signal任务和Stroop任务检测反应抑制,More-odd shifting任务检测任务转换能力.在34例遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍(amnestic mild cognitive impairement,aMCI)患者和31例正常老年人中进行这些任务的检测,比较两组间执行功能差异的特点.结果 aMCI组的执行功能比对照组显著降低(Wilks'λ=0.567,P< 0.01).除Stroop任务的数据两组间没有明显差异之外,aMCI组的2-back任务、Keep-track任务、Stop-signal任务、More-odd shifting任务的成绩均显著低于对照组(P<0.05),但这4种任务成绩下降的程度彼此间没有显著差异.结论 aMCI阶段已经出现了执行功能的全面损害,三种执行功能核心成分均有受损.%Objective To characterize the executive function deficits in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods Baaed on the theoretical model of EF proposed by Miyake, three core components of EF (working memory, response inhibition and task switching) were analyzed in 34 aMCI patients and 31 healthy elderly controls using computerized tasks. The 2-back task and Keep track task were used to test working memory; the Stop-signal task and Stroop task were used to test response inhibition and the More-odd shifting task were used to examine task switching. The overall EF and The three individual EF components were compared between groups. Results Executive function was significantly impaired in patients with aMCI (Wilks'λ = 0.567, P< 0.01). There were significant differences in all other four tasks except Stroop task between two groups. The degree of score reduction was not significant among four affected tasks. Conclusions The patients with a

  16. MRI patterns of grey matter atrophy in amnestic Mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知损害的全脑灰质基于体素的MRI形态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志莲; 韩璎; 卢洁; 贾秀琴; 李坤成; 张苗; 戎冬冬; 贾建平

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare the patterns of grey matter loss between subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal health eldly. Methods: We studied 20 patients with aMCI and 18 age-and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D data aets. The data were collected on a 3 T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate grey matter volume maps. Results: VBM revealed diffusively reduccd grey matter in aMCI prominently including the right uncus, the bilateral inferior, superior and midial frontal gyrus, the bilatcral medial temporal gyrus , the left inferior temporal gyrus, the left superior temporal gyrus, the right superior parietal gyrus ,and the left middle occipital gyrus ( P <0. 001). Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automatic approach providing a full brain assessment of aMCI grey morphology. It is important for diagnosing aMCI.%目的:利用优化基于体素的MRI形态分析(voxel-based morphometry,VBM),研究遗忘型轻度认知损害(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)和正常老年人的脑灰质体积变化.方法:选取aMCl患者20例和正常老年对照18例,MRI排除脑内其他病变,然后行高分辨率三维T1 WI扫描.应用优化VBM方法处理数据,将脑组织分割成灰质、白质和脑脊液,最后应用两样本t检验比较两组被试灰质体积改变.结果:VBM结果显示与正常老年对照组比较,aMCI患者组双侧额颞叶出现广泛的灰质体积减少,具体脑区为右侧海马钩回、双侧额下回、双侧额中回、右侧额上回、双颞叶额中回、左侧颞下回、左侧颞上回,右侧顶上小叶、左侧枕中回等结构灰质体积小于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论:VBM方法可显示aMCI患者全脑灰质萎缩情况,对临床早期诊断aMCl患者有重要价值,具有广阔的临床应用前景.

  17. Clinical trials in mild cognitive impairment: lessons for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Jelic, V.; Kivipelto, M.; Winblad, B.

    2005-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an operational definition for a cognitive decline in individuals with a greater risk of developing dementia. The amnestic subtype of MCI is of particular interest because these individuals most likely progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Currently hypothesised therapeutic approaches in MCI are mainly based on AD treatment strategies. Long term secondary prevention randomised clinical trials have been completed in amnestic MCI populations, encompassing agent...

  18. Alteration of mTOR signaling occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD): analysis of brain from subjects with pre-clinical AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and late-stage AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramutola, Antonella; Triplett, Judy C; Di Domenico, Fabio; Niedowicz, Dana M; Murphy, Michael P; Coccia, Raffaella; Perluigi, Marzia; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-06-01

    The clinical symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) include a gradual memory loss and subsequent dementia, and neuropathological deposition of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. At the molecular level, AD subjects present overt amyloid β (Aβ) production and tau hyperphosphorylation. Aβ species have been proposed to overactivate the phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis, which plays a central role in proteostasis. The current study investigated the status of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in post-mortem tissue from the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) at three different stages of AD: late AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and pre-clinical AD (PCAD). Our findings suggest that the alteration of mTOR signaling and autophagy occurs at early stages of AD. We found a significant increase in Aβ (1-42) levels, associated with reduction in autophagy (Beclin-1 and LC-3) observed in PCAD, MCI, and AD subjects. Related to the autophagy impairment, we found a hyperactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in IPL of MCI and AD subjects, but not in PCAD, along with a significant decrease in phosphatase and tensin homolog. An increase in two mTOR downstream targets, p70S6K and 4EBP1, occurred in AD and MCI subjects. Both AD and MCI subjects showed increased, insulin receptor substrate 1, a candidate biomarker of brain insulin resistance, and GSK-3β, a kinase targeting tau phosphorylation. Nevertheless, tau phosphorylation was increased in the clinical groups. The results hint at a link between Aβ and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and provide further insights into the relationship between AD pathology and insulin resistance. In addition, we speculate that the alteration of mTOR signaling in the IPL of AD and MCI subjects, but not in PCAD, is due to the lack of substantial increase in oxidative stress. The figure represents the three different stages of Alzheimer Disease: Preclinical Alzheimer Disease (PCAD), Mild cognitive impairment (MCI

  19. 遗忘型轻度认知功能损害认知特征的随访研究%Cognitive changes in amnestic mild cognitive impairment:a follow-up study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施咏梅; 张志珺; 宇辉; 王益; 岳春贤; 滕玉环; 柏峰; 袁勇贵; 邓玲珑

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate outcome and cognitive changes of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in a follow-up study. Methods A cross-sectional and longitudinal parallel cohort study design was conducted among 109 aMCI patients and 104 matched normal controls. Multi-dimension neuropsychologic tests were used to extensively assess the cognitive function. Results The scores of neuropsychologic tests in aMCI patients were significantly lower than those in the normal controls( all P<0.01 ) ,with the largest impairment on 20minutes delayed recall of the auditory verbal memory test ( AVMT), which reflects episodic memory ( aMCI pa-tients :2.50 ± 1.48, normal controls :7.85 ± 1.59, Z = - 12.697, P < 0.01 ); AD was diagnosed in 15 of the 69aMCI patients with a prevalence rate of 22% ,but none was converted to AD in the normal controls. The cognitivechanges of performance in AVMT, CDT, MMSE of the patients in aMCI group (( 3.77 ± 60.83 )%, (6.89 ±28.24) %, (6.13 ± 16.89) % respectively) were significantly poorer than those of the controls group(( - 10.75 ±27.46) %, ( - 5.23 ± 14.05 ) %, ( - 1.11 ± 8.26 ) % respectively) ( all P < 0.05 ). At baseline, demented aMCIperformed poorer in AVMT, CFT, TMT, SDMT, CDT, MMSE when compared to stable. During the follow-up, demented aMCI groups performed significantly poorer than did stable subjects in AVMT, CFT, DST, VFT, SDMT,MMSE ( all P < 0.05 ). Conclusion aMCI is a prodromal period of AD and characterized by episodic memory impairment. The neuropsychologic test is a predictive factor for aMCI to develop AD.%目的 探讨遗忘型轻度认知功能损害(aMCI)的转归及其认知特征的变化.方法 横断面病例-对照和队列研究.采用多维度神经心理测试评估109例aMCI患者和104例正常对照者的神经认知功能.结果 与正常对照组相比,aMCI组的各项神经认知功能基线测试成绩均显著下降(均P<0.01),尤以反映情节记忆的听觉词语记忆测试(AVMT)的20

  20. 基于支持向量机的遗忘型轻度认知障碍个体识别研究%Individual identification research of amnestic mild cognitive impairment based on support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠敏; 崔再续; 郭艳芹; 李坤成; 贾建平; 韩璎

    2014-01-01

    Objective In recent years , multivariate pattern analysis ( MVPA) method was proposed and considered to be a promising tool for automated identification of various neuropsychiatric populations .Support vector machine ( SVM) is one of the most widely used methods of MVPA .Using SVM classifier for MVPA of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal control (NC) group, the present study aims to build an individual diagnostic model with significant discriminative power and investigate the gray matter abnor-malities of aMCI patients . Methods Fifty-one aMCI patients and 68 normal controls were scanned on the 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for high-resolution T1-weighted images.Gray matter volume map was calculated for each subject and used as features for subsequent discriminative analysis .We first applied feature selection to remove redundant information and reduce feature dimension , and then trained an SVM classifier . Leave-one-out cross validation ( LOOCV) was used to estimate the performance of the classifier , and finally the most discriminative features were identified . Results The proposed classifier achieved a classification accuracy of 83.19%with a sensitivity of 76.47%and a specificity of 88.24%.In ad-dition, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.8368.Further analysis revealed that the most discrimi-native features for classification included bilateral parahippocampal gyri , bilateral hippocampi , bilateral amygdala , bilateral thalamus , right cingulate , right precuneus , left caudate , left superior temporal gyrus , left middle temporal gyrus , left insula and left orbitofrontal cortex. Conclusion The proposed classification model has achieved significant accuracy for aMCI prediction , and it also displayed the whole brain gray matter atrophy pattern in aMCI patients .It suggests that the proposed method may have important implications for early clinical diagnosis of aMCI patients .%目的:

  1. Clinical and biological predictors of Alzheimer's disease in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment Preditores clínicos e biológicos da evolução para doença de Alzheimer em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes V. Forlenza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of the progression from pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease is relevant to clinical management and to substantiate the decision of prescribing antidementia drugs. METHOD: Longitudinal study of a cohort of elderly adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls, carried out to estimate the risk and characterize predictors of the progression to Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment had a higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease during follow-up (odds ratio = 4.5, CI95% [1.3-13.6], p = 0.010. At baseline, older age, lower scores on memory tests and presence of the APOE*4 allele predicted the progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease. In a sub sample of amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients, those who progressed to Alzheimer's disease had lower cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ42, p = 0.020 and higher concentrations of total TAU (p = 0.030 and phosphorylated TAU (p = 0.010, as compared to non-converters. DISCUSSION: This is the first Brazilian study to report cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in the prediction of the conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Our data are in accordance with those reported in other settings. The measurement of cerebrospinal fluid total-TAU, phospho-TAU and Aβ42 may help identify patients with mild cognitive impairment at higher risk for developing Alzheimer's disease.OBJETIVO: A identificação de preditores da conversão para a doença de Alzheimer em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve é relevante para o manejo clínico e para decidir sobre a prescrição de drogas antidemência. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal em coorte de indivíduos idosos com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico e controles saudáveis; estimativa do risco da progressão para doença de Alzheimer nos dois grupos; determinação das vari

  2. 遗忘型轻度认知障碍与炎症相关基因多态性关联研究%Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄丽英; 张志珺; 岳春贤; 束昊; 刘晓燕; 徐小惠; 宇辉; 施咏梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨炎症相关基因寡核苷酸多态性位点(SNPs)与遗忘型轻度认知障碍(aMCI)的相关性.方法 对符合aMCI诊断标准的116例aMCI患者(aMCI组)及93例与aMCI组相匹配正常对照者(对照组)进行多维度神经认知功能评估,并用基质辅助激光解吸附电离飞行时间(MALDI-TOF)质谱分析进行炎症相关基因SNP基因分型.结果 (1)aMCI组、对照组比较,听觉词语记忆测验20 min延迟回忆(AVMT-延迟)[3.0(0.0 ~10.0)分、8.0(0.0 ~12.0)分,t=-8.533,P<0.05]、Rey复杂图形延迟记忆测验(R-O CFT-Ⅱ)[(11.2±8.3)分、(16.1±8.0)分,t=4.216,P<0.05]、数字广度测验(DST)[12.0(7.0~19.0)分、13.0(7.0~20.0)分,Z=-2.516,P<0.05]、连线测验A(TMTA) [80.0(35.0 ~200.0)s、72.0(29.0~512.0)s,Z=-3.113,P<0.05]、连线测验B(TMTB)[(180.1 ±72.7)s、(141.7±52.1)s,t=-4.385,P<0.05],aMCI组记忆、注意及执行功能方面神经认知测试成绩差于对照组(P<0.05).(2)aMCI组与正常对照组比较,白细胞介素10(IL10)、白细胞介素1A(IL1A)、白细胞介素1B(IL1B)、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)、白细胞介素6(IL6)、α1-抗胰凝乳蛋白酶基因(SERPINA3)、转化生长因子B1(TGFB1)等炎症相关基因SNPs等位基因、基因型及单倍型频率分布均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 炎症相关候选基因可能不是AD前期阶段-aMCI遗传风险因子.%Objective To examine whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes are associated with the risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).Methods The study recruited 116 aMCI patients and 93 matched healthy controls.All subjects underwent extensive assessment of cognitive function,genotyping was carried out on the platform of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.Results ( 1 ) There was prominent discrepancy between aMCI and controls in the memory,attention and executive functions,20 minutes delayed recall of

  3. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; SUZUKI, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). Methods A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wr...

  4. Comparison of Cognitive Functions in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Cognitive Impairment-no Dementia%遗忘型轻度认知损害患者和非痴呆血管性认知的损害患者认知功能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晶; 郭起浩; 付建辉; 洪震

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨遗忘型轻度认知损害(amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI)和非痴呆血管性认知损害(vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia, VCI-ND)的认知缺损的特征.方法:本研究为病例对照研究.2006年10月至2007年3月在本院神经内科"记忆障碍"或"中风"门诊选取遗忘型轻度认知损害者10人、非痴呆血管性认知损害者12人,在社区退休老人中随机抽取16人为正常对照组.所有受试年龄在50~80岁之间,教育程度在初中及初中以上,全部完成头颅CT或核磁共振、简易精神状态量表(Mini-mental State Examination, MMSE)及成套神经心理测验.结果:三种记忆测验中,aMCI组各项记忆得分均为最低,aMCI组和VCI-ND组各项得分均低于正常对照组[如,复杂图形测验延迟回忆:正常组(18.8±9.5)、aMCI组(5.6±5.6)、VCI-ND 组(9.6±7.0),P<0.01].执行功能测验中,反应耗时数测验VCI-ND组完成时间为最长,其次是aMCI组[如,连线测验B的耗时数:两组得分分别为 (266.6±109.9)、(199.2±48.6),P=0.034];而反应正确数测验VCI-ND和aMCI组表现均较正常组差[如,Stroop色词测验卡片C正确数正常组(46.8±2.9)、aMCI组(38.7±11.6)、VCI-ND 组(38.3±6.8),P<0.01].结论:遗忘型轻度认知损害患者以情景记忆损害为较早出现严重的认知损害,而非痴呆血管性认知损害患者以执行功能的定势转移障碍为主.这个结果反映了两者在病理机制上的差异.

  5. 基于体素的遗忘型轻度认知障碍和轻度阿尔茨海默病全脑白质MR扩散张量成像分析%MR diffusion tensor imaging voxel-based analysis of whole brain white matter in patients with amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚迪; 冯晓源; 何慧瑾; 丁玎; 汤伟军; 赵倩华

    2011-01-01

    microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) using voxel-based analysis (VBA), and investigate the relationship between WM abnormalities and gray matter(GM) atrophy.Methods Thirty-three cases with aMCI, 32 cases with mild AD and 31 normal aging volunteers as control subjects were scanned on a 3.0 T MR system using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled(3DSPGR) sequences. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and morphological images were preprocessed by SPM5 and voxel-based comparisons between the 2 patient groups and the control group were performed by t test. Results Relative to the control group, patients with aMCI showed significantly reduced FA value in bilateral frontal, temporal and left occipital WM, left anterior part of cingulum, left inferior parietal lobule, and the W M adjacent to the triangular part of the right lateral ventricle(k≥20 voxels).In mild AD,significantly reduced FA value was found in bilateral hippocampal,inferior parietal lobular,frontal,temporal,and occipital WM,bilateral corpus callosum,anterior part of cingulums,the WM adjacent to the triaangular part of the bilateral lateral ventricles,left temporal stem,left thalamus,right precuneus(k≥20 voxels).Significantly reduced GM volume was found in left hippocampus,parahippocampal gyrus,lingual gyrus and superior temporal gyrus,bilateral insulae and middle temporal gyri in aMCl group whencompared with control group(k≥50 voxels).In mild AD,significantly reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippoeampi,parahippocampal gyri,amygdalae,thalami,temporal,parietal,frontal,occipital cortex(k≥50 voxels).The pattern of areas with reduced FA differs;from that of the GM volumetric reduction.No areas with significantlv reduced FA was detected in aMCl compared with mild AD. There was no significant correlation between FA value of WM in patient groups and Mini-Mental State Examination

  6. 健脑增智饮对遗忘型轻度认知损害患者认知功能及AchE的影响%The effect of Jiannao Zengzhi Yin on the cognitive function and AchE of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成银; 梁妍霞; 邝仰东; 吕金丹; 梁洁; 刘健红; 何子意; 黄德弘

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察健脑增智饮对遗忘型轻度认知损害(aMCI)患者认知功能的改善情况及AchE水平的影响。方法:将70例aMCI患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各35例,治疗组给予健脑增智饮(熟地、茯苓、巴戟天、山茱萸、石斛、肉苁蓉、麦冬、石菖蒲、远志、川芎、丹参、赤芍、五味子、生姜、大枣)治疗,对照组给予脑复康片(吡拉西坦片)治疗,两组疗程均为16周。两组患者在治疗前、治疗8周后、治疗16周后分别进行神经心理学测试,包括CMS、ADL、MMSE、CDT,抽血查AchE活性变化。另设健康组20例,只进行神经心理学测试及抽血查AchE水平,不进行治疗。结果:治疗组CMS指标、MMSE评分、血清AchE含量治疗8周后及治疗16周后明显改善(P<0.05,P<0.01),且显著优于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:健脑增智饮能提高aMCI患者记忆功能,CMS评分及MMSE评分均明显改善,降低胆碱酯酶的活性,AchE水平明显降低,提示健脑增智饮有显著提高智能的作用。%Objective:To observe the effect of Jiannao Zengzhi Yin on improvement of the cognitive function and AchE of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods:70 aMCI patients were randomly divided into the control group and the treatment group, with 35 cases in each group. The control group was treated with Naofukang Tablets (Piracetam Tablets) while the observation group was treated with Jiannao Zengzhi Yin (composed of Rehmannia, Poria, Morinda officinalis, dogwood, Dendrobium, Cistanche, ophiopogon root, calamus, Polygala, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Salvia miltiorrhiza, radix paeoniae rubra, Schisandra, ginger, jujube), the treatment of both groups lasted 16 weeks. Neuropsychological test which contains test of CMS, ADL, MMSE and CDT of was given to patients in two groups 8 weeks before and after treatment, 16 weeks after treatment respectively, changes of AchE activity in

  7. Association of polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E and genes associated with β-amyloid with amnestic mild cognitive impairment%载脂蛋白E及淀粉样蛋白变性相关基因多态性与遗忘型轻度认知障碍的关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳春贤; 张志珺; 宇辉; 施咏梅; 滕玉环; 束昊; 刘晓燕; 庄丽英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore neuropsychological characteristics in amnestic mild cognitive impairment(aMCI) and to verify the association of aMCI with polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E and genes associated with β-amyloid.Methods In this case-control study,multiple-dimension neuropsychological tests were used to estimate 116 clinically-diagnosed aMCI patients and 93 normal controls.Sequenom MassARRAY (R) chip were used to detect the polymorphisms.SHEsis and UNPHASED-3.0.13 software were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium and genotype and haplotype associations with aMCI.Results (1) Except Rey-Osterrich complex figure test and clock drawing test,most neuropsychological battery scores in aMCI patients were significantly lower than those in control (all P < 0.05).(2) The frequency of APOE epsilon4 allele carriers in aMCI was higher than control(x2 =12.40,P =0.00).(3)Significant association of the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 gene (TOMM40) with aMCI was found for the rs157581 G (P < 0.02),and rs2075650 G (P < 0.01) alleles.Conclusions It indicates that SNPs in the APOE gene may be associated with aMCI in Chinese Han population.The association of TOMM40 SNPs (rs157581G and rs2075650G) with aMCI suggests that this gene is a further risk factor for the development of dementia.%目的 探讨遗忘型轻度认知障碍(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)的认知特征及载脂蛋白E(apolipoprotein E,APOE)和淀粉样蛋白(β-amyloid,Aβ)变性相关基因多态性与aMCI的关联性.方法 采用病例对照研究,应用多维度神经心理测试量表评估,筛选出116例aMCI患者(患者组)和93例对照者(对照组)后,以单核苷酸多态(single nuclear polymorphism,SNP)芯片检测APOE及Aβ代谢相关的10个基因23个SNP位点的基因多态性,分析2组等位基因、基因型频率分布的差异及其与aMCI的关联.结果 (1)除Rey-Osterrich复杂图形测验和画钟测验外,aMCI组其他神经认知功能测试

  8. Cognitive Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Poteet, James A.

    Research regarding the cognitive processing of students with learning disabilities, mild mental handicap, and emotional handicap is reviewed. In considering cognitive processing for students with mild mental handicap, research attention has been directed to the issues of memory and learning, acquisition and retrieval deficits, inefficient…

  9. Clustering mild cognitive impairment by mini-mental state examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Lim, Tae Sung; Lee, Hyun Young; Moon, So Young

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether the performance of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) could identify risky mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We recruited 122 amnestic MCI-single domain (ASM), 303 amnestic MCI-multiple domains (AMM), and 94 non-amnestic MCI (NAM). Two-step cluster and linear discriminant analyses were used for identifying the clusters of the MMSE with age and education, as well as establishing prediction models for each cluster. Conversion into dementia was compared among clusters. Cluster analyses revealed the following three: cluster 1 = 205 AMM (100 %); cluster 2 = 61 NAM (33.3 %) and 122 ASM (66.7 %); and cluster 3 = 33 NAM (25.2 %) and 98 AMM (74.8 %). Cluster 3 showed a significantly lower ability with regards to orientation to time and place, registration of three words, attention/calculation, language, and copying interlocking pentagons, than clusters 1 and 2. However, for delayed recall, cluster 1 was significantly more impaired than cluster 2. Patients in the cluster 1 showed the most common conversion into dementia [odds ratio (OR) = 2.940 vs. cluster 2, OR = 2.271 vs. cluster 3]. This study showed that clustering by performance in MMSE could help define groups at higher risk for conversion to dementia. Therefore, MMSE can be considered as a promising screening tool including subtyping for MCI when detailed neuropsychological tests are not feasible. PMID:24643579

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Multicomponent Exercise in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Takao Suzuki; Hiroyuki Shimada; Hyuma Makizako; Takehiko Doi; Daisuke Yoshida; Kengo Ito; Hiroshi Shimokata; Yukihiko Washimi; Hidetoshi Endo; Takashi Kato

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the effect of multicomponent exercise program on memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and identify biomarkers associated with improvement of cognitive functions. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were 100 older adults (mean age, 75 years) with MCI. The subjects were classified to an amnestic MCI group (n = 50) with neuroimaging measures, and other MCI group (n = 50) before the randomization. Subjects in each group were randomized to...

  11. A novel biomarker of amnestic MCI based on dynamic cross-frequency coupling patterns during cognitive brain responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Laskaris, Nikolaos A; Bitzidou, Malamati P; Tarnanas, Ioannis; Tsolaki, Magda N

    2015-01-01

    The detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the transitional stage between normal cognitive changes of aging and the cognitive decline caused by AD, is of paramount clinical importance, since MCI patients are at increased risk of progressing into AD. Electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations in the spectral content of brainwaves and connectivity at resting state have been associated with early-stage AD. Recently, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) have entered into the picture as an easy to perform screening test. Motivated by the recent findings about the role of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) in cognition, we introduce a relevant methodological approach for detecting MCI based on cognitive responses from a standard auditory oddball paradigm. By using the single trial signals recorded at Pz sensor and comparing the responses to target and non-target stimuli, we first demonstrate that increased CFC is associated with the cognitive task. Then, considering the dynamic character of CFC, we identify instances during which the coupling between particular pairs of brainwave frequencies carries sufficient information for discriminating between normal subjects and patients with MCI. In this way, we form a multiparametric signature of impaired cognition. The new composite biomarker was tested using data from a cohort that consists of 25 amnestic MCI patients and 15 age-matched controls. Standard machine-learning algorithms were employed so as to implement the binary classification task. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation, the measured classification rate was found reaching very high levels (95%). Our approach compares favorably with the traditional alternative of using the morphology of averaged ERP response to make the diagnosis and the usage of features from spectro-temporal analysis of single-trial responses. This further indicates that task-related CFC measurements can provide invaluable analytics in AD diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:26539070

  12. A novel biomarker of amnestic MCI based on dynamic Cross-Frequency Coupling patterns during cognitive brain responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I Dimitriadis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, the transitional stage between normal cognitive changes of aging and the cognitive decline caused by AD, is of paramount clinical importance, since MCI patients are at increased risk of progressing into AD. Electroencephalographic (EEG alterations in the spectral content of brainwaves and connectivity at resting state have been associated with early-stage AD. Recently, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs have entered into the picture as an easy to perform screening test. Motivated by the recent findings about the role of cross-frequency coupling (CFC in cognition, we introduce a relevant methodological approach for detecting MCI based on cognitive responses from a standard auditory oddball paradigm. By using the single trial signals recorded at Pz sensor and comparing the responses to target and non-target stimuli, we first demonstrate that increased CFC is associated with the cognitive task. Then, considering the dynamic character of CFC, we identify instances during which the coupling between particular pairs of brainwave frequencies carries sufficient information for discriminating between normal subjects and patients with MCI. In this way, we form a multiparametric signature of impaired cognition. The new composite biomarker was tested using data from a cohort that consists of 25 amnestic MCI patients and 15 age-matched controls. Standard machine-learning algorithms were employed so as to implement the binary classification task. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation, the measured classification rate was found reaching very high levels (95%. Our approach compares favorably with the traditional alternative of using the morphology of averaged ERP response to make the diagnosis and the usage of features from spectro-temporal analysis of single-trial response. This further indicates that task-related CFC measurements can provide invaluable analytics in AD diagnosis and prognosis.

  13. 遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍患者的内嗅皮层形态学与功能变化的研究%Morphological and functional changes of the entorhinal cortex in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭东; 焦劲松; Itsuki Jibiki

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍(aMCI)患者内嗅皮层的形态学改变和相关功能变化的关系.方法:16例遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍患者入选.认知功能通过长谷川痴呆量表修订版(HDS-R)评价.通过基于体素的阿尔茨海默病特异性局部分析系统(VSRAD)的Z评分来评价内嗅皮层的萎缩程度.同时利用单光子发射计算机断层显像(SPECT)的FineSRT技术定量分析各个相关脑区局部脑血流(rCBF)的绝对值.结果:VSRAD的Z评分与年龄呈正相关,与双侧海马、杏仁核、丘脑、右侧海马旁回rCBF的绝对值均显著负相关(均P<0.05).此外,Z评分与左侧海马旁回、双侧扣带回中、后部rCBF的绝对值也存在一定程度的负相关趋势.结论:在aMCI患者中,内嗅皮层萎缩与海马相关结构、丘脑、扣带回rCBF变化存在明显的功能联系.这种联系可能与解剖和生理学的网络有关.%Objective:To investigate the relationships between morphological and functional changes of the entorhinal cortex in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).Methods:Sixteen aMCI patients were enrolled,whose cognitive function were evaluated by revised version of Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R).Z scores of voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD)were determined to assess the degree of atrophy of the entorhinal cortex.Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)and Fine stereotaxic region of interest template(FineSRT)were used to quantify absolute values of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF).Results:The Z scores of VSRAD were found to have significant negative correlations with the absolute rCBF in the bilateral hippocampus,thalamus,amygdala and right parahippocampal gyrus and positive correlation with age.A tendency of negative correlation between Z scores and rCBF of left parahippocampal gyrus,bilateral central and posterior cingnlated gyrus was also noted.Conclusion:Atrophy of the

  14. Association study of candidate gene polymorphisms of tau protein pathway with amnestic mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知障碍与tau蛋白通路候选基因多态的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕; 张志珺; 施咏梅; 宇辉; 岳春贤; 束昊; 庄丽英; 徐小惠

    2012-01-01

    功能相对保持,但ApoE ε4与MAPT/STH基因多态交互作用不改变aMCI遗传易患性.%Objective To investigate the relationship between amnestic mild cognitive impairment and functional genes associated with hyperphosphorylated tau protein.Methods One hundred and sixteen amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients and 93 normal controls were recruited for the study.Multi-dimension neuropsychologic tests were used to assess the cognitive function extensively.MassARRAY and iPlex systems were used to measure candidate SNP polymorphisms,analyze genotypic,allelic or haplotypic distributions and their interaction with ApoE ε4 and the correlation with the cognitive function in the subjects.Results ( 1 ) The scores of neuropsychologic tests in memory domain ( Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT)-first immediate recall,AVLT-second immediate recall,AVLT-second immediate recall,AVLT-5 minute delayed recall,AVLT-20 minute delayed recall,AVLT-recognition,Rey-Osterrich Comolex Test-delay) in aMCI patients ( 3.0 ( 0-7.0 ),5.0 ( 1.0-10.0),6.0 ( 1.0-11.0 ),4.0 (0-11.0),3.0(0-10.0),20.0(8.0-24.0),11.2 ±8.3) were significantly lower than those in the normal controls(4.0(0-9.0),7.0(2.0-11.0),9.0(3.0-12.0),8.0(0-12.0),8.0(0-12.0),22.0 (10.0-24.0),16.1±8.0) (Z=-3.592,-6.802,-6.408,-8.173,-8.533,-5.647 andt=4.216 respectively,all P <0.01 ) ; (2) Genotypic distributions of rs242562 GG in aMCI (7.826% ) were significantly lower than those in normal controls (20.65%,OR =0.3525,95% CI 0.1411-0.8807,P =0.024 98),however there were no differences in the genotypic,allelic or haplotypic distributions between aMCI patients and controls of glycogen synthase kinase-3β,cyclin dependent protein kinase-5,calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-Ⅱ,cell division cycle 2,dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6; (3) MAPT/STH rs242562 genotype was correlated with AVLT-immediate recall,AVLT-delayed recall

  15. Cross-sectional study of sleep quantity and quality and amnestic and non-amnestic cognitive function in an ageing population: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and cognitive function in younger and older individuals from an ageing population. METHODS: 3,968 male and 4,821 female white participants, aged 50 years and over, from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA were studied. Information on sleep quality and quantity as well as both amnestic (memory, ACF and non-amnestic (non-memory, nACF function was available at Wave 4 (2008. Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the relationship between sleep and cognitive function. RESULTS: After adjustment for multiple confounders in the younger group (50-64 years duration of sleep explained 15.2% of the variance in ACF (p = 0.003 and 20.6% of nACF (p = 0.010. In the older group (65+ years the estimates were 21.3% (p<0.001 and 25.6% (p<0.001, respectively. For sleep quality, there was a statistically significant association between sleep quality and both ACF (p<0.001 and nACF (p<0.001 in the older age group, but not in the younger age group (p = 0.586 and p = 0.373, respectively; interaction between age and sleep quality in the study sample including both age groups: p<0.001 for ACF and p = 0.018 for nACF. Sleep quality explained between 15.1% and 25.5% of the variance in cognition. The interaction with age was independent of duration of sleep. At any level of sleep duration there was a steeper association between sleep quality and ACF in the older than the younger group. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between sleep disturbances and cognitive function vary between younger and older adults. Prospective studies will determine the temporal relationships between sleep disturbances and changes in cognition in different age groups.

  16. 阿尔茨海默病和遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍患者脑血流变化的研究%Changes in regional cerebral blood flow in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭东; 焦劲松; Jibiki Itsuki

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨阿尔茨海默病(AD)和遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍(aMCI)患者脑血流变化的差异及其与内嗅皮层的关系. 方法 共纳入28例患者,其中轻度AD患者9例、中重度AD患者9例、aMCI患者10例.认知功能通过长谷川痴呆量表修订版(HDS-R)和AD评定量表认知部分(ADAS-cog)进行评价.通过99mTc标记双半胱乙酯(99mTc-ECD)进行单光子计算机断层扫描(SPECT)以显示局部脑血流灌注情况,并通过简单Z评分影像系统(eZIS)进行视觉分析;同时通过基于体素的AD特异性局部分析系统(VSRAD)的Z评分来评价内嗅皮质的萎缩程度. 结果 中重度、轻度AD患者扣带回eZIS主观评分分别为(1.57±0.46)分、(1.50±0.54)分,高于aMCI患者(1.00±0.50)分(F=4.58,P=0.022),表明轻度、中重度AD患者的扣带回血流灌注明显低于aMCI患者(均P<0.05);中重度AD患者左侧额叶、右侧额叶、左侧海马eZIS评分分别为(1.43±0.79)分、(1.43±0.79)分、(1.86±0.50)分,高于aMCI组(0.67±0.50)分、(0.67±0.50)分、(1.33±0.50)分和轻度AD患者(0.88±0.64)分、(0.75±0.46)分、(1.75±0.46)分(F=2.90、3.81、3.06,P=0.077、0.039、0.068),表明中重度AD患者双侧额叶、左侧海马灌注也低于aMCI患者(均P<0.05).患者HDS-R评分与左侧、右侧海马的血流灌注呈负相关(r=-0.568、-0.481,P=0.004、0.017),而ADAS-cog评分与左侧、右侧海马的血流灌注呈正相关(r=0.462、0.459,P=0.030、0.032).结论 AD患者在早期即出现扣带回血流灌注的下降,随着病情加重累及额叶、海马,而认知功能改变与海马的血流灌注有关;eZIS系统可以有效评估aMCI和AD患者血流变化.%Objective To investigate the changes in regional cerebral blood flow and its relationship with atrophy of the entorhinal cortex in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD).Methods Twenty eight patients including ten cases with aMCI,nine case with mild AD and nine

  17. Sleep-disordered breathing, sleep quality, and mild cognitive impairment in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugaj, Martha; Weinreich, Gerhard; Weimar, Christian; Stang, Andreas; Dragano, Nico; Wessendorf, Thomas E; Teschler, Helmut; Winkler, Angela; Wege, Natalia; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that sleep disorders are associated with cognitive decline. We, therefore, examined the cross-sectional association of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep quality, and three types of sleep complaints (difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and its subtypes. A group of 1,793 participants (51% men; 63.8 ± 7.5 years) of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (total sample n = 4,157) received a screening for SDB and self-report measures of sleep complaints. Group comparisons were used to compare performances among five cognitive subtests. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated to determine the association of MCI (n = 230) and MCI subtypes (amnestic MCI, n = 120; non-amnestic MCI, n = 110) with SDB severity levels, poor sleep quality, and sleep complaints. Severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index ≥30/h, n = 143) was not associated with MCI, amnestic MCI, or non-amnestic MCI. Poor sleep quality was associated with MCI (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.03; fully adjusted) as well as frequently reported difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 1.94, 1.20-3.14), difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.27-4.63), and early morning awakening (OR = 2.30, 1.32-4.00). Severe difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.21-4.13) and early morning awakening (OR = 2.88, 1.45-5.73) were solely associated with the amnestic MCI subtype, whereas, severe difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 3.84, 1.13-13.08) were associated with non-amnestic MCI. Our results suggest that poor sleep quality, rather than SDB, is associated with MCI. The selective association of difficulties initiating sleep and early morning awakening with amnestic MCI and of difficulties maintaining sleep with non-amnestic MCI might serve as a marker to improve diagnostic accuracy in the earliest stages of cognitive impairment and will be further

  18. Sleep-disordered breathing, sleep quality, and mild cognitive impairment in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugaj, Martha; Weinreich, Gerhard; Weimar, Christian; Stang, Andreas; Dragano, Nico; Wessendorf, Thomas E; Teschler, Helmut; Winkler, Angela; Wege, Natalia; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that sleep disorders are associated with cognitive decline. We, therefore, examined the cross-sectional association of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep quality, and three types of sleep complaints (difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and its subtypes. A group of 1,793 participants (51% men; 63.8 ± 7.5 years) of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (total sample n = 4,157) received a screening for SDB and self-report measures of sleep complaints. Group comparisons were used to compare performances among five cognitive subtests. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated to determine the association of MCI (n = 230) and MCI subtypes (amnestic MCI, n = 120; non-amnestic MCI, n = 110) with SDB severity levels, poor sleep quality, and sleep complaints. Severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index ≥30/h, n = 143) was not associated with MCI, amnestic MCI, or non-amnestic MCI. Poor sleep quality was associated with MCI (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.03; fully adjusted) as well as frequently reported difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 1.94, 1.20-3.14), difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.27-4.63), and early morning awakening (OR = 2.30, 1.32-4.00). Severe difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.21-4.13) and early morning awakening (OR = 2.88, 1.45-5.73) were solely associated with the amnestic MCI subtype, whereas, severe difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 3.84, 1.13-13.08) were associated with non-amnestic MCI. Our results suggest that poor sleep quality, rather than SDB, is associated with MCI. The selective association of difficulties initiating sleep and early morning awakening with amnestic MCI and of difficulties maintaining sleep with non-amnestic MCI might serve as a marker to improve diagnostic accuracy in the earliest stages of cognitive impairment and will be further

  19. Research on characteristics of resting-state functional connectivity strengths in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知障碍患者的静息态功能连接强度特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛灿; 陈观群; 李坤成; 韩璎; 夏明睿; 陈晓丹; 孙宇; 王晓妮; 李红艳; 李瑜霞; 李轩宇; 于洋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore a new index for reflecting the topological information of brain functional networks in patients at high risk of Alzheimer disease using characteristics of resting-state functional connectivity strengths(FCS) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment(aMCI). Methods Thirty-one aMCI patients and 42 age, gender and years of education matched normal controls were enrolled between September 2009 and April 2011 in this study. The resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data of all participants were acquired and preprocessed. Then the whole-brain functional connectivities were constructed for exploring the distribution characteristics of hub regions which had higher FCS values. Using two-sample t test to compare group differences in age, years of education and each neuropsychological assessment. In addition, using Chi-squared test to compare group differences in gender. Group differences in FCS values were analyzed by general linear model. Finally, correlation analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the FCS values of the brain regions with group differences and behavioral scores in aMCI patients. Results The hub regions of the functional networks in the aMCI patients were mainly located in the association cortices such as the precuneuses, posterior cingulate cortices, medial prefrontal cortices, angular gyri, superior occipital gyri, fusiform gyri and lingual gyri. The distribution models in the aMCI patients were consistent with those in the normal controls. However, the FCS values of these brain regions were significantly lower in the aMCI patients than those in the normal controls. In comparison to the normal controls, the aMCI patients had significantly decreased FCS values in the bilateral fusiform gyri, lingual gyri, superior occipital gyri, left middle occipital gyrus and postcentral gyrus (the cluster was 389, 230, 187 and 107 voxels, respectively;P<0.05, respectively), and they had decreased trends of FCS values in

  20. 遗忘型轻度认知障碍患者额叶体积与额叶纤维结构的对照研究%Comparative study of the volume and fiber of frontal lobe in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪珊珊; 韩伯军; 王庆广; 刘冬柏; 张剑宇; 彭岚; 姜歧涛; 郑勇强; 刘定华

    2012-01-01

    目的 对照分析遗忘型轻度认知障碍(aMCI)患者与正常被试额叶体积及额叶纤维结构的差异.方法 选取28例aMCI患者和25名正常对照人群,进行头部T1加权三维核磁共振扫描(T1WI)及扩散张量成像(DTI)成像扫描.计算并比较2组额叶体积及额叶纤维的FA值、ADC值、纤维数目及平均长度的差异.结果 aMCI组左侧额叶体积[(337.35±20.45) cm3]小于对照组[( 358.54±27.26) cm3],差异有统计学意义(t=-3.223,P=0.002).aMCI组左侧额叶短纤维数目[(16985±892)条]多于对照组[( 16387 ±752)条]、长纤维数目[(3214±185)条]少于对照组[(3425±277)条],长纤维ADC值高于对照组(t=2.621,P=0.012; t=-3.714,P=0.001;t=17.595,P=0.000);aMCI组右侧额叶长纤维数目[( 2895±343)条]少于对照组[(3451 ±230)条],而长纤维ADC值高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(t=-7.011,P=0.000;t=4.443,P=0.000).aMCI组左侧额叶长纤维数目与MMSE总分呈正相关(r=0.457,P=0.015),而左侧额叶长纤维的ADC值与MMSE总分呈负相关关系(r=-0.415,P=0.028).结论 aMCI患者存在额叶结构及纤维连接异常,且左侧额叶纤维的连接异常与认知障碍严重程度相关.%Objective To detect the fiber structure and volume differences in frontal lobe between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal control.Methods T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were obtained in 28 aMCI patients and 25 normal controls.Volumes,fiber fractional anisotropy (FA),fiber apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC),fiber number,and average fiber length of frontal lobe in the two groups were measured.Results Volumes of left frontal lobe ( ( 337.35 ± 20.45 ) cm3 ) in aMCI group were smaller than control ( (358.54 ± 27.26) cm3 ) ( t =- 3.223,P =0.002 ).Numbers of short range fiber in left frontal lobe ( 16985 ± 892) were significantly increased relative to control ( 16387 ±752) ; while numbers of long range fiber (3214

  1. A clinical index to predict progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment is often a precursor to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease, but many patients with mild cognitive impairment never develop dementia. New diagnostic criteria may lead to more patients receiving a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To develop a prediction index for the 3-year risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia relying only on information that can be readily obtained in most clinical settings. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: 382 participants diagnosed with amnestic mild cognitive impairment enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, a multi-site, longitudinal, observational study. MAIN PREDICTORS MEASURES: Demographics, comorbid conditions, caregiver report of participant symptoms and function, and participant performance on individual items from basic neuropsychological scales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Progression to probable Alzheimer's disease. KEY RESULTS: Subjects had a mean (SD age of 75 (7 years and 43% progressed to probable Alzheimer's disease within 3 years. Important independent predictors of progression included being female, resisting help, becoming upset when separated from caregiver, difficulty shopping alone, forgetting appointments, number of words recalled from a 10-word list, orientation and difficulty drawing a clock. The final point score could range from 0 to 16 (mean [SD]: 4.2 [2.9]. The optimism-corrected Harrell's c-statistic was 0.71(95% CI: 0.68-0.75. Fourteen percent of subjects with low risk scores (0-2 points, n = 124 converted to probable Alzheimer's disease over 3 years, compared to 51% of those with moderate risk scores (3-8 points, n = 223 and 91% of those with high risk scores (9-16 points, n = 35. CONCLUSIONS: An index using factors that can be obtained in most clinical settings can predict progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to probable Alzheimer's disease and may help clinicians

  2. Deficits in narrative discourse elicited by visual stimuli are already present in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia eDrummond; Gabriel eCoutinho; Rochele ePaz Fonseca; Naima eAssunção; Alina eTeldeschi; Ricardo ede Oliveira-Souza; Jorge eMoll; Fernanda eTovar-Moll; Paulo eMattos

    2015-01-01

    Language batteries used to assess the skills of elderly individuals, such as naming and semantic verbal fluency, present some limitations in differentiating healthy controls from patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Deficits in narrative discourse occur early in dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the narrative discourse abilities of a-MCI patients are poorly documented. The present study sought to propose and evaluate parameters for investigating narrative d...

  3. Apathy is associated with lower inferior temporal cortical thickness in mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Brendan; Donovan, Nancy J.; Ward, Andrew; Schultz, Aaron; Lorius, Natacha; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2014-01-01

    Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and is associated with cortical atrophy in AD dementia. This study investigated possible correlations between apathy and cortical atrophy in 47 individuals with MCI and 19 clinically normal elderly (CN). Backward elimination multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between scores on the Apathy Evaluation Scale and thickness of several cortical regions and covariates. Lower inferior temporal cortical thickness was predictive of greater apathy. Greater anterior cingulate cortical thickness was also predictive of greater apathy, suggesting an underlying reactive process. PMID:25716491

  4. 补肾化痰祛瘀中药治疗遗忘型轻度认知损害的随机、双盲、平行对照临床研究%Effects of Chinese medicine for tonifying the kidney and resolving phlegm and blood stasis in treating patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized,double-blind and parallel-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗迎春; 田金洲; 时晶; 毛敏

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It is important to detect and prevent Alzheimer disease (AD) at its early stage.Constituting the early stage sign of AD,amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) has drawn much attention.Studies have shown that donepezil could reduce the AD assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) score in MCI patients and improve the patient's attention and speed of response; however,it also has many side effects.Therefore,the authors aim to explore the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating aMCI.OBJECTIVE:To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine for tonifying the kidney,and resolving phlegm and blood stasis in the treatment of aMCI.DESIGN,SETTING,PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS:This clinical trial used randomized,double-blind,double-dummy and parallel-controlled design.According to the randomized,double-blind principle,some aMCl patients were randomly divided into Chinese medicine group and donepezil group.Other patients who did not receive any treatment were enrolled as the control.Patients in the Chinese medicine group received oral administration of Chinese medicine,1 bag/dose,two doses per day,while patients in the donepezil group received donepezil hydrochloride,5 mg/day.Twelve weeks were allocated as the trial period.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:After 12 weeks,the Chinese medicine group patients,the donepezil group patients and those patients who did not receive any treatment were accessed using the scores of ADAS-Cog and mini-mental status examination (MMSE).RESULTS:The ADAS-Cog and MMSE scores of the Chinese medicine group and the donepezil group were both improved from baseline (P=0.001,P=0.000),but the non-treatment group showed no change from baseline (P=0.151,P=0.125); furthermore,there was no significant difference between the Chinese medicine group and the donepezil group.The attention function of the Chinese medicine group was better than baseline ( P=0.015),but no change was seen in the donepezil group (P=0.085) at the 12th

  5. Prevalence and Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Blake J.; Gasson, Natalie; Loftus, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in an Australian sample of people with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Seventy participants with PD completed neuropsychological assessments of their cognitive performance, using MDS Task Force Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. A cut-off score of less than one standard deviation (SD) below normative data determined impaired performance on a neuropsychological test. Of 70 participants, 45 (64%) met Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. Among those with PD-MCI, 42 (93%) were identified as having multiple domain impairment (28 as amnestic multiple domain and 14 as nonamnestic multiple domain). Single domain impairment was less frequent (2 amnestic/1 nonamnestic). Significant differences were found between the PD-MCI and Normal Cognition groups, across all cognitive domains. Multiple domain cognitive impairment was more frequent than single domain impairment in an Australian sample of people with PD. However, PD-MCI is heterogeneous and current prevalence and subtyping statistics may be an artifact of variable application methods of the criteria (e.g., cut off scores and number of tests). Future longitudinal studies refining the criteria will assist with subtyping the progression of PD-MCI, while identifying individuals who may benefit from pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. PMID:27650569

  6. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  7. The neuroimaging approach to the assessment of mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, Giovanni [University of Milan and Unit of Molecular Imaging, Division of Radiation Therapy, European Institute of Oncology, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Imaging techniques, including emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are progressively being exploited for the classification and prognostic evaluation (indispensable for possible treatments) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The main traits of MCI and unsolved issues in its assessment are discussed in two review articles by Feldman and Jacova from the Division of Neurology, Dept. of Medicine, Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders, University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, Canada [1] and Chong and Sahadevan from the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore [2]. Because MCI has different presentations in terms of the type and degree of cognitive deficits observed, several clinical subtypes of MCI besides the amnestic form have now been recognised and characterised on the basis of deficits in different cognitive domains, either in isolation or in combination with amnesia. The different subtypes of MCI suggest that MCI has a heterogeneous nature, with several possible causes that lead to the same symptoms. This is a field in evolution, and a uniform diagnostic classification of MCI has not yet been accomplished. Lopez et al. from the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [3] point out that the classification of MCI subtypes is useful to improve prediction of the subsequent risk of dementia and the type of dementia, and that the manner in which MCI subjects are classified into subgroups has implications for the cognitive profile of the group and thus for our inferences about the aetiology and possible clinical course of the disorder.

  8. [Prognosis of cognitive deficit progression in aged patients with mild cognitive impairment under prolonged therapy (a three year observation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, S I; Kolykhalov, I V; Fedorova, Ia B; Kalyn, Ia B; Selezneva, N D; Samorodov, A V; Miasoedov, S N; Boksha, I S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict treatment efficacy in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to find the most reliable clinical tests for the prediction of dementia. Patients with amnestic MCI (n=53) were treated with cerebrolysin for three years and underwent regularly neurocognitive and clinical psychiatric tests. The data were analyzed using non-parametric statistics, cluster analysis, and linear discriminate analysis. The combination of statistical methods has enabled to predict the degree of cognitive impairment as well as the development of dementia. A "dementia risk group" with fast cognitive decline (i.e. the low efficacy of the treatment) was identified. The tests are ranked according to their predictive values. PMID:23612410

  9. Prevalence of Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Rural Island Town of Ama-cho, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Wada-Isoe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In order to determine the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, we conducted a population-based study in Japan. Methods: Participants included 924 subjects aged 65 years or older who resided in the town of Ama-cho. In phase 1 of the study, the Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Dementia Rating were administered for screening purposes. In phase 2 of the study, the subjects who screened positive were further examined by neurologists. Dementia and MCI were diagnosed by means of DSM-IV and International Working Group on MCI criteria, respectively. Results: By the prevalence date of June 1, 2010, 24 subjects had deceased or lived outside the town. In total, 723 of the remaining 900 subjects received a phase 1 test. In phase 2, 98 subjects were diagnosed with amnestic MCI, 113 subjects with non-amnestic MCI, and 82 subjects with dementia. Of the subjects who did not receive the phase 1 test, 66 subjects were diagnosed as having dementia according to data from their town medical card or the Long-term Care Insurance System. The crude prevalence of amnestic MCI, non-amnestic MCI, and dementia were 10.9, 12.6, and 16.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Consistent with the striking increase in the number of elderly individuals, we report higher prevalence of MCI and dementia in Japan than previously described.

  10. Is Mild Cognitive Impairment a Precursor of Alzheimer's Disease? Short Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Šerý, Omar; Hosák, Ladislav; Janout, Vladimír

    2015-12-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) may be a precursor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is a boundary area between normal aging and dementia. In practice, the term "age related cognitive decline" has been used interchangeably with "normal aging". Alternatively, the term "aging associated cognitive decline" was introduced and defined by a performance on a standardized cognitive scale focused on learning and memory, attention and cognitive speed, language, or visuoconstructional abilities. The term "mild cognitive impairment" was adopted by Petersen in 2004 to describe a period in the course of neurodegenerative disease where cognition is no longer normal relative to age expectations, however, daily functions are not sufficiently disrupted to correlate with the diagnosis of dementia. Most of the literature refers to the amnestic form of MCI, which is likely a precursor of AD. The rate of conversion from amnestic form of MCI to AD is estimated to reach 10-15% per year. That is why MCI generated a great deal of research. When considering MCI a precursor of AD, it seems reasonable to study AD genetic markers in the MCI patients. In AD, association studies focus on genetic polymorphisms assumed to have an effect on the expression and modulation function of genes associated with AD pathogenesis (ApoE, APP, presenilin 1, presenilin 2, tau protein), and on polymorphisms related to metabolism of the aforementioned proteins (splicing, degradation). Neuropsychological assesment plays a substantial role in the diagnosis of MCI, especially in the case of identification of different MCI subtypes or typical profiles of cognitive performance in prodromal phases of neurodegenerative diseases. The optimal composition of diet may increase an average age and prevent impairment of cognitive functions at the same time. Despite the progress in early diagnosis of MCI and dementia, further research is needed on differential diagnosis and treatment. In amnestic subtype of MCI some genetic

  11. Cognitive functioning in mild hyperphenylalaninemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia de la Parra

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Children with mHPA achieved cognitive performance well within the average range and attained significantly higher scores than children with PKU. However, they appeared to have relative weaknesses in working memory and attention, similar to children with PKU.

  12. The differentiation of amnestic type MCI from the non-amnestic types by structural MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor eCsukly

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI are theoretically different entities, only a few investigations studied the structural brain differences between these subtypes of mild cognitive impairment. The aim of the study was to find the structural differences between aMCI and naMCI, and to replicate previous findings on the differentiation between aMCI and healthy controls.Methods: Altogether 62 aMCI, naMCI, and healthy control subjects were included into the study based on the Petersen criteria. All patients underwent a routine brain MR examination, and a detailed neuropsychological examination.Results: The sizes of the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex and the amygdala were decreased in aMCI relative to naMCI and to controls. Furthermore the cortical thickness of the entorhinal cortex, the fusiform gyrus, the precuneus and the isthmus of the cingulate gyrus were significantly decreased in aMCI relative to naMCI and healthy controls. The largest differences relative to controls were detected for the volume of the hippocampus (18% decrease vs. controls and the cortical thickness (20% decrease vs. controls of the entorhinal cortex: 1.6 and 1.4 in terms of Cohen’s d. Only the volume of the precuneus were decreased in the naMCI group (5% decrease compared to the control subjects: 0.9 in terms of Cohen’s d. Significant between group differences were also found in the neuropsychological test results: a decreased anterograde, retrograde memory, and category fluency performance was detected in the aMCI group relative to controls and naMCI subjects. Subjects with naMCI showed decreased letter fluency relative to controls, while both MCI groups showed decreased executive functioning relative to controls as measured by the Trail Making test part B. Memory performance in the aMCI group and in the entire sample correlated with the thickness of the entorhinal cortex and with the volume

  13. Amnestic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished: anterograd

  14. Acetylcholine receptors in dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, Osama; Kendziorra, Kai [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike; Gertz, Hermann-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); Brust, Peter [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    To clarify whether changes in the cholinergic transmission occur early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A-85380, which is supposed to be specific for {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We included patients with moderate to severe AD and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), presumed to present preclinical AD. Both patients with AD and MCI showed significant reductions in {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs in brain regions typically affected by AD pathology. These findings indicate that a reduction in {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs occurs during early symptomatic stages of AD. The {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR availability in these regions correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment, indicating a stage sensitivity of the {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR status. Together, our results provide evidence for the potential of 2-[{sup 18}]F-A-85380 nAChR PET in the diagnosis of patients at risk for AD. Because of the extraordinary long acquisition time with 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A-85380, we developed the new {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR-specific radioligands (+)- and (-)-[{sup 18}F]norchloro-fluoro-homoepibatidine (NCFHEB) and evaluated them preclinically. (-)-[{sup 18}F]NCFHEB shows twofold higher brain uptake and significantly shorter acquisition times. Therefore, (-)-[{sup 18}F]NCFHEB should be a suitable radioligand for larger clinical investigations. (orig.)

  15. A novel biomarker of amnestic MCI based on dynamic Cross-Frequency Coupling patterns during cognitive brain responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I.; Laskaris, Nikolaos A.; Bitzidou, Malamati P.; Ioannis eTarnanas; Tsolaki, Magda N.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the transitional stage between normal cognitive changes of aging and the cognitive decline caused by AD, is of paramount clinical importance, since MCI patients are at increased risk of progressing into AD. Electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations in the spectral content of brainwaves and connectivity at resting state have been associated with early-stage AD. Recently, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) have entered into the picture as...

  16. A novel biomarker of amnestic MCI based on dynamic cross-frequency coupling patterns during cognitive brain responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I.; Laskaris, Nikolaos A.; Bitzidou, Malamati P.; Tarnanas, Ioannis; Tsolaki, Magda N.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the transitional stage between normal cognitive changes of aging and the cognitive decline caused by AD, is of paramount clinical importance, since MCI patients are at increased risk of progressing into AD. Electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations in the spectral content of brainwaves and connectivity at resting state have been associated with early-stage AD. Recently, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) have entered into the picture as...

  17. Reduced 5-HT2A receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, S G; Madsen, K; Svarer, C;

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have described reduced brain serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor density. It is unclear whether this abnormality sets in early in the course of the disease and whether it is related to early cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. We assessed...... cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and related 5-HT(2A) receptor binding to clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients with MCI of the amnestic type (mean age 73, mean MMSE 26.1) and 17 age and sex matched control subjects were studied with MRI and [(18)F......]altanserin PET in a bolus-infusion approach. A significant global reduction of 20-30% in 5-HT(2A) binding (atrophy corrected) was found in most neocortical areas. Reduced 5-HT(2A) binding in the striatum correlated significantly with Neuropsychiatric Inventory depression and anxiety scores. We conclude...

  18. Mild Cognitive Impairment: an update in Parkinson's Disease and lessons learned from Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G.; Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Schroeder, Cynthia D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cognitive dysfunction is an important focus of research in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the concept of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a prodrome to AD has been recognized for many years, the construct of MCI in PD is a relative newcomer with recent development of diagnostic criteria, biomarker research programs, and treatment trials. Controversies and challenges, however, regarding PD-MCI's definition, application, heterogeneity, and different trajectories have arisen. This review will highlight current research advances and challenges in PD-MCI. Furthermore, lessons from the AD field, which has witnessed an evolution in MCI/AD definitions, relevant advances in biomarker research, and development of disease-modifying and targeted therapeutic trials will be discussed. PMID:26517759

  19. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  20. Grey matter atrophy of basal forebrain and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haobo; Trollor, Julian N; Wen, Wei; Zhu, Wanlin; Crawford, John D; Kochan, Nicole A; Slavin, Melissa J; Brodaty, Henry; Reppermund, Simone; Kang, Kristan; Mather, Karen A; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2011-05-01

    The basal forebrain area (BFA) is closely connected to the hippocampus by virtue of cholinergic neuronal projections. Structural neuroimaging studies have shown reduced volumes of both structures in Alzheimer's disease and its prodromal stage mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but generally not in the same investigation. By combining voxel based morphometry and region of interest methods, we measured the grey matter (GM) volumes of the two brain regions with the goal of elucidating their contributions to MCI and its two subtypes (amnestic MCI and non-amnestic MCI) in an elderly epidemiological sample. The results replicated previous findings that the atrophies of both brain regions were associated with an increased likelihood of MCI and its two subtypes. However, in a regression model for the prediction of MCI with GM volumes for both regions used as predictors, only hippocampal atrophy remained significant. Two possible interpretations for this pattern of results were discussed. One is that the observed correlation between BFA atrophy and MCI is spurious and due to the hippocampal atrophy correlated with both. Alternatively, our observation is consistent with the possibility that BFA atrophy has a causal effect on MCI, which is mediated via its influence on hippocampal atrophy. Furthermore, we found that the left hippocampal atrophy had a stronger effect than the right hippocampus and bilateral BFA in the prediction of amnestic MCI occurrence when the four unilateral areas were entered into one regression model. In addition, a slight but statistically significant difference was found in the left hippocampal volume between APOE ε4 allele carriers and non-carriers, consistent with prior studies.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of multicomponent exercise in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Suzuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of multicomponent exercise program on memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and identify biomarkers associated with improvement of cognitive functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were 100 older adults (mean age, 75 years with MCI. The subjects were classified to an amnestic MCI group (n = 50 with neuroimaging measures, and other MCI group (n = 50 before the randomization. Subjects in each group were randomized to either a multicomponent exercise or an education control group using a ratio of 1∶1. The exercise group exercised for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, 40 times for 6 months. The exercise program was conducted under multitask conditions to stimulate attention and memory. The control group attended two education classes. A repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that no group × time interactions on the cognitive tests and brain atrophy in MCI patients. A sub-analysis of amnestic MCI patients for group × time interactions revealed that the exercise group exhibited significantly better Mini-Mental State Examination (p = .04 and logical memory scores (p = .04, and reducing whole brain cortical atrophy (p<.05 compared to the control group. Low total cholesterol levels before the intervention were associated with an improvement of logical memory scores (p<.05, and a higher level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was significantly related to improved ADAS-cog scores (p<.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that an exercise intervention is beneficial for improving logical memory and maintaining general cognitive function and reducing whole brain cortical atrophy in older adults with amnestic MCI. Low total cholesterol and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor may predict improvement of cognitive functions in older adults with MCI. Further studies are required to determine the positive effects of exercise on cognitive function in older adults with

  2. Cholinergic Enhancement of Brain Activation in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI during Episodic Memory Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Risacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the physiological impact of treatment with donepezil (Aricept on neural circuitry supporting episodic memory encoding in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI using functional MRI (fMRI. Methods: 18 patients with MCI and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC were scanned twice while performing an event-related verbal episodic encoding task. MCI participants were scanned before treatment and after approximately 3 months on donepezil; HC were untreated but rescanned at the same interval. Voxel-level analyses assessed treatment effects in activation profile relative to retest changes in non-treated HC. Changes in task-related connectivity in medial temporal circuitry were also evaluated, as were associations between brain activation pattern, task-related functional connectivity, task performance, and clinical measures of cognition.Results: At baseline, the MCI group showed reduced activation during encoding relative to HC in the right medial temporal lobe (MTL; hippocampal/parahippocampal and additional regions, as well as attenuated task-related deactivation, relative to rest, in a medial parietal lobe cluster. After treatment, the MCI group showed normalized MTL activation and improved parietal deactivation. These changes were associated with cognitive performance. After treatment, the MCI group also demonstrated increased task-related functional connectivity from the right MTL cluster seed region to a network of other sites including the basal nucleus/caudate and bilateral frontal lobes. Increased functional connectivity was associated with improved task performance.Conclusions: Pharmacologic enhancement of cholinergic function in amnestic MCI is associated with changes in brain activation pattern and functional connectivity during episodic memory processing which are in turn related to increased cognitive performance. fMRI is a promising biomarker for assessing treatment related changes in brain function.

  3. False Recognition Helps to Distinguish Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic MCI from Patients with Other Kinds of Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, H.; Haldenwanger, A.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Two recent reviews on neuropsychological assessment argue that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deficits in delayed recall and that this allows differentiating AD from other types of dementia. We attempted to differentiate patients with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) fro

  4. Preventing cognitive decline in older African Americans with mild cognitive impairment: design and methods of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Leiby, Benjamin E

    2012-07-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) affects 25% of older African Americans and predicts progression to Alzheimer's disease. An extensive epidemiologic literature suggests that cognitive, physical, and/or social activities may prevent cognitive decline. We describe the methods of a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of Behavior Activation to prevent cognitive decline in older African Americans with the amnestic multiple domain subtype of MCI. Community Health Workers deliver 6 initial in-home treatment sessions over 2-3 months and then 6 subsequent in-home booster sessions using language, materials, and concepts that are culturally relevant to older African Americans during this 24 month clinical trial. We are randomizing 200 subjects who are recruited from churches, senior centers, and medical clinics to Behavior Activation or Supportive Therapy, which controls for attention. The primary outcome is episodic memory as measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised at baseline and at months 3, 12, 18, and 24. The secondary outcomes are general and domain-specific neuropsychological function, activities of daily living, depression, and quality-of-life. The negative results of recent clinical trials of drug treatments for MCI and Alzheimer's disease suggest that behavioral interventions may provide an alternative treatment approach to preserve cognition in an aging society.

  5. Mild cognitive impairment is becoming more psychosocial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Frans; de Vugt, Marjolein

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have underlined the need for more studies of early psychosocial interventions for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia (Moniz-Cook, Vernooij-Dassen, Woods, & Orrell, 2011 ). In the last 10 years, MCI has become more 'psychosocial' and a starting point for professionals to help patients and their nearest ones to deal with their handicaps, to cope with a future that is insecure and gloomy, and to get prepared for the possibility of further decline and dependency. It is timely that Aging & Mental Health is devoting this paper, a special section in this issue with contributions dealing with psychological and social aspects of MCI. PMID:23402425

  6. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS......MCI), nonmemory domains (naMCI), and multiple domains (mdMCI). Linear regression models were used to assess the association between MCI status and mobility performance in the Habitual Gait Speed, Figure of 8 Walk, Short Physical Performance Battery, and self-reported Late Life Function and Disability Instrument...

  7. Mild cognitive impairment: Profile of a cohort from a private sector memory clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Private hospital memory clinics might see a different clientele than university or academic institutes due to referral biases. Objective: To characterize the profile of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from a private sector memory clinic. Materials and Methods: MCI was diagnosed according to revised clinical criteria of Petersen et al. For a subset of patients with MCI medial temporal atrophy and cerebral small vessel disease (white matter lesions and lacunes were rated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans and analyzed for their contribution towards cognitive impairment. Results: Subjects with MCI formed one-third (113/371 of this memory clinic sample from a private hospital. MCI could be effectively diagnosed and subtyped using a brief cognitive scale (Concise Cognitive Test (CONCOG. The amnestic MCI (single and multiple domains subtype comprised the majority of cases with MCI. In a subsample of 33 patients, lacunar infarcts were more common than white matter lesions and hippocampal atrophy and were inversely associated with verbal fluency. Conclusions: MCI may be more commonly encountered in private hospital settings probably due to early referrals. It is possible to diagnose and subtype MCI using a brief cognitive instrument such as the CONCOG. In this sample, lacunar infarcts were more commonly encountered than medial temporal atrophy in such patients.

  8. Cognitive Training in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin Yan; LI Li; XIAO Jia Qing; HE Chang Zhi; LYU Xiu Lin; GAO Lei; YANG Xiao Wei; CUI Xin Gang; FAN Li Hua

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveWe investigated the feasibility and efficacy of cognitive training for older adults in rural settings and with low education levels, who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MethodsForty-five older adults (ages >65 years) with MCI were assigned to treatment or control groups, at a 2:1 ratio. Cognitivetraining occurred in the treatment group for 2 months. The cognitive abilities of the participants were assessed at pre-training, metaphase, and post-training time points, using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D). ResultsFollowing training, cognitive abilities improved in the treatment group, based on the total scores of all 4 measures, as well as specifically on the MoCA and LOTCA. There were differences in the main effects of group and time point on some subscales, but these differences had little, if any, effect on the overall analyses. ConclusionThe present study demonstrated that cognitive training has beneficial effects on attention, language, orientation, visual perception, organization of visual movement, and logical questioning in patients with MCI. Furthermore, the observed effects are long-term changes.

  9. Which part of the Quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci) discriminates between normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment and dementia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2013-05-01

    the Qmci is a sensitive and specific test to differentiate between normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the subtests of the Qmci to determine which best discriminated NC, MCI and dementia.

  10. Probabilistic Sequence Learning in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezso eNemeth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI causes slight but noticeable disruption in cognitive systems, primarily executive and memory functions. However, it is not clear if the development of sequence learning is affected by an impaired cognitive system and, if so, how. The goal of our study was to investigate the development of probabilistic sequence learning, from the initial acquisition to consolidation, in MCI and healthy elderly control groups. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task (ASRT to measure probabilistic sequence learning. Individuals with MCI showed weaker learning performance than the healthy elderly group. However, using the reaction times only from the second half of each learning block – after the reactivation phase - we found intact learning in MCI. Based on the assumption that the first part of each learning block is related to reactivation/recall processes, we suggest that these processes are affected in MCI. The 24-hour offline period showed no effect on sequence-specific learning in either group but did on general skill learning: the healthy elderly group showed offline improvement in general reaction times while individuals with MCI did not. Our findings deepen our understanding regarding the underlying mechanisms and time course of sequence acquisition and consolidation.

  11. The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment

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    Perrochon A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaick Perrochon, Gilles Kemoun Laboratoire Mobilité, Vieillissement, Exercice (MOVE, EA 6314, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Poitiers, 8 Allée Jean Monnet, 86000 Poitiers, France; ISIS, Research Institute on Handicap and Aging, Paris, France Background: Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test, to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Methods: Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test and motor functions (10-meter walking test. All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT], and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Results: Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abilities: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Conclusion: The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment. Keywords: spatial navigation, walking, trail making test, detection, mild cognitive impairment

  12. Hippocampal subfield volumetry in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwei; Li, Deyu; Li, Qiongling; Li, Yuxia; Li, Kuncheng; Li, Shuyu; Han, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Memory impairment is a typical characteristic of patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) or with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The hippocampus, which plays an important role in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, is a heterogeneous structure that consists of several anatomically and functionally distinct subfields. However, whether distinct hippocampal subfields are differentially and selectively affected by svMCI pathology and whether these abnormal changes in hippocampal subfields are different between svMCI and aMCI patients are largely unknown. A total of 26 svMCI patients, 26 aMCI patients and 26 healthy controls matched according to age, gender and years of education were enrolled in this study. We utilized an automated hippocampal subfield segmentation method provided by FreeSurfer to estimate the volume of several hippocampal subfields, including the cornu ammonis (CA) areas, the dentate gyrus (DG), the subiculum and the presubiculum. Compared with controls, the left subiculum and presubiculum and the right CA4/DG displayed significant atrophy in patients with svMCI. Interestingly, we also found significant differences in the volume of the right CA1 between the svMCI and aMCI groups. Taken together, our results reveal region-specific vulnerability of hippocampal subfields to svMCI pathology and identify distinct hippocampal subfield atrophy patterns between svMCI and aMCI patients. PMID:26876151

  13. Characteristics of Agraphia in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study confirmed that agraphia is an important feature in patients with AD. The writing error profile in patients whose native language is Chinese was unique compared to patients using the alphabetic language system.

  14. A brain stress test: Cerebral perfusion during memory encoding in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial spin labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (ASL MRI provides non-invasive quantification of cerebral blood flow, which can be used as a biomarker of brain function due to the tight coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF and brain metabolism. A growing body of literature suggests that regional CBF is altered in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we examined ASL MRI CBF in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 65 and cognitively normal healthy controls (n = 62, both at rest and during performance of a memory-encoding task. As compared to rest, task-enhanced ASL MRI improved group discrimination, which supports the notion that physiologic measures during a cognitive challenge, or “stress test”, may increase the ability to detect subtle functional changes in early disease stages. Further, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ASL MRI and concomitantly acquired structural MRI provide complementary information of disease status. The current findings support the potential utility of task-enhanced ASL MRI as a biomarker in early Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Deterioration of semantic associative relationships in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Nicoletta; Di Giacomo, Dina; Aloisio, Federica; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to study semantic abilities and their loss in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in dementia, while analyzing efficiency in the use of associative relations, within verbal and visuoperceptual modalities. Participants were split into 4 groups: 19 participants with amnestic MCI, 16 patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD), 20 patients with moderate AD, and 20 healthy controls (HCs). All participants performed standardized neuropsychological tests and experimental (naming and semantic associations) tasks to evaluate verbal and visuoperceptual semantic abilities. We analyzed 4 associative relations (part/whole, function, superordinate, and contiguity) in both verbal and visuoperceptual code. Our results suggest a progressive impairment in semantic categorization knowledge, with worse performance in the AD groups relative to the MCI and HC groups. Our data show a different pattern in the 4 associative relations and the involvement of associative semantic relations already in the early stage of disease, as well as a different pattern of deterioration between verbal and visuoperceptual modalities. Our data indicate that the visuoperceptual semantic network appears to be less deteriorated than the verbal network in AD. The verbal semantic network may be more sensitive in detecting patients at an early stage of the disease. PMID:26508434

  16. High-Intensity Physical Activity Modulates Diet Effects on Cerebrospinal β-Amyloid Levels in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Laura D Baker; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Skinner, Jeannine; Thomas J Montine; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Callaghan, Maureen; Leverenz, James B.; Walter, Brooke K.; Tsai, Elaine; Postupna, Nadia; Lampe, Johanna; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were markedly altered in response to a 4-wk dietary intervention in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we re-examined the data to assess whether diet-induced effects on CSF Aβ42 were modulated by high intensity physical activity (hi–PA). Normal older adults (n=18, mean age=68.6±7.4yrs) and adults with amnestic MCI (n=23, mean age=68.0±6.5yrs) received a low saturated fat/low glycemic index...

  17. Fornix White Matter is Correlated with Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Thalamus and Hippocampus in Healthy Aging but Not in Mild Cognitive Impairment - A Preliminary Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Grace Kehoe; Claudia Metzler-Baddeley; Lawlor, Brian A.; Rose Anne Kenny; Declan Lyons; McNulty, Jonathan P.; Mullins, Paul G.; Damien Coyle

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we wished to examine the relationship between the structural connectivity of the fornix, a white matter (WM) tract in the limbic system, which is affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer’s disease, and the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of two key related subcortical structures, the thalamus, and hippocampus. Twenty-two older healthy controls (HC) and 18 older adults with aMCI underwent multi-modal MRI scanning. The fornix was reconstructe...

  18. Cerebral and blood correlates of reduced functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escamilla, Gabriel; Atienza, Mercedes; Garcia-Solis, David; Cantero, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that decreased functional connectivity in cortical networks precedes clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although our knowledge about cerebral and biological correlates of this phenomenon is limited. To shed light on this issue, we have investigated whether resting-state oscillatory connectivity patterns in healthy older (HO) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects are related to anatomical grey matter (GM) and functional (2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET) changes of neuroelectric sources of alpha rhythms, and/or to changes in plasma amyloid-beta (Aβ) and serum lipid levels, blood markers tied to AD pathogenesis and aging-related cognitive decline. We found that aMCI subjects showed decreased levels of cortical connectivity, reduced FDG-PET intake of the precuneus, and GM atrophy of the thalamus, together with higher levels of Aβ and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) compared to HO. Interestingly, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were positively correlated with the strength of neural-phase coupling in aMCI subjects, and increased triglycerides accompanied bilateral GM loss in the precuneus of aMCI subjects. Together, these findings provide peripheral blood correlates of reduced resting-state cortical connectivity in aMCI, supported by anatomo-functional changes in cerebral sources of alpha rhythms. This framework constitutes an integrated approach to assess functional changes in cortical networks through neuroimaging and peripheral blood markers during early stages of neurodegeneration.

  19. Model-based physiomarkers of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarelis, V Z; Shin, D C; Orme, M E; Zhang, R

    2014-05-01

    In our previous studies, we have introduced model-based "functional biomarkers" or "physiomarkers" of cerebral hemodynamics that hold promise for improved diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). The advocated methodology utilizes subject-specific data-based dynamic nonlinear models of cerebral hemodynamics to compute indices (serving as possible diagnostic physiomarkers) that quantify the state of cerebral blood flow autoregulation to pressure-changes (CFAP) and cerebral CO2 vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) in each subject. The model is estimated from beat-to-beat measurements of mean arterial blood pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and end-tidal CO2, which can be made reliably and non-invasively under resting conditions. In a previous study, it was found that a CVMR index quantifying the impairment in CO2 vasomotor reactivity correlates with clinical indications of early AD, offering the prospect of a potentially useful diagnostic tool. In this paper, we explore the use of the same model-based indices for patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a preclinical stage of AD, relative to a control subjects and clinical cognitive assessments. It was found that the model-based CVMR values were lower for MCI patients relative to the control subjects.

  20. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal. Neurology 2014;82:317 – 325. 2. Norton M, Breitner ... 42:1252 – 1256. e34 © 2014 American Academy of Neurology PATIENT PAGE Section Editors David C. Spencer, MD ...

  1. Combining Cognitive Screening Tests for the Evaluation of Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ladeira, Rodolfo B.; Diniz, Breno S; Nunes, Paula V.; Orestes V. Forlenza

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of the Mini-Mental State Examination combined with the Verbal Fluency Test and Clock Drawing Test for the identification of patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: These tests were used to evaluate cognitive function in 247 older adults. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their cognitive state: mild cognitive impairment (n=83), AD (n=81), cognitively unimpaired controls (n=83), based on clinical and n...

  2. Different Characteristics of Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s Disease in the Mild Cognitive Impairment Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kazui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared indices of the revised version of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R and scaled scores of the five subtests of the revised version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R in 30 elderly schizophrenia (ES patients and 25 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients in the amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI stage (AD-aMCI. In the WMS-R, attention/concentration was rated lower and delayed recall was rated higher in ES than in AD-aMCI, although general memory was comparable in the two groups. In WAIS-R, digit symbol substitution, similarity, picture completion, and block design scores were significantly lower in ES than in AD-aMCI, but the information scores were comparable between the two groups. Delayed recall and forgetfulness were less impaired, and attention, working memory and executive function were more impaired in ES than in AD-aMCI. These results should help clinicians to distinguish ES combined with AD-aMCI from ES alone.

  3. ADHD Symptoms Associated with Mild Cognitive Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between ADHD symptoms and mild intellectual disability (ID was investigated and compared to subjects with average ability, in a study at King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, UK.

  4. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...

  5. [Mild cognitive impairment: could it be a sleep disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is described as an intermediate state of cognitive impairment whereby individuals present with mild clinical symptoms but with nearly normal daily living activities. These subjects do not meet the clinical criteria for dementia, yet their cognitive functioning is below what we would expect for age and education in healthy people. In the other hand, older adults are at risk for sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behavioral disorder and chronic insomnia, which could have an impact on cognitive functioning and are exclusion criteria for the MCI diagnosis. Moreover, REM sleep behavioral disorder represents a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In subjects more 65 years of age the association between chronic insomnia and cognitive changes is still debated. The main aim of this paper is to focus on identification of sleep disorders in the context of cognitive disturbances among professionals working with the elderly. PMID:26395305

  6. Memory profiling with paired associate learning in Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, K E; Rowe, C C; Moss, S A; Savage, G

    2008-11-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), but up to 40% of cases do not develop AD. Examining a case's specific memory profile may help distinguish which MCI cases will progress to AD: An encoding profile is suggestive of incipient AD, whereas a retrieval profile suggests an alternative etiology. Paired associate learning (PAL) tasks are sensitive for preclinical and early detection of AD, but existing tasks do not enable memory profiling. We developed a novel PAL task enabling the differentiation of memory profiles in 19 people with AD, 17 people with amnestic MCI, and 33 normal elderly controls. Unexpectedly, the AD group demonstrated a retrieval profile for PAL using yes-no recognition, although an encoding profile was evident for forced-choice recognition and for the California Verbal Learning Test--Second Edition (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000). There was considerable heterogeneity within the AD and MCI groups as well as intraindividual discordance for memory profiles. The findings challenge the clinical application of memory profiling in the differential diagnosis of AD, and, by extension, question its potential application in the assessment of MCI. PMID:18999345

  7. Demyelination in mild cognitive impairment suggests progression path to Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Carmeli

    Full Text Available The preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD - amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI - is manifested by phenotypes classified into exclusively memory (single-domain MCI (sMCI and multiple-domain MCI (mMCI. We suggest that typical MCI-to-AD progression occurs through the sMCI-to-mMCI sequence as a result of the extension of initial pathological processes. To support this hypothesis, we assess myelin content with a Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR in 21 sMCI and 21 mMCI patients and in 42 age-, sex-, and education-matched controls. A conjunction analysis revealed MTR reduction shared by sMCI and mMCI groups in the medial temporal lobe and posterior structures including white matter (WM: splenium, posterior corona radiata and gray matter (GM: hippocampus; parahippocampal and lingual gyri. A disjunction analysis showed the spread of demyelination to prefrontal WM and insula GM in executive mMCI. Our findings suggest that demyelination starts in the structures affected by neurofibrillary pathology; its presence correlates with the clinical picture and indicates the method of MCI-to-AD progression. In vivo staging of preclinical AD can be developed in terms of WM/GM demyelination.

  8. Effect of the cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive impairment and identified brain atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Nilius; Petra Krulová; Dagmar Beránková; Pavel Ressner; Olga Zapletalová; Jana Minarčíková; Jan Pouchlý

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The main objective of this study was to analyse the development of cognitive functions and effect of cognitive rehabilitation on patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as a result of brain atrophy. Design: A quantitative non-randomized intervention study on a control sample of patients. Methods: The effect was observed in a group of patients ranging 59-91 years of age (N = 36). Only patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of mild cognitive disorder diagnosed by tomo...

  9. Impaired glycemia increases disease progression in mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Jill K.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Honea, Robyn A.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes are associated with cognitive decline and increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Relatively few studies have assessed the impact of metabolic dysfunction on conversion to AD in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and it is unclear whether glycemic status is associated with clinically-relevant measures of cognitive decline and brain structure in MCI. This study used the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to examine the relation...

  10. Attention and inhibition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Zancada-Menéndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment is understood as a cognitive deficit of insufficient severity to fulfil the criteria for Alzheimer’s disease. Many studies have attempted to identify which cognitive functions are most affected by this type of impairment and which is the most sensitive neuropsychological test for early detection. This study investigated sustained and selective attention, processing speed, and the inhibition process using a sample of people divided into three groups mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease and cognitively healthy controls selected and grouped based on their scores in the Mini Mental State Examination and Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised. Three tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (Motor Screening Task, Stop Signal Task and Reaction time were used as well as the d2 attention test. The results show that that participants with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease showed lower levels of concentration compared with the cognitively healthy controls group in the d2 test and longer reaction times in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, although the differences were not marked in the latter test. The impairments in basic cognitive processes, such as reaction time and sustained attention, indicate the need to take these functions into account in the test protocols when discriminating between normal aging and early and preclinical dementia processes.

  11. Measuring Information Processing Speed in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Clinical Versus Research Dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Judy; Phillips, Michelle; Newson, Margaret; Rogers, Peter J; Torrens-Burton, Anna; Tales, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A substantial body of research evidence is indicative of disproportionately slowed information processing speed in a wide range of multi-trial, computer-based, neuroimaging- and electroencephalography-based reaction time (RT) tests in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, in what is arguably a dichotomy between research evidence and clinical practice, RT associated with different brain functions is rarely assessed as part of their diagnosis. Indeed, often only the time taken to perform a single, specific task, commonly the Trail making test (TMT), is measured. In clinical practice therefore, there can be a failure to assess adequately the integrity of the rapid, serial information processing and response, necessary for efficient, appropriate, and safe interaction with the environment. We examined whether a typical research-based RT task could at least match the TMT in differentiating amnestic MCI (aMCI) from cognitively healthy aging at group level. As aMCI is a heterogeneous group, typically containing only a proportion of individuals for whom aMCI represents the early stages of dementia, we examined the ability of each test to provide intra-group performance variation. The results indicate that as well as significant slowing in performance of the operations involved in TMT part B (but not part A), individuals with aMCI also experience significant slowing in RT compared to controls. The results also suggest that research-typical RT tests may be superior to the TMT in differentiating between cognitively healthy aging and aMCI at group level and in revealing the performance variability one would expect from an etiologically heterogeneous disorder such as aMCI. PMID:26836171

  12. Measuring Information Processing Speed in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Clinical Versus Research Dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Judy; Phillips, Michelle; Newson, Margaret; Rogers, Peter J; Torrens-Burton, Anna; Tales, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A substantial body of research evidence is indicative of disproportionately slowed information processing speed in a wide range of multi-trial, computer-based, neuroimaging- and electroencephalography-based reaction time (RT) tests in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, in what is arguably a dichotomy between research evidence and clinical practice, RT associated with different brain functions is rarely assessed as part of their diagnosis. Indeed, often only the time taken to perform a single, specific task, commonly the Trail making test (TMT), is measured. In clinical practice therefore, there can be a failure to assess adequately the integrity of the rapid, serial information processing and response, necessary for efficient, appropriate, and safe interaction with the environment. We examined whether a typical research-based RT task could at least match the TMT in differentiating amnestic MCI (aMCI) from cognitively healthy aging at group level. As aMCI is a heterogeneous group, typically containing only a proportion of individuals for whom aMCI represents the early stages of dementia, we examined the ability of each test to provide intra-group performance variation. The results indicate that as well as significant slowing in performance of the operations involved in TMT part B (but not part A), individuals with aMCI also experience significant slowing in RT compared to controls. The results also suggest that research-typical RT tests may be superior to the TMT in differentiating between cognitively healthy aging and aMCI at group level and in revealing the performance variability one would expect from an etiologically heterogeneous disorder such as aMCI.

  13. Altered Topology in Information Processing of a Narrated Story in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Oren, Noga; Ash, Elissa L; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Lerner, Yulia

    2016-05-01

    The ability to store, integrate, and manipulate information declines with aging. These changes occur earlier, faster, and to a greater degree as a result of neurodegeneration. One of the most common and early characteristics of cognitive decline is difficulty with comprehension of information. The neural mechanisms underlying this breakdown of information processing are poorly understood. Using functional MRI and natural stimuli (e.g., stories), we mapped the neural mechanisms by which the human brain accumulates and processes information with increasing duration and complexity in participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy older adults. To explore the mechanisms of information processing, we measured the reliability of brain responses elicited by listening to different versions of a narrated story created by segmenting the story into words, sentences, and paragraphs and then scrambling the segments. Comparing healthy older adults and participants with aMCI revealed that in both groups, all types of stimuli similarly recruited primary auditory areas. However, prominent differences between groups were found at the level of processing long and complex stimuli. In healthy older adults, parietal and frontal regions demonstrated highly synchronized responses in both the paragraph and full story conditions, as has been previously reported in young adults. Participants with aMCI, however, exhibited a robust functional shift of long time scale processing to the pre- and post-central sulci. Our results suggest that participants with aMCI experienced a functional shift of higher order auditory information processing, possibly reflecting a functional response to concurrent or impending neuronal or synaptic loss. This observation might assist in understanding mechanisms of cognitive decline in aMCI.

  14. Dysexecutive syndrome in amnesic mild cognitive impairment: a multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Martín, E.; Ugarriza Serrano, I.; Elcoroaristizabal Martín, X.; Galdos Alcelay, L.; Molano Salazar, A.; Bereincua Gandarias, R.; Inglés Borda, S.; Uterga Valiente, J. M.; Indakoetxea Juanbeltz, M. B.; Moraza Lopez, J.; Barandiarán Amillano, M.; Fernández-Martínez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Executive functions (EF) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), classically related to the prefrontal cortex, have been forgotten in mild stages, given more importance to temporal lobe associated disorders, such as memory. The study of disexecutive syndrome (DS) has been relegated to advanced stages of the disease. Our goal is to demonstrate that EF are already present in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Furthermore, we are interested in knowing whether poor scores in EF tests are r...

  15. Everyday Cognition scale items that best discriminate between and predict progression from clinically normal to mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Zoller, Amy S.; Kelly, Kathleen E.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) starts as individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) transition to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. However, most IADL scales have not shown IADL alterations in clinically normal (CN) elderly. The objective of this study was to determine which of the IADL-related Everyday Cognition (ECog) scale items are most sensitive for detection of early functional changes. Methods We assessed 290 CN and 495 MCI participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We performed logistic regression analyses predicting the probability of CN vs. MCI diagnosis using only the 17 participant-based and 17 informant-based ECog items related to IADL. We then performed Cox regression analyses to predict progression from CN to MCI. All analyses were adjusted for demographic characteristics. Results We found that worse performance on “remembering a few shopping items” (participant and informant-based p<0.0001), “remembering appointments” (participant and informant-based p<0.0001), “developing a schedule in advance of anticipated events” (participant-based p=0.007), “balancing checkbook” (participant-based p=0.02), and “keeping mail and papers organized” (informant-based p=0.002) best discriminated MCI from CN. We found that worse performance on “keeping mail and papers organized” (participant-based Hazard Ratio (HR)=2.27, p=0.07) marginally predicted greater hazard of progressing from CN to MCI. Conclusions Our results indicate that a few simple questions targeting early functional changes, addressed either to the individual or informant, can effectively distinguish between CN elderly and individuals with MCI. Additionally, one of the above questions related to organization suggested which CN individuals are likely to progress to MCI. PMID:25274110

  16. Transfer and maintenance effects of online working-memory training in normal ageing and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Anouk; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Dautzenberg, Paul L J; Kessels, Roy P C

    2016-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is one of the cognitive functions that is susceptible to ageing-related decline. Interventions that are able to improve WM functioning at older age are thus highly relevant. In this pilot study, we explored the transfer effects of core WM training on the WM domain and other cognitive domains in 23 healthy older adults and 18 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Performance on neuropsychological tests was assessed before and after completion of the online five-week adaptive WM training, and after a three-month follow-up period. After training, both groups improved on the Digit Span and Spatial Span, gains that were maintained at follow-up. At an individual level, a limited number of participants showed reliable training gain. Healthy older adults, and to a lesser extent MCI patients, additionally improved on figural fluency at group level, but not at individual level. Results furthermore showed that global brain atrophy and hippocampal atrophy, as assessed by MRI, may negatively affect training outcome. Our study examined core WM training, showing gains on trained and untrained tasks within the WM domain, but no broad generalisation to other cognitive domains. More research is needed to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to identify participant characteristics that are predictive of training gain. PMID:26010573

  17. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...... heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of awareness. The results demonstrate that subjective memory problems should not be a mandatory prerequisite in suspected dementia or MCI, which makes reports from informants together with thorough clinical interview and observation central when assessing suspected...

  18. Changes of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haoze; Zhou, Peng; Alcauter, Sarael; Chen, Yuanyuan; Cao, Hongbao; Tian, Miao; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hongzhi; Wang, Xuemin; Zhao, Xin; He, Feng; Ni, Hongyan; Gao, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits of working memory, attention, language and many other cognitive functions. Although different stages of the disease are relatively well characterized by clinical criteria, stage-specific pathological changes in the brain remain relatively poorly understood, especially at the level of large-scale functional networks. In this study, we aimed to characterize the potential disruptions of large-scale functional brain networks based on a sample including amnestic mild cognition impairment (aMCI) and AD patients to help delineate the underlying stage-dependent AD pathology. Approach. We sought to identify the neural connectivity mechanisms of aMCI and AD through examination of both intranetwork and internetwork interactions among four of the brain’s key networks, namely dorsal attention network (DAN), default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN) and salience network (SAL). We analyzed functional connectivity based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from 25 Alzheimer’s disease patients, 20 aMCI patients and 35 elderly normal controls (NC). Main results. Intranetwork functional disruptions within the DAN and ECN were detected in both aMCI and AD patients. Disrupted intranetwork connectivity of DMN and anti-correlation between DAN and DMN were observed in AD patients. Moreover, aMCI-specific alterations in the internetwork functional connectivity of SAL were observed. Significance. Our results confirmed previous findings that AD pathology was related to dysconnectivity both within and between resting-state networks but revealed more spatial details. Moreover, the SAL network, reportedly flexibly coupling either with the DAN or DMN networks during different brain states, demonstrated interesting alterations specifically in the early stage of the disease.

  19. Depressive symptoms predict slow cognitive decline in mild dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzing, J.; Naarding, P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Depression may be a prognostic marker of subsequent cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Earlier investigations did not find support for this hypothesis but have mainly considered syndromal depression. In this prospective study thirty-two subjects with mild dementia were followed up for 12 m

  20. Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

  1. Behavioral Syndromes in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Behavioral disturbances belong to the core symptoms of dementia and are also common in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The identification of sets of symptoms is clinically interesting, as interventions targeting syndromes may be more effective than the management of individual symptoms.

  2. Cognitive Profile of Elderly Patients with Mild Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Gramstad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pattern characterizing cognitive deficits in mild stroke could help in differential diagnosis and rehabilitation planning. Methods: Fifty patients with mild stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤2 at discharge aged >60 years were given the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R and the Stroop test. Results: On HVLT-R, significant impairments were found in learning and recall, but not in delayed recall. The Stroop test revealed significant impairments in reading speed, but not in color-word interference. Using the MMSE, significant deficits were only found in the youngest age group. Conclusion: Elderly patients with mild stroke show deficits in verbal learning/recall and in reading speed, but not in the MMSE, delayed recall or color-word interference. The deficits are consistent with a mild-to-moderate brain dysfunction, with relative sparing of medial brain structures.

  3. Adenosine A2A Receptor and IL-10 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Arosio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine suppresses immune responses through the A2A receptor (A2AR. This study investigated the interleukin 10 (IL-10 genetic profile and the expression of A2AR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Alzheimer disease (AD, and age-matched controls to verify, if they may help distinguish different forms of cognitive decline. We analyzed the IL-10 genotype and the expression of A2AR in 41 subjects with AD, 10 with amnestic MCI (a-MCI, 49 with multiple cognitive domain MCI (mcd-MCI, and 46 controls. There was a significant linear increase in A2AR mRNA levels and A2AR density from mcd-MCI to a-MCI, with intermediate levels being found in AD. The IL-10 AA genotype frequency was 67% in a-MCI, 46% in AD, 35% in mcd-MCI, and 20% in controls. These data suggest that the assessment of the IL-10 genotype and the expression of A2AR in PBMCs may be a valuable means of differentiating between a-MCI and mcd-MCI.

  4. Different patterns of white matter degeneration using multiple diffusion indices and volumetric data in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sousa Alves

    Full Text Available Alzheimeŕs disease (AD represents the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that causes cognitive decline in old age. In its early stages, AD is associated with microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM. In the current study, multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and brain volumetric measurements were employed to comprehensively investigate the landscape of AD pathology. The sample comprised 58 individuals including cognitively normal subjects (controls, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD patients. Relative to controls, both MCI and AD subjects showed widespread changes of anisotropic fraction (FA in the corpus callosum, cingulate and uncinate fasciculus. Mean diffusivity and radial changes were also observed in AD patients in comparison with controls. After controlling for the gray matter atrophy the number of regions of significantly lower FA in AD patients relative to controls was decreased; nonetheless, unique areas of microstructural damage remained, e.g., the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus. Despite sample size limitations, the current results suggest that a combination of secondary and primary degeneration occurrs in MCI and AD, although the secondary degeneration appears to have a more critical role during the stages of disease involving dementia.

  5. SPECT imaging of GABA{sub A}/benzodiazepine receptors and cerebral perfusion in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappata, Sabina; Varrone, Andrea; Vicidomini, Caterina; Sansone, Valeria; Comerci, Marco; Panico, Maria Rosaria; Quarantelli, Mario [CNR, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Milan, Graziella; De Falco, Caterina; Lore, Elisa; Postiglione, Alfredo [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Naples (Italy); Iavarone, Alessandro [Neurologic and Stroke Unit, CTO Hospital, Naples (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [CNR, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The involvement of neocortical and limbic GABA{sub A}/benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial and mainly reported in advanced stages. The status of these receptors in the very early stages of AD is unclear and has not been explored in vivo. Our aims were to investigate in vivo the integrity of cerebral cortical GABA{sub A}/BZD receptors in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to compare possible receptor changes to those in cerebral perfusion. [{sup 123}I]Iomazenil and [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO SPECT images were acquired in 16 patients with amnestic MCI and in 14 normal elderly control subjects (only [{sup 123}I]iomazenil imaging in 5, only [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO imaging in 4, and both [{sup 123}I]iomazenil and [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO imaging in 5). Region of interest (ROI) analysis and voxel-based analysis were performed with cerebellar normalization. Neither ROI analysis nor voxel-based analysis showed significant [{sup 123}I]iomazenil binding changes in MCI patients compared to control subjects, either as a whole group or when considering only those patients with MCI that converted to AD within 2 years of clinical follow-up. In contrast, the ROI analysis revealed significant hypoperfusion of the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex in the whole group of MCI patients and in MCI converters as compared to control subjects. Voxel-based analysis showed similar results. These results indicate that in the very early stages of AD, neocortical and limbic neurons/synapses expressing GABA{sub A}/BZD receptors are essentially preserved. They suggest that in MCI patients functional changes precede neuronal/synaptic loss in neocortical posterior regions and that [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO rCBF imaging is more sensitive than [{sup 123}I]iomazenil GABA{sub A}/BZD receptor imaging in detecting prodromal AD. (orig.)

  6. Brain imaging of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhao Yin; Siou Li; Weina Zhao; Jiachun Feng

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing prevalence of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease has the potential to create a major worldwide healthcare crisis. Structural MRI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are currently attracting considerable interest. It is extremely important to study early structural and metabolic changes, such as those in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and gray matter structures in the medial temporal lobe, to allow the early detection of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The microstructural integrity of white matter can be studied with diffusion tensor imaging. Increased mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy are found in subjects with white matter damage. Functional imaging studies with positron emission tomography tracer compounds enable detection of amyloid plaques in the living brain in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we will focus on key findings from brain imaging studies in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, including structural brain changes studied with MRI and white matter changes seen with diffusion tensor imaging, and other specific imaging methodologies will also be discussed.

  7. A nationwide survey on the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Moon Doo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Shin-Kyum; Kim, Jeong Lan; Moon, Seok Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Woo, Jong Inn; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yoon, Jong Chul; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Seok Bum; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Jun-Young; Lee, Chang-Uk; Chang, Sung Man; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the factors associate with risk of dementia from a representative nationwide sample of Korean elders. 8,199 randomly-sampled Koreans aged 65 years or older were invited to participate in the Phase I screening assessment using Mini-Mental State Examination by door-to-door home visit, and 6,141 subjects (response rate = 74.9%) responded. Among them, 2,336 subjects were invited to participate in the Phase II diagnostic assessment for dementia and MCI, and 1,673 subjects responded (response rate = 71.6%). Diagnostic assessments were administered using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) Clinical Assessment Battery. The CERAD-K Neuropsychological Assessment Battery was used for diagnosing MCI. Age-, gender-, education-, and urbanicity-standardized prevalence of dementia was estimated to be 8.1% (95% CI = 6.9-9.2) for overall dementia and 24.1% (95% CI = 21.0-27.2) for MCI. Alzheimer's disease (AD) was the most prevalent type (5.7%) followed by vascular dementia (2.0%). Amnestic subtype (20.1%) was much more prevalent than nonamnestic subtype in MCI (4.0%). Older age, being male, lower education level, illiteracy, smoking, and histories of head trauma or depression were associated with increased dementia risk, and alcohol use and moderately intense exercise were associated with decreased dementia risk. We expect numbers of dementia patients to double every 20 years until 2050 in Korea and expect AD to account for progressively more dementia cases in the future.

  8. Sleep disturbance in mild cognitive impairment is associated with alterations in the brain's default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Andrew C; Lagopoulos, Jim; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron; Hickie, Ian B; Batchelor, Jennifer; Lewis, Simon J G; Duffy, Shantel; Shine, James M; Naismith, Sharon L

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sleep disturbance, relative to those with MCI and no sleep disturbance. A control group was included to aid in identifying DMN changes specific to MCI. A cross-sectional, single-center study was performed at the Brain and Mind Research Centre in Sydney, Australia. Participants (95 adults over the age of 65: 38 controls and 57 meeting criteria for MCI) underwent resting-state functional MRI along with comprehensive neuropsychological, medical, and psychiatric assessment. Self-report data were collected including sleep quality assessment via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. A total score of greater than 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to signify the presence of significant sleep disturbance, as per commonly used methodology. Using this criterion, 53% (n = 30) of our MCI group were classified as sleep-disturbed. Whereas the total group of MCI subjects and controls demonstrated no significant differences, sleep-disturbed MCIs demonstrated increased connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, and decreased connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the temporoparietal junction relative to sleep-disturbed controls. Relative to those MCIs without sleep disturbance, sleep-disturbed MCI participants demonstrated significantly diminished DMN connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, a finding that was particularly pronounced in amnestic MCI. Sleep disturbance in MCI is associated with distinct alterations in DMN functional connectivity in brain regions underpinning salient memory and sleep systems. Future studies may build on these results via experimental manipulation and objective measurement of sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963234

  9. Mild Neurocognitive Disorder: An Old Wine in a New Bottle

    OpenAIRE

    Stokin, Gorazd B.; Krell-Roesch, Janina; Petersen, Ronald C.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The American Psychiatric Association has recently published the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The DSM-IV category “Dementia, Delirium, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders” has undergone extensive revision. DSM-5 has renamed this category as “Neurocognitive Disorders” (NCD), which now covers three entities: delirium, major NCD, and mild NCD. The DSM-IV version of mild NCD resembles the DSM-5 version in name only. DSM-IV defined...

  10. Deficits in narrative discourse elicited by visual stimuli are already present in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia eDrummond

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Language batteries used to assess the skills of elderly individuals, such as naming and semantic verbal fluency, present some limitations in differentiating healthy controls from patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI. Deficits in narrative discourse occur early in dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and the narrative discourse abilities of a-MCI patients are poorly documented. The present study sought to propose and evaluate parameters for investigating narrative discourse in these populations. After a pilot study of 30 healthy subjects who served as a preliminary investigation of macro- and microlinguistic aspects, 77 individuals (patients with AD and a-MCI and a control group were evaluated. The experimental task required the participants to narrate a story based on a sequence of actions visually presented. The Control and AD groups differed in all parameters except narrative time and the total number of words recalled. The a-MCI group displayed mild discursive difficulties that were characterized as an intermediate stage between the Control and AD groups’ performances. The a-MCI and Control groups differed from the AD group with respect to global coherence, discourse type and referential cohesion. The a-MCI and AD groups were similar to one another but differed from the Control group with respect to the type of words recalled, the repetition of words in the same sentence, the narrative structure and the inclusion of irrelevant propositions in the narrative. The narrative parameter that best distinguished the three groups was the speech effectiveness index. The proposed task was able to reveal differences between healthy controls and groups with cognitive decline. According to our findings, patients with a-MCI already present narrative deficits that are characterized by mild discursive difficulties that are less severe than those found in patients with AD.

  11. Progression to vascular dementia of patients with mild cognitive impairment: relevance of mild parkinsonian signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mauri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Marco Mauri, Simona Corbetta, Cristina Pianezzola, Elena Ambrosoni, Giulio Riboldazzi, Giorgio BonoUnit of Neurology, Dept of Clinical Medicine, Ospedale di Circolo – University of Insubria, Varese, ItalyAbstract: Mild parkinsonian signs (MPS may be found among patients presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, but few data are available about the relation of these signs with the prospective risk for dementia. Our retrospective investigation considered a case-series of 119 MCI subjects followed over a three-year period: their baseline clinical picture has been analyzed in search of correlation between the cognito-motor profile and the final diagnosis. The population included 66 patients with amnesic MCI and 53 with an involvement of other cognitive areas (nonamnesic MCI. MPS were detected in 22 subjects (18.5%. At the first observation, MPS cases showed an higher frequency of nonamnesic MCI and more pronounced deficits at the Trail Making Test (p < 0.05. After a three-year follow-up, 48 patients had converted to dementia. The presence of MPS at the baseline evaluation was significantly related to the development of a vascular-type dementia. The study investigates the association between MPS and MCI and might indicate for these cases a greater risk for an involvement of executive functions and the subsequent development of vascular dementia.Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, dementia, cerebrovascular disease, parkinsonism

  12. Comparing Cognitive Profiles of Licensed Drivers with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Yamin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Alzheimer’s disease (AD and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations. Results. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD. Discussion. Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB.

  13. Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Doi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years. The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results: We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p Conclusions: Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required.

  14. Mild cognitive impairment: Conceptual, assessment, ethical, and social issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Werner

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Perla Werner1, Amos D Korczyn21Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel; 2Sieratzki Chair of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is defined as a condition characterized by newly acquired cognitive decline to an extent that is beyond that expected for age or educational background, yet not causing significant functional impairment. The concept of MCI has received considerable attention in the literature over the past few years, and aspects related to its definition, prevalence, and evolution have been extensively studied and reviewed. Here we attempt to synthesize the implications of the current status of this entity, focusing on the conceptual, methodological, and, in particular, the social and ethical aspects of MCI which have attracted less attention. We discuss the weaknesses of the concept of MCI, which is heterogeneous in etiology, manifestations, and outcomes, and suggest that the emergence of the syndrome at this stage reflects industrial interests related to possible development of drugs for this disorder. On the other hand, the formal diagnosis of MCI, with its implications that the person may develop dementia, may have a grave impact on the psychological state of the individual, at a stage when prediction of outcome is tenuous and possibilities of useful interventions are meager. We present suggestions for the direction of future research in these areas.Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, assessment issues, ethical issues, social issues, dementia

  15. Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette Merete;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING......: Academic community outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older in primary care enrolled in the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly who were at risk of mobility decline (N = 430). MEASUREMENTS: Participants with an average score greater than three on the Brief Pain...... Inventory (BPI) were defined as having pain. MCI was defined using age-adjusted scores on a neuropsychological battery. Multivariable linear regression models assessed associations between pain and MCI, together and separately, and mobility performance (habitual gait speed, Short Physical Performance...

  16. Impaired cognitive function and mental performance in mild dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M-M G; Morley, J E

    2003-12-01

    Dehydration is a reliable predictor of impaired cognitive status. Objective data, using tests of cortical function, support the deterioration of mental performance in mildly dehydrated younger adults. Dehydration frequently results in delirium as a manifestation of cognitive dysfunction. Although, the occurrence of delirium suggests transient acute global cerebral dysfunction, cognitive impairment may not be completely reversible. Animal studies have identified neuronal mitochondrial damage and glutamate hypertransmission in dehydrated rats. Additional studies have identified an increase in cerebral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity (nitric oxide synthase, NOS) with dehydration. Available evidence also implicates NOS as a neurotransmitter in long-term potentiation, rendering this a critical enzyme in facilitating learning and memory. With ageing, a reduction of NOS activity has been identified in the cortex and striatum of rats. The reduction of NOs synthase activity that occurs with ageing may blunt the rise that occurs with dehydration, and possibly interfere with memory processing and cognitive function. Dehydration has been shown to be a reliable predictor of increasing frailty, deteriorating mental performance and poor quality of life. Intervention models directed toward improving outcomes in dehydration must incorporate strategies to enhance prompt recognition of cognitive dysfunction.

  17. Mild cognitive impairment and its management in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Mun, Chan Yoke; Ng, Chee Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common condition in the elderly. It is characterized by deterioration of memory, attention, and cognitive function that is beyond what is expected based on age and educational level. MCI does not interfere significantly with individuals' daily activities. It can act as a transitional level of evolving dementia with a range of conversion of 10%-15% per year. Thus, it is crucial to protect older people against MCI and developing dementia. The preventive interventions and appropriate treatments should improve cognitive performance, and retard or prevent progressive deficits. The avoidance of toxins, reduction of stress, prevention of somatic diseases, implementation of mental and physical exercises, as well as the use of dietary compounds like antioxidants and supplements can be protective against MCI. The modification of risk factors such as stopping smoking, as well as the treatment of deficiency in vitamins and hormones by correcting behaviors and lifestyle, can prevent cognitive decline in the elderly. The progressive increase in the growth rate of the elderly population can enhance the rate of MCI all over the world. There is no exact cure for MCI and dementia; therefore, further studies are needed in the future to determine causes of MCI and risk factors of progression from MCI to dementia. This will help to find better ways for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment worldwide. PMID:25914527

  18. A cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others: feasibility and preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Geleijns-Lanting, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and present preliminary results of a cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others. Design: One group pretest-posttest design. Subjects: Twenty-two patients with mild cognitive impairment and their

  19. A cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others: feasibility and preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, E.W.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Geleijns-Lanting, C.E.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and present preliminary results of a cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others. DESIGN: One group pretest-posttest design. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two patients with mild cognitive impairment and their

  20. Sleep deficits in mild cognitive impairment are related to increased levels of plasma amyloid-β and cortical thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Espinosa, Mayely P; Atienza, Mercedes; Cantero, Jose L

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests that amyloid-beta (Aβ) depositions parallel sleep deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown whether impaired sleep and changes in plasma Aβ levels are related in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects, and whether both markers are further associated with cortical thinning in canonical AD regions. To jointly address this issue, we investigated relationships between changes in physiological sleep and plasma Aβ concentrations in 21 healthy old (HO) adults and 21 aMCI subjects, and further assessed whether these two factors were associated with cortical loss in each group. aMCI, but not HO subjects, showed significant relationships between disrupted slow-wave sleep (SWS) and increased plasma levels of Aβ42. We also found that shortened rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in aMCI correlated with thinning of the posterior cingulate, precuneus, and postcentral gyrus; whereas higher levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 accounted for grey matter (GM) loss of posterior cingulate and entorhinal cortex, respectively. These results support preliminary relationships between Aβ burden and altered sleep physiology observed in animal models of AD amyloidosis, and provide precise cortical correlates of these changes in older adults with aMCI. Taken together, these findings open new research avenues on the combined role of sleep, peripheral Aβ levels and cortical integrity in tracking the progression from normal aging to early neurodegeneration. PMID:24845621

  1. Prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease based on bayesian data mining with ensemble learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Young, K; Chao, L L; Miller, B; Yaffe, K; Weiner, M W; Herskovits, E H

    2012-03-01

    Prediction of disease progress is of great importance to Alzheimer disease (AD) researchers and clinicians. Previous attempts at constructing predictive models have been hindered by undersampling, and restriction to linear associations among variables, among other problems. To address these problems, we propose a novel Bayesian data-mining method called Bayesian Outcome Prediction with Ensemble Learning (BOPEL). BOPEL uses a Bayesian-network representation with boosting, to allow the detection of nonlinear multivariate associations, and incorporates resampling-based feature selection to prevent over-fitting caused by undersampling. We demonstrate the use of this approach in predicting conversion to AD in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), based on structural magnetic-resonance and magnetic-resonance- spectroscopy data. This study includes 26 subjects with amnestic MCI: the converter group (n = 8) met MCI criteria at baseline, but converted to AD within five years, whereas the non-converter group (n = 18) met MCI criteria at baseline and at follow-up. We found that BOPEL accurately differentiates MCI converters from non-converters, based on the baseline volumes of the left hippocampus, the banks of the right superior temporal sulcus, the right entorhinal cortex, the left lingual gyrus, and the rostral aspect of the left middle frontal gyrus. Prediction accuracy was 0.81, sensitivity was 0.63 and specificity was 0.89. We validated the generated predictive model with an independent data set constructed from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, and again found high predictive accuracy (0.75).

  2. Apathy and Emotion-Based Decision-Making in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bayard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Apathy and reduced emotion-based decision-making are two behavioral modifications independently described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Objectives. The aims of this study were to investigate decision-making based on emotional feedback processing in AD and aMCI and to study the impact of reduced decision-making performances on apathy. Methods. We recruited 20 patients with AD, 20 participants with aMCI, and 20 healthy controls. All participants completed the Lille apathy rating scale (LARS and the Iowa gambling task (IGT. Results. Both aMCI and AD participants had reduced performances on the IGT and were more apathetic compared to controls without any difference between aMCI and AD groups. For the entire sample, LARS initiation dimension was related to IGT disadvantageous decision-making profile. Conclusions. We provide the first study showing that both aMCI and AD individuals make less profitable decisions than controls, whereas aMCI and AD did not differ. Disadvantageous decision-making profile on the IGT was associated with higher level of apathy on the action initiation dimension. The role of an abnormal IGT performance as a risk factor for the development of apathy needs to be investigated in other clinical populations and in normal aging.

  3. Multimodal MRI classification in vascular mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diciotti, Stefano; Ciulli, Stefano; Ginestroni, Andrea; Salvadori, Emilia; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Inzitari, Domenico; Mascalchi, Mario; Toschi, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VMCI) is a disorder in which multimodal MRI can add significant value by combining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with brain morphometry. In this study we implemented and compared machine learning techniques for multimodal classification between 58 VMCI patients and 29 healthy subjects as well as for discrimination (within the VMCI group) between patients with different cognitive performances. For each subject, a cortical feature vector was constructed based on cortical parcellation and cortical and subcortical volumetric segmentation and a DTI feature vector was formed by combining descriptive statistical metrics related to the distribution of DTI invariants within white matter. We employed both a sequential minimal optimization and a functional tree classifier, using feature selection and 10-fold cross-validation, and compared their performances in monomodal and multimodal classification for both classification problems (healthy subjects vs VMCI and prediction of cognitive performance). While monomodal classification resulted in satisfactory performance in most cases, turning from monomodal to multimodal classification resulted in an improvement of the performance in the discrimination between VMCI patients with low cognitive performance and healthy subjects by up to 10% in sensitivity (leaving specificity unchanged). We therefore are able to confirm the usefulness of machine learning techniques in discriminating diseased states based on neuroimaging data. PMID:26737240

  4. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: subtypes and motor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollinger, Ann B; Goldstein, Felicia C; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Factor, Stewart A

    2010-03-01

    The aims of this project were to determine the risk factors for and clinical characteristics of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD). We performed a retrospective record review of 72 non-demented PD patients (age: 57.79 +/- 10.57, duration of PD: 7.32 +/- 4.97) who completed a standardized neurological assessment, including a full neuropsychological battery, as part of their diagnostic work-up. Of these participants, 47.2% were cognitively normal and 52.8% met criteria for MCI. The majority of MCI patients had single domain MCI (23/38), the affected domains being memory (n = 9), executive function (n = 6), visuospatial skills (n = 6), and language (n = 2). The MCI group had longer duration of disease and higher postural instability and gait disorder subscale scores than the cognitively normal group. This report provides further support for use of the concept of MCI in PD research. There may be certain disease characteristics that could alert practitioners to the emergence of cognitive changes in patients. Future studies should focus on additional risk factors for MCI subtypes and their possible progression to frank dementia.

  5. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Cognition among Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Helman Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the influence of diet on cognition in the elderly. This study examined the cross-sectional association between dietary patterns and cognition in a sample of 249 people aged 65–90 years with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Two dietary patterns; whole and processed food; were identified using factor analysis from a 107-item; self-completed Food Frequency Questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses showed that participants in the highest tertile of the processed food pattern score were more likely to have poorer cognitive functioning; in the lowest tertile of executive function (OR 2.55; 95% CI: 1.08–6.03; as assessed by the Cambridge Cognitive Examination. In a group of older people with MCI; a diet high in processed foods was associated with some level of cognitive impairment.

  6. Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Nicola; Valenzuela, Michael; Sachdev, Perminder S; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB). Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention. Methods Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB. Results Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance of PWB in MCI. Discussion Our empirical findings support a theoretical tiered model of PWB in MCI and contribute to an understanding of the way in which early subtle cognitive deficits impact upon PWB. Multiple targets and entry points for clinical intervention were identified. These include improving the cognitive difficulties associated with MCI. Additionally, these highlight the importance of reducing memory concern, addressing low mood, and suggest that improving a person’s quality of life may attenuate the negative effects of depression and anxiety on PWB in this cohort. PMID:24855347

  7. Intraindividual Variability in Domain-Specific Cognition and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

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    Leslie Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraindividual variability among cognitive domains may predict dementia independently of interindividual differences in cognition. A multidomain cognitive battery was administered to 2305 older adult women (mean age 74 years enrolled in an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative. Women were evaluated annually for probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI for an average of 5.3 years using a standardized protocol. Proportional hazards regression showed that lower baseline domain-specific cognitive scores significantly predicted MCI (N=74, probable dementia (N=45, and MCI or probable dementia combined (N=101 and that verbal and figural memory predicted each outcome independently of all other cognitive domains. The baseline intraindividual standard deviation across test scores (IAV Cognitive Domains significantly predicted probable dementia and this effect was attenuated by interindividual differences in verbal episodic memory. Slope increases in IAV Cognitive Domains across measurement occasions (IAV Time explained additional risk for MCI and MCI or probable dementia, beyond that accounted for by interindividual differences in multiple cognitive measures, but risk for probable dementia was attenuated by mean decreases in verbal episodic memory slope. These findings demonstrate that within-person variability across cognitive domains both at baseline and longitudinally independently accounts for risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in support of the predictive utility of within-person variability.

  8. Quantitative analysis of brain metabolites in patients,with non-dementia vascular cognitive impairment and mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate metabolite changes in the brain of patients with non-dementia vascular cognitive impairment(VCIND) and mild cognitive impairment(MCI) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy(MRS)

  9. Plasma clusterin concentration is associated with longitudinal brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambisetty, Madhav; An, Yang; Kinsey, Anna; Koka, Deepthi; Saleem, Muzamil; Güntert, Andreas; Kraut, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Davatzikos, Christos; Lovestone, Simon; Resnick, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Recent genetic and proteomic studies demonstrate that clusterin/apolipoprotein-J is associated with risk, pathology, and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our main aim was to examine associations between plasma clusterin concentration and longitudinal changes in brain volume in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A secondary objective was to examine associations between peripheral concentration of clusterin and its concentration in the brain within regions that undergo neuropathological changes in AD. Non-demented individuals (N=139; mean baseline age 70.5 years) received annual volumetric MRI (912 MRI scans in total) over a mean six-year interval. Sixteen participants (92 MRI scans in total) were diagnosed during the course of the study with amnestic MCI. Clusterin concentration was assayed by ELISA in plasma samples collected within a year of the baseline MRI. Mixed effects regression models investigated whether plasma clusterin concentration was associated with rates of brain atrophy for control and MCI groups and whether these associations differed between groups. In a separate autopsy sample of individuals with AD (N=17) and healthy controls (N=4), we examined the association between antemortem clusterin concentration in plasma and postmortem levels in the superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus and cerebellum. The associations of plasma clusterin concentration with rates of change in brain volume were significantly different between MCI and control groups in several volumes including whole brain, ventricular CSF, temporal gray matter as well as parahippocampal, superior temporal and cingulate gyri. Within the MCI but not control group, higher baseline concentration of plasma clusterin was associated with slower rates of brain atrophy in these regions. In the combined autopsy sample of AD and control cases, representing a range of severity in AD pathology, we observed a significant association between clusterin concentration in the plasma and

  10. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna B.; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Schikowski, Tamara; Weimar, Christian; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) describes the intermediate state between normal cognitive aging and dementia. Adverse effects of air pollution (AP) on cognitive functions have been proposed, but investigations of simultaneous exposure to noise are scarce. Objectives: We analyzed the cross-sectional associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with overall MCI and amnestic (aMCI) and nonamnestic (naMCI) MCI. Methods: At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, cognitive assessment was completed in 4,086 participants who were 50–80 years old. Of these, 592 participants were diagnosed as having MCI (aMCI, n = 309; naMCI, n = 283) according to previously published criteria using five neuropsychological subtests. We assessed long-term residential concentrations for size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides with land use regression, and for traffic noise [weighted 24-hr (LDEN) and night-time (LNIGHT) means]. Logistic regression models adjusted for individual risk factors were calculated to estimate the association of environmental exposures with MCI in single- and two-exposure models. Results: Most air pollutants and traffic noise were associated with overall MCI and aMCI. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and a 10 A-weighted decibel [dB(A)] increase in LDEN were associated with overall MCI as follows [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: 1.16 (1.05, 1.27) and 1.40 (1.03, 1.91), respectively, and with aMCI as follows: 1.22 (1.08, 1.38) and 1.53 (1.05, 2.24), respectively. In two-exposure models, AP and noise associations were attenuated [e.g., for aMCI, PM2.5 1.13 (0.98, 1.30) and LDEN 1.46 (1.11, 1.92)]. Conclusions: Long-term exposures to air pollution and traffic noise were positively associated with MCI, mainly with the amnestic subtype. Citation: Tzivian L, Dlugaj M, Winkler A, Weinmayr G, Hennig F, Fuks KB, Vossoughi M, Schikowski T, Weimar C, Erbel R, Jöckel KH

  11. Verbal Fluency Deficits Co-Occur with Memory Deficits in Geriatric Patients at Risk for Dementia: Implications for the Concept of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Cottingham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the notion that patients at high risk for progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD display relatively isolated memory deficits by assessing the relationship between memory and fluency performances in a sample of 92 geriatric subjects with cognitive complaints and normal to mild clinical presentations. Patient groups were formed on the basis of memory test scores. Patients with normal memory scores also performed normally on fluency tests, and their fluency scores were significantly higher than those of patients with low memory performances. Patients falling between these two groups in memory abilities also displayed intermediate level fluency performances. Whereas the normal memory group performed at equivalent levels on semantic and phonemic fluency tasks, both the impaired memory group and the intermediate group displayed relatively greater weaknesses in semantic fluency. This pattern is similar to that seen in AD. Since the impaired memory patients meet criteria for Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, these findings suggest that memory deficits in “pre-clinical” AD are likely to be accompanied by fluency weaknesses, with semantic fluency weaknesses predominating.

  12. Effect of the cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive impairment and identified brain atrophy

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    Petr Nilius

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of this study was to analyse the development of cognitive functions and effect of cognitive rehabilitation on patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, as a result of brain atrophy. Design: A quantitative non-randomized intervention study on a control sample of patients. Methods: The effect was observed in a group of patients ranging 59-91 years of age (N = 36. Only patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of mild cognitive disorder diagnosed by tomography (CT that had undergone 22 sessions, were involved in the clinical sample (n = 21. The control sample (n = 15 consisted of patients without any neurological diagnosis and who did not undergo cognitive sessions. Results: The effect of cognitive rehabilitation was measured by Addenbrooke's cognitive test, revised in 2010 (ACE-R; affective changes were measured by Beck´s scale of depression BDI-2 and by a scale used to detect anxiety and depression: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Subjective change and improvement were observed using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI psychiatric scale. Changes in the functional state of patients were measured by means of the activities of daily living scale (ADL, including the instrumental version (IADL. The effect was examined in the form of entry and output tests, which were verified by statistical analysis, a significant level being p > 0.05. Conclusions: Significant differences in verbal tests and ACE-R were observed in the clinical sample of patients. Some significant changes were observed in the field of affective symptoms, according to the HADS and BDI-2. The clinical sample showed a significant improvement in subjective clinical state (CGI. The ADL and IADL questionnaires seem to have been inadequate for purpose due to their low sensitivity. The effect of cognitive rehabilitation in patients diagnosed with mild cognitive disorder can be seen and verified in comparison with the control sample

  13. Mild cognitive impairment%轻度认知障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓春

    2003-01-01

    @@ 轻度认知障碍(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)是近年来在痴呆研究中采用的一个新术语.痴呆、轻度认知障碍和正常老化是出现在老年人中一系列不同阶段的认知状态,MCI是指介于正常老化与痴呆之间的一种过渡阶段的认知障碍.关于轻度认知障碍的特征、定义、转归尚存在着争议,对轻度认知障碍的研究目前主要集中在其自然发病史、生物学标记及与阿尔兹海默病(Alzheimer's disease)预防的关系等方面.

  14. Patterns of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Joubert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the semantic memory impairment has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease, little is known about semantic memory in the preclinical phase of the disease (Mild Cognitive Impairment. The purpose of this study was to document the nature of semantic breakdown using a battery of tests assessing different aspects of conceptual knowledge: knowledge about common objects, famous people and famous public events. Results indicate that all domains of semantic memory were impaired in MCI individuals but knowledge about famous people and famous events was affected to a greater extent than knowledge about objects. This pattern of results suggests that conceptual entities with distinctive and unique properties may be more prone to semantic breakdown in MCI. In summary, results of this study support the view that genuine semantic deficits are present in MCI. It could be useful to investigate the etiological outcome of patients failing or succeeding at such tests.

  15. A depressive endophenotype of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Leigh A Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating public health problem that affects over 5.4 million Americans. Depression increases the risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and AD. By understanding the influence of depression on cognition, the potential exists to identify subgroups of depressed elders at greater risk for cognitive decline and AD. The current study sought to: 1 clinically identify a sub group of geriatric patients who suffer from depression related cognitive impairment; 2 cross validate this depressive endophenotype of MCI/AD in an independent cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data was analyzed from 519 participants of Project FRONTIER. Depression was assessed with the GDS30 and cognition was assessed using the EXIT 25 and RBANS. Five GDS items were used to create the Depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD (DepE. DepE was significantly negatively related to RBANS index scores of Immediate Memory (B=-2.22, SE=.37, p<0.001, visuospatial skills (B=-1.11, SE=0.26, p<0.001, Language (B=-1.03, SE=0.21, p<0.001, Attention (B=-2.56, SE=0.49, p<0.001, and Delayed Memory (B=-1.54, SE = 037, p<0.001, and higher DepE scores were related to poorer executive functioning (EXIT25; B=0.65, SE=0.19, p=0.001. DepE scores significantly increased risk for MCI diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% CI=1.54-2.69. Data from 235 participants in the TARCC (Texas Alzheimer's Research & Care Consortium were analyzed for cross-validation of findings in an independent cohort. The DepE was significantly related to poorer scores on all measures, and a significantly predicted of cognitive change over 12- and 24-months. CONCLUSION: The current findings suggest that a depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD exists and can be clinically identified using the GDS-30. Higher scores increased risk for MCI and was cross-validated by predicting AD in the TARCC. A key purpose for the search for distinct subgroups of individuals at risk for AD and MCI is to identify

  16. Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gates N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple novel loci associated with disease progression in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Pickering, E H; Hall, S K; Naik, S; Liu, Y C; Soares, H; Katz, E; Paciga, S A; Liu, W; Aisen, P S; Bales, K R; Samad, T A; John, S L

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia among the elderly population; however, knowledge about genetic risk factors involved in disease progression is limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using clinical decline as measured by changes in the Clinical Dementia Rating-sum of boxes as a quantitative trait to test for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with the rate of progression in 822 Caucasian subjects of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). There was no significant association with disease progress for any of the recently identified disease susceptibility variants in CLU, CR1, PICALM, BIN1, EPHA1, MS4A6A, MS4A4E or CD33 following multiple testing correction. We did, however, identify multiple novel loci that reached genome-wide significance at the 0.01 level. These top variants (rs7840202 at chr8 in UBR5: P=4.27 × 10(-14); rs11637611 with a cluster of SNPs at chr15q23 close to the Tay-Sachs disease locus: P=1.07 × 10(-15); and rs12752888 at chr1: P=3.08 × 10(-11)) were also associated with a significant decline in cognition as well as the conversion of subjects with MCI to a diagnosis of AD. Taken together, these variants define approximately 16.6% of the MCI sub-population with a faster rate of decline independent of the other known disease risk factors. In addition to providing new insights into protein pathways that may be involved with the progress to AD in MCI subjects, these variants if further validated may enable the identification of a more homogeneous population of subjects at an earlier stage of disease for testing novel hypotheses and/or therapies in the clinical setting. PMID:22833209

  18. Interference Impacts Working Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurtenetxe, Sara; García-Pacios, Javier; del Río, David; López, María E.; Pineda-Pardo, José A.; Marcos, Alberto; Delgado Losada, Maria L.; López-Frutos, José M.; Maestú, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional stage between healthy aging and dementia, specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most common cognitive impairment of MCI includes episodic memory loss and difficulties in working memory (WM). Interference can deplete WM, and an optimal WM performance requires an effective control of attentional resources between the memoranda and the incoming stimuli. Difficulties in handling interference lead to forgetting. However, the interplay between interference and WM in MCI is not well-understood and needs further investigation. The current study investigated the effect of interference during a WM task in 20 MCIs and 20 healthy elder volunteers. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample paradigm which consisted in two interference conditions, distraction and interruption, and one control condition without any interference. Results evidenced a disproportionate impact of interference on the WM performance of MCIs, mainly in the presence of interruption. These findings demonstrate that interference, and more precisely interruption, is an important proxy for memory-related deficits in MCI. Thus, the current findings reveal novel evidence regarding the causes of WM forgetting in MCI patients, associated with difficulties in the mechanisms of attentional control. PMID:27790082

  19. Hippocampal complex atrophy in poststroke and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selnes, Per; Grambaite, Ramune; Rincon, Mariano; Bjørnerud, Atle; Gjerstad, Leif; Hessen, Erik; Auning, Eirik; Johansen, Krisztina; Almdahl, Ina S; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Vegge, Kjetil; Bjelke, Börje; Fladby, Tormod

    2015-11-01

    To investigate putative interacting or distinct pathways for hippocampal complex substructure (HCS) atrophy and cognitive affection in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD), we recruited healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and poststroke patients. HCSs were segmented, and quantitative white-matter hyperintensity (WMH) load and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β concentrations were determined. The WMH load was higher poststroke. All examined HCSs were smaller in amyloid-positive MCI than in controls, and the subicular regions were smaller poststroke. Memory was reduced in amyloid-positive MCI, and psychomotor speed and executive function were reduced in poststroke and amyloid-positive MCI. Size of several HCS correlated with WMH load poststroke and with CSF amyloid-β concentrations in MCI. In poststroke and amyloid-positive MCI, neuropsychological function correlated with WMH load and hippocampal volume. There are similar patterns of HCS atrophy in CVD and early-stage AD, but different HCS associations with WMH and CSF biomarkers. WMHs add to hippocampal atrophy and the archetypal AD deficit delayed recall. In line with mounting evidence of a mechanistic link between primary AD pathology and CVD, these additive effects suggest interacting pathologic processes.

  20. Social problem solving, social cognition, and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel J; Simpson, Anna C; Channon, Shelley; Samuel, Michael; Brown, Richard G

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is a recognized feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), which, even if mild, can impact some aspects of a patient's ability to deal with everyday life. The current study examined the ability to solve social problems in three groups of participants: PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI); PD patients with no evidence of cognitive impairment (PD-N); and non-PD age-matched controls. All participants completed measures examining their ability to understand the actions and sarcastic remarks of others; provide a range of, and select, optimal solutions to social problems; and their self-perception of problem-solving abilities. Deficits emerged in the PD-MCI, but not the PD-N, group, suggesting that difficulties related to pathophysiological changes are associated with cognitive impairment and not PD per se. The findings are discussed with reference to the substrate of executive function and social cognition, and their implications for social interaction and everyday problem solving for people with PD. PMID:23067384

  1. Diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: Movement Disorder Society Task Force guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Litvan; J.G. Goldman; A.I. Tröster; B.A. Schmand; D. Weintraub; R.C. Petersen; B. Mollenhauer; C.H. Adler; K. Marder; C.H. Williams-Gray; D. Aarsland; J. Kulisevsky; M.C. Rodriguez-Oroz; D.J. Burn; R.A. Barker; M. Emre

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment is common in nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and may be a harbinger of dementia. In view of its importance, the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to delineate diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD. The proposed diagnostic cr

  2. Making Sense of Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Qualitative Exploration of the Patient's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty; Nightingale, Marcie C.; Erlen, Judith A.; Kane, April L.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Schulz, Richard; DeKosky, Steven T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The proposed dementia precursor state of mild cognitive impairment is emerging as a primary target of aging research. Yet, little is known about the subjective experience of living with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. This study examines, from the patient's perspective, the experience of living with and making sense of the…

  3. Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Matthew S; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Lee, Elaine C; Yamamoto, Linda M; Marzano, Stefania; Lopez, Rebecca M; Jimenez, Liliana; Le Bellego, Laurent; Chevillotte, Emmanuel; Lieberman, Harris R

    2011-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of mild dehydration on cognitive performance and mood of young males. A total of twenty-six men (age 20·0 (sd 0·3) years) participated in three randomised, single-blind, repeated-measures trials: exercise-induced dehydration plus a diuretic (DD; 40 mg furosemide); exercise-induced dehydration plus placebo containing no diuretic (DN); exercise while maintaining euhydration plus placebo (EU; control condition). Each trial included three 40 min treadmill walks at 5·6 km/h, 5 % grade in a 27·7°C environment. A comprehensive computerised six-task cognitive test battery, the profile of mood states questionnaire and the symptom questionnaire (headache, concentration and task difficulty) were administered during each trial. Paired t tests compared the DD and DN trials resulting in >1 % body mass loss (mean 1·59 (sd 0·42) %) with the volunteer's EU trial (0·01 (sd 0·03) %). Dehydration degraded specific aspects of cognitive performance: errors increased on visual vigilance (P = 0·048) and visual working memory response latency slowed (P = 0·021). Fatigue and tension/anxiety increased due to dehydration at rest (P = 0·040 and 0·029) and fatigue during exercise (P = 0·026). Plasma osmolality increased due to dehydration (P dehydration without hyperthermia in men induced adverse changes in vigilance and working memory, and increased tension/anxiety and fatigue.

  4. Rate of entorhinal and hippocampal atrophy in incipient and mild AD: Relation to memory function

    OpenAIRE

    Stoub, T.R.; Rogalski, E.J.; Leurgans, S.; Bennett, D. A.; deToledo-Morrell, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, as part of a more extensive longitudinal investigation of the in vivo anatomical markers of early and incipient AD in our laboratory, three groups of elderly participants were followed with yearly clinical evaluations and high resolution MRI scans over a 6-year period (baseline and 5 years of follow-up). At baseline, participants consisted of: (1) 35 old subjects with no cognitive impairment (controls); (2) 33 participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI); a...

  5. Cognitive decline and amyloid accumulation in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivunen, Jaana; Karrasch, Mira; Scheinin, Noora M;

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: The relationship between baseline (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PIB) uptake and cognitive decline during a 2-year follow-up was studied in 9 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 7 who remained with MCI. Methods: (11)C......: At baseline, there were statistically significant differences in (11)C-PIB uptake, but not in cognitive test performances between the converters and nonconverters. Memory and executive function declined only in the converters during follow-up. In the converters, lower baseline frontal (11)C-PIB uptake...... was related to decline in memory and executive functions, whereas lower frontal uptake was related to decline in verbal learning. The results indicate that in prodromal AD, frontal amyloid accumulation reaches its maximum in the MCI stage, characterized by memory problems without full-blown dementia....

  6. Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Central Auditory Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Idrizbegovic, Esma; Hederstierna, Christina; Dahlquist, Martin; Rosenhall, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Central auditory function can be studied to monitor the progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Our aim was to address this issue in a prospective longitudinal setting. Methods Tests of central hearing function were performed on 70 subjects with either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment, and in controls with subjective memory complaints but normal cognition. The time span until follow-up was 1.5 years. Results The dichotic digit free recall tes...

  7. The Takeda Three Colors Combination Test: A Screening Test for Detection of Very Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shinya Takeda; Kayo Tajime; Toshiatsu Taniguchi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is prevalent worldwide. It is expected that AD, for which aging is a risk factor, will increase in the future. Because early detection of AD has become increasingly important, promoting demand for screening tests with adequate sensitivity. In this study, we examined the usefulness of the Takeda Three Colors Combination Test (TTCC) for screening of the very mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Method...

  8. A Prediction Model for Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haewon Byeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a geriatric disease which has emerged as a serious social and economic problem in an aging society and early diagnosis is very important for it. Especially, early diagnosis and early intervention of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI which is the preliminary stage of dementia can reduce the onset rate of dementia. This study developed MCI prediction model for the Korean elderly in local communities and provides a basic material for the prevention of cognitive impairment. The subjects of this study were 3,240 elderly (1,502 males, 1,738 females in local communities over the age of 65 who participated in the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Aging (close conducted in 2012. The outcome was defined as having MCI and set as explanatory variables were gender, age, level of education, level of income, marital status, smoking, drinking habits, regular exercise more than once a week, monthly average hours of participation in social activities, subjective health, diabetes and high blood pressure. The random Forests algorithm was used to develop a prediction model and the result was compared with logistic regression model and decision tree model. As the result of this study, significant predictors of MCI were age, gender, level of education, level of income, subjective health, marital status, smoking, drinking, regular exercise and high blood pressure. In addition, Random Forests Model was more accurate than the logistic regression model and decision tree model. Based on these results, it is necessary to build monitoring system which can diagnose MCI at an early stage.

  9. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Catherine E.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Guercio, Brendan J.; Wigman, Sarah E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), such as apathy and depression, commonly accompany cognitive and functional decline in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prior studies have shown associations between affective NPS symptoms and neurodegeneration of medial frontal and inferior temporal regions in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia. Objective To investigate the association between functional connectivity in four brain networks and NPS in elderly with MCI. Methods NPS were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory in 42 subjects with MCI. Resting-state functional connectivity in four networks (default mode network, fronto-parietal control network (FPCN), dorsal attention network, and ventral attention network) was assessed using seed-based magnetic resonance imaging. Factor analysis was used to identify two factors of NPS: Affective and Hyperactivity. Linear regression models were utilized with the neuropsychiatric factors as the dependent variable and the four networks as the predictors of interest. Covariates included age, sex, premorbid intelligence, processing speed, memory, head movement, and signal-to-noise ratio. These analyses were repeated with the individual items of the Affective factor, using the same predictors. Results There was a significant association between greater Affective factor symptoms and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.03). There was no association between the Hyperactivity factor and any of the networks. Secondary analyses revealed an association between greater apathy and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.005), but none in other networks. Conclusions Decreased connectivity in the FPCN may be associated with greater affective symptoms, particularly apathy, early in AD. These findings extend prior studies, using different functional imaging modalities in individuals with greater disease severity. PMID:25854929

  10. Prognostic value of posteromedial cortex deactivation in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Petrella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal subjects deactivate specific brain regions, notably the posteromedial cortex (PMC, during many tasks. Recent cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data suggests that deactivation during memory tasks is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD. The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the prognostic significance of PMC deactivation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 75 subjects (34 MCI, 13 AD subjects and 28 controls underwent baseline fMRI scanning during encoding of novel and familiar face-name pairs. MCI subjects were followed longitudinally to determine conversion to AD. Regression and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of PMC activation/deactivation on conversion to dementia as well as in the longitudinal change in dementia measures. At longitudinal follow up of up to 3.5 years (mean 2.5+/-0.79 years, 11 MCI subjects converted to AD. The proportion of deactivators was significantly different across all groups: controls (79%, MCI-Nonconverters (73%, MCI-converters (45%, and AD (23% (p<0.05. Mean PMC activation magnitude parameter estimates, at baseline, were negative in the control (-0.57+/-0.12 and MCI-Nonconverter (-0.33+/-0.14 groups, and positive in the MCI-Converter (0.37+/-0.40 and AD (0.92+/-0.30 groups. The effect of diagnosis on PMC deactivation remained significant after adjusting for age, education and baseline Mini-Mental State Exam (p<0.05. Baseline PMC activation magnitude was correlated with change in dementia ratings from baseline. CONCLUSION: Loss of physiological functional deactivation in the PMC may have prognostic value in preclinical AD, and could aid in profiling subgroups of MCI subjects at greatest risk for progressive cognitive decline.

  11. Making sense of nonsense: experiences of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Renée L; Neary, Tara M

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a stigmatised condition popularly assumed to be a death sentence for diagnosed individuals. Consequently, people with AD are often deemed incapable (and perhaps unworthy) of contributing to the social discourse surrounding their illness experience. Data from qualitative interviews with 18 people diagnosed with the potential precursor of AD known as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are examined. Using grounded theory methods, analysis revealed overarching themes of uncertainty concerning definitions of memory loss, MCI, and AD as well as distinctions between normal ageing and dementia. While this confusion over the terminology and prognosis mirrors the lack of scientific consensus about nosology and appropriate treatment regimens, such ambiguity creates social and psychological tensions for diagnosed individuals. Arguably, participants' unequivocal fear of and subsequent desire to differentiate their experiences from Alzheimer's, however, stems from the exclusively negative social constructions of AD. Drawing from Goffman, these findings demonstrate the psychosocial impact of 'framing contests' and how 'courtesy stigma' can apply not only to associated persons but also associated conditions, such as MCI to AD. Given the underlying nosological creep - or medicalisation - of the recent diagnostic guidelines proposing two new pre-dementia stages, understanding the illness narratives of MCI is critical.

  12. Reorganization of functional networks in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M Buldú

    Full Text Available Whether the balance between integration and segregation of information in the brain is damaged in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI subjects is still a matter of debate. Here we characterize the functional network architecture of MCI subjects by means of complex networks analysis. Magnetoencephalograms (MEG time series obtained during a memory task were evaluated by synchronization likelihood (SL, to quantify the statistical dependence between MEG signals and to obtain the functional networks. Graphs from MCI subjects show an enhancement of the strength of connections, together with an increase in the outreach parameter, suggesting that memory processing in MCI subjects is associated with higher energy expenditure and a tendency toward random structure, which breaks the balance between integration and segregation. All features are reproduced by an evolutionary network model that simulates the degenerative process of a healthy functional network to that associated with MCI. Due to the high rate of conversion from MCI to Alzheimer Disease (AD, these results show that the analysis of functional networks could be an appropriate tool for the early detection of both MCI and AD.

  13. 轻度认知障碍%Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 郭宗成

    2008-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment(MCI)is a new concept put forward in recent years.It is a transtrional state between normal aging and dementia.Prospective studies have shown that the orbebility of the patients with MCI converted to dementia is significantly higher than the normal aged.population.The correct diagnosis of MCI contributes to screen the high-risk population of dementia.It will provide the possibility for preventing dementia and decreasing the morbidity of dementia.%轻度认知障碍(MCI)是近年提出的新概念,是一种介于正常老化和痴呆的中间状态.前瞻性研究表明,MCI患者转化为痴呆的可能性显著高于正常老年人群.MCI的正确诊断,有助于筛查痴呆高危人群,为顶防痴呆、降低痴呆发病率提供了可能.

  14. Assessing functional impairment in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Belchior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no consensus on how to assess functional impairment in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and this lack of consensus is reflected in the clinical practice. Since the criterion used in the literature is very vague, clinicians are still left without much guidance in this area. Thus, the main goal of this study was to examine how functional impairment in individuals with MCI has been assessed in the literature. An electronic database search strategy was developed in consultation with an experienced librarian. Four databases (CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, and MEDLINE were searched from 2000 to May 2014 to provide a comprehensive coverage of the literature. The literature search yielded 14 tools that assessed functional impairment in MCI. Among those, nine tools were performance-based measures in which participants were observed while executing a task in a simulated environment using real life material. In terms of questionnaires (either informant- or self-reports, five tools were found. Different functional domains have been assessed in each tool. According to this review, the characteristics of the instruments used in the literature to assess functional impairment in individuals with MCI vary greatly. Nonetheless, results of this study allow clinicians to make better-informed decisions when choosing a functional assessment for this population.

  15. Cingulate cortex hypoperfusion predicts Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson Leif

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI was recently described as a heterogeneous group with a variety of clinical outcomes and high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to study the heterogeneity of MCI and to look for predictors of future development of AD. Methods rCBF was investigated in 54 MCI subjects using Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO. An automated analysis software (BRASS was applied to analyze the relative blood flow (cerebellar ratios of 24 cortical regions. After the baseline examination, the subjects were followed clinically for an average of two years. 17 subjects progressed to Alzheimer's disease (PMCI and 37 subjects remained stable (SMCI. The baseline SPECT ratio values were compared between PMCI and SMCI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was applied for the discrimination of the two subgroups at baseline. Results The conversion rate of MCI to AD was 13.7% per year. PMCI had a significantly decreased rCBF in the left posterior cingulate cortex, as compared to SMCI. Left posterior cingulate rCBF ratios were entered into a logistic regression model for ROC curve calculation. The area under the ROC curve was 74%–76%, which indicates an acceptable discrimination between PMCI and SMCI at baseline. Conclusion A reduced relative blood flow of the posterior cingulate gyrus could be found at least two years before the patients met the clinical diagnostic criteria of AD.

  16. Connectivity network measures predict volumetric atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Talia M; Jahanshad, Neda; Toga, Arthur W; Bernstein, Matt A; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cortical atrophy and disrupted anatomic connectivity, and leads to abnormal interactions between neural systems. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and graph theory can be used to evaluate major brain networks and detect signs of a breakdown in network connectivity. In a longitudinal study using both DWI and standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we assessed baseline white-matter connectivity patterns in 30 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, mean age 71.8 ± 7.5 years, 18 males and 12 females) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Using both standard MRI-based cortical parcellations and whole-brain tractography, we computed baseline connectivity maps from which we calculated global "small-world" architecture measures, including mean clustering coefficient and characteristic path length. We evaluated whether these baseline network measures predicted future volumetric brain atrophy in MCI subjects, who are at risk for developing AD, as determined by 3-dimensional Jacobian "expansion factor maps" between baseline and 6-month follow-up anatomic scans. This study suggests that DWI-based network measures may be a novel predictor of AD progression.

  17. Frontal lobe hypoperfusion in mild cognitive impairment patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Mild cognitive impairement (MCI) refers to the clinical state of individuals who are memory impaired subjectively but are functioning well and do not meet the criteria of dementia. MCI subjects have a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is important to detect the earliest evidence of AD for clinicians to recognize the high risk subjects and to implicate the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the early change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in MCI with high risk of AD by SPECT. Methods: Subjects complained of memory impairment with normal cognitive function and intact daily activities were enrolled. Each patient underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT at the time of initial evaluation. Patients were followed for one to five years. The diagnosis of AD was based on the criteria of the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. There were 8 patients (4 males, 4 females; age range, 64-80 yrs; mean, 73.5 yrs) progressing to AD within one year. Ten gender and age matched normal control subjects (NC) were also included. The SPECT images were analyzed by using SPM 99. The image data were transformed into a standard stereotactic space, using a 12-parameter linear and 2x2x2 nonlinear spatial normalization with the template image. Group comparisons of the SPECT images between the 8 rapid AD converters and 10 NCs were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using t test. The t statistics was transformed to a normal statistic yielding a Z score for every voxel. Results: In 8 rapid AD converters, rCBF in the right medial frontal gyms (Brodmann area 10; BA 10), anterior cingulated gyms (BA 32) and middle frontal gyms (BA 46) was significantly lower than in NCs (p<0.001). The neuropsychological performances of these 8 cases revealed decrement in short-term memory, mental manipulation and list-generation frequency. Conclusions: rCBF is decreased in right medial frontal, anterior cingulated and middle frontal gyms in MCI patients who

  18. 3D characterization of brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Lee, Suh; Klunder, Andrea D; Toga, Arthur W; Lepore, Natasha; Chou, Yi-Yu; Brun, Caroline; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Barysheva, Marina; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Britson, Paula J; Ward, Chadwick P; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Borowski, Bret; Fleisher, Adam S; Fox, Nick C; Boyes, Richard G; Barnes, Josephine; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Boreta, Lauren; Alexander, Gene E; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-05-15

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) creates three-dimensional maps of disease-related differences in brain structure, based on nonlinearly registering brain MRI scans to a common image template. Using two different TBM designs (averaging individual differences versus aligning group average templates), we compared the anatomical distribution of brain atrophy in 40 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 healthy elderly controls, and 40 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition conferring increased risk for AD. We created an unbiased geometrical average image template for each of the three groups, which were matched for sex and age (mean age: 76.1 years+/-7.7 SD). We warped each individual brain image (N=120) to the control group average template to create Jacobian maps, which show the local expansion or compression factor at each point in the image, reflecting individual volumetric differences. Statistical maps of group differences revealed widespread medial temporal and limbic atrophy in AD, with a lesser, more restricted distribution in MCI. Atrophy and CSF space expansion both correlated strongly with Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Using cumulative p-value plots, we investigated how detection sensitivity was influenced by the sample size, the choice of search region (whole brain, temporal lobe, hippocampus), the initial linear registration method (9- versus 12-parameter), and the type of TBM design. In the future, TBM may help to (1) identify factors that resist or accelerate the disease process, and (2) measure disease burden in treatment trials.

  19. Selective brain gray matter atrophy associated with APOE ε4 and MAPT H1 in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Joaquín; Cervantes, Sebastián; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Lamet, Isabel; Pastor, Pau; Pastor, María A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to elucidate whether specific patterns of gray matter loss were associated with apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)-H1) genetic variants in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at a baseline visit. Gray matter voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1 magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed in 65 amnestic-MCI subjects. MCI APOE ε4 carriers compared with non-carriers showed increased brain atrophy in right hippocampus and rostral amygdala, superior and middle temporal gyrus, and right parietal operculum, including inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal, and supramarginal gyrus. MAPT-H1/H1 MCI carriers showed an increased bilateral atrophy in superior frontal gyri (including frontal eye fields and left prefrontal cortex) and precentral gyrus but also unilateral left atrophy in the inferior temporal gyrus and calcarine gyrus. In addition, MCI subjects carrying both APOE ε4 and MAPT-H1/H1 variants showed gray matter loss in the supplementary motor area and right pre- and postcentral gyri. The effect of APOE ε4 on gray matter loss in right hippocampus suggests that, at least in some AD sub-types, the neuronal vulnerability could be increased in the right hemisphere. The pattern of frontal gray matter loss observed among MCI MAPT H1/H1 carriers has also been found in other tauopathies, suggesting that MCI may share etiological factors with other tauopathies. Frontal and parietal cortex vulnerability was found when adding MAPT H1/H1 and APOE ε4 effects, suggesting a synergistic effect of these variants. These results could be due to changes in APOE ε4 and MAPT expression.

  20. Mild cognitive dysfunction: an epidemiological perspective with an emphasis on African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unverzagt, Frederick W; Sujuan Gao; Lane, Kathleen A; Callahan, Christopher; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Gureje, Oye; Hall, Kathleen S; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2007-12-01

    This review begins with a historical accounting of the evolution of the concept of mild cognitive dysfunction, including nomenclature and criteria from Kral to Petersen. A critical analysis of the main elements relating to assessment and diagnosis of mild cognitive dysfunction is provided. Methodological limitations in design, measurement, and characterization, especially as they relate to older African Americans, are identified. Data from a 15-year longitudinal study of community-dwelling African Americans in Indianapolis, Indiana, indicate a 23% prevalence of all-cause mild cognitive dysfunction, with approximately 25% progressing to dementia in 2 years and another 25% reverting to normal cognition in the same interval. Factors contributing to this longitudinal variability in outcomes are reviewed, including the role of medical health factors. The review closes with suggestions for next steps in the epidemiological research of mild cognitive impairment.

  1. White matter hyperintensities, executive function and global cognitive performance in vascular mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Kenji Sudo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI represents an early symptomatic stage of vascular cognitive impairment and might be associated to fronto-executive dysfunction. Methods Twenty-six individuals (age: 73.11±7.90 years; 65.4% female; schooling: 9.84±3.61 years were selected through neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging. Clinical and neuroimaging data of VaMCI individuals (n=15 were compared to normal controls (NC, n=11 and correlated with Fazekas scale. Results VaMCI performed significantly worse than NC in Trail-Making Test (TMT B, errors in TMT B, difference TMT B-A and Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG final scores. Correlations were found among scores in modified Fazekas scale and performances in TMT B (time to complete and errors, difference TMT B-A and CAMCOG total score. Conclusion Extension of white matter hyperintensities might be correlated to poorer global cognition and impairments in a set of fronto-executive functions, such as cognitive speed, set shifting and inhibitory control in VaMCI.

  2. Validation of the Dutch version of the quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci-D).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bunt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from dementia is important, as treatment options differ. There are few short (<5 min) but accurate screening tools that discriminate between MCI, normal cognition (NC) and dementia, in the Dutch language. The Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen is sensitive and specific in differentiating MCI from NC and mild dementia. Given this, we adapted the Qmci for use in Dutch-language countries and validated the Dutch version, the Qmci-D, against the Dutch translation of the Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE-D).

  3. Whole-brain functional networks in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hyun Seo

    Full Text Available The conceptual significance of understanding functional brain alterations and cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD process has been widely established. However, the whole-brain functional networks of AD and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, are not well clarified yet. In this study, we compared the characteristics of the whole-brain functional networks among cognitively normal (CN, MCI, and AD individuals by applying graph theoretical analyses to [(18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET data. Ninety-four CN elderly, 183 with MCI, and 216 with AD underwent clinical evaluation and FDG-PET scan. The overall small-world property as seen in the CN whole-brain network was preserved in MCI and AD. In contrast, individual parameters of the network were altered with the following patterns of changes: local clustering of networks was lower in both MCI and AD compared to CN, while path length was not different among the three groups. Then, MCI had a lower level of local clustering than AD. Subgroup analyses for AD also revealed that very mild AD had lower local clustering and shorter path length compared to mild AD. Regarding the local properties of the whole-brain networks, MCI and AD had significantly decreased normalized betweenness centrality in several hubs regionally associated with the default mode network compared to CN. Our results suggest that the functional integration in whole-brain network progressively declines due to the AD process. On the other hand, functional relatedness between neighboring brain regions may not gradually decrease, but be the most severely altered in MCI stage and gradually re-increase in clinical AD stages.

  4. The Characterization of Biological Rhythms in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Ortiz-Tudela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease, present several circadian impairments related to an accelerated perturbation of their biological clock that is caused by the illness itself and not merely age-related. Thus, the objective of this work was to elucidate whether these circadian system alterations were already present in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, as compared to healthy age-matched subjects. Methods. 40 subjects (21 patients diagnosed with MCI, 74.1 ± 1.5 y.o., and 19 healthy subjects, 71.7 ± 1.4 y.o. were subjected to ambulatory monitoring, recording wrist skin temperature, motor activity, body position, and the integrated variable TAP (including temperature, activity, and position for one week. Nonparametrical analyses were then applied. Results. MCI patients exhibited a significant phase advance with respect to the healthy group for the following phase markers: temperature M5 (mean ± SEM: 04:20 ± 00:21 versus 02:52 ± 00:21 and L10 (14:35 ± 00:27 versus 13:24 ± 00:16 and TAP L5 (04:18 ± 00:14 versus 02:55 ± 00:30 and M10 (14:30 ± 00:18 versus 13:28 ± 00:23. Conclusions. These results suggest that significant advances in the biological clock begin to occur in MCI patients, evidenced by an accelerated aging of the circadian clock, as compared to a healthy population of the same age.

  5. {alpha}4 {beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a study with 5-[I-123]iodo-A-85380 SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    It has been reported that the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cholinergic deficit is correlated with cognitive impairment. We examined neuronal nAChR distribution of AD patients using 5-[I-123]iodo-A85380 (5-IA) SPECT and correlated it with the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolic impairment and the severity of cognitive impairment. Five clinically diagnosed AD patients, 5 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied with 5-IA SPECT and brain FDG PET. 5-IA SPECT was performed for 30 min at 120 min after radiotracer injection. FDG PET was done within one month interval. Neuropsychological tests were done for cognitive evaluation. A nAChR parameter DV was calculated in brain regions using cerebellum as reference tissue. All scan images were analyzed using SPM2 and ANOVA was done for group comparison. P value less than 0.005 was considered significant. 5-IA SPECT images of AD patients revealed significantly reduced nAChR distribution in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and the left temporal cortex. MCI patients demonstrated decreased receptor distribution mainly in the subcortical areas. Cortical nAChR distribution showed correlation with cortical glucose metabolism and subcortical with that of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency showed significant correlation with nAChR distribution of periventricular white matter (PVWM), visuospatial function evaluated with RCFT with that of PCC, left temporoparietal cortex, and frontal lobe white matter, and MMSE with that of PVWM, frontal cortex, and striatum. These data demonstrate reduction of nAChR distribution in patients with AD, which has significant correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive impairment. It might be useful for diagnosis of AD, and for monitoring individualized treatments targeted at nAChRs.

  6. The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Episodic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Do Episodic Memory Deficits Identified at Classification Remain Evident When Later Examined with Different Memory Tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Zofia Klekociuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI have been criticised for using the same battery of neuropsychological tests during classification and longitudinal followup. The key concern is that there is a potential circularity when the same tests are used to identify MCI and then subsequently monitor change in function over time. The aim of the present study was to examine the evidence of this potential circularity problem. The present study assessed the memory function of 72 MCI participants and 50 healthy controls using an alternate battery of visual and verbal episodic memory tests 9 months following initial comprehensive screening assessment and MCI classification. Individuals who were classified as multiple-domain amnestic MCI (a-MCI+ at screening show a significantly reduced performance in visual and verbal memory function at followup using a completely different battery of valid and reliable tests. Consistent with their initial classification, those identified as nonamnestic MCI (na-MCI or control at screening demonstrated the highest performance across the memory tasks. The results of the present study indicate that persistent memory deficits remain evident in amnestic MCI subgroups using alternate memory tests, suggesting that the concerns regarding potential circularity of logic may be overstated in MCI research.

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in mild cognitive impairment : Systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumati, Shankar; Martens, Sander; Aleman, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Research using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can potentially elucidate metabolite changes representing early degeneration in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), an early stage of dementia. We integrated the published literature using meta-analysis to identify patterns of metabolite chang

  8. 不同类型轻度认知障碍的认知损害及精神行为症状的比较分析研究%The characteristics of cognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric symptoms in mild cognitive impairment:Differences by subtypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵丽; 刘帅; 任志宏; 周玉颖

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨不同类型的轻度认知功能障碍(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)患者人口统计学、认知损害和精神行为症状特点.方法 对86例MCI患者和40例认知正常对照者进行多项神经心理学量表测试,按照诊断标准确定单领域遗忘型轻度认知功能障(amnestic mild cognitive impairment with single domain,aMCI-SD)组(n=24);多领域遗忘型轻度认知功能障(amnestic mild cognitive impairmen with multiple domain,aMCI-MD)组(n=41);单领域非遗忘型轻度认知功能障(non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment with single domain,naMCI-SD)组(n=6);多领域非遗忘型轻度认知功能障(non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment with multiple domain,naMCI-MD)组(n=15).比较5组的人口统计学、认知损坏及精神行为症状特点.结果 与对照组比较,各亚型的MCI女性患病率、起病年龄均偏高,教育程度偏低(P<0.05),在aMCI-SD和aMCI-MD表现明显痴呆家族史(P<0.05).4种亚型MCI的整体认知功能评分无差异但较对照组均有受损,the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)总分在naMCI-SD组和aMCI-SD最高,其次为naMCI-MD组;其中aMCI-MD组的最低.MoCA亚项视空间与执行能力测试中,aMCI-SD与对照组无差异,而aMCI-MD组和naMCI-MD均较naMCI-SD受损严重且和对照组有显著性差异(P<0.05).各型MCI的NPI与HAMD评分均高于对照组(P<0.05).aMCI-SD抑郁发病率高于naMCI-MD (P< 0.05);aMCI-MD组分别高于naMCI-MD和naMCI-SD(P<0.05).淡漠发病率在aMCI-MD最高,aMCI-SD次之,而naMCI-SD和naMCI-MD较前两者低.结论 不同MCI亚型的认知损坏特点及精神行为症状特征存在差异,进一步揭示了MCI的临床异质性特点,为MCI的正确诊断及病因分型提供详尽的临床依据.

  9. Neural correlates of true and false memory in mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Riddell, Patricia M; Ellis, Judi A.; Freeman , Jayne E.; Slawomir J Nasuto

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex c...

  10. The PACE Study: A randomised clinical trial of cognitive activity (CA for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flicker Leon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence from observational studies suggests that cognitive activity reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in later life as well as the rate of cognitive decline of people with dementia. The Promoting Healthy Ageing with Cognitive Exercise (PACE study has been designed to determine whether a cognitive activity intervention decreases the rate of cognitive decline amongst older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods/Design The study will recruit 160 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years of age or over with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Participants will be randomly allocated to two treatment groups: non-specific education and cognitive activity. The intervention will consist of ten 90-minute sessions delivered twice per week over a period of five weeks. The primary outcome measure of the study is the change from baseline in the total score on the Cambridge Cognitive Score (CAMCOG. Secondary outcomes of interest include changes in memory, attention, executive functions, mood and quality of life. Primary endpoints will be collected 12, 52 and 104 weeks after the baseline assessment. Discussion The proposed project will produce the best available evidence on the merits of increased cognitive activity as a strategy to prevent cognitive decline among older adults with MCI. We anticipate that the results of this study will have implications for the development of evidence-based preventive strategies to reduce the rate of cognitive decline amongst older people at risk of dementia. Trial registration ACTRN12608000556347

  11. Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of aerobic exercise or vitamin B supplementation on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design: Randomised placebo-controlled trial. Setting: General community. Participants: Community-dwelling adults aged 70-80 with MCI. Interve

  12. Poor decision making is a consequence of cognitive decline among older persons without Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Boyle

    Full Text Available Decision making is an important determinant of health and well-being across the lifespan but is critical in aging, when many influential decisions are made just as cognitive function declines. Increasing evidence suggests that older adults, even those without dementia, often make poor decisions and are selectively vulnerable to scams. To date, however, the factors associated with poor decision making in old age are unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that poor decision making is a consequence of cognitive decline among older persons without Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment.Participants were 420 non-demented persons from the Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal, clinical-pathologic cohort study of aging in the Chicago metropolitan area. All underwent repeated cognitive evaluations and subsequently completed assessments of decision making and susceptibility to scams. Decision making was measured using 12 items from a previously established performance-based measure and a self-report measure of susceptibility to scams.Cognitive function data were collected over an average of 5.5 years prior to the decision making assessment. Regression analyses were used to examine whether the prior rate of cognitive decline predicted the level of decision making and susceptibility to scams; analyses controlled for age, sex, education, and starting level of cognition. Among 420 persons without dementia, more rapid cognitive decline predicted poorer decision making and increased susceptibility to scams (p's<0.001. Further, the relations between cognitive decline, decision making and scams persisted in analyses restricted to persons without any cognitive impairment (i.e., no dementia or even mild cognitive impairment.Poor decision making is a consequence of cognitive decline among older persons without Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment, those widely considered "cognitively healthy." These findings suggest

  13. Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: psychometrics for mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Ramón; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Martínez-Horta, Saül; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Campolongo, Antonia; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    Lack of validated data on cutoff scores for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sensitivity to change in predementia stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) limit the utility of instruments measuring global cognition as screening and outcome measures in therapeutic trials. Investigators who were blinded to PD-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) scores classified a cohort of prospectively recruited, nondemented patients into a PD with normal cognition (PD-NC) group and a PD with MCI (PD-MCI) group using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (MDRS-2). The discriminative power of the PD-CRS for PD-MCI was examined in a representative sample of 234 patients (145 in the PD-NC group; 89 in the PD-MCI group) and in a control group of 98 healthy individuals. Sensitivity to change in the PD-CRS score (the minimal clinically important difference was examined with the Clinical Global Impression of Change scale and was calculated with a combination of distribution-based and anchor-based approaches) was explored in a 6-month observational multicenter trial involving a subset of 120 patients (PD-NC, 63; PD-MCI, 57). Regression analysis demonstrated that PD-CRS total scores (P < 0.001) and age (P = 0.01) independently differentiated PD-NC from PD-MCI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis (AUC, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) indicated that a score ≤ 81 of 134 was the optimal cutoff point on the total score for the PD-CRS (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 59%; negative predictive value, 91%). A range of change from 10 to 13 points on the PD-CRS total score was indicative of clinically significant change. These findings suggest that the PD-CRS is a useful tool to identify PD-MCI and to track cognitive changes in nondemented patients with PD.

  14. Exercise-related changes of networks in aging and mild cognitive impairment brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging and mild cognitive impairment are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and mild cognitive impairment populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and mild cognitive impairment population, and physical exercise could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective physical exercise programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions.

  15. Decreased cerebral α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease assessed with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postmortem studies indicate a loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to establish whether these changes in the cholinergic system occur at an early stage of AD, we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with a specific radioligand for the α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4β2* nAChR) in patients with mild to moderate AD and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), who have a high risk to progress to AD. Nine patients with moderate AD, eight patients with MCI and seven age-matched healthy controls underwent 2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-[18F]FA-85380) PET. After coregistration with individual magnetic resonance imaging the binding potential (BPND) of 2-[18F]FA-85380 was calculated using either the corpus callosum or the cerebellum as reference regions. PET data were analysed by region of interest analysis and by voxel-based analysis. Both patients with AD and MCI showed a significant reduction in 2-[18F]FA-85380 BPND in typical AD-affected brain regions. Thereby, the corpus callosum was identified as the most suitable reference region. The 2-[18F]FA-85380 BPND correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment. Only MCI patients that converted to AD in the later course (n = 5) had a reduction in 2-[18F]FA-85380 BPND. 2-[18F]FA-85380 PET appears to be a sensitive and feasible tool for the detection of a reduction in α4β2* nAChRs which seems to be an early event in AD. In addition, 2-[18F]FA-85380 PET might give prognostic information about a conversion from MCI to AD. (orig.)

  16. Decreased cerebral {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease assessed with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendziorra, Kai; Meyer, Philipp Mael; Barthel, Henryk; Hesse, Swen; Becker, Georg Alexander; Luthardt, Julia; Schildan, Andreas; Patt, Marianne; Sorger, Dietlind; Seese, Anita; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); University of Zurich, Department of Old Age Psychiatry and Psychiatry Research, Psychiatric University Hospital (PUK) Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Gertz, Herman-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Postmortem studies indicate a loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to establish whether these changes in the cholinergic system occur at an early stage of AD, we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with a specific radioligand for the {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}4{beta}2* nAChR) in patients with mild to moderate AD and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), who have a high risk to progress to AD. Nine patients with moderate AD, eight patients with MCI and seven age-matched healthy controls underwent 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380) PET. After coregistration with individual magnetic resonance imaging the binding potential (BP{sub ND}) of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 was calculated using either the corpus callosum or the cerebellum as reference regions. PET data were analysed by region of interest analysis and by voxel-based analysis. Both patients with AD and MCI showed a significant reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} in typical AD-affected brain regions. Thereby, the corpus callosum was identified as the most suitable reference region. The 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment. Only MCI patients that converted to AD in the later course (n = 5) had a reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND}. 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET appears to be a sensitive and feasible tool for the detection of a reduction in {alpha}4{beta}2* nAChRs which seems to be an early event in AD. In addition, 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET might give prognostic information about a conversion from MCI to AD. (orig.)

  17. Adherence to exercise programs and determinants of maintenance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, E.C.P.M.; Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Paw, M.J.M.C.A.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    After a randomized controlled trial showing that improvement on some aspects of cognitive function was related to adherence to an exercise program, determinants of adherence and maintenance were further studied. Older adults with mild cognitive impairment were contacted 6 mo after the end of exercis

  18. Behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment as compared with Alzheimer's disease and healthy older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aim of this study is to characterize behavior in MCI compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older patients. DESIGN

  19. Physical activity and executive functions in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, EJA; Van Paasschen, J; Deijen, JB; Van der Knokke, S; Orlebeke, JFK; Burgers, [No Value; Devriese, PP; Swaab, DF; Sergeant, JA

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the effect of physical activity measured directly following treatment, was reflected in an improvement in cognitive functioning in general or in executive functions (EF) in particular. S

  20. Physical activity and executive functions in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Paasschen, J. van; Deijen, J.-B.; Knokke, S. van der; Orlebeke, J.F.K.; Burgers, I.; DeVriesse, P.-P.; Swaab, D.F.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the effect of physical activity measured directly following treatment, was reflected in an improvement in cognitive functioning in general or in executive functions (EF) in particular. S

  1. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Volkers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years. Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.

  2. Teaching Tai Chi to elders with osteoarthritis pain and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jason Y; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Woods, Sheery; Beck, Cornelia; Roberson, Paula K; Rosengren, Karl

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the authors' experience and strategies in teaching Tai Chi, a gentle exercise derived from an ancient Chinese martial art, to mildly cognitively impaired elders to relieve osteoarthritic knee pain. The 12-form Sun-style Tai Chi, a set of Tai Chi forms endorsed by the American Arthritis Foundation, was used in the program. Teaching Tai Chi to elders with mild cognitive impairment requires particular strategies tailored to their physical and cognitive frailty. When effectively taught, Tai Chi can be a unique and cost-effective intervention for elders with knee pain caused by osteoarthritis.

  3. Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Jeong Lee; Hye Mi Kang; Na Kyung Kim; Ju Yeon Yang; Jung Hyun Noh; Kyung Soo Ko; Byoung Doo Rhee; Dong-Jun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 226 older (age ≥65 years) adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K). A MoCA-K score

  4. Increased EEG gamma band activity in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    van Deursen, J. A.; Vuurman, E. F. P. M.; Verhey, F. R. J.; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, V.H.J.M.; Riedel, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    High frequency (30–70 Hz) gamma band oscillations in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG) are thought to reflect perceptual and cognitive processes. It is therefore interesting to study these measures in cognitive impairment and dementia. To evaluate gamma band oscillations as a diagnostic biomarker in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 15 psychoactive drug naïve AD patients, 20 MCI patients and 20 healthy controls participated in this study. Gamma band power (GBP)...

  5. Computer mouse movement patterns: A potential marker of mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Seelye, Adriana; Hagler, Stuart; Mattek, Nora; Diane B Howieson; Wild, Katherine; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Subtle changes in cognitively demanding activities occur in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but are difficult to assess with conventional methods. In an exploratory study, we examined whether patterns of computer mouse movements obtained from routine home computer use discriminated between older adults with and without MCI. Methods Participants were 42 cognitively intact and 20 older adults with MCI enrolled in a longitudinal study of in-home monitoring technologies. Mouse pointe...

  6. Beta-amyloid deposition and cognitive function in patients with major depressive disorder with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment: {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kuan-Yi; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Lee, Chin-Pang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Psychiatry, Tao-Yuan (China); Chen, Cheng-Sheng [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital and College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung (China); Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Kuei Shan Hsiang, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Tao-Yuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the amyloid burden, as assessed by {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) positron emission tomography PET, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the relationship between amyloid burden and cognition in MDD patients. The study included 55 MDD patients without dementia and 21 healthy control subjects (HCs) who were assessed using a comprehensive cognitive test battery and {sup 18}F-florbetapir PET imaging. The standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) in eight cortical regions using the whole cerebellum as reference region were determined and voxel-wise comparisons between the HC and MDD groups were performed. Vascular risk factors, serum homocysteine level and the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype were also determined. Among the 55 MDD patients, 22 (40.0 %) had MCI, 12 (21.8 %) non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) and 10 (18.2 %) amnestic MCI (aMCI). The MDD patients with aMCI had the highest relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake in all cortical regions, and a significant difference in relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake was found in the parietal region as compared with that in naMCI subjects (P < 0.05) and HCs (P < 0.01). Voxel-wise analyses revealed significantly increased relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake in the MDD patients with aMCI and naMCI in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital areas (P < 0.005). The global cortical SUVR was significantly negatively correlated with MMSE score (r = -0.342, P = 0.010) and memory function (r = -0.328, P = 0.015). The negative correlation between the global SUVR and memory in the MDD patients remained significant in multiple regression analyses that included age, educational level, ApoE genotype, and depression severity (β = -3.607, t = -2.874, P = 0.006). We found preliminary evidence of brain beta-amyloid deposition in MDD patients with different subtypes of MCI. Our findings in MDD patients support the

  7. Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Hanna-Pladdy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to identify mild cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD prior to extensive neurodegeneration and to evaluate the extent to which dopamine depletion and other disease-related predictors can explain cognitive profiles. Methods: Neuropsychological performances of 40 nondemented early-stage PD patients and 42 healthy controls were compared across on or off dopaminergic medications. Stepwise regression evaluated cognitive predictors of early-stage PD and disease-related predictors of PD cognition (levodopa dose, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, sleep, quality of life, and mood across on and off states. Results: Neuropsychological performance was lower in PD patients across cognitive domains with significant memory, naming, visuomotor, and complex attention/executive deficits, but with intact visuospatial, simple attention, and phonemic fluency functions. However, medication effects were absent except for simple attention. Regression analyses revealed age, working memory, and memory recall to be the best cognitive predictors of PD, while age, quality of life, disease duration, and anxiety predicted PD cognition in the off state. Conclusion: Nondemented early-stage PD patients presented with extensive mild cognitive deficits including prominent memory impairment. The profile was inconsistent with expected isolated frontostriatal dysfunction previously attributed to dopamine depletion and this highlights the need to further characterize extranigral sources of mild cognitive impairment in PD.

  8. Volume changes in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: cognitive associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the relationship between MRI-derived changes in whole-brain and ventricular volume with change in cognitive scores in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control subjects. In total 131 control, 231 MCI and 99 AD subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort with T1-weighted volumetric MRIs from baseline and 12-month follow-up were used to derive volume changes. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale (ADAS)-cog and trails test changes were calculated over the same period. Brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between subject groups (p < 0.0005) and in MCI and AD were associated with MMSE changes. Both measures were additionally associated with ADAS-cog and trails-B in MCI patients, and ventricular expansion was associated with ADAS-cog in AD patients. Brain atrophy (p < 0.0005) and ventricular expansion rates (p = 0.001) were higher in MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months of follow-up compared with MCI subjects who remained stable. MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months had similar atrophy rates to AD subjects. Whole-brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between patient groups and healthy controls, and tracked disease progression and psychological decline, demonstrating their relevance as biomarkers. (orig.)

  9. Diabetes mellitus Type II and cognitive capacity in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Christina; Toro, Pablo; Schönknecht, Peter; Sattler, Christine; Schröder, Johannes

    2016-06-30

    While diabetes mellitus (DM) Type II has repeatedly been linked to Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), longitudinal research is scarce and disease duration has not always been taken into account. In a birth cohort born between 1930 and 1932 we investigated the influence of DM Type II and disease duration on neuropsychological functioning (memory/learning, attention, verbal fluency, visuospatial thinking and abstract thinking) across 14 years. Subjects who developed MCI or AD performed significantly poorer on all neuropsychological tests applied. While significant main effects DM Type II did not arise, its presence led to a significant deterioration of performance in the digit symbol test and visuospatial thinking over time. Additionally, in visuospatial thinking this change was more pronounced for individuals suffering from MCI/AD. We found that, as a concomitant disease DM Type II does not affect memory functioning, which is typically compromised in MCI and early AD. Rather, it may lead to deficits in cognitive flexibility and visuospatial thinking. DM Type II can be considered a frequent comorbid condition which can aggravate the course of MCI and AD. In this respect it may serve as a model for other comorbid conditions in AD.

  10. Volume changes in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: cognitive associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Matthew C.; Barnes, Josephine; Nielsen, Casper; Clegg, Shona L.; Blair, Melanie; Douiri, Abdel; Boyes, Richard G.; Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Kim, Lois G. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Leung, Kelvin K.; Ourselin, Sebastien [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Centre for Medical Image Computing, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    To assess the relationship between MRI-derived changes in whole-brain and ventricular volume with change in cognitive scores in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control subjects. In total 131 control, 231 MCI and 99 AD subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort with T1-weighted volumetric MRIs from baseline and 12-month follow-up were used to derive volume changes. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale (ADAS)-cog and trails test changes were calculated over the same period. Brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between subject groups (p < 0.0005) and in MCI and AD were associated with MMSE changes. Both measures were additionally associated with ADAS-cog and trails-B in MCI patients, and ventricular expansion was associated with ADAS-cog in AD patients. Brain atrophy (p < 0.0005) and ventricular expansion rates (p = 0.001) were higher in MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months of follow-up compared with MCI subjects who remained stable. MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months had similar atrophy rates to AD subjects. Whole-brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between patient groups and healthy controls, and tracked disease progression and psychological decline, demonstrating their relevance as biomarkers. (orig.)

  11. Neural correlates of true and false memory in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Sweeney-Reed

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer's disease, which has been described as a 'disconnection syndrome'.

  12. Cognitive deficits in patients with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Correa Miotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the most frequent causes of brain damage. Cognitive deficits reported in the literature after moderate to severe TBI include memory, language, executive functions, attention and information processing speed impairments. However, systematic studies on patients with mild TBI are scarce although neuropsychological changes are present. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cognitive functioning of patients with mild to moderate TBI. METHOD: We evaluated 12 patients with mild to moderate TBI using a comprehensive protocol (PN01 of neuropsychological tests. RESULTS: There were significant deficits of episodic memory including immediate and delayed verbal memory recall, verbal recognition, immediate and delayed visual memory recall, naming, verbal fluency and information processing speed. CONCLUSION: These results emphasize the importance of comprehensive neuropsychological assessments even in cases of mild TBI in order to identify impaired and preserved functions providing adequate managing including rehabilitation programs for each case.

  13. 3D maps from multiple MRI illustrate changing atrophy patterns as subjects progress from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Przybelski, Scott A; Weigand, Stephen D; Knopman, David S; Boeve, Bradley F; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R

    2007-07-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), particularly the amnestic subtype (aMCI), is considered as a transitional stage between normal aging and a diagnosis of clinically probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aMCI construct is particularly useful as it provides an opportunity to assess a clinical stage which in most subjects represents prodromal AD. The aim of this study was to assess the progression of cerebral atrophy over multiple serial MRI during the period from aMCI to progression to AD. Thirty-three subjects were selected that fulfilled clinical criteria for aMCI and had three serial MRI scans: the first scan approximately 3 years before the diagnosis of AD, the second scan approximately 1 year before, and the third scan at the time of the diagnosis of AD. A group of 33 healthy controls were age and gender-matched to the study cohort. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess patterns of grey matter atrophy in the aMCI subjects at each time-point compared to the control group. Customized templates and prior probability maps were used to avoid normalization and segmentation bias. The pattern of grey matter loss in the aMCI subject scans that were 3 years before the diagnosis of AD was focused primarily on the medial temporal lobes, including the amygdala, anterior hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, with some additional involvement of the fusiform gyrus, compared to controls. The extent and magnitude of the cerebral atrophy further progressed by the time the subjects were 1 year before the diagnosis of AD. At this point atrophy in the temporal lobes spread to include the middle temporal gyrus, and extended into more posterior regions of the temporal lobe to include the entire extent of the hippocampus. The parietal lobe also started to become involved. By the time the subjects had progressed to a clinical diagnosis of AD the pattern of grey matter atrophy had become still more widespread with more severe involvement of the medial temporal lobes and the

  14. Application and Revision of Montreal Cognitive Assessment in China's Military Retirees with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhai

    Full Text Available In an effort to accommodate MOCA to better fit for the Chinese context, this study was designed to employ the MOCA criteria to screen mild cognitive impairment (MCI and analyze associated risk factors in military retirees.Three hundred and four retired military cadres were recruited using a random cluster sampling technique with information collected including personal, prevalence, MOCA scale, and related neuropsychiatry scale. Thirty retirees were randomly chosen to be further analyzed one month later using the revised MOCA scale.①Our data indicated an incidence rate of 64.8% for mild cognitive impairment in retired military cadres. The incidence rate for MCI was significantly higher in those aged 80 or above compared with those 80 years of age or younger (P<0.05. The incidence rate of MCI was significantly higher in those with fewer than 6 years of education compared with those with over 7 years of education (P<0.05. The MCI incidence was higher for those with little exercise than those taking regular exercise (P<0.01. Moreover, the MCI incidence was higher in stroke patients than those who never had a stroke episode (P<0.05. ②There was a significant correlation between MOCA and MMSE scale scores (r = 0.81. MOCA scale scores were negatively correlated with ADL and CES-D scores (although not PSQI scores. ③ MOCA recension Cronbach's alpha value was 0.862. The related coefficient of MOCA and MOCA recension was 0.878(P<0.01. When the Score of cut-off -point of the MOCA recension was 28, the area in ROC curve analyses was 0.859, as well as the largest area.Retired cadres exhibited a greater incidence of MCI (than general population, which was closely associated with age, level of education and physical exercise and cerebral apoplexy. Revised MOCA scale displays a better validity and reaction degree of reliability and is more suitable for screening and diagnosis of MCI in the elderly in China.

  15. Dual Tasking for the Differentiation between Depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Florian G.; Hobert, Markus A.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Hasmann, Sandra E.; Hahn, Tim; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Berg, Daniela; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Maetzler, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of mild cognitive impairment from depression in elderly adults is a clinically relevant issue which is not sufficiently solved. Gait and dual task (DT) parameters may have the potential to complement current diagnostic work-up, as both dementia and depression are associated with changes of gait and DT parameters. Methods: Seven hundred and four participants of the TREND study (Tübinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of NeuroDegeneration) aged 50–80 years were assessed using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Plus test battery for testing cognition and Beck's Depression Inventory for evaluation of depression. Based on these results, four groups were defined: acute depressed (N = 53), cognitively mildly impaired (N = 97), acute depressed, and cognitively mildly impaired (N = 15), and controls (N = 536). Participants underwent a 20 m walk and checking boxes task under single (ST) and DT conditions. ST and DT performance and dual task costs (DTC) were calculated. Due to the typical age of increasing incidence of depressive and also cognitive symptoms, the 7th decade was calculated separately. Results: ST speeds of gait and checking boxes, DT walking speed, and walking DTC were significantly different between groups. Healthy controls were the fastest in all paradigms and cognitively mildly impaired had higher DTC than depressed individuals. Additionally, we constructed a multivariate predictive model differentiating the groups on a single-subject level. Conclusion: DT parameters are simply and comfortably measureable, and DTC can easily be determined. The combination of these parameters allows a differentiation of depressed and cognitively mildly impaired elderly adults.

  16. [Noopept in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment in patients with stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelin, A V; Iliukhina, A Iu; Shmonin, A A

    2011-01-01

    Noopept is a neuroprotector and nootropics. Literature data revealed the treatment effect of noopept on mild cognitive impairment in patients with discirculatory encephalopathy. The present open prospective study included 60 patients with stroke treated with noopept during 12 months. Cognitive functions were assessed before and after treatment using neuropsychological tests. An analysis of MMSE scores and lateral and categorical associations revealed the significant improvement of cognitive functions after 2 months in patients of the main group compared to the controls. The global assessment of efficacy revealed the mild improvement in the main group while no changes were found in the control group. The results have demonstrated that noopept, used in dose 20 mg daily during 2 months, improves cognitive functions in stroke patients and has a high level of safety. PMID:22500312

  17. [Mild cognitive disorders in railway locomotive crew workers (review of literature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhogina, O A; Zakrevskaya, A A; Serikov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Functional reliability of engine operator and engine operator's assistant is one of the most important factors in railway safety. Ability to railway locomotive operation is determined via suitability criteria of occupationally important qualities of operator and operator's assistant, and of nervous system functional state. Lower reliability manifested in worse functional state of engine operator or in lost occupationally important qualities can be connected with various diseases of which most prevalent are cardiovascular disorders. Transitory brain circulatory disorders can cause cognitive disturbances varying in severity. When mild cognitive disorders, precise diagnosis leads to effective prevention of the diseases development and preserved occupationally important qualities in engine operators. Neuropsychologic methods for mild cognitive disorders help not only to diagnose presence and intensity of cognitive defect, but to suggest a mechanism of its development, that eventually increases efficiency of correction.

  18. Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Concept and Diagnostic Entity in Need of Input from Neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Bondi, Mark W.; Smith, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individu...

  19. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: Systematic Review and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild; Simonsen, Anja Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Background The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia. Methods The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to F...

  20. Biochemical markers of physical exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia; systematic review and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Steen Jensen; Steen Gregers Hasselbalch; Gunhild eWaldemar; Anja Hviid Simonsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to Febru...

  1. Multi-modal MRI analysis with disease-specific spatial filtering: initial testing to predict mild cognitive impairment patients who convert to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi eOishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alterations of the gray and white matter have been identified in Alzheimer’s disease (AD by structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. However, whether the combination of these modalities could increase the diagnostic performance is unknown.Methods: Participants included 19 AD patients, 22 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients, and 22 cognitively normal elderly (NC. The aMCI group was further divided into an aMCI-converter group (converted to AD dementia within three years, and an aMCI-stable group who did not convert in this time period. A T1-weighted image, a T2 map, and a DTI of each participant were normalized, and voxel-based comparisons between AD and NC groups were performed. Regions-of-interest, which defined the areas with significant differences between AD and NC, were created for each modality and named disease-specific spatial filters (DSF. Linear discriminant analysis was used to optimize the combination of multiple MRI measurements extracted by DSF to effectively differentiate AD from NC. The resultant DSF and the discriminant function were applied to the aMCI group to investigate the power to differentiate the aMCI-converters from the aMCI-stable patients. Results: The multi-modal approach with AD-specific filters led to a predictive model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.93, in differentiating aMCI-converters from aMCI-stable patients. This AUC was better than that of a single-contrast-based approach, such as T1-based morphometry or diffusion anisotropy analysis. Conclusion: The multi-modal approach has the potential to increase the value of MRI in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD.

  2. Cognitive reserve and Aβ1-42 in mild cognitive impairment (Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paula; Fernandez Suarez, Marcos; Surace, Ezequiel I; Chrem Méndez, Patricio; Martín, María Eugenia; Clarens, María Florencia; Tapajóz, Fernanda; Russo, Maria Julieta; Campos, Jorge; Guinjoan, Salvador M; Sevlever, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve and concentration of Aβ1-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with mild cognitive impairment, those with Alzheimer’s disease, and in control subjects. Methods Thirty-three participants from the Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database completed a cognitive battery, the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ), and an Argentinian accentuation reading test (TAP-BA) as a measure of premorbid intelligence, and underwent lumbar puncture for CSF biomarker quantification. Results The CRQ significantly correlated with TAP-BA, education, and Aβ1-42. When considering Aβ1-42 levels, significant differences were found in CRQ scores; higher levels of CSF Aβ1-42 were associated with higher CRQ scores. Conclusion Reduced Aβ1-42 in CSF is considered as evidence of amyloid deposition in the brain. Previous results suggest that individuals with higher education, higher occupational attainment, and participation in leisure activities (cognitive reserve) have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Our results support the notion that enhanced neural activity has a protective role in mild cognitive impairment, as evidenced by higher CSF Aβ1-42 levels in individuals with more cognitive reserve. PMID:26504392

  3. Principal component analysis of FDG PET in amnestic MCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio; Girtler, Nicola; Brugnolo, Andrea; Dessi, Barbara; Rodriguez, Guido [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Medical Sciences, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Alzheimer Evaluation Unit, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Head-Neck Department, Genoa (Italy); Salmaso, Dario [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Imaging Diagnostics, Genoa (Italy); Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the combined accuracy of episodic memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET in identifying patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's disease (AD), aMCI non-converters, and controls. Thirty-three patients with aMCI and 15 controls (CTR) were followed up for a mean of 21 months. Eleven patients developed AD (MCI/AD) and 22 remained with aMCI (MCI/MCI). {sup 18}F-FDG PET volumetric regions of interest underwent principal component analysis (PCA) that identified 12 principal components (PC), expressed by coarse component scores (CCS). Discriminant analysis was performed using the significant PCs and episodic memory scores. PCA highlighted relative hypometabolism in PC5, including bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole, and in PC7, including the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, both in MCI/MCI and MCI/AD vs CTR. PC5 itself plus PC12, including the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC: BAs 44, 45, 46, 47), were significantly different between MCI/AD and MCI/MCI. By a three-group discriminant analysis, CTR were more accurately identified by PET-CCS + delayed recall score (100%), MCI/MCI by PET-CCS + either immediate or delayed recall scores (91%), while MCI/AD was identified by PET-CCS alone (82%). PET increased by 25% the correct allocations achieved by memory scores, while memory scores increased by 15% the correct allocations achieved by PET. Combining memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET yielded a higher accuracy than each single tool in identifying CTR and MCI/MCI. The PC containing bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole was the hallmark of MCI/MCI patients, while the PC including the left LFC was the hallmark of conversion to AD. (orig.)

  4. Use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to investigate the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly elective surgical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Smith; Yy, Yeow

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative cognitive disorders are common in elderly patients. Pre-existing cognitive impairment including mild cognitive impairment may be an important risk factor for developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction and may not be detected in a standard preoperative interview, yet is not routinely sought. Our primary aim was to estimate the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment among elderly patients presenting to our hospital for elective surgery using a simple established screening tool: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test. Secondarily, we wished to determine the proportion of patients with mild cognitive impairment who presented with this information available, the effect of increasing age on the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and whether the timing and location of testing influenced results. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to screen preoperative patients aged 65 years and over. Our results suggested a potential prevalence of mild cognitive impairment of 56%, with prevalence increasing with age. No patients in the sample had a recorded diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Testing in either the preadmission clinic or on admission on the day of surgery yielded similar results. We found the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to be a simple screening tool that was easily administered during the pre-admission visit. PMID:27608340

  5. Brain Substrates of Learning and Retention in Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosis and Progression to Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Bondi, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; McEvoy, Linda K.; Hagler, Donald J., Jr.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Dale, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the underlying qualitative features of memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can provide critical information for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study sought to investigate the utility of both learning and retention measures in (a) the diagnosis of MCI, (b) predicting progression to AD, and (c)…

  6. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  7. Long-Term Interrelationship between Brain Metabolism and Amyloid Deposition in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemppainen, Nina; Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) study was to evaluate the interrelationship between brain metabolism and amyloid accumulation during the disease process from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nine MCI patients, who converted to AD between...

  8. Processing of Mass/Count Information in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Vanessa; Jarema, Gonia

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the processing of a specific linguistic distinction, the mass/count distinction, in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fourteen AD and 10 MCI subjects were tested using a sentence grammaticality judgement task where grammaticality violations were caused by determiner--noun…

  9. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  10. Complexity of functional connectivity networks in mild cognitive impairment subjects during a working memory task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadlou, M; Adeli, Anahita; Bajo, Ricardo; Adeli, Hojjat

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective is to study the changes of brain activity in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using magneto-encephalogram (MEG) signals, the authors investigate differences of complexity of functional connectivity network between MCI and normal elderly subjects during a worki

  11. Cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability and alcohol use-related problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking meth

  12. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Mysling, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  13. Depression in Mild Cognitive Impairment is associated with Progression to Alzheimer's Disease : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Fransen, Erik; Struyfs, Hanne; Luyckx, Jill; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD) belong to the core symptoms of dementia and are also common in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objective: This study would like to contribute to the understanding of the prognostic role of BPSD in MCI for the progression

  14. Agitation-associated behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of agitation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD), and to characterize the associated behavioral symptoms. Method: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospe

  15. Psychosis associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of psychosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia, and to characterize the associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Method: A cross-section

  16. Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jekel, K.; Damian, M.; Wattmo, C.; Hausner, L.; Bullock, R.; Connelly, P.J.; Dubois, B.; Eriksdotter, M.; Ewers, M.; Graessel, E.; Kramberger, M.G.; Law, E.; Mecocci, P.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Nygard, L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Pasquier, F.; Peres, K.; Salmon, E.; Sikkes, S.A.; Sobow, T.; Spiegel, R.; Tsolaki, M.; Winblad, B.; Frolich, L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a growing body of evidence that subtle deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may be present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not clear if there are IADL domains that are consistently affected across patients with MCI. In this systematic r

  17. Perception of emotions in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia: Does intensity matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders-Oude Elferink, M.; Tilborg, I.A.D.A. van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To provide a review of the literature on the perception of emotion in Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) and Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to evaluate if emotion intensity matters. Methodology: A systematic literature search of PubMed database was carried out using combinations or truncate

  18. Prediction of time trends in recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Kay; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Wilsgaard, Tom;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between predictors and outcomes, and especially to identify predictors influencing the time trend in recovery after mild traumatic brain injury. METHODS: We included 59 patients with mild head injury in a prospective study. They underwent comprehensive assessment...... change. RESULTS: A Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15, traumatic brain injury demonstrated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum S-100B greater than 0.14 microg/L predicted impaired cognitive performance both at baseline and after 6 months; APOE genotype did not....... There was significant improvement of performance after 6 months. APOE-epsilon4 genotype was the only independent factor significantly predicting less improvement. CONCLUSION: The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele predicts less recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury....

  19. Preliminary cognitive scale of basic and instrumental activities of daily living for dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bailón, María; Montoro-Membila, Nuria; Garcia-Morán, Tamara; Arnedo-Montoro, María Luisa; Funes Molina, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we explored cognitive and functional deficits in patients with multidomain mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with dementia, and healthy age-matched control participants using the Cognitive Scale for Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, a new preliminary informant-based assessment tool. This tool allowed us to evaluate four key cognitive abilities-task memory schema, error detection, problem solving, and task self-initiation-in a range of basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL, respectively). The first part of the present study was devoted to testing the psychometric adequateness of this new informant-based tool and its convergent validity with other global functioning and neuropsychological measures. The second part of the study was aimed at finding the patterns of everyday cognitive factors that best discriminate between the three groups. We found that patients with dementia exhibited impairment in all cognitive abilities in both basic and instrumental activities. By contrast, patients with MCI were found to have preserved task memory schema in both types of ADL; however, such patients exhibited deficits in error detection and task self-initiation but only in IADL. Finally, patients with MCI also showed a generalized problem solving deficit that affected even BADL. Studying various cognitive processes instantiated in specific ADL differing in complexity seems a promising strategy to further understand the specific relationships between cognition and function in these and other cognitively impaired populations. PMID:25805061

  20. White matter changes in 80 mild cognitive impairment patients using magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Cho; Jee-Hyun Kwon; Sun-Young Kim

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies have suggested that one possible etiology of mild cognitive impairment is small vessel cerebrovascular disease, which is associated with small subcortical infarcts and white matter abnormalities. These white matter changes have been detected as white matter hyperintensity (WMH) using magnetic resonance imaging. WMH may be associated with frontal lobe dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To examine white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment patients of different subtypes, and to evaluate the correlation between white matter changes and neuropsychological characteristics, demographic information, vascular risk factors, and mild cognitive impairment subtypes. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The neurophysiological, comparison study was performed at the Department of Neurology Memory Clinic, Ulsan University Hospital, South Korea, between March 2007 and March 2008.PARTICIPANTS: Out of a total of 83 subjects with clinically diagnosed mild cognitive impairment at the out-patient clinic, 3 subjects with severe WMH were excluded. A total of 80 subjects were included in this study. No patients suffered from cognitive impairment induced by neurological diseases, mental disorders, or somatic diseases. In accordance with magnetic resonance imaging results, the patients were assigned to two subtypes: 56 subjects without WMH and 24 subjects with WMH. METHODS: All patients were subjected to a standard neuropsychological battery using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating, and comprehensive Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. The Clinical Dementia Rating reflected general cognitive function of patients. Results from the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery reflected attention, language function, visuospatial function, verbal memory, nonverbal memory, long-term memory, and frontal/executive function. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to map changes in the brain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The association between

  1. Subjective Memory Complaints are Involved in the Relationship between Mood and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer A; Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T; Matthews, Fiona E

    2015-09-24

    Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are a criterion in many definitions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there is controversy over whether this is useful and appropriate, as previous research has suggested that SMC may be a function of mood problems such as anxiety and depression. This paper aimed to establish the relationship between MCI and mood in older people and to investigate the role that SMC play in the relationship. Structured interviews were conducted with community dwelling older people in Wales to collect information regarding cognitive functioning, mood, and well-being. A widely-used algorithm was used to categorize 3,173 participants into three groups: not cognitively impaired, MCI including SMC (MCI), and MCI without SMC (MCIW). The odds of experiencing anxiety or depression were calculated for each cognitive group. Participants with MCI had increased odds of experiencing symptoms of both anxiety and depression, but the odds were not changed for participants in the not cognitively impaired or MCIW categories. A mediation analysis was performed on the whole sample using cognition as a dichotomous variable, grouped using an age-, education-, and gender-adjusted median cut off point. This showed that SMC partially mediated the relationship between anxiety and cognition, and depression and cognition. Mood problems may be related to SMC rather than objective cognitive impairment, as only participants with MCI that included SMC showed increased odds of experiencing anxiety and depression. SMC are likely to play a mediating role in the relationship between mood and cognitive functioning. PMID:26402102

  2. Subjective Memory Complaints are Involved in the Relationship between Mood and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer A; Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T; Matthews, Fiona E

    2015-09-24

    Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are a criterion in many definitions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there is controversy over whether this is useful and appropriate, as previous research has suggested that SMC may be a function of mood problems such as anxiety and depression. This paper aimed to establish the relationship between MCI and mood in older people and to investigate the role that SMC play in the relationship. Structured interviews were conducted with community dwelling older people in Wales to collect information regarding cognitive functioning, mood, and well-being. A widely-used algorithm was used to categorize 3,173 participants into three groups: not cognitively impaired, MCI including SMC (MCI), and MCI without SMC (MCIW). The odds of experiencing anxiety or depression were calculated for each cognitive group. Participants with MCI had increased odds of experiencing symptoms of both anxiety and depression, but the odds were not changed for participants in the not cognitively impaired or MCIW categories. A mediation analysis was performed on the whole sample using cognition as a dichotomous variable, grouped using an age-, education-, and gender-adjusted median cut off point. This showed that SMC partially mediated the relationship between anxiety and cognition, and depression and cognition. Mood problems may be related to SMC rather than objective cognitive impairment, as only participants with MCI that included SMC showed increased odds of experiencing anxiety and depression. SMC are likely to play a mediating role in the relationship between mood and cognitive functioning.

  3. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus;

    2015-01-01

    with the purpose of preserving function and quality of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in community-dwelling patients with mild AD. METHODS: Baseline results from 185 participants (50-90 years old) in the single......OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes a gradual decline in cognition, limitations of dual-tasking and physical function leading to total dependence. Hence, information about the interaction between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition may lead to new treatment strategies...... or naming the months backwards; and cognition, i.e., Mini Mental State Examination, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and Lexical verbal fluency test. RESULTS: Results in the 30-s chair stand test correlated significantly with all tests of cognition (r = .208-.242) while...

  4. Effect of acute mild dehydration on cognitive-motor performance in golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark F; Newell, Alex J; Baker, Mistrelle R

    2012-11-01

    Whether mild dehydration (-1 to 3% body mass change [ΔBM]) impairs neurophysiological function during sport-specific cognitive-motor performance has yet to be fully elucidated. To investigate this within a golfing context, 7 low-handicap players (age: 21 ± 1.1 years; mass: 76.1 ± 11.8 kg; stature: 1.77 ± 0.07 m; handicap: 3.0 ± 1.2) completed a golf-specific motor and cognitive performance task in a euhydrated condition (EC) and dehydrated condition (DC) (randomized counterbalanced design; 7-day interval). Dehydration was controlled using a previously effective 12-hour fluid restriction, monitored through ΔBM and urine color assessment (UCOL). Mild dehydration reduced the mean BM by 1.5 ± 0.5% (p = 0.01), with UCOL increasing from 2 (EC) to 4 (DC) (p = 0.02). Mild dehydration significantly impaired motor performance, expressed as shot distance (114.6 vs. 128.6 m; p performance, expressed as the mean error in distance judgment to target increased from 4.1 ± 3.0 m (EC) to 8.8 ± 4.7 m (DC) (p dehydration (-1 to 2% ΔBM) significantly impairs cognitive-motor task performance. This study is the first to show that mild dehydration can impair distance, accuracy, and distance judgment during golf performance.

  5. The Study of Neuropsychological Performence and Anatomic Structure Impaiment by MRI in Different Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment%轻度认知障碍的神经心理表现及解剖结构损害的分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董娜; 张贵丽; 张宏伟

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨不同类型的轻度认知功能障碍(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)患者人口统计学、认知损害及解剖结构损害的磁共振特点.方法 对纳入的188例MCI患者和106例认知正常对照者进行多项神经心理学量表测试,按照认知受损区域及数目将MCI分为单领域遗忘型轻度认知功能障(amnestic mild cognitive impairment with single domain,aMCI-SD)组(n=48);多领域遗忘型轻度认知功能障(amnestic mild cognitive impairmen with multiple domain,aMCI-MD)组(n=82);单领域非遗忘型轻度认知功能障(non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment with single domain,naMCI-SD)组(n=24);多领域非遗忘型轻度认知功能障(non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment with multiple domain,naMCI-MD)组(n=34).比较5组的人口统计学、神经心理及解剖结构的磁共振特点.结果 与对照组比较,MCI患者起病年龄高且教育程度低(P<0.05).MCI的4种亚型整体认知功能评分无差异但较对照组均有受损.MoCA亚项视空间与执行能力测试中,aMCI-MD组和naMCI-MD受损较重,其次为naMCI-SD组(P<0.05).在MRI检测中aMCI-MD组和aMCI-SD组均较对照组的颞叶内侧萎缩(Medial temporal lobe atrophy,MTA)的视觉评分高(P<0.05),但是naMCI-SD与naMCI-MD的MTA评分与对照组比较无差异(P>0.05).4个MCI亚组的脑白质病变、皮质脑梗死、脑皮质萎缩发生率均大于对照组.naMCI-MD组的脑白质疏松病及脑萎缩病变较aMCI-SD组和aMCI-MD组的发病率均高.aMCI-SD组中皮质下腔隙性脑梗死病变的发生率较naMCI-MD和naM-CI-SD组低.结论 不同亚型的MCI患者显示海马、颞叶内侧面萎缩变性及血管病相关的病理改变的差异,揭示了临床认知损坏与病理学改变存在一致性,为MCI的正确诊断及治疗选择提供详尽的临床依据.

  6. Cognitive Interventions in Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Therapy-Evaluation Study on the Interaction of Medication and Cognitive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schecker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Many studies have shown that not only pharmacological treatment but also cognitive stimulation in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD improves language processing and (other cognitive functions, stabilizes Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL functions and increases the subjective quality of life (wherein a combination of pharmacological intervention and cognitive stimulation could provide greater relief of clinical symptoms than either intervention given alone. Today, it is no longer the question of whether cognitive stimulation helps but rather what kind of stimulation helps more than others. Methods: A sample of 42 subjects with mild AD (all medicated with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and well adjusted underwent clinical and cognitive evaluation and participated in a 6-month study with 2 experimental groups (i.e. ‘client-centered' global stimulation vs. cognitive training and a control group. Since the test performance also depends on the individual test, we used a wide variety of tests; we z-transformed the results and then calculated the mean value for the global cognitive status (using the Mini-Mental State Examination as well as for the single functional areas. Results: Between-group differences were found, they were overall in favor of the experimental groups. Different functional areas led to different treatment and test patterns. Client-centered, global, cognitive therapy stimulated many cognitive functions and thus led to a better performance in language processing and ADL/IADL. The subjective quality of life increased as well. The cognitive training (of working memory improved only the ADL/IADL performance (more, however, than client-centered, global, cognitive stimulation and stabilized the level of performance in the other three functional areas.

  7. Effect of Baduanjin exercise on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Guohua; Huang, Maomao; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Moyi; Xia, Rui; Zhou, Wenji; Tao, Jing; CHEN, LIDIAN

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the cognitive changes of normal aging and dementia characterised by a reduction in memory and/or other cognitive processes. An increasing number of studies have indicated that regular physical activity/exercise may have beneficial association with cognitive function of older adults with or without cognitive impairment. As a traditional Chinese Qigong exercise, Baduanjin may be even more beneficial in promoting cogni...

  8. Cognitive reserve and Aβ1-42 in mild cognitive impairment (Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Paula Harris,1,2 Marcos Fernandez Suarez,1 Ezequiel I Surace,1,2 Patricio Chrem Méndez,1 María Eugenia Martín,1 María Florencia Clarens,1 Fernanda Tapajóz,1,2 Maria Julieta Russo,1 Jorge Campos,1 Salvador M Guinjoan,1,2 Gustavo Sevlever,1 Ricardo F Allegri1,2 1Instituto de Investigaciones Neurológicas, 2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve and concentration of Aβ1-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with mild cognitive impairment, those with Alzheimer’s disease, and in control subjects. Methods: Thirty-three participants from the Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database completed a cognitive battery, the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ, and an Argentinian accentuation reading test (TAP-BA as a measure of premorbid intelligence, and underwent lumbar puncture for CSF biomarker quantification. Results: The CRQ significantly correlated with TAP-BA, education, and Aβ1-42. When considering Aβ1-42 levels, significant differences were found in CRQ scores; higher levels of CSF Aβ1-42 were associated with higher CRQ scores. Conclusion: Reduced Aβ1-42 in CSF is considered as evidence of amyloid deposition in the brain. Previous results suggest that individuals with higher education, higher occupational attainment, and participation in leisure activities (cognitive reserve have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Our results support the notion that enhanced neural activity has a protective role in mild cognitive impairment, as evidenced by higher CSF Aβ1-42 levels in individuals with more cognitive reserve. Keywords: amyloid, biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid, Alzheimer’s disease 

  9. Novel Virtual User Models of Mild Cognitive Impairment for Simulating Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Segkouli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual user modeling research has attempted to address critical issues of human-computer interaction (HCI such as usability and utility through a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches as cognitive models in order to provide users with experiences fitting to their specific needs. However, there is demand for more specific modules embodied in cognitive architecture that will detect abnormal cognitive decline across new synthetic task environments. Also, accessibility evaluation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs requires considerable effort for enhancing ICT products accessibility for older adults. The main aim of this study is to develop and test virtual user models (VUM simulating mild cognitive impairment (MCI through novel specific modules, embodied at cognitive models and defined by estimations of cognitive parameters. Well-established MCI detection tests assessed users’ cognition, elaborated their ability to perform multitasks, and monitored the performance of infotainment related tasks to provide more accurate simulation results on existing conceptual frameworks and enhanced predictive validity in interfaces’ design supported by increased tasks’ complexity to capture a more detailed profile of users’ capabilities and limitations. The final outcome is a more robust cognitive prediction model, accurately fitted to human data to be used for more reliable interfaces’ evaluation through simulation on the basis of virtual models of MCI users.

  10. [Therapeutic correction of mild cognitive impairment in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinak, M M; Kashin, A V; Ememlin, A Iu; Lupanov, I A

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases are the most significant among the main reasons leading to the cognitive impairment of the elderly. Vascular cognitive impairment is not limited to only dementia, representing a heterogeneous group both in pathogenic and clinical terms. The article dwells upon new principles of vascular cognitive impairment's classification and the review of their possible therapeutic correction that was conducted. The article includes the results of the 12-week open therapeutic (randomized with the control group) study of efficiency and safety of vitrum memory for patients with mild vascular cognitive impairment. It is shown that the therapy significantly improved the state of neurodynamic and regulatory functions of the patients with I--II stage dyscirculatory encephalopathy. PMID:23739499

  11. Anxiety and behavioural disturbance as markers of prodromal Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2011-02-01

    Depression and anxiety have been reported to be independently predictive of conversion to Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Anxiety symptoms have been less well studied and findings in this regard have been inconsistent. The objectives of this study are to determine which symptoms among a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms known to commonly occur in patients with MCI are predictive of later conversion to AD. We also wish to determine whether these symptoms track existing measures of declining cognitive and functional status or may be considered distinct and sensitive biomarkers of evolving Alzheimer\\'s pathology.

  12. Dosimetry of patients submitted to cerebral PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de; Bernardes, Felipe Dias; Mamede, Marcelo, E-mail: pridili@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mourao, Arnaldo Prata [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Teogenes Augusto da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the effective radiation dose in patients submitted to PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Materials and methods: TLD-100 detectors inserted into an Alderson Rando® anthropomorphic phantom were utilized to measure the absorbed dose coming from the CT imaging modality. The anthropomorphic phantoms (male and female adult versions) were submitted to the same technical protocols for patients’ images acquisition. The absorbed dose resulting from the radiopharmaceutical injection was estimated by means of the model proposed by the ICRP publication 106. Results: the effective dose in patients submitted to this diagnostic technique was approximately (5.34 ± 1.99) mSv. Conclusion: optimized protocols for calculation of radioactive activity injected into patients submitted to this diagnostic technique might contribute to reduce the effective radiation dose resulting from PET/CT in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  13. Dependence and caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2011-03-01

    The dependence scale has been designed to be sensitive to the overall care needs of the patient and is considered distinct from standard measures of functional ability in this regard. Little is known regarding the relationship between patient dependence and caregiver burden. We recruited 100 patients with Alzheimer\\'s disease or mild cognitive impairment and their caregivers through a memory clinic. Patient function, dependence, hours of care, cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and caregiver burden were assessed. Dependence was significantly correlated with caregiver burden. Functional decline and dependence were most predictive of caregiver burden in patients with mild impairment while behavioral symptoms were most predictive in patients with moderate to severe disease. The dependence scale demonstrated good utility as a predictor of caregiver burden. Interventions to reduce caregiver burden should address patient dependence, functional decline, and behavioral symptoms while successful management of the latter becomes more critical with disease progression.

  14. CSF Biomarkers and Incipient Alzheimer Disease in Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Ewers, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Context Small single-center studies have shown that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may be useful to identify incipient Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but large-scale multicenter studies have not been conducted. Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of CSF beta-amyloid(1-42) (A beta 42), total tau protein (T-tau), and tau phosphorylated at position threonine 181 (P-tau) for predicting incipient AD in patients with MCI. Design, Se...

  15. Profile of hippocampal volumes and stroke risk varies by neuropsychological definition of mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Jak, Amy J.; URBAN, STEPHANIE; McCAULEY, ASHLEY; Bangen, Katherine J.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Bondi, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Wide-ranging conceptual and diagnostic approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have led to highly variable prevalence and progression rates. We sought to examine whether bilateral hippocampal volumes and cerebrovascular risk factors in individuals characterized by two different neuropsychological definitions of MCI subtypes would also differ. Participants were 65 nondemented, community-dwelling, older adults, ages 62–91 years, drawn from a larger group of individuals enrolled i...

  16. Complexity analysis of electroencephalogram in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐梅松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Lemple-Zie complexity (LZC) characteristics in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) ,mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly,and the possibility of differentiating AD,MCI and normal elderly by LZC.Methods Electroencephalogram (EEG) of 30 AD patients,30 MCI patients and 20normal elderly with eyes closed in rest state were recorded.In acquired EEG data,2 048 points (10.14 s) of

  17. Development of dementia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with focus on B-vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Annerbo, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focused on the importance of low B-vitamins, hyperhomocysteinemia and the development of dementia and Alzheimer´s disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relation between vitamin B12 /folate and dementia has been extensively investigated, but the results are inconsistent. The connection of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and dementia is also explored in a lot of studies but neither here is a consensus found. The active fraction of ...

  18. Cognitive Behavioral Performance of Untreated Depressed Patients with Mild Depressive Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Li

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the working memory performance of 18 patients experiencing their first onset of mild depression without treatment and 18 healthy matched controls. The results demonstrated that working memory impairment in patients with mild depression occurred when memorizing the position of a picture but not when memorizing the pictures themselves. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the emotional impact on the working memory, indicating that the attenuation of spatial working memory was not affected by negative emotion; however, cognitive control selectively affected spatial working memory. In addition, the accuracy of spatial working memory in the depressed patients was not significantly reduced, but the reaction time was significantly extended compared with the healthy controls. This finding indicated that there was no damage to memory encoding and function maintenance in the patients but rather only impaired memory retrieval, suggesting that the extent of damage to the working memory system and cognitive control abilities was associated with the corresponding depressive symptoms. The development of mild to severe depressive symptoms may be accompanied by spatial working memory damage from the impaired memory retrieval function extending to memory encoding and memory retention impairments. In addition, the impaired cognitive control began with an inadequate capacity to automatically process internal negative emotions and further extended to impairment of the ability to regulate and suppress external emotions. The results of the mood-congruent study showed that the memory of patients with mild symptoms of depression was associated with a mood-congruent memory effect, demonstrating that mood-congruent memory was a typical feature of depression, regardless of the severity of depression. This study provided important information for understanding the development of cognitive dysfunction.

  19. Various MRS Application Tools for Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gao; Barker, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    MR spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique that allows the detection of several naturally occurring compounds (metabolites) from well-defined regions of interest within the human brain. Alzheimer disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. During the past 20 years, multiple studies have been performed on MR spectroscopy in patients with both mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Generally, MR spectroscopy studies have foun...

  20. Treating vascular mild cognitive impairment by acupuncture: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the effect and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of vascular mild cognitive impairment(VMCI).Methods Recruited were China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database(CNKI)(1979—2012),Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database(VIP)(1989—2012),Chinese Biomedical Database(CBM),Wanfang degree and conference papers database(1985—2012),PubMed Database(1966—2012),and The Cochrane Library(Issue 1,2012).The search date ended in

  1. Relationship between Motor Symptoms, Cognition, and Demographic Characteristics in Treated Mild/Moderate Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S Schneider

    Full Text Available Although Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor symptoms, PD patients, at all stages of the disease, can experience cognitive dysfunction. However, the relationships between cognitive and motor symptoms and specific demographic characteristics are not well defined, particularly for patients who have progressed to requiring dopaminergic medication.To examine relationships between motor and cognitive symptoms and various demographic factors in mild to moderate, PD patients requiring anti-PD medication.Cognitive function was assessed in 94 subjects with a variety of neuropsychological tests during baseline evaluations as part of an experimental treatment study. Data were analyzed in relation to Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores and demographic variables.Of the UPDRS subscores analyzed, posture/balance/gait was associated with the highest number of adverse cognitive outcomes followed by speech/facial expression, bradykinesia, and rigidity. No associations were detected between any of the cognitive performance measures and tremor. Motor functioning assessed in the "off" condition correlated primarily with disease duration; neuropsychological performance in general was primarily related to age.In PD patients who have advanced to requiring anti-PD therapies, there are salient associations between axial signs and cognitive performance and in particular, with different aspects of visuospatial function suggesting involvement of similar circuits in these functions. Associations between executive functions and bradykinesia also suggest involvement similar circuits in these functions.

  2. Remembering a visit to the psychology lab: Implications of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Patrick S R; Cooper, Lara; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Morris Moscovitch has emphasized the importance of sensitively and carefully measuring cognition in the real world. With this lesson in mind, we examined the real-world episodic memory problems of older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). MCI patients often complain of episodic memory problems and perform poorly on standardized neuropsychological measures, but we still do not know enough about their actual difficulties remembering real experiences. A few days after their visit to the laboratory for an experimental session, we telephoned 19 MCI patients and 34 healthy participants without warning to ask what they could recollect about 16 elements of their visit. The patients had difficulty remembering the details of their visit, and reported lower ratings of memory vividness compared to healthy participants. Patients' memory for the visit was commensurate with their performance on three standard clinical memory assessment measures (delayed 5 word recall from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, long delay free recall from the California Verbal Learning Test-II and recall of the details of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Logical Memory stories), providing evidence for the generalizability of the clinical measures. Putting these findings together with those from Moscovitch and colleagues (Murphy et al., 2008) can help us better understand the real-world memory implications of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

  3. Cognitive Reserve in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Importance of Occupational Complexity as a Buffer of Declining Cognition in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldberg Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve is the ability to optimize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks, which may reflect the use of alternative cognitive strategies. Work is one of the most important sources of cognitive stimulation during adulthood. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents an intermediate status between normal aging and dementia. As a consequence, this is considered a risk group regarding cognition. In order to study the probable association between occupational complexity and cognitive performance in a group of patients with MCI, a non-probabilistic intentional sample was dispensed on a group of 80 patients. Occupational complexity was explored by the Questionnaire on Agency of Labor Activity (CAAL, according to its acronym in Spanish and a set of neuropsychological tests, which assessed cognitive performance in different areas: memory, attention, language and executive function, were administered. Results reveal that occupational complexity is associated to cognitive performance of elderly adults with MCI. With respect to working with Data, an increase in neuropsychological tests that demand high levels of attention and imply processing speed and working memory can be noted. Regarding the complexity of working with People, an association between the level of occupational complexity and an increase in verbal abilities and verbal reasoning can be seen. On the other hand, working with Things could be associated with better performance in specific areas of cognition such as visuospatial abilities. These results add up as empirical evidence to the fields of cognitive neurology and gerontology and to the cognitive reserve hypothesis, showing how complex environments can enhance cognition in old age. It adds evidence that help to understand which psychological, social and labor factors intervene in the cognitive reserve of an elder adult in cognitive risk.

  4. Mild cognitive impairment. Diagnostic value of different MR techniques; ''Mild cognitive impairment''. Diagnostische Wertigkeit verschiedener MR-Techniken

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    Hauser, T.; Stieltjes, B.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung E010 Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Thomann, P.A. [Zentrum fuer Psychosoziale Medizin, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, AG Strukturelle Bildgebung, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Psychiatrie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    In view of an increasingly aging population the prevalence of dementia is also expected to increase rapidly. As well as clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia which is important in the precursor stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). On the one hand this stage is associated with an increased risk of dementia and on the other hand an early treatment in this stage could attenuate development of the disease. In addition to morphological changes different functional MRI techniques can help in the early diagnosis of dementia and the precursor stages. Moreover, it is important to detect those MCI patients who are at particularly risk for developing dementia. In the differentiation of converters to non-converters initial studies suggest that particularly voxel-based morphometry, MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide important additional information. (orig.) [German] Angesichts einer immer aelter werdenden Bevoelkerung sind wir mit dem Problem einer zunehmenden Zahl an Patienten mit Demenzerkrankungen konfrontiert. In der Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz spielen neben klinischen, neuropsychologischen und laborchemischen Untersuchungen nichtinvasive Bildgebungsverfahren wie die MRT eine bedeutende Rolle. Wichtig ist dabei die Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz bereits im Vorstadium der leichten kognitiven Beeintraechtigung (''mild cognitive impairment'', MCI), da dieses Krankheitsbild mit einem deutlich erhoehten Demenzrisiko einhergeht und durch eine fruehzeitige Therapie der Krankheitsverlauf abgemildert oder deutlich verzoegert werden kann. Neben morphologischen Veraenderungen helfen verschiedene funktionelle MR-Verfahren bei der Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz. Darueber hinaus ist es von grosser Bedeutung, diejenigen MCI-Patienten zu detektieren, die in besonderem Masse von einer Demenz bedroht sind. Bei der Differenzierung von

  5. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept and diagnostic entity in need of input from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Mark W; Smith, Glenn E

    2014-02-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individuals with subtle cognitive declines or mis-diagnose MCI in those who are otherwise cognitively normal on a broader neuropsychological battery of tests. The assembled articles highlight the perils of relying on these conventional criteria for MCI diagnosis and reveal how the reliability of diagnosis is improved when sound neuropsychological approaches are adopted. When these requirements are met, we illustrate with a second series of articles that neuropsychological measures associate strongly with biomarkers and often reflect pathology beyond or instead of typical AD distributions. The final set of articles reveal that people with MCI demonstrate mild but identifiable functional difficulties, and a challenge for neuropsychology is how to incorporate this information to better define MCI and distinguish it from early dementia. Neuropsychology is uniquely positioned to improve upon the state of the science in MCI research and practice by providing critically important empirical information on the specific cognitive domains affected by the predominant neurodegenerative disorders of late life as well as on the diagnostic decision-making strategies used in studies. When such efforts to more comprehensively assess neuropsychological functions are undertaken, better characterizations of spared and impaired cognitive and functional abilities result and lead to more convincing associations with other biomarkers as well as to prediction of clinical outcomes.

  6. Dual task-related gait changes in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbeni, Alberto; Caruso, Shiva; Salatino, Adriana; Carenza, Marinella; Rigano, Marta; Raviolo, Andrea; Ricci, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) entails a high risk of developing Alzheimer's dementia. In MCI patients gait impairment, which increases the risk of falls and institutionalization, is an early motor sign. A dualtask (DT) paradigm might improve the observation of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate motor-cognitive interference in a sample of MCI patients and a group of matched healthy controls submitted to DT conditions. To this end, three different cognitive tasks were used: counting backwards, short story recall and a phonemic fluency task. Overall, the patients, compared with the healthy participants, performed worse on the cognitive tasks and showed some degree of gait impairment. In the DT conditions, both groups showed significant gait disruption independently of the concomitant cognitive task. As regards cognitive performance, counting backwards worsened during dual tasking, while short story recall improved in both groups. Overall, our results suggest that the use of a DT paradigm does not improve the early detection of MCI. Our findings of enhanced story recall during walking might have interesting implications for rehabilitation of memory function. PMID:26214028

  7. Working memory and executive function decline across normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirova, Anna-Mariya; Bays, Rebecca B; Lagalwar, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease marked by deficits in episodic memory, working memory (WM), and executive function. Examples of executive dysfunction in AD include poor selective and divided attention, failed inhibition of interfering stimuli, and poor manipulation skills. Although episodic deficits during disease progression have been widely studied and are the benchmark of a probable AD diagnosis, more recent research has investigated WM and executive function decline during mild cognitive impairment (MCI), also referred to as the preclinical stage of AD. MCI is a critical period during which cognitive restructuring and neuroplasticity such as compensation still occur; therefore, cognitive therapies could have a beneficial effect on decreasing the likelihood of AD progression during MCI. Monitoring performance on working memory and executive function tasks to track cognitive function may signal progression from normal cognition to MCI to AD. The present review tracks WM decline through normal aging, MCI, and AD to highlight the behavioral and neurological differences that distinguish these three stages in an effort to guide future research on MCI diagnosis, cognitive therapy, and AD prevention. PMID:26550575

  8. Clinical Relevance of Specific Cognitive Complaints in Determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a Study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Villanueva, Marina; Rebollo-Vázquez, Ana; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M.; Valentí, Meritxell; Medina, Miguel; Fernández-Blázquez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Item Response Theory (IRT) were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI. Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely Forgetfulness of Immediate Information (FII), Executive Functions (EF) and Prospective Memory (PM) proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10). Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to use the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints. PMID:27757082

  9. Exercise-Induced Cognitive Plasticity, Implications for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Foster, Philip P.; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Kuljiš, Rodrigo O.

    2011-01-01

    Lifestyle factors such as intellectual stimulation, cognitive and social engagement, nutrition, and various types of exercise appear to reduce the risk for common age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia. In fact, many studies have suggested that promoting physical activity can have a protective effect against cognitive deterioration later in life. Slowing or a deterioration of walking speed is associated with a poor performance in tests assessing psycho...

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status Enhances the Prevention of Cognitive Decline by B Vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Jernerén, Fredrik; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David; de Jager, Celeste A

    2015-01-01

    A randomized trial (VITACOG) in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) found that B vitamin treatment to lower homocysteine slowed the rate of cognitive and clinical decline. We have used data from this trial to see whether baseline omega-3 fatty acid status interacts with the effects of B vitamin treatment. 266 participants with MCI aged ≥70 years were randomized to B vitamins (folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12) or placebo for 2 years. Baseline cognitive test performance, clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine, total docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (omega-3 fatty acids) were measured. Final scores for verbal delayed recall, global cognition, and CDR sum-of-boxes were better in the B vitamin-treated group according to increasing baseline concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, whereas scores in the placebo group were similar across these concentrations. Among those with good omega-3 status, 33% of those on B vitamin treatment had global CDR scores >0 compared with 59% among those on placebo. For all three outcome measures, higher concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid alone significantly enhanced the cognitive effects of B vitamins, while eicosapentaenoic acid appeared less effective. When omega-3 fatty acid concentrations are low, B vitamin treatment has no effect on cognitive decline in MCI, but when omega-3 levels are in the upper normal range, B vitamins interact to slow cognitive decline. A clinical trial of B vitamins combined with omega-3 fatty acids is needed to see whether it is possible to slow the conversion from MCI to AD. PMID:26757190

  11. 遗忘型轻度认知功能损害患者认知特征与低密度脂蛋白受体相关蛋白1基因的关联研究%Cognitive function and LRP1 gene C766T polymorphism in amuestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施咏梅; 张志珺; 宇辉; 柏峰; 袁勇责; 邓玲珑

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between neuropsychological characteristics and low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) gene C766T polymorphism in amnestic mild cognitive impair-ment (Amci). Methods 109 Amci patients and 104 matched normal controls were recruited for the study. Multi-dimension neuropsychologic tests were used to extensively assess the cognitive function. Assay-on-demand was used to analyse LRP1 gene C766T polymorphism in the subjects. Results The scores of neuropsychologic tests in Amci patients were significantly lower than those in the normal controls ( all P0.05). Conclusion Amci is characterized by episodic memory impairment;and LRP1 gene C766T polymorphism may not be an important genetic factor in susceptibility to aMCI.%目的 探讨遗忘型轻度认知功能损害(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)的认知特征及其与低密度脂蛋白受体相关蛋白1(low density lipoprotein receptor related protein1,LRP1)基因C766T多态性的关联性.方法 应用多维度神经心理测试评估109例aMCI患者和104例正常对照者的神经认知功能;采用等位基因鉴别方法分析LRPI基因C766T多态性.结果 aMCI组的各项神经认知测试成绩均显著差于正常对照组(P0.05).aMCI组LRP1基因C766T等位基因亚组间各神经认知测试成绩差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 aMCI患者存在明显的情节记忆减退;LRP1基因C766T多态性不是aMCI主要的遗传风险因素.

  12. Changes over time in memory, processing speed and clock drawing tests help to discriminate between vascular cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Celeste A

    2004-07-01

    Measures of cognitive change over time may help to better discriminate between mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and vascular cognitive impairment than single assessments. Our hypothesis was that performance in processing speed and executive function would decline with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Subjects included 36 controls, 18 cases with mild cognitive impairment, eight with vascular cognitive impairment and 24 with Alzheimer's disease who were tested on a cognitive battery at two episodes with a 12-month interval. Changes in performance were determined for each group with paired means tests. Controls improved in pattern comparison speed and the CLOX, a clock-drawing task to detect dysexecutive function. Those with vascular cognitive impairment declined in letter comparison speed, but improved in paragraph recall. Alzheimer's disease patients declined in CLOX and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. The mild cognitive impairment group showed no significant changes. Alzheimer's disease patients on treatment declined in Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, while those without treatment declined in The Placing Test and CLOX. Processing speed decline may be a marker of cerebrovascular disease, while decline in memory and executive function was more evident with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:15362213

  13. Effects of a multidisciplinar cognitive rehabilitation program for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane F. Viola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program on cognition, quality of life, and neuropsychiatry symptoms in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. METHOD: The present study was a single-blind, controlled study that was conducted at a university-based day-hospital memory facility. The study included 25 Alzheimer's patients and their caregivers and involved a 12-week stimulation and psychoeducational program. The comparison group consisted of 16 Alzheimer's patients in waiting lists for future intervention. INTERVENTION: Group sessions were provided by a multiprofessional team and included memory training, computer-assisted cognitive stimulation, expressive activities (painting, verbal expression, writing, physiotherapy, and physical training. Treatment was administered twice a week during 6.5-h gatherings. MEASUREMENTS: The assessment battery comprised the following tests: Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Cognitive Test, Quality of Life in Alzheimer's disease, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Test scores were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study by raters who were blinded to the group assignments. RESULTS: Measurements of global cognitive function and performance on attention tasks indicated that patients in the experimental group remained stable, whereas controls displayed mild but significant worsening. The intervention was associated with reduced depression symptoms for patients and caregivers and decreased neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's subjects. The treatment was also beneficial for the patients' quality of life. CONCLUSION: This multimodal rehabilitation program was associated with cognitive stability and significant improvements in the quality of life for Alzheimer's patients. We also observed a significant decrease in depressive symptoms and caregiver burden. These results support the notion that structured nonpharmacological interventions can yield

  14. Assessment of impairment in activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment using an individualized scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Giseli de Fátima Dos Santos; Oliveira, Alexandra Martini; Chaves, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Aprahamian, Ivan; Nunes, Paula Villela

    2016-07-01

    Mild impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) can occur in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but the nature and extent of these difficulties need to be further explored. The Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM) is one of the few individualized scales designed to identify self-perceived difficulties in ADL. The present study investigated impairments in ADL using the COPM in elderly with MCI. A total of 58 MCI patients were submitted to the COPM for studies of its validity and reliability. The COPM proved a valid and consistent instrument for evaluating ADL in elderly MCI patients. A total of 74.6% of the MCI patients reported difficulties in ADL. Of these problems, 41.2% involved self-care, 31.4% productivity and 27.4% leisure. This data further corroborates recent reports of possible functional impairment in complex ADL in MCI. PMID:27487375

  15. Can outbred mice be used as a mouse model of mild cognitive impairment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Wenhua Xu; Chao Wang; Dewu Huang; Guihai Chen

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in spatial learning and memory are some of the earliest symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there are few valid MCI animal models available to evaluate putative therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to obtain a natural animal model of MCI. Outbred Kunming (aged 5 and 12.5 months) and ICR (7 and 12 months) mice were utilized in the present study. Morris water maze and radial six-arm water maze (RAWM) were simultaneously used to evaluate impaired spatial learning and memory in middle-aged mice (approximately 12 months of age). Compared with younger mice in the respective groups, the middle-aged mice suffered visible impairment of spatial memory in the Morris water maze and RAWM, and mild spatial learning deficiency occurred in the RAWM study alone. Thus outbred Kunming and ICR mice could be utilized as a natural animal model for MCI, in particular for memory impairment studies.

  16. 轻度认知障碍患者多模态磁共振特征%Multi-modality magnetic resonance imaging features of cognitive function in mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华丽; 袁慧书; 苏敏莹; 朱玥; 廖晶; 张关燕; 李涛; 于欣

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨轻度认知损害者(MCI)和阿尔茨海默病(AD)患者多模态磁共振成像特征与认知功能的关系.方法 共纳入9例遗忘型MCI,15例轻度AD及11例正常对照,以简明精神状况检查(MMSE)和认知功能筛查测验(CASI)评估总体认知功能,对高分辨率结构像进行基于体素形态学分析(VBM),测量扩散张量成像(DTI)图像、各脑区白质各向异性比值(FA)和平均表观弥散系数(ADC),分析脑结构萎缩及白质DTI指标与认知评分的相关性.结果 MMSE和CASI评分与颞、额、顶、扣带回、海马旁回等结构灰质体积改变呈正相关(P<0.001),MMSE和CASI总分与颞、顶叶以及海马旁回的FA值呈正相关,与ADC值呈负相关(P<0.05).结论 MCI和AD患者认知功能与颞、顶、海马旁回等脑区萎缩及白质微观结构损伤密切相关,多模态影像技术可作为认知损害脑机制研究的重要技术手段.%Objective To investigate the association of multi-modality neuroimaging features and cognitive function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD).Methods Nine individuals with amnestic MCI (aMCI), fifteen patients with mild probable AD, and eleven age-controlled cognitively normal controls (NC) were recruited.All participants were administered with mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and Cognitive assessment screening instrument (CASI) to assess general cognitive function.Optimized voxel-based morphometry ( VBM ) was used for the analysis with 3-D high resolution anatomical images.Values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean apparent diffusivity coefficient (ADC) were measured from different brain regions on diffusion-tensor images ( DTI) .The relationship between structural atrophy and DTI-based measurements in the selected brain regions was examined.Results The scores of MMSE and CASI were correlated with the volumetric changes in such areas as temporal, frontal and parietal lobes, and cingulate gyrus and hippocampal

  17. Exercise-induced cognitive plasticity, implications for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Foster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors such as intellectual stimulation, cognitive and social engagement, nutrition, and various types of exercise appear to reduce the risk for common age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia. In fact, many studies have suggested that promoting physical activity can have a protective effect against cognitive deterioration later in life. Slowing or a deterioration of walking speed is associated with a poor performance in tests assessing psychomotor speed and verbal fluency in elderly individuals. Fitness training influences a wide range of cognitive processes, and the largest positive impact observed is for executive (a.k.a. frontal lobe functions. Studies show that exercise improves additional cognitive functions such as tasks mediated by the hippocampus, and result in major changes in plasticity in the hippocampus. Interestingly, this exercise-induced plasticity is also pronounced in APOE ε4 carriers who express a risk factor for late-onset AD that may modulate the effect of treatments. Based on AD staging by Braak et al., we propose that the effects of exercise occur in two temporo-spatial continua of events. The inward continuum from isocortex (neocortex to entorhinal cortex/hippocampus for amyloidosis and a reciprocal outward continuum for neurofibrillary alterations. The exercise-induced hypertrophy of the hippocampus at the core of these continua is evaluated in terms of potential for prevention to stave off neuronal degeneration. Exercise-induced production of growth factors such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to enhance neurogenesis and to play a key role in positive cognitive effects. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 may mediate the exercise-induced response to exercise on BDNF, neurogenesis and cognitive performance. It is also postulated to regulate brain amyloid β (Aβ levels by increased clearance via the choroid plexus. Growth factors

  18. Profile of hippocampal volumes and stroke risk varies by neuropsychological definition of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Amy J; Urban, Stephanie; McCauley, Ashley; Bangen, Katherine J; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Bondi, Mark W

    2009-11-01

    Wide-ranging conceptual and diagnostic approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have led to highly variable prevalence and progression rates. We sought to examine whether bilateral hippocampal volumes and cerebrovascular risk factors in individuals characterized by two different neuropsychological definitions of MCI subtypes would also differ. Participants were 65 nondemented, community-dwelling, older adults, ages 62-91 years, drawn from a larger group of individuals enrolled in a longitudinal study of normal aging. A comprehensive neuropsychological definition of MCI that required the presence of more than one impaired score in a cognitive domain resulted in expected anatomical results; hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller in the aMCI group as compared to cognitively normal or nonamnestic MCI participants. However, a typical definitional scheme for classifying MCI based only on the presence of one impaired score within a cognitive domain did not result in hippocampal differences between groups. Global stroke risk factors did not differ between the two definitional schemes, although the relationship between stroke risk variables and neuropsychological performance did vary by diagnostic approach. The comprehensive approach demonstrated associations between stroke risk and cognition, whereas the typical approach did not. Use of more sophisticated clinical decision-making and diagnostic approaches that incorporate comprehensive neuropsychological assessment techniques is supported by this convergence of neuropsychological, neuropathological, and stroke risk findings. PMID:19570306

  19. A Mutual Self- and Informant-Report of Cognitive Complaint Correlates with Neuropathological Outcomes in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Gifford

    Full Text Available This study examines whether different sources of cognitive complaint (i.e., self and informant predict Alzheimer's disease (AD neuropathology in elders with mild cognitive impairment (MCI.Data were drawn from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform and Neuropathology Datasets (observational studies for participants with a clinical diagnosis of MCI and postmortem examination (n = 1843, 74±8 years, 52% female. Cognitive complaint (0.9±0.5 years prior to autopsy was classified into four mutually exclusive groups: no complaint, self-only, informant-only, or mutual (both self and informant complaint. Postmortem neuropathological outcomes included amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Proportional odds regression related complaint to neuropathology, adjusting for age, sex, race, education, depressed mood, cognition, APOE4 status, and last clinical visit to death interval.Mutual complaint related to increased likelihood of meeting NIA/Reagan Institute (OR = 6.58, p = 0.004 and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease criteria (OR = 5.82, p = 0.03, and increased neurofibrillary tangles (OR = 3.70, p = 0.03, neuritic plaques (OR = 3.52, p = 0.03, and diffuse plaques (OR = 4.35, p = 0.02. Informant-only and self-only complaint was not associated with any neuropathological outcome (all p-values>0.12.In MCI, mutual cognitive complaint relates to AD pathology whereas self-only or informant-only complaint shows no relation to pathology. Findings support cognitive complaint as a marker of unhealthy brain aging and highlight the importance of obtaining informant corroboration to increase confidence of underlying pathological processes.

  20. Do We Need Both Cognitive and Behavioural Components in Interventions for Depressed Mood in People with Mild Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Kershaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A growing literature suggests that people with mild intellectual disability (ID) who have depressed mood may benefit from cognitive--behavioural interventions. There has been some speculation regarding the relative merit of the components of this approach. The aim of this study was to compare (i) cognitive strategies; (ii) behavioural…

  1. Prevalence and associated behavioral symptoms of depression in mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Bekelaar, Kim; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of significant depressive symptoms in MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pati

  2. Association between cortical thickness and CSF biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohades, Sara; Dubois, Jonathan; Parent, Maxime;

    regional cortical thinning (CT) measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and brain amyloidosis (measured by CSF Ab 1-42 concentrations), or tau hyperphosphorylation (tau 181; p-tau) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients. We test the hypothesis that the association...... (CN; n¼8) were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Cortical surface reconstruction and group registration were generated using Freesurfer. A general linear model was used to conduct regressions between CSF markers and cortical thickness. Results: Correlation...

  3. Design of a prototype device for remote patient care with mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ocampo, M.; Segura-Giraldo, B.; Floréz-Hurtado, R.; Cortés-Aguirre, C.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a prototype telecare system, which allows to provide home care to patients with mild cognitive impairment and thus ensures their permanence in their usual environment. Telecare is oriented towards people who require constant attention due to conditions of advanced age, illness, physical risk or limited capabilities. Telecare offers these people a greater degree of independence. QFD methodology is used to develop electronic devices intended to monitor the environment and physiological state of the user continuously, providing communication between the telecare system and a monitoring center in order to take the most appropriate actions in any abnormal event.

  4. Systematic review of the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, Alison K; Cancelliere, Carol; Hincapié, Cesar A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment (CCI) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001-2012) using a previously published search strategy and predefined crit....... CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of evidence of an increased risk of dementia after MTBI. In children, objective evidence of CCI exists only for complicated MTBI. More definitive studies are needed to inform clinical decisions, assessment of prognosis, and public health policy....

  5. The clock drawing test as a screening tool in mild cognitive impairment and very mild dementia: a new brief method of scoring and normative data in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Monica; Pigliautile, Martina; D'Ambrosio, Valeria; Ercolani, Sara; Bianchini, Cinzia; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Vanacore, Nicola; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-06-01

    many studies sustained that the clock drawing test (CDT) was not able to accurately detect people with CDR = 0.5. Other researchers have promoted the use of scoring approaches with multiple scales that rate quantitative and qualitative features of the production. Nevertheless, these scoring systems are complex and time-consuming. We propose a new brief CDT' scoring system in order to find a good measure for mild cognitive decline which is at the same time easy to administer. we enrolled 719 subjects: n. 181 with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD); n. 200 with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and n. 338 healthy elderly subjects (C). our CDT-three-cluster scoring system demonstrated a good sensitivity and an excellent specificity to discriminate MCI subjects from normal elderly (76 and 84 %, respectively) and an excellent sensitivity and specificity to discriminate patients affected by mild Alzheimer disease (CDR: 1) from normal elderly (91 and 90 %, respectively). We found that CDT' score = 1.30 discriminate people with MCI, whereas a score = 4.38 discriminate AD patients. The three-cluster-scoring-system demonstrated a good diagnostic accuracy, taking into account those error-items more predictive of cognitive decline: omission of numbers or hands, writing numbers or hands in a wrong position and writing numbers or hands in a different code. Our CDT' scoring system is very short and easy method which can be used also by non-specialist. PMID:26863871

  6. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: correlation with regional grey matter volume loss revealed by diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Takayama, Yukihisa; Kamano, Norihiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi [Kyushu University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Monji, Akira; Kawashima, Toshiro [Kyushu University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    To determine which brain regions are relevant to deterioration in abstract reasoning as measured by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) in the context of dementia. MR images of 37 consecutive patients including 19 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered the CPM. Regional grey matter (GM) volume was evaluated according to the regimens of voxel-based morphometry, during which a non-linear registration algorithm called Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra was employed. Multiple regression analyses were used to map the regions where GM volumes were correlated with CPM scores. The strongest correlation with CPM scores was seen in the left middle frontal gyrus while a region with the largest volume was identified in the left superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations were seen in 14 additional regions in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres and right cerebellum. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in AD and aMCI measured by CPM is related to GM loss in multiple regions, which is in close agreement with the results of previous activation studies. (orig.)

  7. Altered oscillation and synchronization of default-mode network activity in mild Alzheimer's disease compared to mild cognitive impairment: an electrophysiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jung Hsiao

    Full Text Available Some researchers have suggested that the default mode network (DMN plays an important role in the pathological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine whether the cortical activities in DMN regions show significant difference between mild AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI, electrophysiological responses were analyzed from 21 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and 21 mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients during an eyes closed, resting-state condition. The spectral power and functional connectivity of the DMN were estimated using a minimum norm estimate (MNE combined with fast Fourier transform and imaginary coherence analysis. Our results indicated that source-based EEG maps of resting-state activity showed alterations of cortical spectral power in mild AD when compared to MCI. These alterations are characteristic of attenuated alpha or beta activities in the DMN, as are enhanced delta or theta activities in the medial temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. With regard to altered synchronization in AD, altered functional interconnections were observed as specific connectivity patterns of connection hubs in the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and medial temporal regions. Moreover, posterior theta and alpha power and altered connectivity in the medial temporal lobe correlated significantly with scores obtained on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. In conclusion, EEG is a useful tool for investigating the DMN in the brain and differentiating early stage AD and MCI patients. This is a promising finding; however, further large-scale studies are needed.

  8. Trajectories of care: spouses coping with changes related to mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A; McCann, Brandy Renee; Blieszner, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to non-normative changes in memory and cognition. While researchers are beginning to address the social consequences of MCI, no investigations have tracked how married couples respond to MCI over time as symptoms stabilize or become more severe. Guided by life course and symbolic interactionist tenets, we examined how 40 older couples in the United States adjusted to daily life after one partner was diagnosed with MCI and how their marital roles and relationship changed over a three- to four-year period. Data were collected from 2004 through 2010. All couples experienced an initial period of transition in coping with MCI where they made adjustments in their daily lives and interactions. Following this adjustment period, four trajectories of care emerged depending on the extent of the older adult's decline and the spouse's response. We conclude that changes associated with MCI affect role identity and have consequences for spousal relationships.

  9. Implementation of Segmentation Methods for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting seniors age 65 and over. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with behavioural assessments and cognitive tests, often followed by a brain scan. Advanced medical imaging is a good tool to predict conversion from prodromal stages (mild cognitive impairment) to Alzheimer's disease. Since volumetric MRI can detect changes in the size of brain regions, measuring those regions that atrophy during the progress of Alzheimer's disease can help the neurologist in his diagnostic. In the present investigation, we present an automatic tool that reads volumetric MRI and performs 2-dimensional (volume slices) and volumetric segmentation methods in order to segment gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used the MRI data sets database from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS).

  10. Implementation of Segmentation Methods for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoug, S.; Abdel-Dayem, A.

    2012-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting seniors age 65 and over. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with behavioural assessments and cognitive tests, often followed by a brain scan. Advanced medical imaging is a good tool to predict conversion from prodromal stages (mild cognitive impairment) to Alzheimer's disease. Since volumetric MRI can detect changes in the size of brain regions, measuring those regions that atrophy during the progress of Alzheimer's disease can help the neurologist in his diagnostic. In the present investigation, we present an automatic tool that reads volumetric MRI and performs 2-dimensional (volume slices) and volumetric segmentation methods in order to segment gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used the MRI data sets database from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS).

  11. Simulator Measures and Identification of Older Drivers With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Sophia; Dickerson, Anne E; Beratis, Ion; Yannis, George; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether a sign recall task on a driving simulator, self-report of driving ability, or age predicted differences in performance between drivers with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control participants. For the dependent measure, gathered using a driving simulator, working memory was subjected to interference at varying levels of driving task demands. Reliable between-groups differences in sign recall accuracy were demonstrated; recall declined under higher task demands. Recall scores, self-reported frequency of avoiding driving, and driver age did not predict MCI; only self-reported decline in global driving ability was significant. Findings support the use of driving simulators in practice and suggest that screening for age-related cognitive impairment should incorporate self-reported changes in driving proficiency for early identification of drivers who merit medical review. The results, although exploratory, have implications for practitioners. PMID:26943111

  12. Hubungan Antara Psychological Distress Dengan Mild Cognitive Impairment Pada Pasien Lanjut Usia Dengan Nyeri Punggung Bawah Kronik

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Irina Kemala

    2014-01-01

    Background In old age, some people exhibit cognitive impairment yet do not meet criteria for dementia. This state, most commonly referred to as mild cognitive impairment. In large prospective studies, higher level of chronic distress has been associated with cognitive decline and risk of AD in older person initially free of dementia. Here we test the hypothesis that psychological distress is associated with increased incidence of MCI in old age. Methods In all 30 patients with chroni...

  13. Summative effects of vascular risk factors on cortical thickness in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchistiakova, Ekaterina; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    Vascular risk factors (VRFs) increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contribute to neurodegenerative processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether increasing number of VRFs contributes to within-cohort differences in cortical thickness (CThk) among adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively intact older controls from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative 1, GO, and 2 data sets. Multivariate partial least squares analysis was used to investigate the effect of VRF index on regional CThk measurements, which produced a significant latent variable and identified patterns of cortical thinning in the MCI group but not controls. Subsequent analyses tested the interaction effects between VRF index and cognitive grouping and examined 1-year follow-up data. There was evidence of a VRF index by cognitive group interaction. Partial least squares results were replicated at 1-year follow-up among MCI cohort in a subset of baseline CThk regions. This study provides evidence that a summative VRF index accounts for some of the variance in brain tissue loss in regions implicated in AD among MCI adults. PMID:27459930

  14. Decreased Self-Appraisal Accuracy on Cognitive Tests of Executive Functioning Is a Predictor of Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherling, Carole S.; Wilkins, Sarah E.; Zakrezewski, Jessica; Kramer, Joel H.; Miller, Bruce L.; Weiner, Michael W.; Rosen, Howard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older individuals is associated with increased risk of progression to dementia. The factors predicting progression are not yet well established, yet cognitive performance, particularly for memory, is known to be important. Anosognosia, meaning lack of awareness of one’s impaired function, is commonly reported in dementia and is often also a feature of MCI, but its association with risk of progression is not well understood. In particular, self-appraisal measures provide an autonomous measure of insight abilities, without the need of an informant. Methods: The present study examined the utility of self-appraisal accuracy at baseline for predicting cognitive decline in 51 patients using an informant-free assessment method. Baseline task performance scores were compared to self-assessments of performance to yield a discrimination score (DS) for tasks tapping into memory and executive functions. Results: Linear regression revealed that a larger DS for executive function tasks in MCI predicted functional decline, independent of age, education, and baseline memory and executive task scores. Conclusion: These findings indicate that objective estimates of self-appraisal can be used to quantify anosognosia and increase predictive accuracy for decline in MCI. PMID:27458368

  15. Cognitive behavioral therapy in combination with systemic family therapy improves mild to moderate postpartum depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Hou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in combination with systemic family therapy (SFT on mild to moderate postpartum depression and sleep quality. Methods: 249 primiparous women with mild to moderate postpartum depression were recruited and randomly assigned to a control group (n=128, which received conventional postpartum care, or to a psychological intervention group (n=121, which received conventional postpartum care combined with psychological intervention. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were employed to evaluate depression and sleep quality, respectively. Results: 104 patients in the intervention group and 109 in the control group completed the study. After intervention, the EPDS score, PSQI score, sleep quality score, sleep latency score, sleep duration score, habitual sleep efficiency score, sleep disturbance score, and daytime dysfunction score were significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group. The EPDS and PSQI scores of each group at different time points after intervention were markedly decreased compared with those before intervention, and the reduction in the intervention group was more evident than that in the control group. Conclusion: CBT in combination with SFT can improve depression and sleep quality in patients with mild to moderate postpartum depression.

  16. Anticipatory Grief in New Family Caregivers of Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, Linda; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Deardorf, Kaitlyn E.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Anticipatory grief is the process of experiencing normal phases of bereavement in advance of the loss of a significant person. To date, anticipatory grief has been examined in family caregivers to individuals who have had Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) an average of 3 to 6 years. Whether such grief is manifested early in the disease trajectory (at diagnosis) is unknown. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined differences in the nature and extent of anticipatory grief between family caregivers of persons with a new diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=43) or AD (n=30). We also determined whether anticipatory grief levels were associated with caregiver demographics, caregiving burden, depressive symptoms and marital quality. Mean anticipatory grief levels were high in the total sample, with AD caregivers endorsing significantly more anticipatory grief than MCI caregivers. In general, AD caregivers endorsed difficulty functioning whereas MCI caregivers focused on themes of “missing the person” they once knew. Being a female caregiver, reporting higher levels of objective caregiving burden and higher depression levels each bore independent, statistically significant relationships with anticipatory grief. Given these findings, family caregivers of individuals with mild cognitive deficits or a new AD diagnosis may benefit from interventions specifically addressing anticipatory grief. PMID:21946013

  17. An evaluation of volume-based morphometry for prediction of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schmitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based morphometry from conventional T1-weighted images has proved effective to quantify Alzheimer's disease (AD related brain atrophy and to enable fairly accurate automated classification of AD patients, mild cognitive impaired patients (MCI and elderly controls. Little is known, however, about the classification power of volume-based morphometry, where features of interest consist of a few brain structure volumes (e.g. hippocampi, lobes, ventricles as opposed to hundreds of thousands of voxel-wise gray matter concentrations. In this work, we experimentally evaluate two distinct volume-based morphometry algorithms (FreeSurfer and an in-house algorithm called MorphoBox for automatic disease classification on a standardized data set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Results indicate that both algorithms achieve classification accuracy comparable to the conventional whole-brain voxel-based morphometry pipeline using SPM for AD vs elderly controls and MCI vs controls, and higher accuracy for classification of AD vs MCI and early vs late AD converters, thereby demonstrating the potential of volume-based morphometry to assist diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Mild cognitive impairment (part 2: biological markers for diagnosis and prediction of dementia in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes V. Forlenza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a critical review of publications reporting on the rationale and clinical implications of the use of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases, limited to articles published in English between 1999 and 2012, and based on the following terms: mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease OR dementia, biomarkers. We retrieved 1,130 articles, of which 175 were reviews. Overall, 955 original articles were eligible. Results: The following points were considered relevant for the present review: a rationale for biomarkers research in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI; b usefulness of distinct biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of AD; c the role of multimodality biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of AD; d the role of biomarkers in clinical trials of patients with AD and MCI; and e current limitations to the widespread use of biomarkers in research and clinical settings. Conclusion: Different biomarkers are useful for the early diagnosis and prediction of AD in at-risk subjects. Nonetheless, important methodological limitations need to be overcome for widespread use of biomarkers in research and clinical settings.

  19. Use of cognitive enhancers for mild cognitive impairment: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

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    Tricco Andrea C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly individuals who have memory problems without significant limitations in activities of daily living are often diagnosed as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Some of these individuals progress to dementia. Several cognitive enhancers (for example donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, memantine have been approved for use in people with Alzheimer’s dementia but their use in patients with MCI is unclear. We aimed to determine the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of cognitive enhancers for MCI through a systematic review and network (that is, indirect comparisons meta-analysis. Design/Methods We will include studies that examine the use of cognitive enhancers compared to placebo, supportive care, or other cognitive enhancers among patients diagnosed with MCI. Outcomes of interest include cognition and function (primary outcomes, as well as behavior, quality of life, safety, and cost (secondary outcomes. We will include all experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies (controlled before-after, interrupted time series, and observational studies (cohort, case–control. Studies will be included regardless of publication status (that is, we will include unpublished studies, year, or language of dissemination. To identify potentially relevant material, we will search the following electronic databases from inception onwards: MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Ageline. The electronic database search will be supplemented by scanning the reference lists of included studies, searching Google and organization websites for unpublished or difficult to locate material literature, and contacting experts. Two reviewers will independently screen the studies for inclusion using the eligibility criteria established a priori and independently extract data. Risk of bias will be assessed

  20. Emergence of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Late-Middle-Aged Adults in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Rebecca L.; Rue, Asenath La; Jonaitis, Erin M.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Sager, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim It is difficult to detect reliably the earliest signs of Alzheimer's-associated cognitive impairment. Our aim was to compare three psychometric methods of identifying amnestic MCI (aMCI) in a middle-aged longitudinal cohort enriched for AD risk. Methods Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participants with 3 waves of cognitive assessment over ~6 years were coded as meeting each of three psychometric aMCI definitions: a) ‘aMCI standard-baseline’ used published norms to establish cut-offs for baseline performance; b) ‘aMCI robust-baseline’ applied WRAP-specific robust norms to baseline; and c) ‘aMCI robust-multiwave’ applied these robust norms across 3 waves of assessment. Each group was compared to a cognitively healthy subset. Results Half the aMCI standard-baseline and one-third the aMCI robust-baseline group reverted to normal ranges at follow-up. Only the aMCI robust-multiwave method had an aMCI*age interaction showing significantly worse age-related memory declines in the aMCI group compared to the cognitively healthy group over six years of follow-up. Conclusion Both cross-sectional methods showed instability over time, with many reverting to normal performance post-baseline. The multiwave approach identified a group who showed progressive memory declines over 3 visits. Being able to detect progressive decline in late-middle-age is a critical step in improving prevention efforts. PMID:24556849

  1. Are NSAIDs useful to treat Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P Imbimbo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies suggest that long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may protect subjects carrying one or more ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 against the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The biological mechanism of this protection is not completely understood and may involve the anti-inflammatory properties of NSAIDs or their ability of interfering with the β-amyloid (Aβ cascade. Unfortunately, long-term, placebo-controlled clinical trials with both non-selective and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 selective inhibitors in mild-to-moderate AD patients produced negative results. A secondary prevention study with rofecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, in patients with mild cognitive impairment was also negative. A primary prevention study (ADAPT trial of naproxen (a non-selective COX inhibitor and celecoxib (a COX-2 selective inhibitor in cognitively normal elderly subjects with a family history of AD was prematurely interrupted for safety reasons after a median period of treatment of 2 years. Although both drugs did not reduce the incidence of dementia after two years of treatment, a 4-year follow up assessment surprisingly revealed that subjects previously exposed to naproxen were protected from the onset of AD by 67% compared to placebo. Thus, it could be hypothesized that the chronic use of NSAIDs may be beneficial only in the very early stages of the AD process in coincidence of initial Aβ deposition, microglia activation and consequent release of pro-inflammatory mediators. When the Aβ deposition process is already started, NSAIDs are no longer effective and may even be detrimental because of their inhibitory activity on chronically activated microglia that on long-term may mediate Aβ clearance. The research community should conduct long-term trials with NSAIDs in cognitively normal APOE ε4 carriers.

  2. MRI markers for mild cognitive impairment: comparisons between white matter integrity and gray matter volume measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of assessing white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and prediction of cognitive impairments in comparison to brain atrophy measurements using structural MRI. Fifty-one patients with MCI and 66 cognitive normal controls (CN underwent DTI and T1-weighted structural MRI. DTI measures included fractional anisotropy (FA and radial diffusivity (DR from 20 predetermined regions-of-interest (ROIs in the commissural, limbic and association tracts, which are thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease; measures of regional gray matter (GM volume included 21 ROIs in medial temporal lobe, parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significant group differences between MCI and CN were detected by each MRI modality: In particular, reduced FA was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and fornix; increased DR was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and bilateral uncinate fasciculi; reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, left entorhinal cortex, right amygdala and bilateral thalamus; and thinner cortex was found in the left entorhinal cortex. Group classifications based on FA or DR was significant and better than classifications based on GM volume. Using either DR or FA together with GM volume improved classification accuracy. Furthermore, all three measures, FA, DR and GM volume were similarly accurate in predicting cognitive performance in MCI patients. Taken together, the results imply that DTI measures are as accurate as measures of GM volume in detecting brain alterations that are associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, a combination of DTI and structural MRI measurements improves classification accuracy.

  3. Evidence-based medical research on diagnostic criteria and screening technique of vascular mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-wei LIU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI is the prodromal syndrome of vascular dementia (VaD and key target for drug treatment. There is controversy over the diagnostic criteria and screening tools of VaMCI, which affects its clinical diagnosis. This paper aims to explore the clinical features, diagnostic criteria and screening technique of VaMCI.  Methods Taking "vascular mild cognitive impairment OR vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" as retrieval terms, search in PubMed database from January 1997 to March 2015 and screen relevant literatures concerning VaMCI. According to Guidance for the Preparation of Neurological Management Guidelines revised by European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS in 2004, evidence grading was performed on literatures. Results A total of 32 literatures in English were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, including 3 guidelines and consensus and 29 clinical studies. Seven literatures (2 on Level Ⅰ, 5 on Level Ⅱ studied on neuropsychological features in VaMCI patients and found reduced processing speed and executive function impairment were main features. Two literatures reported the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI, including VaMCI criteria published by American Heart Association (AHA/American Stroke Association (ASA in 2011 and "Diagnostic Criteria for Vascular Cognitive Disorders" published by International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG in 2014. Fifteen literatures (4 on LevelⅠ, 11 on Level Ⅱ described the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI used in clinical research, from which 6 operational diagnostic items were extracted. Fourteen literatures (4 on Level Ⅰ, 10 on Level Ⅱ described neuropsychological assessment tools for VaMCI screening, and found the 5-minute protocol recommended by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN was being good consistency with other neuropsychological

  4. Driving Competence in Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies: In Search of Cognitive Predictors Using Driving Simulation

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    Stephanie Yamin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving is a multifactorial behaviour drawing on multiple cognitive, sensory, and physical systems. Dementia is a progressive and degenerative neurological condition that impacts the cognitive processes necessary for safe driving. While a number of studies have examined driving among individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, less is known about the impact of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB on driving safety. The present study compared simulated driving performance of 15 older drivers with mild DLB with that of 21 neurologically healthy control drivers. DLB drivers showed poorer performance on all indicators of simulated driving including an increased number of collisions in the simulator and poorer composite indicators of overall driving performance. A measure of global cognitive function (i.e., the Mini Mental State Exam was found to be related to the overall driving performance. In addition, measures of attention (i.e., Useful Field of View, UFOV and space processing (Visual Object and Space Perception, VOSP, Test correlated significantly with a rater’s assessment of driving performance.

  5. Assessment of strategic processing during narrative comprehension in individuals with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Creamer, Scott

    2010-07-01

    A think-aloud protocol was used to examine the strategies used by individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) during text comprehension. Twenty-three participants with MCI and 23 cognitively healthy older adults (OA) read narratives, pausing to verbalize their thoughts after each sentence. The verbal protocol analysis developed by Trabasso and Magliano (1996) was then used to code participants' utterances into inferential and non-inferential statements; inferential statements were further coded to identify the memory operation used in their generation. Compared with OA controls, the MCI participants showed poorer story comprehension and produced fewer inferences. The MCI participants were also less skilled at providing explanations of story events and in using prior text information to support inference generation. Poorer text comprehension was associated with poorer verbal memory abilities and poorer use of prior text events when producing inferential statements. The results suggest that the memory difficulties of the MCI group may be an important cognitive factor interfering with their ability to integrate narrative events through the use of inferences and to form a global coherence to support text comprehension.

  6. The Prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Diverse Geographical and Ethnocultural Regions: The COSMIC Collaboration.

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    Perminder S Sachdev

    Full Text Available Changes in criteria and differences in populations studied and methodology have produced a wide range of prevalence estimates for mild cognitive impairment (MCI.Uniform criteria were applied to harmonized data from 11 studies from USA, Europe, Asia and Australia, and MCI prevalence estimates determined using three separate definitions of cognitive impairment.The published range of MCI prevalence estimates was 5.0%-36.7%. This was reduced with all cognitive impairment definitions: performance in the bottom 6.681% (3.2%-10.8%; Clinical Dementia Rating of 0.5 (1.8%-14.9%; Mini-Mental State Examination score of 24-27 (2.1%-20.7%. Prevalences using the first definition were 5.9% overall, and increased with age (P < .001 but were unaffected by sex or the main races/ethnicities investigated (Whites and Chinese. Not completing high school increased the likelihood of MCI (P ≤ .01.Applying uniform criteria to harmonized data greatly reduced the variation in MCI prevalence internationally.

  7. Mild Cognitive Impairment: Vascular Risk Factors in Community Elderly in Four Cities of Hebei Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lulu; Wang, Lan; An, Cuixia; Xun, Shunjiang; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xueyi

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence has demonstrated that vascular risk factors (VRFs) contribute to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the elderly population. Because of the race and different diagnosis standard, there is still no definitive conclusions. Objective To estimate the VRFs and potential protective factors for MCI in elderly population living in the community in North China. Methods A total of 3136 participants entered the study. They were screened for hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Cognitive function was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The diagnosis of MCI was made according to Petersen’s criteria. We investigated the relationship between vascular risk factors, potential protective factors and MCI. Results A total of 2511 (80%) participant belonged to normal group and 625 (20%) participants showed MCI. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that stroke and diabetes, but not hypertension or CHD was associated with MCI. Besides, exercise habit could lower the risk of MCI. Conclusions Vascular Risk Factors, including stroke and diabetes, rather than hypertension and CHD are independent risk factors of MCI. Involvement in physical activities seems to reduce the risk of MCI. PMID:25962184

  8. Mild cognitive impairment: vascular risk factors in community elderly in four cities of Hebei Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Wang

    Full Text Available Evidence has demonstrated that vascular risk factors (VRFs contribute to mild cognitive impairment (MCI in the elderly population. Because of the race and different diagnosis standard, there is still no definitive conclusions.To estimate the VRFs and potential protective factors for MCI in elderly population living in the community in North China.A total of 3136 participants entered the study. They were screened for hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD, and cerebrovascular disease (CVD. Cognitive function was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. The diagnosis of MCI was made according to Petersen's criteria. We investigated the relationship between vascular risk factors, potential protective factors and MCI.A total of 2511 (80% participant belonged to normal group and 625 (20% participants showed MCI. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that stroke and diabetes, but not hypertension or CHD was associated with MCI. Besides, exercise habit could lower the risk of MCI.Vascular Risk Factors, including stroke and diabetes, rather than hypertension and CHD are independent risk factors of MCI. Involvement in physical activities seems to reduce the risk of MCI.

  9. Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jeong Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsA total of 226 older (age ≥65 years adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K. A MoCA-K score <23 was defined as MCI.ResultsThe prevalence of MCI was 32.7%. In a logistic regression analysis, age (≥74 years old vs. 65-68 years old; odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 8.82; P=0.003, educational background (college graduation vs. no school or elementary school graduation; OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.46; P=0.001, and systolic blood pressure (≥135 mm Hg vs. ≤120 mm Hg; OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.29 to 8.17; P=0.012 were associated with MCI.ConclusionMore concentrated efforts focused on early detection and appropriate management of MCI may be required in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment Display Reduced Auditory Event-Related Delta Oscillatory Responses

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    Pınar Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Event-related oscillations (ERO may provide a useful tool for the identification of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD. In the present study, we investigate peak-to-peak amplitude of auditory event-related delta oscillations of MCI subjects. Method. The study included twenty-two consecutive patients with MCI recruited in neurology clinic and 21 age- and education-matched normal elderly controls. A classical auditory oddball paradigm was used in the experiments. EEG was recorded from F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz, P4, O1, Oz, and O2 locations. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes for each subject’s averaged delta response (0.5–2.2 Hz were measured. Results. The amplitudes between groups differed significantly at the frontal and mid-centroparietal locations. ANOVA on delta responses revealed a significant effect for groups (F(1.41 = 4.84, P=0.033, indicating a larger delta response for healthy controls than MCI subjects. Post hoc comparisons revealed that peak-to-peak delta response was significantly larger for healthy controls than for MCI over electrode sites F3, Fz, F4, Cz, C4, and Pz. Discussion. Event-related delta frequency band seems to be the most affected oscillatory response in cognitive impairment due to AD. Therefore, it deserves to be investigated as a candidate electrophysiological biomarker in further studies.

  11. Comparison of a Mirror Neuron System among Elders with Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, and No Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. There are lots of old people suffering from the disease. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal aging and dementia. An individual with MCI has an increased risk of developing AD. The mirror neuron system (MNS), activated during the observation and execution of actions, has been linked with cognitive processes.The objective of this study is to examine the MNS abnormalities in elders with MCI and AD. Ninety-two subjects (5 MCI,7 mild AD, and 80 cognitively normal) were studied by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the fMRI experiment, subjects were asked to observe a video showing hand movement (tearing a piece of paper) and a control condition (observing a fixation point).The image data were analyzed using SPM2 (Statistical Parametric Mapping).There were significant activations of bilateral inferior frontal lobule and inferior parietal lobule due to the observation of hand movement.The brain activations of the normal group were statistical significant greater than those in the MCI and mild AD groups.There was no significant difference between the MCI and mild AD groups. Elders with MCI and mild AD had fewer MNS activations than the normal controls, suggesting that the dysfunction of MNS may underlie cognitive impairments in MCI and AD patients.These findings imply that fMRI is sufficiently sensitive to detect MNS changes occurring in MCI and AD.

  12. Mild cognitive impairment in elderly hypertensive patients:a retrospective case series study%老年高血压患者的轻度认知损害:回顾性病例系列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔伟; 王新; 王海峰; 张永红; 王平; 邢成名

    2012-01-01

    (OR 0.807,95% CI 0.742 - 0.878; P =0.000) and hypertension (OR 1.788,95% CI 1.004 -3.146; P =0.048 ) were the independent risk factors for mild cognitive impairment; and hypertension (OR 2.091,95% CI 1.030 -4.242; P=0.041) was an independent risk factor for non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment,and was mainly impaired visuospatial and executive abilities (P =0.026).Conclusions Hypertension is an independent risk factor for mild cognitive impairment and its subtype-non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment,and it mainly impairs executive ability.

  13. Orthostatic intolerance predicts mild cognitive impairment: incidence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia from the Swedish general population cohort Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmståhl S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sölve Elmståhl, Elisabet Widerström Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Introduction: Contradictory results have been reported on the relationship between orthostatic hypotension (OH and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Objective: To study the incidence of MCI and dementia and their relationship to OH and subclinical OH with orthostatic symptoms (orthostatic intolerance.Study design and setting: This study used a prospective general population cohort design and was based on data from the Swedish Good Aging in Skåne study (GÅS-SNAC, they were studied 6 years after baseline of the present study, with the same study protocol at baseline and at follow-up. The study sample comprised 1,480 randomly invited subjects aged 60 to 93 years, and had a participation rate of 82% at follow-up. OH test included assessment of blood pressure and symptoms of OH. Results: The 6-year incidence of MCI was 8%, increasing from 12.1 to 40.5 per 1,000 person-years for men and 6.9 to 16.9 per 1,000 person-years for women aged 60 to >80 years. The corresponding 6-year incidence of dementia was 8%. Orthostatic intolerance during uprising was related to risk for MCI at follow-up (odds ratio [OR] =1.84 [1.20–2.80][95% CI], adjusted for age and education independently of blood pressure during testing. After stratification for hypertension (HT, the corresponding age-adjusted OR for MCI in the non-HT group was 1.71 (1.10–2.31 and 1.76 (1.11–2.13 in the HT group. Among controls, the proportion of those with OH was 16%; those with MCI 24%; and those with dementia 31% (age-adjusted OR 1.93 [1.19–3.14]. Conclusion: Not only OH, but also symptoms of OH, seem to be a risk factor for cognitive decline and should be considered in the management of blood pressure among the elderly population. Keywords: orthostatic blood pressure, epidemiology, elderly

  14. Ability to manage everyday technology : a comparison of persons with dementia or mild cognitive impairment and older adults without cognitive impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Almkvist, Ove; Kottorp, Anders; Nygård, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to manage technology is important for performance and participation in everyday activities. This study compares the management of technology in everyday activities among people with mild-stage dementia or MCI with older adults without known cognitive impairment (OA). Method: Persons with mild-stage dementia (n=38), MCI (n=34) and OA (n=45) were observed and interviewed when managing their everyday technology at home by using the Management of Everyday Technology Ass...

  15. Group Intensive Cognitive Activation in Patients with Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

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    Simonetta ePanerai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: No standard protocols are available for cognitive rehabilitation in conditions like Major or Mild Neurocognitive disorder (M-NCD or m-NCD, respectively; however, preliminary data seem to indicate that such interventions might have cost-effective beneficial effects and are free from side effect or adverse events. Three basic approaches are known: cognitive stimulation, cognitive training, and cognitive rehabilitation. Objective: Aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a protocol of Group Intensive Cognitive Activation (g-ICA in patients with both M-NCD and m-NCD; the protocol was specifically arranged in our Research Institute, based on the principles of the central role of the patient and the mediation pedagogy.Subjects and Method: Sixteen patients with M-NCD and fifteen patients with m-NCD were enrolled, as well as 11 patients with M-NCD who were used as a control group. The intervention was carried-out by a clinical neuropsychologist with daily group sessions over a period of two months. Neuropsychological assessment was performed at baseline and after the completion of the rehabilitative intervention.Results: General cognitive functioning, attention, ideomotor praxis and visual memory scores were found to be significantly increased in all patients. Beneficial and significant effects were also found for constructive praxis in M-NCD and for executive functioning in m-NCD. All areas of the language function were significantly ameliorated in m-NCD, while this happened only for verbal repetition and syntax-grammar comprehension in M-NCD. No changes were detected for long- and short-term verbal memory, which were found to be worsened in controls without activation.Conclusion: Our findings seem to indicate that g-ICA might be effective in inducing beneficial changes on the general cognitive functioning and other specific functions in patients with both m-NCD and M-NCD. Moreover, the specific protocol proposed, even if susceptible

  16. 轻度认知障碍的危险因素%The Risk Factors of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丹丹; 邢小芳

    2014-01-01

    轻度认知障碍是指介于正常衰老与阿尔茨海默病之间的过渡阶段,有轻度的记忆力损害,但其他功能保持完好。文章对轻度认知障碍的危险因素进行综述。%Mild cognitive impairment is an unstable clinical stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease, and is deemed to convert mostly to dementia while other functions remain intact. This paper reviewed the risk factors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

  17. Amyloid-β deposition in mild cognitive impairment is associated with increased hippocampal activity, atrophy and clinical progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Wigman, Sarah; Ward, Andrew M.; Larvie, Mykol; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Marshall, Gad A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using a memory task in patients with mild cognitive impairment have produced discordant results, with some studies reporting increased hippocampal activity—consistent with findings in genetic at-risk populations—and other studies reporting decreased hippocampal activity, relative to normal controls. However, previous studies in mild cognitive impairment have not included markers of amyloid-β, which may be particularly important in prediction of progression along the Alzheimer’s disease continuum. Here, we examine the contribution of amyloid-β deposition to cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity, hippocampal volume, global cognition and clinical progression over 36 months in 33 patients with mild cognitive impairment. Amyloid-β status was examined with positron emission tomography imaging using Pittsburg compound-B, hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was assessed using an associative face-name memory encoding task, and hippocampal volume was quantified with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Finally global cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and clinical progression was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (Sum of Boxes). At baseline, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment showed increased hippocampal activation, smaller hippocampal volumes, and a trend towards lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher Clinical Dementia Ratings compared to amyloid-β negative patients with mild cognitive impairment. Longitudinally, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment continued to show high levels of hippocampal activity, despite increasing rates of hippocampal atrophy, decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination and faster progression on the Clinical Dementia Ratings. When entered simultaneously into the same linear mixed model

  18. Amyloid-β deposition in mild cognitive impairment is associated with increased hippocampal activity, atrophy and clinical progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbers, Willem; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Schultz, Aaron P; Wigman, Sarah; Ward, Andrew M; Larvie, Mykol; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Marshall, Gad A; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A

    2015-04-01

    Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using a memory task in patients with mild cognitive impairment have produced discordant results, with some studies reporting increased hippocampal activity--consistent with findings in genetic at-risk populations--and other studies reporting decreased hippocampal activity, relative to normal controls. However, previous studies in mild cognitive impairment have not included markers of amyloid-β, which may be particularly important in prediction of progression along the Alzheimer's disease continuum. Here, we examine the contribution of amyloid-β deposition to cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity, hippocampal volume, global cognition and clinical progression over 36 months in 33 patients with mild cognitive impairment. Amyloid-β status was examined with positron emission tomography imaging using Pittsburg compound-B, hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was assessed using an associative face-name memory encoding task, and hippocampal volume was quantified with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Finally global cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and clinical progression was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (Sum of Boxes). At baseline, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment showed increased hippocampal activation, smaller hippocampal volumes, and a trend towards lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher Clinical Dementia Ratings compared to amyloid-β negative patients with mild cognitive impairment. Longitudinally, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment continued to show high levels of hippocampal activity, despite increasing rates of hippocampal atrophy, decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination and faster progression on the Clinical Dementia Ratings. When entered simultaneously into the same linear mixed model

  19. Differences in the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment and cognitive functions between early and delayed responders in a community-based study of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2013-01-01

    Significant differences exist in demographic characteristics between responders and non-responders in population-based studies on mental health and cognitive status, but much less is known regarding differences in the prevalence of dementia and cognitive dysfunction between them. Here we compared the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment between early responders of a mass brain function examination and delayed responders (non-responders of the mass brain function examination) in a survey of elderly Japanese citizens (≥65 years) to evaluate non-responder bias. All residents in an area of Nakajima, Japan, were considered as potential candidates (n = 783). Participants of a mass brain function examination were considered as "early responders." The cognitive functions of delayed responders were assessed by home visits. To assess the correlation between sociodemographic characteristics and cognitive functions, the early and delayed responders completed the same questionnaires and neuropsychological tests. Delayed responders (n = 320) were significantly older and less educated than the early responders (n = 307). The delayed responders also exhibited a higher frequency of dementia and mild cognitive impairment than the early responders, even when the groups were restricted to the age group 65-89 years. Our results suggest that population-based studies likely underestimate the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment, especially if the participation rate is low.

  20. Choroidal Thickness in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Type Dementia

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    Mehmet Bulut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To asses both choroidal thickness differences among Alzheimer’s type dementia (ATD patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients, and healthy control (C subjects and choroidal thickness relationships with cognitive performance. Methods. A total of 246 eyes of 123 people (41 ATD, 38 MCI, and 44 healthy C subjects were included in this study. Complete ophthalmological and neurological examination was performed in all subjects. Choroidal thicknesses (CT were measured at seven locations: the fovea, 500-1500-3000 μm temporal and 500-1500-3000 μm nasal to the fovea by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT. Detailed neurological examination including mini mental state examination (MMSE test which evaluates the cognitive function was applied to all participants. Results. The ages and genders of all participants were similar in all groups. Compared with healthy C subjects, the CT measurements at all regions were significantly thinner both in patients with ATD and in patients with MCI than in healthy C subjects (p<0.05. The MMSE scores were significantly different among ATD patients, MCI patients, and healthy C subjects. They were 19.3±1.8, 24.8±0.9, and 27.6±1.2 in ATD, MCI, and healthy controls, respectively (p<0.001. There were also significant correlation between MMSE score and choroidal thickness at each location (p<0.05. Conclusions. CT was reduced in ATD patients and MCI patients. Since vascular structures were affected in ATD patients and MCI patients, they had thin CT. Besides CT was correlated with degree of cognitive impairment. Therefore CT may be a new biomarker in diagnosis and follow-up of MCI and ATD patients.

  1. Choroidal Thickness in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Type Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Mehmet; Yaman, Aylin; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Kurtuluş, Fatma; Toslak, Devrim; Doğan, Berna; Turgut Çoban, Deniz; Kaya Başar, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To asses both choroidal thickness differences among Alzheimer's type dementia (ATD) patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and healthy control (C) subjects and choroidal thickness relationships with cognitive performance. Methods. A total of 246 eyes of 123 people (41 ATD, 38 MCI, and 44 healthy C subjects) were included in this study. Complete ophthalmological and neurological examination was performed in all subjects. Choroidal thicknesses (CT) were measured at seven locations: the fovea, 500-1500-3000 μm temporal and 500-1500-3000 μm nasal to the fovea by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Detailed neurological examination including mini mental state examination (MMSE) test which evaluates the cognitive function was applied to all participants. Results. The ages and genders of all participants were similar in all groups. Compared with healthy C subjects, the CT measurements at all regions were significantly thinner both in patients with ATD and in patients with MCI than in healthy C subjects (p < 0.05). The MMSE scores were significantly different among ATD patients, MCI patients, and healthy C subjects. They were 19.3 ± 1.8, 24.8 ± 0.9, and 27.6 ± 1.2 in ATD, MCI, and healthy controls, respectively (p < 0.001). There were also significant correlation between MMSE score and choroidal thickness at each location (p < 0.05). Conclusions. CT was reduced in ATD patients and MCI patients. Since vascular structures were affected in ATD patients and MCI patients, they had thin CT. Besides CT was correlated with degree of cognitive impairment. Therefore CT may be a new biomarker in diagnosis and follow-up of MCI and ATD patients. PMID:26925259

  2. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  3. Electroconvulsive stimulation reverses anhedonia and cognitive impairments in rats exposed to chronic mild stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, K; Woldbye, D P D; Wiborg, O

    2013-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy remains the most effective treatment for depression including a fast onset of action. However, this therapeutic approach suffers from some potential drawbacks. In the acute phase this includes amnesia. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) has previously been shown...... to reverse a depression-like state in the chronic mild stress model of depression (CMS), but the effect of ECS on cognition has not previously been investigated. In this study the CMS model was used to induce a depressive-like condition in rats. The study was designed to investigate the acute effect of ECS...... treatment on working memory and the chronic effect of repeated ECS treatments on depression-like behavior and working memory. The results indicated that, in the acute phase, ECS treatment induced a working memory deficit in healthy controls unexposed to stress, while repeated treatments reversed stress...

  4. Effectiveness and safety of citicoline in mild vascular cognitive impairment: the IDEALE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotroneo AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antonino Maria Cotroneo,1 Alberto Castagna,2 Salvatore Putignano,3 Roberto Lacava,2 Fausto Fantò,4 Francesco Monteleone,5 Filomena Rocca,2 Alba Malara,6 Pietro Gareri21ASL 2 Turin, Piedmont, 2Elderly Health Care, Ambulatory Center for Dementia, ASP Catanzaro, Calabria, 3ASL Napoli 1, Campania, 4University Hospital Orbassano, Turin, Piedmont, 5Regina Margherita Hospital, Rome, 6Nursing Home S Domenico Lamezia Terme, ASP Catanzaro, Calabria, ItalyBackground: The studio di intervento nel decadimento vascolare lieve (IDEALE study was an open multicenter Italian study, the aim of which was to assess the effectiveness and safety of oral citicoline in elderly people with mild vascular cognitive impairment.Methods: The study was performed in 349 patients. The active or citicoline group was composed of 265 patients and included 122 men and 143 women of mean age 79.9 ± 7.8 years selected from six Italian regions. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 65 years, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score ≥ 21, subjective memory complaints but no evidence of deficits on MMSE, and evidence of vascular lesions on neuroradiology. Those with probable Alzheimer's disease were excluded. The control group consisted of 84 patients, including 36 men and 48 women of mean age 78.9 ± 7.01 (range 67–90 years. Patients included in the study underwent brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and plasma dosage of vitamin B12, folate, and thyroid hormones. Functional dependence was investigated by scores on the Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL scales, mood was assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, and behavioral disorders using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory scale. Comorbidity was assessed using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. An assessment was made at baseline (T0, after 3 months (T1, and after 9 months (T2, ie, 6 months after T1. The main outcomes were an improvement in MMSE, ADL, and IADL

  5. Apathy is associated with increased amyloid burden in mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Lorius, Natacha; Gidicsin, Christopher M.; Maye, Jacqueline; Pepin, Lesley C.; Becker, J. Alex; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Apathy is the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. We sought to determine whether apathy is associated with cortical amyloid burden measured by Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) and regional hypometabolism measured by 18F-fluorodeoxyglocuse (FDG) PET in MCI. We found a significant association between increased apathy (lower Apathy Evaluation Scale score) and greater cortical PiB retention independent of age (prs=−0.46, p=0.03), but no significant association between apathy and regional FDG metabolism. These results suggest that increased apathy is associated with greater amyloid burden but not regional hypometabolism in MCI. PMID:24247857

  6. Mild cognitive impairment in elderly users of municipal centers of the Region of Murcia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Escarbajal de Haro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article of investigation tries to know the issue of mild cognitive impairment (MCI in elderly users of municipal centres to measure the importance of psycho-educational dimension like preventive alternative. For this reason, we have used a qualitative methodology (semistructurated interview after a selection of people applying quantitative scales (e.g. MMSE, EUROTEST and Lawton. We selected a sample of 148 people for the scales, out of which 30 people were considered suitable for the interviews. The results show that despite the fact that elderly people have a MCI , they are able to practice activities for improving their quality of life. Within this investigation, new lines of work based in the free time, lonely, self esteem and self are opened to elderly people with MCI.

  7. The Attitudes and Perceptions of Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment Toward an Assistive Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Cristancho-Lacroix, Victoria; Fassert, Christine; Faucounau, Véronique; de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceived difficulties and needs of older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and their attitudes toward an assistive robot to develop appropriate robot functionalities. Twenty subjects were recruited to participate in either a focus group or an interview. Findings revealed that although participants reported difficulties in managing some of their daily activities, they did not see themselves as needing assistance. Indeed, they considered that they were capable of coping with difficulties with some compensatory strategies. They therefore declared that they did not need or want a robot for the moment but that they considered it potentially useful either for themselves in the future or for other older adults suffering from frailty, loneliness, and disability. Factors underlying unwillingness to adopt an assistive robot were discussed. These issues should be carefully addressed in the design and diffusion processes of an assistive robot.

  8. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiqun [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Guo Xiaojuan [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Qi Zhigang [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Yao Li [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng@xwh.ccmu.edu.c [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  9. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  10. P300 amplitude alterations during inhibitory control in persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A; Knoefel, Frank; Lord, Courtney; Breau, Michael; Sweet, Lisa; Goubran, Rafik; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Deficits in executive function are highly noticeable in Alzheimer's disease, and recent behavioral studies have shown that such deficits - particularly during inhibitory control - can also be found in persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control in persons with MCI. A group of persons with MCI and a group healthy older adults performed a Go/NoGo task while electroencephalogram was recorded. Our results revealed that persons with MCI performed less accurately than healthy controls during the Go and NoGo conditions. In addition, we found reduced P300 amplitudes during Go and NoGo conditions relative to healthy older adults. Our results suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms associated with target detection and evaluation (Go P300) and response inhibition (NoGo P300) are compromised in persons with MCI. PMID:27270233

  11. Atrophy-specific MRI brain template for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonov, Vladimir; Coupe, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed;

    Background Rapid brain loss is characteristic for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [1]. Increase of the lateral ventricular volume is strongly correlated with the progression of the disease. High variability in the degree of atrophy for subjects with AD...... and MCI makes use of a single disease-specific template challenging. We propose a novel approach to generate a continuous four-dimensional template, where the 4th dimension is a surrogate measure of overall brain atrophy. Methods We used MRI scans obtained from the ADNI database (www.......loni.ucla.edu/ADNI). Automated methods to estimate intracranial capacity (ICC) and lateral ventricles volume (LVV) [2] was applied to all available datasets at base line. The ratio between LVV and ICC (RLVV) was used as a surrogate measure of overall brain atrophy with mean(standard deviation) value of 2.46(0.87)%. Subsets from...

  12. Brain Metabolism Correlates of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, Paolo; Ghetti, Caterina; Ruffini, Livia; Spallazzi, Marco; Spotti, Annamaria; Barocco, Federica; Guzzo, Caterina; Marchi, Massimo; Gardini, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) measures immediate and delayed episodic memory and cueing sensitivity and is suitable to detect prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed at investigating the segregation effect of FCSRT scores on brain metabolism of memory-related structures, usually affected by AD pathology, in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage. A cohort of forty-eight MCI patients underwent FCSRT and 18F-FDG-PET. Multiple regression analysis showed that Immediate Free Recall correlated with brain metabolism in the bilateral anterior cingulate and delayed free recall with the left anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, whereas semantic cueing sensitivity with the left posterior cingulate. FCSRT in MCI is associated with neuro-functional activity of specific regions of memory-related structures connected to hippocampal formation, such as the cingulate cortex, usually damaged in AD.

  13. Norms for change in episodic memory as a prerequisite for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bläsi, Stefan; Zehnder, Antoinette E; Berres, Manfred; Taylor, Kirsten I; Spiegel, René; Monsch, Andreas U

    2009-03-01

    The new diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment (Winblad et al., 2004, p. 243) list "evidence of decline over time in objective cognitive tasks" as one diagnostic sign, implying the repeated neuropsychological testing. This study aimed to compare different assessment methods of longitudinal change based on the performances of 366 cognitively healthy participants (237 men, 129 women) examined with a German version of the California Verbal Learning Test (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) at baseline and 2 years later. Age, education, gender, and baseline performance were taken into account. Results revealed marked practice effects after 2 years. Normal ranges for change that controls for practice effects and regression to the mean proved to be superior to other reliable change indexes. This new method allows for more valid interpretation of change in neuropsychological functioning and thus diagnosis of MCI. PMID:19254092

  14. Callosal atrophy in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: different effects in different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Margherita; Luders, Eileen; Di Iulio, Fulvia; Cherubini, Andrea; Passafiume, Domenico; Thompson, Paul M; Caltagirone, Carlo; Toga, Arthur W; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects grey matter (GM). Nevertheless, a number of investigations have documented white matter (WM) pathology associated with AD. The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest WM fiber bundle in the human brain. It has been shown to be susceptible to atrophy in AD mainly as a correlate of Wallerian degeneration of commissural nerve fibers of the neocortex. The aim of this study was to investigate which callosal regions are affected and whether callosal degeneration is associated with the stage of the disease. For this purpose, we analyzed high-resolution MRI data of patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=20), mild AD (n=20), severe AD (n=10), and of healthy controls (n=20). Callosal morphology was investigated applying two different structural techniques: mesh-based geometrical modeling methods and whole-brain voxel-based analyses. Our findings indicate significant reductions in severe AD patients compared to healthy controls in anterior (genu and anterior body) and posterior (splenium) sections. In contrast, differences between healthy controls and mild AD patients or amnesic MCI patients were less pronounced and did not survive corrections for multiple comparisons. When correlating anterior and posterior WM density of the CC with GM density of the cortex in the severe AD group, we detected significant positive relationships between posterior sections of the CC and the cortex. We conclude that callosal atrophy is present predominantly in the latest stage of AD, where two mechanisms might contribute to WM alterations in severe AD: the Wallerian degeneration in posterior subregions and the myelin breakdown process in anterior subregions.

  15. Apraxia for differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from subcortical vascular dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Serhat Ozkan,1 Demet Ozbabalik Adapinar,1 Nese Tuncer Elmaci,2 Didem Arslantas31Department of Neurology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, Turkey; 2Department of Neurology, Marmara University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Public Health, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, TurkeyAbstract: Although ideomotor limb apraxia is considered to be a typical sign of cortical pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, it has been also reported in subcortical neurodegenerative diseases and vascular lesions. We aimed to investigate the difference between AD, subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients by means of ideomotor limb apraxia frequency and severity. Ninety-six AD, 72 SVaD, and 84 MCI patients were assessed with the mini-mental status examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating (CDR and the apraxia screening test of TULIA (AST. Apraxia was significantly more frequent in the AD patients (32.3% than in both of the SVaD (16.7% and MCI (4.8% patients. The frequency of apraxia was also significantly higher in SVaD patients than in MCI patients. AD patients had significantly lower apraxia scores than both SVaD and MCI patients. In addition, a significant difference was found between SVaD and MCI patients in terms of apraxia scores. These results suggest that the widespread belief of the association between apraxia and cortical dementias is not exactly correct. The significant difference between both of the dementia groups and the MCI patients suggests that the absence of apraxia can be an indicator for MCI diagnosis.Keywords: apraxia, Alzheimer’s disease, subcortical vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment

  16. Acetylcholine esterase activity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, Karl [University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Clinical Neuroscience, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission is a well-established fact in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is controversy about its relevance at the early stages of the disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In vivo positron emission tomography imaging of cortical acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as a marker of cholinergic innervation that is expressed by cholinergic axons and cholinoceptive neurons has demonstrated a reduction of this enzyme activity in manifest AD. The technique is also useful to measure the inhibition of cerebral AChE induced by cholinesterase inhibitors for treatment of dementia symptoms. A reduction of cortical AchE activity was found consistently in all studies of AD and in few cases of MCI who later concerted to AD. The in vivo findings in MCI and very mild AD are still preliminary, and studies seem to suggest that cholinergic innervation and AChE as the main degrading enzyme are both reduced, which might result in partial compensation of their effect. (orig.)

  17. Increased synchronization and decreased neural complexity underlie thalamocortical oscillatory dynamics in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes; Cruz-Vadell, Abel; Suarez-Gonzalez, Aida; Gil-Neciga, Eulogio

    2009-07-15

    Abnormal patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha oscillations in preclinical stages of dementia reveal a selective vulnerability of thalamocortical circuits to the cascade of neurodegenerative events heralding Alzheimer's disease (AD). EEG-alpha slowing characterizes both mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy aging, but it remains ambiguous whether different neural mechanisms underlie this oscillatory behavior in normal and pathological senescence. In this study, we show that the strength of phase coupling and the level of phase predictability between thalamocortical and cortico-cortical EEG sources of low alpha frequency are abnormally facilitated in MCI patients when compared to healthy elderly subjects. Additionally, we found a loss of neural complexity intrinsic to both thalamic and cortical generators of lower alpha in MCI patients, which likely influenced the aberrant phase synchronization behavior between EEG-alpha sources in this high risk group of AD. Taken together, these results suggest that different neural mechanisms account for the well known slowing of alpha rhythm present in normal aging and MCI patients. Whether these anomalous neural coding mechanisms of lower alpha generation in MCI patients represent a potential electrophysiological marker of mild AD is a topic for future research.

  18. Specificity of Cognitive and Behavioral Complaints in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hélène Pineau; André Marchand; Stéphane Guay

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of cognitive and behavioral complaints is explored in Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) samples according to the severity of PTSD, depression and general anxiety conditions. Self-reported questionnaires on cognitive and behavioral changes are administered to PTSD, MTBI, MTBI/PTSD and control groups. Confounding variables are controlled. All groups report more complaints since the traumatic event. PTSD and MTBI/PTSD groups report more...

  19. Effects of Pioglitazone or Exercise in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hildreth, Kerry L.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Grigsby, Jim; Hoth, Karin F.; Pelak, Victoria; Anderson, C. Alan; Parnes, Bennett; Kittelson, John; Wolfe, Pamela; Nakamura, Tammie; Linnebur, Sunny A; Trujillo, Jennifer M; Aquilante, Christina L.; Schwartz, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the effects of pioglitazone or endurance exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and insulin resistance. Methods Seventy-eight adults (mean age ± SD: 65 ± 7 years) with central obesity and MCI were randomized to 6 months of endurance exercise, pioglitazone or control. Results Sixty-six participants completed the study. Exercise training did not significantly increase peak oxygen uptake compared to control (p = 0.12). Compare...

  20. Inclusion criteria provide heterogeneity in baseline profiles of patients with mild cognitive impairment: comparison of two prospective cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Shoji; Ito, Kengo; Kato, Takashi; ,

    2012-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to represent a transitional stage between ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To aim at identifying neuroimaging measures associated with cognitive changes in healthy elderly and MCI patients, longitudinal multicentre studies are ongoing in several countries. The patient profiles of each study are based on unique inclusion criteria. Objectives The purpose of the study is to clarify differences in baseline profiles of MCI patients betwe...

  1. Plasma protein profiling of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s disease using iTRAQ quantitative proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Fei; Poljak, Anne; Nicole A Kochan; Raftery, Mark; Brodaty, Henry; Smythe, George A.; Perminder S Sachdev

    2014-01-01

    Background With the promise of disease modifying treatments, there is a need for more specific diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Plasma biomarkers are likely to be utilised to increase diagnostic accuracy and specificity of AD and cognitive decline. Methods Isobaric tags (iTRAQ) and proteomic methods were used to identify potential plasma biomarkers of MCI and AD. Relative protein expression level changes were quantified in plasma of 411 ...

  2. Effects of medial temporal lobe degeneration on brain perfusion in amnestic MCI of AD type: deafferentation and functional compensation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [CNRS - Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, UMR-5549, Toulouse (France); Didic, Mira; Poncet, Michel; Ceccaldi, Mathieu [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Felician, Olivier [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Centre Saint-Charles, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative, UMR CNRS 6149, Marseille (France); Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J. [Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France)

    2009-07-15

    Cortical atrophy is correlated with the progression of neuropathological lesions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to determine which local and remote functional changes result from MTL volume loss at the predementia stage. We studied the relationship between entorhinal and hippocampal MR volumes and whole-brain SPECT perfusion via a voxel-based correlative analysis in 19 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment with a memory profile suggestive of early AD. Right MTL volumes were positively correlated with remote posterior perfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex, and negatively correlated with remote anterior perfusion of the right medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was no local correlation between volumes and perfusion within the MTL. These findings provide further insight into functional changes that result from MTL volume loss during the predementia stage of AD. The positive correlation between MTL volumes and posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect the deafferentation of a temporocingulate network due to mediotemporal degeneration. The paradoxical negative correlation between MTL volumes and prefrontal perfusion may result from recruitment of an alternative anterior temporofrontal network. It remains to be investigated how the ''net sum'' of this perfusion modulation affects memory and other cognitive domains through a possible compensatory perspective. (orig.)

  3. Neurological soft signs in aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer´s disease – the impact of cognitive decline and cognitive reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja eUrbanowitsch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neurological soft signs (NSS, i.e. minor motor and sensory changes, are a common feature in severe psychiatric disorders. We sought to establish the frequency of NSS in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD on basis of a large population based sample and to identify their neuropsychological correlates including cognitive reserve.Methods: NSS were examined using an abbreviated version of the Heidelberg NSS Scale in 221 old participants born between 1930 and 1932 (63 with MCI, 15 with AD, 143 healthy old controls and 256 healthy young participants (born between 1950 and 1952 of the population-based Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ILSE. Subjects received thorough neuropsychological testing; years of school education were used as a proxy for cognitive reserve.Results: NSS scores were significantly (p<0.001 higher in the AD patients (5.6±3.11 than in the healthy old controls (2.8±1.90 and in the MCI patients (3.0±1.96. This result was confirmed after years of school education which were inversely correlated (r = - 0.25; p<0.001 with NSS were entered as a covariate. In the patients but not in the controls, NSS were significantly correlated with deficits in executive functioning and visuospatial functioning. Comparison of NSS scores between old (2.84 ± 1.9 and young (2.46 ± 1.97 controls yielded only minor, non-significant differences after education (13.86 ± 3.0 vs. 14.61 ± 2.48 years, respectively was controlled for.Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that NSS are frequently found in mild AD but not in MCI. NSS refer to frontal-executive deficits and visuospatial dysfunction rather than age per se and can be partly compensated for by cognitive reserve.

  4. Cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review of randomised trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Raschetti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI refers to a transitional zone between normal ageing and dementia. Despite the uncertainty regarding the definition of MCI as a clinical entity, clinical trials have been conducted in the attempt to study the role of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs currently approved for symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD, in preventing progression from MCI to AD. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of ChEIs (donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine in delaying the conversion from MCI to Alzheimer disease or dementia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The terms "donepezil", "rivastigmine", "galantamine", and "mild cognitive impairment" and their variants, synonyms, and acronyms were used as search terms in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, PsycINFO and three registers: the Cochrane Collaboration Trial Register, Current Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Published and unpublished studies were included if they were randomized clinical trials published (or described in English and conducted among persons who had received a diagnosis of MCI and/or abnormal memory function documented by a neuropsychological assessment. A standardized data extraction form was used. The reporting quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Three published and five unpublished trials met the inclusion criteria (three on donepezil, two on rivastigmine, and three on galantamine. Enrolment criteria differed among the trials, so the study populations were not homogeneous. The duration of the trials ranged from 24 wk to 3 y. No significant differences emerged in the probability of conversion from MCI to AD or dementia between the treated groups and the placebo groups. The rate of conversion ranged from 13% (over 2 y to 25% (over 3 y among treated patients, and from 18% (over 2 y to 28% (over 3 y among those in the placebo groups. Only for two studies was it possible to derive point

  5. Perception of biological motion and emotion in mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D; Thompson, Claire; Rendell, Peter G; Phillips, Louise H; Carbert, Jessica; Sachdev, Perminder; Brodaty, Henry

    2012-09-01

    Participants diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia and controls completed measures that required decoding emotions from point-light displays of bodily motion, and static images of facial affect. Both of these measures tap social cognitive processes that are considered critical for social competency. Consistent with prior literature, both clinical groups were impaired on the static measure of facial affect recognition. The dementia (but not the MCI) group additionally showed difficulties interpreting biological motion cues. However, this did not reflect a specific deficit in decoding emotions, but instead a more generalized difficulty in processing visual motion (both to action and to emotion). These results align with earlier studies showing that visual motion processing is disrupted in dementia, but additionally show for the first time that this extends to the recognition of socially relevant biological motion. The absence of any MCI related impairment on the point-light biological emotion measure (coupled with deficits on the measure of facial affect recognition) also point to a potential disconnect between the processes implicated in the perception of emotion cues from static versus dynamic stimuli. For clinical (but not control) participants, performance on all recognition measures was inversely correlated with level of semantic memory impairment. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-8). PMID:22687579

  6. Development of a Standardized Approach to Disclosing Amyloid Imaging Research Results in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingler, Jennifer H.; Butters, Meryl A.; Gentry, Amanda L.; Hu, Lu; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Klunk, William E.; Mattos, Meghan K.; Parker, Lisa A.; Roberts, J. Scott; Schulz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of PET amyloid imaging in clinical research has sparked numerous concerns about whether and how to return such research test results to study participants. Chief among these is the question of how best to disclose amyloid imaging research results to individuals who have cognitive symptoms that could impede comprehension of the information conveyed. We systematically developed and evaluated informational materials for use in pre-test counseling and post-test disclosures of amyloid imaging research results in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using simulated sessions, persons with MCI and their family care partners (N=10 dyads) received fictitious but realistic information regarding brain amyloid status, followed by an explanation of how results impact Alzheimer’s disease risk. Satisfaction surveys, comprehension assessments, and focus group data were analyzed to evaluate the materials developed. The majority of persons with MCI and their care partners comprehended and were highly satisfied with the information presented. Focus group data reinforced findings of high satisfaction and included 6 recommendations for practice: 1) offer pre-test counseling, 2) use clear graphics, 3) review participants’ own brain images during disclosures, 4) offer take-home materials, 5) call participants post-disclosure to address emerging questions, and 6) communicate seamlessly with primary care providers. Further analysis of focus group data revealed that participants understood the limitations of amyloid imaging, but nevertheless viewed the prospect of learning one’s amyloid status as valuable and empowering. PMID:27060950

  7. Homocysteine and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Are These the Tools for Early Intervention in the Dementia Spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Z

    2016-02-01

    Dementia, being a neurodegenerative disease, has devastating consequences not just for the ailing but also for the carers as it has a tremendous negative impact on the quality of life. The pathophysiology of dementia commences far earlier than its diagnosis. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a stage prior to definite dementia. The progression from MCI to dementia is insidious with no definite demarcation, thus making diagnosis clinically difficult at an early stage. This paper attempts to throw light on the epidemiology, risk factors and the aetiopathogenesis of MCI. It further attempts to elaborate on the rate of conversion of MCI to definite dementia and the factors influencing the same. Many established as well as probable, modifiable as well as non-modifiable risk factors influence the progress of MCI to definite dementia. Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino-acid has been identified as a probable risk factor for the dementia spectrum. Various existing clinical evidences and biological plausibility towards probable link between homocysteine and dementia are discussed in this paper. B vitamin mediated homocysteine reduction and cognitive outcomes demonstrate mixed results. This review attempts to evaluate hyperhomocysteinaemia and MCI as a brain risk marker and assess their potential for future research with a view to attempt early intervention. PMID:26812511

  8. Biochemical markers of physical exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia; systematic review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Steen Jensen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to February 2015. We included intervention studies investigating the effect of physical exercise activity on biomarkers in patients with MCI or dementia. Results: A total of eight studies were identified (n= 447 patients evaluating exercise regimes with variable duration (single session - 3 sessions pr week for 26 weeks and intensity (light resistance training – high intensity aerobic exercise. Various biomarkers were measured before and after intervention. Seven of the eight studies found a significant effect on their selected biomarkers with a positive effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiadrosterone and insulin in the intervention groups compared with controls.Conclusion: Although few studies suggest a beneficial effect on selected biomarkers, we need more knowledge of the biochemical effect of physical exercise in dementia or MCI.

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)/repetitive TMS in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, R; Tezzon, F; Höller, Y; Golaszewski, S; Trinka, E; Brigo, F

    2014-06-01

    Several Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) techniques can be applied to noninvasively measure cortical excitability and brain plasticity in humans. TMS has been used to assess neuroplastic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), corroborating findings that cortical physiology is altered in AD due to the underlying neurodegenerative process. In fact, many TMS studies have provided physiological evidence of abnormalities in cortical excitability, connectivity, and plasticity in patients with AD. Moreover, the combination of TMS with other neurophysiological techniques, such as high-density electroencephalography (EEG), makes it possible to study local and network cortical plasticity directly. Interestingly, several TMS studies revealed abnormalities in patients with early AD and even with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), thus enabling early identification of subjects in whom the cholinergic degeneration has occurred. Furthermore, TMS can influence brain function if delivered repetitively; repetitive TMS (rTMS) is capable of modulating cortical excitability and inducing long-lasting neuroplastic changes. Preliminary findings have suggested that rTMS can enhance performances on several cognitive functions impaired in AD and MCI. However, further well-controlled studies with appropriate methodology in larger patient cohorts are needed to replicate and extend the initial findings. The purpose of this paper was to provide an updated and comprehensive systematic review of the studies that have employed TMS/rTMS in patients with MCI and AD.

  10. 轻度认知障碍的研究进展%Progress of the research on mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹昌浩; 郭艳芹

    2012-01-01

    With the arrival of an aging population, the prevalence of dementia increases every year. The breakthrough of the treatment for dementia in recent years is rare, so early prevention of dementia has become the focus of the current study. Mild cognitive impairment, which is an unstable clinical stage between normal aging and dementia, is deemed to convert mostly to dementia. Therefore , mild cognitive impairment is at high risk of dementia. The study on mild cognitive impairment is very important to dementia prevention and treatment. Here the clinical epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment, scale screening, imaging and laboratory diagnosis, new drug treatment progress and new features are reviewed.%轻度认知障碍是处于正常脑老化与痴呆之间的一种不稳定的认知损害的临床状态,大部分患者将转化为痴呆.故轻度认知障碍是痴呆的高危人群,研究轻度认知损害对痴呆的预防和治疗具有非常重大意义.文中对轻度认知障碍的临床流行病学、量表筛查、影像及实验室诊断、药物治疗的新进展和新特点作一综述.

  11. Feasibility and effectiveness of a walking program for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility and effect on aerobic fitness of a 1-yr, twice-weekly, group-based moderate-intensity walking program (MI-WP, n = 77) compared with a low-intensity activity program (LI-AP, n = 75) for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty pa

  12. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida;

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods...

  13. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: Positional versus object-location recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been Studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while Studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  14. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: positional versus object-location recall.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  15. The related factors to mild cognitive function impairment in community elderly people in 4 areas of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋美

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the related factors to mild cognitive function of community elderly people above 60years in 4 areas of Hebei Province.Methods Multi-stage cluster random sampling method were used to conduct a survey of elderly people above 60 years old in four areas of Hebei Provinice form January to December 2010,

  16. Group therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others: results of a waiting-list controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Prins, J.B.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Wijnen, H.H.M; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have to deal with an uncertain prognosis and also face a multitude of memory-related problems and psychosocial consequences. A newly developed group programme proved to be feasible, however, it needed confirmation by a controlled study. AIM:

  17. Group Therapy for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Their Significant Others: Results of a Waiting-List Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Prins, J.B.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Wijnen, H.H.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have to deal with an uncertain prognosis and also face a multitude of memory-related problems and psychosocial consequences. A newly developed group programme proved to be feasible, however, it needed confirmation by a controlled study. Aim:

  18. [11C]PIB, [18F]FDG and MR imaging in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brück, A; Virta, J R; Koivunen, J;

    2013-01-01

    Cortical glucose metabolism, brain amyloid β accumulation and hippocampal atrophy imaging have all been suggested as potential biomarkers in predicting which patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) will convert to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic...

  19. Discerning Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease from Normal Aging: Morphologic Characterization Based on Univariate and Multivariate Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, W.; Long, X.; Jiang, C.; Diao, Y.; Liu, X.; Zheng, H.; Zhang, L.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD) from healthy aging remains challenging. This study aimed to explore the cerebral structural alterations of subjects with MCI or AD as compared to healthy elderly based on the individual and collectiv

  20. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy from the Perspective of Clients with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Investigation of Process Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pert, C.; Jahoda, A.; Stenfert Kroese, B.; Trower, P.; Dagnan, D.; Selkirk, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinicians working with clients who have mild intellectual disabilities (IDs) have shown growing enthusiasm for using a cognitive behavioural approach, amid increasing evidence of good treatment outcomes for this client group. However, very little is known about the views and experiences of clients with IDs who have undergone cognitive…

  1. Effect of acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease: a functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Wang

    Full Text Available We aim to clarify the mechanisms of acupuncture in treating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer disease (AD by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Thirty-six right-handed subjects (8 MCI patients, 14 AD patients, and 14 healthy elders participated in this study. Clinical and neuropsychological examinations were performed on all the subjects. MRI data acquisition was performed on a SIEMENS verio 3-Tesla scanner. The fMRI study used a single block experimental design. We first acquired the baseline resting state data in the initial 3 minutes; we then acquired the fMRI data during the procession of acupuncture stimulation on the acupoints of Tai chong and Hegu for the following 3 minutes. Last, we acquired fMRI data for another 10 minutes after the needle was withdrawn. The preprocessing and data analysis were performed using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM8 software. Then the two-sample t-tests were performed between each two groups of different states. We found that during the resting state, brain activities in AD and MCI patients were different from those of control subjects. During the acupuncture and the second resting state after acupuncture, when comparing to resting state, there are several regions showing increased or decreased activities in MCI, AD subjects compared to normal subjects. Most of the regions were involved in the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe, which were closely related to the memory and cognition. In conclusion, we investigated the effect of acupuncture in AD and MCI patients by combing fMRI and traditional acupuncture. Our fMRI study confirmed that acupuncture at Tai chong (Liv3 and He gu (LI4 can activate certain cognitive-related regions in AD and MCI patients.

  2. BrainAGE in Mild Cognitive Impaired Patients: Predicting the Conversion to Alzheimer's Disease.

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    Christian Gaser

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common form of dementia, shares many aspects of abnormal brain aging. We present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based biomarker that predicts the individual progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI to AD on the basis of pathological brain aging patterns. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for conversion to AD. Here, the BrainAGE framework was applied to predict the individual brain ages of 195 subjects with MCI at baseline, of which a total of 133 developed AD during 36 months of follow-up (corresponding to a pre-test probability of 68%. The ability of the BrainAGE framework to correctly identify MCI-converters was compared with the performance of commonly used cognitive scales, hippocampus volume, and state-of-the-art biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. With accuracy rates of up to 81%, BrainAGE outperformed all cognitive scales and CSF biomarkers in predicting conversion of MCI to AD within 3 years of follow-up. Each additional year in the BrainAGE score was associated with a 10% greater risk of developing AD (hazard rate: 1.10 [CI: 1.07-1.13]. Furthermore, the post-test probability was increased to 90% when using baseline BrainAGE scores to predict conversion to AD. The presented framework allows an accurate prediction even with multicenter data. Its fast and fully automated nature facilitates the integration into the clinical workflow. It can be exploited as a tool for screening as well as for monitoring treatment options.

  3. The Apathy Evaluation Scale: A Comparison of Subject, Informant, and Clinician Report in Cognitively Normal Elderly and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Brendan; Donovan, Nancy J.; Munro, Catherine E.; Aghjayan, Sarah L.; Wigman, Sarah E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Detecting apathy accurately may facilitate earlier diagnosis of AD. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is a promising tool for measurement of apathy in prodromal and possibly preclinical AD. Objective To compare the three AES sub-scales—subject-reported (AES-S), informant-reported (AES-I), and clinician-reported (AES-C)—over time in individuals at risk for AD due to MCI and advanced age (cognitively normal [CN] elderly). Methods Mixed effects longitudinal models were used to assess predictors of score for each AES sub-scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess which AES sub-scales predict progression from MCI to AD dementia. Results Fifty seven MCI and 18 CN subjects (ages 53–86) were followed for 1.4±1.2 years and 0.7±0.7 years, respectively. Across the three mixed effects longitudinal models, the common findings were associations between greater apathy and greater years in study, a baseline diagnosis of MCI (compared to CN), and male sex. CN elderly self-reported greater apathy compared to that reported by informants and clinicians, while individuals with MCI under-reported their apathy compared to informants and clinicians. Of the three sub-scales, the clinician-reported AES (AES-C) best predicted transition from MCI to AD dementia. Conclusion In a sample of CN elderly and elderly with MCI, apathy increased over time, particularly in men and those with MCI. Self-reported AES scores may be more sensitive than informant and clinician-report when subjects are CN, but less reliable if subjects have MCI. Moreover, the clinician-reported AES sub-scale predicted progression from MCI to AD dementia. PMID:26401564

  4. A précis of recent advances in the neuropsychology of mild cognitive impairment(s) in Parkinson's disease and a proposal of preliminary research criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröster, Alexander I

    2011-05-01

    Cognitive changes of Parkinson's disease (PD) manifest earlier and are more heterogeneous than previously appreciated. Approximately one-third of patients have at least mild cognitive changes at PD diagnosis, and subtle changes might be appreciable among those at risk for PD. Executive dysfunction is the most common cognitive change, but other phenotypes exist. Pathobiologic and potential prognostic differences among cognitive phenotypes remain poorly understood. Progress in the neuropsychology, epidemiology and pathobiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in PD is hampered by lack of diagnostic criteria. This study proposes preliminary research criteria for two categories of PD non-dementia cognitive impairment.

  5. Mild Cognitive Impairment as a single sign of brain hemiatrophy in patient with Localized Scleroderma and Parry-Romberg Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimiec, Elzbieta; Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Neurologic involvement is well recognized in Systemic Scleroderma and increasingly reported in Localized Scleroderma. MRI brain abnormalities are often associated with symptoms such as seizures or headaches. In some cases they may be clinically silent. We describe a 23 years old female with head, trunk and limbs scleroderma who developed Parry-Romberg Syndrome. Brain MRI showed ipsilateral temporal lobe atrophy without any prominent neurologic symptoms. Neuropsychological examination revealed Mild Cognitive Impairment. During the 7 years of follow up we have noticed progression of face atrophy but no progression of brain atrophy. Cognitive functions have been stable. This case highlight that major MRI brain abnormalities in LS may occur with only subtle clinical manifestation such as Mild Cognitive Impairment.

  6. Dissociation between brain amyloid deposition and metabolism in early mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypothetical model of dynamic biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD describes high amyloid deposition and hypometabolism at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI stage. However, it remains unknown whether brain amyloidosis and hypometabolism follow the same trajectories in MCI individuals. We used the concept of early MCI (EMCI and late MCI (LMCI as defined by the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI-Go in order to compare the biomarker profile between EMCI and LMCI. OBJECTIVES: To examine the global and voxel-based neocortical amyloid burden and metabolism among individuals who are cognitively normal (CN, as well as those with EMCI, LMCI and mild AD. METHODS: In the present study, 354 participants, including CN (n = 109, EMCI (n = 157, LMCI (n = 39 and AD (n = 49, were enrolled between September 2009 and November 2011 through ADNI-GO and ADNI-2. Brain amyloid load and metabolism were estimated using [(18F]AV45 and [(18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18F]FDG PET, respectively. Uptake ratio images of [(18F]AV45 and [(18F]FDG were calculated by dividing the summed PET image by the median counts of the grey matter of the cerebellum and pons, respectively. Group differences of global [(18F]AV45 and [(18F]FDG were analyzed using ANOVA, while the voxel-based group differences were estimated using statistic parametric mapping (SPM. RESULTS: EMCI patients showed higher global [(18F]AV45 retention compared to CN and lower uptake compared to LMCI. SPM detected higher [(18F]AV45 uptake in EMCI compared to CN in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, medial and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortices, bilaterally. EMCI showed lower [(18F]AV45 retention than LMCI in the superior temporal, inferior parietal, as well as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortices, bilaterally. Regarding to the global [(18F]FDG, EMCI patients showed no significant difference from CN and a higher uptake ratio compared to LMCI. At the voxel level, EMCI showed higher metabolism

  7. Plasma protein profiling of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease across two independent cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchhoff, Julia; Poljak, Anne; Song, Fei; Raftery, Mark; Brodaty, Henry; Duncan, Mark; McEvoy, Mark; Attia, John; Schofield, Peter W; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2015-01-01

    To unlock the full potential of disease modifying treatments, it is essential to develop early biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). For practical reasons, blood-based markers that could provide a signal at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or even earlier would be ideal. Using the proteomic approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), we compared the plasma protein profiles of MCI, AD, and cognitively normal control subjects from two independent cohorts: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (261 MCI subjects, 24 AD subjects, 411 controls) and the Hunter Community Study (180 MCI subjects, 153 controls). The objective was to identify any proteins that are differentially abundant in MCI and AD plasma in both cohorts, since they might be of interest as potential biomarkers, or could help direct future mechanistic studies. Proteins representative of biological processes relevant to AD pathology, such as the complement system, the coagulation cascade, lipid metabolism, and metal and vitamin D and E transport, were found to differ in abundance in MCI. In particular, levels of complement regulators C1 inhibitor and factor H, fibronectin, ceruloplasmin, and vitamin D-binding protein were significantly decreased in MCI participants from both cohorts. Several apolipoproteins, including apolipoprotein AIV, B-100, and H were also significantly decreased in MCI. Most of these proteins have previously been reported as potential biomarkers for AD; however, we show for the first time that a significant decrease in plasma levels of two potential biomarkers (fibronectin and C1 inhibitor) is evident at the MCI stage. PMID:25159666

  8. Brain glucose metabolism and neuropsychological test in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秋云; 江开达; 张明园; 刘永昌; 肖世富; 左传涛; 黄红芳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the features of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) in patients with mild cognitive impairment(MCI) by positron emission-tomography and its relationship with neuropsychological test.Methods Positron emission tomography, mini-mental state examination and Wechsler memory scale were applied in 10 patients with MCI and 10 healthy volunteers as the control group.Results Scores of mini-mental state examination and Wechsler memory scale in MCI patients were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). rCMRglc of the left orbital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus and right putamen was lower in the MCI group than in the control group (P<0.05). Correlation analysis in the MCI group indicated that rCMRglc of many brain regions such as the orbital gyrus, putamen, left hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, left amygdaloid body, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and medial occipitotemporal gyrus in MCI patients, were correlated negatively with age; while the rCMRglc of many parts of the brain such as the left putamen, temporal lobe, anterior cingulate gyrus, left insular lobe, amygdaloid body, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and medial occipitotemporal gyrus were correlated positively with mini-mental state examination; and rCMRglc of the left putamen, temporal lobe, left insular lobe, precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus were correlated positively with Wechsler memory scale. The right putamen, the right inferior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and left postcentral gyrus were correlated positively with the length of education. However, only rCMRglc of the left amygdaloid body were correlated positively with gender. Conclusion The rCMRglc was lower in the orbital gyrus and putamen of MCI patients. Their rCMRglc were correlated with their cognitive impairment severity, age, length of education and sex.

  9. Poor physical fitness is independently associated with mild cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Han, J H; Jin, Y Y; Lee, I H; Hong, H R; Kang, H S

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical fitness and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly Koreans. This was a cross-sectional study that involved 134 men and 299 women aged 65 to 88 years. Six senior fitness tests were used as independent variables: 30 s chair stand for lower body strength, arm curl for upper body strength, chair-sit-and-reach for lower body flexibility, back scratch for upper body flexibility, 8-ft up-and-go for agility/dynamic balance, and 2-min walk for aerobic endurance. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Potential covariates such as age, education levels, blood lipids, and insulin resistance (IR) markers were also assessed. Compared to individuals without MMSE-based MCI, individuals with MMSE-based MCI had poor physical fitness based on the senior fitness test (SFT). There were significant positive trends observed for education level (p=0.001) and MMSE score (pfitness in this study population. Individuals with moderate (OR=0.341, p=0.006) and high (OR=0.271, p=0.007) physical fitness based on a composite score of the SFT measures were less likely to have MMSE-based MCI than individuals with low physical fitness (referent, OR=1). The strength of the association between moderate (OR=0.377, p=0.038) or high (OR=0.282, p=0.050) physical fitness and MMSE-based MCI was somewhat attenuated but remained statistically significant even after adjustment for the measured compounding factors. We found that poor physical fitness was independently associated with MMSE-based MCI in elderly Koreans.

  10. Mild head injury in preschool children: evidence that it can be associated with a persisting cognitive defect.

    OpenAIRE

    Wrightson, P; McGinn, V; Gronwall, D

    1995-01-01

    This study describes the effect of mild head injury in preschool children on aspects of their cognitive performance in the year after injury and at the age of 6.5 years, with particular reference to the development of reading skills. Mild head injury was defined by diagnosis at a hospital emergency department of a head injury which was not severe enough to need admission for observation. Seventy eight such children were compared with a group of 86 with a minor injury elsewhere. The groups had...

  11. Acupuncture at the Taixi (KI3) acupoint activates cerebral neurons in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangjie Chen; Xuemin Shi; Lihua Zhao; Maosheng Xu; Hong Li; Jiuping Liang; Liang Yin; Xia Liu; Xinyan Jia; Fen Zhu; Dan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Our previous ifndings have demonstrated that acupuncture at the Taixi (KI3) acupoint in healthy youths can activate neurons in cognitive-related cerebral cortex. Here, we investigated whether acupuncture at this acupoint in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment can also activate neurons in these regions. Resting state and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that the pinprick senstation of acupuncture at the Taixi acupoint differed signiifcantly between elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy elderly controls. Results showed that 20 brain regions were activated in both groups of participants, including the bi-lateral anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann areas [BA] 32, 24), left medial frontal cortex (BA 9, 10, 11), left cuneus (BA 19), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 11), left lingual gyrus (BA 18), right medial frontal gyrus (BA 11), bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), left superior frontal gyrus (BA11), right cuneus (BA 19, 18), right superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), left subcallosal gyrus (BA 47), bilateral precuneus (BA 19), right medial frontal gyrus (BA 10), right superior frontal (BA 11), left cingulate gyrus (BA 32), left precentral gyrus (BA 6), and right fusiform gyrus (BA 19). These results suggest that acupuncture at the Taixi acupoint in elderly patients with mild cogni-tive impairment can also activate some brain regions.

  12. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between Healthy Aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Back ground: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of dementia, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer's or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments.

    Methods: Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fMRI imaging in differentiating between Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Healthy Aging. To prove fMRI's ability, we compared resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects using Independent Component Algorithm (ICA. We examined 40 age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer's subjects.

    Results: The results show that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer's group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network.

    Conclusion: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer's disease (AD, MCI and Healthy Aging.


    Keywords: fMRI, Default Mode Network, Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Resting-State

  13. Performance-based Tools for Assessing Functional Performance in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Belchior

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is now recognized that individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI face subtle functional declines that can compromise performance in everyday tasks. However, it is still not clear how to capture these declines in the clinical setting. Thus, the goal of this study was to conduct a scoping review to identify performance-based tools for which the psychometric properties have been evaluated with the MCI population. Methods: A scoping review of the scientific literature was performed with the guidance of a health science librarian in searching the MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases from their inception until May 2014. Results: Nine performance-based tools assessing functional performance in individuals with MCI have been identified in the literature. While construct and content validity have been extensively reported, only two tools provided data on reliability. Conclusion: Considering that functional decline is part of the normal aging process, it might be challenging to differentiate normal from pathological functional decline in this population. Functional measurement tools might be very sensitive to capture these subtle changes. Although no recommendations can be proposed at this point on a specific tool to assess functional performance in MCI, research in this area is beginning to identify the elements that should be taken into consideration when choosing a tool.

  14. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI. PMID:23329298

  15. Is Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise Feasible for People with Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intzandt, Brittany; Black, Sandra E.; Lanctôt, Krista L.; Herrmann, Nathan; Oh, Paul; Middleton, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise is a promising strategy to prevent dementia, but no clinically supervised exercise program is widely available to people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The objective was to survey health professionals to assess the feasibility of using cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs for MCI populations. Methods We distributed surveys to: 1) health professionals working in cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs (36/72 responded); and 2) physicians who treat MCI (22/32 responded). Questions addressed clinician and clinic characteristics and feasibility of referring and accommodating people with MCI. Results Most cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs currently treat people with MCI (61.1%). Nearly all were willing and able to accept people with MCI and comorbid vascular risk (91.7%), though only a minority could accept MCI without vascular risk (16.7%). Although most physicians recommend exercise to people with MCI (63.6%), few referred patients with MCI to programs or people to guide exercise (27.3%). However, all physicians (100%) would refer patients with MCI to a cardiac rehabilitation exercise program. Conclusions Our study supports cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs as a feasible model of exercise for patients with MCI with vascular risk. Patients with and without vascular risk could likely be accommodated if program mandates were expanded. PMID:26180562

  16. Discrimination of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Using Transfer Entropy Measures of Scalp EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph McBride

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a neurological condition related to early stages of dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD. This study investigates the potential of measures of transfer entropy in scalp EEG for effectively discriminating between normal aging, MCI, and AD participants. Resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years—15 normal controls, 16 MCI, and 17 early AD—are examined. The mean temporal delays corresponding to peaks in inter-regional transfer entropy are computed and used as features to discriminate between the three groups of participants. Three-way classification schemes based on binary support vector machine models demonstrate overall discrimination accuracies of 91.7— 93.8%, depending on the protocol condition. These results demonstrate the potential for EEG transfer entropy measures as biomarkers in identifying early MCI and AD. Moreover, the analyses based on short data segments (two minutes render the method practical for a primary care setting.

  17. Functional integrity of thalamocortical circuits differentiates normal aging from mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes; Gomez-Herrero, German; Cruz-Vadell, Abel; Gil-Neciga, Eulogio; Rodriguez-Romero, Rafael; Garcia-Solis, David

    2009-12-01

    Resonance in thalamocortical networks is critically involved in sculpting oscillatory behavior in large ensembles of neocortical cells. Neocortical oscillations provide critical information about the integrity of thalamocortical circuits and functional connectivity of cortical networks, which seem to be significantly disrupted by the neuronal death and synapse loss characterizing Alzheimer's disease (AD). By applying a novel analysis methodology to overcome volume conduction effects between scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements, we were able to estimate the temporal activation of EEG-alpha sources in the thalamus and parieto-occipital regions of the cortex. We found that synaptic flow underlying the lower alpha band (7.5-10 Hz) was abnormally facilitated in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as compared to healthy elderly individuals, particularly from thalamus to cortex (approximately 38% higher). In addition, the thalamic generator of lower alpha oscillations was also abnormally activated in patients with MCI. Regarding the upper alpha subdivision (10.1-12.5 Hz), both controls and patients with MCI showed a bidirectional decrease of thalamocortical synaptic transmission, which was age-dependent only in the control group. Altogether, our results suggest that functional dynamics of thalamocortical networks differentiate individuals at high risk of developing AD from healthy elderly subjects, supporting the hypothesis that neurodegeneration mechanisms are active years before the patient is clinically diagnosed with dementia.

  18. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Marra, Hellen Livia; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Maia Memória, Cláudia; Arnaut, Débora; Leite Ribeiro, Philip; Sardinha Mansur, Carlos Gustavo; Lancelote Alberto, Rodrigo; Boura Bellini, Bianca; Alves Fernandes da Silva, Adriano; Tortella, Gabriel; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS) on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen's MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th) and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction (p = 0.05), favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration. PMID:26160997

  19. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Livia Drumond Marra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI, which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen’s MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction p=0.05, favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration.

  20. Automated MR morphometry to predict Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but essential for early treatment. This study aims to investigate the use of hippocampal atrophy markers for the automatic detection of MCI converters and to compare the predictive value to manually obtained hippocampal volume and temporal horn width. A study was performed with 15 patients with Alzheimer and 18 patients with MCI (ten converted, eight remained stable in a 3-year follow-up) as well as 15 healthy subjects. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and evaluated with an automated system for scoring of hippocampal atrophy. The predictive value of the automated system was compared with manual measurements of hippocampal volume and temporal horn width in the same subjects. The conversion to AD was correctly predicted in 77.8% of the cases (sensitivity 70%, specificity 87.5%) in the MCI group using automated morphometry and a plain linear classifier that was trained on the AD and healthy groups. Classification was improved by limiting analysis to the left cerebral hemisphere (accuracy 83.3%, sensitivity 70%, specificity 100%). The manual linear and volumetric approaches reached rates of 66.7% (40/100%) and 72.2% (60/87.5%), respectively. The automatic approach fulfills many important preconditions for clinical application. Contrary to the manual approaches, it is not observer-dependent and reduces human resource requirements. Automated assessment may be useful for individual patient assessment and for predicting progression to dementia. (orig.)

  1. Prediction of Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease Using MRI and Structural Network Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rizhen; Li, Chuhan; Fogelson, Noa; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and abnormalities of brain network architectures may allow earlier detection and accurate prediction of the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we proposed a classification framework to distinguish MCI converters (MCIc) from MCI non-converters (MCInc) by using a combination of FreeSurfer-derived MRI features and nodal features derived from the thickness network. At the feature selection step, we first employed sparse linear regression with stability selection, for the selection of discriminative features in the iterative combinations of MRI and network measures. Subsequently the top K features of available combinations were selected as optimal features for classification. To obtain unbiased results, support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with nested cross validation were used for classification. The combination of 10 features including those from MRI and network measures attained accuracies of 66.04, 76.39, 74.66, and 73.91% for mixed conversion time, 6, 12, and 18 months before diagnosis of probable AD, respectively. Analysis of the diagnostic power of different time periods before diagnosis of probable AD showed that short-term prediction (6 and 12 months) achieved more stable and higher AUC scores compared with long-term prediction (18 months), with K-values from 1 to 30. The present results suggest that meaningful predictors composed of MRI and network measures may offer the possibility for early detection of progression from MCI to AD. PMID:27148045

  2. Relationship Induced Multi-Template Learning for Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-06-01

    As shown in the literature, methods based on multiple templates usually achieve better performance, compared with those using only a single template for processing medical images. However, most existing multi-template based methods simply average or concatenate multiple sets of features extracted from different templates, which potentially ignores important structural information contained in the multi-template data. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose a novel relationship induced multi-template learning method for automatic diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI), by explicitly modeling structural information in the multi-template data. Specifically, we first nonlinearly register each brain's magnetic resonance (MR) image separately onto multiple pre-selected templates, and then extract multiple sets of features for this MR image. Next, we develop a novel feature selection algorithm by introducing two regularization terms to model the relationships among templates and among individual subjects. Using these selected features corresponding to multiple templates, we then construct multiple support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Finally, an ensemble classification is used to combine outputs of all SVM classifiers, for achieving the final result. We evaluate our proposed method on 459 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, including 97 AD patients, 128 normal controls (NC), 117 progressive MCI (pMCI) patients, and 117 stable MCI (sMCI) patients. The experimental results demonstrate promising classification performance, compared with several state-of-the-art methods for multi-template based AD/MCI classification. PMID:26742127

  3. Recognizing mild cognitive impairment based on network connectivity analysis of resting EEG with zero reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very helpful for early therapeutic interventions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MCI has been proven to be correlated with disorders in multiple brain areas. In this paper, we used information from resting brain networks at different EEG frequency bands to reliably recognize MCI. Because EEG network analysis is influenced by the reference that is used, we also evaluate the effect of the reference choices on the resting scalp EEG network-based MCI differentiation. The conducted study reveals two aspects: (1) the network-based MCI differentiation is superior to the previously reported classification that uses coherence in the EEG; and (2) the used EEG reference influences the differentiation performance, and the zero approximation technique (reference electrode standardization technique, REST) can construct a more accurate scalp EEG network, which results in a higher differentiation accuracy for MCI. This study indicates that the resting scalp EEG-based network analysis could be valuable for MCI recognition in the future. (paper)

  4. Olfaction and Apathy in Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Sarah C.; Kamath, Vidyulata; Giovannetti, Tania; Arnold, Steven E.; Moberg, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Apathy is a prevalent neuropsychiatric manifestation in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that is associated with decreased social functioning and increased caregiver burden. Olfactory deficits are also commonly observed in AD, and prior work has indicated a link between increased apathy and olfactory dysfunction in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Here, we examined odor identification performance in patients with probable AD (n = 172), individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 112), and neurologically and psychiatrically healthy older adults (n = 132) and its relation to apathy, depression, and overall psychopathology. Method Participants were administered the Sniffin’ Sticks odor identification test and measures assessing severity of apathy, depression, and overall neuropsychiatric symptomatology. Results Consistent with previous research, AD and MCI patients were significantly worse at identifying odors than healthy older adults. Additionally, a sex by diagnosis interaction was observed. AD patients had significantly higher levels of apathy relative to MCI and control participants. Of note, across the entire sample odor identification deficits were correlated with level of apathy at the level of p < 0.01, but not with depression or neuropsychiatric symptom severity, when controlling for MMSE score. Conclusion Collectively, these data suggest that olfactory disturbance and apathy in AD may result from the progression of disease pathology in shared neural substrates. PMID:23398350

  5. Prediction of Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease Using MRI and Structural Network Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rizhen; Li, Chuhan; Fogelson, Noa; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and abnormalities of brain network architectures may allow earlier detection and accurate prediction of the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we proposed a classification framework to distinguish MCI converters (MCIc) from MCI non-converters (MCInc) by using a combination of FreeSurfer-derived MRI features and nodal features derived from the thickness network. At the feature selection step, we first employed sparse linear regression with stability selection, for the selection of discriminative features in the iterative combinations of MRI and network measures. Subsequently the top K features of available combinations were selected as optimal features for classification. To obtain unbiased results, support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with nested cross validation were used for classification. The combination of 10 features including those from MRI and network measures attained accuracies of 66.04, 76.39, 74.66, and 73.91% for mixed conversion time, 6, 12, and 18 months before diagnosis of probable AD, respectively. Analysis of the diagnostic power of different time periods before diagnosis of probable AD showed that short-term prediction (6 and 12 months) achieved more stable and higher AUC scores compared with long-term prediction (18 months), with K-values from 1 to 30. The present results suggest that meaningful predictors composed of MRI and network measures may offer the possibility for early detection of progression from MCI to AD. PMID:27148045

  6. Neural correlates of spatial navigation changes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

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    Kamil eVlček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the memory impairment is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, AD has also been characterized by spatial disorientation, which is present from its early stages. Spatial disorientation in AD manifests itself in getting lost in familiar and unfamiliar places and have been characterized more specifically using spatial navigation tests in both real space and virtual environments as an impairment in multiple spatial abilities, including allocentric and egocentric navigation strategies, visuospatial perception or selection of relevant information for successful navigation. Patients suffering mild cognitive impairment (MCI, who are at a high risk of development of dementia, show impairment in a subset of these abilities, mainly connected with allocentric and egocentric processing. While spatial disorientation in typical AD patients probably reflects neurodegenerative changes in medial and posterior temporal, parietal and frontal lobes and retrosplenial cortex, the impairment of spatial navigation in MCI seem to be connected mainly with the medial temporal and also parietal brain changes. In this review we will summarize the signs of brain disease in most MCI and AD patients showing in various tasks of spatial memory and navigation.

  7. Altered Brain Activities Associated with Neural Repetition Effects in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Li, Rui; Jiang, Yang; Broster, Lucas S; Li, Juan

    2016-05-11

    Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) manifest impaired explicit memory. However, studies on implicit memory such as repetition effects in persons with MCI have been limited. In the present study, 17 MCI patients and 16 healthy normal controls (NC) completed a modified delayed-match-to-sample task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We aim to examine the neural basis of repetition; specifically, to elucidate whether and how repetition-related brain responses are altered in participants with MCI. When repeatedly rejecting distracters, both NC and MCI showed similar behavioral repetition effects; however, in both whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses of functional data, persons with MCI showed reduced repetition-driven suppression in the middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus. Further, individual difference analysis found that activation in the left middle occipital gyrus was positively correlated with rejecting reaction time and negatively correlated with accuracy rate, suggesting a predictor of repetition behavioral performance. These findings provide new evidence to support the view that neural mechanisms of repetition effect are altered in MCI who manifests compensatory repetition-related brain activities along with their neuropathology. PMID:27176074

  8. Dysfunctional Incidental Olfaction in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI: An Electroencephalography (EEG Study

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    Cornelia Duregger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study provides evidence that Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI is associated with olfactory dysfunction on both conscious and non-conscious levels. MCI patients and age-matched controls underwent a face processing task during which sympathy decisions had to be made via button presses. Incidentally, some of the faces were associated with a simultaneously presented odour. Although attention was paid to faces, brain activities were analysed with respect to odour versus no-odour conditions. Behavioural differences were found related to overall face recognition performance, but these were not statistically significant. However, odour-related neurophysiology differed between both groups. Normal controls demonstrated brain activity differences between odour and no-odour conditions that resemble difference activity patterns in healthy young participants as described in a previous magnetoencephalography (MEG study [1]. They showed odour-related activity patterns between about 160 ms and 320 ms after stimulus onset and between about 640 ms and 720 ms. On the other hand, the patient group did not show any such difference activities. Based on previous research we interpret the early odour-related brain activity pattern in controls as being associated with subliminal olfaction and the later activity pattern with conscious olfaction. None of these were found in MCI patients, although it has to be emphasised that our sample size was rather small. We confirm previous findings about olfactory related dysfunction in patients with MCI and conclude from our findings that even subliminal odour-related information processing is impaired.

  9. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Marra, Hellen Livia; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Maia Memória, Cláudia; Arnaut, Débora; Leite Ribeiro, Philip; Sardinha Mansur, Carlos Gustavo; Lancelote Alberto, Rodrigo; Boura Bellini, Bianca; Alves Fernandes da Silva, Adriano; Tortella, Gabriel; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS) on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen's MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th) and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction (p = 0.05), favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration. PMID:26160997

  10. Quantitative EEG Markers in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Degenerative versus Vascular Brain Impairment

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    D. V. Moretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between brain rhythmicity and both the cerebrovascular damage (CVD and amygdalohippocampal complex (AHC atrophy, as revealed by scalp electroencephalography (EEG in a cohort of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. All MCI subjects underwent EEG recording and magnetic resonance imaging. EEGs were recorded at rest. Relative power was separately computed for delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 frequency bands. In the spectral band power the severity of CVD was associated with increased delta power and decreased alpha2 power. No association of vascular damage was observed with alpha3 power. Moreover, the theta/alpha1 ratio could be a reliable index for the estimation of the individual extent of CV damage. On the other side, the group with moderate hippocampal atrophy showed the highest increase of alpha2 and alpha3 power. Moreover, when the amygdalar and hippocampal volumes are separately considered, within amygdalohippocampal complex (AHC, the increase of theta/gamma ratio is best associated with amygdalar atrophy whereas alpha3/alpha2 ratio is best associated with hippocampal atrophy. CVD and AHC damages are associated with specific EEG markers. So far, these EEG markers could have a prospective value in differential diagnosis between vascular and degenerative MCI.

  11. Voxel-based morphometry to detect brain atrophy in progressive mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Anne; Tervo, Susanna; Grau-Olivares, Marta; Niskanen, Eini; Pennanen, Corina; Huuskonen, Jari; Kivipelto, Miia; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tapiola, Mia; Vanhanen, Matti; Hallikainen, Merja; Helkala, Eeva-Liisa; Nissinen, Aulikki; Vanninen, Ritva; Soininen, Hilkka

    2007-10-01

    Recent research has shown an increased rate of conversion to dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to controls. However, there are no specific methods to predict who will later develop dementia. In the present study, 22 controls and 56 MCI subjects were followed on average for 37 months (max. 60 months) and studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline to assess changes in brain structure associated to later progression to dementia. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter atrophy. During the follow-up, 13 subjects progressed to dementia. At baseline, no differences were detected in age or education between the control and MCI subjects, but they differed by several neuropsychological tests. The stable and progressive MCI subjects differed only by CDR sum of boxes scores and delayed verbal recall, which were also significant predictors of conversion to dementia. At the baseline imaging, the MCI subjects showed reduced gray matter density in medial temporal, temporoparietal as well as in frontal cortical areas compared to controls. Interestingly, the progressive MCI subjects showed atrophy in the left temporoparietal and posterior cingulate cortices and in the precuneus bilaterally, and a trend for hippocampal atrophy when compared to the stable MCI subjects. We conclude that widespread cortical atrophy is present already two and a half years before a clinical diagnosis of dementia can be set.

  12. Automated MR morphometry to predict Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Schlindwein, Sarah; Bruggen, Thomas van; Meinzer, Hans-Peter [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Medical and Biological Informatics, Heidelberg (Germany); Stieltjes, Bram; Essig, Marco [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but essential for early treatment. This study aims to investigate the use of hippocampal atrophy markers for the automatic detection of MCI converters and to compare the predictive value to manually obtained hippocampal volume and temporal horn width. A study was performed with 15 patients with Alzheimer and 18 patients with MCI (ten converted, eight remained stable in a 3-year follow-up) as well as 15 healthy subjects. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and evaluated with an automated system for scoring of hippocampal atrophy. The predictive value of the automated system was compared with manual measurements of hippocampal volume and temporal horn width in the same subjects. The conversion to AD was correctly predicted in 77.8% of the cases (sensitivity 70%, specificity 87.5%) in the MCI group using automated morphometry and a plain linear classifier that was trained on the AD and healthy groups. Classification was improved by limiting analysis to the left cerebral hemisphere (accuracy 83.3%, sensitivity 70%, specificity 100%). The manual linear and volumetric approaches reached rates of 66.7% (40/100%) and 72.2% (60/87.5%), respectively. The automatic approach fulfills many important preconditions for clinical application. Contrary to the manual approaches, it is not observer-dependent and reduces human resource requirements. Automated assessment may be useful for individual patient assessment and for predicting progression to dementia. (orig.)

  13. Disrupted Network Topology in Patients with Stable and Progressive Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana B.; Mijalkov, Mite; Kakaei, Ehsan; Mecocci, Patricia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilka; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simmon; Simmons, Andrew; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Volpe, Giovanni; Westman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disconnection syndrome characterized by abnormalities in large-scale networks. However, the alterations that occur in network topology during the prodromal stages of AD, particularly in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and those that show a slow or faster progression to dementia, are still poorly understood. In this study, we used graph theory to assess the organization of structural MRI networks in stable MCI (sMCI) subjects, late MCI converters (lMCIc), early MCI converters (eMCIc), and AD patients from 2 large multicenter cohorts: ADNI and AddNeuroMed. Our findings showed an abnormal global network organization in all patient groups, as reflected by an increased path length, reduced transitivity, and increased modularity compared with controls. In addition, lMCIc, eMCIc, and AD patients showed a decreased path length and mean clustering compared with the sMCI group. At the local level, there were nodal clustering decreases mostly in AD patients, while the nodal closeness centrality detected abnormalities across all patient groups, showing overlapping changes in the hippocampi and amygdala and nonoverlapping changes in parietal, entorhinal, and orbitofrontal regions. These findings suggest that the prodromal and clinical stages of AD are associated with an abnormal network topology. PMID:27178195

  14. Hierarchical interactions model for predicting Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI to Alzheimer's Disease (AD conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Li

    Full Text Available Identifying patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI who are likely to convert to dementia has recently attracted increasing attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD research. An accurate prediction of conversion from MCI to AD can aid clinicians to initiate treatments at early stage and monitor their effectiveness. However, existing prediction systems based on the original biosignatures are not satisfactory. In this paper, we propose to fit the prediction models using pairwise biosignature interactions, thus capturing higher-order relationship among biosignatures. Specifically, we employ hierarchical constraints and sparsity regularization to prune the high-dimensional input features. Based on the significant biosignatures and underlying interactions identified, we build classifiers to predict the conversion probability based on the selected features. We further analyze the underlying interaction effects of different biosignatures based on the so-called stable expectation scores. We have used 293 MCI subjects from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI database that have MRI measurements at the baseline to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Our proposed method achieves better classification performance than state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we discover several significant interactions predictive of MCI-to-AD conversion. These results shed light on improving the prediction performance using interaction features.

  15. Disrupted Network Topology in Patients with Stable and Progressive Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana B; Mijalkov, Mite; Kakaei, Ehsan; Mecocci, Patricia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilka; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simmon; Simmons, Andrew; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Volpe, Giovanni; Westman, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Recent findings suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disconnection syndrome characterized by abnormalities in large-scale networks. However, the alterations that occur in network topology during the prodromal stages of AD, particularly in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and those that show a slow or faster progression to dementia, are still poorly understood. In this study, we used graph theory to assess the organization of structural MRI networks in stable MCI (sMCI) subjects, late MCI converters (lMCIc), early MCI converters (eMCIc), and AD patients from 2 large multicenter cohorts: ADNI and AddNeuroMed. Our findings showed an abnormal global network organization in all patient groups, as reflected by an increased path length, reduced transitivity, and increased modularity compared with controls. In addition, lMCIc, eMCIc, and AD patients showed a decreased path length and mean clustering compared with the sMCI group. At the local level, there were nodal clustering decreases mostly in AD patients, while the nodal closeness centrality detected abnormalities across all patient groups, showing overlapping changes in the hippocampi and amygdala and nonoverlapping changes in parietal, entorhinal, and orbitofrontal regions. These findings suggest that the prodromal and clinical stages of AD are associated with an abnormal network topology. PMID:27178195

  16. Is the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale appropriate to detect Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Belaus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have tried to assess the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS capability to detect incipient dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, but the results are not clear. The aim of this research was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the MDRS, and to localize the optimal cutoff score for MCI. Methodology. A neuropsychological battery that included the MDRS was administered to 60 older adults of both genders (Mean age=68.38, SD=6.80 in Cór- doba, Argentina, who were then classified as “Control” (34 cases or “MCI” (26 cases according to performance in the neuropsychological evaluation, excluding the MDRS. The criteria used were those stated by the Sociedad Española de Neurología. We performed mean comparisons in order to evaluate if the MDRS was able to detect the group differences. Then, a logistic regression with the MDRS total score as the predictor variable and the group as the criterion variable was performed to determine the cutoff score. Results. Even though the mean comparisons showed a significant difference in the MDRS (p=.004, the diagnostic accuracy was only 63% with a 133 points cutoff score. The sensitivity was 42% and the specificity was 79%. Conclusions. The MDRS does not seem to be a useful tool to detect MCI since it generates numerous misclassified cases. The development of more accurate tools becomes fundamental in order to detect MCI.

  17. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaudreau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 30 healthy control (HC subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.

  18. Comparison of the neuropsychological characteristics of two subtypes of mild cognitive impairment%两种轻度认知损害患者的神经心理学功能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忠婕; 王金辉; 朗悦; 赵筱玲; 贾建平; 韩璎

    2011-01-01

    背景区别轻度认知损害(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)的两种亚型,即遗忘型轻度认知损害(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)和小血管型轻度认知损害(MCI associated with small vessel diseases,sv-MCI)将有利于延缓和预防MCI进展为阿尔茨海默病性痴呆和血管性痴呆.目的 识别并区分区aMCI与sv-MCI的神经心理学特征.方法 从宣武医院神经科门诊就诊患者或在北京社区进行的一项入户调查中选择符合入组标准的被试.根据Petersen诊断标准筛选aMCI患者50例,根据Hachinski诊断标准筛选sv-MCI患者65例.以上两组患者和49名55岁以上没有认知障碍的社区被试一同接受简明精神状态量表(Mini Mental State Examination,MMSE)检查及画钟测验( Clock Drawing Test,CDT)与听觉词语学习测验(Auditory Verbal Learning Test,AVLT,评定即刻记忆、延迟回忆和延迟再认能力).采用单因素方差分析法比较3组被试各项测验的平均得分,如果结果存在明显差异,再进行多个样本两两比较的Tukey法检验.结果 aMCI组和sv-MCI组5项测验平均得分均明显低于健康对照组.aMCI组AVLT即刻记忆、延迟回忆和延迟再认测验得分均低于sv-MCI组.在校正了年龄、性别、受教育年限后,上述差异仍旧存在.结论 实验结果与既往结果一致,与sv-MCI患者相比,aMCI患者记忆损害更加明显.记忆相关的评估测验,尤其是AVLT,或将有助于区别这两种MCI亚型.%Charaderizing the differences between two proposed subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) -amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCl) and mild cognitive impairment due to small vessel disease (sv-MCI)- may help in the effort to prevent progression of MCI to Alzheimer's dementia and vascular dementia.Objective:Identify neuropsychological characteristics that discriminate aMCI and sv-MCl.Methods:50 individuals with aMCI based on Petersen's criteria and 65 individuals with sv-MCI based on Hachinski

  19. ApoE4 effects on automated diagnostic classifiers for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

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    Liana G. Apostolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the only feasible way to detect and monitor presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD. No single biomarker can predict future cognitive decline with an acceptable level of accuracy. In addition to designing powerful multimodal diagnostic platforms, a careful investigation of the major sources of disease heterogeneity and their influence on biomarker changes is needed. Here we investigated the accuracy of a novel multimodal biomarker classifier for differentiating cognitively normal (NC, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD subjects with and without stratification by ApoE4 genotype. 111 NC, 182 MCI and 95 AD ADNI participants provided both structural MRI and CSF data at baseline. We used an automated machine-learning classifier to test the ability of hippocampal volume and CSF Aβ, t-tau and p-tau levels, both separately and in combination, to differentiate NC, MCI and AD subjects, and predict conversion. We hypothesized that the combined hippocampal/CSF biomarker classifier model would achieve the highest accuracy in differentiating between the three diagnostic groups and that ApoE4 genotype will affect both diagnostic accuracy and biomarker selection. The combined hippocampal/CSF classifier performed better than hippocampus-only classifier in differentiating NC from MCI and NC from AD. It also outperformed the CSF-only classifier in differentiating NC vs. AD. Our amyloid marker played a role in discriminating NC from MCI or AD but not for MCI vs. AD. Neurodegenerative markers contributed to accurate discrimination of AD from NC and MCI but not NC from MCI. Classifiers predicting MCI conversion performed well only after ApoE4 stratification. Hippocampal volume and sex achieved AUC = 0.68 for predicting conversion in the ApoE4-positive MCI, while CSF p-tau, education and sex achieved AUC = 0.89 for predicting conversion in ApoE4-negative MCI. These observations support the proposed biomarker trajectory in AD, which postulates

  20. Spatial patterns of brain amyloid-beta burden and atrophy rate associations in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Duygu; Schuff, Norbert; Mathis, Chester A; Jagust, William; Weiner, Michael W

    2011-04-01

    Amyloid-β accumulation in the brain is thought to be one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease, possibly leading to synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration and cognitive/functional decline. The earliest detectable changes seen with neuroimaging appear to be amyloid-β accumulation detected by (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography imaging. However, some individuals tolerate high brain amyloid-β loads without developing symptoms, while others progressively decline, suggesting that events in the brain downstream from amyloid-β deposition, such as regional brain atrophy rates, play an important role. The main purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between the regional distributions of increased amyloid-β and the regional distribution of increased brain atrophy rates in patients with mild cognitive impairment. To simultaneously capture the spatial distributions of amyloid-β and brain atrophy rates, we employed the statistical concept of parallel independent component analysis, an effective method for joint analysis of multimodal imaging data. Parallel independent component analysis identified significant relationships between two patterns of amyloid-β deposition and atrophy rates: (i) increased amyloid-β burden in the left precuneus/cuneus and medial-temporal regions was associated with increased brain atrophy rates in the left medial-temporal and parietal regions; and (ii) in contrast, increased amyloid-β burden in bilateral precuneus/cuneus and parietal regions was associated with increased brain atrophy rates in the right medial temporal regions. The spatial distribution of increased amyloid-β and the associated spatial distribution of increased brain atrophy rates embrace a characteristic pattern of brain structures known for a high vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease pathology, encouraging for the use of (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography measures as early indicators of

  1. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Piccini, Alessandra [Cell Biology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa (Italy); Caroli, Anna [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy); Mario Negri Institute, Medical Imaging Unit, Biomedical Engineering Department, Bergamo (Italy); Frisoni, Giovanni [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  2. Effects of Pioglitazone or Exercise in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L. Hildreth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To examine the effects of pioglitazone or endurance exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and insulin resistance. Methods: Seventy-eight adults (mean age ± SD: 65 ± 7 years with central obesity and MCI were randomized to 6 months of endurance exercise, pioglitazone or control. Results: Sixty-six participants completed the study. Exercise training did not significantly increase peak oxygen uptake compared to control (p = 0.12. Compared to control, insulin resistance improved in the pioglitazone group (p = 0.002 but not in the exercise group (p = 0.25. There was no measureable effect of pioglitazone or exercise on cognitive performance compared to control. Conclusion: In this pilot study, pioglitazone improved insulin resistance but not cognitive performance in older adults with MCI and insulin resistance.

  3. Can cognitive enhancers reduce the risk of falls in older people with Mild Cognitive Impairment? A protocol for a randomised controlled double blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Jennie L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults with cognitive problems have a higher risk of falls, at least twice that of cognitively normal older adults. The consequences of falls in this population are very serious: fallers with cognitive problems suffer more injuries due to falls and are approximately five times more likely to be admitted to institutional care. Although the mechanisms of increased fall risk in cognitively impaired people are not completely understood, it is known that impaired cognitive abilities can reduce attentional resource allocation while walking. Since cognitive enhancers, such as cholinesterase inhibitors, improve attention and executive function, we hypothesise that cognitive enhancers may reduce fall risk in elderly people in the early stages of cognitive decline by improving their gait and balance performance due to an enhancement in attention and executive function. Method/Design Double blinded randomized controlled trial with 6 months follow-up in 140 older individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Participants will be randomized to the intervention group, receiving donepezil, and to the control group, receiving placebo. A block randomization by four and stratification based on fall history will be performed. Primary outcomes are improvements in gait velocity and reduction in gait variability. Secondary outcomes are changes in the balance confidence, balance sway, attention, executive function, and number of falls. Discussion By characterizing and understanding the effects of cognitive enhancers on fall risk in older adults with cognitive impairments, we will be able to pave the way for a new approach to fall prevention in this population. This RCT study will provide, for the first time, information regarding the effect of a medication designed to augment cognitive functioning have on the risk of falls in older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment. We expect a significant reduction in the risk of falls in this

  4. Psychotropic medication use and cognition in institutionalized older adults with mild to moderate dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H. P.; de Vries, Kerst; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most studies examining psychotropic medication use Oil cognition in older persons with dementia include measures of global cognitive function. The present study examined the relationship between different types of psychotropic medication and specific cognitive functions in older people w

  5. Heightened emotional contagion in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease is associated with temporal lobe degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Virginia E; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Seeley, William W.; KRAMER, JOEL H.; Bruce L. Miller; Rankin, Katherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional changes are common in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Intrinsic connectivity imaging studies suggest that default mode network degradation in AD is accompanied by the release of an emotion-relevant salience network. We investigated whether emotional contagion, an evolutionarily conserved affect-sharing mechanism, is higher in MCI and AD secondary to biological alterations in neural networks that support emotion. We measured emotional contagion in 237 pa...

  6. Set-Shifting Ability Is Associated with Gray Matter Volume in Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims An understanding of the association between gray matter volume and executive functioning could provide strategies to reduce dementia risk in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed executive functioning in 83 older people with MCI using three standard neuropsychological tests: set shifting (difference between Trail Making Test Parts B and A), working memory (difference between Digit Span forward and backward from th...

  7. Assessing the tolerance of a telepresence robot in users with Mild Cognitive Impairment - A protocol for studying users' physiological response

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberio, Lorenza; Padua, Luca; Pellegrino, Anna Rita; Aprile, Irene; Cortellessa, Gabriella; Cesta, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes preliminary work of a research study which supports the use of tele-operated robots for rehabilitation, home care assistance and social interaction. Specifically our idea is to use a telepresence robot, called Giraff, to interact with elderly people suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment. In order to evaluate the potential implications in the use of Giraff with this specific target of users, a first step has been identified which aims at evaluating the tolerability an...

  8. Application of the PredictAD Software Tool to Predict Progression in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja H; Mattila, Jussi; Hejl, Anne-Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The PredictAD tool integrates heterogeneous data such as imaging, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and results from neuropsychological tests for compact visualization in an interactive user interface. This study investigated whether the software tool could assist physicians in the early...... diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Baseline data from 140 patients with mild cognitive impairment were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Study. Three clinical raters classified patients into 6 categories of confidence in the prediction of early Alzheimer's disease, in 4 phases...

  9. Impaired generation of new subcategories and switching in a semantic verbal fluency test in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Laiss eBertola; Maria Luiza eCunha Lima; Marco Aurelio Romano-Silva; Edgar Nunes de Moraes; Breno Satler Oliveira Diniz; Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz

    2014-01-01

    The semantic verbal fluency task is broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects. Even some studies have identified differences in verbal fluency clustering and switching measures between subjects with normal aging and a clinical condition such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease, the results are not always consistent. This study aimed to compare clustering and switching measures of an animal’s semantic verbal fluency task among normal controls ...

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau proteins as predictors of Alzheimer’s disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Goran; Boban, Marina; Patrick R Hof

    2008-01-01

    Major efforts are under way to define reliable biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease. Highly significant increases of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid have been recently reported in Alzheimer’s disease patients compared to controls by several independent groups, including ours. These findings support the notion that cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau proteins may be very useful biomarkers in the early identification of Alzheimer’s disease in patients with mild cognit...

  11. Hippocampal volumes among older Indian adults: Comparison with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dhikav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippocampal volume data from India have recently been reported in younger adults. Data in older adults are unknown. The present paper describes hippocampal volume from India among older adults and compares the same with patients having Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 cognitively normal subjects, 20 patients with AD, and 13 patients with MCI were enrolled. Patients were evaluated for the diagnosis of AD/MCI using the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Related Disorders Association criteria and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR Scale (score = 0.5, respectively. Hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI machine by manual segmentation (Megnatom Symphony 1.5T scanner three-dimensional (3D sequences. Results: Age and duration of illness in the MCI group were 70.6 ± 8.6 years and 1.9 ± 0.9 years, respectively. In the AD group, age and duration of illness were 72 ± 8.1 years and 3.1 ± 2.2 years, respectively. In cognitively normal subjects, the age range was 45-88 years (66.9 ± 10.32 years. Mean mini–mental status examination (MMSE score of healthy subjects was 28.28 ± 1.33. In the MCI group, MMSE was 27.05 ± 1.79. In the AD group, MMSE was 13.32 ± 5.6. In the healthy group, the hippocampal volume was 2.73 ± 0.53 cm3 on the left side and 2.77 ± 0.6 cm3 on the right side. Likewise, in MCI, the volume on the left side was 2.35 ± 0.42 cm3 and the volume on the right side was 2.36 ± 0.38 cm3. Similarly, in the AD group, the volume on the right side was 1.64 ± 0.55 cm3 and on the left side it was 1.59 ± 0.55 cm3. Post hoc analysis using Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD showed, using analysis of variance (ANOVA that there was a statistically significant difference between healthy and AD (P ≤ 0.01, and between healthy and MCI (P ≤ 0.01 subjects. There was a correlation between

  12. Repurposing psychiatric medicines to target activated microglia in anxious mild cognitive impairment and early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the pre-motor stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). A concomitant and possible cause of this anxiety is microglial activation, also considered a key promoter of neurodegeneration in MCI and early PD via inflammatory mechanisms and the generation of degenerative proinflammatory cytokines. Psychiatric disorders, prevalent in AD and PD, are often treated with psychiatric drugs (psychotropics), raising the question of whether psychotropics might therapeutically affect microglial activation, MCI, and PD. The literature of common psychotropics used in treating psychiatric disorders was reviewed for preclinical and clinical findings regarding microglial activation. Findings potentially compatible with reduced microglial activation or reduced microglial inflammogen release were evident for: antipsychotics including neuroleptics (chlorpromazine, thioridazine, loxapine) and atypicals (aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone); mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, valproate, lithium); antidepressants including tricyclics (amitriptyline, clomipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline), SSRIs (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline), venlafaxine, and bupropion; benzodiazepine anxiolytics (clonazepam, diazepam); cognitive enhancers (donepezil, galantamine, memantine); and other drugs (dextromethorphan, quinidine, amantadine). In contrast, pramipexole and methylphenidate might promote microglial activation. The most promising replicated findings of reduced microglial activation are for quetiapine, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine but further study is needed and translation of their microglial effects to human disease still requires investigation. In AD-relevant models, risperidone, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, bupropion, donepezil, and memantine have therapeutic microglial effects in need of replication. Limited

  13. Hypothyroidism and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Persons - A Population Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Singh, Balwinder; Roberts, Rosebud O; Pankratz, Shane; Edwards, Kelly K.; Geda, Yonas E; Gharib, H; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with MCI in a large population based cohort. DESIGN A cross-sectional, population-based study. SETTING Olmsted County, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS Randomly selected participants were aged 70 to 89 years on October 1, 2004, and were without documented prevalent dementia. A total of 2,050 participants were evaluated and underwent in-person interview, neurological evaluation and neuropsychological testing to assess performance in memory, attention/executive function, visuospatial, and language domains. Subjects were diagnosed by consensus as cognitively normal, MCI or dementia according to published criteria. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism was ascertained from a medical records-linkage system. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with MCI. Results Among 1904 eligible participants, the frequency of MCI was 16% in 1450 subjects with normal thyroid function, 17% in 313 subjects with clinical hypothyroidism, and 18% in 141 subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. After adjusting for covariates (age, gender, education, education years, sex, ApoE ε 4, depression, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, BMI and coronary artery disease) we found no significant association between clinical or subclinial hypothyroidism and MCI [OR 0.99 (95% CI 0.66–1.48) and OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.38–2.03) respectively]. No effect of gender interaction was seen on these effects. In stratified analysis, the odds of MCI with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidisn among males was 1.02 (95%CI, 0.57–1.82) and 1.29 (95%CI 0.68–2.44), among females was 1.04 (95% 0.66–1.66) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.37–2.02) respectively. Conclusion In this population based cohort of eldery, neither clinical nor subclinical hypothyrpodism was associated with MCI. Our findings

  14. MR diffusion tensor imaging-based white matter studies in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) using DTI technique, and to explore the relationship between WM abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Methods: Nine cases of amnesic MCI, 15 cases of mild probable AD and 11 cases of normal controls (NC) with normal-appearing WM (NAWM) were studied using 3.0 T MR system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in different WM areas. One-way analysis of variance was used to test the difference among the three groups for DTI indices. Spearman Correlation analysis was applied to reveal the correlation between the DTI indices and the MMSE and CASI scores. Results: The FA value in parietal, centrum semiovale, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampus, temporal and frontal WM in MCI was 0.31±0.03,0.39± 0.03,0.62±0.05,0.59±0.05,0.47±0.08,0.32±0.04, respectively, and MD value was (899±30) x 10-6,(782±53) x 10-6, (732±45) x 10-6, (806±38) x 10-6, (772±55) x 10-6, (792±35) x 10-6 mm2/s. The FA value of these regions in AD was 0.28±0.04, 0.37±0.03,0.55±0.06,0.52± 0.05,0.40±0.05,0.27±0.04, and MD value was (912±37) x 10-6, (800±67) x 10-6, (762±46) x 10-6, (874 ± 57) x 10-6, (822 + 55) x 10-6, (822±39) x 10-6 mm2/s. The FA value in NC was 0.36 ± 0.03,0.43 ± 0.05,0.64 ± 0.057 0.60 ± 0.05, 0.52 ± 0.05, 0.33±0.03, and MD value was (866±37) x 10-6, (754+54) x 10-6, (718 ± 32) x 10-6, (810±39) x 10-6 (755 ± 48) x 10-6 (785 ± 23) x 10-6 mm2/s. Compared with NC, the FA value in parietal WM was significantly decreased in MCI(P<0.01), The significantly reduced FA values in parietal, centrum semiovale, posterior cingulate gyms, parahippocampus, temporal and frontal WM, as well as significantly elevated MD values were found in AD (P<0.05). There was significant correlation between these DTI indices and MMSE and CASI scores (P<0.05). Conclusions: MR DTI can detect WM abnormalities in AD and

  15. Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanotta D; Puricelli S; Bonoldi G

    2014-01-01

    Danilo Zanotta, Silvana Puricelli, Guido Bonoldi Unità Operativa di Medicina 2, Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio, Varese, Italy Abstract: A prospective cohort, noncomparative, multicenter trial was conducted to explore the potential of a phytotherapeutic compound, available as a dietary supplement and containing extracts of Bacopa monnieri and Haematococcus pluvialis (astaxanthin) plus phosphatidylserine and vitamin E, in improving cognition in subjects diagnosed with mild cog...

  16. Association between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Neuropsychological Performance in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpening, Zoe; Lewis, Simon J G; Yee, Brendon J; Grunstein, Ron R; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing in middle-age and older adults has been shown to be linked to a range of neuropsychological deficits, but the extent to which these relationships are evident in older people 'at risk' of developing dementia in unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine whether changes in sleep-disordered breathing and sleep fragmentation during nocturnal sleep were related to neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Forty-six patients with MCI (mean age = 66.1 y, sd = 8.4) and 40 age-matched healthy controls (mean age = 63.5 y, sd = 8.9) underwent psychiatric, medical, and neuropsychological assessment, in addition to overnight polysomnography and self-report questionnaires. Measures of hypoxemia, sleep fragmentation, and sleep quality were derived including the apnoea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index, percentage of total sleep time spent below 90% oxygen saturation, arousal index, sleep efficiency, and wake after sleep onset. Patients with MCI did not differ from healthy aging on any measure of sleep-disordered breathing or sleep fragmentation. In MCI, processing speed was negatively correlated with greater sleep time spent below 90% oxygen saturation and a higher apnoea-hypopnea index. In contrast, in the healthy aging, processing speed was negatively correlated with an increased oxygen desaturation index and the arousal index. Sleep-disordered breathing is evident in both healthy aging and MCI with associated decrements in processing speed. Future research is needed to determine the unique and synergistic effects of these differential associations, their potential to inform disease trajectory, and possible therapeutic interventions. PMID:25720400

  17. Oxidative stress and APO E polymorphisms in Alzheimer's disease and in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, L; Simoncini, C; Lo Gerfo, A; Rocchi, A; Petrozzi, L; Carlesi, C; Volpi, L; Tognoni, G; Siciliano, G; Bonuccelli, U

    2013-08-01

    A number of evidences indicates oxidative stress as a relevant pathogenic factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Considering its recognized major genetic risk factors in AD, apolipoprotein (APO E) has been investigated in several experimental settings regarding its role in the process of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate possible relationships between APO E genotype and plasma levels of selected oxidative stress markers in both AD and MCI patients. APO E genotypes were determined using restriction enzyme analysis. Plasma levels of oxidative markers, advanced oxidation protein products, iron-reducing ability of plasma and, in MCI, activity of superoxide dismutases were evaluated using spectrophotometric analysis. We found, compared to controls, increased levels of oxidized proteins and decreased values of plasma-reducing capacity in both AD patients (p < 0.0001) and MCI patients (p < 0.001); the difference between AD and MCI patients was significant only for plasma-reducing capacity (p < 0.0001), the former showing the lowest values. Superoxide dismutase activity was reduced, although not at statistical level, in MCI compared with that in controls. E4 allele was statistically associated (p < 0.05) with AD patients. When comparing different APO E genotype subgroups, no difference was present, as far as advanced oxidation protein products and iron-reducing ability of plasma levels were concerned, between E4 and non-E4 carriers, in both AD and MCI; on the contrary, E4 carriers MCI patients showed significantly decreased (p < 0.05) superoxide dismutase activity with respect to non-E4 carriers. This study, in confirming the occurrence of oxidative stress in AD and MCI patients, shows how it can be related, at least for superoxide dismutase activity in MCI, to APO E4 allele risk factor. PMID:23668794

  18. Quantitative evaluation of disease progression in a longitudinal mild cognitive impairment cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtti, Hilkka; Mattila, Jussi; van Gils, Mark; Koikkalainen, Juha; Soininen, Hilkka; Lötjönen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    Several neuropsychological tests and biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been validated and their evolution over time has been explored. In this study, multiple heterogeneous predictors of AD were combined using a supervised learning method called Disease State Index (DSI). The behavior of DSI values over time was examined to study disease progression quantitatively in a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cohort. The DSI method was applied to longitudinal data from 140 MCI cases that progressed to AD and 149 MCI cases that did not progress to AD during the follow-up. The data included neuropsychological tests, brain volumes from magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid samples, and apolipoprotein E from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Linear regression of the longitudinal DSI values (including the DSI value at the point of MCI to AD conversion) was performed for each subject having at least three DSI values available (147 non-converters, 126 converters). Converters had five times higher slopes and almost three times higher intercepts than non-converters. Two subgroups were found in the group of non-converters: one group with stable DSI values over time and another group with clearly increasing DSI values suggesting possible progression to AD in the future. The regression parameters differentiated between the converters and the non-converters with classification accuracy of 76.9% for the slopes and 74.6% for the intercepts. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that quantifying longitudinal patient data using the DSI method provides valid information for follow-up of disease progression and support for decision making.

  19. Changes in white matter integrity before conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Defrancesco

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI may represent an early stage of dementia conferring a particularly high annual risk of 15-20% of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD. Recent findings suggest that not only gray matter (GM loss but also a decline in white matter (WM integrity may be associated with imminent conversion from MCI to AD.In this study we used Voxel-based morphometry (VBM to examine if gray matter loss and/or an increase of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC reflecting mean diffusivity (MD are an early marker of conversion from MCI to AD in a high risk population.Retrospective neuropsychological and clinical data were collected for fifty-five subjects (MCI converters n = 13, MCI non-converters n = 14, healthy controls n = 28 at baseline and one follow-up visit. All participants underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI and T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline to analyse changes in GM density and WM integrity using VBM.At baseline MCI converters showed impaired performance in verbal memory and naming compared to MCI non-converters. Further, MCI converters showed decreased WM integrity in the frontal, parietal, occipital, as well as the temporal lobe prior to conversion to AD. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive correlation of gray matter atrophy with specific neuropsychological test results.Our results suggest that additionally to morphological changes of GM a reduced integrity of WM indicates an imminent progression from MCI stage to AD. Therefore, we suggest that DWI is useful in the early diagnosis of AD.

  20. Risk classification in mild cognitive impairment patients for developing Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Nakatani, Eiji; Teramukai, Satoshi; Nagai, Yoji; Fukushima, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new risk classifications for conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by comparing the relative reliability of classifiers in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The 397 MCI subjects and all baseline data, including characteristics, neuropsychological tests, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and MRI findings in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), were used for analysis by Cox proportional hazard regression, bootstrap sampling, and c-index. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed the following factors to be associated with increased risk of conversion from MCI to AD during the 53-month follow-up period: AVLT 30-minute delayed recall, AVLT trial 1, Boston naming, logical delayed recall, trail-making B, CDR-sob, ADAS13, the cortical thickness of the right inferior temporal lobe (st91ta), and the left hippocampus volume. The combinations of ADAS13 at a cutoff point of 15.67 with CDR-sob at 1.5 or with the cortical thickness of the right inferior temporal lobe at 2.56 mm3 produced high conversion rates of 92.7% (82.4%-100.0%) and 88.8% (77.3%-100.0%), respectively, at 48 months. The discriminative ability based on c-index for the proposed combination was 0.68. The sample size was estimated as 504 in the group with a combination of ADAS13 and CDR-sob whose conversion rate is highest. The combination of ADAS13 with CDR-sob at an optimal cutoff point has a high reliability in classifying the MCI patients into high- and low-risk conversion to AD and will be benefit for patients' assessment and potentially facilitate the clinical development of novel therapeutics. PMID:22426014

  1. Identification of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease using multivariate predictors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Cui

    Full Text Available Prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD is of major interest in AD research. A large number of potential predictors have been proposed, with most investigations tending to examine one or a set of related predictors. In this study, we simultaneously examined multiple features from different modalities of data, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI morphometry, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers and neuropsychological and functional measures (NMs, to explore an optimal set of predictors of conversion from MCI to AD in an Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI cohort. After FreeSurfer-derived MRI feature extraction, CSF and NM feature collection, feature selection was employed to choose optimal subsets of features from each modality. Support vector machine (SVM classifiers were then trained on normal control (NC and AD participants. Testing was conducted on MCIc (MCI individuals who have converted to AD within 24 months and MCInc (MCI individuals who have not converted to AD within 24 months groups. Classification results demonstrated that NMs outperformed CSF and MRI features. The combination of selected NM, MRI and CSF features attained an accuracy of 67.13%, a sensitivity of 96.43%, a specificity of 48.28%, and an AUC (area under curve of 0.796. Analysis of the predictive values of MCIc who converted at different follow-up evaluations showed that the predictive values were significantly different between individuals who converted within 12 months and after 12 months. This study establishes meaningful multivariate predictors composed of selected NM, MRI and CSF measures which may be useful and practical for clinical diagnosis.

  2. Brain-wide slowing of spontaneous alpha rhythms in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eGarcés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI include an increase in low frequency activity, as measured with electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (MEG. A relevant property of spectral measures is the alpha peak, which corresponds to the dominant alpha rhythm. Here we studied the spatial distribution of MEG resting state alpha peak frequency and amplitude values in a sample of 27 MCI patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Power spectra were reconstructed in source space with linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer. Then, 88 Regions of Interest (ROIs were defined and an alpha peak per ROI and subject was identified. Statistical analyses were performed at every ROI, accounting for age, sex and educational level. Peak frequency was significantly decreased (p< 0.05 in MCIs in many posterior ROIs. The average peak frequency over all ROIs was 9.68±0.71 Hz for controls and 9.05±0.90 Hz for MCIs and the average normalized amplitude was (2.57±0.59•10-2 for controls and (2.70±0.49•10-2 for MCIs. Age and gender were also found to play a role in the alpha peak, since its frequency was higher in females than in males in posterior ROIs and correlated negatively with age in frontal ROIs. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of peak parameters with hippocampal volume, which is a commonly used marker of early structural AD-related damage. Peak frequency was positively correlated with hippocampal volume in many posterior ROIs. Overall, these findings indicate a pathological alpha slowing in MCI.

  3. Mild cognitive impairment predicts institutionalization among older men: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Gnjidic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence on the contribution of mild cognitive impairment (MCI to institutionalization in older adults. This study aimed to evaluate a range of risk factors including MCI of institutionalization in older men. METHODS: Men aged ≥70 years (n = 1705, participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, Sydney, Australia were studied. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires and underwent comprehensive clinical assessments during 2005-2007. Institutionalization was defined as entry into a nursing home facility or hostel at any time over an average of 5 years of follow-up. Cox regression analysis was conducted to generate hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: A total of 125 (7.3% participants were institutionalized. Piecewise Cox proportional models were generated and divided at 3.4 years (1250 days of follow-up due to violation of the proportional hazards assumption for the association between MCI and institutionalization (χ(2 = 6.44, p = 0.01. Dementia, disability in Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, poor grip strength, few social interactions, being a Non-English speaking immigrant and age were predictive of institutionalization during both time periods, whereas MCI (HR = 4.39, 95%CI 2.17-8.87 only predicted institutionalization in the period beyond 3.4 years of follow-up. Being married (HR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.24-0.72 was protective only during the period after 3.4 years of follow-up. DISCUSSION: In this study, the strongest predictors of institutionalization were dementia, MCI, ADL and IADL disability. MCI was not a predictor of early institutionalization but became a significant predictor beyond 3.4 years of follow-up.

  4. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Stebbins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies of Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI have focused on the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex; gray matter structures in the medial temporal lobe. Few studies have investigated the integrity of white matter in patients with AD or MCI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a MRI technique that allows for the interrogation of the microstructural integrity of white matter. Based on increases in translational diffusion (mean diffusivity: MD and decreases directional diffusion (fractional anisotropy: FA damage to white matter can be assessed. Studies have identified regions of increased MD and decreased FA in patients with AD and MCI in all lobes of the brain, as well as medial temporal lobe structures including the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal white matter. The pattern of white matter integrity disruption tends to follow an anterior to posterior gradient with greater damage noted in posterior regions in AD and MCI. Recent studies have exploited inter-voxel directional similarities to develop models of white matter pathways, and have used these models to assess the integrity of inter-cerebral connections. Particular focus has been applied to the parahippocampal white matter (including the perforant path and the posterior cingulum. Although many studies have found DTI indicators of impaired white matter in AD and MCI, other studies have failed to detect any differences in MD or FA between the groups, demonstrating the need for large replicative studies. DTI is an evolving technique and advances in its application ought to provide new insights into AD and MCI.

  5. Multimodal Classification of Mild Cognitive Impairment Based on Partial Least Squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingyue; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Hu, Bin; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Jiacai; Ye, Qing; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-08-10

    In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the identification of the conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain neuroimaging techniques have been widely used to support the classification or prediction of MCI. The present study combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET), and 18F-florbetapir PET (florbetapir-PET) to discriminate MCI converters (MCI-c, individuals with MCI who convert to AD) from MCI non-converters (MCI-nc, individuals with MCI who have not converted to AD in the follow-up period) based on the partial least squares (PLS) method. Two types of PLS models (informed PLS and agnostic PLS) were built based on 64 MCI-c and 65 MCI-nc from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The results showed that the three-modality informed PLS model achieved better classification accuracy of 81.40%, sensitivity of 79.69%, and specificity of 83.08% compared with the single-modality model, and the three-modality agnostic PLS model also achieved better classification compared with the two-modality model. Moreover, combining the three modalities with clinical test score (ADAS-cog), the agnostic PLS model (independent data: florbetapir-PET; dependent data: FDG-PET and MRI) achieved optimal accuracy of 86.05%, sensitivity of 81.25%, and specificity of 90.77%. In addition, the comparison of PLS, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF) showed greater diagnostic power of PLS. These results suggested that our multimodal PLS model has the potential to discriminate MCI-c from the MCI-nc and may therefore be helpful in the early diagnosis of AD. PMID:27567818

  6. Vascular Risk as a Predictor of Cognitive Decline in a Cohort of Elderly Patients with Mild to Moderate Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro K. Curiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular risk factors and other clinical variables as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in elderly patients with mild to moderate dementia. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 82 elderly patients (mean age 79.0 ± 5.9 years; 67.1% females with mild to moderate dementia were obtained at baseline, including years of education, Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk score, Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS, Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ score, Burden Interview Scale score, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI score. Changes in MMSE and FAQ scores over time were assessed annually. The association between baseline clinical variables and cognitive and functional decline was investigated during 3 years of follow-up through the use of generalized linear mixed effects models. Results: A trend was found towards steeper cognitive decline in patients with less vascular burden according to the HIS (β = 0.056, p = 0.09, better cognitive performance according to the CDR score (β = 0.313, p = 0.06 and worse caregiver burden according to the Burden Interview Scale score (β = -0.012, p = 0.07 at baseline. Conclusion: Further studies with larger samples are necessary to confirm and expand our findings.

  7. Vascular Risk as a Predictor of Cognitive Decline in a Cohort of Elderly Patients with Mild to Moderate Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiati, Pedro K.; Magaldi, Regina M.; Suemoto, Claudia K.; Bottino, Cassio M.C.; Nitrini, Ricardo; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular risk factors and other clinical variables as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in elderly patients with mild to moderate dementia. Methods The clinical characteristics of 82 elderly patients (mean age 79.0 ± 5.9 years; 67.1% females) with mild to moderate dementia were obtained at baseline, including years of education, Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk score, Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) score, Burden Interview Scale score, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) score. Changes in MMSE and FAQ scores over time were assessed annually. The association between baseline clinical variables and cognitive and functional decline was investigated during 3 years of follow-up through the use of generalized linear mixed effects models. Results A trend was found towards steeper cognitive decline in patients with less vascular burden according to the HIS (β = 0.056, p = 0.09), better cognitive performance according to the CDR score (β = 0.313, p = 0.06) and worse caregiver burden according to the Burden Interview Scale score (β = −0.012, p = 0.07) at baseline. Conclusion Further studies with larger samples are necessary to confirm and expand our findings. PMID:25493090

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels correlate with cognitive performance in Parkinson’s disease patients with mild cognitive impairment

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    Alberto eCosta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a trophic factor regulating cell survival and synaptic plasticity. Recent findings indicate that BDNF could be a potential regulatory factor for cognitive functioning in normal and/or neuropathological conditions. With regard to neurological disorders, recent data suggest that individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD may be affected by cognitive deficits and that they have altered BDNF production. Therefore, the hypothesis can be advanced that BDNF levels are associated with the cognitive state of these patients. With this in mind, the present study was aimed at exploring the relationship between BDNF serum levels and cognitive functioning in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Thirteen PD patients with MCI were included in the study. They were administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery that investigated executive, episodic memory, attention, visual-spatial and language domains. A single score was obtained for each cognitive domain by averaging z-scores on tests belonging to that specific domain. BDNF serum levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA. Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed between BDNF serum levels and cognitive performance. Results showed a significant positive correlation between BDNF serum levels and both attention (p<0.05 and executive (p<0.05 domains. Moreover, in the executive domain we found a significant correlation between BDNF levels and scores on tests assessing working memory and self-monitoring/inhibition. These preliminary data suggest that BDNF serum levels are associated with cognitive state in PD patients with MCI. Given the role of BDNF in regulating synaptic plasticity, the present findings give further support to the hypothesis that this trophic factor may be a potential biomarker for evaluating cognitive changes in PD and other neurological syndromes associated with cognitive decline.

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Esbensen, Anna J.; Shalev, Rebecca; Vincent, Lori B.; Mihaila, Iulia; Bussanich, Paige

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on psychosocial treatments for depression in adults with intellectual disability (ID). In this pilot study, we explored the efficacy of a group CBT treatment that involved a caregiver component in adults with mild ID with a depressive disorder. Sixteen adults with mild ID and a depressive disorder participated in a…

  10. Detection of changes in the locus coeruleus in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: High-resolution fast spin-echo T1-weighted imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Junko; Shibata, Toshihide; Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Masako; Yanezawa, Hisashi; Obara, Satoko; Kudo, Kohsuke; Ito, Kenji; Yamashita, Fumio; Terayama, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Aim Neuronal degeneration in the locus coeruleus occurs in the early phase of Alzheimer's disease, similar to mild cognitive impairment. The locus coeruleus produces norepinephrine, a deficiency of which causes both memory disturbance and psychological symptoms. Thus, we evaluated signal alterations in the locus coeruleus of patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using a high-resolution fast spin-echo T1-weighted imaging. Methods A total of 22 patients with Alzheimer'...

  11. Cerebrolysin enhances cognitive recovery of mild traumatic brain injury patients: double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chung; Wei, Sung-Tai; Tsaia, Shiu-Chiu; Chen, Xian-Xiu; Cho, Der-Yang

    2013-12-01

    In adults, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) frequently results in impairments of cognitive functions which would lead to psychological consequences in the future. Cerebrolysin is a nootropic drug, and can significantly improve cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Cerebrolysin therapy enhances cognitive recovery for mild traumatic brain injury patients using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized phase II pilot study. Patients having head injury within 24 h sent to our hospital were screened and recruited if patients were alert and conscious, and had intracranial contusion haemorrhage. From July 2009 to June 2010, totally, thirty-two patients were recruited in the double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and randomized study. Patients were randomized to receive Cerebrolysin (Group A, once daily intravenous infusion of 30 mL Cerebrolysin over a 60-min period for 5 days) or placebo (Group B, same dosage and administration of normal saline as Group A). The primary outcome measures were differences of cognitive function including Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) scores between baseline and week 1, between baseline and week 4, and between baseline and week 12. Thirty-two patients completed the trial. For Group A, the CASI score difference between baseline and week 12 was 21.0 ± 20.4, a significantly greater change than that of Group B (7.6 ± 12.1) (p = 0.0461). Besides, drawing function (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0066) on week 4 and both drawing function (p = 0.0472) and long-term memory (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0256) on week 12 were also found to be significantly improved in the patients receiving Cerebrolysin treatment. Our results suggest that Cerebrolysin improves the cognitive function of the MTBI in patients at 3rd month after injury, especially for long-term memory and drawing function.

  12. Working Memory and Executive Function Decline across Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Anna-Mariya Kirova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease marked by deficits in episodic memory, working memory (WM, and executive function. Examples of executive dysfunction in AD include poor selective and divided attention, failed inhibition of interfering stimuli, and poor manipulation skills. Although episodic deficits during disease progression have been widely studied and are the benchmark of a probable AD diagnosis, more recent research has investigated WM and executive function decline during mild cognitive impairment (MCI, also referred to as the preclinical stage of AD. MCI is a critical period during which cognitive restructuring and neuroplasticity such as compensation still occur; therefore, cognitive therapies could have a beneficial effect on decreasing the likelihood of AD progression during MCI. Monitoring performance on working memory and executive function tasks to track cognitive function may signal progression from normal cognition to MCI to AD. The present review tracks WM decline through normal aging, MCI, and AD to highlight the behavioral and neurological differences that distinguish these three stages in an effort to guide future research on MCI diagnosis, cognitive therapy, and AD prevention.

  13. Learning to live with a loved one with mild cognitive impairment: effectiveness of a waiting list controlled trial of a group intervention on significant others' sense of competence and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banningh, L.W.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Vullings, M.; Prins, J.B.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This controlled study examines the efficacy of a comprehensive group program aimed at care partners of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which comprises elements of psychoeducation, cognitive rehabilitation, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Pre- and posttreatment quantitative and quali

  14. Learning to live with a loved one with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Effectiveness of a waiting-list controlled trial of a group intervention on significant others' sense of competence and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, E.W.A.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Vullings, M.; Prins, J.B.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This controlled study examines the efficacy of a comprehensive group program aimed at care partners of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which comprises elements of psychoeducation, cognitive rehabilitation, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Pre- and posttreatment quantitative and quali

  15. Effect of Cognitive and Aerobic Training Intervention on Older Adults with Mild or No Cognitive Impairment: A Derivative Study of the Nakajima Project

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    Keiko Sugano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An increasing elderly population in Japan requires effective cognitive intervention programs for dementia. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of such programs for older adults. Methods: The participants were local community-dwelling non-demented older adults and adults with mild cognitive impairment who underwent executive function and group aerobic training. In addition, a non-intervention group participated in activity sessions involving handicraft, Skutt ball matches, and cooking. The four criteria for assessment were cognitive function, instrumental activities of daily living, human relationships, and physical function. Results: The participants in both intervention groups showed a significant improvement in their memory function compared with the non-intervention group. Conclusion: Early rehabilitation intervention using executive function and aerobic training programs may improve memory.

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood Is Associated with Cognitive Test Profiles in the Geriatric Population but Not with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's Disease

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    N. Ivanchak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of ADHD in the aging population and its relationship to late-life cognitive decline has not been studied previously. To address this gap in our understanding, the Wender-Utah ADHD Rating scale (WURS was administered to 310 geriatric subjects with cognitive status ranging from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment to overt dementia. The frequency of WURS-positive ADHD in this sample was 4.4%. WURS scores were not related to cognitive diagnoses, but did show nonlinear associations with tasks requiring sustained attention. The frequency of ADHD appears stable across generations and does not appear to be associated with MCI or dementia diagnoses. The association of attentional processing deficits and WURS scores in geriatric subjects could suggest that such traits remain stable throughout life. Caution should be considered when interpreting cognitive test profiles in the aging population that exhibit signs and symptoms of ADHD, as attentional deficits may not necessarily imply the existence of an underlying neurodegenerative disease state.

  17. Study on EEG power and coherence in patients with mild cognitive impairment during working memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zheng-yan

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the features of electroencephalography (EEG) power and coherence at rest and during a working memory task of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty-five patients (17 males, 18 females; 52~71 years old) and 34 sex- and age-matched controls (17 males, 17 females; 51~63 years old) were recruited in the present study. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) of 35 patients with MCI and 34 normal controls revealed that the scores of MCI patients did not differ significantly from those of normal controls (P>0.05). Then, EEGs at rest and during working memory task with three levels of working memory load were recorded. The EEG power was computed over 10 channels: right and left frontal (F3, F4), central (C3,C4), parietal (P3, P4), temporal (TS, T6) and occipital (O1, O2); inter-hemispheric coherences were computed from five electrode pairs of F3-F4, C3-C4, P3-P4, T5-T6 and O1-O2 for delta (1.0~3.5 Hz), theta (4.0~7.5 Hz), alpha-1 (8.0~10.0 Hz), alpha-2 (10.5~13.0 Hz), beta-1 (13.5~18.0 Hz) and beta-2 (18.5~30.0 Hz) frequency bands. All values of the EEG power of MCI patients were found to be higher than those of normal controls at rest and during working memory tasks. Furthermore, the values of EEG power in the theta, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands of patients with MCI were significantly high (P<0.05) in comparison with those of normal controls. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between the EEG powers and MMSE scores. In addition, during working memory tasks, the EEG coherences in all bands were significantly higher in the MCI group in comparison with those in the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in EEG coherences between two groups at rest. These findings comprise evidence that MCI patients have higher EEG power at rest, and higher EEG power and coherence during working conditions. It suggests that MCI may be associated with compensatory processes at

  18. Integrative Frequency Power of EEG Correlates with Progression of Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Youquan; Chen, Jun; Lu, Yaqin; Pan, Suyue

    2016-04-01

    Clinically, predicting the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and diagnosing dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) are difficult. This study aims to explore an integrative electroencephalography (EEG) frequency power that could be used to predict the progression of MCI in PD patients. Twenty-six PD patients, in this study, were divided into the mild cognitive impairment group (PDMCI, 17 patients) and dementia group (PDD, 9 patients) according to cognitive performance. Beta peak frequency, alpha relative power, and alpha/theta power were recorded and analyzed for the prediction. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores at initiation, in the first year, and in the second year were examined. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, Matthew correlation coefficient, and positive likelihood ratio were calculated in both the integrative EEG biomarkers and single best biomarker. Of the 17 patients with MCI for 2 years, 6 progressed to dementia. Integrative EEG biomarkers, mainly associated with beta peak frequency, can predict conversion from MCI to dementia. These biomarkers had sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 78%, compared with sensitivity of 61% and specificity of 58% of the beta peak frequency. In conclusion, the integrative EEG frequency powers were more sensitive and specific to MCI progression in PD patients.

  19. Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv. At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg·kg−1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism.

  20. [Platelet cytochrome c-oxidase and glutamine synthetase-like protein in patients with mild cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbaeva, G Sh; Boksha, I S; Savushkina, O K; Turishcheva, M S; Tereshkina, E B; Starodubtseva, L I; Gavrilova, S I; Fedorova, Ia B; Zhuravin, I A

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to develop pre-clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and - in future - preventive therapy in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The MCI group (n=44) and AD group (n=42, including 18 patients with soft dementia and 24 patients with mild dementia) were studied. The groups were matched for age (median 70 and 69 years for MCI and AD groups, respectively). The control group comprised 24 mentally healthy relatives of the patients. Correlations between the activity/amounts of platelet enzymes: cytochrome c-oxidase (COX), glutamine synthetase-like protein (GSLP) and the extent of cognitive impairment were studied. The COX activity in MCI and AD groups was significantly lower than in the control group (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.0001, χ²=11.6, p=0.003). These tests showed significant differences in GSLP amount between three groups (p=0.04 and χ²=9.38, p=0.01, respectively). Significant reverse correlation (Spearman R= -0.43, p=0.007) was found between GSLP amount and MMSE scores for MCI+AD group, i.e., the lower MMSE scores, the higher platelet GSLP level. Platelet COX and GSLP may be considered as early markers of cognitive impairment.

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Performance of Untreated Depressed Patients with Mild Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Li; Ning Zhong; Shengfu Lu; Gang Wang; Lei Feng; Bin Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the working memory performance of 18 patients experiencing their first onset of mild depression without treatment and 18 healthy matched controls. The results demonstrated that working memory impairment in patients with mild depression occurred when memorizing the position of a picture but not when memorizing the pictures themselves. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the emotional impact on the working memory, indicating that the attenuation of...

  2. Type 2 diabetes mellitus might be a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment progressing to Alzheimer’s disease