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Sample records for amnestic mild cognitive

  1. Visual Personal Familiarity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Jurjanz; Markus Donix; Amanatidis, Eva C.; Shirin Meyer; Katrin Poettrich; Thomas Huebner; Damaris Baeumler; Michael N Smolka; Vjera A. Holthoff

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Besides episodic memory dysfunction they show deficits in accessing contextual knowledge that further specifies a general concept or helps to identify an object or a person. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural networks associated with the perception of personal familiar faces and places in patients with amnestic m...

  2. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment with low myocardial metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Ogata, Takeshi; Haruta, Masayuki; Kishi, Masahiko; Tsuyusaki, Yohei; Tateno, Akihiko; Tateno, Fuyuki; Mouri, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We reported cases of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) without the core clinical features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (dementia and spontaneous parkinsonism) with low uptake in 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. Methods: During a 3-year period at a university clinic, we had 254 patients with memory complaints; 106 men, 148 women; mean age 72.5 years (48-95 years). In all patients we performed neurologic examination; memory tests including th...

  3. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Soo Ryon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1 between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and normal adults and (2 between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy. Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI.

  4. Balance features in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandri, Massimo; Cammisuli, Sharon; Cammarata, Sergio; Baratto, Luigi; Campbell, Jackie; Simonini, Marina; Tabaton, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated alterations of balance by stabilometry in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fifteen patients with aMCI and 15 with mild AD were recruited according to the current diagnostic criteria. Fifteen healthy subjects of the same age range were recruited as controls. Stabilometry was carried out using a commercial 4 load cell platform. Statistical analysis of between group differences was performed using one-way analysis of variance for parametric data and Kruskal-Wallis tests for non-parametric data. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to investigate the association between cognitive test scores and stabilometric data. All stabilometry measures were significantly altered in mild AD patients compared to normal controls. Antero-posterior sway was found to be the most sensitive parameter, since it correlated with the ADAS-cog orientation subscale in AD patients, and also discriminated between aMCI and normal controls. Our study shows that impairment in balance is a feature not only of AD, but also of aMCI. The alterations found suggest that a progressive failure of the vestibular system, possibly linked to reduced hippocampal performance, may be responsible for such a feature. Further research must be focused on studying the predictive value of stabilometry in the conversion of aMCI. PMID:19158427

  5. Evaluating Different Aspects of Prospective Memory in Amnestic and Nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez Cardenache, Rene; Burguera, Lizmar; Acevedo, Amarilis; Curiel, Rosie; Loewenstein, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory, the inability to remember an intended action, is a common complaint, but not formally assessed in most clinical and research studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), non-amnestic cognitive impairment (naMCI), and cognitively normal (CN) elders were assessed using the Miami Prospective Memory Test (MPMT). A unique aspect of the paradigm was that participants were scored for intention to perform, accu...

  6. Emotional face recognition deficit in amnestic patients with mild cognitive impairment: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

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    Yang L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Yang, Xiaochuan Zhao, Lan Wang, Lulu Yu, Mei Song, Xueyi Wang Department of Mental Health, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Medical University Institute of Mental Health, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been conceptualized as a transitional stage between healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, understanding emotional face recognition deficit in patients with amnestic MCI could be useful in determining progression of amnestic MCI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of emotional face processing in amnestic MCI by using event-related potentials (ERPs. Patients with amnestic MCI and healthy controls performed a face recognition task, giving old/new responses to previously studied and novel faces with different emotional messages as the stimulus material. Using the learning-recognition paradigm, the experiments were divided into two steps, ie, a learning phase and a test phase. ERPs were analyzed on electroencephalographic recordings. The behavior data indicated high emotion classification accuracy for patients with amnestic MCI and for healthy controls. The mean percentage of correct classifications was 81.19% for patients with amnestic MCI and 96.46% for controls. Our ERP data suggest that patients with amnestic MCI were still be able to undertake personalizing processing for negative faces, but not for neutral or positive faces, in the early frontal processing stage. In the early time window, no differences in frontal old/new effect were found between patients with amnestic MCI and normal controls. However, in the late time window, the three types of stimuli did not elicit any old/new parietal effects in patients with amnestic MCI, suggesting their recollection was impaired. This impairment may be closely associated with amnestic MCI disease. We conclude from our data that face recognition processing and emotional memory is

  7. Increased Sensitivity to Proactive and Retroactive Interference in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanseeuw, Bernard J.; Seron, Xavier; Ivanoiu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased sensitivity to proactive (PI) and retroactive (RI) interference has been observed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). PI and RI are often explained as being the result of a response competition mechanism. However, patients with aMCI are supposed to suffer mostly from encoding deficits. We hypothesized that in aMCI…

  8. Spatial navigation deficit in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hort, J.; Laczó, J.; Vyhnálek, M.; Bojar, M.; Bureš, Jan; Vlček, Kamil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 10 (2007), s. 4042-4047. ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/0693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer’s Disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 9.598, year: 2007

  9. Spatial Navigation and APOE in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Vlček, Kamil; Maťoška, V.; Vyhnálek, M.; Tolar, M.; Bojar, M.; Hort, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2011), s. 169-177. ISSN 1660-2854 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/1053; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer's disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2011

  10. Relative power and coherence of EEG series are related to amnestic mild cognitive impairment in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhijie Bian; Qiuli Li; Xiaoli Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes is a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether some features of resting-state EEG (rsEEG) could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish the subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from normal cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls) were investigated. Recording of the rsEEG series and neurops...

  11. Validation of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and intact elders

    OpenAIRE

    Duff, Kevin; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Adams, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Although the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) is frequently used as a screening measure of cognition in dementia and aging studies, it has not been validated in individuals with milder cognitive impairments. The current study compared two groups (amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment [n=61] and cognitively intact elders [n=62]) on the mTICS and used regression models to predict baseline scores on standardized memory tests using baseline mTICS scores. Baseline mTICS score...

  12. Dual task performance in early Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, K. M.; Lonie, J. A.; Donaghey, C.; Ebmeier, K.P.; Lee, A; Herrmann, L. L.; O'Carroll, R E

    2009-01-01

    Background. The dual task paradigm (Baddeley et al. 1986; Della Sala et al. 1995) has been proposed as a sensitive measure of Alzheimer's dementia, early in the disease process. Method. We investigated this claim by administering the modified dual task paradigm (utilising a pencil-and-paper version of a tracking task) to 33 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 10 with very early Alzheimer's disease, as well as 21 healthy elderly subjects and 17 controls with depress...

  13. Concurrent Impairments in Sleep and Memory in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Westerberg, Carmen E.; Mander, Bryce A.; Florczak, Susan M.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Zee, Phyllis C.; Paller, Ken A.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience difficulties forming and retrieving memories, their memory impairments may also partially reflect an unrecognized dysfunction in sleep-dependent consolidation that normally stabilizes declarative memory storage across cortical areas. Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) exhibit circumscribed declarative memory deficits, and many eventually progress to an AD diagnosis. Whether sleep is disrupted in aMCI and whether sl...

  14. Multimodal MRI Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Cognitive Normal Adults, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease

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    Ai-Ling Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been developed to noninvasively measure structural, metabolic, hemodynamic and functional changes of the brain. These advantages have made MRI an important tool to investigate neurodegenerative disorders, including diagnosis, disease progression monitoring, and treatment efficacy evaluation. This paper discusses recent findings of the multimodal MRI in the context of surrogate biomarkers for identifying the risk for AD in normal cognitive (NC adults, brain anatomical and functional alterations in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. Further developments of these techniques and the establishment of promising neuroimaging biomarkers will enhance our ability to diagnose aMCI and AD in their early stages and improve the assessment of therapeutic efficacy in these diseases in future clinical trials.

  15. Electrophysiological correlates of amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a simon task.

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    Jesús Cespón

    Full Text Available Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI represents a prodromal stage of Alzheimer`s disease (AD, especially when additional cognitive domains are affected (Petersen et al., 2009. Thus, single-domain amnestic MCI (sdaMCI and multiple-domain-amnestic MCI (mdaMCI biomarkers are important for enabling early interventions to help slow down progression of the disease. Recording event-related potentials (ERPs is a non-invasive and inexpensive measure of brain activity associated with cognitive processes, and it is of interest from a clinical point of view. The ERP technique may also be useful for obtaining early sdaMCI and mdaMCI biomarkers because ERPs are sensitive to impairment in processes that are not manifested at behavioral or clinical levels. In the present study, EEG activity was recorded in 25 healthy participants and 30 amnestic MCI patients (17 sdaMCI and 13 mdaMCI while they performed a Simon task. The ERPs associated with visuospatial (N2 posterior-contralateral - N2pc - and motor (lateralized readiness potential - LRP - processes were examined. The N2pc amplitude was smaller in participants with mdaMCI than in healthy participants, which indicated a decline in the correlates of allocation of attentional resources to the target stimulus. In addition, N2pc amplitude proved to be a moderately good biomarker of mdaMCI subtype (0.77 sensitivity, 0.76 specificity. However, the LRP amplitude was smaller in the two MCI groups (sdaMCI and mdaMCI than in healthy participants, revealing a reduction in the motor resources available to execute the response in sdaMCI and mdaMCI patients. Furthermore, the LRP amplitude proved to be a valid biomarker (0.80 sensitivity, 0.92 specificity of both amnestic MCI subtypes.

  16. Informant-reported cognitive symptoms that predict amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Malek-Ahmadi Michael

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognition is difficult in clinical settings. Self-reported and informant-reported memory complaints occur often in both clinical groups, which then necessitates the use of a comprehensive neuropsychological examination to make a differential diagnosis. However, the ability to identify cognitive symptoms that are predictive of aMCI through informant-based information may provide some clinical utility in accurately identifying individuals who are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods The current study utilized a case-control design using data from an ongoing validation study of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ, an informant-based dementia assessment. Data from 51 cognitively normal (CN individuals participating in a brain donation program and 47 aMCI individuals seen in a neurology practice at the same institute were analyzed to determine which AQ items differentiated aMCI from CN individuals. Results Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis which controlled for age and education showed that 4 AQ items were strong indicators of aMCI which included: repetition of statements and/or questions [OR 13.20 (3.02, 57.66]; trouble knowing the day, date, month, year, and time [OR 17.97 (2.63, 122.77]; difficulty managing finances [OR 11.60 (2.10, 63.99]; and decreased sense of direction [OR 5.84 (1.09, 31.30]. Conclusions Overall, these data indicate that certain informant-reported cognitive symptoms may help clinicians differentiate individuals with aMCI from those with normal cognition. Items pertaining to repetition of statements, orientation, ability to manage finances, and visuospatial disorientation had high discriminatory power.

  17. Plasma Levels of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 3 and Beta-Nerve Growth Factor Increase with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Soo Lee; Ji Hyung Chung; Kyung Hye Lee; Min-Jeong Shin; Byoung Hoon Oh; Soo Hyung Lee; Chang Hyung Hong

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated peripheral inflammatory indices, including plasma cytokines and related molecules according to subtypes of dementia, but not in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we used multiplex cytokine assay to assess the plasma levels of 22 cytokines in patients with MCI subtyped as amnestic and non-amnestic, according to cognitive features. When comparing the levels of plasma growth factors, chemokines and cytokines, plasma levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3), and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in these two groups, they were found to be significantly higher in amnestic MCI patients than in non-amnestic MCI patients, after adjusting for age and gender. This suggests that plasma MCP-3 and β-NGF may be useful in differentiating subtypes of MCI. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  18. Movements Execution in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Rosolino Camarda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between motor and neuropsychological deficits in subjects affected by amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI and early Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Kinematics of goal-directed movement of aMCI and AD subjects were compared to those of age-matched control subjects. AD showed a slowing down of motor performance compared to aMCI and controls. No relationships were found between motor and cognitive performances in both AD and aMCI. Our results suggest that the different motor behaviour between AD and aMCI cannot be related to memory deficits, probably reflecting the initial degeneration of parietal-frontal circuits for movement planning. The onset of motor dysfunction in early AD could represent the transition from aMCI to AD.

  19. The Assessment of Recognition Memory Using the Remember/Know Procedure in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Probable Alzheimer's Disease

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    Hudon, Carol; Belleville, Sylvie; Gauthier, Serge

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Remember/Know (R/K) procedure combined with signal detection analyses to assess recognition memory in 20 elders with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 10 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as matched healthy older adults. Signal detection analyses first indicated that aMCI and control participants…

  20. Mismatch negativity (MMN latency as a biomarker of amnestic mild cognitive impairment in Chinese rural elders

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    Guo Hua Lu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the Mismatch Negativity (MMN component, a correlate of the automatic detection of changes in the acoustic environment, in healthy adults and adults with aMCI. 43 mild amnestic cognitive impairment (aMCI subjects and 43 healthy Chinese older adults were arranged into experimental group and control group respectively. Their MMN amplitude and latency were measured at the FZ, FCZ and CZ electrode sites under a passive auditory oddball task. The results showed that the latencies obtained from the FZ, FCZ and CZ electrode sites were significantly longer in the aMCI adults than in the control adults (P<0.01 while there were no significant differences in MMN amplitude between two groups(P>0.05. The MMN latency was found to be a sensitive and specific biomarker of aMCI.

  1. The use of the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M) in the detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah E; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin J M

    2009-06-01

    Many screening tools for detecting cognitive decline require in-person assessment, which is often not cost-effective or feasible for those with physical limitations. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status has been used for screening dementia, but little is known about its usefulness in detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Community-dwelling participants (mean age=74.9, mean education = 16.1 years) were administered the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status during initial screening and subsequently given a multidomain neuropsychological battery. Participants were classified by consensus panel as cognitively normal older adult (noMCI, N=54) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (N=17) based on neuropsychological performance and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale interview, but independent of Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score. There was a significant difference between groups in Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score (t=8.04, PTICS-M alone correctly classified 85.9% of participants into their respective diagnostic classification (sensitivity=82.4%, specificity=87.0%). Receiver operating characteristics analysis resulted in cutoff score of 34 that optimized sensitivity and specificity of amnestic mild cognitive impairment classification. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is a brief, cost-effective screening measure for identifying those with and without amnestic mild cognitive impairment. PMID:19417219

  2. Changes in Parahippocampal White Matter Integrity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

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    E. J. Rogalski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, changes in the parahippocampal white matter (PWM, in the region that includes the perforant path, were investigated, in vivo, in 14 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI compared to 14 elderly controls with no cognitive impairment (NCI. For this purpose, (1 volumetry; (2 diffusion tensor imaging (DTI derived measures of mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA; and (3 tractography were used. In addition, regression models were utilized to examine the association of PWM measurements with memory decline. The results from this study confirm previous findings in our laboratory and others, showing that compared to controls, individuals with aMCI have PWM volume loss. In addition to volume reduction, participants with aMCI demonstrated a significant increase in MD, but no difference in FA, both in the PWM region and in fibers modeled to pass through the PWM region. Further, the DTI metric of MD was associated with declarative memory performance, suggesting it may be a sensitive marker for memory dysfunction. These results indicate that there is general tissue loss and degradation (decreased volume; increased MD in individuals with aMCI compared to older people with normal cognitive function. However, the microstructural organization of remaining fibers, as determined by measures of anisotropic diffusion, is not significantly different from that of controls.

  3. Functional Disorganization of Small-World Brain Networks in mild Alzheimer’s Disease and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: An EEG Study using Relative Wavelet Entropy (RWE)

    OpenAIRE

    Frantzidis, Christos A.; Vivas, Ana B.; Anthoula eTsolaki; Klados, Manousos A.; Magda eTsolaki; Panagiotis D Bamidis

    2014-01-01

    Previous neuroscientific findings have linked Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with less efficient information processing and brain network disorganization. However, pathological alterations of the brain networks during the preclinical phase of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) remain largely unknown. The present study aimed at comparing patterns of the detection of functional disorganization in MCI relative to Mild Dementia (MD). Participants consisted of 23 cognitively healthy adults, 17 aM...

  4. Differences and the Relationship in Default Mode Network Intrinsic Activity and Functional Connectivity in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Weiler, Marina; Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Nogueira, Mateus Henrique; de Campos, Brunno Machado; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that the default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and few studies also reported a decrease in DMN intrinsic activity, measured by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs). In this study, we analyzed the relationship between DMN intrinsic activity and functional connectivity, as well as their possible implications on cognition in patients with mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy control...

  5. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: a preliminary investigation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irish, Muireann

    2011-08-04

    Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient\\'s daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants\\' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory), associative memory (face-name pairings), spatial memory (route learning and recall), and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months), 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  6. Relative power and coherence of EEG series are related to amnestic mild cognitive impairment in diabetes

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    Zhijie eBian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes is a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether some features of resting-state EEG (rsEEG could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish the subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls were investigated. Recording of the rsEEG series and neuropsychological assessments were performed. The rsEEG signal was first decomposed into delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma frequency bands. The relative power of each given band/sum of power and the coherence of waves from different brain areas were calculated. The extracted features from rsEEG and neuropsychological assessments were analyzed as well. Results: The main findings of this study were that: 1 compared with the control group, the ratios of power in theta band (P(theta versus power in alpha band (P(alpha (P(theta/P(alpha in the frontal region and left temporal region were significantly higher for aMCI, and 2 for aMCI, the alpha coherences in posterior, fronto-right temporal, fronto-posterior, right temporo-posterior were decreased; the theta coherences in left central-right central (LC-RC and left posterior-right posterior (LP-RP regions were also decreased; but the delta coherences in left temporal-right temporal (LT-RT region were increased. Conclusion: The proposed indexes from rsEEG recordings could be employed to track cognitive function of diabetic patients and also to help in the diagnosis of those who develop aMCI.

  7. Use of a modified spatial-context memory test to detect amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Wang, Hsuan-Min; Yang, Chien-Ming; Kuo, Wan-Chin; Huang, Chin-Chang; Kuo, Hung-Chou

    2013-01-01

    In this study we sought to differentiate participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) from those with mild dementia of Alzheimer's type (m-DAT) and normal controls by modifying an existing test of spatial context memory (SCMT) designed so as to evaluate the function of brain regions affected in early m-DAT. We found that participants with a-MCI had better total scores on our modified SCMT than those with m-DAT. Furthermore, the locational memory subtest was able to discriminate between those with a-MCI and m-DAT. Additionally, compared with other screening tests, our spatial context memory test showed high sensitivity and specificity in discerning those with a-MCI from the normal population but, was relatively ineffective in discriminating a-MCI patients from those with m-DAT. We conclude that our modified test of SCMT is an effective tool for discriminating a-MCI from m-DAT and does so by detecting differences in locational memory. PMID:23468906

  8. Use of a modified spatial-context memory test to detect amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Hsuan-Min Wang

    Full Text Available In this study we sought to differentiate participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI from those with mild dementia of Alzheimer's type (m-DAT and normal controls by modifying an existing test of spatial context memory (SCMT designed so as to evaluate the function of brain regions affected in early m-DAT. We found that participants with a-MCI had better total scores on our modified SCMT than those with m-DAT. Furthermore, the locational memory subtest was able to discriminate between those with a-MCI and m-DAT. Additionally, compared with other screening tests, our spatial context memory test showed high sensitivity and specificity in discerning those with a-MCI from the normal population but, was relatively ineffective in discriminating a-MCI patients from those with m-DAT. We conclude that our modified test of SCMT is an effective tool for discriminating a-MCI from m-DAT and does so by detecting differences in locational memory.

  9. Card-placing test in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and its neural correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Backgroud We investigated anatomical correlates of the card-placing test (CPT) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods Fifteen aMCI patients underwent part A and part B of the CPT and FDG-PET. The CPT scores and MMSE scores of 29 cognitively normal people were used for comparison. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) correlation analysis was used to extract the regions whose changes in regional cerebral metabolism correlated significantly with part A and B of the CPT with adjustment of age, education and sex of patients. Results The aMCI patients had significantly lower MMSE scores (26.0 ± 2.0 vs. 28.2 ± 1.4, p < 0.001), CPT A (25.5 ± 3.5 vs. 27.7 ± 2.7, p = 0.026) and CPT B scores (16.3 ± 4.4 vs. 19.7 ± 3.7, p = 0.011) compared to the normal population. The test scores of part B of the CPT correlated well with hypometabolism of the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. Conclusions This study suggests that the CPT B may reflect the functional status of the posterior cingulate gyrus in patients with aMCI. PMID:24906452

  10. Functional neural correlates of attentional deficits in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Nicholas T Van Dam

    Full Text Available Although amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; often considered a prodromal phase of Alzheimer's disease, AD is most recognized by its implications for decline in memory function, research suggests that deficits in attention are present early in aMCI and may be predictive of progression to AD. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in the brain during the attention network test between 8 individuals with aMCI and 8 neurologically healthy, demographically matched controls. While there were no significant behavioral differences between groups for the alerting and orienting functions, patients with aMCI showed more activity in neural regions typically associated with the networks subserving these functions (e.g., temporoparietal junction and posterior parietal regions, respectively. More importantly, there were both behavioral (i.e., greater conflict effect and corresponding neural deficits in executive control (e.g., less activation in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Although based on a small number of patients, our findings suggest that deficits of attention, especially the executive control of attention, may significantly contribute to the behavioral and cognitive deficits of aMCI.

  11. Association study of candidate gene polymorphisms with amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Liu

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and candidate gene polymorphisms in a Chinese population, 116 aMCI patients and 93 normal controls were recruited. Multi-dimensional neuropsychological tests were used to extensively assess the cognitive functions of the subjects. MassARRAY and iPLEX systems were used to measure candidate single nucleotide polymorohisms (SNPs and analyse allelic, genotypic or haplotypic distributions. The scores of the neuropsychological tests were significantly lower for the aMCI patients than for the normal controls. The distributions of SNPs relating to the amyloid cascade hypothesis (TOMM40 rs157581 G and TOMM40 rs2075650 G, to the cholesterol metabolism hypothesis (ApoE rs429358 C, LDLR rs11668477 G and CH25H rs7091822 T and PLAU rs2227564 CT and to the tau hypothesis (MAPT/STH rs242562 GG in aMCI were significantly different than those in normal controls. Interactions were also found in aMCI amongst SNPs in LDLR rs11668477, PLAU rs2227564, and TOMM40 rs157581, between SNPs in TOMM40 rs157580 and BACE2 rs9975138. The study suggests that aMCI is characterised by memory impairment and associated with SNPs in three systems relating to the pathogenesis of AD--those of the amyloid cascade, tau and cholesterol metabolism pathways. Interactions were also observed between genes in the amyloid pathway and between the amyloid and cholesterol pathways.

  12. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

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    Li Hui-jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.

  13. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia. PMID:26655068

  14. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the prediction of early conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to dementia: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro J. Modrego; Fayed, Nicolas; Sarasa, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of an amnestic type is a common condition in older people and highly predictive of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, there is no clear consensus regarding the best antecedent biomarker to predict early conversion to AD. Objective The aim of the study is to demonstrate that 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain in MCI patients may predict early conversion to dementia within the 2-year period after baseline assessment. Methods A cohort...

  15. Specifically progressive deficits of brain functional marker in amnestic type mild cognitive impairment.

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    Feng Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deficits of the default mode network (DMN have been demonstrated in subjects with amnestic type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI who have a high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, no longitudinal study of this network has been reported in aMCI. Identifying links between development of DMN and aMCI progression would be of considerable value in understanding brain changes underpinning aMCI and determining risk of conversion to AD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resting-state fMRI was acquired in aMCI subjects (n = 26 and controls (n = 18 at baseline and after approximately 20 months follow up. Independent component analysis was used to isolate the DMN in each participant. Differences in DMN between aMCI and controls were examined at baseline, and subsequent changes between baseline and follow-up were also assessed in the groups. Posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu hyper-functional connectivity was observed at baseline in aMCI subjects, while a substantial decrement of these connections was evident at follow-up in aMCI subjects, compared to matched controls. Specifically, PCC/PCu dysfunction was positively related to the impairments of episodic memory from baseline to follow up in aMCI group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The patterns of longitudinal deficits of DMN may assist investigators to identify and monitor the development of aMCI.

  16. A combined electrophysiological and morphological examination of episodic memory decline in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Michael eHoppstädter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD are characterized by neuropathological changes within the medial temporal lobe cortex (MTLC, which lead to characteristic impairments in episodic memory, i.e., amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Here, we tested the neural correlates of this memory impairment using event-related potentials (ERPs and voxel-based morphometry. Twenty-four participants were instructed to encode lists of words and were tested in a yes/no recognition memory task. The dual-process model of recognition memory dissociates between acontextual familiarity and recollection of contextual details. The early frontal ERP old/new-effect, which is thought to represent a neural correlate of familiarity-based memory, was absent in aMCI, whereas the control group showed a significant early old/new effect at frontal electrodes. This effect was positively correlated with behavioral episodic memory performance. Analyses of brain morphology revealed a focused gray matter loss in the inferior and medial temporal lobes in aMCI versus healthy controls. Moreover, the positive correlation between gray matter volume in the MTLC and the familiarity-related early frontal old/new effect supports the notion that this effect relies upon the integrity of the MTLC. Thus, the present findings might provide a further functional marker for prodromal AD.

  17. Posterior Cingulate Lactate as a Metabolic Biomarker in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Kurt E. Weaver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a central factor within the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD spectrum. We hypothesized that in vivo measurements of lactate (lac, a by-product of glycolysis, would correlate with functional impairment and measures of brain health in a cohort of 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI individuals. Lac was quantified from the precuneus/posterior cingulate (PPC using 2-dimensional J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Additionally, standard behavioral and imaging markers of aMCI disease progression were acquired. PPC lac was negatively correlated with performance on the Wechsler logical memory tests and on the minimental state examination even after accounting for gray matter, cerebral spinal fluid volume, and age. No such relationships were observed between lac and performance on nonmemory tests. Significant negative relationships were also noted between PPC lac and hippocampal volume and PPC functional connectivity. Together, these results reveal that aMCI individuals with a greater disease progression have increased concentrations of PPC lac. Because lac is upregulated as a compensatory response to mitochondrial impairment, we propose that J-resolved MRS of lac is a noninvasive, surrogate biomarker of impaired metabolic function and would provide a useful means of tracking mitochondrial function during therapeutic trials targeting brain metabolism.

  18. Mismatch negativity (MMN amplitude as a biomarker of sensory memory deficit in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Mónica Lindín

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that changes in some event-related potential (ERP parameters associated with controlled processing of stimuli could be used as biomarkers of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. However, data regarding the suitability of ERP components associated with automatic and involuntary processing of stimuli for this purpose are not conclusive. In the present study, we studied the Mismatch Negativity (MMN component, a correlate of the automatic detection of changes in the acoustic environment, in healthy adults and adults with aMCI (age range: 50-87 years. An auditory-visual attention-distraction task, in two evaluations separated by an interval of between 18 and 24 months, was used. In both evaluations, the MMN amplitude was significantly smaller in the aMCI adults than in the control adults. In the first evaluation, such differences were observed for the subgroup of adults between 50 and 64 years of age, but not for the subgroup of 65 years and over. In the aMCI adults, the MMN amplitude was significantly smaller in the second evaluation than in the first evaluation, but no significant changes were observed in the control adult group. The MMN amplitude was found to be a sensitive and specific biomarker of aMCI, in both the first and second evaluation.

  19. Investigating virtual reality navigation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment using fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migo, E M; O'Daly, O; Mitterschiffthaler, M; Antonova, E; Dawson, G R; Dourish, C T; Craig, K J; Simmons, A; Wilcock, G K; McCulloch, E; Jackson, S H D; Kopelman, M D; Williams, S C R; Morris, R G

    2016-01-01

    Spatial navigation requires a well-established network of brain regions, including the hippocampus, caudate nucleus, and retrosplenial cortex. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) is a condition with predominantly memory impairment, conferring a high predictive risk factor for dementia. aMCI is associated with hippocampal atrophy and subtle deficits in spatial navigation. We present the first use of a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) navigation task in aMCI, using a virtual reality analog of the Radial Arm Maze. Compared with controls, aMCI patients showed reduced activity in the hippocampus bilaterally, retrosplenial cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Reduced activation in key areas for successful navigation, as well as additional regions, was found alongside relatively normal task performance. Results also revealed increased activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in aMCI patients, which may reflect compensation for reduced activations elsewhere. These data support suggestions that fMRI spatial navigation tasks may be useful for staging of progression in MCI. PMID:26234803

  20. Abnormal changes of multidimensional surface features using multivariate pattern classification in amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyu; Yuan, Xiankun; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Wu, Liyong; Chao, Wang; Chen, Nan; He, Yong; Han, Ying

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is associated with changes in cortical morphological features, such as cortical thickness, sulcal depth, surface area, gray matter volume, metric distortion, and mean curvature. These features have been proven to have specific neuropathological and genetic underpinnings. However, most studies primarily focused on mass-univariate methods, and cortical features were generally explored in isolation. Here, we used a multivariate method to characterize the complex and subtle structural changing pattern of cortical anatomy in 24 aMCI human participants and 26 normal human controls. Six cortical features were extracted for each participant, and the spatial patterns of brain abnormities in aMCI were identified by high classification weights using a support vector machine method. The classification accuracy in discriminating the two groups was 76% in the left hemisphere and 80% in the right hemisphere when all six cortical features were used. Regions showing high weights were subtle, spatially complex, and predominately located in the left medial temporal lobe and the supramarginal and right inferior parietal lobes. In addition, we also found that the six morphological features had different contributions in discriminating the two groups even for the same region. Our results indicated that the neuroanatomical patterns that discriminated individuals with aMCI from controls were truly multidimensional and had different effects on the morphological features. Furthermore, the regions identified by our method could potentially be useful for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25100588

  1. Concurrent impairments in sleep and memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Carmen E; Mander, Bryce A; Florczak, Susan M; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Zee, Phyllis C; Paller, Ken A

    2012-05-01

    Whereas patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience difficulties forming and retrieving memories, their memory impairments may also partially reflect an unrecognized dysfunction in sleep-dependent consolidation that normally stabilizes declarative memory storage across cortical areas. Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) exhibit circumscribed declarative memory deficits, and many eventually progress to an AD diagnosis. Whether sleep is disrupted in aMCI and whether sleep disruptions contribute to memory impairment is unknown. We measured sleep physiology and memory for two nights and found that aMCI patients had fewer stage-2 spindles than age-matched healthy adults. Furthermore, aMCI patients spent less time in slow-wave sleep and showed lower delta and theta power during sleep compared to controls. Slow-wave and theta activity during sleep appear to reflect important aspects of memory processing, as evening-to-morning change in declarative memory correlated with delta and theta power during intervening sleep in both groups. These results suggest that sleep changes in aMCI patients contribute to memory impairments by interfering with sleep-dependent memory consolidation. PMID:22300710

  2. Recognition Memory in Amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment: Insights from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Wolk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory loss is the hallmark cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (a-MCI frequently represents a transitional stage between normal aging and early AD. A better understanding of the qualitative features of memory loss in a-MCI may have important implications for predicting those most likely to harbor AD-related pathology and for disease monitoring. Dual process models of memory argue that recognition memory is subserved by the dissociable processes of recollection and familiarity. Work studying recognition memory in a-MCI from this perspective has been controversial, particularly with regard to the integrity of familiarity. Event-related potentials (ERPs offer an alternative means for assessing these functions without the associated assumptions of behavioral estimation methods. ERPs were recorded while a-MCI patients and cognitively normal (CN age-matched adults performed a recognition memory task. When retrieval success was measured (hits versus correct rejections in which performance was matched by group, a-MCI patients displayed similar neural correlates to that of the CN group, including modulation of the FN400 and the late parietal complex (LPC which are thought to index familiarity and recollection, respectively. Alternatively, when the integrity of these components were measured based on retrieval attempts (studied versus unstudied items, a-MCI patients displayed a reduced FN400 and LPC. Furthermore, modulation of the FN400 correlated with a behavioral estimate of familiarity and the LPC with a behavioral estimates of recollection obtained in a separate experiment in the same individuals, consistent with the proposed mappings of these indices. These results support a global decline of recognition memory in a-MCI, which suggests that the memory loss of prodromal AD may be qualitatively distinct from normal aging.

  3. Association of the interleukin 1 beta gene and brain spontaneous activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Zhuang Liying

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The inflammatory response has been associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the rs1143627 polymorphism of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β gene moderates functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-measured brain regional activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Eighty older participants (47 with aMCI and 33 healthy controls were recruited for this study. All of the participants were genotyped for variant rs1143627 in the IL1B gene and were scanned using resting-state fMRI. Brain activity was assessed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF. Results aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions, including decreases in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior temporal lobe and the middle temporal lobe, and increases in the occipital cortex (calcarine, parietal cortex (Pcu and cerebellar cortex. The regions associated with an interaction of group X genotypes of rs1143627 C/T were the parietal cortex (left Pcu, frontal cortex (left superior, middle, and medial gyrus, right anterior cingulum, occipital cortex (left middle lobe, left cuneus and the bilateral posterior lobes of the cerebellum. Regarding the behavioral significance, there were significant correlations between ALFF in different regions of the brain and with the cognitive scores of each genotype group. Conclusions The present study provided evidence that aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions. Specifically, the rs1143627 C/T polymorphism of the IL1B gene may modulate regional spontaneous brain activity in aMCI patients.

  4. Individual cerebral metabolic deficits in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was the identification of group and individual subject patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) studies and neuropsychological tests were performed in 16 aMCI patients (ten women, age 75 ± 8 years) and in 14 AD patients (ten women, age 75 ± 9 years). Comparisons between patient subgroups and with a control population were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Clusters of low CMRGlu were observed bilaterally in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus of AD patients. In aMCI patients, reduced CMRGlu was found only in PCC. Areas of low CMRGlu in PCC were wider in AD compared to aMCI and extended to the precuneus, while low CMRGlu was found in the lateral parietal cortex in AD but not in aMCI patients. Individual subject pattern analysis revealed that 86% of AD patients had low CMRGlu in the PCC (including the precuneus in 71%), 71% in the temporal cortex, 64% in the parietal cortex and 35% in the frontal cortex. Among the aMCI patients, 56% had low CMRGlu in the PCC, 44% in the temporal cortex, 18% in the frontal cortex and none in the parietal cortex. This study demonstrates that both AD and aMCI patients have highly heterogeneous metabolic impairment. This potential of individual metabolic PET imaging in patients with AD and aMCI may allow timely identification of brain damage on individual basis and possibly help planning tailored early interventions. (orig.)

  5. The Use of the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M) in the Detection of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Sarah E.; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Many screening tools for detecting cognitive decline require in-person assessment, which is often not cost effective or feasible for those with physical limitations. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M) has been used for screening dementia, but little is known about its usefulness in detecting amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Community-dwelling participants (mean age= 74.9, mean education= 16.1 years) were administered the TICS-M during initial screening an...

  6. Spatial memory impairments in amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a virtual radial arm maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jun-Young Lee,1,2 Sooyeon Kho,1,2 Hye Bin Yoo,1,2 Soowon Park,1,2 Jung-Seok Choi,1,2 Jun Soo Kwon,3 Kyung Ryeol Cha,4 Hee-Yeon Jung1,21Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University, 2Seoul Metropolitan Government – Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Osan Mental Hospital, Gyeonggi, South KoreaObjective: This study aims to apply the virtual radial arm maze (VRAM task to find spatial working memory and reference memory impairments in patients of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Spatial memory functions between aMCI converters and nonconverters are also compared using VRAM results.Methods: We assessed the spatial memory in 20 normal controls, 20 aMCI, and 20 mild AD subjects using VRAM. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale, and other neuropsychological tests were given to the subjects in conjunction with the VRAM test. Scores in working memory errors and reference memory errors were compared among the three groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, aMCI patients were followed-up after 5 years and surveyed for AD conversion rate.Results: In AD patients, both spatial working and reference memory were impaired. However, in aMCI subjects, only spatial reference memory was impaired. Significant spatial reference memory impairment was found in the aMCI converter group when compared to the nonconverter group.Conclusion: Spatial working memory is less impaired in aMCI while reference memory is similarly damaged in AD. In aMCI patients, more severe spatial reference memory deficit is a neuropsychological marker for AD conversion. VRAM may be well utilized in humans to assess spatial memory in normal aging, in aMCI, and in AD.Keywords: spatial behavior, Alzheimer's disease, user computer interface, cognition

  7. Characteristics of Agraphia in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiong; Jiang, Biao; Huang, Xian-Hong; Kong, Lin-Lin; Li, Hong-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest progressive decline in writing abilities. Most studies on agraphia in AD have been performed in the alphabetic system, such as English. However, these findings may not be applicable to other written language systems. The unique features of the Chinese written script could affect the patterns of agraphia in Chinese AD patients. The aim of this study was to explore the features of writing errors in Chinese patients with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), as well as to study the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions. Methods: In this study, we performed an observational study in a group of subjects including 17 AD patients, 14 patients with a-MCI, and 16 elderly healthy controls. We analyzed the writing errors in these subjects and also studied the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions. Results: Our study showed that in patients whose mother tongue is Chinese, writing ability was comparatively well preserved in the MCI phase but significantly impaired when the disease progressed to the stage of AD. The writing errors showed corresponding increase with the severity of cognition decline, both in the types of errors and rate of occurrence. Analysis of the writing errors showed that word substitution and unintelligible words were the most frequent error types that occurred in all the three study groups. The occurrence rate of unintelligible words was significantly higher in the AD group compared with the a-MCI group (P = 0.024) and control group (P = 0.018). In addition, the occurrence rates of word substitution were also significantly higher in AD (P = 0.013) and a-MCI groups (P = 0.037) than that of control group. However, errors such as totally no response, visuospatial impairment, paragraph agraphia, ideograph, and perseverative writing errors were only seen in AD group. Besides, we also found a high occurrence rate of

  8. Hydrogen Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Multidomain Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Cognitive Impairment Without Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Qing; Cai, Qing; Shen, Yu-Ying; Xu, Chuan-Xiao; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the value of hydrogen proton magnet resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the differential diagnosis of multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (M-aMCI) and vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND); (1)H-MRS was performed in patients with M-aMCI and VCIND. The level was determined for N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), inositol (mI), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr). Compared with the normal control group, the NAA-Cr ratio in all regions studied was significantly lower in the M-aMCI and VCIND groups. The Glu-Cr ratio in the posterior cingulate gyrus of the M-aMCI group was significantly lower than in the VCIND. The mI-Cr ratio in the frontal white matter of the VCIND was significantly higher than in the M-aMCI group. In the white matter adjacent to the lateral ventricles, the Cho-Cr ratio was significantly higher in the VCIND than the M-aMCI. Our results suggested (1)H-MRS is an effective method in the differential diagnosis of M-aMCI and VCIND. PMID:26980718

  9. Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial

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    Suzuki Takao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on the cognitive function of older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Design: Twelve months, randomized controlled trial; Setting: Community center in Japan; Participants: Fifty older adults (27 men with aMCI ranging in age from 65 to 93 years (mean age, 75 years; Intervention: Subjects were randomized into either a multicomponent exercise (n = 25 or an education control group (n = 25. Subjects in the multicomponent exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, for a total of 80 times over 12 months. The exercises included aerobic exercises, muscle strength training, and postural balance retraining, and were conducted using multiple conditions to stimulate cognitive functions. Subjects in the control group attended three education classes regarding health during the 12-month period. Measurements were administered before, after the 6-month, and after the 12-month intervention period; Measurements: The performance measures included the mini-mental state examination, logical memory subtest of the Wechsler memory scale-revised, digit symbol coding test, letter and categorical verbal fluency test, and the Stroop color word test. Results The mean adherence to the exercise program was 79.2%. Improvements of cognitive function following multicomponent exercise were superior at treatment end (group × time interactions for the mini-mental state examination (P = 0.04, logical memory of immediate recall (P = 0.03, and letter verbal fluency test (P = 0.02. The logical memory of delayed recall, digit symbol coding, and Stroop color word test showed main effects of time, although there were no group × time interactions. Conclusions This study indicates that exercise improves or supports, at least partly, cognitive performance in older adults with aMCI.

  10. Brain structural, functional, and cognitive correlates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Clémence Tomadesso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old and recent (the ten last years autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD.

  11. Perspective taking abilities in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, H.; Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Hort, J.; Vlček, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 281, Mar 15 (2015), s. 229-238. ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer's disease * mild cognitive impairment * spatial transformation * standardized road-map test of direction sense * perspective taking task * sexual differences Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.028, year: 2014

  12. Famous Landmark Identification in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sheardová, K.; Laczó, J.; Vyhnálek, M.; Andel, R.; Mokrišová, I.; Vlček, Kamil; Amlerová, J.; Hort, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2014), e105623. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : visual perception * Alzheimer’s disease * brain changes * mild cognitive impairment * medial temporal lobe Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  13. Differences in functional brain connectivity alterations associated with cerebral amyloid deposition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Dahyun eYi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite potential implications for the early detection of impending AD, very little is known about the differences of large scale brain networks between amnestic MCI (aMCI with high cerebral amyloid beta protein (Aβ deposition (i.e., aMCI+ and aMCI with no or very little Aβ deposition (i.e., aMCI-. We first aimed to extend the current literature on altering intrinsic functional connectivity (FC of the default mode network (DMN and salience network (SN from CN to AD dementia. Second, we further examined the differences of the DMN and the SN between aMCI-, aMCI+, and CN. Forty-three older adult (12 CN, 10 aMCI+, 10 aMCI-, and 11 AD dementia subjects were included. All participants received clinical and neuropsychological assessment, resting state functional MRI, structural MRI, and Pittsburgh compound-B-PET scans. FC data were preprocessed using Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components of FSL. Group comparisons were carried out using the dual-regression approach. In addition, to verify presence of grey matter (GM volume changes with intrinsic functional network alterations, Voxel Based Morphometry was performed on the acquired T1-weighted data. As expected, AD dementia participants exhibited decreased FC in the DMN compared to CN (in precuneus and cingulate gyrus. The degree of alteration in the DMN in aMCI+ compared to CN was intermediate to that of AD. In contrast, aMCI- exhibited increased FC in the DMN compared to CN (in precuneus as well as aMCI+. In terms of the SN, aMCI- exhibited decreased FC compared to both CN and aMCI+ particularly in the inferior frontal gyrus. FC within the SN in aMCI+ and AD did not differ from CN. Compared to CN, aMCI- showed atrophy in bilateral superior temporal gyri whereas aMCI+ showed atrophy in right precuneus. The results indicate that despite of the similarity in cross-sectional cognitive features aMCI- has quite different functional brain connectivity compared to

  14. Spatial navigation testing discriminates two types of amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laczó, J.; Vlček, Kamil; Vyhnálek, M.; Vajnerová, O.; Ort, M.; Holmerová, I.; Tolar, M.; Andel, R.; Bojar, M.; Hort, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 202, č. 2 (2009), s. 252-259. ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/1053; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer’s disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.220, year: 2009

  15. Altered functional connectivity of fusiform gyrus in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a resting state fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Liyu Huang

    2015-01-01

    Visual cognition such as face recognition requires a high level of functional interaction between distributed regions of a network. It has been reported that the fusiform gyrus (FG) is an important brain area involved in facial cognition; altered connectivity of FG to some other regions may lead to a deficit in visual cognition especially face recognition. However, whether functional connectivity between the FG and other brain regions changes remains unclear during the resting state in amnest...

  16. Altered functional connectivity of fusiform gyrus in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a resting state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual cognition such as face recognition requires a high level of functional interaction between distributed regions of a network. It has been reported that the fusiform gyrus (FG is an important brain area involved in facial cognition; altered connectivity of FG to some other regions may lead to a deficit in visual cognition especially face recognition. However, whether functional connectivity between the FG and other brain regions changes remains unclear during the resting state in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI subjects. Here, we employed a resting state functional MRI (fMRI to examine changes in functional connectivity of left/right FG comparing aMCI patients with age-matched control subjects. Forty-eight aMCI and thirty-eight control subjects from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI were analyzed. We focused on the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the FG and those in all other brain regions. Compared to the control group, we found some discrepant regions in the aMCI group which presented increased or decreased connectivity with the left/right FG including the left precuneus, left lingual gyrus, right thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, left supplementary motor area, left inferior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampus. More importantly, we also obtained that both left and right FG have increased functional connections with the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG and right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC in aMCI patients. That was not a coincidence and might imply that the MOG and ACC also play a critical role in visual cognition, especially face recognition. These findings in a large part supported our hypothesis and provided a new insight in understanding the important subtype of MCI.

  17. Complex Network Analysis of Resting State EEG in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Ke Zeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes is a great risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. This study inves-tigates whether complex network-derived features in resting state EEG (rsEEG could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognitive function in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Method: In this study, EEG was recorded in 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls during a no-task eyes-closed resting state. Pair-wise synchronization of rsEEG signals were assessed in six frequency bands (delta, theta, lower alpha, upper alpha, beta, and gamma using phase lag index (PLI and grouped into long distance (intra- and inter-hemispheric and short distance inter-actions. PLI-weighted connectivity networks were also constructed, and characterized by mean clus-tering coefficient and path length. The correlation of these features and Montreal Cognitive Assess-ment (MoCA scores was assessed. Results: Main findings of this study were as follows: (1 In comparison with controls, patients with aMCI had a significant decrease of global mean PLI in lower alpha, upper alpha, and beta bands. Lower functional connection at short and long intra-hemispheric distance mainly appeared on the left hemisphere. (2 In the lower alpha band, clustering coefficient was significantly lower in aMCI group, and the path length significantly increased. (3 Cognitive status measured by MoCA had a significant positive correlation with cluster coefficient and negative correlation with path length in lower alpha band. Conclusions: The brain network of aMCI patients displayed a disconnection syndrome and a loss of small-world architecture. The correlation between cognitive states and network characteristics sug-gested that the more in deterioration of the diabetes patients’ cognitive state, the less optimal the net-work organization become. Hence, the complex network-derived biomarkers based on EEG could be

  18. Functional neuroimaging using F-18 FDG PET/CT in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimers Dementia (AD) than their cognitively normal peers. Decreased glucose metabolism with 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a downstream marker of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. The risk of developing AD is higher in patients with aMCI who have a pattern of AD related glucose metabolic changes on FDG-PET than those who do not have these changes. We evaluated the utility of visual and 'statistical parametric mapping (SPM)-supported reading' of the FDG-PET scans of patients clinically classified as aMCI for identification of predementia patterns and for prediction of their progression to AD (PTAD). On visual analysis, four scans were classified as high likelihood of PTAD and reveled hypometabolism in AD related territories. Seven patients had hypometabolism in at least one AD related territory and were classified as intermediate likelihood for PTAD. Two patients had hypometabolism in other than AD territories, while 22 patients did not show any significant hypometabolism on their FDG-PET scans and were classified as low likelihood for PTAD. SPM analysis of these cases confirmed the areas hypometabolism in all 13 patients compared to a normal subgroup (P < 0.05). On follow-up of 24 months, all four cases with high likelihood scans had progression of cognitive deficits and were confirmed as AD in the CDM clinic while none of the others showed cognitive decline. A pattern of AD hypometabolism on the FDG-PET study is useful for predicting PTAD. A longer follow-up of patients with hypometabolism in single AD territories is needed to predict their clinical behavior

  19. Topological Properties of Large-Scale Cortical Networks Based on Multiple Morphological Features in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiongling; Li, Xinwei; Wang, Xuetong; Li, Yuxia; Li, Kuncheng; Yu, Yang; Yin, Changhao; Li, Shuyu; Han, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) has disrupted properties of large-scale cortical networks based on cortical thickness and gray matter volume. However, it is largely unknown whether the topological properties of cortical networks based on geometric measures (i.e., sulcal depth, curvature, and metric distortion) change in aMCI patients compared with normal controls because these geometric features of cerebral cortex may be related to its intrinsic connectivity. Here, we compare properties in cortical networks constructed by six different morphological features in 36 aMCI participants and 36 normal controls. Six cortical features (3 volumetric and 3 geometric features) were extracted for each participant, and brain abnormities in aMCI were identified by cortical network based on graph theory method. All the cortical networks showed small-world properties. Regions showing significant differences mainly located in the medial temporal lobe and supramarginal and right inferior parietal lobe. In addition, we also found that the cortical networks constructed by cortical thickness and sulcal depth showed significant differences between the two groups. Our results indicated that geometric measure (i.e., sulcal depth) can be used to construct network to discriminate individuals with aMCI from controls besides volumetric measures. PMID:27057360

  20. Relation between aerobic fitness and brain structures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Rezende, Thiago J R; Weiler, Marina; Nogueira, Mateus H; Campos, Brunno M; Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Vicentini, Jessica E; Scriptore, Gabriela; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio L F

    2016-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition, with high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise may have positive effect on cognition and brain structure in older adults. However, it is still under research whether these influences are true on aMCI subjects with low Ab_42 and high total tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is considered a biomarker for AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible relation between aerobic fitness (AF) and gray matter (GM) volume and AF and white matter (WM) integrity in aMCI with a CSF biomarker. Twenty-two participants with aMCI acquired the images on a 3.0-T MRI. AF was assessed by a graded exercise test on a treadmill. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistic methods were used to analyze the GM volume and WM microstructural integrity, respectively. We correlated AF and GM volume and WM integrity in aMCI (p < 0.05, FWE corrected, cluster with at least five voxels). There was a positive relation between AF and GM volume mostly in frontal superior cortex. In WM integrity, AF was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy and negatively correlated with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, all in the same tracts that interconnect frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital areas (longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corpus callosum). These results suggest that aerobic fitness may have a positive influence on protection of brain even in aMCI CSF biomarker, a high-risk population to convert to AD. PMID:27106271

  1. Ill-defined problem solving in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: linking episodic memory to effective solution generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Vandermorris, S; Al-Haj, M; Cohen, S; Winocur, G; Moscovitch, M

    2015-02-01

    It is well accepted that the medial temporal lobes (MTL), and the hippocampus specifically, support episodic memory processes. Emerging evidence suggests that these processes also support the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems which are those that do not have a set routine or solution. To test the relation between episodic memory and problem solving, we examined the ability of individuals with single domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition characterized by episodic memory impairment, to solve ill-defined social problems. Participants with aMCI and age and education matched controls were given a battery of tests that included standardized neuropsychological measures, the Autobiographical Interview (Levine et al., 2002) that scored for episodic content in descriptions of past personal events, and a measure of ill-defined social problem solving. Corroborating previous findings, the aMCI group generated less episodically rich narratives when describing past events. Individuals with aMCI also generated less effective solutions when solving ill-defined problems compared to the control participants. Correlation analyses demonstrated that the ability to recall episodic elements from autobiographical memories was positively related to the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems. The ability to solve these ill-defined problems was related to measures of activities of daily living. In conjunction with previous reports, the results of the present study point to a new functional role of episodic memory in ill-defined goal-directed behavior and other non-memory tasks that require flexible thinking. Our findings also have implications for the cognitive and behavioural profile of aMCI by suggesting that the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems is related to sustained functional independence. PMID:25575452

  2. Functional Disorganization of Small-World Brain Networks in mild Alzheimer’s Disease and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: An EEG Study using Relative Wavelet Entropy (RWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Frantzidis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroscientific findings have linked Alzheimer’s disease (AD with less efficient information processing and brain network disorganization. However, pathological alterations of the brain networks during the preclinical phase of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI remain largely unknown. The present study aimed at comparing patterns of the detection of functional disorganization in MCI relative to Mild Dementia (MD. Participants consisted of 23 cognitively healthy adults, 17 aMCI and 24 mild AD patients who underwent electroencephalographic (EEG data acquisition during a resting-state condition. Synchronization analysis through the Orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (ODWT, and directional brain network analysis were applied on the EEG data. This computational model was performed for networks that have the same number of edges (N=500, 600, 700, 800 edges across all participants and groups (fixed density values. All groups exhibited a small-world (SW brain architecture. However, we found a significant reduction in the SW brain architecture in both aMCI and MD patients relative to the group of Healthy controls. This functional disorganization was also correlated with the participant’s generic cognitive status. The deterioration of the network’s organization was caused mainly by deficient local information processing as quantified by the mean cluster coefficient value. Functional hubs were identified through the normalized betweenness centrality metric. Analysis of the local characteristics showed relative hub preservation even with statistically significant reduced strength. Compensatory phenomena were also evident through the formation of additional hubs on left frontal and parietal regions. Our results indicate a declined functional network organization even during the prodromal phase. Degeneration is evident even in the preclinical phase and coexists with transient network reorganization due to compensation.

  3. Quantitative multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy study of brain metabolites in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhong-Xian; Cheng, Xiao-Fang; Xu, Zhi-Feng; Cao, Zhen; Xiao, Ye-Yu; You, Ke-Zeng; Liu, Yan-Yan [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Huo, Shan-Shan [Science College of Shantou University, Department of Physics, Shantou (China); Zeng, Jie-Xia; Chen, Wei [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Wu, Ren-Hua [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Medical College of Shantou University, Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging, Guangdong, Shantou (China)

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate brain metabolic changes in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MVS). Fourteen aMCI patients and fifteen healthy control subjects participated in this experiment. All MR measurements were acquired using a 1.5-T GE scanner. {sup 1}H-MVS point resolved spectroscopy (2D PROBE-CSI PRESS) pulse sequence (TE = 35 ms; TR = 1,500 ms; phase x frequency, 18 x 18) was used for acquiring MRS data. All data were post-processed using Spectroscopy Analysis by General Electric software and linear combination of model (LCModel). The absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myoinositol (MI), creatine (Cr), and the metabolite ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, and NAA/MI were measured bilaterally in the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG), inferior precuneus (Pr), paratrigonal white matter (PWM), dorsal thalamus (DT), and lentiform nucleus (LN). Patients with aMCI displayed significantly lower NAA levels in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01), PWM (p < 0.05), and left inferior Pr (p < 0.05). The metabolite ratio of NAA/MI was decreased in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01) and PWM (p < 0.05) and in the left DT (p < 0.01). NAA/Cr was decreased in the left PCG (p < 0.01), DT (p < 0.05), right PWM (p < 0.05), and LN (p < 0.05). However, MI/Cr was elevated in the right PCG (p < 0.01) and left PWM (p < 0.05). Significantly increased Cho level was also evident in the left PWM (p < 0.05). Our observations of decreased NAA, NAA/Cr, and NAA/MI, in parallel with increased Cho and MI/Cr might be characteristic of aMCI patients. (orig.)

  4. Individual cerebral metabolic deficits in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sole, Angelo; Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni [Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital San Paolo, Institute of Radiological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Clerici, Francesca; Mariani, Claudio; Maggiore, Laura [University of Milan, Center for Research and Treatment on Cognitive Dysfunctions, Institute of Clinical Neurology, Department of Clinical Sciences, ' Luigi Sacco' Hospital, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Clinical Institute Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Mosconi, Lisa [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The purpose of the study was the identification of group and individual subject patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) studies and neuropsychological tests were performed in 16 aMCI patients (ten women, age 75 {+-} 8 years) and in 14 AD patients (ten women, age 75 {+-} 9 years). Comparisons between patient subgroups and with a control population were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Clusters of low CMRGlu were observed bilaterally in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus of AD patients. In aMCI patients, reduced CMRGlu was found only in PCC. Areas of low CMRGlu in PCC were wider in AD compared to aMCI and extended to the precuneus, while low CMRGlu was found in the lateral parietal cortex in AD but not in aMCI patients. Individual subject pattern analysis revealed that 86% of AD patients had low CMRGlu in the PCC (including the precuneus in 71%), 71% in the temporal cortex, 64% in the parietal cortex and 35% in the frontal cortex. Among the aMCI patients, 56% had low CMRGlu in the PCC, 44% in the temporal cortex, 18% in the frontal cortex and none in the parietal cortex. This study demonstrates that both AD and aMCI patients have highly heterogeneous metabolic impairment. This potential of individual metabolic PET imaging in patients with AD and aMCI may allow timely identification of brain damage on individual basis and possibly help planning tailored early interventions. (orig.)

  5. The overall impairment of core executive function components in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Dongming

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear how executive function (EF is affected in the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Previous studies using different methods to assess EF in patients with aMCI have reached inconsistent conclusions. The aim of the study was to explore the characteristics of EF impairments in patients with aMCI. Methods We investigated three core components of EF (i.e., working memory, response inhibition and task switching based on the theoretical model of EF proposed by Miyake et al. (2000 in 34 aMCI patients and 36 healthy elderly controls using computerized tasks programmed with E-prime (the 2-back task and the keep track task for working memory, the stop-signal task and the Stroop task for response inhibition and the more-odd shifting task for task switching. The overall EF and the three individual EF components were compared between groups. For EF components that were impaired, the extent of impairment was compared using a paired analysis. The aMCI group was further divided into EF-intact and EF-deficit groups according to their performances on the EF tests in clinical neuropsychological assessments. We tested for group differences among the normal controls and the EF-intact and EF-deficit aMCI groups and paid special attention to the comparisons between the EF-intact aMCI group and the control group. Results Compared to the control group, overall EF was significantly impaired in patients with aMCI (Wilks’ λ=0.572,P Conclusions Both the overall EF and all of the core EF components in the Miyake model of EF (working memory, response inhibition and task switching were significantly impaired in aMCI patients, regardless of whether they had shown obvious clinical executive dysfunction.

  6. Quantitative multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy study of brain metabolites in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate brain metabolic changes in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MVS). Fourteen aMCI patients and fifteen healthy control subjects participated in this experiment. All MR measurements were acquired using a 1.5-T GE scanner. 1H-MVS point resolved spectroscopy (2D PROBE-CSI PRESS) pulse sequence (TE = 35 ms; TR = 1,500 ms; phase x frequency, 18 x 18) was used for acquiring MRS data. All data were post-processed using Spectroscopy Analysis by General Electric software and linear combination of model (LCModel). The absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myoinositol (MI), creatine (Cr), and the metabolite ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, and NAA/MI were measured bilaterally in the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG), inferior precuneus (Pr), paratrigonal white matter (PWM), dorsal thalamus (DT), and lentiform nucleus (LN). Patients with aMCI displayed significantly lower NAA levels in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01), PWM (p < 0.05), and left inferior Pr (p < 0.05). The metabolite ratio of NAA/MI was decreased in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01) and PWM (p < 0.05) and in the left DT (p < 0.01). NAA/Cr was decreased in the left PCG (p < 0.01), DT (p < 0.05), right PWM (p < 0.05), and LN (p < 0.05). However, MI/Cr was elevated in the right PCG (p < 0.01) and left PWM (p < 0.05). Significantly increased Cho level was also evident in the left PWM (p < 0.05). Our observations of decreased NAA, NAA/Cr, and NAA/MI, in parallel with increased Cho and MI/Cr might be characteristic of aMCI patients. (orig.)

  7. MR diffusion tensor imaging voxel-based analysis of whole brain white matter in patients with amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) using voxel-based analysis (VBA), and investigate the relationship between WM abnormalities and gray matter (GM) atrophy. Methods: Thirty-three cases with aMCI, 32 cases with mild AD and 31 normal aging volunteers as control subjects were scanned on a 3.0 T MR system using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled (3DSPGR) sequences. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and morphological images were preprocessed by SPM5 and voxel-based comparisons between the 2 patient groups and the control group were performed by t test. Results: Relative to the control group, patients with aMCI showed significantly reduced FA value in bilateral frontal, temporal and left occipital WM, left anterior part of cingulum, left inferior parietal lobule, and the WM adjacent to the triangular part of the right lateral ventricle (k ≥ 20 voxels). In mild AD, significantly reduced FA value was found in bilateral hippocampal, inferior parietal lobular, frontal, temporal, and occipital WM, bilateral corpus callosum, anterior part of cingulums, the WM adjacent to the triangular part of the bilateral lateral ventricles, left temporal stem, left thalamus, right precuneus (k ≥ 20 voxels). Significantly reduced GM volume was found in left hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, lingual gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, bilateral insulae and middle temporal gyri in aMCI group when compared with control group (k ≥ 50 voxels). In mild AD, significantly reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, parahippocampal gyri, amygdalae, thalami, temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital cortex (k ≥ 50 voxels). The pattern of areas with reduced FA differs from that of the GM volumetric reduction. No areas with significantly reduced FA was detected in aMCI compared with mild AD. There was no significant

  8. Inhibition deficit in the spatial tendency of the response in multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment. An event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cespón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies have shown that a high percentage of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Prodromal AD is known to involve deficits in executive control processes. In the present study, we examined such deficits by recording EEG in 13 single-domain amnestic MCI (sdaMCI, 12 multiple-domain amnestic MCI (mdaMCI and 18 healthy elderly (control group, CG participants while they performed a Simon task. The Simon task demands deployment of executive processes because participants have to respond to non-spatial features of a lateralized stimulus and inhibit the more automatic spatial tendency of the response. We specifically focused on the negativity central contralateral (N2cc, an event-related potential (ERP component related to brain activity that prevents the cross-talk between direction of spatial attention and manual response preparation. The reaction time was not significantly different among the three groups of participants. The percentage of errors (PE was higher in mdaMCI than in CG and sdaMCI participants. In addition, N2cc latency was delayed in mdaMCI (i.e. delayed implementation of mechanisms for controlling the spatial tendency of the response. The N2cc latency clearly distinguished among mdaMCI and CG/sdaMCI participants (area under curve: 0.91. Longer N2cc was therefore associated with executive control deficits, which suggests that N2cc latency is a correlate of mdaMCI.

  9. Observation of Effect of Huanshao Tang in Treatment of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment%还少汤治疗遗忘型轻度认知障碍疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小黎; 侯秀娟; 扈新刚; 李侠

    2010-01-01

    @@ 本课题组于2009-01-2010-06应用中药古方还少丹治疗中医辨证为脾肾亏虚证的遗忘型MCI(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)患者,取得了较好疗效,现总结报告如下.

  10. How Does the Hippocampal Formation Mediate Memory for Stimuli Processed by the Magnocellular and Parvocellular Visual Pathways? Evidence from the Comparison of Schizophrenia and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Szabolcs; Szamosi, Andras; Benedek, Gyorgy; Kelemen, Oguz

    2012-01-01

    Paired associates learning is impaired in both schizophrenia and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which may reflect hippocampal pathology. In addition, schizophrenia is characterized by the dysfunction of the retino-geniculo-striatal magnocellular (M) visual pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between…

  11. Abnormal intrinsic brain activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment revealed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Qian; ZHAO Xiao-hu; WANG Pei-jun; GUO Qi-hao; HE Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that brain functional activity in the resting state is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.However,alterations in intrinsic brain activity patterns in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients are poorly understood.This study aimed to explore the differences in regional intrinsic activities throughout the whole brain between aMCI patients and controls.Methods In the present study,resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 18 amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients,18 mild AD patients and 20 healthy elderly subjects.And amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method was used.Results Compared with healthy elderly subjects,aMCI patients showed decreased ALFF in the right hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex,left lateral temporal cortex,and right ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and increased ALFF in the left temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and inferior parietal Iobule (IPL).Mild AD patients showed decreased ALFF in the left TPJ,posterior IPL (plPL),and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared with aMCI patients.Mild AD patients also had decreased ALFF in the right posterior cingulate cortex,right vMPFC and bilateral dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) compared with healthy elderly subjects.Conclusions Decreased intrinsic activities in brain regions closely related to episodic memory were found in aMCI and AD patients.Increased TPJ and IPL activity may indicate compensatory mechanisms for loss of memory function in aMCI patients.These findings suggest that the fMRI based on ALFF analysis may provide a useful tool in the study of aMCI patients.

  12. Pattern of cerebral hyperperfusion in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment using voxel-based analysis of 3D arterial spin-labeling imaging: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bei Ding,1 Hua-wei Ling,1 Yong Zhang,2 Juan Huang,1 Huan Zhang,1 Tao Wang,3 Fu Hua Yan11Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, 3Department of Gerontology, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaPurpose: A three-dimensional (3D continuous pulse arterial spin labeling (ASL technique was used to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and age- and sex-matched healthy controls.Materials and methods: Three groups were recruited for comparison, 24 AD patients, 17 MCI patients, and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Three-dimensional ASL scans covering the entire brain were acquired with a 3.0 T magnetic resonance scanner. Spatial processing was performed with statistical parametric mapping 8. A second-level one-way analysis of variance analysis (threshold at P<0.05 was performed on the preprocessed ASL data. An average whole-brain CBF for each subject was also included as group-level covariates for the perfusion data, to control for individual CBF variations.Results: Significantly increased CBF was detected in bilateral frontal lobes and right temporal subgyral regions in aMCI compared with controls. When comparing AD with aMCI, the major hyperperfusion regions were the right limbic lobe and basal ganglia regions, including the putamen, caudate, lentiform nucleus, and thalamus, and hypoperfusion was found in the left medial frontal lobe, parietal cortex, the right middle temporo-occipital lobe, and particularly, the left anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found decreased CBF in the bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortices and left limbic lobe in AD patients, relative to the control group. aMCI subjects showed decreased blood flow in the left occipital lobe, bilateral inferior temporal cortex, and right middle temporal cortex

  13. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity. PMID:25156204

  14. Assessment of Functional Characteristics of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease Using Various Methods of Resting-State FMRI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Cha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS FMRI has been widely used to analyze functional alterations in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Although many clinical studies of aMCI and AD patients using RS FMRI have been undertaken, conducting a meta-analysis has not been easy because of seed selection bias by the investigators. The purpose of our study was to investigate the functional differences in aMCI and AD patients compared with healthy subjects in a meta-analysis. Thus, a multimethod approach using regional homogeneity, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, fractional ALFF (fALFF, and global brain connectivity was used to investigate differences between three groups based on previously published data. According to the choice of RS FMRI approach used, the patterns of functional alteration were slightly different. Nevertheless, patients with aMCI and AD displayed consistently decreased functional characteristics with all approaches. All approaches showed that the functional characteristics in the left parahippocampal gyrus were decreased in AD patients compared with healthy subjects. Although some regions were slightly different according to the different RS FMRI approaches, patients with aMCI and AD showed a consistent pattern of decreased functional characteristics with all approaches.

  15. Differential contributions of subregions of medial temporal lobe to memory system in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: insights from fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu; Duan, Xujun; Shu, Hao; Wang, Zan; Long, Zhiliang; Liu, Duan; Liao, Wenxiang; Shi, Yongmei; Chen, Huafu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Altered function of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is a valuable indicator of conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer’s disease. This study is to delineate the functional circuitry of multiple subdivisions of parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus (HIP) and to examine how this knowledge contributes to a more principled understanding of the contributions of its subregions to memory in aMCI. The functional connectivity (FC) analysis was performed in 85 aMCI and 129 healthy controls. The aMCI demonstrated the distinct disruptive patterns of the MTL subregional connectivity with the whole-brain. The right entorhinal cortex (ERC) and perirhinal cortex (PRC) showed increased connectivity with the left inferior and middle occipital gyrus, respectively, which potentially indicated a compensatory mechanism. Furthermore, the right altered MTL subregional FC was associated with episodic memory performance in aMCI. These results provide novel insights into the heterogeneous nature of its large-scale connectivity in MTL subregions in memory system underlying the memory deficits in aMCI. It further suggests that altered FC of MTL subregions is associated with the impairment of the differential encoding stages of memories and the functional changes in the specific right HIP-ERC-PRC-temporal circuitry may contribute to the impairment of episodic memory in aMCI. PMID:27184985

  16. Differential contributions of subregions of medial temporal lobe to memory system in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: insights from fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu; Duan, Xujun; Shu, Hao; Wang, Zan; Long, Zhiliang; Liu, Duan; Liao, Wenxiang; Shi, Yongmei; Chen, Huafu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Altered function of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is a valuable indicator of conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's disease. This study is to delineate the functional circuitry of multiple subdivisions of parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus (HIP) and to examine how this knowledge contributes to a more principled understanding of the contributions of its subregions to memory in aMCI. The functional connectivity (FC) analysis was performed in 85 aMCI and 129 healthy controls. The aMCI demonstrated the distinct disruptive patterns of the MTL subregional connectivity with the whole-brain. The right entorhinal cortex (ERC) and perirhinal cortex (PRC) showed increased connectivity with the left inferior and middle occipital gyrus, respectively, which potentially indicated a compensatory mechanism. Furthermore, the right altered MTL subregional FC was associated with episodic memory performance in aMCI. These results provide novel insights into the heterogeneous nature of its large-scale connectivity in MTL subregions in memory system underlying the memory deficits in aMCI. It further suggests that altered FC of MTL subregions is associated with the impairment of the differential encoding stages of memories and the functional changes in the specific right HIP-ERC-PRC-temporal circuitry may contribute to the impairment of episodic memory in aMCI. PMID:27184985

  17. The effects of healthy aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease on recollection and familiarity: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Joshua D; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that healthy aging, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are associated with substantial declines in episodic memory. However, there is still debate as to how two forms of episodic memory - recollection and familiarity - are affected by healthy and pathological aging. To address this issue we conducted a meta-analytic review of the effect sizes reported in studies using remember/know (RK), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and process dissociation (PD) methods to examine recollection and familiarity in healthy aging (25 published reports), aMCI (9 published reports), and AD (5 published reports). The results from the meta-analysis revealed that healthy aging is associated with moderate-to-large recollection impairments. Familiarity was not impaired in studies using ROC or PD methods but was impaired in studies that used the RK procedure. aMCI was associated with large decreases in recollection whereas familiarity only tended to show a decrease in studies with a patient sample comprised of both single-domain and multiple-domain aMCI patients. Lastly, AD was associated with large decreases in both recollection and familiarity. The results are consistent with neuroimaging evidence suggesting that the hippocampus is critical for recollection whereas familiarity is dependent on the integrity of the surrounding perirhinal cortex. Moreover, the results highlight the relevance of method selection when examining aging, and suggest that familiarity deficits might be a useful behavioral marker for identifying individuals that will develop dementia. PMID:25119304

  18. Abnormal Changes of Brain Cortical Anatomy and the Association with Plasma MicroRNA107 Level in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Shi, Feng; Jin, Yan; Jiang, Weixiong; Shen, Dinggang; Xiao, Shifu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA107 (Mir107) has been thought to relate to the brain structure phenotype of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we evaluated the cortical anatomy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and the relation between cortical anatomy and plasma levels of Mir107 and beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Twenty aMCI (20 aMCI) and 24 cognitively normal control (NC) subjects were recruited, and T1-weighted MR images were acquired. Cortical anatomical measurements, including cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), and local gyrification index (LGI), were assessed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine plasma expression of Mir107, BACE1 mRNA. Thinner cortex was found in aMCI in areas associated with episodic memory and language, but with thicker cortex in other areas. SA decreased in aMCI in the areas associated with working memory and emotion. LGI showed a significant reduction in aMCI in the areas involved in language function. Changes in Mir107 and BACE1 messenger RNA plasma expression were correlated with changes in CT and SA. We found alterations in key left brain regions associated with memory, language, and emotion in aMCI that were significantly correlated with plasma expression of Mir107 and BACE1 mRNA. This combination study of brain anatomical alterations and gene information may shed lights on our understanding of the pathology of AD. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01819545. PMID:27242521

  19. Using voxel-based morphometry to examine the relationship between regional brain volumes and memory performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric eMeyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder, in which morphological alterations of brain tissue develop many years before the first neuropsychological and clinical changes occur. Among the first and most prominent symptoms are deficiencies of declarative memory functions. This stage of precursory symptoms to AD has been described as amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and is discussed as a potential AD prodrome. As therapy in the later stages of AD has been shown to be of limited impact, aMCI would be the key target for early intervention. For that purpose a comprehensive neuropsychological and anatomical characterization of this group is necessary. Previous neuropsychological investigations identified tests which are highly sensitive in diagnosing aMCI and very early AD. However, the sensitivity of those neuropsychological tests to the particular structural neuropathology in aMCI remains to be specified. To this end we investigated 25 patients with single-domain aMCI. All participants underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and anatomical scanning with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was performed to identify brain regions that show a significant correlation between regional brain volume and behavioral measures of memory and executive functioning. We found that performance in a variety of mnemonic tests was directly related to the integrity of the medial temporal lobe cortex (MTLC. Moreover, impairment of memory subfunctions in aMCI might be detected earlier than overt structural damage. By this, these findings contribute to the identification of cerebral structures associated with memory deficits in aMCI.

  20. Relationship between herpes simplex virus-1-specific antibody titers and cortical brain damage in Alzheimer’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglio, Francesca; Agostini, Simone; Agostini, Monia Cabinio; Laganà, Maria M.; Hernis, Ambra; Margaritella, Nicolò; Guerini, Franca R.; Zanzottera, Milena; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease with a still barely understood etiology. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of AD because of its neurotropism, high rate of infection in the general population, and life-long persistence in neuronal cells, particularly in the same brain regions that are usually altered in AD. The goal of this study was to evaluate HSV-1-specific humoral immune responses in patients with a diagnosis of either AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and to verify the possible relation between HSV-1-specific antibody (Ab) titers and cortical damage; results were compared to those obtained in a group of healthy controls (HC). HSV-1 serum IgG titers were measured in 225 subjects (83 AD, 68 aMCI, and 74 HC). HSV-specific Ab avidity and cortical gray matter volumes analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated as well in a subgroup of these individuals (44 AD, 23 aMCI, and 26 HC). Results showed that, whereas HSV-1 seroprevalence and IgG avidity were comparable in the three groups, increased Ab titers (p < 0.001) were detected in AD and aMCI compared to HC. Positive significant correlations were detected in AD patients alone between HSV-1 IgG titers and cortical volumes in orbitofrontal (region of interest, ROI1 RSp0.56; p = 0.0001) and bilateral temporal cortices (ROI2 RSp0.57; p < 0.0001; ROI3 RSp0.48; p = 0.001); no correlations could be detected between IgG avidity and MRI parameters. Results herein suggest that a strong HSV-1-specific humoral response could be protective toward AD-associated cortical damage. PMID:25360113

  1. Multimodal imaging in diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, perfusion, and diffusion tensor imaging of the posterior cingulate region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, Anna; Szewczyk, Pawel; Trypka, Elzbieta; Wojtynska, Renata; Noga, Leszek; Leszek, Jerzy; Sasiadek, Marek

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess metabolic, perfusion, and microstructural changes within the posterior cingulate area in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using advanced MR techniques such as: spectroscopy (MRS), perfusion weighted imaging (PWI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Thirty patients with AD (mean age 71.5 y, MMSE 18), 23 with aMCI (mean age 66 y, MMSE 27.4), and 15 age-matched normal controls (mean age 69 y, MMSE 29.5) underwent conventional MRI followed by MRS, PWI, and DTI on 1.5 Tesla MR unit. Several metabolite ratios (N-acetylaspartate [NAA]/creatine [Cr], choline [Ch]/Cr, myoinositol [mI]/Cr, mI/NAA, mI/Cho) as well as parameters of cerebral blood volume relative to cerebellum and fractional anisotropy were obtained in the posterior cingulate region. The above parameters were correlated with the results of neuropsychological tests. AD patients showed significant abnormalities in all evaluated parameters while subjects with aMCI showed only perfusion and diffusion changes in the posterior cingulate area. Only PWI and DTI measurements revealed significant differences among the three evaluated subject groups. DTI, PWI, and MRS results showed significant correlations with neuropsychological tests. DTI changes correlated with both PWI and MRS abnormalities. Of neuroimaging methods, DTI revealed the highest accuracy in diagnosis of AD and aMCI (0.95, 0.79) followed by PWI (0.87, 0.67) and MRS (0.82, 0.47), respectively. In conclusion, AD is a complex pathology regarding both grey and white matter. DTI seems to be the most useful imaging modality to distinguish between AD, aMCI, and control group, followed by PWI and MRS. PMID:21841260

  2. Mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy.

  3. A pilot study on utility of Malayalam version of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination in detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A critical insight into utility of learning and recall measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This pilot study sought to determine whether the Malayalam adaptation of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination (M-ACE can effectively identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI and the impact of measures of learning and free recall. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 23 patients with a-MCI aged between 55-80 years diagnosed as per current criteria and 23 group matched cognitively normal healthy controls (CNHC were studied. The measures of acquisition and delayed recall were the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III (verbal and visual subsets and Delayed Matching-to-sample Test (DMS-48. Test scores of M-ACE registration and recall scores were included. To examine the differences in test performances between the groups, we compared the number of subjects with test scores less than 1.5 standard deviation (SD of the control scores. Comparisons between a-MCI and controls were drawn using Fisher′s exact test and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: M-ACE registration component ascertained on a 24-point scale failed to demonstrate any differences between a-MCI and controls (P = 0.665 as opposed to recall judged on a cumulative 10-point scale (P = 0.001. Significant differences were noted in RAVLT list learning (P < 0.001 and list recall (P = 0.003, WMS-III paragraph learning (P <0.001 and recall (P = 0.007, visual learning (P = 0.004 and recall (P = 0.001. Conclusions: M-ACE recall scores are an effective screening tool to identify patients with suspected a-MCI. Both word list and paragraph learning and recall components have been found to be sensitive to concretely identify a-MCI and impairment on at least 2 tests should be considered in the diagnostic criteria of MCI rather than rely on a single screening battery.

  4. Cognitive and functional neuroimaging correlate for anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Gade, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  5. Cognitive and functional neuroimaging correlate for anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Gade, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD).......To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  6. Clinical trials in mild cognitive impairment: lessons for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Jelic, V.; Kivipelto, M.; Winblad, B.

    2005-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an operational definition for a cognitive decline in individuals with a greater risk of developing dementia. The amnestic subtype of MCI is of particular interest because these individuals most likely progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Currently hypothesised therapeutic approaches in MCI are mainly based on AD treatment strategies. Long term secondary prevention randomised clinical trials have been completed in amnestic MCI populations, encompassing agent...

  7. MRI patterns of grey matter atrophy in amnestic Mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知损害的全脑灰质基于体素的MRI形态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志莲; 韩璎; 卢洁; 贾秀琴; 李坤成; 张苗; 戎冬冬; 贾建平

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare the patterns of grey matter loss between subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal health eldly. Methods: We studied 20 patients with aMCI and 18 age-and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D data aets. The data were collected on a 3 T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate grey matter volume maps. Results: VBM revealed diffusively reduccd grey matter in aMCI prominently including the right uncus, the bilateral inferior, superior and midial frontal gyrus, the bilatcral medial temporal gyrus , the left inferior temporal gyrus, the left superior temporal gyrus, the right superior parietal gyrus ,and the left middle occipital gyrus ( P <0. 001). Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automatic approach providing a full brain assessment of aMCI grey morphology. It is important for diagnosing aMCI.%目的:利用优化基于体素的MRI形态分析(voxel-based morphometry,VBM),研究遗忘型轻度认知损害(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)和正常老年人的脑灰质体积变化.方法:选取aMCl患者20例和正常老年对照18例,MRI排除脑内其他病变,然后行高分辨率三维T1 WI扫描.应用优化VBM方法处理数据,将脑组织分割成灰质、白质和脑脊液,最后应用两样本t检验比较两组被试灰质体积改变.结果:VBM结果显示与正常老年对照组比较,aMCI患者组双侧额颞叶出现广泛的灰质体积减少,具体脑区为右侧海马钩回、双侧额下回、双侧额中回、右侧额上回、双颞叶额中回、左侧颞下回、左侧颞上回,右侧顶上小叶、左侧枕中回等结构灰质体积小于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论:VBM方法可显示aMCI患者全脑灰质萎缩情况,对临床早期诊断aMCl患者有重要价值,具有广阔的临床应用前景.

  8. 遗忘型轻度认知功能损害认知特征的随访研究%Cognitive changes in amnestic mild cognitive impairment:a follow-up study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施咏梅; 张志珺; 宇辉; 王益; 岳春贤; 滕玉环; 柏峰; 袁勇贵; 邓玲珑

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate outcome and cognitive changes of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in a follow-up study. Methods A cross-sectional and longitudinal parallel cohort study design was conducted among 109 aMCI patients and 104 matched normal controls. Multi-dimension neuropsychologic tests were used to extensively assess the cognitive function. Results The scores of neuropsychologic tests in aMCI patients were significantly lower than those in the normal controls( all P<0.01 ) ,with the largest impairment on 20minutes delayed recall of the auditory verbal memory test ( AVMT), which reflects episodic memory ( aMCI pa-tients :2.50 ± 1.48, normal controls :7.85 ± 1.59, Z = - 12.697, P < 0.01 ); AD was diagnosed in 15 of the 69aMCI patients with a prevalence rate of 22% ,but none was converted to AD in the normal controls. The cognitivechanges of performance in AVMT, CDT, MMSE of the patients in aMCI group (( 3.77 ± 60.83 )%, (6.89 ±28.24) %, (6.13 ± 16.89) % respectively) were significantly poorer than those of the controls group(( - 10.75 ±27.46) %, ( - 5.23 ± 14.05 ) %, ( - 1.11 ± 8.26 ) % respectively) ( all P < 0.05 ). At baseline, demented aMCIperformed poorer in AVMT, CFT, TMT, SDMT, CDT, MMSE when compared to stable. During the follow-up, demented aMCI groups performed significantly poorer than did stable subjects in AVMT, CFT, DST, VFT, SDMT,MMSE ( all P < 0.05 ). Conclusion aMCI is a prodromal period of AD and characterized by episodic memory impairment. The neuropsychologic test is a predictive factor for aMCI to develop AD.%目的 探讨遗忘型轻度认知功能损害(aMCI)的转归及其认知特征的变化.方法 横断面病例-对照和队列研究.采用多维度神经心理测试评估109例aMCI患者和104例正常对照者的神经认知功能.结果 与正常对照组相比,aMCI组的各项神经认知功能基线测试成绩均显著下降(均P<0.01),尤以反映情节记忆的听觉词语记忆测试(AVMT)的20

  9. Positive Effects of Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C.; Chambon, C.; Michel, B. F.; Paban, V.; Alescio-Lautier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high risk for individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (A-MCI) to progress towards Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated the efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention, that is, cognitive training that could reduce cognitive difficulties and delay the cognitive decline. For this, we evaluated the efficacy of a…

  10. Cholinergic Enhancement of Frontal Lobe Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saykin, Andrew J.; Wishart, Heather A.; Rabin, Laura A.; Flashman, Laura A.; McHugh, Tara L.; Mamourian, Alexander C.; Santulli, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors positively affect cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other conditions, but no controlled functional MRI studies have examined where their effects occur in the brain. We examined the effects of donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept[Registered sign]) on cognition and brain activity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive…

  11. Clinical and biological predictors of Alzheimer's disease in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment Preditores clínicos e biológicos da evolução para doença de Alzheimer em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes V. Forlenza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of the progression from pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease is relevant to clinical management and to substantiate the decision of prescribing antidementia drugs. METHOD: Longitudinal study of a cohort of elderly adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls, carried out to estimate the risk and characterize predictors of the progression to Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment had a higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease during follow-up (odds ratio = 4.5, CI95% [1.3-13.6], p = 0.010. At baseline, older age, lower scores on memory tests and presence of the APOE*4 allele predicted the progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease. In a sub sample of amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients, those who progressed to Alzheimer's disease had lower cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ42, p = 0.020 and higher concentrations of total TAU (p = 0.030 and phosphorylated TAU (p = 0.010, as compared to non-converters. DISCUSSION: This is the first Brazilian study to report cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in the prediction of the conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Our data are in accordance with those reported in other settings. The measurement of cerebrospinal fluid total-TAU, phospho-TAU and Aβ42 may help identify patients with mild cognitive impairment at higher risk for developing Alzheimer's disease.OBJETIVO: A identificação de preditores da conversão para a doença de Alzheimer em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve é relevante para o manejo clínico e para decidir sobre a prescrição de drogas antidemência. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal em coorte de indivíduos idosos com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico e controles saudáveis; estimativa do risco da progressão para doença de Alzheimer nos dois grupos; determinação das vari

  12. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Portfolio (IADRP) AMP-AD Detecting Cognitive Impairment Database ... Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition in which people have more memory or other thinking problems than normal for their ...

  13. 遗忘型轻度认知障碍与炎症相关基因多态性关联研究%Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄丽英; 张志珺; 岳春贤; 束昊; 刘晓燕; 徐小惠; 宇辉; 施咏梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨炎症相关基因寡核苷酸多态性位点(SNPs)与遗忘型轻度认知障碍(aMCI)的相关性.方法 对符合aMCI诊断标准的116例aMCI患者(aMCI组)及93例与aMCI组相匹配正常对照者(对照组)进行多维度神经认知功能评估,并用基质辅助激光解吸附电离飞行时间(MALDI-TOF)质谱分析进行炎症相关基因SNP基因分型.结果 (1)aMCI组、对照组比较,听觉词语记忆测验20 min延迟回忆(AVMT-延迟)[3.0(0.0 ~10.0)分、8.0(0.0 ~12.0)分,t=-8.533,P<0.05]、Rey复杂图形延迟记忆测验(R-O CFT-Ⅱ)[(11.2±8.3)分、(16.1±8.0)分,t=4.216,P<0.05]、数字广度测验(DST)[12.0(7.0~19.0)分、13.0(7.0~20.0)分,Z=-2.516,P<0.05]、连线测验A(TMTA) [80.0(35.0 ~200.0)s、72.0(29.0~512.0)s,Z=-3.113,P<0.05]、连线测验B(TMTB)[(180.1 ±72.7)s、(141.7±52.1)s,t=-4.385,P<0.05],aMCI组记忆、注意及执行功能方面神经认知测试成绩差于对照组(P<0.05).(2)aMCI组与正常对照组比较,白细胞介素10(IL10)、白细胞介素1A(IL1A)、白细胞介素1B(IL1B)、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)、白细胞介素6(IL6)、α1-抗胰凝乳蛋白酶基因(SERPINA3)、转化生长因子B1(TGFB1)等炎症相关基因SNPs等位基因、基因型及单倍型频率分布均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 炎症相关候选基因可能不是AD前期阶段-aMCI遗传风险因子.%Objective To examine whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes are associated with the risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).Methods The study recruited 116 aMCI patients and 93 matched healthy controls.All subjects underwent extensive assessment of cognitive function,genotyping was carried out on the platform of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.Results ( 1 ) There was prominent discrepancy between aMCI and controls in the memory,attention and executive functions,20 minutes delayed recall of

  14. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; SUZUKI, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). Methods A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wr...

  15. The Cognitive and Neural Expression of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Sven; Brambati, Simona M.; Ansado, Jennyfer; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Lacombe, Jacinthe; Goldstein, Rachel; Chayer, Celine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease have been widely documented, but little is known about the integrity of semantic memory in the prodromal stage of the illness. The aims of the present study were to: (i) investigate naming abilities and semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to…

  16. Cognitive Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Poteet, James A.

    Research regarding the cognitive processing of students with learning disabilities, mild mental handicap, and emotional handicap is reviewed. In considering cognitive processing for students with mild mental handicap, research attention has been directed to the issues of memory and learning, acquisition and retrieval deficits, inefficient…

  17. Learning and serial effects on verbal memory in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Magdaleno, María; Díaz-Bóveda, Rosalía; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Facal, David; Pereiro, Arturo X

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine different patterns of learning and episodic memory in 3 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) groups and a control group by administering the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and using serial position effect as a principal variable. The study sample included 3 groups of patients with MCI (n = 90) divided into single-domain amnestic, multiple-domain amnestic, and multiple-domain nonamnestic MCI and a group of healthy controls (n = 60). We compared the performance of each group on several CVLT measures used in previous research, and we included a new measure that provides specific information about the serial effect. Data showed a similar pattern of learning and memory impairment in both amnestic MCI groups (i.e., no differences between the multiple-domain and single-domain subtypes); the recency effect was significantly higher in both amnestic MCI groups than in all other groups, and the primacy effect was only lower in the multiple-domain amnestic MCI subtype. Verbal learning and memory profiles of patients with amnestic MCI were very similar, independent of the presence of deficits in cognitive domains other than episodic memory. Results are discussed in light of the unitary-store model of memory. PMID:26569625

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Multicomponent Exercise in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Takao Suzuki; Hiroyuki Shimada; Hyuma Makizako; Takehiko Doi; Daisuke Yoshida; Kengo Ito; Hiroshi Shimokata; Yukihiko Washimi; Hidetoshi Endo; Takashi Kato

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the effect of multicomponent exercise program on memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and identify biomarkers associated with improvement of cognitive functions. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were 100 older adults (mean age, 75 years) with MCI. The subjects were classified to an amnestic MCI group (n = 50) with neuroimaging measures, and other MCI group (n = 50) before the randomization. Subjects in each group were randomized to...

  19. A novel biomarker of amnestic MCI based on dynamic Cross-Frequency Coupling patterns during cognitive brain responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I Dimitriadis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, the transitional stage between normal cognitive changes of aging and the cognitive decline caused by AD, is of paramount clinical importance, since MCI patients are at increased risk of progressing into AD. Electroencephalographic (EEG alterations in the spectral content of brainwaves and connectivity at resting state have been associated with early-stage AD. Recently, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs have entered into the picture as an easy to perform screening test. Motivated by the recent findings about the role of cross-frequency coupling (CFC in cognition, we introduce a relevant methodological approach for detecting MCI based on cognitive responses from a standard auditory oddball paradigm. By using the single trial signals recorded at Pz sensor and comparing the responses to target and non-target stimuli, we first demonstrate that increased CFC is associated with the cognitive task. Then, considering the dynamic character of CFC, we identify instances during which the coupling between particular pairs of brainwave frequencies carries sufficient information for discriminating between normal subjects and patients with MCI. In this way, we form a multiparametric signature of impaired cognition. The new composite biomarker was tested using data from a cohort that consists of 25 amnestic MCI patients and 15 age-matched controls. Standard machine-learning algorithms were employed so as to implement the binary classification task. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation, the measured classification rate was found reaching very high levels (95%. Our approach compares favorably with the traditional alternative of using the morphology of averaged ERP response to make the diagnosis and the usage of features from spectro-temporal analysis of single-trial response. This further indicates that task-related CFC measurements can provide invaluable analytics in AD diagnosis and prognosis.

  20. A novel biomarker of amnestic MCI based on dynamic cross-frequency coupling patterns during cognitive brain responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Laskaris, Nikolaos A; Bitzidou, Malamati P; Tarnanas, Ioannis; Tsolaki, Magda N

    2015-01-01

    The detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the transitional stage between normal cognitive changes of aging and the cognitive decline caused by AD, is of paramount clinical importance, since MCI patients are at increased risk of progressing into AD. Electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations in the spectral content of brainwaves and connectivity at resting state have been associated with early-stage AD. Recently, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) have entered into the picture as an easy to perform screening test. Motivated by the recent findings about the role of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) in cognition, we introduce a relevant methodological approach for detecting MCI based on cognitive responses from a standard auditory oddball paradigm. By using the single trial signals recorded at Pz sensor and comparing the responses to target and non-target stimuli, we first demonstrate that increased CFC is associated with the cognitive task. Then, considering the dynamic character of CFC, we identify instances during which the coupling between particular pairs of brainwave frequencies carries sufficient information for discriminating between normal subjects and patients with MCI. In this way, we form a multiparametric signature of impaired cognition. The new composite biomarker was tested using data from a cohort that consists of 25 amnestic MCI patients and 15 age-matched controls. Standard machine-learning algorithms were employed so as to implement the binary classification task. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation, the measured classification rate was found reaching very high levels (95%). Our approach compares favorably with the traditional alternative of using the morphology of averaged ERP response to make the diagnosis and the usage of features from spectro-temporal analysis of single-trial responses. This further indicates that task-related CFC measurements can provide invaluable analytics in AD diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:26539070

  1. Association study of candidate gene polymorphisms of tau protein pathway with amnestic mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知障碍与tau蛋白通路候选基因多态的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓燕; 张志珺; 施咏梅; 宇辉; 岳春贤; 束昊; 庄丽英; 徐小惠

    2012-01-01

    功能相对保持,但ApoE ε4与MAPT/STH基因多态交互作用不改变aMCI遗传易患性.%Objective To investigate the relationship between amnestic mild cognitive impairment and functional genes associated with hyperphosphorylated tau protein.Methods One hundred and sixteen amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients and 93 normal controls were recruited for the study.Multi-dimension neuropsychologic tests were used to assess the cognitive function extensively.MassARRAY and iPlex systems were used to measure candidate SNP polymorphisms,analyze genotypic,allelic or haplotypic distributions and their interaction with ApoE ε4 and the correlation with the cognitive function in the subjects.Results ( 1 ) The scores of neuropsychologic tests in memory domain ( Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT)-first immediate recall,AVLT-second immediate recall,AVLT-second immediate recall,AVLT-5 minute delayed recall,AVLT-20 minute delayed recall,AVLT-recognition,Rey-Osterrich Comolex Test-delay) in aMCI patients ( 3.0 ( 0-7.0 ),5.0 ( 1.0-10.0),6.0 ( 1.0-11.0 ),4.0 (0-11.0),3.0(0-10.0),20.0(8.0-24.0),11.2 ±8.3) were significantly lower than those in the normal controls(4.0(0-9.0),7.0(2.0-11.0),9.0(3.0-12.0),8.0(0-12.0),8.0(0-12.0),22.0 (10.0-24.0),16.1±8.0) (Z=-3.592,-6.802,-6.408,-8.173,-8.533,-5.647 andt=4.216 respectively,all P <0.01 ) ; (2) Genotypic distributions of rs242562 GG in aMCI (7.826% ) were significantly lower than those in normal controls (20.65%,OR =0.3525,95% CI 0.1411-0.8807,P =0.024 98),however there were no differences in the genotypic,allelic or haplotypic distributions between aMCI patients and controls of glycogen synthase kinase-3β,cyclin dependent protein kinase-5,calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-Ⅱ,cell division cycle 2,dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6; (3) MAPT/STH rs242562 genotype was correlated with AVLT-immediate recall,AVLT-delayed recall

  2. Sleep Disturbances and Predictive Factors in Caregivers of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dongwhane; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Yoon, Sung-Sang; Chang, Dae-Il; Lee, Sangeui; Rhee, Hak-Young; Ku, Bon D.; Park, Key-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose We examined the characteristics of sleep disturbances and sleep patterns in the caregivers of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and dementia. Methods We prospectively studied 132 patients (60 with aMCI and 72 with dementia) and their caregivers, and 52 noncaregiver controls. All caregivers and controls completed several sleep questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The patients were administered neuropsychological tests...

  3. Sleep-disordered breathing, sleep quality, and mild cognitive impairment in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugaj, Martha; Weinreich, Gerhard; Weimar, Christian; Stang, Andreas; Dragano, Nico; Wessendorf, Thomas E; Teschler, Helmut; Winkler, Angela; Wege, Natalia; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that sleep disorders are associated with cognitive decline. We, therefore, examined the cross-sectional association of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep quality, and three types of sleep complaints (difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and its subtypes. A group of 1,793 participants (51% men; 63.8 ± 7.5 years) of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (total sample n = 4,157) received a screening for SDB and self-report measures of sleep complaints. Group comparisons were used to compare performances among five cognitive subtests. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated to determine the association of MCI (n = 230) and MCI subtypes (amnestic MCI, n = 120; non-amnestic MCI, n = 110) with SDB severity levels, poor sleep quality, and sleep complaints. Severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index ≥30/h, n = 143) was not associated with MCI, amnestic MCI, or non-amnestic MCI. Poor sleep quality was associated with MCI (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.03; fully adjusted) as well as frequently reported difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 1.94, 1.20-3.14), difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.27-4.63), and early morning awakening (OR = 2.30, 1.32-4.00). Severe difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.21-4.13) and early morning awakening (OR = 2.88, 1.45-5.73) were solely associated with the amnestic MCI subtype, whereas, severe difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 3.84, 1.13-13.08) were associated with non-amnestic MCI. Our results suggest that poor sleep quality, rather than SDB, is associated with MCI. The selective association of difficulties initiating sleep and early morning awakening with amnestic MCI and of difficulties maintaining sleep with non-amnestic MCI might serve as a marker to improve diagnostic accuracy in the earliest stages of cognitive impairment and will be further

  4. Cross-sectional study of sleep quantity and quality and amnestic and non-amnestic cognitive function in an ageing population: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and cognitive function in younger and older individuals from an ageing population. METHODS: 3,968 male and 4,821 female white participants, aged 50 years and over, from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA were studied. Information on sleep quality and quantity as well as both amnestic (memory, ACF and non-amnestic (non-memory, nACF function was available at Wave 4 (2008. Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the relationship between sleep and cognitive function. RESULTS: After adjustment for multiple confounders in the younger group (50-64 years duration of sleep explained 15.2% of the variance in ACF (p = 0.003 and 20.6% of nACF (p = 0.010. In the older group (65+ years the estimates were 21.3% (p<0.001 and 25.6% (p<0.001, respectively. For sleep quality, there was a statistically significant association between sleep quality and both ACF (p<0.001 and nACF (p<0.001 in the older age group, but not in the younger age group (p = 0.586 and p = 0.373, respectively; interaction between age and sleep quality in the study sample including both age groups: p<0.001 for ACF and p = 0.018 for nACF. Sleep quality explained between 15.1% and 25.5% of the variance in cognition. The interaction with age was independent of duration of sleep. At any level of sleep duration there was a steeper association between sleep quality and ACF in the older than the younger group. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between sleep disturbances and cognitive function vary between younger and older adults. Prospective studies will determine the temporal relationships between sleep disturbances and changes in cognition in different age groups.

  5. Profile of Cognitive Complaints in Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, Tom A.; Gustavo Saposnik; Corinne E. Fischer; Jenny Gu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) is differentiated from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by the presence of vascular events such as stroke or small vessel disease. Typically, MCI and VaMCI patients present with subjective complaints regarding cognition; however, little is known about the specific nature of these complaints. We aimed to create a profile of subjective cognitive complaints in MCI and VaMCI patients with similar levels of objective cognitive performance. Metho...

  6. 遗忘型轻度认知障碍患者额叶体积与额叶纤维结构的对照研究%Comparative study of the volume and fiber of frontal lobe in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪珊珊; 韩伯军; 王庆广; 刘冬柏; 张剑宇; 彭岚; 姜歧涛; 郑勇强; 刘定华

    2012-01-01

    目的 对照分析遗忘型轻度认知障碍(aMCI)患者与正常被试额叶体积及额叶纤维结构的差异.方法 选取28例aMCI患者和25名正常对照人群,进行头部T1加权三维核磁共振扫描(T1WI)及扩散张量成像(DTI)成像扫描.计算并比较2组额叶体积及额叶纤维的FA值、ADC值、纤维数目及平均长度的差异.结果 aMCI组左侧额叶体积[(337.35±20.45) cm3]小于对照组[( 358.54±27.26) cm3],差异有统计学意义(t=-3.223,P=0.002).aMCI组左侧额叶短纤维数目[(16985±892)条]多于对照组[( 16387 ±752)条]、长纤维数目[(3214±185)条]少于对照组[(3425±277)条],长纤维ADC值高于对照组(t=2.621,P=0.012; t=-3.714,P=0.001;t=17.595,P=0.000);aMCI组右侧额叶长纤维数目[( 2895±343)条]少于对照组[(3451 ±230)条],而长纤维ADC值高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(t=-7.011,P=0.000;t=4.443,P=0.000).aMCI组左侧额叶长纤维数目与MMSE总分呈正相关(r=0.457,P=0.015),而左侧额叶长纤维的ADC值与MMSE总分呈负相关关系(r=-0.415,P=0.028).结论 aMCI患者存在额叶结构及纤维连接异常,且左侧额叶纤维的连接异常与认知障碍严重程度相关.%Objective To detect the fiber structure and volume differences in frontal lobe between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal control.Methods T1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were obtained in 28 aMCI patients and 25 normal controls.Volumes,fiber fractional anisotropy (FA),fiber apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC),fiber number,and average fiber length of frontal lobe in the two groups were measured.Results Volumes of left frontal lobe ( ( 337.35 ± 20.45 ) cm3 ) in aMCI group were smaller than control ( (358.54 ± 27.26) cm3 ) ( t =- 3.223,P =0.002 ).Numbers of short range fiber in left frontal lobe ( 16985 ± 892) were significantly increased relative to control ( 16387 ±752) ; while numbers of long range fiber (3214

  7. Research on characteristics of resting-state functional connectivity strengths in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知障碍患者的静息态功能连接强度特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛灿; 陈观群; 李坤成; 韩璎; 夏明睿; 陈晓丹; 孙宇; 王晓妮; 李红艳; 李瑜霞; 李轩宇; 于洋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore a new index for reflecting the topological information of brain functional networks in patients at high risk of Alzheimer disease using characteristics of resting-state functional connectivity strengths(FCS) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment(aMCI). Methods Thirty-one aMCI patients and 42 age, gender and years of education matched normal controls were enrolled between September 2009 and April 2011 in this study. The resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data of all participants were acquired and preprocessed. Then the whole-brain functional connectivities were constructed for exploring the distribution characteristics of hub regions which had higher FCS values. Using two-sample t test to compare group differences in age, years of education and each neuropsychological assessment. In addition, using Chi-squared test to compare group differences in gender. Group differences in FCS values were analyzed by general linear model. Finally, correlation analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the FCS values of the brain regions with group differences and behavioral scores in aMCI patients. Results The hub regions of the functional networks in the aMCI patients were mainly located in the association cortices such as the precuneuses, posterior cingulate cortices, medial prefrontal cortices, angular gyri, superior occipital gyri, fusiform gyri and lingual gyri. The distribution models in the aMCI patients were consistent with those in the normal controls. However, the FCS values of these brain regions were significantly lower in the aMCI patients than those in the normal controls. In comparison to the normal controls, the aMCI patients had significantly decreased FCS values in the bilateral fusiform gyri, lingual gyri, superior occipital gyri, left middle occipital gyrus and postcentral gyrus (the cluster was 389, 230, 187 and 107 voxels, respectively;P<0.05, respectively), and they had decreased trends of FCS values in

  8. Reduced 5-HT2A receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, S G; Madsen, K; Svarer, C;

    2008-01-01

    cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and related 5-HT(2A) receptor binding to clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients with MCI of the amnestic type (mean age 73, mean MMSE 26.1) and 17 age and sex matched control subjects were studied with MRI and [(18)F......Previous studies of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have described reduced brain serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor density. It is unclear whether this abnormality sets in early in the course of the disease and whether it is related to early cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. We assessed...

  9. Deficits in narrative discourse elicited by visual stimuli are already present in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia eDrummond; Gabriel eCoutinho; Rochele ePaz Fonseca; Naima eAssunção; Alina eTeldeschi; Ricardo ede Oliveira-Souza; Jorge eMoll; Fernanda eTovar-Moll; Paulo eMattos

    2015-01-01

    Language batteries used to assess the skills of elderly individuals, such as naming and semantic verbal fluency, present some limitations in differentiating healthy controls from patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Deficits in narrative discourse occur early in dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the narrative discourse abilities of a-MCI patients are poorly documented. The present study sought to propose and evaluate parameters for investigating narrative d...

  10. The neuroimaging approach to the assessment of mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, Giovanni [University of Milan and Unit of Molecular Imaging, Division of Radiation Therapy, European Institute of Oncology, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Imaging techniques, including emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are progressively being exploited for the classification and prognostic evaluation (indispensable for possible treatments) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The main traits of MCI and unsolved issues in its assessment are discussed in two review articles by Feldman and Jacova from the Division of Neurology, Dept. of Medicine, Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders, University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, Canada [1] and Chong and Sahadevan from the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore [2]. Because MCI has different presentations in terms of the type and degree of cognitive deficits observed, several clinical subtypes of MCI besides the amnestic form have now been recognised and characterised on the basis of deficits in different cognitive domains, either in isolation or in combination with amnesia. The different subtypes of MCI suggest that MCI has a heterogeneous nature, with several possible causes that lead to the same symptoms. This is a field in evolution, and a uniform diagnostic classification of MCI has not yet been accomplished. Lopez et al. from the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [3] point out that the classification of MCI subtypes is useful to improve prediction of the subsequent risk of dementia and the type of dementia, and that the manner in which MCI subjects are classified into subgroups has implications for the cognitive profile of the group and thus for our inferences about the aetiology and possible clinical course of the disorder.

  11. The neuroimaging approach to the assessment of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging techniques, including emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are progressively being exploited for the classification and prognostic evaluation (indispensable for possible treatments) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The main traits of MCI and unsolved issues in its assessment are discussed in two review articles by Feldman and Jacova from the Division of Neurology, Dept. of Medicine, Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders, University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, Canada [1] and Chong and Sahadevan from the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore [2]. Because MCI has different presentations in terms of the type and degree of cognitive deficits observed, several clinical subtypes of MCI besides the amnestic form have now been recognised and characterised on the basis of deficits in different cognitive domains, either in isolation or in combination with amnesia. The different subtypes of MCI suggest that MCI has a heterogeneous nature, with several possible causes that lead to the same symptoms. This is a field in evolution, and a uniform diagnostic classification of MCI has not yet been accomplished. Lopez et al. from the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [3] point out that the classification of MCI subtypes is useful to improve prediction of the subsequent risk of dementia and the type of dementia, and that the manner in which MCI subjects are classified into subgroups has implications for the cognitive profile of the group and thus for our inferences about the aetiology and possible clinical course of the disorder

  12. [Prognosis of cognitive deficit progression in aged patients with mild cognitive impairment under prolonged therapy (a three year observation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, S I; Kolykhalov, I V; Fedorova, Ia B; Kalyn, Ia B; Selezneva, N D; Samorodov, A V; Miasoedov, S N; Boksha, I S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict treatment efficacy in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to find the most reliable clinical tests for the prediction of dementia. Patients with amnestic MCI (n=53) were treated with cerebrolysin for three years and underwent regularly neurocognitive and clinical psychiatric tests. The data were analyzed using non-parametric statistics, cluster analysis, and linear discriminate analysis. The combination of statistical methods has enabled to predict the degree of cognitive impairment as well as the development of dementia. A "dementia risk group" with fast cognitive decline (i.e. the low efficacy of the treatment) was identified. The tests are ranked according to their predictive values. PMID:23612410

  13. Is Mild Cognitive Impairment a Precursor of Alzheimer's Disease? Short Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Šerý, Omar; Hosák, Ladislav; Janout, Vladimír

    2015-12-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) may be a precursor of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is a boundary area between normal aging and dementia. In practice, the term "age related cognitive decline" has been used interchangeably with "normal aging". Alternatively, the term "aging associated cognitive decline" was introduced and defined by a performance on a standardized cognitive scale focused on learning and memory, attention and cognitive speed, language, or visuoconstructional abilities. The term "mild cognitive impairment" was adopted by Petersen in 2004 to describe a period in the course of neurodegenerative disease where cognition is no longer normal relative to age expectations, however, daily functions are not sufficiently disrupted to correlate with the diagnosis of dementia. Most of the literature refers to the amnestic form of MCI, which is likely a precursor of AD. The rate of conversion from amnestic form of MCI to AD is estimated to reach 10-15% per year. That is why MCI generated a great deal of research. When considering MCI a precursor of AD, it seems reasonable to study AD genetic markers in the MCI patients. In AD, association studies focus on genetic polymorphisms assumed to have an effect on the expression and modulation function of genes associated with AD pathogenesis (ApoE, APP, presenilin 1, presenilin 2, tau protein), and on polymorphisms related to metabolism of the aforementioned proteins (splicing, degradation). Neuropsychological assesment plays a substantial role in the diagnosis of MCI, especially in the case of identification of different MCI subtypes or typical profiles of cognitive performance in prodromal phases of neurodegenerative diseases. The optimal composition of diet may increase an average age and prevent impairment of cognitive functions at the same time. Despite the progress in early diagnosis of MCI and dementia, further research is needed on differential diagnosis and treatment. In amnestic subtype of MCI some genetic

  14. Cognitive functioning in mild hyperphenylalaninemia

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    Alicia de la Parra

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Children with mHPA achieved cognitive performance well within the average range and attained significantly higher scores than children with PKU. However, they appeared to have relative weaknesses in working memory and attention, similar to children with PKU.

  15. Acetylcholine receptors in dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, Osama; Kendziorra, Kai [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike; Gertz, Hermann-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); Brust, Peter [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    To clarify whether changes in the cholinergic transmission occur early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A-85380, which is supposed to be specific for {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We included patients with moderate to severe AD and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), presumed to present preclinical AD. Both patients with AD and MCI showed significant reductions in {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs in brain regions typically affected by AD pathology. These findings indicate that a reduction in {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs occurs during early symptomatic stages of AD. The {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR availability in these regions correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment, indicating a stage sensitivity of the {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR status. Together, our results provide evidence for the potential of 2-[{sup 18}]F-A-85380 nAChR PET in the diagnosis of patients at risk for AD. Because of the extraordinary long acquisition time with 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A-85380, we developed the new {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR-specific radioligands (+)- and (-)-[{sup 18}F]norchloro-fluoro-homoepibatidine (NCFHEB) and evaluated them preclinically. (-)-[{sup 18}F]NCFHEB shows twofold higher brain uptake and significantly shorter acquisition times. Therefore, (-)-[{sup 18}F]NCFHEB should be a suitable radioligand for larger clinical investigations. (orig.)

  16. Acetylcholine receptors in dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify whether changes in the cholinergic transmission occur early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand 2-[18F]F-A-85380, which is supposed to be specific for α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We included patients with moderate to severe AD and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), presumed to present preclinical AD. Both patients with AD and MCI showed significant reductions in α4β2 nAChRs in brain regions typically affected by AD pathology. These findings indicate that a reduction in α4β2 nAChRs occurs during early symptomatic stages of AD. The α4β2 nAChR availability in these regions correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment, indicating a stage sensitivity of the α4β2 nAChR status. Together, our results provide evidence for the potential of 2-[18]F-A-85380 nAChR PET in the diagnosis of patients at risk for AD. Because of the extraordinary long acquisition time with 2-[18F]F-A-85380, we developed the new α4β2 nAChR-specific radioligands (+)- and (-)-[18F]norchloro-fluoro-homoepibatidine (NCFHEB) and evaluated them preclinically. (-)-[18F]NCFHEB shows twofold higher brain uptake and significantly shorter acquisition times. Therefore, (-)-[18F]NCFHEB should be a suitable radioligand for larger clinical investigations. (orig.)

  17. Mild Cognitive Impairment: an update in Parkinson's Disease and lessons learned from Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G.; Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Schroeder, Cynthia D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cognitive dysfunction is an important focus of research in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the concept of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a prodrome to AD has been recognized for many years, the construct of MCI in PD is a relative newcomer with recent development of diagnostic criteria, biomarker research programs, and treatment trials. Controversies and challenges, however, regarding PD-MCI's definition, application, heterogeneity, and different trajectories have arisen. This review will highlight current research advances and challenges in PD-MCI. Furthermore, lessons from the AD field, which has witnessed an evolution in MCI/AD definitions, relevant advances in biomarker research, and development of disease-modifying and targeted therapeutic trials will be discussed. PMID:26517759

  18. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  19. The differentiation of amnestic type MCI from the non-amnestic types by structural MRI

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    Gábor eCsukly

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI are theoretically different entities, only a few investigations studied the structural brain differences between these subtypes of mild cognitive impairment. The aim of the study was to find the structural differences between aMCI and naMCI, and to replicate previous findings on the differentiation between aMCI and healthy controls.Methods: Altogether 62 aMCI, naMCI, and healthy control subjects were included into the study based on the Petersen criteria. All patients underwent a routine brain MR examination, and a detailed neuropsychological examination.Results: The sizes of the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex and the amygdala were decreased in aMCI relative to naMCI and to controls. Furthermore the cortical thickness of the entorhinal cortex, the fusiform gyrus, the precuneus and the isthmus of the cingulate gyrus were significantly decreased in aMCI relative to naMCI and healthy controls. The largest differences relative to controls were detected for the volume of the hippocampus (18% decrease vs. controls and the cortical thickness (20% decrease vs. controls of the entorhinal cortex: 1.6 and 1.4 in terms of Cohen’s d. Only the volume of the precuneus were decreased in the naMCI group (5% decrease compared to the control subjects: 0.9 in terms of Cohen’s d. Significant between group differences were also found in the neuropsychological test results: a decreased anterograde, retrograde memory, and category fluency performance was detected in the aMCI group relative to controls and naMCI subjects. Subjects with naMCI showed decreased letter fluency relative to controls, while both MCI groups showed decreased executive functioning relative to controls as measured by the Trail Making test part B. Memory performance in the aMCI group and in the entire sample correlated with the thickness of the entorhinal cortex and with the volume

  20. Guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol

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    Jin-zhou TIAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI, as a nosological entity referring to elderly people with MCI but without dementia, was proposed as a warning signal of dementia occurrence and a novel therapeutic target. MCI clinical criteria and diagnostic procedure from the MCI Working Group of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC may better reflect the heterogeneity of MCI syndrome. Beijing United Study Group on MCI funded by the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments (CFMD proposed the guiding principles of clinical research on MCI. The diagnostic methods include clinical, neuropsychological, functional, neuroimaging and genetic measures. The diagnostic procedure includes three stages. Firstly, MCI syndrome must be defined, which should correspond to: (1 cognitive complaints coming from the patients or their families; (2 reporting of a relative decline in cognitive functioning during the past year by the patient or informant; (3 cognitive disorders evidenced by clinical evaluation; (4 activities of daily living preserved and complex instrumental functions either intact or minimally impaired; and (5 absence of dementia. Secondly, subtypes of MCI have to be recognized as amnestic MCI (aMCI, single non-memory MCI (snmMCI and multiple-domains MCI (mdMCI. Finally, the subtype causes could be identified commonly as Alzheimer disease (AD, vascular dementia (VaD, and other degenerative diseases such as frontal-temporal dementia (FTD, Lewy body disease (LBD, semantic dementia (SM, as well as trauma, infection, toxicity and nutrition deficiency. The recommended special tests include serum vitamin B12 and folic acid, plasma insulin, insulin-degrading enzyme, Aβ40, Aβ42, inflammatory factors. Computed tomography (or preferentially magnetic resonance imaging, when available is mandatory. As measurable therapeutic outcomes, the primary outcome should be the probability of progression to dementia, the secondary outcomes should be cognition and

  1. A novel biomarker of amnestic MCI based on dynamic Cross-Frequency Coupling patterns during cognitive brain responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I.; Laskaris, Nikolaos A.; Bitzidou, Malamati P.; Ioannis eTarnanas; Tsolaki, Magda N.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the transitional stage between normal cognitive changes of aging and the cognitive decline caused by AD, is of paramount clinical importance, since MCI patients are at increased risk of progressing into AD. Electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations in the spectral content of brainwaves and connectivity at resting state have been associated with early-stage AD. Recently, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) have entered into the picture as...

  2. A novel biomarker of amnestic MCI based on dynamic cross-frequency coupling patterns during cognitive brain responses

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I.; Laskaris, Nikolaos A.; Bitzidou, Malamati P.; Tarnanas, Ioannis; Tsolaki, Magda N.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the transitional stage between normal cognitive changes of aging and the cognitive decline caused by AD, is of paramount clinical importance, since MCI patients are at increased risk of progressing into AD. Electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations in the spectral content of brainwaves and connectivity at resting state have been associated with early-stage AD. Recently, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) have entered into the picture as...

  3. Amnestic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished: anterograd

  4. A randomized controlled trial of multicomponent exercise in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

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    Takao Suzuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of multicomponent exercise program on memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and identify biomarkers associated with improvement of cognitive functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were 100 older adults (mean age, 75 years with MCI. The subjects were classified to an amnestic MCI group (n = 50 with neuroimaging measures, and other MCI group (n = 50 before the randomization. Subjects in each group were randomized to either a multicomponent exercise or an education control group using a ratio of 1∶1. The exercise group exercised for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, 40 times for 6 months. The exercise program was conducted under multitask conditions to stimulate attention and memory. The control group attended two education classes. A repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that no group × time interactions on the cognitive tests and brain atrophy in MCI patients. A sub-analysis of amnestic MCI patients for group × time interactions revealed that the exercise group exhibited significantly better Mini-Mental State Examination (p = .04 and logical memory scores (p = .04, and reducing whole brain cortical atrophy (p<.05 compared to the control group. Low total cholesterol levels before the intervention were associated with an improvement of logical memory scores (p<.05, and a higher level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was significantly related to improved ADAS-cog scores (p<.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that an exercise intervention is beneficial for improving logical memory and maintaining general cognitive function and reducing whole brain cortical atrophy in older adults with amnestic MCI. Low total cholesterol and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor may predict improvement of cognitive functions in older adults with MCI. Further studies are required to determine the positive effects of exercise on cognitive function in older adults with

  5. Cognitive profiles in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI patients associated with Parkinson′s disease and cognitive disorders

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    Michele Pistacchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is rapidly becoming one of the most common clinical manifestations affecting the elderly and represents an heterogeneous clinical syndrome that can be ascribed to different etiologies; the construct of MCI in Parkinson′s disease (PD (MCI-PD is more recent but the range of deficits is still variable. Early recognition and accurate classification of MCI-PD could offer opportunities for novel therapeutic interventions to improve the natural pathologic course. Objective: To investigate the clinical phenotype of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and in patients with PD and MCI (MCI-PD. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three patients with aMCI and in 38 patients with MCI-PD were enrolled. They all underwent Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test and the immediate visual memory (IVM item of the Mental Deterioration Battery, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test included the Rey-immediate (Rey-I, and the delayed recall of the word list (Rey test deferred, Rey-D. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS was used for mood assessment. Results: The results of the Rey-I and Rey-D and of the IVM item showed statistically significant differences between the aMCI and the MCI-PD group. The mean Rey-I and Rey-D score was significantly lower as well as the IVM score was higher in patients with aMCI than in those with MCI-PD, aMCI patients showed greater impairment in long-term memory, whereas more aMCI than MCI-PD patients had preserved attention, computation, praxis, and conceptualization. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the cognitive deficit profile is specific for each of the two disorders: Memory impairment was a typical feature in aMCI patients while MCI-PD patients suffered from executive functions and visuospatial attention deficits.

  6. Cholinergic Enhancement of Brain Activation in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI during Episodic Memory Encoding

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    Shannon L Risacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the physiological impact of treatment with donepezil (Aricept on neural circuitry supporting episodic memory encoding in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI using functional MRI (fMRI. Methods: 18 patients with MCI and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC were scanned twice while performing an event-related verbal episodic encoding task. MCI participants were scanned before treatment and after approximately 3 months on donepezil; HC were untreated but rescanned at the same interval. Voxel-level analyses assessed treatment effects in activation profile relative to retest changes in non-treated HC. Changes in task-related connectivity in medial temporal circuitry were also evaluated, as were associations between brain activation pattern, task-related functional connectivity, task performance, and clinical measures of cognition.Results: At baseline, the MCI group showed reduced activation during encoding relative to HC in the right medial temporal lobe (MTL; hippocampal/parahippocampal and additional regions, as well as attenuated task-related deactivation, relative to rest, in a medial parietal lobe cluster. After treatment, the MCI group showed normalized MTL activation and improved parietal deactivation. These changes were associated with cognitive performance. After treatment, the MCI group also demonstrated increased task-related functional connectivity from the right MTL cluster seed region to a network of other sites including the basal nucleus/caudate and bilateral frontal lobes. Increased functional connectivity was associated with improved task performance.Conclusions: Pharmacologic enhancement of cholinergic function in amnestic MCI is associated with changes in brain activation pattern and functional connectivity during episodic memory processing which are in turn related to increased cognitive performance. fMRI is a promising biomarker for assessing treatment related changes in brain function.

  7. Impaired generation of new subcategories and switching in a semantic verbal fluency test in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

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    Laiss Bertola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The semantic verbal fluency task is broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects. Even some studies have identified differences in verbal fluency clustering and switching measures between subjects with normal aging and a clinical condition such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease, the results are not always consistent. This study aimed to compare clustering and switching measures of an animal’s semantic verbal fluency task among normal controls (n=25, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI; n=25, amnestic multiple domain Mild Cognitive Impairment (a+mdMCI; n=25 and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n=25 Brazilian subjects. The analyses were executed considering three (unifying the MCI subtypes and four groups. As the data were not normally distributed, we carried out non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests to evaluate the differences in performance in the measures of the verbal fluency test among the groups. The comparison demonstrated that the groups differed in the total of correct words produced, number of clusters and switching but the measure of new subcategories was the only with significant difference among the NC and all the clinical groups. The measure of new subcategories is the number of original subcategories inside the higher category of animals that the subject produced, such as farm, domestic, African animals. Our results indicate that semantic memory impairment is a visible and recent deficit that occurs even in non-demented subjects with very mild cognitive impairment and the implications of theses findings are discussed.

  8. Mild cognitive impairment is becoming more psychosocial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Frans; de Vugt, Marjolein

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have underlined the need for more studies of early psychosocial interventions for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia (Moniz-Cook, Vernooij-Dassen, Woods, & Orrell, 2011 ). In the last 10 years, MCI has become more 'psychosocial' and a starting point for professionals to help patients and their nearest ones to deal with their handicaps, to cope with a future that is insecure and gloomy, and to get prepared for the possibility of further decline and dependency. It is timely that Aging & Mental Health is devoting this paper, a special section in this issue with contributions dealing with psychological and social aspects of MCI. PMID:23402425

  9. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.

    We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

  10. Evolution of cognitive deficit: mild and moderate cognitive impairments

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    V V Zakharov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Both mild and moderate cognitive impairments (CIs that cause no professional and social disadaptation have recently been of interest to physicians and investigators. Epidemiological surveys suggest that CIs not progressing to the manifestations of dementia are noted in the majority of elderly neurological outpatients. Both dementia and non-dementia CIs is a multietiological syndrome; the clinical features of these impairments are therewith determined by their cause. The most sensitive neuropsychological tests, such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test should be used to diagnose non-dementia CIs. Moderate CIs are associated with the high risk of dementia (10—15% yearly. As of now, the generally accepted management protocol for patients with mild and moderate CIs has not worked out. However, drugs with neuroprotective properties are of first-priority in treating CIs, by taking into account the high risk of their progression.

  11. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  12. Mild cognitive impairment: Profile of a cohort from a private sector memory clinic

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    Srikanth Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Private hospital memory clinics might see a different clientele than university or academic institutes due to referral biases. Objective: To characterize the profile of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from a private sector memory clinic. Materials and Methods: MCI was diagnosed according to revised clinical criteria of Petersen et al. For a subset of patients with MCI medial temporal atrophy and cerebral small vessel disease (white matter lesions and lacunes were rated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans and analyzed for their contribution towards cognitive impairment. Results: Subjects with MCI formed one-third (113/371 of this memory clinic sample from a private hospital. MCI could be effectively diagnosed and subtyped using a brief cognitive scale (Concise Cognitive Test (CONCOG. The amnestic MCI (single and multiple domains subtype comprised the majority of cases with MCI. In a subsample of 33 patients, lacunar infarcts were more common than white matter lesions and hippocampal atrophy and were inversely associated with verbal fluency. Conclusions: MCI may be more commonly encountered in private hospital settings probably due to early referrals. It is possible to diagnose and subtype MCI using a brief cognitive instrument such as the CONCOG. In this sample, lacunar infarcts were more commonly encountered than medial temporal atrophy in such patients.

  13. Beyond mild cognitive impairment: vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (VCIND)

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Blossom CM; Matthews, Fiona E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Dufouil, Carole; Brayne, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the causes of dementia is important in the search for effective preventative and treatment strategies. The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as prodromal dementia, has been useful but remains controversial since in population-based studies it appears to be a limited predictor of progression to dementia. Recognising the relative contribution of neurodegenerative and vascular causes, as well as their interrelationship, may enhance predictive accuracy. The concept of vascul...

  14. Cognitive Training in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin Yan; LI Li; XIAO Jia Qing; HE Chang Zhi; LYU Xiu Lin; GAO Lei; YANG Xiao Wei; CUI Xin Gang; FAN Li Hua

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveWe investigated the feasibility and efficacy of cognitive training for older adults in rural settings and with low education levels, who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MethodsForty-five older adults (ages >65 years) with MCI were assigned to treatment or control groups, at a 2:1 ratio. Cognitivetraining occurred in the treatment group for 2 months. The cognitive abilities of the participants were assessed at pre-training, metaphase, and post-training time points, using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D). ResultsFollowing training, cognitive abilities improved in the treatment group, based on the total scores of all 4 measures, as well as specifically on the MoCA and LOTCA. There were differences in the main effects of group and time point on some subscales, but these differences had little, if any, effect on the overall analyses. ConclusionThe present study demonstrated that cognitive training has beneficial effects on attention, language, orientation, visual perception, organization of visual movement, and logical questioning in patients with MCI. Furthermore, the observed effects are long-term changes.

  15. Probabilistic Sequence Learning in Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Dezso eNemeth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI causes slight but noticeable disruption in cognitive systems, primarily executive and memory functions. However, it is not clear if the development of sequence learning is affected by an impaired cognitive system and, if so, how. The goal of our study was to investigate the development of probabilistic sequence learning, from the initial acquisition to consolidation, in MCI and healthy elderly control groups. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task (ASRT to measure probabilistic sequence learning. Individuals with MCI showed weaker learning performance than the healthy elderly group. However, using the reaction times only from the second half of each learning block – after the reactivation phase - we found intact learning in MCI. Based on the assumption that the first part of each learning block is related to reactivation/recall processes, we suggest that these processes are affected in MCI. The 24-hour offline period showed no effect on sequence-specific learning in either group but did on general skill learning: the healthy elderly group showed offline improvement in general reaction times while individuals with MCI did not. Our findings deepen our understanding regarding the underlying mechanisms and time course of sequence acquisition and consolidation.

  16. The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment

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    Perrochon A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaick Perrochon, Gilles Kemoun Laboratoire Mobilité, Vieillissement, Exercice (MOVE, EA 6314, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Poitiers, 8 Allée Jean Monnet, 86000 Poitiers, France; ISIS, Research Institute on Handicap and Aging, Paris, France Background: Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test, to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Methods: Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test and motor functions (10-meter walking test. All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT], and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Results: Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abilities: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Conclusion: The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment. Keywords: spatial navigation, walking, trail making test, detection, mild cognitive impairment

  17. Characteristics of Agraphia in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Jiong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study confirmed that agraphia is an important feature in patients with AD. The writing error profile in patients whose native language is Chinese was unique compared to patients using the alphabetic language system.

  18. Neuropathology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are retrospective pathological studies on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of brain specimens in the brain bank of authors' institute and current clinical studies of outpatients for screening of MCI based on those pathological findings. The study projects, aided by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) from 2003 and from 2007, have aimed to develop the optimal way for prophylaxis of dementia. In the former autopsy, about 10% of the elderly dead registered in the institute are found to have pathological changes of the clinical dementia rating 0.5, in whom the early Alzheimer disease (AD), Lewy body dementia, argentaffin granular disease and neurofibrillary tangle dominant disease are involved in a similar ratio to each other. Clinically, new patients with memory complaint are first screened by neurological tests involving CT, and then those with suspicious dementia undergo the second screening (2-day hospitalization) involving MRI with VSRAD (Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for AD), ECD single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with eZis (easy Z-score imaging system), myocardial scintigraphy with homovanillic acid (HVA)/m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and if necessary, PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), PIB (Pittsburgh Compound B, an amyloid prove) and/or 11C-CFT and 11C-raclopride. Further, new patients with suspicious Parkinson disease undergo the screening (3-day) of various tests involving MRI with voxel-based morphometry and VSRAD, cerebral blood flow ECD SPECT with eZis and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. It is concluded that AD is the most important subject in MCI and systemic diseases can also affect the cognitive ability as well. (R.T.)

  19. SPECT imaging of GABAA/benzodiazepine receptors and cerebral perfusion in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The involvement of neocortical and limbic GABAA/benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial and mainly reported in advanced stages. The status of these receptors in the very early stages of AD is unclear and has not been explored in vivo. Our aims were to investigate in vivo the integrity of cerebral cortical GABAA/BZD receptors in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to compare possible receptor changes to those in cerebral perfusion. [123I]Iomazenil and [99mTc]HMPAO SPECT images were acquired in 16 patients with amnestic MCI and in 14 normal elderly control subjects (only [123I]iomazenil imaging in 5, only [99mTc]HMPAO imaging in 4, and both [123I]iomazenil and [99mTc]HMPAO imaging in 5). Region of interest (ROI) analysis and voxel-based analysis were performed with cerebellar normalization. Neither ROI analysis nor voxel-based analysis showed significant [123I]iomazenil binding changes in MCI patients compared to control subjects, either as a whole group or when considering only those patients with MCI that converted to AD within 2 years of clinical follow-up. In contrast, the ROI analysis revealed significant hypoperfusion of the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex in the whole group of MCI patients and in MCI converters as compared to control subjects. Voxel-based analysis showed similar results. These results indicate that in the very early stages of AD, neocortical and limbic neurons/synapses expressing GABAA/BZD receptors are essentially preserved. They suggest that in MCI patients functional changes precede neuronal/synaptic loss in neocortical posterior regions and that [99mTc]HMPAO rCBF imaging is more sensitive than [123I]iomazenil GABAA/BZD receptor imaging in detecting prodromal AD. (orig.)

  20. Memory for Public Events in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: The Importance of Rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Roxane; Joubert, Sven; Benoit, Sophie; Dostie, Valérie; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2016-01-22

    Ribot's law refers to the better preservation of remote memories compared with recent ones that presumably characterizes retrograde amnesia. Even if Ribot-type temporal gradient has been extensively studied in retrograde amnesia, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD), this pattern has not been consistently found. One explanation for these results may be that rehearsal frequency rather than remoteness accounts for the better preservation of these memories. Thus, the aim of present study was to address this question by studying retrograde semantic memory in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 20), mild AD (n = 20) and in healthy older controls (HC; n = 19). In order to evaluate the impact of repetition as well as the impact of remoteness, we used a test assessing memory for enduring and transient public events that occurred in the recent and remote past. Results show no clear temporal gradient across time periods (1960-1975; 1976-1990; 1991-2005; 2006-2011), but a better performance was observed in all three groups for enduring compared with transient events. Moreover, although deficits were globally found in both patients groups compared with HC, more specific analyses revealed that aMCI patients were only impaired on transient events while AD patients were impaired on both transient and enduring events. Exploratory analyses also revealed a tendency suggesting preservation of remote transient events in aMCI. These findings are discussed with regards to memory consolidation models. PMID:26836162

  1. Self-reference effect on memory in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: Influence of identity valence

    OpenAIRE

    Leblond, Mona; Laisney, Mickaël; Lamidey, Virginie; Egret, Stéphanie; Sayette, de La; Chételat, Gaël; Piolino, Pascale; Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit episodic memory in healthy individuals. In healthy aging, its preservation is acknowledged, but in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the jury is still out. Furthermore, there has yet to be a study of the SRE in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). As self-reference implies subjective self-representations, and positive information enhance memory performance, we set out to examine the effects of 1) material and 2) identity valence on the S...

  2. Fornix White Matter is Correlated with Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Thalamus and Hippocampus in Healthy Aging but Not in Mild Cognitive Impairment - A Preliminary Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Grace Kehoe; Claudia Metzler-Baddeley; Lawlor, Brian A.; Rose Anne Kenny; Declan Lyons; McNulty, Jonathan P.; Mullins, Paul G.; Damien Coyle

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we wished to examine the relationship between the structural connectivity of the fornix, a white matter (WM) tract in the limbic system, which is affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer’s disease, and the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of two key related subcortical structures, the thalamus, and hippocampus. Twenty-two older healthy controls (HC) and 18 older adults with aMCI underwent multi-modal MRI scanning. The fornix was reconstructe...

  3. High-Intensity Physical Activity Modulates Diet Effects on Cerebrospinal β-Amyloid Levels in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Laura D Baker; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Skinner, Jeannine; Thomas J Montine; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Callaghan, Maureen; Leverenz, James B.; Walter, Brooke K.; Tsai, Elaine; Postupna, Nadia; Lampe, Johanna; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were markedly altered in response to a 4-wk dietary intervention in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we re-examined the data to assess whether diet-induced effects on CSF Aβ42 were modulated by high intensity physical activity (hi–PA). Normal older adults (n=18, mean age=68.6±7.4yrs) and adults with amnestic MCI (n=23, mean age=68.0±6.5yrs) received a low saturated fat/low glycemic index...

  4. Combining Cognitive Screening Tests for the Evaluation of Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Ladeira, Rodolfo B.; Diniz, Breno S; Nunes, Paula V.; Orestes V. Forlenza

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of the Mini-Mental State Examination combined with the Verbal Fluency Test and Clock Drawing Test for the identification of patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: These tests were used to evaluate cognitive function in 247 older adults. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their cognitive state: mild cognitive impairment (n=83), AD (n=81), cognitively unimpaired controls (n=83), based on clinical and n...

  5. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal. Neurology 2014;82:317 – 325. 2. Norton M, Breitner ... 42:1252 – 1256. e34 © 2014 American Academy of Neurology PATIENT PAGE Section Editors David C. Spencer, MD ...

  6. Biomarkers for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Gago, Belén; Navalpotro-Gomez, Irene; Jiménez-Urbieta, Haritz; Rodriguez-Oroz, María C

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive decline is one of the most frequent and disabling nonmotor features of Parkinson's disease. Around 30% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience mild cognitive impairment, a well-established risk factor for the development of dementia. However, mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is a heterogeneous entity that involves different types and extents of cognitive deficits. Because it is not currently known which type of mild cognitive impairment confers a higher risk of progression to dementia, it would be useful to define biomarkers that could identify these patients to better study disease progression and possible interventions. In this sense, the identification among patients with Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment of biomarkers associated with dementia would allow the early detection of this process. This review summarizes studies from the past 25 years that have assessed the potential biomarkers of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease patients. Despite the potential importance, no biomarker has as yet been validated. However, features such as low levels of epidermal and insulin-like growth factors or uric acid in plasma/serum and of Aß in CSF, reduction of cerebral cholinergic innervation and metabolism measured by PET mainly in posterior areas, and hippocampal atrophy in MRI might be indicative of distinct deficits with a distinct risk of dementia in subgroups of patients. Longitudinal studies combining the existing techniques and new approaches are needed to identify patients at higher risk of dementia. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27193487

  7. ADHD Symptoms Associated with Mild Cognitive Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between ADHD symptoms and mild intellectual disability (ID was investigated and compared to subjects with average ability, in a study at King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, UK.

  8. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...

  9. [Mild cognitive impairment: could it be a sleep disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is described as an intermediate state of cognitive impairment whereby individuals present with mild clinical symptoms but with nearly normal daily living activities. These subjects do not meet the clinical criteria for dementia, yet their cognitive functioning is below what we would expect for age and education in healthy people. In the other hand, older adults are at risk for sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, REM sleep behavioral disorder and chronic insomnia, which could have an impact on cognitive functioning and are exclusion criteria for the MCI diagnosis. Moreover, REM sleep behavioral disorder represents a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In subjects more 65 years of age the association between chronic insomnia and cognitive changes is still debated. The main aim of this paper is to focus on identification of sleep disorders in the context of cognitive disturbances among professionals working with the elderly. PMID:26395305

  10. Effect of the cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive impairment and identified brain atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Nilius; Petra Krulová; Dagmar Beránková; Pavel Ressner; Olga Zapletalová; Jana Minarčíková; Jan Pouchlý

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The main objective of this study was to analyse the development of cognitive functions and effect of cognitive rehabilitation on patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as a result of brain atrophy. Design: A quantitative non-randomized intervention study on a control sample of patients. Methods: The effect was observed in a group of patients ranging 59-91 years of age (N = 36). Only patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of mild cognitive disorder diagnosed by tomo...

  11. Impaired glycemia increases disease progression in mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Jill K.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Honea, Robyn A.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes are associated with cognitive decline and increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Relatively few studies have assessed the impact of metabolic dysfunction on conversion to AD in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and it is unclear whether glycemic status is associated with clinically-relevant measures of cognitive decline and brain structure in MCI. This study used the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to examine the relation...

  12. Demyelination in mild cognitive impairment suggests progression path to Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Carmeli

    Full Text Available The preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD - amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI - is manifested by phenotypes classified into exclusively memory (single-domain MCI (sMCI and multiple-domain MCI (mMCI. We suggest that typical MCI-to-AD progression occurs through the sMCI-to-mMCI sequence as a result of the extension of initial pathological processes. To support this hypothesis, we assess myelin content with a Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR in 21 sMCI and 21 mMCI patients and in 42 age-, sex-, and education-matched controls. A conjunction analysis revealed MTR reduction shared by sMCI and mMCI groups in the medial temporal lobe and posterior structures including white matter (WM: splenium, posterior corona radiata and gray matter (GM: hippocampus; parahippocampal and lingual gyri. A disjunction analysis showed the spread of demyelination to prefrontal WM and insula GM in executive mMCI. Our findings suggest that demyelination starts in the structures affected by neurofibrillary pathology; its presence correlates with the clinical picture and indicates the method of MCI-to-AD progression. In vivo staging of preclinical AD can be developed in terms of WM/GM demyelination.

  13. Attention and inhibition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Zancada-Menéndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment is understood as a cognitive deficit of insufficient severity to fulfil the criteria for Alzheimer’s disease. Many studies have attempted to identify which cognitive functions are most affected by this type of impairment and which is the most sensitive neuropsychological test for early detection. This study investigated sustained and selective attention, processing speed, and the inhibition process using a sample of people divided into three groups mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease and cognitively healthy controls selected and grouped based on their scores in the Mini Mental State Examination and Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised. Three tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (Motor Screening Task, Stop Signal Task and Reaction time were used as well as the d2 attention test. The results show that that participants with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease showed lower levels of concentration compared with the cognitively healthy controls group in the d2 test and longer reaction times in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, although the differences were not marked in the latter test. The impairments in basic cognitive processes, such as reaction time and sustained attention, indicate the need to take these functions into account in the test protocols when discriminating between normal aging and early and preclinical dementia processes.

  14. Measuring Information Processing Speed in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Clinical Versus Research Dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Judy; Phillips, Michelle; Newson, Margaret; Rogers, Peter J; Torrens-Burton, Anna; Tales, Andrea

    2016-01-22

    A substantial body of research evidence is indicative of disproportionately slowed information processing speed in a wide range of multi-trial, computer-based, neuroimaging- and electroencephalography-based reaction time (RT) tests in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, in what is arguably a dichotomy between research evidence and clinical practice, RT associated with different brain functions is rarely assessed as part of their diagnosis. Indeed, often only the time taken to perform a single, specific task, commonly the Trail making test (TMT), is measured. In clinical practice therefore, there can be a failure to assess adequately the integrity of the rapid, serial information processing and response, necessary for efficient, appropriate, and safe interaction with the environment. We examined whether a typical research-based RT task could at least match the TMT in differentiating amnestic MCI (aMCI) from cognitively healthy aging at group level. As aMCI is a heterogeneous group, typically containing only a proportion of individuals for whom aMCI represents the early stages of dementia, we examined the ability of each test to provide intra-group performance variation. The results indicate that as well as significant slowing in performance of the operations involved in TMT part B (but not part A), individuals with aMCI also experience significant slowing in RT compared to controls. The results also suggest that research-typical RT tests may be superior to the TMT in differentiating between cognitively healthy aging and aMCI at group level and in revealing the performance variability one would expect from an etiologically heterogeneous disorder such as aMCI. PMID:26836171

  15. Dysexecutive syndrome in amnesic mild cognitive impairment: a multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Martín, E.; Ugarriza Serrano, I.; Elcoroaristizabal Martín, X.; Galdos Alcelay, L.; Molano Salazar, A.; Bereincua Gandarias, R.; Inglés Borda, S.; Uterga Valiente, J. M.; Indakoetxea Juanbeltz, M. B.; Moraza Lopez, J.; Barandiarán Amillano, M.; Fernández-Martínez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Executive functions (EF) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), classically related to the prefrontal cortex, have been forgotten in mild stages, given more importance to temporal lobe associated disorders, such as memory. The study of disexecutive syndrome (DS) has been relegated to advanced stages of the disease. Our goal is to demonstrate that EF are already present in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Furthermore, we are interested in knowing whether poor scores in EF tests are r...

  16. 5-(123)I-A-85380 binding to the α4β2-nicotinic receptor in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrière, Emma; Dempsey, Mary F; Herrmann, Lucie L; Tierney, Kevin M; Lonie, Jane A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Pimlott, Sally; Wyper, David J; Herholz, Karl; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2010-11-01

    Treatments currently licensed for Alzheimer's dementia target cholinergic brain systems. In vivo nicotinic receptor binding may provide an early marker of illness and treatment suitability. In this pilot, we examined nine patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 10 age and education matched healthy volunteers with high resolution SPECT and the nicotinic receptor ligand 5-(123)I-A-85380. Uptake data were analysed using voxel-based techniques for group comparisons and regression analyses with cognitive impairment as covariates. MCI patients had discrete reductions in uptake in medial temporal cortex. Correlations with cognitive impairment were found in left temporo-parietal areas (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination) and bilateral temporo-limbic areas (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), and right parahippocampal gyrus (Rey Complex Figure Test) within the patient group. In vivo nicotinic receptor binding appears to be sensitive to brain changes in MCI. Larger scale explorations of patients undergoing treatment will be necessary to evaluate its use in predicting or monitoring treatment response. PMID:19036475

  17. Transfer and maintenance effects of online working-memory training in normal ageing and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Anouk; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Dautzenberg, Paul L J; Kessels, Roy P C

    2016-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is one of the cognitive functions that is susceptible to ageing-related decline. Interventions that are able to improve WM functioning at older age are thus highly relevant. In this pilot study, we explored the transfer effects of core WM training on the WM domain and other cognitive domains in 23 healthy older adults and 18 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Performance on neuropsychological tests was assessed before and after completion of the online five-week adaptive WM training, and after a three-month follow-up period. After training, both groups improved on the Digit Span and Spatial Span, gains that were maintained at follow-up. At an individual level, a limited number of participants showed reliable training gain. Healthy older adults, and to a lesser extent MCI patients, additionally improved on figural fluency at group level, but not at individual level. Results furthermore showed that global brain atrophy and hippocampal atrophy, as assessed by MRI, may negatively affect training outcome. Our study examined core WM training, showing gains on trained and untrained tasks within the WM domain, but no broad generalisation to other cognitive domains. More research is needed to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to identify participant characteristics that are predictive of training gain. PMID:26010573

  18. Ecological assessment of executive functions in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, Ana; Alegret, Montserrat; Boada, Mercè; Vinyes, Georgina; Valero, Sergi; Martínez-Lage, Pablo; Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Becker, James T.; Wilson, Barbara A; Tárraga, Lluís

    2009-01-01

    Although memory deficits are typically the earliest and most profound symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), there is increasing recognition of subtle executive dysfunctions in these patients. The purpose of the present study was to determine the sensitivity of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS), and to detect early specific signs of the dysexecutive syndrome in the transition from normal cognition to dementia. The BADS was adminis...

  19. Early Detection of Cognitive-Linguistic Change Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Valarie B.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may present with subtle declines in linguistic ability that go undetected by tasks not challenging enough to tax a relatively intact cognitive-linguistic system. This study was designed to replicate and extend a previous study of cognitive-linguistic ability in MCI using a complex discourse…

  20. Changes of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haoze; Zhou, Peng; Alcauter, Sarael; Chen, Yuanyuan; Cao, Hongbao; Tian, Miao; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hongzhi; Wang, Xuemin; Zhao, Xin; He, Feng; Ni, Hongyan; Gao, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits of working memory, attention, language and many other cognitive functions. Although different stages of the disease are relatively well characterized by clinical criteria, stage-specific pathological changes in the brain remain relatively poorly understood, especially at the level of large-scale functional networks. In this study, we aimed to characterize the potential disruptions of large-scale functional brain networks based on a sample including amnestic mild cognition impairment (aMCI) and AD patients to help delineate the underlying stage-dependent AD pathology. Approach. We sought to identify the neural connectivity mechanisms of aMCI and AD through examination of both intranetwork and internetwork interactions among four of the brain’s key networks, namely dorsal attention network (DAN), default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN) and salience network (SAL). We analyzed functional connectivity based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from 25 Alzheimer’s disease patients, 20 aMCI patients and 35 elderly normal controls (NC). Main results. Intranetwork functional disruptions within the DAN and ECN were detected in both aMCI and AD patients. Disrupted intranetwork connectivity of DMN and anti-correlation between DAN and DMN were observed in AD patients. Moreover, aMCI-specific alterations in the internetwork functional connectivity of SAL were observed. Significance. Our results confirmed previous findings that AD pathology was related to dysconnectivity both within and between resting-state networks but revealed more spatial details. Moreover, the SAL network, reportedly flexibly coupling either with the DAN or DMN networks during different brain states, demonstrated interesting alterations specifically in the early stage of the disease.

  1. Behavioral Syndromes in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Behavioral disturbances belong to the core symptoms of dementia and are also common in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The identification of sets of symptoms is clinically interesting, as interventions targeting syndromes may be more effective than the management of individual symptoms.

  2. Depressive symptoms predict slow cognitive decline in mild dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzing, J.; Naarding, P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Depression may be a prognostic marker of subsequent cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Earlier investigations did not find support for this hypothesis but have mainly considered syndromal depression. In this prospective study thirty-two subjects with mild dementia were followed up for 12 m

  3. Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

  4. Cognitive Profile of Elderly Patients with Mild Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Gramstad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pattern characterizing cognitive deficits in mild stroke could help in differential diagnosis and rehabilitation planning. Methods: Fifty patients with mild stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤2 at discharge aged >60 years were given the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R and the Stroop test. Results: On HVLT-R, significant impairments were found in learning and recall, but not in delayed recall. The Stroop test revealed significant impairments in reading speed, but not in color-word interference. Using the MMSE, significant deficits were only found in the youngest age group. Conclusion: Elderly patients with mild stroke show deficits in verbal learning/recall and in reading speed, but not in the MMSE, delayed recall or color-word interference. The deficits are consistent with a mild-to-moderate brain dysfunction, with relative sparing of medial brain structures.

  5. Adenosine A2A Receptor and IL-10 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Arosio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine suppresses immune responses through the A2A receptor (A2AR. This study investigated the interleukin 10 (IL-10 genetic profile and the expression of A2AR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Alzheimer disease (AD, and age-matched controls to verify, if they may help distinguish different forms of cognitive decline. We analyzed the IL-10 genotype and the expression of A2AR in 41 subjects with AD, 10 with amnestic MCI (a-MCI, 49 with multiple cognitive domain MCI (mcd-MCI, and 46 controls. There was a significant linear increase in A2AR mRNA levels and A2AR density from mcd-MCI to a-MCI, with intermediate levels being found in AD. The IL-10 AA genotype frequency was 67% in a-MCI, 46% in AD, 35% in mcd-MCI, and 20% in controls. These data suggest that the assessment of the IL-10 genotype and the expression of A2AR in PBMCs may be a valuable means of differentiating between a-MCI and mcd-MCI.

  6. Differences in hippocampal metabolism between amnestic and non-amnestic M CI subjects: automated FDG-PET image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography differentiates amnestic (aMCI) from single-non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (snaMCI) with executive dysfunction. Methods: Sixteen aMCI subjects (62% females, age 75±8 years) and 14 snaMCI subjects (71% females, age 74±6 years) underwent [18F]FDG-PET and clinical follow-up. Comparisons between M CI subgroups and with seven cognitively normal elderly subjects were performed using SPM2. Results: At baseline aMCI and snaMCI exhibited a similar pattern of hypo metabolism, mostly in the posterior cingulate gyrus, as compared with controls. In the comparison between the M CI subtypes, the aMCI subjects showed reduced metabolism in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) (hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and amygdala). At follow-up 12 aMCI developed Alzheimer's disease (A D), while snaMCI had a heterogeneous course, including five subjects who developed Lewy body dementia. Conclusions: The patterns of altered brain metabolism in aMCI and snaMCI subjects compared to controls are similar and do not provide evidence for making clinical distinctions between them. Comparison between the two M CI subtypes showed MTL hypo metabolism in aMCI subjects, possibly reflecting the fact that most had prodromal A D.

  7. Cognitive based interventions for elderly people with mild cognitive impairement: Review of effects and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima González Palau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in the percentage of older adults, as well as degenerative diseases, there is growing interest in the determination of effective psychosocial approaches aimed to subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Recent experimental studies indicate positive effects of cognitive interventions in population with DCL in both, traditional methods and computer based interventions. The present review provides a systematic analysis of the literature in order to assess the effect and scope of actual non-pharmacological cognitive interventions, aimed to older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

  8. SPECT imaging of GABA{sub A}/benzodiazepine receptors and cerebral perfusion in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappata, Sabina; Varrone, Andrea; Vicidomini, Caterina; Sansone, Valeria; Comerci, Marco; Panico, Maria Rosaria; Quarantelli, Mario [CNR, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Milan, Graziella; De Falco, Caterina; Lore, Elisa; Postiglione, Alfredo [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Naples (Italy); Iavarone, Alessandro [Neurologic and Stroke Unit, CTO Hospital, Naples (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [CNR, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The involvement of neocortical and limbic GABA{sub A}/benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial and mainly reported in advanced stages. The status of these receptors in the very early stages of AD is unclear and has not been explored in vivo. Our aims were to investigate in vivo the integrity of cerebral cortical GABA{sub A}/BZD receptors in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to compare possible receptor changes to those in cerebral perfusion. [{sup 123}I]Iomazenil and [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO SPECT images were acquired in 16 patients with amnestic MCI and in 14 normal elderly control subjects (only [{sup 123}I]iomazenil imaging in 5, only [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO imaging in 4, and both [{sup 123}I]iomazenil and [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO imaging in 5). Region of interest (ROI) analysis and voxel-based analysis were performed with cerebellar normalization. Neither ROI analysis nor voxel-based analysis showed significant [{sup 123}I]iomazenil binding changes in MCI patients compared to control subjects, either as a whole group or when considering only those patients with MCI that converted to AD within 2 years of clinical follow-up. In contrast, the ROI analysis revealed significant hypoperfusion of the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex in the whole group of MCI patients and in MCI converters as compared to control subjects. Voxel-based analysis showed similar results. These results indicate that in the very early stages of AD, neocortical and limbic neurons/synapses expressing GABA{sub A}/BZD receptors are essentially preserved. They suggest that in MCI patients functional changes precede neuronal/synaptic loss in neocortical posterior regions and that [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO rCBF imaging is more sensitive than [{sup 123}I]iomazenil GABA{sub A}/BZD receptor imaging in detecting prodromal AD. (orig.)

  9. Brain imaging of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhao Yin; Siou Li; Weina Zhao; Jiachun Feng

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing prevalence of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease has the potential to create a major worldwide healthcare crisis. Structural MRI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are currently attracting considerable interest. It is extremely important to study early structural and metabolic changes, such as those in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and gray matter structures in the medial temporal lobe, to allow the early detection of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The microstructural integrity of white matter can be studied with diffusion tensor imaging. Increased mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy are found in subjects with white matter damage. Functional imaging studies with positron emission tomography tracer compounds enable detection of amyloid plaques in the living brain in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we will focus on key findings from brain imaging studies in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, including structural brain changes studied with MRI and white matter changes seen with diffusion tensor imaging, and other specific imaging methodologies will also be discussed.

  10. Sleep disturbance in mild cognitive impairment is associated with alterations in the brain's default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Andrew C; Lagopoulos, Jim; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron; Hickie, Ian B; Batchelor, Jennifer; Lewis, Simon J G; Duffy, Shantel; Shine, James M; Naismith, Sharon L

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sleep disturbance, relative to those with MCI and no sleep disturbance. A control group was included to aid in identifying DMN changes specific to MCI. A cross-sectional, single-center study was performed at the Brain and Mind Research Centre in Sydney, Australia. Participants (95 adults over the age of 65: 38 controls and 57 meeting criteria for MCI) underwent resting-state functional MRI along with comprehensive neuropsychological, medical, and psychiatric assessment. Self-report data were collected including sleep quality assessment via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. A total score of greater than 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to signify the presence of significant sleep disturbance, as per commonly used methodology. Using this criterion, 53% (n = 30) of our MCI group were classified as sleep-disturbed. Whereas the total group of MCI subjects and controls demonstrated no significant differences, sleep-disturbed MCIs demonstrated increased connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, and decreased connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the temporoparietal junction relative to sleep-disturbed controls. Relative to those MCIs without sleep disturbance, sleep-disturbed MCI participants demonstrated significantly diminished DMN connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, a finding that was particularly pronounced in amnestic MCI. Sleep disturbance in MCI is associated with distinct alterations in DMN functional connectivity in brain regions underpinning salient memory and sleep systems. Future studies may build on these results via experimental manipulation and objective measurement of sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26963234

  11. Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette Merete;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING...... Inventory (BPI) were defined as having pain. MCI was defined using age-adjusted scores on a neuropsychological battery. Multivariable linear regression models assessed associations between pain and MCI, together and separately, and mobility performance (habitual gait speed, Short Physical Performance...... performed significantly worse than all others on all mobility outcomes (P < .001). Participants with MCI only or pain only also performed significantly worse on all mobility outcomes than those with neither (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Mild to moderate pain and MCI were independently associated with poor...

  12. Mild Neurocognitive Disorder: An Old Wine in a New Bottle

    OpenAIRE

    Stokin, Gorazd B.; Krell-Roesch, Janina; Petersen, Ronald C.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The American Psychiatric Association has recently published the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The DSM-IV category “Dementia, Delirium, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders” has undergone extensive revision. DSM-5 has renamed this category as “Neurocognitive Disorders” (NCD), which now covers three entities: delirium, major NCD, and mild NCD. The DSM-IV version of mild NCD resembles the DSM-5 version in name only. DSM-IV defined...

  13. Deficits in narrative discourse elicited by visual stimuli are already present in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Cláudia; Coutinho, Gabriel; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Assunção, Naima; Teldeschi, Alina; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Mattos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Language batteries used to assess the skills of elderly individuals, such as naming and semantic verbal fluency, present some limitations in differentiating healthy controls from patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Deficits in narrative discourse occur early in dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the narrative discourse abilities of a-MCI patients are poorly documented. The present study sought to propose and evaluate parameters for investigating narrative discourse in these populations. After a pilot study of 30 healthy subjects who served as a preliminary investigation of macro- and micro-linguistic aspects, 77 individuals (patients with AD and a-MCI and a control group) were evaluated. The experimental task required the participants to narrate a story based on a sequence of actions visually presented. The Control and AD groups differed in all parameters except narrative time and the total number of words recalled. The a-MCI group displayed mild discursive difficulties that were characterized as an intermediate stage between the Control and AD groups' performances. The a-MCI and Control groups differed from the AD group with respect to global coherence, discourse type and referential cohesion. The a-MCI and AD groups were similar to one another but differed from the Control group with respect to the type of words recalled, the repetition of words in the same sentence, the narrative structure and the inclusion of irrelevant propositions in the narrative. The narrative parameter that best distinguished the three groups was the speech effectiveness index. The proposed task was able to reveal differences between healthy controls and groups with cognitive decline. According to our findings, patients with a-MCI already present narrative deficits that are characterized by mild discursive difficulties that are less severe than those found in patients with AD. PMID:26074814

  14. Deficits in narrative discourse elicited by visual stimuli are already present in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Drummond

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Language batteries used to assess the skills of elderly individuals, such as naming and semantic verbal fluency, present some limitations in differentiating healthy controls from patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI. Deficits in narrative discourse occur early in dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and the narrative discourse abilities of a-MCI patients are poorly documented. The present study sought to propose and evaluate parameters for investigating narrative discourse in these populations. After a pilot study of 30 healthy subjects who served as a preliminary investigation of macro- and microlinguistic aspects, 77 individuals (patients with AD and a-MCI and a control group were evaluated. The experimental task required the participants to narrate a story based on a sequence of actions visually presented. The Control and AD groups differed in all parameters except narrative time and the total number of words recalled. The a-MCI group displayed mild discursive difficulties that were characterized as an intermediate stage between the Control and AD groups’ performances. The a-MCI and Control groups differed from the AD group with respect to global coherence, discourse type and referential cohesion. The a-MCI and AD groups were similar to one another but differed from the Control group with respect to the type of words recalled, the repetition of words in the same sentence, the narrative structure and the inclusion of irrelevant propositions in the narrative. The narrative parameter that best distinguished the three groups was the speech effectiveness index. The proposed task was able to reveal differences between healthy controls and groups with cognitive decline. According to our findings, patients with a-MCI already present narrative deficits that are characterized by mild discursive difficulties that are less severe than those found in patients with AD.

  15. Depressive Symptoms are the Main Predictor for Subjective Sleep Quality in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment--A Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Seidel

    Full Text Available Controlled data on predictors of subjective sleep quality in patients with memory complaints are sparse. To improve the amount of comprehensive data on this topic, we assessed factors associated with subjective sleep quality in patients from our memory clinic and healthy individuals.Between February 2012 and August 2014 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and subjective cognitive decline (SCD from our memory clinic and healthy controls were recruited. Apart from a detailed neuropsychological assessment, the subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II.One hundred fifty eight consecutive patients (132 (84% MCI patients and 26 (16% SCD patients and 75 healthy controls were included in the study. Pairwise comparison of PSQI scores showed that non-amnestic MCI (naMCI patients (5.4 ± 3.5 had significantly higher PSQI scores than controls (4.3 ± 2.8, p = .003 Pairwise comparison of PSQI subscores showed that naMCI patients (1.1 ± 0.4 had significantly more "sleep disturbances" than controls (0.9 ± 0.5, p = .003. Amnestic MCI (aMCI (0.8 ± 1.2, p = .006 and naMCI patients (0.7 ± 1.2, p = .002 used "sleep medication" significantly more often than controls (0.1 ± 0.6 Both, aMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 and naMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 patients showed significantly higher BDI-II scores than healthy controls (6.1 ± 5.3. Linear regression analysis showed that the subjective sleep quality was predicted by depressive symptoms in aMCI (p < .0001 and naMCI (p < .0001 patients as well as controls (p < .0001. This means, that more depressive symptoms worsened subjective sleep quality. In aMCI patients we also found a significant interaction between depressive symptoms and global cognitive function (p = .002.Depressive symptoms were the main predictor of subjective sleep quality in MCI

  16. Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Doi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years. The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results: We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p Conclusions: Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required.

  17. Mild cognitive impairment: Conceptual, assessment, ethical, and social issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Werner

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Perla Werner1, Amos D Korczyn21Department of Gerontology, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel; 2Sieratzki Chair of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, IsraelAbstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is defined as a condition characterized by newly acquired cognitive decline to an extent that is beyond that expected for age or educational background, yet not causing significant functional impairment. The concept of MCI has received considerable attention in the literature over the past few years, and aspects related to its definition, prevalence, and evolution have been extensively studied and reviewed. Here we attempt to synthesize the implications of the current status of this entity, focusing on the conceptual, methodological, and, in particular, the social and ethical aspects of MCI which have attracted less attention. We discuss the weaknesses of the concept of MCI, which is heterogeneous in etiology, manifestations, and outcomes, and suggest that the emergence of the syndrome at this stage reflects industrial interests related to possible development of drugs for this disorder. On the other hand, the formal diagnosis of MCI, with its implications that the person may develop dementia, may have a grave impact on the psychological state of the individual, at a stage when prediction of outcome is tenuous and possibilities of useful interventions are meager. We present suggestions for the direction of future research in these areas.Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, assessment issues, ethical issues, social issues, dementia

  18. A cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others: feasibility and preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Geleijns-Lanting, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and present preliminary results of a cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others. Design: One group pretest-posttest design. Subjects: Twenty-two patients with mild cognitive impairment and their

  19. A cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others: feasibility and preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, E.W.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Geleijns-Lanting, C.E.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and present preliminary results of a cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others. DESIGN: One group pretest-posttest design. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two patients with mild cognitive impairment and their

  20. Determining client cognitive status following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Elizabeth; Lannin, Natasha A; Taylor, Amelia; Farquhar, Michelle; Morarty, Jacqui; Unsworth, Carolyn

    2016-03-01

    Background People with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) commonly experience cognitive impairments. Occupational therapists working in acute general hospitals in Australia routinely access client Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, and assess cognitive status using standardized tools and by observing basic activity of daily living (ADL) performance. However, limited evidence exists to identify the best assessment(s) to determine client cognitive status. Aim/objectives To determine whether cognitive status assessed by GCS score and the Cognistat are predictive of basic ADL performance among clients with mTBI in an acute general hospital and make inferences concerning the clinical utility of these assessment tools. Material and methods Retrospective analysis of medical record data on demographics, Cognistat, GCS, and modified Barthel Index (MBI) using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and linear regression. Results Data analysis of 166 participants demonstrated that no associations exist between GCS and Cognistat scores, or Cognistat scores and MBI dependency level. The presence of co-morbid multi-trauma injuries and length of stay were the only variables that significantly predicted MBI dependency level. Conclusion and significance While the MBI scores are of value in identifying clients with difficulty in basic ADLs, Cognistat and GCS scores are of limited use in differentiating client levels of cognitive impairment and the authors caution against the routine administration of the Cognistat following mTBI. Further research is required to identify more suitable assessments for use with a mTBI population. PMID:26458152

  1. Mild cognitive impairment and its management in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Mun, Chan Yoke; Ng, Chee Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common condition in the elderly. It is characterized by deterioration of memory, attention, and cognitive function that is beyond what is expected based on age and educational level. MCI does not interfere significantly with individuals' daily activities. It can act as a transitional level of evolving dementia with a range of conversion of 10%-15% per year. Thus, it is crucial to protect older people against MCI and developing dementia. The preventive interventions and appropriate treatments should improve cognitive performance, and retard or prevent progressive deficits. The avoidance of toxins, reduction of stress, prevention of somatic diseases, implementation of mental and physical exercises, as well as the use of dietary compounds like antioxidants and supplements can be protective against MCI. The modification of risk factors such as stopping smoking, as well as the treatment of deficiency in vitamins and hormones by correcting behaviors and lifestyle, can prevent cognitive decline in the elderly. The progressive increase in the growth rate of the elderly population can enhance the rate of MCI all over the world. There is no exact cure for MCI and dementia; therefore, further studies are needed in the future to determine causes of MCI and risk factors of progression from MCI to dementia. This will help to find better ways for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment worldwide. PMID:25914527

  2. Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Krikorian, Robert; Shidler, Marcelle D; Dangelo, Krista; Couch, Sarah C.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Deborah J. Clegg

    2010-01-01

    We randomly assigned 23 older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment to either a high carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diet. Following the six-week intervention period, we observed improved verbal memory performance for the low carbohydrate subjects (p = 0.01) as well as reductions in weight (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), fasting glucose (p = 0.009), and fasting insulin (p = 0.005). Level of depressive symptoms was not affected. Change in calorie intake, insulin level, an...

  3. Brain SPECT imaging of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the early diagnostic and prognostic value of brain SPECT imaging in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Brain SPECT imaging and follow-up study were performed in 33 AD patients, 17 MCI patients and 12 cognitive normal subjects. Results: The typical feature of AD was bilateral temporoparietal hypoperfusion. Compared with MCI and normal group, the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of temporal lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, thalamus and cingulum decreased significantly (P< 0.05). MCI had a significant lower rCBF in temporal lobe only than that in normal group (P<0.05). Besides, the rCBF in cingulum of instable MCI was much lower than that in cingulum of stable MCI (P<0.05). Conclusion: Brain SPECT imaging can provide useful information for the early diagnosis of AD and MCI, and also for the prognosis of MCI. (authors)

  4. Cognitive based interventions for elderly people with mild cognitive impairement: Review of effects and efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Fátima González Palau; Manuel Franco Martin; Fernando Jiménez; Mara Bernate; Esther Parra; José Miguel Toribio; Abdel Solis; Raquel Losada; Teresa Cid

    2012-01-01

    Due to the significant increase in the percentage of older adults, as well as degenerative diseases, there is growing interest in the determination of effective psychosocial approaches aimed to subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recent experimental studies indicate positive effects of cognitive interventions in population with DCL in both, traditional methods and computer based interventions. The present review provides a systematic analysis of the literature in order to assess th...

  5. Cerebral Ventricular Changes Associated With Transitions Between Normal Cognitive Function, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Owen T.; Kuller, Lewis H; Lopez, Oscar L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Dutton, Rebecca A.; Lu, Allen; Lee, Sharon E.; Lee, Jessica Y.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Liu, Yanxi; Toga, Arthur W.; Becker, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Expansion of the cerebral ventricles may occur at an accelerated rate in subjects with dementia, but the time course of expansion during transitions between normal cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia is not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of cardiovascular risk factors on rate of ventricular expansion are unclear. We used a fully automated segmentation technique to measure change rate in lateral ventricle-to-brain ratio (VBR) on 145 longitudinal pairs o...

  6. Sleep deficits in mild cognitive impairment are related to increased levels of plasma amyloid-β and cortical thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Espinosa, Mayely P; Atienza, Mercedes; Cantero, Jose L

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests that amyloid-beta (Aβ) depositions parallel sleep deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown whether impaired sleep and changes in plasma Aβ levels are related in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects, and whether both markers are further associated with cortical thinning in canonical AD regions. To jointly address this issue, we investigated relationships between changes in physiological sleep and plasma Aβ concentrations in 21 healthy old (HO) adults and 21 aMCI subjects, and further assessed whether these two factors were associated with cortical loss in each group. aMCI, but not HO subjects, showed significant relationships between disrupted slow-wave sleep (SWS) and increased plasma levels of Aβ42. We also found that shortened rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in aMCI correlated with thinning of the posterior cingulate, precuneus, and postcentral gyrus; whereas higher levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 accounted for grey matter (GM) loss of posterior cingulate and entorhinal cortex, respectively. These results support preliminary relationships between Aβ burden and altered sleep physiology observed in animal models of AD amyloidosis, and provide precise cortical correlates of these changes in older adults with aMCI. Taken together, these findings open new research avenues on the combined role of sleep, peripheral Aβ levels and cortical integrity in tracking the progression from normal aging to early neurodegeneration. PMID:24845621

  7. Apathy and Emotion-Based Decision-Making in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bayard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Apathy and reduced emotion-based decision-making are two behavioral modifications independently described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Objectives. The aims of this study were to investigate decision-making based on emotional feedback processing in AD and aMCI and to study the impact of reduced decision-making performances on apathy. Methods. We recruited 20 patients with AD, 20 participants with aMCI, and 20 healthy controls. All participants completed the Lille apathy rating scale (LARS and the Iowa gambling task (IGT. Results. Both aMCI and AD participants had reduced performances on the IGT and were more apathetic compared to controls without any difference between aMCI and AD groups. For the entire sample, LARS initiation dimension was related to IGT disadvantageous decision-making profile. Conclusions. We provide the first study showing that both aMCI and AD individuals make less profitable decisions than controls, whereas aMCI and AD did not differ. Disadvantageous decision-making profile on the IGT was associated with higher level of apathy on the action initiation dimension. The role of an abnormal IGT performance as a risk factor for the development of apathy needs to be investigated in other clinical populations and in normal aging.

  8. Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Cognition among Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helman Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the influence of diet on cognition in the elderly. This study examined the cross-sectional association between dietary patterns and cognition in a sample of 249 people aged 65–90 years with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Two dietary patterns; whole and processed food; were identified using factor analysis from a 107-item; self-completed Food Frequency Questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses showed that participants in the highest tertile of the processed food pattern score were more likely to have poorer cognitive functioning; in the lowest tertile of executive function (OR 2.55; 95% CI: 1.08–6.03; as assessed by the Cambridge Cognitive Examination. In a group of older people with MCI; a diet high in processed foods was associated with some level of cognitive impairment.

  9. Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Nicola; Valenzuela, Michael; Sachdev, Perminder S; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB). Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention. Methods Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB. Results Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance of PWB in MCI. Discussion Our empirical findings support a theoretical tiered model of PWB in MCI and contribute to an understanding of the way in which early subtle cognitive deficits impact upon PWB. Multiple targets and entry points for clinical intervention were identified. These include improving the cognitive difficulties associated with MCI. Additionally, these highlight the importance of reducing memory concern, addressing low mood, and suggest that improving a person’s quality of life may attenuate the negative effects of depression and anxiety on PWB in this cohort. PMID:24855347

  10. Intraindividual Variability in Domain-Specific Cognition and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraindividual variability among cognitive domains may predict dementia independently of interindividual differences in cognition. A multidomain cognitive battery was administered to 2305 older adult women (mean age 74 years enrolled in an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative. Women were evaluated annually for probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI for an average of 5.3 years using a standardized protocol. Proportional hazards regression showed that lower baseline domain-specific cognitive scores significantly predicted MCI (N=74, probable dementia (N=45, and MCI or probable dementia combined (N=101 and that verbal and figural memory predicted each outcome independently of all other cognitive domains. The baseline intraindividual standard deviation across test scores (IAV Cognitive Domains significantly predicted probable dementia and this effect was attenuated by interindividual differences in verbal episodic memory. Slope increases in IAV Cognitive Domains across measurement occasions (IAV Time explained additional risk for MCI and MCI or probable dementia, beyond that accounted for by interindividual differences in multiple cognitive measures, but risk for probable dementia was attenuated by mean decreases in verbal episodic memory slope. These findings demonstrate that within-person variability across cognitive domains both at baseline and longitudinally independently accounts for risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in support of the predictive utility of within-person variability.

  11. Quantitative analysis of brain metabolites in patients,with non-dementia vascular cognitive impairment and mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate metabolite changes in the brain of patients with non-dementia vascular cognitive impairment(VCIND) and mild cognitive impairment(MCI) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy(MRS)

  12. Mild cognitive impairment with suspected nonamyloid pathology (SNAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, Anna; Prestia, Annapaola; Galluzzi, Samantha; Ferrari, Clarissa; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Van Berckel, Bart; Barkhof, Frederik; Teunissen, Charlotte; Wall, Anders E.; Carter, Stephen F.; Schöll, Michael; Choo, Il Han; Grimmer, Timo; Redolfi, Alberto; Nordberg, Agneta; Scheltens, Philip; Drzezga, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of progressive cognitive deterioration in patients with suspected non–Alzheimer disease pathology (SNAP) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We measured markers of amyloid pathology (CSF β-amyloid 42) and neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume on MRI and cortical metabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET) in 201 patients with MCI clinically followed for up to 6 years to detect progressive cognitive deterioration. We categorized patients with MCI as A+/A− and N+/N− based on presence/absence of amyloid pathology and neurodegeneration. SNAPs were A−N+ cases. Results: The proportion of progressors was 11% (8/41), 34% (14/41), 56% (19/34), and 71% (60/85) in A−N−, A+N−, SNAP, and A+N+, respectively; the proportion of APOE ε4 carriers was 29%, 70%, 31%, and 71%, respectively, with the SNAP group featuring a significantly different proportion than both A+N− and A+N+ groups (p ≤ 0.005). Hypometabolism in SNAP patients was comparable to A+N+ patients (p = 0.154), while hippocampal atrophy was more severe in SNAP patients (p = 0.002). Compared with A−N−, SNAP and A+N+ patients had significant risk of progressive cognitive deterioration (hazard ratio = 2.7 and 3.8, p = 0.016 and p < 0.001), while A+N− patients did not (hazard ratio = 1.13, p = 0.771). In A+N− and A+N+ groups, none of the biomarkers predicted time to progression. In the SNAP group, lower time to progression was correlated with greater hypometabolism (r = 0.42, p = 0.073). Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that patients with SNAP MCI feature a specific risk progression profile. PMID:25568301

  13. Mild cognitive impairment%轻度认知障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓春

    2003-01-01

    @@ 轻度认知障碍(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)是近年来在痴呆研究中采用的一个新术语.痴呆、轻度认知障碍和正常老化是出现在老年人中一系列不同阶段的认知状态,MCI是指介于正常老化与痴呆之间的一种过渡阶段的认知障碍.关于轻度认知障碍的特征、定义、转归尚存在着争议,对轻度认知障碍的研究目前主要集中在其自然发病史、生物学标记及与阿尔兹海默病(Alzheimer's disease)预防的关系等方面.

  14. Mild cognitive impairment. Diagnostic value of different MR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of an increasingly aging population the prevalence of dementia is also expected to increase rapidly. As well as clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia which is important in the precursor stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). On the one hand this stage is associated with an increased risk of dementia and on the other hand an early treatment in this stage could attenuate development of the disease. In addition to morphological changes different functional MRI techniques can help in the early diagnosis of dementia and the precursor stages. Moreover, it is important to detect those MCI patients who are at particularly risk for developing dementia. In the differentiation of converters to non-converters initial studies suggest that particularly voxel-based morphometry, MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide important additional information. (orig.)

  15. Patterns of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Joubert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the semantic memory impairment has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease, little is known about semantic memory in the preclinical phase of the disease (Mild Cognitive Impairment. The purpose of this study was to document the nature of semantic breakdown using a battery of tests assessing different aspects of conceptual knowledge: knowledge about common objects, famous people and famous public events. Results indicate that all domains of semantic memory were impaired in MCI individuals but knowledge about famous people and famous events was affected to a greater extent than knowledge about objects. This pattern of results suggests that conceptual entities with distinctive and unique properties may be more prone to semantic breakdown in MCI. In summary, results of this study support the view that genuine semantic deficits are present in MCI. It could be useful to investigate the etiological outcome of patients failing or succeeding at such tests.

  16. Verbal Fluency Deficits Co-Occur with Memory Deficits in Geriatric Patients at Risk for Dementia: Implications for the Concept of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Cottingham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the notion that patients at high risk for progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD display relatively isolated memory deficits by assessing the relationship between memory and fluency performances in a sample of 92 geriatric subjects with cognitive complaints and normal to mild clinical presentations. Patient groups were formed on the basis of memory test scores. Patients with normal memory scores also performed normally on fluency tests, and their fluency scores were significantly higher than those of patients with low memory performances. Patients falling between these two groups in memory abilities also displayed intermediate level fluency performances. Whereas the normal memory group performed at equivalent levels on semantic and phonemic fluency tasks, both the impaired memory group and the intermediate group displayed relatively greater weaknesses in semantic fluency. This pattern is similar to that seen in AD. Since the impaired memory patients meet criteria for Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, these findings suggest that memory deficits in “pre-clinical” AD are likely to be accompanied by fluency weaknesses, with semantic fluency weaknesses predominating.

  17. Acetylcholine esterase activity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission is a well-established fact in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is controversy about its relevance at the early stages of the disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In vivo positron emission tomography imaging of cortical acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as a marker of cholinergic innervation that is expressed by cholinergic axons and cholinoceptive neurons has demonstrated a reduction of this enzyme activity in manifest AD. The technique is also useful to measure the inhibition of cerebral AChE induced by cholinesterase inhibitors for treatment of dementia symptoms. A reduction of cortical AchE activity was found consistently in all studies of AD and in few cases of MCI who later concerted to AD. The in vivo findings in MCI and very mild AD are still preliminary, and studies seem to suggest that cholinergic innervation and AChE as the main degrading enzyme are both reduced, which might result in partial compensation of their effect. (orig.)

  18. A depressive endophenotype of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating public health problem that affects over 5.4 million Americans. Depression increases the risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and AD. By understanding the influence of depression on cognition, the potential exists to identify subgroups of depressed elders at greater risk for cognitive decline and AD. The current study sought to: 1 clinically identify a sub group of geriatric patients who suffer from depression related cognitive impairment; 2 cross validate this depressive endophenotype of MCI/AD in an independent cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data was analyzed from 519 participants of Project FRONTIER. Depression was assessed with the GDS30 and cognition was assessed using the EXIT 25 and RBANS. Five GDS items were used to create the Depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD (DepE. DepE was significantly negatively related to RBANS index scores of Immediate Memory (B=-2.22, SE=.37, p<0.001, visuospatial skills (B=-1.11, SE=0.26, p<0.001, Language (B=-1.03, SE=0.21, p<0.001, Attention (B=-2.56, SE=0.49, p<0.001, and Delayed Memory (B=-1.54, SE = 037, p<0.001, and higher DepE scores were related to poorer executive functioning (EXIT25; B=0.65, SE=0.19, p=0.001. DepE scores significantly increased risk for MCI diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% CI=1.54-2.69. Data from 235 participants in the TARCC (Texas Alzheimer's Research & Care Consortium were analyzed for cross-validation of findings in an independent cohort. The DepE was significantly related to poorer scores on all measures, and a significantly predicted of cognitive change over 12- and 24-months. CONCLUSION: The current findings suggest that a depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD exists and can be clinically identified using the GDS-30. Higher scores increased risk for MCI and was cross-validated by predicting AD in the TARCC. A key purpose for the search for distinct subgroups of individuals at risk for AD and MCI is to identify

  19. Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gates N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance

  20. A Reanalysis of Cognitive-Functional Performance in Older Adults: Investigating the Interaction Between Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Mild Alzheimer's Disease Dementia, and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas J. de Paula; Bicalho, Maria A.; Ávila, Rafaela T.; Cintra, Marco T. G.; Breno S. Diniz; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Leandro F. Malloy-Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive-functional impairment in normal aging older adults (NA). However, less is known about this effect on people with mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). We investigated this relationship along with the NA-MCI-AD continuum by reanalyzing a previously published dataset. Participants (N = 274) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including measures of Executive Function, Language/Semantic Memor...

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple novel loci associated with disease progression in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Pickering, E H; Hall, S K; Naik, S; Liu, Y C; Soares, H; Katz, E; Paciga, S A; Liu, W; Aisen, P S; Bales, K R; Samad, T A; John, S L

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia among the elderly population; however, knowledge about genetic risk factors involved in disease progression is limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using clinical decline as measured by changes in the Clinical Dementia Rating-sum of boxes as a quantitative trait to test for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with the rate of progression in 822 Caucasian subjects of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). There was no significant association with disease progress for any of the recently identified disease susceptibility variants in CLU, CR1, PICALM, BIN1, EPHA1, MS4A6A, MS4A4E or CD33 following multiple testing correction. We did, however, identify multiple novel loci that reached genome-wide significance at the 0.01 level. These top variants (rs7840202 at chr8 in UBR5: P=4.27 × 10(-14); rs11637611 with a cluster of SNPs at chr15q23 close to the Tay-Sachs disease locus: P=1.07 × 10(-15); and rs12752888 at chr1: P=3.08 × 10(-11)) were also associated with a significant decline in cognition as well as the conversion of subjects with MCI to a diagnosis of AD. Taken together, these variants define approximately 16.6% of the MCI sub-population with a faster rate of decline independent of the other known disease risk factors. In addition to providing new insights into protein pathways that may be involved with the progress to AD in MCI subjects, these variants if further validated may enable the identification of a more homogeneous population of subjects at an earlier stage of disease for testing novel hypotheses and/or therapies in the clinical setting. PMID:22833209

  2. The effect of MAPT H1 and APOE ε4 on transition from mild cognitive impairment to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranch, Lluís; Cervantes, Sebastián; Barabash, Ana; Alonso, Alvaro; Cabranes, José Antonio; Lamet, Isabel; Ancín, Inés; Lorenzo, Elena; Martínez-Lage, Pablo; Marcos, Alberto; Clarimón, Jordi; Alcolea, Daniel; Lleó, Alberto; Blesa, Rafael; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Pastor, Pau

    2010-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) are involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We prospectively followed three longitudinal independent samples (total n=319) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and analyzed whether MAPT H1/H2 haplotypes and APOE ε4 polymorphisms accelerated the rate of progression from MCI to dementia. At the end of the study, 172 subjects remained cognitively stable, whereas 147 progressed to dementia. APOE ε4 and MAPT H1/H1 were independently associated with an increased rate of progression to dementia in the combined sample. Cox regression models of the combined MCI sample showed that MAPT H1/H1 carriers had an increased rate of progression to dementia compared with non carriers (Hazard Ratio =1.45; 95% CI=1.04-2.02; p=0.028) and time-to-progression was shortened by 1.37 years. APOE ε4 allele also accelerated progression to dementia (Hazard Ratio=1.47; 95% CI= 1.06-2.04; p=0.020) and reduced the time-to-progression by 0.87 years. Additionally, MAPT H1/H1 genotype and APOE ε4 allele had an additive effect in progression to dementia, increasing progression rate to dementia (Hazard Ratio=2.24, 95% CI =1.40-3.58; p=0.001) and shortening time-to-progression to dementia by 2.92 years. Similar results were obtained when only considering progression to AD-type dementia. Our results suggest that both MAPT H1/H1 genotype and APOE ε4 allele lead to a more rapid progression to dementia among MCI subjects, probably mediating an increased rate of amyloid-β and tau brain deposition. PMID:20930301

  3. Cognitive decline and amyloid accumulation in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivunen, Jaana; Karrasch, Mira; Scheinin, Noora M;

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: The relationship between baseline (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PIB) uptake and cognitive decline during a 2-year follow-up was studied in 9 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 7 who remained with MCI. Methods: (11)C......-PIB PET scan was conducted at baseline and cognitive assessment both at baseline and at follow-up. To obtain quantitative regional values of (11)C-PIB uptake, automated region of interest analysis was done using spatially normalized parametric ratio (region-to-cerebellar cortex) images. Results: At...... baseline, there were statistically significant differences in (11)C-PIB uptake, but not in cognitive test performances between the converters and nonconverters. Memory and executive function declined only in the converters during follow-up. In the converters, lower baseline frontal (11)C-PIB uptake was...

  4. Incidence and Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment No Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Taler, Vanessa; Gao, Sujuan; Lane, Ms. Kathleen A.; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Gureje, Oye; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Hake, Ann; Hendrie, Hugh C.; Hall, Kathleen S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific incidence of cognitive impairment, no dementia and mild cognitive impairment (CIND/MCI) in a large, community-based sample of older African Americans in Indianapolis, IN. A longitudinal, prospective, two-stage design was used with follow-up assessments 2 and 5 years after the baseline. A total of 1668 participants completed the 2-year follow-up and a total of 1255 participants completed the 5-year follow-up. The person–years method was us...

  5. Making Sense of Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Qualitative Exploration of the Patient's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty; Nightingale, Marcie C.; Erlen, Judith A.; Kane, April L.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Schulz, Richard; DeKosky, Steven T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The proposed dementia precursor state of mild cognitive impairment is emerging as a primary target of aging research. Yet, little is known about the subjective experience of living with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. This study examines, from the patient's perspective, the experience of living with and making sense of the…

  6. Cognitive Correlates of Basal Forebrain Atrophy and Associated Cortical Hypometabolism in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Michel J; Heinsen, Helmut; Amaro, Edson; Grinberg, Lea T; Teipel, Stefan J

    2016-06-01

    Degeneration of basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic nuclei is associated with cognitive decline, and this effect is believed to be mediated by neuronal dysfunction in the denervated cortical areas. MRI-based measurements of BF atrophy are increasingly being used as in vivo surrogate markers for cholinergic degeneration, but the functional implications of reductions in BF volume are not well understood. We used high-resolution MRI, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET), and neuropsychological test data of 132 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 177 cognitively normal controls to determine associations between BF atrophy, cortical hypometabolism, and cognitive deficits. BF atrophy in MCI correlated with both impaired memory function and attentional control deficits, whereas hippocampus volume was more specifically associated with memory deficits. BF atrophy was also associated with widespread cortical hypometabolism, and path analytic models indicated that hypometabolism in domain-specific cortical networks mediated the association between BF volume and cognitive dysfunction. The presence of cortical amyloid pathology, as assessed using AV45-PET, did not significantly interact with the observed associations. These data underline the potential of multimodal imaging markers to study structure-function-cognition relationships in the living human brain and provide important in vivo evidence for an involvement of the human BF in cortical activity and cognitive function. PMID:25840425

  7. Rate of entorhinal and hippocampal atrophy in incipient and mild AD: Relation to memory function

    OpenAIRE

    Stoub, T.R.; Rogalski, E.J.; Leurgans, S.; Bennett, D. A.; deToledo-Morrell, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, as part of a more extensive longitudinal investigation of the in vivo anatomical markers of early and incipient AD in our laboratory, three groups of elderly participants were followed with yearly clinical evaluations and high resolution MRI scans over a 6-year period (baseline and 5 years of follow-up). At baseline, participants consisted of: (1) 35 old subjects with no cognitive impairment (controls); (2) 33 participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI); a...

  8. The progress of functional neuroimaging in the study of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transitional state between healthy aging and very mild Alzheimer's disease. MCI patients have a substantially higher rate of progression to Alzheimer's disease compared with cognitively normal elderly people. Functional neutroimaging modalities, including PET, SPECT and functional MRI show that MCI patients have special abnormalities in brain metabolism and perfusion, so they can offer great value in the predicting cognitive decline and early diagnosis of dementia. (authors)

  9. Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Central Auditory Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Idrizbegovic, Esma; Hederstierna, Christina; Dahlquist, Martin; Rosenhall, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Central auditory function can be studied to monitor the progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Our aim was to address this issue in a prospective longitudinal setting. Methods Tests of central hearing function were performed on 70 subjects with either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment, and in controls with subjective memory complaints but normal cognition. The time span until follow-up was 1.5 years. Results The dichotic digit free recall tes...

  10. Prognostic value of posteromedial cortex deactivation in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Petrella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal subjects deactivate specific brain regions, notably the posteromedial cortex (PMC, during many tasks. Recent cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data suggests that deactivation during memory tasks is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD. The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the prognostic significance of PMC deactivation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 75 subjects (34 MCI, 13 AD subjects and 28 controls underwent baseline fMRI scanning during encoding of novel and familiar face-name pairs. MCI subjects were followed longitudinally to determine conversion to AD. Regression and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of PMC activation/deactivation on conversion to dementia as well as in the longitudinal change in dementia measures. At longitudinal follow up of up to 3.5 years (mean 2.5+/-0.79 years, 11 MCI subjects converted to AD. The proportion of deactivators was significantly different across all groups: controls (79%, MCI-Nonconverters (73%, MCI-converters (45%, and AD (23% (p<0.05. Mean PMC activation magnitude parameter estimates, at baseline, were negative in the control (-0.57+/-0.12 and MCI-Nonconverter (-0.33+/-0.14 groups, and positive in the MCI-Converter (0.37+/-0.40 and AD (0.92+/-0.30 groups. The effect of diagnosis on PMC deactivation remained significant after adjusting for age, education and baseline Mini-Mental State Exam (p<0.05. Baseline PMC activation magnitude was correlated with change in dementia ratings from baseline. CONCLUSION: Loss of physiological functional deactivation in the PMC may have prognostic value in preclinical AD, and could aid in profiling subgroups of MCI subjects at greatest risk for progressive cognitive decline.

  11. A Prediction Model for Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haewon Byeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a geriatric disease which has emerged as a serious social and economic problem in an aging society and early diagnosis is very important for it. Especially, early diagnosis and early intervention of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI which is the preliminary stage of dementia can reduce the onset rate of dementia. This study developed MCI prediction model for the Korean elderly in local communities and provides a basic material for the prevention of cognitive impairment. The subjects of this study were 3,240 elderly (1,502 males, 1,738 females in local communities over the age of 65 who participated in the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Aging (close conducted in 2012. The outcome was defined as having MCI and set as explanatory variables were gender, age, level of education, level of income, marital status, smoking, drinking habits, regular exercise more than once a week, monthly average hours of participation in social activities, subjective health, diabetes and high blood pressure. The random Forests algorithm was used to develop a prediction model and the result was compared with logistic regression model and decision tree model. As the result of this study, significant predictors of MCI were age, gender, level of education, level of income, subjective health, marital status, smoking, drinking, regular exercise and high blood pressure. In addition, Random Forests Model was more accurate than the logistic regression model and decision tree model. Based on these results, it is necessary to build monitoring system which can diagnose MCI at an early stage.

  12. Assessing functional impairment in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Belchior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, there is no consensus on how to assess functional impairment in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and this lack of consensus is reflected in the clinical practice. Since the criterion used in the literature is very vague, clinicians are still left without much guidance in this area. Thus, the main goal of this study was to examine how functional impairment in individuals with MCI has been assessed in the literature. An electronic database search strategy was developed in consultation with an experienced librarian. Four databases (CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, and MEDLINE were searched from 2000 to May 2014 to provide a comprehensive coverage of the literature. The literature search yielded 14 tools that assessed functional impairment in MCI. Among those, nine tools were performance-based measures in which participants were observed while executing a task in a simulated environment using real life material. In terms of questionnaires (either informant- or self-reports, five tools were found. Different functional domains have been assessed in each tool. According to this review, the characteristics of the instruments used in the literature to assess functional impairment in individuals with MCI vary greatly. Nonetheless, results of this study allow clinicians to make better-informed decisions when choosing a functional assessment for this population.

  13. 轻度认知障碍%Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 郭宗成

    2008-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment(MCI)is a new concept put forward in recent years.It is a transtrional state between normal aging and dementia.Prospective studies have shown that the orbebility of the patients with MCI converted to dementia is significantly higher than the normal aged.population.The correct diagnosis of MCI contributes to screen the high-risk population of dementia.It will provide the possibility for preventing dementia and decreasing the morbidity of dementia.%轻度认知障碍(MCI)是近年提出的新概念,是一种介于正常老化和痴呆的中间状态.前瞻性研究表明,MCI患者转化为痴呆的可能性显著高于正常老年人群.MCI的正确诊断,有助于筛查痴呆高危人群,为顶防痴呆、降低痴呆发病率提供了可能.

  14. Cingulate cortex hypoperfusion predicts Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson Leif

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI was recently described as a heterogeneous group with a variety of clinical outcomes and high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to study the heterogeneity of MCI and to look for predictors of future development of AD. Methods rCBF was investigated in 54 MCI subjects using Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO. An automated analysis software (BRASS was applied to analyze the relative blood flow (cerebellar ratios of 24 cortical regions. After the baseline examination, the subjects were followed clinically for an average of two years. 17 subjects progressed to Alzheimer's disease (PMCI and 37 subjects remained stable (SMCI. The baseline SPECT ratio values were compared between PMCI and SMCI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was applied for the discrimination of the two subgroups at baseline. Results The conversion rate of MCI to AD was 13.7% per year. PMCI had a significantly decreased rCBF in the left posterior cingulate cortex, as compared to SMCI. Left posterior cingulate rCBF ratios were entered into a logistic regression model for ROC curve calculation. The area under the ROC curve was 74%–76%, which indicates an acceptable discrimination between PMCI and SMCI at baseline. Conclusion A reduced relative blood flow of the posterior cingulate gyrus could be found at least two years before the patients met the clinical diagnostic criteria of AD.

  15. Anomalous consistency in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A complex networks approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased variability in performance has been associated with the emergence of several neurological and psychiatric pathologies. However, whether and how consistency of neuronal activity may also be indicative of an underlying pathology is still poorly understood. Here we propose a novel method for evaluating consistency from non-invasive brain recordings. We evaluate the consistency of the cortical activity recorded with magnetoencephalography in a group of subjects diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a condition sometimes prodromal of dementia, during the execution of a memory task. We use metrics coming from nonlinear dynamics to evaluate the consistency of cortical regions. A representation known as parenclitic networks is constructed, where atypical features are endowed with a network structure, the topological properties of which can be studied at various scales. Pathological conditions correspond to strongly heterogeneous networks, whereas typical or normative conditions are characterized by sparsely connected networks with homogeneous nodes. The analysis of this kind of networks allows identifying the extent to which consistency is affected in the MCI group and the focal points where MCI is especially severe. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the first attempt at evaluating the consistency of brain functional activity using complex networks theory

  16. Mild cognitive impairment in adult: A neuropsychological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouyang Yanhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. This is clinically relevant as overt dementia can be prevented if treatment strategies are devised for MCI. Neuropsychological deficits in this condition are very common and are important clinically for treatment and outcomes. We aimed to review various neuropsychological deficits in MCI. Further, we have presented the current evidence for nosological status, neuroanatomical basis, and clinical outcome of this heterogeneous construct. All published papers on the topic of neuropsychological deficits in MCI on Medline and other databases were reviewed. A wide range of memory and executive function deficits are common in MCI patients. However, several studies are limited by either improper designs or inadequate sample sizes. Several neuropsychological impairments like memory function and executive functions can be diagnosed in MCI. The evidence base for the exact neuroanatomical basis of MCI is not robust yet. However, given the wide range of outcomes, controversies and debates exist regarding the nosological significance of the deficits. Hence, more studies are needed to specifically localise the impairments and further delineate the construct of MCI.

  17. The Takeda Three Colors Combination Test: A Screening Test for Detection of Very Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shinya Takeda; Kayo Tajime; Toshiatsu Taniguchi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is prevalent worldwide. It is expected that AD, for which aging is a risk factor, will increase in the future. Because early detection of AD has become increasingly important, promoting demand for screening tests with adequate sensitivity. In this study, we examined the usefulness of the Takeda Three Colors Combination Test (TTCC) for screening of the very mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Method...

  18. Frontal lobe hypoperfusion in mild cognitive impairment patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Mild cognitive impairement (MCI) refers to the clinical state of individuals who are memory impaired subjectively but are functioning well and do not meet the criteria of dementia. MCI subjects have a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is important to detect the earliest evidence of AD for clinicians to recognize the high risk subjects and to implicate the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the early change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in MCI with high risk of AD by SPECT. Methods: Subjects complained of memory impairment with normal cognitive function and intact daily activities were enrolled. Each patient underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT at the time of initial evaluation. Patients were followed for one to five years. The diagnosis of AD was based on the criteria of the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. There were 8 patients (4 males, 4 females; age range, 64-80 yrs; mean, 73.5 yrs) progressing to AD within one year. Ten gender and age matched normal control subjects (NC) were also included. The SPECT images were analyzed by using SPM 99. The image data were transformed into a standard stereotactic space, using a 12-parameter linear and 2x2x2 nonlinear spatial normalization with the template image. Group comparisons of the SPECT images between the 8 rapid AD converters and 10 NCs were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using t test. The t statistics was transformed to a normal statistic yielding a Z score for every voxel. Results: In 8 rapid AD converters, rCBF in the right medial frontal gyms (Brodmann area 10; BA 10), anterior cingulated gyms (BA 32) and middle frontal gyms (BA 46) was significantly lower than in NCs (p<0.001). The neuropsychological performances of these 8 cases revealed decrement in short-term memory, mental manipulation and list-generation frequency. Conclusions: rCBF is decreased in right medial frontal, anterior cingulated and middle frontal gyms in MCI patients who

  19. Advance prediction of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is considered as a precursor state of Alzheimer disease (AD). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain blood flow imaging was investigated in MCI and it's relevance to the prognosis of MCI was evaluated in an attempt define the characteristics of brain blood flow imaging of MCI (amnestic MCI; aMCI) converting to AD. Ninety-two patients over 60 years old with amnesia were studied. 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT brain blood flow examinations of the subject under drug-free conditions were conducted and imaging was analyzed according to the first clinical diagnosis. Patients given a diagnosis of MCI on the first clinical diagnosis, were examined again after 2 years and the SPECT imaging before 2 years previously was classified and analyzed. Of them, there were 35 MCI patients, converting of 13 AD patients (37.1%; aMCI), 10 MCI patients (28.6%; non-converter), 4 depression patients (11.4%; Depression type MCI (dMCI)), 1 Geriatric psychosis patient, but 7 patients dropped out. In the aMCI group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the posterior cingulate and the precuneus. In the dMCI group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the anterior cingulate. In the non-converter group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the basal forebrain. The hypoperfusion of the precuneus in aMCI, and the hypoperfusion of the right frontal lobe (DLPFC, dorsal-anterior cingulate) in dMCI were characteristic brain blood-flow abnormalities. We believe 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain blood flow imaging to be useful in the diagnosis of aMCI and in the early detection of depression. (author)

  20. White matter hyperintensities, executive function and global cognitive performance in vascular mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Kenji Sudo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI represents an early symptomatic stage of vascular cognitive impairment and might be associated to fronto-executive dysfunction. Methods Twenty-six individuals (age: 73.11±7.90 years; 65.4% female; schooling: 9.84±3.61 years were selected through neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging. Clinical and neuroimaging data of VaMCI individuals (n=15 were compared to normal controls (NC, n=11 and correlated with Fazekas scale. Results VaMCI performed significantly worse than NC in Trail-Making Test (TMT B, errors in TMT B, difference TMT B-A and Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG final scores. Correlations were found among scores in modified Fazekas scale and performances in TMT B (time to complete and errors, difference TMT B-A and CAMCOG total score. Conclusion Extension of white matter hyperintensities might be correlated to poorer global cognition and impairments in a set of fronto-executive functions, such as cognitive speed, set shifting and inhibitory control in VaMCI.

  1. Self-reference effect on memory in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Influence of identity valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Mona; Laisney, Mickaël; Lamidey, Virginie; Egret, Stéphanie; de La Sayette, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Piolino, Pascale; Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit episodic memory in healthy individuals. In healthy aging, its preservation is acknowledged, but in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the jury is still out. Furthermore, there has yet to be a study of the SRE in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). As self-reference implies subjective self-representations, and positive information enhance memory performance, we set out to examine the effects of 1) material and 2) identity valence on the SRE across the early stages of AD. Twenty healthy older individuals and 40 patients (20 diagnosed with aMCI and 20 diagnosed with mild AD) performed a memory task. Participants had to judge positive and negative personality trait adjectives with reference to themselves or to another person, or else process these adjectives semantically. We then administered a recognition task. Participants also completed a questionnaire on identity valence. Among healthy older individuals, the SRE benefited episodic memory independently of material and identity valence. By contrast, among aMCI patients, we only observed the SRE when the material was positive. When self-referential material was negative, patients' performance depended on the valence of their self-representations: negative self-representations correlated with poor recognition of negative self-referential adjectives. Finally, performance of patients with mild AD by condition and material valence were too low and inappropriate to be subjected to relevant analyses. The persistence of an SRE for positive adjectives in aMCI suggests the existence of a positivity effect for self-related information, which contributes to wellbeing. The absence of an SRE for negative adjectives, which led aMCI patients to dismiss negative self-related information, could be due to low self-esteem. These results corroborate the mnenic neglect model and point out the importance of the psychoaffective dimension in patients with aMCI, which could constitute a

  2. Validation of the Dutch version of the quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci-D).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bunt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from dementia is important, as treatment options differ. There are few short (<5 min) but accurate screening tools that discriminate between MCI, normal cognition (NC) and dementia, in the Dutch language. The Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen is sensitive and specific in differentiating MCI from NC and mild dementia. Given this, we adapted the Qmci for use in Dutch-language countries and validated the Dutch version, the Qmci-D, against the Dutch translation of the Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE-D).

  3. Whole-brain functional networks in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hyun Seo

    Full Text Available The conceptual significance of understanding functional brain alterations and cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD process has been widely established. However, the whole-brain functional networks of AD and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, are not well clarified yet. In this study, we compared the characteristics of the whole-brain functional networks among cognitively normal (CN, MCI, and AD individuals by applying graph theoretical analyses to [(18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET data. Ninety-four CN elderly, 183 with MCI, and 216 with AD underwent clinical evaluation and FDG-PET scan. The overall small-world property as seen in the CN whole-brain network was preserved in MCI and AD. In contrast, individual parameters of the network were altered with the following patterns of changes: local clustering of networks was lower in both MCI and AD compared to CN, while path length was not different among the three groups. Then, MCI had a lower level of local clustering than AD. Subgroup analyses for AD also revealed that very mild AD had lower local clustering and shorter path length compared to mild AD. Regarding the local properties of the whole-brain networks, MCI and AD had significantly decreased normalized betweenness centrality in several hubs regionally associated with the default mode network compared to CN. Our results suggest that the functional integration in whole-brain network progressively declines due to the AD process. On the other hand, functional relatedness between neighboring brain regions may not gradually decrease, but be the most severely altered in MCI stage and gradually re-increase in clinical AD stages.

  4. Abnormal cortical networks in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Yao

    Full Text Available Recently, many researchers have used graph theory to study the aberrant brain structures in Alzheimer's disease (AD and have made great progress. However, the characteristics of the cortical network in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI are still largely unexplored. In this study, the gray matter volumes obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for all brain regions except the cerebellum were parcellated into 90 areas using the automated anatomical labeling (AAL template to construct cortical networks for 98 normal controls (NCs, 113 MCIs and 91 ADs. The measurements of the network properties were calculated for each of the three groups respectively. We found that all three cortical networks exhibited small-world properties and those strong interhemispheric correlations existed between bilaterally homologous regions. Among the three cortical networks, we found the greatest clustering coefficient and the longest absolute path length in AD, which might indicate that the organization of the cortical network was the least optimal in AD. The small-world measures of the MCI network exhibited intermediate values. This finding is logical given that MCI is considered to be the transitional stage between normal aging and AD. Out of all the between-group differences in the clustering coefficient and absolute path length, only the differences between the AD and normal control groups were statistically significant. Compared with the normal controls, the MCI and AD groups retained their hub regions in the frontal lobe but showed a loss of hub regions in the temporal lobe. In addition, altered interregional correlations were detected in the parahippocampus gyrus, medial temporal lobe, cingulum, fusiform, medial frontal lobe, and orbital frontal gyrus in groups with MCI and AD. Similar to previous studies of functional connectivity, we also revealed increased interregional correlations within the local brain lobes and disrupted long distance interregional

  5. The Characterization of Biological Rhythms in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Ortiz-Tudela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease, present several circadian impairments related to an accelerated perturbation of their biological clock that is caused by the illness itself and not merely age-related. Thus, the objective of this work was to elucidate whether these circadian system alterations were already present in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, as compared to healthy age-matched subjects. Methods. 40 subjects (21 patients diagnosed with MCI, 74.1 ± 1.5 y.o., and 19 healthy subjects, 71.7 ± 1.4 y.o. were subjected to ambulatory monitoring, recording wrist skin temperature, motor activity, body position, and the integrated variable TAP (including temperature, activity, and position for one week. Nonparametrical analyses were then applied. Results. MCI patients exhibited a significant phase advance with respect to the healthy group for the following phase markers: temperature M5 (mean ± SEM: 04:20 ± 00:21 versus 02:52 ± 00:21 and L10 (14:35 ± 00:27 versus 13:24 ± 00:16 and TAP L5 (04:18 ± 00:14 versus 02:55 ± 00:30 and M10 (14:30 ± 00:18 versus 13:28 ± 00:23. Conclusions. These results suggest that significant advances in the biological clock begin to occur in MCI patients, evidenced by an accelerated aging of the circadian clock, as compared to a healthy population of the same age.

  6. Correlates of Subjective and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Depressive Symptoms and CSF Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Grambaite, Ramune; Hessen, Erik; Auning, Eirik; Aarsland, Dag; Selnes, Per; Fladby, Tormod

    2013-01-01

    Aims To improve early diagnosis of dementia disease, this study investigates correlates of cognitive complaints and cognitive test performance in patients with subjective (SCI) and mild (MCI) cognitive impairment. Methods Seventy patients from a memory clinic, aged 45-79, with a score of 2 (n = 23) or 3 (n = 47) on the Global Deterioration Scale, were included. CSF biomarkers [Aβ42, total tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau)], depressive symptoms, cognitive performance, and complaints w...

  7. {alpha}4 {beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a study with 5-[I-123]iodo-A-85380 SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    It has been reported that the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cholinergic deficit is correlated with cognitive impairment. We examined neuronal nAChR distribution of AD patients using 5-[I-123]iodo-A85380 (5-IA) SPECT and correlated it with the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolic impairment and the severity of cognitive impairment. Five clinically diagnosed AD patients, 5 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied with 5-IA SPECT and brain FDG PET. 5-IA SPECT was performed for 30 min at 120 min after radiotracer injection. FDG PET was done within one month interval. Neuropsychological tests were done for cognitive evaluation. A nAChR parameter DV was calculated in brain regions using cerebellum as reference tissue. All scan images were analyzed using SPM2 and ANOVA was done for group comparison. P value less than 0.005 was considered significant. 5-IA SPECT images of AD patients revealed significantly reduced nAChR distribution in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and the left temporal cortex. MCI patients demonstrated decreased receptor distribution mainly in the subcortical areas. Cortical nAChR distribution showed correlation with cortical glucose metabolism and subcortical with that of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency showed significant correlation with nAChR distribution of periventricular white matter (PVWM), visuospatial function evaluated with RCFT with that of PCC, left temporoparietal cortex, and frontal lobe white matter, and MMSE with that of PVWM, frontal cortex, and striatum. These data demonstrate reduction of nAChR distribution in patients with AD, which has significant correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive impairment. It might be useful for diagnosis of AD, and for monitoring individualized treatments targeted at nAChRs.

  8. α4 β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a study with 5-[I-123]iodo-A-85380 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cholinergic deficit is correlated with cognitive impairment. We examined neuronal nAChR distribution of AD patients using 5-[I-123]iodo-A85380 (5-IA) SPECT and correlated it with the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolic impairment and the severity of cognitive impairment. Five clinically diagnosed AD patients, 5 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied with 5-IA SPECT and brain FDG PET. 5-IA SPECT was performed for 30 min at 120 min after radiotracer injection. FDG PET was done within one month interval. Neuropsychological tests were done for cognitive evaluation. A nAChR parameter DV was calculated in brain regions using cerebellum as reference tissue. All scan images were analyzed using SPM2 and ANOVA was done for group comparison. P value less than 0.005 was considered significant. 5-IA SPECT images of AD patients revealed significantly reduced nAChR distribution in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and the left temporal cortex. MCI patients demonstrated decreased receptor distribution mainly in the subcortical areas. Cortical nAChR distribution showed correlation with cortical glucose metabolism and subcortical with that of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency showed significant correlation with nAChR distribution of periventricular white matter (PVWM), visuospatial function evaluated with RCFT with that of PCC, left temporoparietal cortex, and frontal lobe white matter, and MMSE with that of PVWM, frontal cortex, and striatum. These data demonstrate reduction of nAChR distribution in patients with AD, which has significant correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive impairment. It might be useful for diagnosis of AD, and for monitoring individualized treatments targeted at nAChRs

  9. The Effect of Mild Motion Sickness and Sopite Syndrome on Multitasking Cognitive Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Matsangas, P.; McCauley, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 3a: Human Systems and Training (Performance Evaluation); The Effect of Mild Motion Sickness and Sopite Syndrome on Multitasking Cognitive Performance; speakers: Panagiotis Matsangas & Mike McCauley

  10. The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Episodic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Do Episodic Memory Deficits Identified at Classification Remain Evident When Later Examined with Different Memory Tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Zofia Klekociuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI have been criticised for using the same battery of neuropsychological tests during classification and longitudinal followup. The key concern is that there is a potential circularity when the same tests are used to identify MCI and then subsequently monitor change in function over time. The aim of the present study was to examine the evidence of this potential circularity problem. The present study assessed the memory function of 72 MCI participants and 50 healthy controls using an alternate battery of visual and verbal episodic memory tests 9 months following initial comprehensive screening assessment and MCI classification. Individuals who were classified as multiple-domain amnestic MCI (a-MCI+ at screening show a significantly reduced performance in visual and verbal memory function at followup using a completely different battery of valid and reliable tests. Consistent with their initial classification, those identified as nonamnestic MCI (na-MCI or control at screening demonstrated the highest performance across the memory tasks. The results of the present study indicate that persistent memory deficits remain evident in amnestic MCI subgroups using alternate memory tests, suggesting that the concerns regarding potential circularity of logic may be overstated in MCI research.

  11. The PACE Study: A randomised clinical trial of cognitive activity (CA for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flicker Leon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence from observational studies suggests that cognitive activity reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in later life as well as the rate of cognitive decline of people with dementia. The Promoting Healthy Ageing with Cognitive Exercise (PACE study has been designed to determine whether a cognitive activity intervention decreases the rate of cognitive decline amongst older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods/Design The study will recruit 160 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years of age or over with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Participants will be randomly allocated to two treatment groups: non-specific education and cognitive activity. The intervention will consist of ten 90-minute sessions delivered twice per week over a period of five weeks. The primary outcome measure of the study is the change from baseline in the total score on the Cambridge Cognitive Score (CAMCOG. Secondary outcomes of interest include changes in memory, attention, executive functions, mood and quality of life. Primary endpoints will be collected 12, 52 and 104 weeks after the baseline assessment. Discussion The proposed project will produce the best available evidence on the merits of increased cognitive activity as a strategy to prevent cognitive decline among older adults with MCI. We anticipate that the results of this study will have implications for the development of evidence-based preventive strategies to reduce the rate of cognitive decline amongst older people at risk of dementia. Trial registration ACTRN12608000556347

  12. Perceived caregiver stress in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljeet Singh Anand; Vikas Dhikav; Ankur Sachdeva; Pinki Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cross sectional studies have reported a tremendous amount of stress in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer′s disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The present study aimed at evaluating the perceived stress in caregivers of patients with AD and MCI compared to controls. Materials and Methods: Caregivers of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer′s disease/Mild Cognitive Impairment were recruited at the Memory Clinic of Neurology Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nor...

  13. Neural correlates of true and false memory in mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Riddell, Patricia M; Ellis, Judi A.; Freeman , Jayne E.; Slawomir J Nasuto

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex c...

  14. Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of aerobic exercise or vitamin B supplementation on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design: Randomised placebo-controlled trial. Setting: General community. Participants: Community-dwelling adults aged 70-80 with MCI. Interve

  15. 不同类型轻度认知障碍的认知损害及精神行为症状的比较分析研究%The characteristics of cognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric symptoms in mild cognitive impairment:Differences by subtypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵丽; 刘帅; 任志宏; 周玉颖

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨不同类型的轻度认知功能障碍(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)患者人口统计学、认知损害和精神行为症状特点.方法 对86例MCI患者和40例认知正常对照者进行多项神经心理学量表测试,按照诊断标准确定单领域遗忘型轻度认知功能障(amnestic mild cognitive impairment with single domain,aMCI-SD)组(n=24);多领域遗忘型轻度认知功能障(amnestic mild cognitive impairmen with multiple domain,aMCI-MD)组(n=41);单领域非遗忘型轻度认知功能障(non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment with single domain,naMCI-SD)组(n=6);多领域非遗忘型轻度认知功能障(non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment with multiple domain,naMCI-MD)组(n=15).比较5组的人口统计学、认知损坏及精神行为症状特点.结果 与对照组比较,各亚型的MCI女性患病率、起病年龄均偏高,教育程度偏低(P<0.05),在aMCI-SD和aMCI-MD表现明显痴呆家族史(P<0.05).4种亚型MCI的整体认知功能评分无差异但较对照组均有受损,the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)总分在naMCI-SD组和aMCI-SD最高,其次为naMCI-MD组;其中aMCI-MD组的最低.MoCA亚项视空间与执行能力测试中,aMCI-SD与对照组无差异,而aMCI-MD组和naMCI-MD均较naMCI-SD受损严重且和对照组有显著性差异(P<0.05).各型MCI的NPI与HAMD评分均高于对照组(P<0.05).aMCI-SD抑郁发病率高于naMCI-MD (P< 0.05);aMCI-MD组分别高于naMCI-MD和naMCI-SD(P<0.05).淡漠发病率在aMCI-MD最高,aMCI-SD次之,而naMCI-SD和naMCI-MD较前两者低.结论 不同MCI亚型的认知损坏特点及精神行为症状特征存在差异,进一步揭示了MCI的临床异质性特点,为MCI的正确诊断及病因分型提供详尽的临床依据.

  16. Poor decision making is a consequence of cognitive decline among older persons without Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Boyle

    Full Text Available Decision making is an important determinant of health and well-being across the lifespan but is critical in aging, when many influential decisions are made just as cognitive function declines. Increasing evidence suggests that older adults, even those without dementia, often make poor decisions and are selectively vulnerable to scams. To date, however, the factors associated with poor decision making in old age are unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that poor decision making is a consequence of cognitive decline among older persons without Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment.Participants were 420 non-demented persons from the Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal, clinical-pathologic cohort study of aging in the Chicago metropolitan area. All underwent repeated cognitive evaluations and subsequently completed assessments of decision making and susceptibility to scams. Decision making was measured using 12 items from a previously established performance-based measure and a self-report measure of susceptibility to scams.Cognitive function data were collected over an average of 5.5 years prior to the decision making assessment. Regression analyses were used to examine whether the prior rate of cognitive decline predicted the level of decision making and susceptibility to scams; analyses controlled for age, sex, education, and starting level of cognition. Among 420 persons without dementia, more rapid cognitive decline predicted poorer decision making and increased susceptibility to scams (p's<0.001. Further, the relations between cognitive decline, decision making and scams persisted in analyses restricted to persons without any cognitive impairment (i.e., no dementia or even mild cognitive impairment.Poor decision making is a consequence of cognitive decline among older persons without Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment, those widely considered "cognitively healthy." These findings suggest

  17. Exercise-related changes of networks in aging and mild cognitive impairment brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging and mild cognitive impairment are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and mild cognitive impairment populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and mild cognitive impairment population, and physical exercise could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective physical exercise programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions.

  18. Behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment as compared with Alzheimer's disease and healthy older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aim of this study is to characterize behavior in MCI compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy older patients. DESIGN

  19. Adherence to exercise programs and determinants of maintenance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, E.C.P.M.; Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Paw, M.J.M.C.A.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    After a randomized controlled trial showing that improvement on some aspects of cognitive function was related to adherence to an exercise program, determinants of adherence and maintenance were further studied. Older adults with mild cognitive impairment were contacted 6 mo after the end of exercis

  20. Dimensions of Ambiguous Loss in Couples Coping with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.; Wilcox, Karen L.; Barham, Elizabeth J.; Winston, Brianne L.

    2007-01-01

    We applied the theory of ambiguous loss to couples with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an age-related decline in memory and other cognitive processes assumed not to interfere with daily activities or the maintenance of personal relationships. Face-to-face interviews with 67 older married couples revealed that lack of understanding about the…

  1. Physical activity and executive functions in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, EJA; Van Paasschen, J; Deijen, JB; Van der Knokke, S; Orlebeke, JFK; Burgers, [No Value; Devriese, PP; Swaab, DF; Sergeant, JA

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the effect of physical activity measured directly following treatment, was reflected in an improvement in cognitive functioning in general or in executive functions (EF) in particular. S

  2. Physical activity and executive functions in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Paasschen, J. van; Deijen, J.-B.; Knokke, S. van der; Orlebeke, J.F.K.; Burgers, I.; DeVriesse, P.-P.; Swaab, D.F.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the effect of physical activity measured directly following treatment, was reflected in an improvement in cognitive functioning in general or in executive functions (EF) in particular. S

  3. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Volkers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years. Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.

  4. Decreased cerebral α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease assessed with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postmortem studies indicate a loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to establish whether these changes in the cholinergic system occur at an early stage of AD, we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with a specific radioligand for the α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α4β2* nAChR) in patients with mild to moderate AD and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), who have a high risk to progress to AD. Nine patients with moderate AD, eight patients with MCI and seven age-matched healthy controls underwent 2-[18F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-[18F]FA-85380) PET. After coregistration with individual magnetic resonance imaging the binding potential (BPND) of 2-[18F]FA-85380 was calculated using either the corpus callosum or the cerebellum as reference regions. PET data were analysed by region of interest analysis and by voxel-based analysis. Both patients with AD and MCI showed a significant reduction in 2-[18F]FA-85380 BPND in typical AD-affected brain regions. Thereby, the corpus callosum was identified as the most suitable reference region. The 2-[18F]FA-85380 BPND correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment. Only MCI patients that converted to AD in the later course (n = 5) had a reduction in 2-[18F]FA-85380 BPND. 2-[18F]FA-85380 PET appears to be a sensitive and feasible tool for the detection of a reduction in α4β2* nAChRs which seems to be an early event in AD. In addition, 2-[18F]FA-85380 PET might give prognostic information about a conversion from MCI to AD. (orig.)

  5. Decreased cerebral {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease assessed with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendziorra, Kai; Meyer, Philipp Mael; Barthel, Henryk; Hesse, Swen; Becker, Georg Alexander; Luthardt, Julia; Schildan, Andreas; Patt, Marianne; Sorger, Dietlind; Seese, Anita; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); University of Zurich, Department of Old Age Psychiatry and Psychiatry Research, Psychiatric University Hospital (PUK) Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Gertz, Herman-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Postmortem studies indicate a loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to establish whether these changes in the cholinergic system occur at an early stage of AD, we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with a specific radioligand for the {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}4{beta}2* nAChR) in patients with mild to moderate AD and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), who have a high risk to progress to AD. Nine patients with moderate AD, eight patients with MCI and seven age-matched healthy controls underwent 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380) PET. After coregistration with individual magnetic resonance imaging the binding potential (BP{sub ND}) of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 was calculated using either the corpus callosum or the cerebellum as reference regions. PET data were analysed by region of interest analysis and by voxel-based analysis. Both patients with AD and MCI showed a significant reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} in typical AD-affected brain regions. Thereby, the corpus callosum was identified as the most suitable reference region. The 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment. Only MCI patients that converted to AD in the later course (n = 5) had a reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND}. 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET appears to be a sensitive and feasible tool for the detection of a reduction in {alpha}4{beta}2* nAChRs which seems to be an early event in AD. In addition, 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET might give prognostic information about a conversion from MCI to AD. (orig.)

  6. Increased EEG gamma band activity in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    van Deursen, J. A.; Vuurman, E. F. P. M.; Verhey, F. R. J.; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, V.H.J.M.; Riedel, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    High frequency (30–70 Hz) gamma band oscillations in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG) are thought to reflect perceptual and cognitive processes. It is therefore interesting to study these measures in cognitive impairment and dementia. To evaluate gamma band oscillations as a diagnostic biomarker in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 15 psychoactive drug naïve AD patients, 20 MCI patients and 20 healthy controls participated in this study. Gamma band power (GBP)...

  7. Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Jeong Lee; Hye Mi Kang; Na Kyung Kim; Ju Yeon Yang; Jung Hyun Noh; Kyung Soo Ko; Byoung Doo Rhee; Dong-Jun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 226 older (age ≥65 years) adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K). A MoCA-K score

  8. Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Hanna-Pladdy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to identify mild cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD prior to extensive neurodegeneration and to evaluate the extent to which dopamine depletion and other disease-related predictors can explain cognitive profiles. Methods: Neuropsychological performances of 40 nondemented early-stage PD patients and 42 healthy controls were compared across on or off dopaminergic medications. Stepwise regression evaluated cognitive predictors of early-stage PD and disease-related predictors of PD cognition (levodopa dose, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, sleep, quality of life, and mood across on and off states. Results: Neuropsychological performance was lower in PD patients across cognitive domains with significant memory, naming, visuomotor, and complex attention/executive deficits, but with intact visuospatial, simple attention, and phonemic fluency functions. However, medication effects were absent except for simple attention. Regression analyses revealed age, working memory, and memory recall to be the best cognitive predictors of PD, while age, quality of life, disease duration, and anxiety predicted PD cognition in the off state. Conclusion: Nondemented early-stage PD patients presented with extensive mild cognitive deficits including prominent memory impairment. The profile was inconsistent with expected isolated frontostriatal dysfunction previously attributed to dopamine depletion and this highlights the need to further characterize extranigral sources of mild cognitive impairment in PD.

  9. Beta-amyloid deposition and cognitive function in patients with major depressive disorder with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment: {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kuan-Yi; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Lee, Chin-Pang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Psychiatry, Tao-Yuan (China); Chen, Cheng-Sheng [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital and College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung (China); Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Kuei Shan Hsiang, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Tao-Yuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the amyloid burden, as assessed by {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) positron emission tomography PET, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the relationship between amyloid burden and cognition in MDD patients. The study included 55 MDD patients without dementia and 21 healthy control subjects (HCs) who were assessed using a comprehensive cognitive test battery and {sup 18}F-florbetapir PET imaging. The standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) in eight cortical regions using the whole cerebellum as reference region were determined and voxel-wise comparisons between the HC and MDD groups were performed. Vascular risk factors, serum homocysteine level and the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype were also determined. Among the 55 MDD patients, 22 (40.0 %) had MCI, 12 (21.8 %) non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) and 10 (18.2 %) amnestic MCI (aMCI). The MDD patients with aMCI had the highest relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake in all cortical regions, and a significant difference in relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake was found in the parietal region as compared with that in naMCI subjects (P < 0.05) and HCs (P < 0.01). Voxel-wise analyses revealed significantly increased relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake in the MDD patients with aMCI and naMCI in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital areas (P < 0.005). The global cortical SUVR was significantly negatively correlated with MMSE score (r = -0.342, P = 0.010) and memory function (r = -0.328, P = 0.015). The negative correlation between the global SUVR and memory in the MDD patients remained significant in multiple regression analyses that included age, educational level, ApoE genotype, and depression severity (β = -3.607, t = -2.874, P = 0.006). We found preliminary evidence of brain beta-amyloid deposition in MDD patients with different subtypes of MCI. Our findings in MDD patients support the

  10. Diabetes mellitus Type II and cognitive capacity in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Christina; Toro, Pablo; Schönknecht, Peter; Sattler, Christine; Schröder, Johannes

    2016-06-30

    While diabetes mellitus (DM) Type II has repeatedly been linked to Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), longitudinal research is scarce and disease duration has not always been taken into account. In a birth cohort born between 1930 and 1932 we investigated the influence of DM Type II and disease duration on neuropsychological functioning (memory/learning, attention, verbal fluency, visuospatial thinking and abstract thinking) across 14 years. Subjects who developed MCI or AD performed significantly poorer on all neuropsychological tests applied. While significant main effects DM Type II did not arise, its presence led to a significant deterioration of performance in the digit symbol test and visuospatial thinking over time. Additionally, in visuospatial thinking this change was more pronounced for individuals suffering from MCI/AD. We found that, as a concomitant disease DM Type II does not affect memory functioning, which is typically compromised in MCI and early AD. Rather, it may lead to deficits in cognitive flexibility and visuospatial thinking. DM Type II can be considered a frequent comorbid condition which can aggravate the course of MCI and AD. In this respect it may serve as a model for other comorbid conditions in AD. PMID:27082868

  11. Volume changes in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: cognitive associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Matthew C.; Barnes, Josephine; Nielsen, Casper; Clegg, Shona L.; Blair, Melanie; Douiri, Abdel; Boyes, Richard G.; Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Kim, Lois G. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Leung, Kelvin K.; Ourselin, Sebastien [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Centre for Medical Image Computing, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    To assess the relationship between MRI-derived changes in whole-brain and ventricular volume with change in cognitive scores in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control subjects. In total 131 control, 231 MCI and 99 AD subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort with T1-weighted volumetric MRIs from baseline and 12-month follow-up were used to derive volume changes. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale (ADAS)-cog and trails test changes were calculated over the same period. Brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between subject groups (p < 0.0005) and in MCI and AD were associated with MMSE changes. Both measures were additionally associated with ADAS-cog and trails-B in MCI patients, and ventricular expansion was associated with ADAS-cog in AD patients. Brain atrophy (p < 0.0005) and ventricular expansion rates (p = 0.001) were higher in MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months of follow-up compared with MCI subjects who remained stable. MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months had similar atrophy rates to AD subjects. Whole-brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between patient groups and healthy controls, and tracked disease progression and psychological decline, demonstrating their relevance as biomarkers. (orig.)

  12. Volume changes in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: cognitive associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the relationship between MRI-derived changes in whole-brain and ventricular volume with change in cognitive scores in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control subjects. In total 131 control, 231 MCI and 99 AD subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort with T1-weighted volumetric MRIs from baseline and 12-month follow-up were used to derive volume changes. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale (ADAS)-cog and trails test changes were calculated over the same period. Brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between subject groups (p < 0.0005) and in MCI and AD were associated with MMSE changes. Both measures were additionally associated with ADAS-cog and trails-B in MCI patients, and ventricular expansion was associated with ADAS-cog in AD patients. Brain atrophy (p < 0.0005) and ventricular expansion rates (p = 0.001) were higher in MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months of follow-up compared with MCI subjects who remained stable. MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months had similar atrophy rates to AD subjects. Whole-brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between patient groups and healthy controls, and tracked disease progression and psychological decline, demonstrating their relevance as biomarkers. (orig.)

  13. Neural correlates of true and false memory in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Sweeney-Reed

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer's disease, which has been described as a 'disconnection syndrome'.

  14. A Reanalysis of Cognitive-Functional Performance in Older Adults: Investigating the Interaction Between Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Mild Alzheimer's Disease Dementia, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Jonas J; Bicalho, Maria A; Ávila, Rafaela T; Cintra, Marco T G; Diniz, Breno S; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive-functional impairment in normal aging older adults (NA). However, less is known about this effect on people with mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). We investigated this relationship along with the NA-MCI-AD continuum by reanalyzing a previously published dataset. Participants (N = 274) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment including measures of Executive Function, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory, Visuospatial Abilities, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and the Geriatric Depression Scale. MANOVA, logistic regression and chi-square tests were performed to assess the association between depression and cognitive-functional performance in each group. In the NA group, depressed participants had a lower performance compared to non-depressed participants in all cognitive and functional domains. However, the same pattern was not observed in the MCI group or in AD. The results suggest a progressive loss of association between depression and worse cognitive-functional performance along the NA-MCI-AD continuum. PMID:26858666

  15. Applications of radionuclide imaging in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk for conversion to dementia is much higher in individuals with mild coghitived impairmaent (MCI). The early detection of MCI individuals who will later convert to Alzheimer disease is an important issue for both clinical and research interests. Radionuclide imaging has been broadly used to study cerebral metabolism and blood flow, as well as predicting the prognosis of MCI. This review summarizes the results of these studies assessing the predicting value of radionuclide imaging used alone and with other methods in recent years. (authors)

  16. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uemura K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Uemura,1,3 Hiroyuki Shimada,1 Hyuma Makizako,1,3 Takehiko Doi,1 Daisuke Yoshida,1 Kota Tsutsumimoto,1 Yuya Anan,1 Takao Suzuki21Section for Health Promotion, Department for Research and Development to Support Independent Life of Elderly, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 2Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability.Results: In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027 and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034. A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (ß = -0.322, P = 0.026 and MMSE score (ß = -0.295, P = 0.041, controlling for age and gender.Conclusion: General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in

  17. [Noopept in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment in patients with stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelin, A V; Iliukhina, A Iu; Shmonin, A A

    2011-01-01

    Noopept is a neuroprotector and nootropics. Literature data revealed the treatment effect of noopept on mild cognitive impairment in patients with discirculatory encephalopathy. The present open prospective study included 60 patients with stroke treated with noopept during 12 months. Cognitive functions were assessed before and after treatment using neuropsychological tests. An analysis of MMSE scores and lateral and categorical associations revealed the significant improvement of cognitive functions after 2 months in patients of the main group compared to the controls. The global assessment of efficacy revealed the mild improvement in the main group while no changes were found in the control group. The results have demonstrated that noopept, used in dose 20 mg daily during 2 months, improves cognitive functions in stroke patients and has a high level of safety. PMID:22500312

  18. Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Neuropsychological Tests in Differentiating Alzheimer's Disease from Mild Cognitive Impairment: Can the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Be Better than the Cambridge Cognitive Examination?

    OpenAIRE

    Martinelli, José Eduardo; Cecato, Juliana Francisca; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the lack of studies on measures that increase the diagnostic distinction between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and on the role of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) in this, our study aims to compare the utility of the CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in helping to differentiate AD from MCI in elderly people with >4 years of schooling. Method A total of 136 elderly subjects – 39...

  19. Long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury on cognitive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Philip J. A.; Sterr, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Although a proportion of individuals report chronic cognitive difficulties after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), results from behavioral testing have been inconsistent. In fact, the variability inherent to the mTBI population may be masking subtle cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that this variability could be reduced by accounting for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) in the sample. Thirty-six participants with mTBI (>1 year post-injury) and 36 non-head injured controls performed informa...

  20. Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Concept and Diagnostic Entity in Need of Input from Neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    Bondi, Mark W.; Smith, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individu...

  1. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: Systematic Review and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild; Simonsen, Anja Hviid

    2015-01-01

    Background The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia. Methods The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to F...

  2. Biochemical markers of physical exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia; systematic review and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Steen Jensen; Steen Gregers Hasselbalch; Gunhild eWaldemar; Anja Hviid Simonsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to Febru...

  3. Hubungan Sindrom Metabolik Dengan Mild Cognitive Impairment Pada Usia Paruh Baya

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, M. Adnin Rudi

    2011-01-01

    Background:Metabolic syndrome patients with obesity, hypertension, dislipidemia and glucose intolerance not only have risk of cardiovascular disease but also have the increase risk of cognitive impairment event and Alzheimer disease in old age. This study was done to know the association between metabolic syndrome with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in middle age. Methods:A cross sectional study by taking non random sample with consecutive method in middle age patient with metabolic syndr...

  4. Multi-modal MRI analysis with disease-specific spatial filtering: initial testing to predict mild cognitive impairment patients who convert to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi eOishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alterations of the gray and white matter have been identified in Alzheimer’s disease (AD by structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. However, whether the combination of these modalities could increase the diagnostic performance is unknown.Methods: Participants included 19 AD patients, 22 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients, and 22 cognitively normal elderly (NC. The aMCI group was further divided into an aMCI-converter group (converted to AD dementia within three years, and an aMCI-stable group who did not convert in this time period. A T1-weighted image, a T2 map, and a DTI of each participant were normalized, and voxel-based comparisons between AD and NC groups were performed. Regions-of-interest, which defined the areas with significant differences between AD and NC, were created for each modality and named disease-specific spatial filters (DSF. Linear discriminant analysis was used to optimize the combination of multiple MRI measurements extracted by DSF to effectively differentiate AD from NC. The resultant DSF and the discriminant function were applied to the aMCI group to investigate the power to differentiate the aMCI-converters from the aMCI-stable patients. Results: The multi-modal approach with AD-specific filters led to a predictive model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.93, in differentiating aMCI-converters from aMCI-stable patients. This AUC was better than that of a single-contrast-based approach, such as T1-based morphometry or diffusion anisotropy analysis. Conclusion: The multi-modal approach has the potential to increase the value of MRI in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD.

  5. Use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to investigate the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly elective surgical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Smith; Yy, Yeow

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative cognitive disorders are common in elderly patients. Pre-existing cognitive impairment including mild cognitive impairment may be an important risk factor for developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction and may not be detected in a standard preoperative interview, yet is not routinely sought. Our primary aim was to estimate the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment among elderly patients presenting to our hospital for elective surgery using a simple established screening tool: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test. Secondarily, we wished to determine the proportion of patients with mild cognitive impairment who presented with this information available, the effect of increasing age on the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and whether the timing and location of testing influenced results. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to screen preoperative patients aged 65 years and over. Our results suggested a potential prevalence of mild cognitive impairment of 56%, with prevalence increasing with age. No patients in the sample had a recorded diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Testing in either the preadmission clinic or on admission on the day of surgery yielded similar results. We found the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to be a simple screening tool that was easily administered during the pre-admission visit. PMID:27608340

  6. Depression in Mild Cognitive Impairment is associated with Progression to Alzheimer's Disease : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Fransen, Erik; Struyfs, Hanne; Luyckx, Jill; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD) belong to the core symptoms of dementia and are also common in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objective: This study would like to contribute to the understanding of the prognostic role of BPSD in MCI for the progression

  7. Agitation-associated behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of agitation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD), and to characterize the associated behavioral symptoms. Method: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospe

  8. Psychosis associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of psychosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia, and to characterize the associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Method: A cross-section

  9. Long-Term Interrelationship between Brain Metabolism and Amyloid Deposition in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemppainen, Nina; Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) study was to evaluate the interrelationship between brain metabolism and amyloid accumulation during the disease process from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nine MCI patients, who converted to AD between...

  10. Systematic review of the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godbolt, Alison K; Cancelliere, Carol; Hincapié, Cesar A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence regarding the risk of dementia and chronic cognitive impairment (CCI) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001-2012) using a previously published search strategy and predefined crit...

  11. Complexity of functional connectivity networks in mild cognitive impairment subjects during a working memory task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadlou, M; Adeli, Anahita; Bajo, Ricardo; Adeli, Hojjat

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective is to study the changes of brain activity in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using magneto-encephalogram (MEG) signals, the authors investigate differences of complexity of functional connectivity network between MCI and normal elderly subjects during a worki

  12. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  13. Brain Substrates of Learning and Retention in Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosis and Progression to Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Bondi, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; McEvoy, Linda K.; Hagler, Donald J., Jr.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Dale, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the underlying qualitative features of memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can provide critical information for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study sought to investigate the utility of both learning and retention measures in (a) the diagnosis of MCI, (b) predicting progression to AD, and (c)…

  14. Clock Drawing Performance and Brain Morphology in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, Philipp A.; Toro, Pablo; Santos, Vasco Dos; Essig, Marco; Schroder, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used instrument in the neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As CDT performance necessitates several cognitive functions (e.g., visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive functioning), an interaction of multiple brain regions is likely. Fifty-one subjects with mild cognitive…

  15. Processing of Mass/Count Information in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Vanessa; Jarema, Gonia

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the processing of a specific linguistic distinction, the mass/count distinction, in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fourteen AD and 10 MCI subjects were tested using a sentence grammaticality judgement task where grammaticality violations were caused by determiner--noun…

  16. Fruits, vegetables and their components and mild cognitive impairment and dementia: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the current literature on the role of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and their components in the prevention of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The components investigated include vitamins C and E, carotenoids, polyphenols, and B-vitamins. Th...

  17. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  18. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  19. Preliminary cognitive scale of basic and instrumental activities of daily living for dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bailón, María; Montoro-Membila, Nuria; Garcia-Morán, Tamara; Arnedo-Montoro, María Luisa; Funes Molina, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we explored cognitive and functional deficits in patients with multidomain mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with dementia, and healthy age-matched control participants using the Cognitive Scale for Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, a new preliminary informant-based assessment tool. This tool allowed us to evaluate four key cognitive abilities-task memory schema, error detection, problem solving, and task self-initiation-in a range of basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL, respectively). The first part of the present study was devoted to testing the psychometric adequateness of this new informant-based tool and its convergent validity with other global functioning and neuropsychological measures. The second part of the study was aimed at finding the patterns of everyday cognitive factors that best discriminate between the three groups. We found that patients with dementia exhibited impairment in all cognitive abilities in both basic and instrumental activities. By contrast, patients with MCI were found to have preserved task memory schema in both types of ADL; however, such patients exhibited deficits in error detection and task self-initiation but only in IADL. Finally, patients with MCI also showed a generalized problem solving deficit that affected even BADL. Studying various cognitive processes instantiated in specific ADL differing in complexity seems a promising strategy to further understand the specific relationships between cognition and function in these and other cognitively impaired populations. PMID:25805061

  20. Beta oscillatory responses in healthy subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Güntekin, Bahar; Emek-Savaş, Derya Durusu; KURT, Pınar; Yener, Görsev Gülmen; Başar, Erol

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of beta oscillatory responses upon cognitive load in healthy subjects and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The role of beta oscillations upon cognitive stimulation is least studied in comparison to other frequency bands. The study included 17 consecutive patients with MCI (mean age = 70.8 ± 5.6 years) according to Petersen's criteria, and 17 age- and education-matched normal elderly controls (mean age = 68.5 ± 5.5 years...

  1. White matter changes in 80 mild cognitive impairment patients using magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Cho; Jee-Hyun Kwon; Sun-Young Kim

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies have suggested that one possible etiology of mild cognitive impairment is small vessel cerebrovascular disease, which is associated with small subcortical infarcts and white matter abnormalities. These white matter changes have been detected as white matter hyperintensity (WMH) using magnetic resonance imaging. WMH may be associated with frontal lobe dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To examine white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment patients of different subtypes, and to evaluate the correlation between white matter changes and neuropsychological characteristics, demographic information, vascular risk factors, and mild cognitive impairment subtypes. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The neurophysiological, comparison study was performed at the Department of Neurology Memory Clinic, Ulsan University Hospital, South Korea, between March 2007 and March 2008.PARTICIPANTS: Out of a total of 83 subjects with clinically diagnosed mild cognitive impairment at the out-patient clinic, 3 subjects with severe WMH were excluded. A total of 80 subjects were included in this study. No patients suffered from cognitive impairment induced by neurological diseases, mental disorders, or somatic diseases. In accordance with magnetic resonance imaging results, the patients were assigned to two subtypes: 56 subjects without WMH and 24 subjects with WMH. METHODS: All patients were subjected to a standard neuropsychological battery using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating, and comprehensive Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. The Clinical Dementia Rating reflected general cognitive function of patients. Results from the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery reflected attention, language function, visuospatial function, verbal memory, nonverbal memory, long-term memory, and frontal/executive function. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to map changes in the brain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The association between

  2. Subjective Memory Complaints are Involved in the Relationship between Mood and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer A; Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T; Matthews, Fiona E

    2015-09-24

    Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are a criterion in many definitions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there is controversy over whether this is useful and appropriate, as previous research has suggested that SMC may be a function of mood problems such as anxiety and depression. This paper aimed to establish the relationship between MCI and mood in older people and to investigate the role that SMC play in the relationship. Structured interviews were conducted with community dwelling older people in Wales to collect information regarding cognitive functioning, mood, and well-being. A widely-used algorithm was used to categorize 3,173 participants into three groups: not cognitively impaired, MCI including SMC (MCI), and MCI without SMC (MCIW). The odds of experiencing anxiety or depression were calculated for each cognitive group. Participants with MCI had increased odds of experiencing symptoms of both anxiety and depression, but the odds were not changed for participants in the not cognitively impaired or MCIW categories. A mediation analysis was performed on the whole sample using cognition as a dichotomous variable, grouped using an age-, education-, and gender-adjusted median cut off point. This showed that SMC partially mediated the relationship between anxiety and cognition, and depression and cognition. Mood problems may be related to SMC rather than objective cognitive impairment, as only participants with MCI that included SMC showed increased odds of experiencing anxiety and depression. SMC are likely to play a mediating role in the relationship between mood and cognitive functioning. PMID:26402102

  3. Association between cortical thickness and CSF biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohades, Sara; Dubois, Jonathan; Parent, Maxime;

    Background: The dynamic biomarker hypothesis predicts that fluid biomarker abnormalities precede brain morphological changes observed in AD by many years. However, the link between early CSF abnormalities and late structural changes remains under debate. Here we investigated the association between...... regional cortical thinning (CT) measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and brain amyloidosis (measured by CSF Ab 1-42 concentrations), or tau hyperphosphorylation (tau 181; p-tau) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients. We test the hypothesis that the association...... between cortical thinning, amyloidosis or tau hyperphosphorylation depends on cortical regions and clinical stages of AD. Methods: T1-weighed MRIs and associated CSF markers from individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; 16), Alzheimer Disease (AD; n¼7) and age-matched cognitively normal subjects...

  4. Principal component analysis of FDG PET in amnestic MCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio; Girtler, Nicola; Brugnolo, Andrea; Dessi, Barbara; Rodriguez, Guido [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Medical Sciences, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Alzheimer Evaluation Unit, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Head-Neck Department, Genoa (Italy); Salmaso, Dario [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Imaging Diagnostics, Genoa (Italy); Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the combined accuracy of episodic memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET in identifying patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's disease (AD), aMCI non-converters, and controls. Thirty-three patients with aMCI and 15 controls (CTR) were followed up for a mean of 21 months. Eleven patients developed AD (MCI/AD) and 22 remained with aMCI (MCI/MCI). {sup 18}F-FDG PET volumetric regions of interest underwent principal component analysis (PCA) that identified 12 principal components (PC), expressed by coarse component scores (CCS). Discriminant analysis was performed using the significant PCs and episodic memory scores. PCA highlighted relative hypometabolism in PC5, including bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole, and in PC7, including the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, both in MCI/MCI and MCI/AD vs CTR. PC5 itself plus PC12, including the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC: BAs 44, 45, 46, 47), were significantly different between MCI/AD and MCI/MCI. By a three-group discriminant analysis, CTR were more accurately identified by PET-CCS + delayed recall score (100%), MCI/MCI by PET-CCS + either immediate or delayed recall scores (91%), while MCI/AD was identified by PET-CCS alone (82%). PET increased by 25% the correct allocations achieved by memory scores, while memory scores increased by 15% the correct allocations achieved by PET. Combining memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET yielded a higher accuracy than each single tool in identifying CTR and MCI/MCI. The PC containing bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole was the hallmark of MCI/MCI patients, while the PC including the left LFC was the hallmark of conversion to AD. (orig.)

  5. Principal component analysis of FDG PET in amnestic MCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the combined accuracy of episodic memory performance and 18F-FDG PET in identifying patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's disease (AD), aMCI non-converters, and controls. Thirty-three patients with aMCI and 15 controls (CTR) were followed up for a mean of 21 months. Eleven patients developed AD (MCI/AD) and 22 remained with aMCI (MCI/MCI). 18F-FDG PET volumetric regions of interest underwent principal component analysis (PCA) that identified 12 principal components (PC), expressed by coarse component scores (CCS). Discriminant analysis was performed using the significant PCs and episodic memory scores. PCA highlighted relative hypometabolism in PC5, including bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole, and in PC7, including the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, both in MCI/MCI and MCI/AD vs CTR. PC5 itself plus PC12, including the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC: BAs 44, 45, 46, 47), were significantly different between MCI/AD and MCI/MCI. By a three-group discriminant analysis, CTR were more accurately identified by PET-CCS + delayed recall score (100%), MCI/MCI by PET-CCS + either immediate or delayed recall scores (91%), while MCI/AD was identified by PET-CCS alone (82%). PET increased by 25% the correct allocations achieved by memory scores, while memory scores increased by 15% the correct allocations achieved by PET. Combining memory performance and 18F-FDG PET yielded a higher accuracy than each single tool in identifying CTR and MCI/MCI. The PC containing bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole was the hallmark of MCI/MCI patients, while the PC including the left LFC was the hallmark of conversion to AD. (orig.)

  6. Emergence of cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury due to hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, David J; Furones, Concepcion; Atkins, Coleen M; Dietrich, W Dalton

    2015-01-01

    Mild elevations in core temperature can occur in individuals involved in strenuous activities that are risky for potentially sustaining a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion. Recently, we have discovered that mild elevations in brain temperature can significantly aggravate the histopathological consequences of mTBI. However, whether this exacerbation of brain pathology translates into behavioral deficits is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the behavioral consequences of elevating brain temperature to mildly hyperthermic levels prior to mTBI. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats underwent mild fluid-percussion brain injury or sham surgery while normothermic (37 °C) or hyperthermic (39 °C) and were allowed to recover for 7 days. Animals were then assessed for cognition using the water maze and cue and contextual fear conditioning. We found that mTBI alone at normothermia had no effect on long-term cognitive measures whereas mTBI animals that were hyperthermic for 15 min prior to and for 4h after brain injury were significantly impaired on long-term retention for both the water maze and fear conditioning. In contrast, hyperthermic mTBI animals cooled within 15 min to normothermia demonstrated no significant long-term cognitive deficits. Mild TBI irrespective of temperature manipulations resulted in significant short-term working memory deficits. Cortical atrophy and contusions were detected in all mTBI treatment groups and contusion volume was significantly less in hyperthermic mTBI animals that were cooled as compared to hyperthermic mTBI animals that remained hyperthermic. These results indicate that brain temperature is an important variable for mTBI outcome and that mildly elevated temperatures at the time of injury result in persistent cognitive deficits. Importantly, cooling to normothermia after mTBI prevents the development of long-term cognitive deficits caused by hyperthermia. Reducing temperature to normothermic levels soon after mTBI represents

  7. Impact of a cognitive rehabilitation intervention on neuropsychiatric symptoms in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle-Hamann, Laurence; Thivierge, Stéphanie; Simard, Martine

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of a cognitive rehabilitation programme on 12 behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). This six-month single-blind block-randomised cross-over controlled study was conducted with 15 mild to moderate AD participants and their caregivers. All participants received a four-week home-based cognitive rehabilitation programme to learn/re-learn an instrumental activity of daily living. They were assessed up until three months following the end of the intervention. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-12) was employed to evaluate patients' BPSD at seven assessment points during the course of the study. A general linear mixed model analysis performed on the NPI data revealed that aberrant motor behaviours (AMB) increased significantly more in the treatment condition than in the control condition. In addition, both groups registered a significant reduction of delusional symptoms during the second half of the study. Employing a multi-symptom approach to assess participants' BPSD, this cross-over randomised controlled study showed that an individualised cognitive rehabilitation intervention was generally well-tolerated by mild to moderate AD patients. Future cognitive rehabilitation studies conducted with this population should pay attention to AMB symptom changes. PMID:25312605

  8. The Study of Neuropsychological Performence and Anatomic Structure Impaiment by MRI in Different Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment%轻度认知障碍的神经心理表现及解剖结构损害的分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董娜; 张贵丽; 张宏伟

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨不同类型的轻度认知功能障碍(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)患者人口统计学、认知损害及解剖结构损害的磁共振特点.方法 对纳入的188例MCI患者和106例认知正常对照者进行多项神经心理学量表测试,按照认知受损区域及数目将MCI分为单领域遗忘型轻度认知功能障(amnestic mild cognitive impairment with single domain,aMCI-SD)组(n=48);多领域遗忘型轻度认知功能障(amnestic mild cognitive impairmen with multiple domain,aMCI-MD)组(n=82);单领域非遗忘型轻度认知功能障(non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment with single domain,naMCI-SD)组(n=24);多领域非遗忘型轻度认知功能障(non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment with multiple domain,naMCI-MD)组(n=34).比较5组的人口统计学、神经心理及解剖结构的磁共振特点.结果 与对照组比较,MCI患者起病年龄高且教育程度低(P<0.05).MCI的4种亚型整体认知功能评分无差异但较对照组均有受损.MoCA亚项视空间与执行能力测试中,aMCI-MD组和naMCI-MD受损较重,其次为naMCI-SD组(P<0.05).在MRI检测中aMCI-MD组和aMCI-SD组均较对照组的颞叶内侧萎缩(Medial temporal lobe atrophy,MTA)的视觉评分高(P<0.05),但是naMCI-SD与naMCI-MD的MTA评分与对照组比较无差异(P>0.05).4个MCI亚组的脑白质病变、皮质脑梗死、脑皮质萎缩发生率均大于对照组.naMCI-MD组的脑白质疏松病及脑萎缩病变较aMCI-SD组和aMCI-MD组的发病率均高.aMCI-SD组中皮质下腔隙性脑梗死病变的发生率较naMCI-MD和naM-CI-SD组低.结论 不同亚型的MCI患者显示海马、颞叶内侧面萎缩变性及血管病相关的病理改变的差异,揭示了临床认知损坏与病理学改变存在一致性,为MCI的正确诊断及治疗选择提供详尽的临床依据.

  9. Effect of Baduanjin exercise on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Guohua; Huang, Maomao; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Moyi; Xia, Rui; Zhou, Wenji; Tao, Jing; CHEN, LIDIAN

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the cognitive changes of normal aging and dementia characterised by a reduction in memory and/or other cognitive processes. An increasing number of studies have indicated that regular physical activity/exercise may have beneficial association with cognitive function of older adults with or without cognitive impairment. As a traditional Chinese Qigong exercise, Baduanjin may be even more beneficial in promoting cogni...

  10. Cognitive reserve and Aβ1-42 in mild cognitive impairment (Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Paula Harris,1,2 Marcos Fernandez Suarez,1 Ezequiel I Surace,1,2 Patricio Chrem Méndez,1 María Eugenia Martín,1 María Florencia Clarens,1 Fernanda Tapajóz,1,2 Maria Julieta Russo,1 Jorge Campos,1 Salvador M Guinjoan,1,2 Gustavo Sevlever,1 Ricardo F Allegri1,2 1Instituto de Investigaciones Neurológicas, 2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve and concentration of Aβ1-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with mild cognitive impairment, those with Alzheimer’s disease, and in control subjects. Methods: Thirty-three participants from the Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database completed a cognitive battery, the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ, and an Argentinian accentuation reading test (TAP-BA as a measure of premorbid intelligence, and underwent lumbar puncture for CSF biomarker quantification. Results: The CRQ significantly correlated with TAP-BA, education, and Aβ1-42. When considering Aβ1-42 levels, significant differences were found in CRQ scores; higher levels of CSF Aβ1-42 were associated with higher CRQ scores. Conclusion: Reduced Aβ1-42 in CSF is considered as evidence of amyloid deposition in the brain. Previous results suggest that individuals with higher education, higher occupational attainment, and participation in leisure activities (cognitive reserve have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Our results support the notion that enhanced neural activity has a protective role in mild cognitive impairment, as evidenced by higher CSF Aβ1-42 levels in individuals with more cognitive reserve. Keywords: amyloid, biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid, Alzheimer’s disease 

  11. Novel Virtual User Models of Mild Cognitive Impairment for Simulating Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segkouli, Sofia; Paliokas, Ioannis; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Tsakiris, Thanos; Tsolaki, Magda; Karagiannidis, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    Virtual user modeling research has attempted to address critical issues of human-computer interaction (HCI) such as usability and utility through a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches as cognitive models in order to provide users with experiences fitting to their specific needs. However, there is demand for more specific modules embodied in cognitive architecture that will detect abnormal cognitive decline across new synthetic task environments. Also, accessibility evaluation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) requires considerable effort for enhancing ICT products accessibility for older adults. The main aim of this study is to develop and test virtual user models (VUM) simulating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through novel specific modules, embodied at cognitive models and defined by estimations of cognitive parameters. Well-established MCI detection tests assessed users' cognition, elaborated their ability to perform multitasks, and monitored the performance of infotainment related tasks to provide more accurate simulation results on existing conceptual frameworks and enhanced predictive validity in interfaces' design supported by increased tasks' complexity to capture a more detailed profile of users' capabilities and limitations. The final outcome is a more robust cognitive prediction model, accurately fitted to human data to be used for more reliable interfaces' evaluation through simulation on the basis of virtual models of MCI users. PMID:26339282

  12. Novel Virtual User Models of Mild Cognitive Impairment for Simulating Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Segkouli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual user modeling research has attempted to address critical issues of human-computer interaction (HCI such as usability and utility through a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches as cognitive models in order to provide users with experiences fitting to their specific needs. However, there is demand for more specific modules embodied in cognitive architecture that will detect abnormal cognitive decline across new synthetic task environments. Also, accessibility evaluation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs requires considerable effort for enhancing ICT products accessibility for older adults. The main aim of this study is to develop and test virtual user models (VUM simulating mild cognitive impairment (MCI through novel specific modules, embodied at cognitive models and defined by estimations of cognitive parameters. Well-established MCI detection tests assessed users’ cognition, elaborated their ability to perform multitasks, and monitored the performance of infotainment related tasks to provide more accurate simulation results on existing conceptual frameworks and enhanced predictive validity in interfaces’ design supported by increased tasks’ complexity to capture a more detailed profile of users’ capabilities and limitations. The final outcome is a more robust cognitive prediction model, accurately fitted to human data to be used for more reliable interfaces’ evaluation through simulation on the basis of virtual models of MCI users.

  13. [Therapeutic correction of mild cognitive impairment in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinak, M M; Kashin, A V; Ememlin, A Iu; Lupanov, I A

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases are the most significant among the main reasons leading to the cognitive impairment of the elderly. Vascular cognitive impairment is not limited to only dementia, representing a heterogeneous group both in pathogenic and clinical terms. The article dwells upon new principles of vascular cognitive impairment's classification and the review of their possible therapeutic correction that was conducted. The article includes the results of the 12-week open therapeutic (randomized with the control group) study of efficiency and safety of vitrum memory for patients with mild vascular cognitive impairment. It is shown that the therapy significantly improved the state of neurodynamic and regulatory functions of the patients with I--II stage dyscirculatory encephalopathy. PMID:23739499

  14. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against oxidative damage and cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zonggang; Luo, Wei; Sun, Xuejun; Hao, Shuyu; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Feifan; Wang, Zhongcheng; Liu, Baiyun

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress is the principal factor in traumatic brain injury (TBI) that initiates events that result in protracted neuronal dysfunction and remodeling. Importantly, antioxidants can protect the brain against oxidative damage and modulate the capacity of the brain to cope with synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment. However, no studies have investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich saline on cognitive deficits after TBI. In the present study, rats with fluid percussion injury (FPI) were used to investigate the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline. The results showed that hydrogen-rich saline reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and elevated the level of silent information regulator 2 (Sir2). In addition, treatment with hydrogen-rich saline, which elevated the levels of molecules associated with brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF)-mediated synaptic plasticity, improved cognitive performance in the Morris water maze after mild TBI. These results suggest that hydrogen-rich saline can protect the brain against the deleterious effects of mild TBI on synaptic plasticity and cognition and that hydrogen-rich saline could be an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with cognitive deficits after TBI. PMID:22742936

  15. Anxiety and behavioural disturbance as markers of prodromal Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2011-02-01

    Depression and anxiety have been reported to be independently predictive of conversion to Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Anxiety symptoms have been less well studied and findings in this regard have been inconsistent. The objectives of this study are to determine which symptoms among a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms known to commonly occur in patients with MCI are predictive of later conversion to AD. We also wish to determine whether these symptoms track existing measures of declining cognitive and functional status or may be considered distinct and sensitive biomarkers of evolving Alzheimer\\'s pathology.

  16. Prediction of time trends in recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Kay; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Wilsgaard, Tom;

    2009-01-01

    . There was significant improvement of performance after 6 months. APOE-epsilon4 genotype was the only independent factor significantly predicting less improvement. CONCLUSION: The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele predicts less recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury....... change. RESULTS: A Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15, traumatic brain injury demonstrated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum S-100B greater than 0.14 microg/L predicted impaired cognitive performance both at baseline and after 6 months; APOE genotype did not...

  17. Severity of mild cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease contributes to poorer quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Rachael A.; Yarnall, Alison J.; Duncan, Gordon W.; Khoo, Tien K.; Breen, David P; Barker, Roger A; Collerton, Daniel; Taylor, John-Paul; Burn, David J

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality of life (QoL) is a feature of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) who develop dementia. The relationship between mild cognitive impairment in PD (PD-MCI) and QoL is less clear. To address this, we studied the impact of varying severities of cognitive impairment on QoL in a cohort of non-demented patients with early PD. Method Patients with newly diagnosed PD (n = 219) and age and sex matched healthy controls (n = 99) completed a schedule of neuropsychological tests, i...

  18. Dependence and caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2011-03-01

    The dependence scale has been designed to be sensitive to the overall care needs of the patient and is considered distinct from standard measures of functional ability in this regard. Little is known regarding the relationship between patient dependence and caregiver burden. We recruited 100 patients with Alzheimer\\'s disease or mild cognitive impairment and their caregivers through a memory clinic. Patient function, dependence, hours of care, cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and caregiver burden were assessed. Dependence was significantly correlated with caregiver burden. Functional decline and dependence were most predictive of caregiver burden in patients with mild impairment while behavioral symptoms were most predictive in patients with moderate to severe disease. The dependence scale demonstrated good utility as a predictor of caregiver burden. Interventions to reduce caregiver burden should address patient dependence, functional decline, and behavioral symptoms while successful management of the latter becomes more critical with disease progression.

  19. Dosimetry of patients submitted to cerebral PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de; Bernardes, Felipe Dias; Mamede, Marcelo, E-mail: pridili@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mourao, Arnaldo Prata [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Teogenes Augusto da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the effective radiation dose in patients submitted to PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Materials and methods: TLD-100 detectors inserted into an Alderson Rando® anthropomorphic phantom were utilized to measure the absorbed dose coming from the CT imaging modality. The anthropomorphic phantoms (male and female adult versions) were submitted to the same technical protocols for patients’ images acquisition. The absorbed dose resulting from the radiopharmaceutical injection was estimated by means of the model proposed by the ICRP publication 106. Results: the effective dose in patients submitted to this diagnostic technique was approximately (5.34 ± 1.99) mSv. Conclusion: optimized protocols for calculation of radioactive activity injected into patients submitted to this diagnostic technique might contribute to reduce the effective radiation dose resulting from PET/CT in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  20. Dosimetry of patients submitted to cerebral PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the effective radiation dose in patients submitted to PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Materials and methods: TLD-100 detectors inserted into an Alderson Rando® anthropomorphic phantom were utilized to measure the absorbed dose coming from the CT imaging modality. The anthropomorphic phantoms (male and female adult versions) were submitted to the same technical protocols for patients’ images acquisition. The absorbed dose resulting from the radiopharmaceutical injection was estimated by means of the model proposed by the ICRP publication 106. Results: the effective dose in patients submitted to this diagnostic technique was approximately (5.34 ± 1.99) mSv. Conclusion: optimized protocols for calculation of radioactive activity injected into patients submitted to this diagnostic technique might contribute to reduce the effective radiation dose resulting from PET/CT in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  1. CSF Biomarkers and Incipient Alzheimer Disease in Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Ewers, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Context Small single-center studies have shown that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may be useful to identify incipient Alzheimer disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but large-scale multicenter studies have not been conducted. Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of CSF beta-amyloid(1-42) (A beta 42), total tau protein (T-tau), and tau phosphorylated at position threonine 181 (P-tau) for predicting incipient AD in patients with MCI. Design, Se...

  2. Development of dementia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with focus on B-vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Annerbo, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focused on the importance of low B-vitamins, hyperhomocysteinemia and the development of dementia and Alzheimer´s disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relation between vitamin B12 /folate and dementia has been extensively investigated, but the results are inconsistent. The connection of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and dementia is also explored in a lot of studies but neither here is a consensus found. The active fraction of ...

  3. Complexity analysis of electroencephalogram in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐梅松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Lemple-Zie complexity (LZC) characteristics in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) ,mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly,and the possibility of differentiating AD,MCI and normal elderly by LZC.Methods Electroencephalogram (EEG) of 30 AD patients,30 MCI patients and 20normal elderly with eyes closed in rest state were recorded.In acquired EEG data,2 048 points (10.14 s) of

  4. Cognitive Behavioral Performance of Untreated Depressed Patients with Mild Depressive Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Li

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the working memory performance of 18 patients experiencing their first onset of mild depression without treatment and 18 healthy matched controls. The results demonstrated that working memory impairment in patients with mild depression occurred when memorizing the position of a picture but not when memorizing the pictures themselves. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the emotional impact on the working memory, indicating that the attenuation of spatial working memory was not affected by negative emotion; however, cognitive control selectively affected spatial working memory. In addition, the accuracy of spatial working memory in the depressed patients was not significantly reduced, but the reaction time was significantly extended compared with the healthy controls. This finding indicated that there was no damage to memory encoding and function maintenance in the patients but rather only impaired memory retrieval, suggesting that the extent of damage to the working memory system and cognitive control abilities was associated with the corresponding depressive symptoms. The development of mild to severe depressive symptoms may be accompanied by spatial working memory damage from the impaired memory retrieval function extending to memory encoding and memory retention impairments. In addition, the impaired cognitive control began with an inadequate capacity to automatically process internal negative emotions and further extended to impairment of the ability to regulate and suppress external emotions. The results of the mood-congruent study showed that the memory of patients with mild symptoms of depression was associated with a mood-congruent memory effect, demonstrating that mood-congruent memory was a typical feature of depression, regardless of the severity of depression. This study provided important information for understanding the development of cognitive dysfunction.

  5. Profile of hippocampal volumes and stroke risk varies by neuropsychological definition of mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Jak, Amy J.; URBAN, STEPHANIE; McCAULEY, ASHLEY; Bangen, Katherine J.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Bondi, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Wide-ranging conceptual and diagnostic approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have led to highly variable prevalence and progression rates. We sought to examine whether bilateral hippocampal volumes and cerebrovascular risk factors in individuals characterized by two different neuropsychological definitions of MCI subtypes would also differ. Participants were 65 nondemented, community-dwelling, older adults, ages 62–91 years, drawn from a larger group of individuals enrolled i...

  6. All subtypes of mild cognitive impairment are impaired in episodic-like memory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Kamil; Laczó, J.; Vajnerová, O.; Ort, Michael; Vyhnálek, M.; Hort, Jan

    Praha: The Czech Neuroscience Society, 2007. s. 78-78. [Conference of the Czech Neuroscience Society /6./. 19.11.2007-20.11.2007, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : spo2 * mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer 's disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  7. PA01.42. New alternative therapies in mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Podea, Delia Marina; Mila, Camelia; Blaj, Maria Magdalena; ,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a frequent clinical entity, considered today to be a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's dementia, but not having until now a standardized pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study is to follow the outcome of the patients diagnosed with MCI non treated and treated with nootropics, alternative herbal agents, and cholinesterase inhibitors. Method: The study comprises a number of 200 patients (over 60 years) diagnosed with MCI. The patients were eval...

  8. Frontal Dysfunction Underlies Depression in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A FDG-PET Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye Sook; Choo, IL Han; Lee, Dong Young; Kim, Jee Wook; Seo, Eun Hyun; Kim, Shin Gyeom; Park, Shin Young; Shin, Ji Hye; Kim, Ki Woong; Woo, Jong Inn

    2010-01-01

    Objective Depression is a very common symptom in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and in those with clinically evident AD. Moreover, MCI individuals with depression show a higher conversion rate to clinical AD than those without depression. This study aimed to elucidate the functional neuroanatomical substrate of depression in MCI. Methods Thirty-six patients were recruited from a University Hospital-based cohort; 18 of these subjec...

  9. Various MRS Application Tools for Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gao; Barker, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    MR spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique that allows the detection of several naturally occurring compounds (metabolites) from well-defined regions of interest within the human brain. Alzheimer disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. During the past 20 years, multiple studies have been performed on MR spectroscopy in patients with both mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Generally, MR spectroscopy studies have foun...

  10. Treating vascular mild cognitive impairment by acupuncture: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the effect and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of vascular mild cognitive impairment(VMCI).Methods Recruited were China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database(CNKI)(1979—2012),Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database(VIP)(1989—2012),Chinese Biomedical Database(CBM),Wanfang degree and conference papers database(1985—2012),PubMed Database(1966—2012),and The Cochrane Library(Issue 1,2012).The search date ended in

  11. Neural correlates of spatial navigation changes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Kamil; Laczó, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, Mar 17 (2014), s. 89. ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.100/02/0123 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spatial navigation * Alzheimer’s disease * spatial disorientation * brain changes * mild cognitive impairment Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  12. A study on the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment using a co-occurrence matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the possibility of making an objective diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. An image of the cerebral parenchyma was created from original MR images, and the brain, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the amount of the features from the co-occurrence matrix were measured. When the brain-intracranial ratio, hippocampus-intracranial ratio, and parahippocampal-intracranial ratio were computed, a significant difference was not detected. Discriminant analysis using the hippocampus-intracranial ratio and parahippocampal-intracranial ratio showed an overall accuracy of 63.8%. These are not sufficient results to use clinically. Therefore it is possible to make an objective diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment using the co-occurrence matrix. A statistically significant difference was found in 8 of the 13 features obtained from the co-occurrence matrix. Moreover, discriminant analysis using the eight features showed an overall accuracy of 85.1%. These results indicate that they can be used as an objective diagnostic technique for mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  13. Independent and Interactive Influences of the APOE Genotype and Beta-Amyloid Burden on Cognitive Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Sang Hag; Kang, Seong-Ho; Choo, Il Han

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the independent and interactive influences of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and beta-amyloid (Aβ) on multiple cognitive domains in a large group of cognitively normal (CN) individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants were included if clinical and cognitive assessments, amyloid imaging, and APOE genotype were all available from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database (CN = 324, MCI = 502, AD = 182). Individuals with one or two copies of ε4 were designated as APOE ε4 carriers (ε4+); individuals with no ε4 were designated as APOE ε4 non-carriers (ε4-). Based on mean florbetapir standard uptake value ratios, participants were classified as Aβ burden-positive (Aβ+) or Aβ burden-negative (Aβ-). In MCI, APOE ε4 effects were predominantly observed on frontal executive function, with ε4+ participants exhibiting poorer performances; Aβ positivity had no influence on this effect. Aβ effects were observed on global cognition, memory, and visuospatial ability, with Aβ+ participants exhibiting poorer performances. Measures of frontal executive function were not influenced by Aβ. Interactive effects of APOE ε4+ and Aβ were observed on global cognition and verbal recognition memory. Aβ, not APOE ε4+, influenced clinical severity and functional status. The influences of APOE ε4+ and Aβ on cognitive function were minimal in CN and AD. In conclusion, we provide further evidence of both independent and interactive influences of APOE ε4+ and Aβ on cognitive function in MCI, with APOE ε4+ and Aβ showing dissociable effects on executive and non-executive functions, respectively. PMID:26839485

  14. Cognitive Reserve in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Importance of Occupational Complexity as a Buffer of Declining Cognition in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldberg Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve is the ability to optimize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks, which may reflect the use of alternative cognitive strategies. Work is one of the most important sources of cognitive stimulation during adulthood. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents an intermediate status between normal aging and dementia. As a consequence, this is considered a risk group regarding cognition. In order to study the probable association between occupational complexity and cognitive performance in a group of patients with MCI, a non-probabilistic intentional sample was dispensed on a group of 80 patients. Occupational complexity was explored by the Questionnaire on Agency of Labor Activity (CAAL, according to its acronym in Spanish and a set of neuropsychological tests, which assessed cognitive performance in different areas: memory, attention, language and executive function, were administered. Results reveal that occupational complexity is associated to cognitive performance of elderly adults with MCI. With respect to working with Data, an increase in neuropsychological tests that demand high levels of attention and imply processing speed and working memory can be noted. Regarding the complexity of working with People, an association between the level of occupational complexity and an increase in verbal abilities and verbal reasoning can be seen. On the other hand, working with Things could be associated with better performance in specific areas of cognition such as visuospatial abilities. These results add up as empirical evidence to the fields of cognitive neurology and gerontology and to the cognitive reserve hypothesis, showing how complex environments can enhance cognition in old age. It adds evidence that help to understand which psychological, social and labor factors intervene in the cognitive reserve of an elder adult in cognitive risk.

  15. Mild cognitive impairment. Diagnostic value of different MR techniques; ''Mild cognitive impairment''. Diagnostische Wertigkeit verschiedener MR-Techniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, T.; Stieltjes, B.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung E010 Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Thomann, P.A. [Zentrum fuer Psychosoziale Medizin, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, AG Strukturelle Bildgebung, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Psychiatrie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    In view of an increasingly aging population the prevalence of dementia is also expected to increase rapidly. As well as clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia which is important in the precursor stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). On the one hand this stage is associated with an increased risk of dementia and on the other hand an early treatment in this stage could attenuate development of the disease. In addition to morphological changes different functional MRI techniques can help in the early diagnosis of dementia and the precursor stages. Moreover, it is important to detect those MCI patients who are at particularly risk for developing dementia. In the differentiation of converters to non-converters initial studies suggest that particularly voxel-based morphometry, MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide important additional information. (orig.) [German] Angesichts einer immer aelter werdenden Bevoelkerung sind wir mit dem Problem einer zunehmenden Zahl an Patienten mit Demenzerkrankungen konfrontiert. In der Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz spielen neben klinischen, neuropsychologischen und laborchemischen Untersuchungen nichtinvasive Bildgebungsverfahren wie die MRT eine bedeutende Rolle. Wichtig ist dabei die Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz bereits im Vorstadium der leichten kognitiven Beeintraechtigung (''mild cognitive impairment'', MCI), da dieses Krankheitsbild mit einem deutlich erhoehten Demenzrisiko einhergeht und durch eine fruehzeitige Therapie der Krankheitsverlauf abgemildert oder deutlich verzoegert werden kann. Neben morphologischen Veraenderungen helfen verschiedene funktionelle MR-Verfahren bei der Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz. Darueber hinaus ist es von grosser Bedeutung, diejenigen MCI-Patienten zu detektieren, die in besonderem Masse von einer Demenz bedroht sind. Bei der Differenzierung von

  16. Self-reported Exhaustion is Associated with Small Life Space in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Uemura, Kazuki; Ando, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Older adults experience exhaustion-induced health problems, such as poor physical function and low physical activity levels. The associations between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity are not clear in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported exhaustion and physical function and activity in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. [Subjects] A total of 356 older ad...

  17. Self-awareness in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Quantitative evidence from systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Federica; Piras, Fabrizio; Orfei, Maria Donata; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-02-01

    Here we quantitatively summarized evidence of impaired awareness in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and meta-analytically explored the relationship between Subjective Cognitive Complaints (SCC) and actual cognitive impairment. Twenty-three studies were included, 14 comparing awareness measures in MCI and healthy elderly subjects, and 16 also exploring the neuropsychological underpinnings of impaired awareness. Moderator analyses were conducted to determine whether self-awareness varied according to patient group, the particular state in relation to which insight was assessed, or the approach to measuring awareness. The meta-analysis shows that MCI patients have knowledge of their neuropsychological deficits and that level of awareness varies according to cognitive status, language and memory abilities. The assessment technique employed impacted on the insight phenomena. Specifically, MCI patients seem particularly accurate in evaluating the current state of their performance during an ongoing task and this could be essential in regulating their behavior so that compensative strategies are practiced and greater cognitive independence is achieved. Thus, assessment technique and cognitive status are crucial factors that influence level of awareness and should be taken into consideration in awareness evaluation and rehabilitation. PMID:26639655

  18. Eye Blink Rate as a biological marker of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, Aristea; Frantzidis, Christos; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Vivas, Ana B

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between dopamine activity (DA), as measured by Eye Blink Rate (EBR), and cognitive function in old adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. Research has been inconclusive so far about the factors responsible for the transition from MCI to dementia. However, some studies suggest that cortical hyperexcitability in very early stages of pathological aging may progressively lead to cell death, and thus to Alzheimer's disease. Hence, we speculated that a dysfunction of DA activity, as measured by EBR, may characterize people with MCI, and account for their poor cognitive function. Thirty three (33) healthy and thirty six (36) old adults with MCI (Mean age = 67.52 y.o.) participated in this study. The EBR was recorded under resting conditions, using two gold skin electrodes above and below the left eye. Cognitive function was assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Participants with MCI showed significantly higher EBR than the healthy controls. Also, EBR was negatively related to scores on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA) test. We propose that abnormally increased dopamine activity, as indexed by relatively high EBR, may be partially responsible for the neurotransmitter imbalance in the central nervous system of people with MCI, and the overall impaired cognitive performance. In addition, this finding suggests that an abnormally high EBR may be a potential biomarker of the transition from healthy aging to dementia. PMID:23912068

  19. Working memory and executive function decline across normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirova, Anna-Mariya; Bays, Rebecca B; Lagalwar, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease marked by deficits in episodic memory, working memory (WM), and executive function. Examples of executive dysfunction in AD include poor selective and divided attention, failed inhibition of interfering stimuli, and poor manipulation skills. Although episodic deficits during disease progression have been widely studied and are the benchmark of a probable AD diagnosis, more recent research has investigated WM and executive function decline during mild cognitive impairment (MCI), also referred to as the preclinical stage of AD. MCI is a critical period during which cognitive restructuring and neuroplasticity such as compensation still occur; therefore, cognitive therapies could have a beneficial effect on decreasing the likelihood of AD progression during MCI. Monitoring performance on working memory and executive function tasks to track cognitive function may signal progression from normal cognition to MCI to AD. The present review tracks WM decline through normal aging, MCI, and AD to highlight the behavioral and neurological differences that distinguish these three stages in an effort to guide future research on MCI diagnosis, cognitive therapy, and AD prevention. PMID:26550575

  20. Using Virtual Reality to Characterize Episodic Memory Profiles in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: Influence of Active and Passive Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, G.; Tirard, A.; Gyselinck, V.; Nicolas, S.; Piolino, P.

    2012-01-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments of episodic memory bear little similarity to the events that patients actually experience as memories in daily life. The first aim of this study was to use a virtual environment to characterize episodic memory profiles in an ecological fashion, which includes memory for central and perceptual details,…

  1. Exercise-Induced Cognitive Plasticity, Implications for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Philip P.; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Kuljiš, Rodrigo O.

    2011-01-01

    Lifestyle factors such as intellectual stimulation, cognitive and social engagement, nutrition, and various types of exercise appear to reduce the risk for common age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia. In fact, many studies have suggested that promoting physical activity can have a protective effect against cognitive deterioration later in life. Slowing or a deterioration of walking speed is associated with a poor performance in tests assessing psycho...

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status Enhances the Prevention of Cognitive Decline by B Vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Jernerén, Fredrik; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David; de Jager, Celeste A

    2015-01-01

    A randomized trial (VITACOG) in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) found that B vitamin treatment to lower homocysteine slowed the rate of cognitive and clinical decline. We have used data from this trial to see whether baseline omega-3 fatty acid status interacts with the effects of B vitamin treatment. 266 participants with MCI aged ≥70 years were randomized to B vitamins (folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12) or placebo for 2 years. Baseline cognitive test performance, clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine, total docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (omega-3 fatty acids) were measured. Final scores for verbal delayed recall, global cognition, and CDR sum-of-boxes were better in the B vitamin-treated group according to increasing baseline concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, whereas scores in the placebo group were similar across these concentrations. Among those with good omega-3 status, 33% of those on B vitamin treatment had global CDR scores >0 compared with 59% among those on placebo. For all three outcome measures, higher concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid alone significantly enhanced the cognitive effects of B vitamins, while eicosapentaenoic acid appeared less effective. When omega-3 fatty acid concentrations are low, B vitamin treatment has no effect on cognitive decline in MCI, but when omega-3 levels are in the upper normal range, B vitamins interact to slow cognitive decline. A clinical trial of B vitamins combined with omega-3 fatty acids is needed to see whether it is possible to slow the conversion from MCI to AD. PMID:26757190

  3. Changes over time in memory, processing speed and clock drawing tests help to discriminate between vascular cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Celeste A

    2004-07-01

    Measures of cognitive change over time may help to better discriminate between mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and vascular cognitive impairment than single assessments. Our hypothesis was that performance in processing speed and executive function would decline with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Subjects included 36 controls, 18 cases with mild cognitive impairment, eight with vascular cognitive impairment and 24 with Alzheimer's disease who were tested on a cognitive battery at two episodes with a 12-month interval. Changes in performance were determined for each group with paired means tests. Controls improved in pattern comparison speed and the CLOX, a clock-drawing task to detect dysexecutive function. Those with vascular cognitive impairment declined in letter comparison speed, but improved in paragraph recall. Alzheimer's disease patients declined in CLOX and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. The mild cognitive impairment group showed no significant changes. Alzheimer's disease patients on treatment declined in Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, while those without treatment declined in The Placing Test and CLOX. Processing speed decline may be a marker of cerebrovascular disease, while decline in memory and executive function was more evident with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:15362213

  4. 遗忘型轻度认知功能损害患者认知特征与低密度脂蛋白受体相关蛋白1基因的关联研究%Cognitive function and LRP1 gene C766T polymorphism in amuestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施咏梅; 张志珺; 宇辉; 柏峰; 袁勇责; 邓玲珑

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between neuropsychological characteristics and low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) gene C766T polymorphism in amnestic mild cognitive impair-ment (Amci). Methods 109 Amci patients and 104 matched normal controls were recruited for the study. Multi-dimension neuropsychologic tests were used to extensively assess the cognitive function. Assay-on-demand was used to analyse LRP1 gene C766T polymorphism in the subjects. Results The scores of neuropsychologic tests in Amci patients were significantly lower than those in the normal controls ( all P0.05). Conclusion Amci is characterized by episodic memory impairment;and LRP1 gene C766T polymorphism may not be an important genetic factor in susceptibility to aMCI.%目的 探讨遗忘型轻度认知功能损害(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)的认知特征及其与低密度脂蛋白受体相关蛋白1(low density lipoprotein receptor related protein1,LRP1)基因C766T多态性的关联性.方法 应用多维度神经心理测试评估109例aMCI患者和104例正常对照者的神经认知功能;采用等位基因鉴别方法分析LRPI基因C766T多态性.结果 aMCI组的各项神经认知测试成绩均显著差于正常对照组(P0.05).aMCI组LRP1基因C766T等位基因亚组间各神经认知测试成绩差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论 aMCI患者存在明显的情节记忆减退;LRP1基因C766T多态性不是aMCI主要的遗传风险因素.

  5. Anatomical substrates and neurocognitive predictors of daily numerical abilities in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Burgio, Francesca; Meneghello, Francesca; De Marco, Matteo; Arcara, Giorgio; Rigon, Jessica; Pilosio, Cristina; Butterworth, Brian; Venneri, Annalena; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment experience difficulties in mathematics that affect their functioning in the activities of everyday life. What are the associated anatomical brain changes and the cognitive correlates underlying such deficits? In the present study, 33 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI) and 29 cognitively normal controls underwent volumetric MRI, and completed the standardized battery of Numerical Activities of Daily Living (NADL) along with a comprehensive clinical neuropsychological assessment. Group differences were examined on the numerical tasks and volumetric brain measures. The gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volume correlates were also evaluated. The results showed that relative to controls, the MCI group had impairments in number comprehension, transcoding, written operations, and in daily activities involving time estimation and money usage. In the volumetric measures, group differences emerged for the transcoding subtask in the left insula and left superior temporal gyrus. Among MCI patients, number comprehension and formal numerical performance were correlated with volumetric variability in the right middle occipital areas and right frontal gyrus. Money-usage scores showed significant correlations with left mesial frontal cortex, right superior frontal and right superior temporal cortex. Regression models revealed that neuropsychological measures of long-term memory, language, visuo-spatial abilities, and abstract reasoning were predictive of the patients' decline in daily activities. The present findings suggest that early neuropathology in distributed cortical regions of the brain including frontal, temporal and occipital areas leads to a breakdown of cognitive abilities in MCI that impacts on numerical daily functioning. The findings have implications for diagnosis, clinical and domestic care of patients with MCI. PMID:26159324

  6. Exercise-induced cognitive plasticity, implications for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Foster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors such as intellectual stimulation, cognitive and social engagement, nutrition, and various types of exercise appear to reduce the risk for common age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia. In fact, many studies have suggested that promoting physical activity can have a protective effect against cognitive deterioration later in life. Slowing or a deterioration of walking speed is associated with a poor performance in tests assessing psychomotor speed and verbal fluency in elderly individuals. Fitness training influences a wide range of cognitive processes, and the largest positive impact observed is for executive (a.k.a. frontal lobe functions. Studies show that exercise improves additional cognitive functions such as tasks mediated by the hippocampus, and result in major changes in plasticity in the hippocampus. Interestingly, this exercise-induced plasticity is also pronounced in APOE ε4 carriers who express a risk factor for late-onset AD that may modulate the effect of treatments. Based on AD staging by Braak et al., we propose that the effects of exercise occur in two temporo-spatial continua of events. The inward continuum from isocortex (neocortex to entorhinal cortex/hippocampus for amyloidosis and a reciprocal outward continuum for neurofibrillary alterations. The exercise-induced hypertrophy of the hippocampus at the core of these continua is evaluated in terms of potential for prevention to stave off neuronal degeneration. Exercise-induced production of growth factors such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to enhance neurogenesis and to play a key role in positive cognitive effects. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 may mediate the exercise-induced response to exercise on BDNF, neurogenesis and cognitive performance. It is also postulated to regulate brain amyloid β (Aβ levels by increased clearance via the choroid plexus. Growth factors

  7. Can outbred mice be used as a mouse model of mild cognitive impairment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Wenhua Xu; Chao Wang; Dewu Huang; Guihai Chen

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in spatial learning and memory are some of the earliest symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there are few valid MCI animal models available to evaluate putative therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to obtain a natural animal model of MCI. Outbred Kunming (aged 5 and 12.5 months) and ICR (7 and 12 months) mice were utilized in the present study. Morris water maze and radial six-arm water maze (RAWM) were simultaneously used to evaluate impaired spatial learning and memory in middle-aged mice (approximately 12 months of age). Compared with younger mice in the respective groups, the middle-aged mice suffered visible impairment of spatial memory in the Morris water maze and RAWM, and mild spatial learning deficiency occurred in the RAWM study alone. Thus outbred Kunming and ICR mice could be utilized as a natural animal model for MCI, in particular for memory impairment studies.

  8. Profile of hippocampal volumes and stroke risk varies by neuropsychological definition of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Amy J; Urban, Stephanie; McCauley, Ashley; Bangen, Katherine J; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Bondi, Mark W

    2009-11-01

    Wide-ranging conceptual and diagnostic approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have led to highly variable prevalence and progression rates. We sought to examine whether bilateral hippocampal volumes and cerebrovascular risk factors in individuals characterized by two different neuropsychological definitions of MCI subtypes would also differ. Participants were 65 nondemented, community-dwelling, older adults, ages 62-91 years, drawn from a larger group of individuals enrolled in a longitudinal study of normal aging. A comprehensive neuropsychological definition of MCI that required the presence of more than one impaired score in a cognitive domain resulted in expected anatomical results; hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller in the aMCI group as compared to cognitively normal or nonamnestic MCI participants. However, a typical definitional scheme for classifying MCI based only on the presence of one impaired score within a cognitive domain did not result in hippocampal differences between groups. Global stroke risk factors did not differ between the two definitional schemes, although the relationship between stroke risk variables and neuropsychological performance did vary by diagnostic approach. The comprehensive approach demonstrated associations between stroke risk and cognition, whereas the typical approach did not. Use of more sophisticated clinical decision-making and diagnostic approaches that incorporate comprehensive neuropsychological assessment techniques is supported by this convergence of neuropsychological, neuropathological, and stroke risk findings. PMID:19570306

  9. Prevalence and associated behavioral symptoms of depression in mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Bekelaar, Kim; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of significant depressive symptoms in MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pati

  10. Positron emission tomography in at risk patients and in the progression of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinne, Juha O; Någren, Kjell

    2010-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional state between the cognitive changes of normal aging and the earliest clinical features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). An important goal is to find features that predict which MCI patients will later convert to AD. Identification of such...

  11. Do We Need Both Cognitive and Behavioural Components in Interventions for Depressed Mood in People with Mild Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, J. A.; Kershaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A growing literature suggests that people with mild intellectual disability (ID) who have depressed mood may benefit from cognitive--behavioural interventions. There has been some speculation regarding the relative merit of the components of this approach. The aim of this study was to compare (i) cognitive strategies; (ii) behavioural…

  12. Electroconvulsive stimulation reverses anhedonia and cognitive impairments in rats exposed to chronic mild stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    K, Henningsen,; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker; Wiborg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    reverse a depression-like state in the chronic mild stress model of depression (CMS), but the effect of ECS on cognition has not previously been investigated. In this study the CMS model was used to induce a depressive-like condition in rats. The study was designed to investigate the acute effect of ECS...... treatment on working memory and the chronic effect of repeated ECS treatments on depression-like behavior and working memory. The results indicated that, in the acute phase, ECS treatment induced a working memory deficit in healthy controls unexposed to stress, while repeated treatments reversed stress...

  13. Design of a prototype device for remote patient care with mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ocampo, M.; Segura-Giraldo, B.; Floréz-Hurtado, R.; Cortés-Aguirre, C.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a prototype telecare system, which allows to provide home care to patients with mild cognitive impairment and thus ensures their permanence in their usual environment. Telecare is oriented towards people who require constant attention due to conditions of advanced age, illness, physical risk or limited capabilities. Telecare offers these people a greater degree of independence. QFD methodology is used to develop electronic devices intended to monitor the environment and physiological state of the user continuously, providing communication between the telecare system and a monitoring center in order to take the most appropriate actions in any abnormal event.

  14. Optimizing the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Koikkalainen, Juha;

    2012-01-01

    the disease. Several studies have analyzed data of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, showing that conversion from MCI to AD can be predicted with a classification accuracy of 60-80%. This accuracy may not be high enough for influencing diagnostic decisions. In this work, the prediction problem...... diagnosed cases. It is shown that the disease index values derived from heterogeneous patient data can be used for identifying groups of patients for whom the prediction accuracy reaches the previously set target level. The results also show that 12 months before receiving clinical AD diagnoses...

  15. Episodic-like memory impairment in subtypes of mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Kamil; Laczó, J.; Vajnerová, O.; Ort, Michael; Vyhnálek, M.; Hort, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, - (2007), s. 69-69. ISSN 0792-8483. [Annual general meeting of the European Brain and Behaviour Society /39./. 15.09.2007-19.09.2007, Trieste] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/0693; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer's disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  16. The clock drawing test as a screening tool in mild cognitive impairment and very mild dementia: a new brief method of scoring and normative data in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Monica; Pigliautile, Martina; D'Ambrosio, Valeria; Ercolani, Sara; Bianchini, Cinzia; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Vanacore, Nicola; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2016-06-01

    many studies sustained that the clock drawing test (CDT) was not able to accurately detect people with CDR = 0.5. Other researchers have promoted the use of scoring approaches with multiple scales that rate quantitative and qualitative features of the production. Nevertheless, these scoring systems are complex and time-consuming. We propose a new brief CDT' scoring system in order to find a good measure for mild cognitive decline which is at the same time easy to administer. we enrolled 719 subjects: n. 181 with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD); n. 200 with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and n. 338 healthy elderly subjects (C). our CDT-three-cluster scoring system demonstrated a good sensitivity and an excellent specificity to discriminate MCI subjects from normal elderly (76 and 84 %, respectively) and an excellent sensitivity and specificity to discriminate patients affected by mild Alzheimer disease (CDR: 1) from normal elderly (91 and 90 %, respectively). We found that CDT' score = 1.30 discriminate people with MCI, whereas a score = 4.38 discriminate AD patients. The three-cluster-scoring-system demonstrated a good diagnostic accuracy, taking into account those error-items more predictive of cognitive decline: omission of numbers or hands, writing numbers or hands in a wrong position and writing numbers or hands in a different code. Our CDT' scoring system is very short and easy method which can be used also by non-specialist. PMID:26863871

  17. [Multi-channel Synchronization Analysis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Type 2 Diabetes Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dong; Liu, Jing; Bian, Zhijie; Wang, Jinhuan; Li, Qiuli; Li, Xiaoli; Wang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    The cognitive impairment of type 2 diabetes patients caused by long-term metabolic disorders has been the current focus of attention. In order to find the related electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics to the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of diabetes patients, this study analyses the EEG synchronization with the method of multichannel synchronization analysis--S estimator based on phase synchronization. The results showed that the S estimator values in each frequency band of diabetes patients with MCI were almost lower than that of control group. Especially, the S estimator values decreased significantly in the delta and alpha band, which indicated the EEG synchronization decrease. The MoCA scores and S value had a significant positive correlation in alpha band. PMID:26211240

  18. A new methodology for automated diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezquita-Sanchez, Juan P; Adeli, Anahita; Adeli, Hojjat

    2016-05-15

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a cognitive disorder characterized by memory impairment, greater than expected by age. A new methodology is presented to identify MCI patients during a working memory task using MEG signals. The methodology consists of four steps: In step 1, the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) is used to decompose the MEG signal into a set of adaptive sub-bands according to its contained frequency information. In step 2, a nonlinear dynamics measure based on permutation entropy (PE) analysis is employed to analyze the sub-bands and detect features to be used for MCI detection. In step 3, an analysis of variation (ANOVA) is used for feature selection. In step 4, the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN) classifier is applied to the selected features to distinguish between MCI and healthy patients. The usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed methodology are validated using the sensed MEG data obtained experimentally from 18 MCI and 19 control patients. PMID:26940603

  19. Implementation of Segmentation Methods for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting seniors age 65 and over. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with behavioural assessments and cognitive tests, often followed by a brain scan. Advanced medical imaging is a good tool to predict conversion from prodromal stages (mild cognitive impairment) to Alzheimer's disease. Since volumetric MRI can detect changes in the size of brain regions, measuring those regions that atrophy during the progress of Alzheimer's disease can help the neurologist in his diagnostic. In the present investigation, we present an automatic tool that reads volumetric MRI and performs 2-dimensional (volume slices) and volumetric segmentation methods in order to segment gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used the MRI data sets database from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS).

  20. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review...... is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to February 2015. We included intervention studies investigating the effect of physical exercise activity on biomarkers...... with controls. CONCLUSION: Although few studies suggest a beneficial effect on selected biomarkers, we need more knowledge of the biochemical effect of physical exercise in dementia or MCI....

  1. Simulator Measures and Identification of Older Drivers With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Sophia; Dickerson, Anne E; Beratis, Ion; Yannis, George; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether a sign recall task on a driving simulator, self-report of driving ability, or age predicted differences in performance between drivers with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control participants. For the dependent measure, gathered using a driving simulator, working memory was subjected to interference at varying levels of driving task demands. Reliable between-groups differences in sign recall accuracy were demonstrated; recall declined under higher task demands. Recall scores, self-reported frequency of avoiding driving, and driver age did not predict MCI; only self-reported decline in global driving ability was significant. Findings support the use of driving simulators in practice and suggest that screening for age-related cognitive impairment should incorporate self-reported changes in driving proficiency for early identification of drivers who merit medical review. The results, although exploratory, have implications for practitioners. PMID:26943111

  2. Implementation of Segmentation Methods for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoug, S.; Abdel-Dayem, A.

    2012-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting seniors age 65 and over. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with behavioural assessments and cognitive tests, often followed by a brain scan. Advanced medical imaging is a good tool to predict conversion from prodromal stages (mild cognitive impairment) to Alzheimer's disease. Since volumetric MRI can detect changes in the size of brain regions, measuring those regions that atrophy during the progress of Alzheimer's disease can help the neurologist in his diagnostic. In the present investigation, we present an automatic tool that reads volumetric MRI and performs 2-dimensional (volume slices) and volumetric segmentation methods in order to segment gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used the MRI data sets database from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS).

  3. Prevalence and Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Xi’an: A Community-Based Study among the Elders

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Xiangni; Shang, Lei; Xu, Qiaoling; Li, Nannan; Chen, Jianhua; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Lei; Hua, Qianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between normal cognitive function and dementia among aging individuals. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of MCI and explore the possible risk factors including gender disparities among community-dwelling older individuals. The study was conducted in Xi’an, China. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 815 individuals, 60 years and older were selected by stratified random cluster sampling. Cognitive function was me...

  4. Hubungan Antara Psychological Distress Dengan Mild Cognitive Impairment Pada Pasien Lanjut Usia Dengan Nyeri Punggung Bawah Kronik

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Irina Kemala

    2014-01-01

    Background In old age, some people exhibit cognitive impairment yet do not meet criteria for dementia. This state, most commonly referred to as mild cognitive impairment. In large prospective studies, higher level of chronic distress has been associated with cognitive decline and risk of AD in older person initially free of dementia. Here we test the hypothesis that psychological distress is associated with increased incidence of MCI in old age. Methods In all 30 patients with chroni...

  5. Altered oscillation and synchronization of default-mode network activity in mild Alzheimer's disease compared to mild cognitive impairment: an electrophysiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jung Hsiao

    Full Text Available Some researchers have suggested that the default mode network (DMN plays an important role in the pathological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine whether the cortical activities in DMN regions show significant difference between mild AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI, electrophysiological responses were analyzed from 21 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and 21 mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients during an eyes closed, resting-state condition. The spectral power and functional connectivity of the DMN were estimated using a minimum norm estimate (MNE combined with fast Fourier transform and imaginary coherence analysis. Our results indicated that source-based EEG maps of resting-state activity showed alterations of cortical spectral power in mild AD when compared to MCI. These alterations are characteristic of attenuated alpha or beta activities in the DMN, as are enhanced delta or theta activities in the medial temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. With regard to altered synchronization in AD, altered functional interconnections were observed as specific connectivity patterns of connection hubs in the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and medial temporal regions. Moreover, posterior theta and alpha power and altered connectivity in the medial temporal lobe correlated significantly with scores obtained on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. In conclusion, EEG is a useful tool for investigating the DMN in the brain and differentiating early stage AD and MCI patients. This is a promising finding; however, further large-scale studies are needed.

  6. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: correlation with regional grey matter volume loss revealed by diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Takayama, Yukihisa; Kamano, Norihiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi [Kyushu University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Monji, Akira; Kawashima, Toshiro [Kyushu University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    To determine which brain regions are relevant to deterioration in abstract reasoning as measured by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) in the context of dementia. MR images of 37 consecutive patients including 19 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered the CPM. Regional grey matter (GM) volume was evaluated according to the regimens of voxel-based morphometry, during which a non-linear registration algorithm called Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra was employed. Multiple regression analyses were used to map the regions where GM volumes were correlated with CPM scores. The strongest correlation with CPM scores was seen in the left middle frontal gyrus while a region with the largest volume was identified in the left superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations were seen in 14 additional regions in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres and right cerebellum. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in AD and aMCI measured by CPM is related to GM loss in multiple regions, which is in close agreement with the results of previous activation studies. (orig.)

  7. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: correlation with regional grey matter volume loss revealed by diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine which brain regions are relevant to deterioration in abstract reasoning as measured by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) in the context of dementia. MR images of 37 consecutive patients including 19 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered the CPM. Regional grey matter (GM) volume was evaluated according to the regimens of voxel-based morphometry, during which a non-linear registration algorithm called Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra was employed. Multiple regression analyses were used to map the regions where GM volumes were correlated with CPM scores. The strongest correlation with CPM scores was seen in the left middle frontal gyrus while a region with the largest volume was identified in the left superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations were seen in 14 additional regions in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres and right cerebellum. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in AD and aMCI measured by CPM is related to GM loss in multiple regions, which is in close agreement with the results of previous activation studies. (orig.)

  8. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood Is Associated with Cognitive Test Profiles in the Geriatric Population but Not with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanchak, N.; Abner, E. L.; Carr, S. A.; Freeman, S. J.; Seybert, A.; Ranseen, J.; Jicha, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of ADHD in the aging population and its relationship to late-life cognitive decline has not been studied previously. To address this gap in our understanding, the Wender-Utah ADHD Rating scale (WURS) was administered to 310 geriatric subjects with cognitive status ranging from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment to overt dementia. The frequency of WURS-positive ADHD in this sample was 4.4%. WURS scores were not related to cognitive diagnoses, but did show nonlinear ass...

  9. Mild cognitive impairment and its management in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshkoor SA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor, Tengku Aizan Hamid, Chan Yoke Mun, Chee Kyun Ng Institute of Gerontology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a common condition in the elderly. It is characterized by deterioration of memory, attention, and cognitive function that is beyond what is expected based on age and educational level. MCI does not interfere significantly with individuals’ daily activities. It can act as a transitional level of evolving dementia with a range of conversion of 10%–15% per year. Thus, it is crucial to protect older people against MCI and developing dementia. The preventive interventions and appropriate treatments should improve cognitive performance, and retard or prevent progressive deficits. The avoidance of toxins, reduction of stress, prevention of somatic diseases, implementation of mental and physical exercises, as well as the use of dietary compounds like antioxidants and supplements can be protective against MCI. The modification of risk factors such as stopping smoking, as well as the treatment of deficiency in vitamins and hormones by correcting behaviors and lifestyle, can prevent cognitive decline in the elderly. The progressive increase in the growth rate of the elderly population can enhance the rate of MCI all over the world. There is no exact cure for MCI and dementia; therefore, further studies are needed in the future to determine causes of MCI and risk factors of progression from MCI to dementia. This will help to find better ways for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment worldwide. Keywords: AD, Alzheimer’s disease, cognition, dementia, MCI

  10. Decreased Self-Appraisal Accuracy on Cognitive Tests of Executive Functioning Is a Predictor of Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherling, Carole S.; Wilkins, Sarah E.; Zakrezewski, Jessica; Kramer, Joel H.; Miller, Bruce L.; Weiner, Michael W.; Rosen, Howard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older individuals is associated with increased risk of progression to dementia. The factors predicting progression are not yet well established, yet cognitive performance, particularly for memory, is known to be important. Anosognosia, meaning lack of awareness of one’s impaired function, is commonly reported in dementia and is often also a feature of MCI, but its association with risk of progression is not well understood. In particular, self-appraisal measures provide an autonomous measure of insight abilities, without the need of an informant. Methods: The present study examined the utility of self-appraisal accuracy at baseline for predicting cognitive decline in 51 patients using an informant-free assessment method. Baseline task performance scores were compared to self-assessments of performance to yield a discrimination score (DS) for tasks tapping into memory and executive functions. Results: Linear regression revealed that a larger DS for executive function tasks in MCI predicted functional decline, independent of age, education, and baseline memory and executive task scores. Conclusion: These findings indicate that objective estimates of self-appraisal can be used to quantify anosognosia and increase predictive accuracy for decline in MCI. PMID:27458368

  11. Anticipatory Grief in New Family Caregivers of Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, Linda; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Deardorf, Kaitlyn E.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Schulz, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Anticipatory grief is the process of experiencing normal phases of bereavement in advance of the loss of a significant person. To date, anticipatory grief has been examined in family caregivers to individuals who have had Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) an average of 3 to 6 years. Whether such grief is manifested early in the disease trajectory (at diagnosis) is unknown. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined differences in the nature and extent of anticipatory grief between family caregivers of persons with a new diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=43) or AD (n=30). We also determined whether anticipatory grief levels were associated with caregiver demographics, caregiving burden, depressive symptoms and marital quality. Mean anticipatory grief levels were high in the total sample, with AD caregivers endorsing significantly more anticipatory grief than MCI caregivers. In general, AD caregivers endorsed difficulty functioning whereas MCI caregivers focused on themes of “missing the person” they once knew. Being a female caregiver, reporting higher levels of objective caregiving burden and higher depression levels each bore independent, statistically significant relationships with anticipatory grief. Given these findings, family caregivers of individuals with mild cognitive deficits or a new AD diagnosis may benefit from interventions specifically addressing anticipatory grief. PMID:21946013

  12. An evaluation of volume-based morphometry for prediction of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schmitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based morphometry from conventional T1-weighted images has proved effective to quantify Alzheimer's disease (AD related brain atrophy and to enable fairly accurate automated classification of AD patients, mild cognitive impaired patients (MCI and elderly controls. Little is known, however, about the classification power of volume-based morphometry, where features of interest consist of a few brain structure volumes (e.g. hippocampi, lobes, ventricles as opposed to hundreds of thousands of voxel-wise gray matter concentrations. In this work, we experimentally evaluate two distinct volume-based morphometry algorithms (FreeSurfer and an in-house algorithm called MorphoBox for automatic disease classification on a standardized data set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Results indicate that both algorithms achieve classification accuracy comparable to the conventional whole-brain voxel-based morphometry pipeline using SPM for AD vs elderly controls and MCI vs controls, and higher accuracy for classification of AD vs MCI and early vs late AD converters, thereby demonstrating the potential of volume-based morphometry to assist diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Cognitive performance predicts treatment decisional abilities in mild to moderate dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrera, R.J.; Moye, J.; Karel, M.J.; Azar, A.R.; Armesto, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the contribution of neuropsychological test performance to treatment decision-making capacity in community volunteers with mild to moderate dementia. Methods The authors recruited volunteers (44 men, 44 women) with mild to moderate dementia from the community. Subjects completed a battery of 11 neuropsychological tests that assessed auditory and visual attention, logical memory, language, and executive function. To measure decision making capacity, the authors administered the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Interview, the Hopemont Capacity Assessment Interview, and the MacCarthur Competence Assessment Tool—Treatment. Each of these instruments individually scores four decisional abilities serving capacity: understanding, appreciation, reasoning, and expression of choice. The authors used principal components analysis to generate component scores for each ability across instruments, and to extract principal components for neuropsychological performance. Results Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that neuropsychological performance significantly predicted all four abilities. Specifically, it predicted 77.8% of the common variance for understanding, 39.4% for reasoning, 24.6% for appreciation, and 10.2% for expression of choice. Except for reasoning and appreciation, neuropsychological predictor (β) profiles were unique for each ability. Conclusions Neuropsychological performance substantially and differentially predicted capacity for treatment decisions in individuals with mild to moderate dementia. Relationships between elemental cognitive function and decisional capacity may differ in individuals whose decisional capacity is impaired by other disorders, such as mental illness. PMID:16682669

  14. Use of cognitive enhancers for mild cognitive impairment: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricco Andrea C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly individuals who have memory problems without significant limitations in activities of daily living are often diagnosed as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Some of these individuals progress to dementia. Several cognitive enhancers (for example donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, memantine have been approved for use in people with Alzheimer’s dementia but their use in patients with MCI is unclear. We aimed to determine the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of cognitive enhancers for MCI through a systematic review and network (that is, indirect comparisons meta-analysis. Design/Methods We will include studies that examine the use of cognitive enhancers compared to placebo, supportive care, or other cognitive enhancers among patients diagnosed with MCI. Outcomes of interest include cognition and function (primary outcomes, as well as behavior, quality of life, safety, and cost (secondary outcomes. We will include all experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies (controlled before-after, interrupted time series, and observational studies (cohort, case–control. Studies will be included regardless of publication status (that is, we will include unpublished studies, year, or language of dissemination. To identify potentially relevant material, we will search the following electronic databases from inception onwards: MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Ageline. The electronic database search will be supplemented by scanning the reference lists of included studies, searching Google and organization websites for unpublished or difficult to locate material literature, and contacting experts. Two reviewers will independently screen the studies for inclusion using the eligibility criteria established a priori and independently extract data. Risk of bias will be assessed

  15. White matter signal abnormality quality differentiates mild cognitive impairment that converts to Alzheimer's disease from nonconverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemer, Emily R; Salat, David H; Smith, Eric E; Nguyen, Khoa; Fischl, Bruce; Greve, Douglas N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess how longitudinal change in the quantity and quality of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSAs) contributes to the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Mahalanobis distance of WMSA from normal-appearing white matter using T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted MRI was defined as a quality measure for WMSA. Cross-sectional analysis of WMSA volume in 104 cognitively healthy older adults, 116 individuals with MCI who converted to AD within 3 years (mild cognitive impairment converter [MCI-C]), 115 individuals with MCI that did not convert in that time (mild cognitive impairment nonconverter [MCI-NC]), and 124 individuals with AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative revealed that WMSA volume was substantially greater in AD relative to the other groups but did not differ between MCI-NC and MCI-C. Longitudinally, MCI-C exhibited faster WMSA quality progression but not volume compared with matched MCI-NC beginning 18 months before MCI-C conversion to AD. The strongest difference in rate of change was seen in the time period starting 6 months before MCI-C conversion to AD and ending 6 months after conversion (p < 0.001). The relatively strong effect in this time period relative to AD conversion in the MCI-C was similar to the relative rate of change in hippocampal volume, a traditional imaging marker of AD pathology. These data demonstrate changes in white matter tissue properties that occur within WMSA in individuals with MCI that will subsequently obtain a clinical diagnosis of AD within 18 months. Individuals with AD have substantially greater WMSA volume than all MCI suggesting that there is a progressive accumulation of WMSA with progressive disease severity, and that quality change predates changes in this total volume. Given the timing of the changes in WMSA tissue quality relative to the clinical diagnosis of AD, these findings suggest that WMSAs are a critical

  16. Long-term effects of mild traumatic brain injury on cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip John Ainsley Dean

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a proportion of individuals report chronic cognitive difficulties after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, results from behavioural testing have been inconsistent. In fact, the variability inherent to the mTBI population may be masking subtle cognitive deficits. We hypothesised that this variability could be reduced by accounting for post-concussion syndrome (PCS in the sample. 36 participants with mTBI (>1 year post-injury and 36 non-head injured controls performed information processing speed (Paced Visual Serial Addition Task, PVSAT and working memory (n-Back tasks. Both groups were split by PCS diagnosis (4 groups, all n=18, with categorisation of controls based on symptom report. Participants with mTBI and persistent PCS had significantly greater error rates on both the n-Back and PVSAT, at every difficulty level except 0-Back (used as a test of performance validity. There was no difference between any of the other groups. Therefore, a cognitive deficit can be observed in mTBI participants, even one year after injury. Correlations between cognitive performance and symptoms were only observed for mTBI participants, with worse performance correlating with lower sleep quality, in addition to a medium effect size association (falling short of statistical significance with higher PCS symptoms, PTSD and anxiety. These results suggest that the reduction in cognitive performance is not due to greater symptom report itself, but is associated to some extent with the initial injury. Furthermore, the results validate the utility of our participant grouping, and demonstrate its potential to reduce the variability observed in previous studies.

  17. MRI markers for mild cognitive impairment: comparisons between white matter integrity and gray matter volume measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of assessing white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and prediction of cognitive impairments in comparison to brain atrophy measurements using structural MRI. Fifty-one patients with MCI and 66 cognitive normal controls (CN underwent DTI and T1-weighted structural MRI. DTI measures included fractional anisotropy (FA and radial diffusivity (DR from 20 predetermined regions-of-interest (ROIs in the commissural, limbic and association tracts, which are thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease; measures of regional gray matter (GM volume included 21 ROIs in medial temporal lobe, parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significant group differences between MCI and CN were detected by each MRI modality: In particular, reduced FA was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and fornix; increased DR was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and bilateral uncinate fasciculi; reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, left entorhinal cortex, right amygdala and bilateral thalamus; and thinner cortex was found in the left entorhinal cortex. Group classifications based on FA or DR was significant and better than classifications based on GM volume. Using either DR or FA together with GM volume improved classification accuracy. Furthermore, all three measures, FA, DR and GM volume were similarly accurate in predicting cognitive performance in MCI patients. Taken together, the results imply that DTI measures are as accurate as measures of GM volume in detecting brain alterations that are associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, a combination of DTI and structural MRI measurements improves classification accuracy.

  18. Evidence-based medical research on diagnostic criteria and screening technique of vascular mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-wei LIU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI is the prodromal syndrome of vascular dementia (VaD and key target for drug treatment. There is controversy over the diagnostic criteria and screening tools of VaMCI, which affects its clinical diagnosis. This paper aims to explore the clinical features, diagnostic criteria and screening technique of VaMCI.  Methods Taking "vascular mild cognitive impairment OR vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" as retrieval terms, search in PubMed database from January 1997 to March 2015 and screen relevant literatures concerning VaMCI. According to Guidance for the Preparation of Neurological Management Guidelines revised by European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS in 2004, evidence grading was performed on literatures. Results A total of 32 literatures in English were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, including 3 guidelines and consensus and 29 clinical studies. Seven literatures (2 on Level Ⅰ, 5 on Level Ⅱ studied on neuropsychological features in VaMCI patients and found reduced processing speed and executive function impairment were main features. Two literatures reported the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI, including VaMCI criteria published by American Heart Association (AHA/American Stroke Association (ASA in 2011 and "Diagnostic Criteria for Vascular Cognitive Disorders" published by International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG in 2014. Fifteen literatures (4 on LevelⅠ, 11 on Level Ⅱ described the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI used in clinical research, from which 6 operational diagnostic items were extracted. Fourteen literatures (4 on Level Ⅰ, 10 on Level Ⅱ described neuropsychological assessment tools for VaMCI screening, and found the 5-minute protocol recommended by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN was being good consistency with other neuropsychological

  19. Driving Competence in Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies: In Search of Cognitive Predictors Using Driving Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Yamin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving is a multifactorial behaviour drawing on multiple cognitive, sensory, and physical systems. Dementia is a progressive and degenerative neurological condition that impacts the cognitive processes necessary for safe driving. While a number of studies have examined driving among individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, less is known about the impact of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB on driving safety. The present study compared simulated driving performance of 15 older drivers with mild DLB with that of 21 neurologically healthy control drivers. DLB drivers showed poorer performance on all indicators of simulated driving including an increased number of collisions in the simulator and poorer composite indicators of overall driving performance. A measure of global cognitive function (i.e., the Mini Mental State Exam was found to be related to the overall driving performance. In addition, measures of attention (i.e., Useful Field of View, UFOV and space processing (Visual Object and Space Perception, VOSP, Test correlated significantly with a rater’s assessment of driving performance.

  20. The Prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Diverse Geographical and Ethnocultural Regions: The COSMIC Collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perminder S Sachdev

    Full Text Available Changes in criteria and differences in populations studied and methodology have produced a wide range of prevalence estimates for mild cognitive impairment (MCI.Uniform criteria were applied to harmonized data from 11 studies from USA, Europe, Asia and Australia, and MCI prevalence estimates determined using three separate definitions of cognitive impairment.The published range of MCI prevalence estimates was 5.0%-36.7%. This was reduced with all cognitive impairment definitions: performance in the bottom 6.681% (3.2%-10.8%; Clinical Dementia Rating of 0.5 (1.8%-14.9%; Mini-Mental State Examination score of 24-27 (2.1%-20.7%. Prevalences using the first definition were 5.9% overall, and increased with age (P < .001 but were unaffected by sex or the main races/ethnicities investigated (Whites and Chinese. Not completing high school increased the likelihood of MCI (P ≤ .01.Applying uniform criteria to harmonized data greatly reduced the variation in MCI prevalence internationally.

  1. Dysfunctional whole brain networks in mild cognitive impairment patients: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Zhong, Chongguang; Xue, Ting; You, Youbo; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was recognized as the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent researches have shown that cognitive and memory decline in AD patients is coupled with losses of small-world attributes. However, few studies pay attention to the characteristics of the whole brain networks in MCI patients. In the present study, we investigated the topological properties of the whole brain networks utilizing graph theoretical approaches in 16 MCI patients, compared with 18 age-matched healthy subjects as a control. Both MCI patients and normal controls showed small-world architectures, with large clustering coefficients and short characteristic path lengths. We detected significantly longer characteristic path length in MCI patients compared with normal controls at the low sparsity. The longer characteristic path lengths in MCI indicated disrupted information processing among distant brain regions. Compared with normal controls, MCI patients showed decreased nodal centrality in the brain areas of the angular gyrus, heschl gyrus, hippocampus and superior parietal gyrus, while increased nodal centrality in the calcarine, inferior occipital gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. These changes in nodal centrality suggested a widespread rewiring in MCI patients, which may be an integrated reflection of reorganization of the brain networks accompanied with the cognitive decline. Our findings may be helpful for further understanding the pathological mechanisms of MCI.

  2. Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Yun Jeong Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsA total of 226 older (age ≥65 years adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K. A MoCA-K score <23 was defined as MCI.ResultsThe prevalence of MCI was 32.7%. In a logistic regression analysis, age (≥74 years old vs. 65-68 years old; odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 8.82; P=0.003, educational background (college graduation vs. no school or elementary school graduation; OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.46; P=0.001, and systolic blood pressure (≥135 mm Hg vs. ≤120 mm Hg; OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.29 to 8.17; P=0.012 were associated with MCI.ConclusionMore concentrated efforts focused on early detection and appropriate management of MCI may be required in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment Display Reduced Auditory Event-Related Delta Oscillatory Responses

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    Pınar Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Event-related oscillations (ERO may provide a useful tool for the identification of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD. In the present study, we investigate peak-to-peak amplitude of auditory event-related delta oscillations of MCI subjects. Method. The study included twenty-two consecutive patients with MCI recruited in neurology clinic and 21 age- and education-matched normal elderly controls. A classical auditory oddball paradigm was used in the experiments. EEG was recorded from F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz, P4, O1, Oz, and O2 locations. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes for each subject’s averaged delta response (0.5–2.2 Hz were measured. Results. The amplitudes between groups differed significantly at the frontal and mid-centroparietal locations. ANOVA on delta responses revealed a significant effect for groups (F(1.41 = 4.84, P=0.033, indicating a larger delta response for healthy controls than MCI subjects. Post hoc comparisons revealed that peak-to-peak delta response was significantly larger for healthy controls than for MCI over electrode sites F3, Fz, F4, Cz, C4, and Pz. Discussion. Event-related delta frequency band seems to be the most affected oscillatory response in cognitive impairment due to AD. Therefore, it deserves to be investigated as a candidate electrophysiological biomarker in further studies.

  4. Comparison of a Mirror Neuron System among Elders with Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, and No Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. There are lots of old people suffering from the disease. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal aging and dementia. An individual with MCI has an increased risk of developing AD. The mirror neuron system (MNS), activated during the observation and execution of actions, has been linked with cognitive processes.The objective of this study is to examine the MNS abnormalities in elders with MCI and AD. Ninety-two subjects (5 MCI,7 mild AD, and 80 cognitively normal) were studied by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the fMRI experiment, subjects were asked to observe a video showing hand movement (tearing a piece of paper) and a control condition (observing a fixation point).The image data were analyzed using SPM2 (Statistical Parametric Mapping).There were significant activations of bilateral inferior frontal lobule and inferior parietal lobule due to the observation of hand movement.The brain activations of the normal group were statistical significant greater than those in the MCI and mild AD groups.There was no significant difference between the MCI and mild AD groups. Elders with MCI and mild AD had fewer MNS activations than the normal controls, suggesting that the dysfunction of MNS may underlie cognitive impairments in MCI and AD patients.These findings imply that fMRI is sufficiently sensitive to detect MNS changes occurring in MCI and AD.

  5. Ability to manage everyday technology : a comparison of persons with dementia or mild cognitive impairment and older adults without cognitive impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Almkvist, Ove; Kottorp, Anders; Nygård, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to manage technology is important for performance and participation in everyday activities. This study compares the management of technology in everyday activities among people with mild-stage dementia or MCI with older adults without known cognitive impairment (OA). Method: Persons with mild-stage dementia (n=38), MCI (n=34) and OA (n=45) were observed and interviewed when managing their everyday technology at home by using the Management of Everyday Technology Ass...

  6. Group Intensive Cognitive Activation in Patients with Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

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    Simonetta ePanerai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: No standard protocols are available for cognitive rehabilitation in conditions like Major or Mild Neurocognitive disorder (M-NCD or m-NCD, respectively; however, preliminary data seem to indicate that such interventions might have cost-effective beneficial effects and are free from side effect or adverse events. Three basic approaches are known: cognitive stimulation, cognitive training, and cognitive rehabilitation. Objective: Aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a protocol of Group Intensive Cognitive Activation (g-ICA in patients with both M-NCD and m-NCD; the protocol was specifically arranged in our Research Institute, based on the principles of the central role of the patient and the mediation pedagogy.Subjects and Method: Sixteen patients with M-NCD and fifteen patients with m-NCD were enrolled, as well as 11 patients with M-NCD who were used as a control group. The intervention was carried-out by a clinical neuropsychologist with daily group sessions over a period of two months. Neuropsychological assessment was performed at baseline and after the completion of the rehabilitative intervention.Results: General cognitive functioning, attention, ideomotor praxis and visual memory scores were found to be significantly increased in all patients. Beneficial and significant effects were also found for constructive praxis in M-NCD and for executive functioning in m-NCD. All areas of the language function were significantly ameliorated in m-NCD, while this happened only for verbal repetition and syntax-grammar comprehension in M-NCD. No changes were detected for long- and short-term verbal memory, which were found to be worsened in controls without activation.Conclusion: Our findings seem to indicate that g-ICA might be effective in inducing beneficial changes on the general cognitive functioning and other specific functions in patients with both m-NCD and M-NCD. Moreover, the specific protocol proposed, even if susceptible

  7. 轻度认知障碍的危险因素%The Risk Factors of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丹丹; 邢小芳

    2014-01-01

    轻度认知障碍是指介于正常衰老与阿尔茨海默病之间的过渡阶段,有轻度的记忆力损害,但其他功能保持完好。文章对轻度认知障碍的危险因素进行综述。%Mild cognitive impairment is an unstable clinical stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease, and is deemed to convert mostly to dementia while other functions remain intact. This paper reviewed the risk factors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

  8. Cognitive deficits in the rat chronic mild stress model for depression: relation to anhedonic-like responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Andreasen T., Jesper; Bouzinova, Elena V.;

    2009-01-01

    The chronic mild stress (CMS) protocol is widely used to evoke depressive-like behaviours in laboratory rats. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic stress on cognitive performance. About 70% of rats exposed to 7 weeks of chronic mild stress showed a gradual reduction in...... consumption of a sucrose solution, indicating an anhedonic-like state. The remaining rats did not reduce their sucrose intake, but appeared resilient to the stress-induced effects on sucrose intake. Cognitive profiling of the CMS rats revealed that chronic stress had a negative effect on performance in the...

  9. Mild cognitive impairment in elderly hypertensive patients:a retrospective case series study%老年高血压患者的轻度认知损害:回顾性病例系列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔伟; 王新; 王海峰; 张永红; 王平; 邢成名

    2012-01-01

    (OR 0.807,95% CI 0.742 - 0.878; P =0.000) and hypertension (OR 1.788,95% CI 1.004 -3.146; P =0.048 ) were the independent risk factors for mild cognitive impairment; and hypertension (OR 2.091,95% CI 1.030 -4.242; P=0.041) was an independent risk factor for non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment,and was mainly impaired visuospatial and executive abilities (P =0.026).Conclusions Hypertension is an independent risk factor for mild cognitive impairment and its subtype-non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment,and it mainly impairs executive ability.

  10. Choroidal Thickness in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Type Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Mehmet; Yaman, Aylin; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Kurtuluş, Fatma; Toslak, Devrim; Doğan, Berna; Turgut Çoban, Deniz; Kaya Başar, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To asses both choroidal thickness differences among Alzheimer's type dementia (ATD) patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and healthy control (C) subjects and choroidal thickness relationships with cognitive performance. Methods. A total of 246 eyes of 123 people (41 ATD, 38 MCI, and 44 healthy C subjects) were included in this study. Complete ophthalmological and neurological examination was performed in all subjects. Choroidal thicknesses (CT) were measured at seven locations: the fovea, 500-1500-3000 μm temporal and 500-1500-3000 μm nasal to the fovea by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Detailed neurological examination including mini mental state examination (MMSE) test which evaluates the cognitive function was applied to all participants. Results. The ages and genders of all participants were similar in all groups. Compared with healthy C subjects, the CT measurements at all regions were significantly thinner both in patients with ATD and in patients with MCI than in healthy C subjects (p < 0.05). The MMSE scores were significantly different among ATD patients, MCI patients, and healthy C subjects. They were 19.3 ± 1.8, 24.8 ± 0.9, and 27.6 ± 1.2 in ATD, MCI, and healthy controls, respectively (p < 0.001). There were also significant correlation between MMSE score and choroidal thickness at each location (p < 0.05). Conclusions. CT was reduced in ATD patients and MCI patients. Since vascular structures were affected in ATD patients and MCI patients, they had thin CT. Besides CT was correlated with degree of cognitive impairment. Therefore CT may be a new biomarker in diagnosis and follow-up of MCI and ATD patients. PMID:26925259

  11. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  12. Effectiveness and safety of citicoline in mild vascular cognitive impairment: the IDEALE study

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    Cotroneo AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antonino Maria Cotroneo,1 Alberto Castagna,2 Salvatore Putignano,3 Roberto Lacava,2 Fausto Fantò,4 Francesco Monteleone,5 Filomena Rocca,2 Alba Malara,6 Pietro Gareri21ASL 2 Turin, Piedmont, 2Elderly Health Care, Ambulatory Center for Dementia, ASP Catanzaro, Calabria, 3ASL Napoli 1, Campania, 4University Hospital Orbassano, Turin, Piedmont, 5Regina Margherita Hospital, Rome, 6Nursing Home S Domenico Lamezia Terme, ASP Catanzaro, Calabria, ItalyBackground: The studio di intervento nel decadimento vascolare lieve (IDEALE study was an open multicenter Italian study, the aim of which was to assess the effectiveness and safety of oral citicoline in elderly people with mild vascular cognitive impairment.Methods: The study was performed in 349 patients. The active or citicoline group was composed of 265 patients and included 122 men and 143 women of mean age 79.9 ± 7.8 years selected from six Italian regions. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 65 years, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score ≥ 21, subjective memory complaints but no evidence of deficits on MMSE, and evidence of vascular lesions on neuroradiology. Those with probable Alzheimer's disease were excluded. The control group consisted of 84 patients, including 36 men and 48 women of mean age 78.9 ± 7.01 (range 67–90 years. Patients included in the study underwent brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and plasma dosage of vitamin B12, folate, and thyroid hormones. Functional dependence was investigated by scores on the Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL scales, mood was assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, and behavioral disorders using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory scale. Comorbidity was assessed using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. An assessment was made at baseline (T0, after 3 months (T1, and after 9 months (T2, ie, 6 months after T1. The main outcomes were an improvement in MMSE, ADL, and IADL

  13. P300 amplitude alterations during inhibitory control in persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A; Knoefel, Frank; Lord, Courtney; Breau, Michael; Sweet, Lisa; Goubran, Rafik; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Deficits in executive function are highly noticeable in Alzheimer's disease, and recent behavioral studies have shown that such deficits - particularly during inhibitory control - can also be found in persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory control in persons with MCI. A group of persons with MCI and a group healthy older adults performed a Go/NoGo task while electroencephalogram was recorded. Our results revealed that persons with MCI performed less accurately than healthy controls during the Go and NoGo conditions. In addition, we found reduced P300 amplitudes during Go and NoGo conditions relative to healthy older adults. Our results suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms associated with target detection and evaluation (Go P300) and response inhibition (NoGo P300) are compromised in persons with MCI. PMID:27270233

  14. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  15. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiqun [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Guo Xiaojuan [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Qi Zhigang [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Yao Li [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng@xwh.ccmu.edu.c [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  16. Mild cognitive impairment in elderly users of municipal centers of the Region of Murcia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Escarbajal de Haro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article of investigation tries to know the issue of mild cognitive impairment (MCI in elderly users of municipal centres to measure the importance of psycho-educational dimension like preventive alternative. For this reason, we have used a qualitative methodology (semistructurated interview after a selection of people applying quantitative scales (e.g. MMSE, EUROTEST and Lawton. We selected a sample of 148 people for the scales, out of which 30 people were considered suitable for the interviews. The results show that despite the fact that elderly people have a MCI , they are able to practice activities for improving their quality of life. Within this investigation, new lines of work based in the free time, lonely, self esteem and self are opened to elderly people with MCI.

  17. Atrophy-specific MRI brain template for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonov, Vladimir; Coupe, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed;

    and MCI makes use of a single disease-specific template challenging. We propose a novel approach to generate a continuous four-dimensional template, where the 4th dimension is a surrogate measure of overall brain atrophy. Methods We used MRI scans obtained from the ADNI database (www......Background Rapid brain loss is characteristic for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [1]. Increase of the lateral ventricular volume is strongly correlated with the progression of the disease. High variability in the degree of atrophy for subjects with AD.......loni.ucla.edu/ADNI). Automated methods to estimate intracranial capacity (ICC) and lateral ventricles volume (LVV) [2] was applied to all available datasets at base line. The ratio between LVV and ICC (RLVV) was used as a surrogate measure of overall brain atrophy with mean(standard deviation) value of 2.46(0.87)%. Subsets from...

  18. Apraxia for differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from subcortical vascular dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Serhat Ozkan,1 Demet Ozbabalik Adapinar,1 Nese Tuncer Elmaci,2 Didem Arslantas31Department of Neurology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, Turkey; 2Department of Neurology, Marmara University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Public Health, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, TurkeyAbstract: Although ideomotor limb apraxia is considered to be a typical sign of cortical pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, it has been also reported in subcortical neurodegenerative diseases and vascular lesions. We aimed to investigate the difference between AD, subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients by means of ideomotor limb apraxia frequency and severity. Ninety-six AD, 72 SVaD, and 84 MCI patients were assessed with the mini-mental status examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating (CDR and the apraxia screening test of TULIA (AST. Apraxia was significantly more frequent in the AD patients (32.3% than in both of the SVaD (16.7% and MCI (4.8% patients. The frequency of apraxia was also significantly higher in SVaD patients than in MCI patients. AD patients had significantly lower apraxia scores than both SVaD and MCI patients. In addition, a significant difference was found between SVaD and MCI patients in terms of apraxia scores. These results suggest that the widespread belief of the association between apraxia and cortical dementias is not exactly correct. The significant difference between both of the dementia groups and the MCI patients suggests that the absence of apraxia can be an indicator for MCI diagnosis.Keywords: apraxia, Alzheimer’s disease, subcortical vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment

  19. Acetylcholine esterase activity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, Karl [University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Clinical Neuroscience, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission is a well-established fact in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is controversy about its relevance at the early stages of the disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In vivo positron emission tomography imaging of cortical acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as a marker of cholinergic innervation that is expressed by cholinergic axons and cholinoceptive neurons has demonstrated a reduction of this enzyme activity in manifest AD. The technique is also useful to measure the inhibition of cerebral AChE induced by cholinesterase inhibitors for treatment of dementia symptoms. A reduction of cortical AchE activity was found consistently in all studies of AD and in few cases of MCI who later concerted to AD. The in vivo findings in MCI and very mild AD are still preliminary, and studies seem to suggest that cholinergic innervation and AChE as the main degrading enzyme are both reduced, which might result in partial compensation of their effect. (orig.)

  20. Relationships between personality traits, medial temporal lobe atrophy and white matter lesion in subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Duron; Sana Ben Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous cognitive status that can be a prodromal stage of Alzheimer‘s disease (AD). It is particularly relevant to focus on prodromal stages of AD such as MCI, because pathophysiological abnormalities of AD start years before the dementia stage. Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTL) resulting from AD lesions and cerebrovascular lesions (i.e. white matter lesions (WML), lacunar strokes and strokes) are often revealed concurrently on Magnetic Resonance Im...

  1. Relationships between Personality Traits, Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy, and White Matter Lesion in Subjects Suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Duron, Emmanuelle; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Bounatiro, Samira; Ben Ahmed, Sana; Seux, Marie-Laure; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Viollet, Cécile; Epelbaum, Jacques; Martel, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous cognitive status that can be a prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is particularly relevant to focus on prodromal stages of AD such as MCI, because patho-physiological abnormalities of AD start years before the dementia stage. Medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy resulting from AD lesions and cerebrovascular lesions [i.e., white matter lesions (WML), lacunar strokes, and strokes] are often revealed concurrently on magnetic resonance...

  2. Plasma protein profiling of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s disease using iTRAQ quantitative proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Fei; Poljak, Anne; Nicole A Kochan; Raftery, Mark; Brodaty, Henry; Smythe, George A.; Perminder S Sachdev

    2014-01-01

    Background With the promise of disease modifying treatments, there is a need for more specific diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Plasma biomarkers are likely to be utilised to increase diagnostic accuracy and specificity of AD and cognitive decline. Methods Isobaric tags (iTRAQ) and proteomic methods were used to identify potential plasma biomarkers of MCI and AD. Relative protein expression level changes were quantified in plasma of 411 ...

  3. Effects of Pioglitazone or Exercise in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hildreth, Kerry L.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Grigsby, Jim; Hoth, Karin F.; Pelak, Victoria; Anderson, C. Alan; Parnes, Bennett; Kittelson, John; Wolfe, Pamela; Nakamura, Tammie; Linnebur, Sunny A; Trujillo, Jennifer M; Aquilante, Christina L.; Schwartz, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the effects of pioglitazone or endurance exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and insulin resistance. Methods Seventy-eight adults (mean age ± SD: 65 ± 7 years) with central obesity and MCI were randomized to 6 months of endurance exercise, pioglitazone or control. Results Sixty-six participants completed the study. Exercise training did not significantly increase peak oxygen uptake compared to control (p = 0.12). Compare...

  4. Inclusion criteria provide heterogeneity in baseline profiles of patients with mild cognitive impairment: comparison of two prospective cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Shoji; Ito, Kengo; Kato, Takashi; ,

    2012-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to represent a transitional stage between ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To aim at identifying neuroimaging measures associated with cognitive changes in healthy elderly and MCI patients, longitudinal multicentre studies are ongoing in several countries. The patient profiles of each study are based on unique inclusion criteria. Objectives The purpose of the study is to clarify differences in baseline profiles of MCI patients betwe...

  5. Specificity of Cognitive and Behavioral Complaints in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Hélène Pineau; André Marchand; Stéphane Guay

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of cognitive and behavioral complaints is explored in Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) samples according to the severity of PTSD, depression and general anxiety conditions. Self-reported questionnaires on cognitive and behavioral changes are administered to PTSD, MTBI, MTBI/PTSD and control groups. Confounding variables are controlled. All groups report more complaints since the traumatic event. PTSD and MTBI/PTSD groups report more...

  6. Neurological soft signs in aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer´s disease – the impact of cognitive decline and cognitive reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja eUrbanowitsch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neurological soft signs (NSS, i.e. minor motor and sensory changes, are a common feature in severe psychiatric disorders. We sought to establish the frequency of NSS in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD on basis of a large population based sample and to identify their neuropsychological correlates including cognitive reserve.Methods: NSS were examined using an abbreviated version of the Heidelberg NSS Scale in 221 old participants born between 1930 and 1932 (63 with MCI, 15 with AD, 143 healthy old controls and 256 healthy young participants (born between 1950 and 1952 of the population-based Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ILSE. Subjects received thorough neuropsychological testing; years of school education were used as a proxy for cognitive reserve.Results: NSS scores were significantly (p<0.001 higher in the AD patients (5.6±3.11 than in the healthy old controls (2.8±1.90 and in the MCI patients (3.0±1.96. This result was confirmed after years of school education which were inversely correlated (r = - 0.25; p<0.001 with NSS were entered as a covariate. In the patients but not in the controls, NSS were significantly correlated with deficits in executive functioning and visuospatial functioning. Comparison of NSS scores between old (2.84 ± 1.9 and young (2.46 ± 1.97 controls yielded only minor, non-significant differences after education (13.86 ± 3.0 vs. 14.61 ± 2.48 years, respectively was controlled for.Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that NSS are frequently found in mild AD but not in MCI. NSS refer to frontal-executive deficits and visuospatial dysfunction rather than age per se and can be partly compensated for by cognitive reserve.

  7. Associative memory and underlying brain correlates in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Ching; Chang, Yu-Ling

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated associative recognition memory by using unique features of the Chinese language and the underlying neuroanatomical correlates. The study participants were 22 Chinese speakers with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 25 cognitively normal (CN) Chinese speakers. The results revealed that the MCI group demonstrated impaired associative memory performance, despite exhibiting item memory performance comparable with that of the CN group, and that associative memory performance in older adults was associated with gray matter integrity in the medial temporal regions as well as executive function. An abnormal elevation was also observed in false-positive errors related to features unique to Chinese characters, namely orthographical errors, in addition to rearranged and semantic errors in the MCI group relative to the CN group, and the three error subtypes were differentially associated with gray matter integrity in the hippocampus or lateral prefrontal regions. Overall, these results demonstrate the value of evaluating associative memory in people with prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD), and further elucidate the underlying neural substrates related to associative recognition memory in older adults. PMID:27033742

  8. Homocysteine and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Are These the Tools for Early Intervention in the Dementia Spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Z

    2016-02-01

    Dementia, being a neurodegenerative disease, has devastating consequences not just for the ailing but also for the carers as it has a tremendous negative impact on the quality of life. The pathophysiology of dementia commences far earlier than its diagnosis. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a stage prior to definite dementia. The progression from MCI to dementia is insidious with no definite demarcation, thus making diagnosis clinically difficult at an early stage. This paper attempts to throw light on the epidemiology, risk factors and the aetiopathogenesis of MCI. It further attempts to elaborate on the rate of conversion of MCI to definite dementia and the factors influencing the same. Many established as well as probable, modifiable as well as non-modifiable risk factors influence the progress of MCI to definite dementia. Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino-acid has been identified as a probable risk factor for the dementia spectrum. Various existing clinical evidences and biological plausibility towards probable link between homocysteine and dementia are discussed in this paper. B vitamin mediated homocysteine reduction and cognitive outcomes demonstrate mixed results. This review attempts to evaluate hyperhomocysteinaemia and MCI as a brain risk marker and assess their potential for future research with a view to attempt early intervention. PMID:26812511

  9. Changes in thalamus connectivity in mild cognitive impairment: Evidence from resting state fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The subcortical region such as thalamus was believed to have close relationship with many cerebral cortexes which made it especially interesting in the study of functional connectivity. Here, we used resting state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in thalamus connectivity in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which presented a neuro-disconnection syndrome. Materials and methods: Data from 14 patients and 14 healthy age-matched controls were analyzed. Thalamus connectivity was investigated by examination of the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the thalamus and those in all other brain regions. Results: We found that functional connectivity between the left thalamus and a set of regions was decreased in MCI; these regions are: bilateral cuneus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG), superior frontal gyrus (SFG), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and precentral gyrus (PreCG). There are also some regions showed reduced connectivity to right thalamus; these regions are bilateral cuneus, MOG, fusiform gyrus (FG), MPFC, paracentral lobe (PCL), precuneus, superior parietal lobe (SPL) and IFG. We also found increased functional connectivity between the left thalamus and the right thalamus in MCI. Conclusion: The decreased connectivity between the thalamus and the other brain regions might indicate reduced integrity of thalamus-related cortical networks in MCI. Furthermore, the increased connectivity between the left and right thalamus suggest compensation for the loss of cognitive function. Briefly, impairment and compensation of thalamus connectivity coexist in the MCI patients.

  10. Perception of biological motion and emotion in mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D; Thompson, Claire; Rendell, Peter G; Phillips, Louise H; Carbert, Jessica; Sachdev, Perminder; Brodaty, Henry

    2012-09-01

    Participants diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia and controls completed measures that required decoding emotions from point-light displays of bodily motion, and static images of facial affect. Both of these measures tap social cognitive processes that are considered critical for social competency. Consistent with prior literature, both clinical groups were impaired on the static measure of facial affect recognition. The dementia (but not the MCI) group additionally showed difficulties interpreting biological motion cues. However, this did not reflect a specific deficit in decoding emotions, but instead a more generalized difficulty in processing visual motion (both to action and to emotion). These results align with earlier studies showing that visual motion processing is disrupted in dementia, but additionally show for the first time that this extends to the recognition of socially relevant biological motion. The absence of any MCI related impairment on the point-light biological emotion measure (coupled with deficits on the measure of facial affect recognition) also point to a potential disconnect between the processes implicated in the perception of emotion cues from static versus dynamic stimuli. For clinical (but not control) participants, performance on all recognition measures was inversely correlated with level of semantic memory impairment. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-8). PMID:22687579

  11. Development of a Standardized Approach to Disclosing Amyloid Imaging Research Results in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingler, Jennifer H.; Butters, Meryl A.; Gentry, Amanda L.; Hu, Lu; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Klunk, William E.; Mattos, Meghan K.; Parker, Lisa A.; Roberts, J. Scott; Schulz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of PET amyloid imaging in clinical research has sparked numerous concerns about whether and how to return such research test results to study participants. Chief among these is the question of how best to disclose amyloid imaging research results to individuals who have cognitive symptoms that could impede comprehension of the information conveyed. We systematically developed and evaluated informational materials for use in pre-test counseling and post-test disclosures of amyloid imaging research results in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using simulated sessions, persons with MCI and their family care partners (N=10 dyads) received fictitious but realistic information regarding brain amyloid status, followed by an explanation of how results impact Alzheimer’s disease risk. Satisfaction surveys, comprehension assessments, and focus group data were analyzed to evaluate the materials developed. The majority of persons with MCI and their care partners comprehended and were highly satisfied with the information presented. Focus group data reinforced findings of high satisfaction and included 6 recommendations for practice: 1) offer pre-test counseling, 2) use clear graphics, 3) review participants’ own brain images during disclosures, 4) offer take-home materials, 5) call participants post-disclosure to address emerging questions, and 6) communicate seamlessly with primary care providers. Further analysis of focus group data revealed that participants understood the limitations of amyloid imaging, but nevertheless viewed the prospect of learning one’s amyloid status as valuable and empowering. PMID:27060950

  12. Late-onset Alzheimer's risk variants in memory decline, incident mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Crook, Julia E; Pedraza, Otto; Thomas, Colleen S; Pankratz, V Shane; Allen, Mariet; Nguyen, Thuy; Malphrus, Kimberly G; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina D; Roberts, Rosebud O; Lucas, John A; Smith, Glenn E; Ivnik, Robert J; Machulda, Mary M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Younkin, Steven G; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    We tested association of nine late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with memory and progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or LOAD (MCI/LOAD) in older Caucasians, cognitively normal at baseline and longitudinally evaluated at Mayo Clinic Rochester and Jacksonville (n>2000). Each variant was tested both individually and collectively using a weighted risk score. APOE-e4 associated with worse baseline memory and increased decline with highly significant overall effect on memory. CLU-rs11136000-G associated with worse baseline memory and incident MCI/LOAD. MS4A6A-rs610932-C associated with increased incident MCI/LOAD and suggestively with lower baseline memory. ABCA7-rs3764650-C and EPHA1-rs11767557-A associated with increased rates of memory decline in subjects with a final diagnosis of MCI/LOAD. PICALM-rs3851179-G had an unexpected protective effect on incident MCI/LOAD. Only APOE-inclusive risk scores associated with worse memory and incident MCI/LOAD. The collective influence of the nine top LOAD GWAS variants on memory decline and progression to MCI/LOAD appears limited. Discovery of biologically functional variants at these loci may uncover stronger effects on memory and incident disease. PMID:25189118

  13. Biochemical markers of physical exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia; systematic review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Steen Jensen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to February 2015. We included intervention studies investigating the effect of physical exercise activity on biomarkers in patients with MCI or dementia. Results: A total of eight studies were identified (n= 447 patients evaluating exercise regimes with variable duration (single session - 3 sessions pr week for 26 weeks and intensity (light resistance training – high intensity aerobic exercise. Various biomarkers were measured before and after intervention. Seven of the eight studies found a significant effect on their selected biomarkers with a positive effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiadrosterone and insulin in the intervention groups compared with controls.Conclusion: Although few studies suggest a beneficial effect on selected biomarkers, we need more knowledge of the biochemical effect of physical exercise in dementia or MCI.

  14. Application of the PredictAD Software Tool to Predict Progression in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja H; Mattila, Jussi; Hejl, Anne-Mette;

    2012-01-01

    diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Baseline data from 140 patients with mild cognitive impairment were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Study. Three clinical raters classified patients into 6 categories of confidence in the prediction of early Alzheimer's disease, in 4 phases of...

  15. 轻度认知障碍的研究进展%Progress of the research on mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹昌浩; 郭艳芹

    2012-01-01

    With the arrival of an aging population, the prevalence of dementia increases every year. The breakthrough of the treatment for dementia in recent years is rare, so early prevention of dementia has become the focus of the current study. Mild cognitive impairment, which is an unstable clinical stage between normal aging and dementia, is deemed to convert mostly to dementia. Therefore , mild cognitive impairment is at high risk of dementia. The study on mild cognitive impairment is very important to dementia prevention and treatment. Here the clinical epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment, scale screening, imaging and laboratory diagnosis, new drug treatment progress and new features are reviewed.%轻度认知障碍是处于正常脑老化与痴呆之间的一种不稳定的认知损害的临床状态,大部分患者将转化为痴呆.故轻度认知障碍是痴呆的高危人群,研究轻度认知损害对痴呆的预防和治疗具有非常重大意义.文中对轻度认知障碍的临床流行病学、量表筛查、影像及实验室诊断、药物治疗的新进展和新特点作一综述.

  16. The related factors to mild cognitive function impairment in community elderly people in 4 areas of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋美

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the related factors to mild cognitive function of community elderly people above 60years in 4 areas of Hebei Province.Methods Multi-stage cluster random sampling method were used to conduct a survey of elderly people above 60 years old in four areas of Hebei Provinice form January to December 2010,

  17. A Quantitative Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study: A Decrease in Cerebral Hemoglobin Oxygenation in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Heii; Takano, Maki; Miyakawa, Koichi; Ota, Tsuneyoshi; Takahashi, Tadashi; Asaka, Hirokazu; Kawaguchi, Tsuneaki

    2006-01-01

    A newly developed quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system was used to measure changes in cortical hemoglobin oxygenation during the Verbal Fluency Task in 32 healthy controls, 15 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amplitude of changes in the waveform, which was…

  18. Contribution of Temporal Preparation and Processing Speed to Simple Reaction Time in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvain-Roy, Stephanie; Bherer, Louis; Belleville, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Temporal preparation was assessed in 15 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 20 persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 28 healthy older adults. Participants completed a simple reaction time task in which the preparatory interval duration varied randomly within two blocks (short versus long temporal window). Results indicated that AD and…

  19. Working Memory Capacity and Its Relation to Stroop Interference and Facilitation Effects in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jee Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kang, Heejin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study were to investigate (a) the task-specific differences in short-term memory (STM) and working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly adults (NEAs), (b) the Stroop interference and facilitation effects, and (c) the relationship of STM and WMC to the Stroop…

  20. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida;

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods:...

  1. Feasibility and effectiveness of a walking program for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility and effect on aerobic fitness of a 1-yr, twice-weekly, group-based moderate-intensity walking program (MI-WP, n = 77) compared with a low-intensity activity program (LI-AP, n = 75) for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty pa

  2. Group therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others: results of a waiting-list controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Prins, J.B.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Wijnen, H.H.M; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have to deal with an uncertain prognosis and also face a multitude of memory-related problems and psychosocial consequences. A newly developed group programme proved to be feasible, however, it needed confirmation by a controlled study. AIM:

  3. Group Therapy for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Their Significant Others: Results of a Waiting-List Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Prins, J.B.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Wijnen, H.H.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have to deal with an uncertain prognosis and also face a multitude of memory-related problems and psychosocial consequences. A newly developed group programme proved to be feasible, however, it needed confirmation by a controlled study. Aim:

  4. Effect of acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease: a functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Wang

    Full Text Available We aim to clarify the mechanisms of acupuncture in treating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer disease (AD by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Thirty-six right-handed subjects (8 MCI patients, 14 AD patients, and 14 healthy elders participated in this study. Clinical and neuropsychological examinations were performed on all the subjects. MRI data acquisition was performed on a SIEMENS verio 3-Tesla scanner. The fMRI study used a single block experimental design. We first acquired the baseline resting state data in the initial 3 minutes; we then acquired the fMRI data during the procession of acupuncture stimulation on the acupoints of Tai chong and Hegu for the following 3 minutes. Last, we acquired fMRI data for another 10 minutes after the needle was withdrawn. The preprocessing and data analysis were performed using the statistical parametric mapping (SPM8 software. Then the two-sample t-tests were performed between each two groups of different states. We found that during the resting state, brain activities in AD and MCI patients were different from those of control subjects. During the acupuncture and the second resting state after acupuncture, when comparing to resting state, there are several regions showing increased or decreased activities in MCI, AD subjects compared to normal subjects. Most of the regions were involved in the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe, which were closely related to the memory and cognition. In conclusion, we investigated the effect of acupuncture in AD and MCI patients by combing fMRI and traditional acupuncture. Our fMRI study confirmed that acupuncture at Tai chong (Liv3 and He gu (LI4 can activate certain cognitive-related regions in AD and MCI patients.

  5. DTI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, or normal cognition with evaluation of the intrinsic background gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to explore the impact of the background gradients on diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or cognitively normal (CN) aging. Two DT-MRI sets with positive and negative polarities of the diffusion-sensitizing gradients were obtained in 15 AD patients, 18 MCI patients, and 16 CN control subjects. The maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were computed separately for positive (p: pMD and pFA) and negative (n: nMD and nFA) polarities, and we computed the geometric mean (gm) of the DT-MRI to obtain the gmFA and gmMD with reducing the background gradient effects. Regional variations were assessed across the groups using one-way analysis of variance. Increased regional gmMD values in the AD subjects, as compared to the regional gmMD values in the MCI and CN subjects, were found primarily in the frontal, limbic, and temporal lobe regions. We also found increased nMD and pMD values in the AD subjects compared to those values in the MCI and CN subjects, including in the temporal lobe and the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus white matter. Results of comparisons among the three methods showed that the left limbic parahippocampal gyrus and right temporal gyrus were the increased MD in the AD patients for all three methods. Background gradients affect the DT-MRI measurements in AD patients. Geometric average diffusion measures can be useful to minimize the intrinsic local magnetic susceptibility variations in brain tissue. (orig.)

  6. Effects of medial temporal lobe degeneration on brain perfusion in amnestic MCI of AD type: deafferentation and functional compensation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [CNRS - Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, UMR-5549, Toulouse (France); Didic, Mira; Poncet, Michel; Ceccaldi, Mathieu [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Felician, Olivier [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Centre Saint-Charles, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative, UMR CNRS 6149, Marseille (France); Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J. [Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France)

    2009-07-15

    Cortical atrophy is correlated with the progression of neuropathological lesions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to determine which local and remote functional changes result from MTL volume loss at the predementia stage. We studied the relationship between entorhinal and hippocampal MR volumes and whole-brain SPECT perfusion via a voxel-based correlative analysis in 19 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment with a memory profile suggestive of early AD. Right MTL volumes were positively correlated with remote posterior perfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex, and negatively correlated with remote anterior perfusion of the right medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was no local correlation between volumes and perfusion within the MTL. These findings provide further insight into functional changes that result from MTL volume loss during the predementia stage of AD. The positive correlation between MTL volumes and posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect the deafferentation of a temporocingulate network due to mediotemporal degeneration. The paradoxical negative correlation between MTL volumes and prefrontal perfusion may result from recruitment of an alternative anterior temporofrontal network. It remains to be investigated how the ''net sum'' of this perfusion modulation affects memory and other cognitive domains through a possible compensatory perspective. (orig.)

  7. Thioredoxin-Mimetic-Peptides Protect Cognitive Function after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratz-Goldstein, Renana; Deselms, Hanna; Heim, Leore Raphael; Khomski, Lena; Hoffer, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is recognized as a common injury among children, sportsmen, and elderly population. mTBI lacks visible objective structural brain damage but patients frequently suffer from long-lasting cognitive, behavioral and emotional difficulties associated with biochemical and cellular changes. Currently there is no effective treatment for patients with mTBI. The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin pathway (TrxR/Trx1) has both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. If the system is compromised, Trx1 remains oxidized and triggers cell death via an ASK1-Trx1 signal transduction mechanism. We previously showed tri and tetra peptides which were derived from the canonical -CxxC- motif of the Trx1-active site, called thioredoxin mimetic (TXM) peptides, reversed inflammatory and oxidative stress damage mimicking Trx1 activity. Here, TXM-peptides were examined for protecting cognitive function following weight drop closed-head injury in a mouse model of mTBI. TXM-CB3 (AcCys-Pro-CysNH2), TXM-CB13 (DY-70; AcCys-Met-Lys-CysNH2) or AD4 (ACysNH2) were administered at 50 mg/kg, 60 min after injury and cognitive performance was monitored by the novel-object-recognition and Y-maze tests. Behavioral deficits subsequent to mTBI injury were reversed by a single dose of TXM-CB3, TXM-CB13 and, to a lesser extent, by AD4. TXM-CB13 similar to TXM-CB3 and AD4 reversed oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated kinases, p38MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, (JNK) in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We conclude that significantly improved cognitive behavior post mTBI by the TXM-peptides could result from anti-apoptotic, and/or anti-inflammatory activities. Future preclinical studies are required to establish the TXM-peptides as potential therapeutic drugs for brain injuries. PMID:27285176

  8. Oxidative stress and hippocampal synaptic protein levels in elderly cognitively intact individuals with Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, Stephen W; Ansari, Mubeen A; Mufson, Elliott J

    2016-06-01

    Neuritic amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are major components used for the clinical diagnosis of this disorder. However, many individuals with no cognitive impairment (NCI) also present at autopsy with high levels of these AD pathologic hallmarks. In this study, we evaluated 15 autopsy cases from NCI individuals with high levels of AD-like pathology (high pathology no cognitive impairment) and compared them to age- and postmortem-matched cohorts of individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and NCI cases with low AD-like pathology (low pathology no cognitive impairment [LPNCI]). Individuals classified as high pathology no cognitive impairment or amnestic mild cognitive impairment had a significant loss of both presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins in the hippocampus compared with those in the LPNCI cohort. In addition, these 2 groups had a significant increase in 3 different markers of oxidative stress compared with that in the LPNCI group. The changes in levels of synaptic proteins are strongly associated with levels of oxidative stress. These data suggest that cognitively older subjects without dementia but with increased levels of AD-like pathology may represent a very early preclinical stage of AD. PMID:27143416

  9. Plasma protein profiling of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease across two independent cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchhoff, Julia; Poljak, Anne; Song, Fei; Raftery, Mark; Brodaty, Henry; Duncan, Mark; McEvoy, Mark; Attia, John; Schofield, Peter W; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2015-01-01

    To unlock the full potential of disease modifying treatments, it is essential to develop early biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). For practical reasons, blood-based markers that could provide a signal at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or even earlier would be ideal. Using the proteomic approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), we compared the plasma protein profiles of MCI, AD, and cognitively normal control subjects from two independent cohorts: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (261 MCI subjects, 24 AD subjects, 411 controls) and the Hunter Community Study (180 MCI subjects, 153 controls). The objective was to identify any proteins that are differentially abundant in MCI and AD plasma in both cohorts, since they might be of interest as potential biomarkers, or could help direct future mechanistic studies. Proteins representative of biological processes relevant to AD pathology, such as the complement system, the coagulation cascade, lipid metabolism, and metal and vitamin D and E transport, were found to differ in abundance in MCI. In particular, levels of complement regulators C1 inhibitor and factor H, fibronectin, ceruloplasmin, and vitamin D-binding protein were significantly decreased in MCI participants from both cohorts. Several apolipoproteins, including apolipoprotein AIV, B-100, and H were also significantly decreased in MCI. Most of these proteins have previously been reported as potential biomarkers for AD; however, we show for the first time that a significant decrease in plasma levels of two potential biomarkers (fibronectin and C1 inhibitor) is evident at the MCI stage. PMID:25159666

  10. Brain glucose metabolism and neuropsychological test in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秋云; 江开达; 张明园; 刘永昌; 肖世富; 左传涛; 黄红芳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the features of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) in patients with mild cognitive impairment(MCI) by positron emission-tomography and its relationship with neuropsychological test.Methods Positron emission tomography, mini-mental state examination and Wechsler memory scale were applied in 10 patients with MCI and 10 healthy volunteers as the control group.Results Scores of mini-mental state examination and Wechsler memory scale in MCI patients were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). rCMRglc of the left orbital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus and right putamen was lower in the MCI group than in the control group (P<0.05). Correlation analysis in the MCI group indicated that rCMRglc of many brain regions such as the orbital gyrus, putamen, left hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, left amygdaloid body, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and medial occipitotemporal gyrus in MCI patients, were correlated negatively with age; while the rCMRglc of many parts of the brain such as the left putamen, temporal lobe, anterior cingulate gyrus, left insular lobe, amygdaloid body, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and medial occipitotemporal gyrus were correlated positively with mini-mental state examination; and rCMRglc of the left putamen, temporal lobe, left insular lobe, precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus were correlated positively with Wechsler memory scale. The right putamen, the right inferior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and left postcentral gyrus were correlated positively with the length of education. However, only rCMRglc of the left amygdaloid body were correlated positively with gender. Conclusion The rCMRglc was lower in the orbital gyrus and putamen of MCI patients. Their rCMRglc were correlated with their cognitive impairment severity, age, length of education and sex.

  11. Mild head injury in preschool children: evidence that it can be associated with a persisting cognitive defect.

    OpenAIRE

    Wrightson, P; McGinn, V; Gronwall, D

    1995-01-01

    This study describes the effect of mild head injury in preschool children on aspects of their cognitive performance in the year after injury and at the age of 6.5 years, with particular reference to the development of reading skills. Mild head injury was defined by diagnosis at a hospital emergency department of a head injury which was not severe enough to need admission for observation. Seventy eight such children were compared with a group of 86 with a minor injury elsewhere. The groups had...

  12. Acupuncture at the Taixi (KI3) acupoint activates cerebral neurons in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangjie Chen; Xuemin Shi; Lihua Zhao; Maosheng Xu; Hong Li; Jiuping Liang; Liang Yin; Xia Liu; Xinyan Jia; Fen Zhu; Dan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Our previous ifndings have demonstrated that acupuncture at the Taixi (KI3) acupoint in healthy youths can activate neurons in cognitive-related cerebral cortex. Here, we investigated whether acupuncture at this acupoint in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment can also activate neurons in these regions. Resting state and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that the pinprick senstation of acupuncture at the Taixi acupoint differed signiifcantly between elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy elderly controls. Results showed that 20 brain regions were activated in both groups of participants, including the bi-lateral anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann areas [BA] 32, 24), left medial frontal cortex (BA 9, 10, 11), left cuneus (BA 19), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 11), left lingual gyrus (BA 18), right medial frontal gyrus (BA 11), bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), left superior frontal gyrus (BA11), right cuneus (BA 19, 18), right superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), left subcallosal gyrus (BA 47), bilateral precuneus (BA 19), right medial frontal gyrus (BA 10), right superior frontal (BA 11), left cingulate gyrus (BA 32), left precentral gyrus (BA 6), and right fusiform gyrus (BA 19). These results suggest that acupuncture at the Taixi acupoint in elderly patients with mild cogni-tive impairment can also activate some brain regions.

  13. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between Healthy Aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Back ground: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of dementia, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer's or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments.

    Methods: Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fMRI imaging in differentiating between Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Healthy Aging. To prove fMRI's ability, we compared resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects using Independent Component Algorithm (ICA. We examined 40 age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer's subjects.

    Results: The results show that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer's group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network.

    Conclusion: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer's disease (AD, MCI and Healthy Aging.


    Keywords: fMRI, Default Mode Network, Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Resting-State

  14. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaudreau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 30 healthy control (HC subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.

  15. Performance-based Tools for Assessing Functional Performance in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Belchior

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is now recognized that individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI face subtle functional declines that can compromise performance in everyday tasks. However, it is still not clear how to capture these declines in the clinical setting. Thus, the goal of this study was to conduct a scoping review to identify performance-based tools for which the psychometric properties have been evaluated with the MCI population. Methods: A scoping review of the scientific literature was performed with the guidance of a health science librarian in searching the MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases from their inception until May 2014. Results: Nine performance-based tools assessing functional performance in individuals with MCI have been identified in the literature. While construct and content validity have been extensively reported, only two tools provided data on reliability. Conclusion: Considering that functional decline is part of the normal aging process, it might be challenging to differentiate normal from pathological functional decline in this population. Functional measurement tools might be very sensitive to capture these subtle changes. Although no recommendations can be proposed at this point on a specific tool to assess functional performance in MCI, research in this area is beginning to identify the elements that should be taken into consideration when choosing a tool.

  16. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI. PMID:23329298

  17. Neural correlates of spatial navigation changes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil eVlček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the memory impairment is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, AD has also been characterized by spatial disorientation, which is present from its early stages. Spatial disorientation in AD manifests itself in getting lost in familiar and unfamiliar places and have been characterized more specifically using spatial navigation tests in both real space and virtual environments as an impairment in multiple spatial abilities, including allocentric and egocentric navigation strategies, visuospatial perception or selection of relevant information for successful navigation. Patients suffering mild cognitive impairment (MCI, who are at a high risk of development of dementia, show impairment in a subset of these abilities, mainly connected with allocentric and egocentric processing. While spatial disorientation in typical AD patients probably reflects neurodegenerative changes in medial and posterior temporal, parietal and frontal lobes and retrosplenial cortex, the impairment of spatial navigation in MCI seem to be connected mainly with the medial temporal and also parietal brain changes. In this review we will summarize the signs of brain disease in most MCI and AD patients showing in various tasks of spatial memory and navigation.

  18. Altered Brain Activities Associated with Neural Repetition Effects in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Li, Rui; Jiang, Yang; Broster, Lucas S; Li, Juan

    2016-05-11

    Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) manifest impaired explicit memory. However, studies on implicit memory such as repetition effects in persons with MCI have been limited. In the present study, 17 MCI patients and 16 healthy normal controls (NC) completed a modified delayed-match-to-sample task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We aim to examine the neural basis of repetition; specifically, to elucidate whether and how repetition-related brain responses are altered in participants with MCI. When repeatedly rejecting distracters, both NC and MCI showed similar behavioral repetition effects; however, in both whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses of functional data, persons with MCI showed reduced repetition-driven suppression in the middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus. Further, individual difference analysis found that activation in the left middle occipital gyrus was positively correlated with rejecting reaction time and negatively correlated with accuracy rate, suggesting a predictor of repetition behavioral performance. These findings provide new evidence to support the view that neural mechanisms of repetition effect are altered in MCI who manifests compensatory repetition-related brain activities along with their neuropathology. PMID:27176074

  19. Mitochondrial Alterations in Peripheral Mononuclear Blood Cells from Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbarba, A; Abate, G; Prandelli, C; Marziano, M; Buizza, L; Arce Varas, N; Novelli, A; Cuetos, F; Martinez, C; Lanni, C; Memo, M; Uberti, D

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to neurodegeneration occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, evidences of mitochondrial defects in AD peripheral cells are still inconclusive. Here, some mitochondrial-encoded and nuclear-encoded proteins, involved in maintaining the correct mitochondria machine, were investigated in terms of protein expression and enzymatic activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients and healthy subjects. In addition mitochondrial DNA copy number was measured by real time PCR. We found some differences and some similarities between AD and MCI patients when compared with healthy subjects. For example, cytochrome C and cytochrome B were decreased in AD, while MCI showed only a statistical reduction of cytochrome C. On the other hand, both AD and MCI blood cells exhibited highly nitrated MnSOD, index of a prooxidant environment inside the mitochondria. TFAM, a regulator of mitochondrial genome replication and transcription, was decreased in both AD and MCI patients' blood cells. Moreover also the mitochondrial DNA amount was reduced in PBMCs from both patient groups. In conclusion these data confirmed peripheral mitochondria impairment in AD and demonstrated that TFAM and mtDNA amount reduction could be two features of early events occurring in AD pathogenesis. PMID:26881032

  20. Prediction of Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease Using MRI and Structural Network Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rizhen; Li, Chuhan; Fogelson, Noa; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and abnormalities of brain network architectures may allow earlier detection and accurate prediction of the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we proposed a classification framework to distinguish MCI converters (MCIc) from MCI non-converters (MCInc) by using a combination of FreeSurfer-derived MRI features and nodal features derived from the thickness network. At the feature selection step, we first employed sparse linear regression with stability selection, for the selection of discriminative features in the iterative combinations of MRI and network measures. Subsequently the top K features of available combinations were selected as optimal features for classification. To obtain unbiased results, support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with nested cross validation were used for classification. The combination of 10 features including those from MRI and network measures attained accuracies of 66.04, 76.39, 74.66, and 73.91% for mixed conversion time, 6, 12, and 18 months before diagnosis of probable AD, respectively. Analysis of the diagnostic power of different time periods before diagnosis of probable AD showed that short-term prediction (6 and 12 months) achieved more stable and higher AUC scores compared with long-term prediction (18 months), with K-values from 1 to 30. The present results suggest that meaningful predictors composed of MRI and network measures may offer the possibility for early detection of progression from MCI to AD. PMID:27148045

  1. Automated MR morphometry to predict Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Schlindwein, Sarah; Bruggen, Thomas van; Meinzer, Hans-Peter [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Medical and Biological Informatics, Heidelberg (Germany); Stieltjes, Bram; Essig, Marco [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but essential for early treatment. This study aims to investigate the use of hippocampal atrophy markers for the automatic detection of MCI converters and to compare the predictive value to manually obtained hippocampal volume and temporal horn width. A study was performed with 15 patients with Alzheimer and 18 patients with MCI (ten converted, eight remained stable in a 3-year follow-up) as well as 15 healthy subjects. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and evaluated with an automated system for scoring of hippocampal atrophy. The predictive value of the automated system was compared with manual measurements of hippocampal volume and temporal horn width in the same subjects. The conversion to AD was correctly predicted in 77.8% of the cases (sensitivity 70%, specificity 87.5%) in the MCI group using automated morphometry and a plain linear classifier that was trained on the AD and healthy groups. Classification was improved by limiting analysis to the left cerebral hemisphere (accuracy 83.3%, sensitivity 70%, specificity 100%). The manual linear and volumetric approaches reached rates of 66.7% (40/100%) and 72.2% (60/87.5%), respectively. The automatic approach fulfills many important preconditions for clinical application. Contrary to the manual approaches, it is not observer-dependent and reduces human resource requirements. Automated assessment may be useful for individual patient assessment and for predicting progression to dementia. (orig.)

  2. Automated MR morphometry to predict Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but essential for early treatment. This study aims to investigate the use of hippocampal atrophy markers for the automatic detection of MCI converters and to compare the predictive value to manually obtained hippocampal volume and temporal horn width. A study was performed with 15 patients with Alzheimer and 18 patients with MCI (ten converted, eight remained stable in a 3-year follow-up) as well as 15 healthy subjects. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and evaluated with an automated system for scoring of hippocampal atrophy. The predictive value of the automated system was compared with manual measurements of hippocampal volume and temporal horn width in the same subjects. The conversion to AD was correctly predicted in 77.8% of the cases (sensitivity 70%, specificity 87.5%) in the MCI group using automated morphometry and a plain linear classifier that was trained on the AD and healthy groups. Classification was improved by limiting analysis to the left cerebral hemisphere (accuracy 83.3%, sensitivity 70%, specificity 100%). The manual linear and volumetric approaches reached rates of 66.7% (40/100%) and 72.2% (60/87.5%), respectively. The automatic approach fulfills many important preconditions for clinical application. Contrary to the manual approaches, it is not observer-dependent and reduces human resource requirements. Automated assessment may be useful for individual patient assessment and for predicting progression to dementia. (orig.)

  3. Prediction of Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease Using MRI and Structural Network Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rizhen; Li, Chuhan; Fogelson, Noa; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and abnormalities of brain network architectures may allow earlier detection and accurate prediction of the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we proposed a classification framework to distinguish MCI converters (MCIc) from MCI non-converters (MCInc) by using a combination of FreeSurfer-derived MRI features and nodal features derived from the thickness network. At the feature selection step, we first employed sparse linear regression with stability selection, for the selection of discriminative features in the iterative combinations of MRI and network measures. Subsequently the top K features of available combinations were selected as optimal features for classification. To obtain unbiased results, support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with nested cross validation were used for classification. The combination of 10 features including those from MRI and network measures attained accuracies of 66.04, 76.39, 74.66, and 73.91% for mixed conversion time, 6, 12, and 18 months before diagnosis of probable AD, respectively. Analysis of the diagnostic power of different time periods before diagnosis of probable AD showed that short-term prediction (6 and 12 months) achieved more stable and higher AUC scores compared with long-term prediction (18 months), with K-values from 1 to 30. The present results suggest that meaningful predictors composed of MRI and network measures may offer the possibility for early detection of progression from MCI to AD. PMID:27148045

  4. Recognizing mild cognitive impairment based on network connectivity analysis of resting EEG with zero reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very helpful for early therapeutic interventions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MCI has been proven to be correlated with disorders in multiple brain areas. In this paper, we used information from resting brain networks at different EEG frequency bands to reliably recognize MCI. Because EEG network analysis is influenced by the reference that is used, we also evaluate the effect of the reference choices on the resting scalp EEG network-based MCI differentiation. The conducted study reveals two aspects: (1) the network-based MCI differentiation is superior to the previously reported classification that uses coherence in the EEG; and (2) the used EEG reference influences the differentiation performance, and the zero approximation technique (reference electrode standardization technique, REST) can construct a more accurate scalp EEG network, which results in a higher differentiation accuracy for MCI. This study indicates that the resting scalp EEG-based network analysis could be valuable for MCI recognition in the future. (paper)

  5. Relationship Induced Multi-Template Learning for Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxia; Zhang, Daoqiang; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-06-01

    As shown in the literature, methods based on multiple templates usually achieve better performance, compared with those using only a single template for processing medical images. However, most existing multi-template based methods simply average or concatenate multiple sets of features extracted from different templates, which potentially ignores important structural information contained in the multi-template data. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose a novel relationship induced multi-template learning method for automatic diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI), by explicitly modeling structural information in the multi-template data. Specifically, we first nonlinearly register each brain's magnetic resonance (MR) image separately onto multiple pre-selected templates, and then extract multiple sets of features for this MR image. Next, we develop a novel feature selection algorithm by introducing two regularization terms to model the relationships among templates and among individual subjects. Using these selected features corresponding to multiple templates, we then construct multiple support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Finally, an ensemble classification is used to combine outputs of all SVM classifiers, for achieving the final result. We evaluate our proposed method on 459 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, including 97 AD patients, 128 normal controls (NC), 117 progressive MCI (pMCI) patients, and 117 stable MCI (sMCI) patients. The experimental results demonstrate promising classification performance, compared with several state-of-the-art methods for multi-template based AD/MCI classification. PMID:26742127

  6. Discrimination of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Using Transfer Entropy Measures of Scalp EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph McBride

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a neurological condition related to early stages of dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD. This study investigates the potential of measures of transfer entropy in scalp EEG for effectively discriminating between normal aging, MCI, and AD participants. Resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years—15 normal controls, 16 MCI, and 17 early AD—are examined. The mean temporal delays corresponding to peaks in inter-regional transfer entropy are computed and used as features to discriminate between the three groups of participants. Three-way classification schemes based on binary support vector machine models demonstrate overall discrimination accuracies of 91.7— 93.8%, depending on the protocol condition. These results demonstrate the potential for EEG transfer entropy measures as biomarkers in identifying early MCI and AD. Moreover, the analyses based on short data segments (two minutes render the method practical for a primary care setting.

  7. Cerebral small vessel disease affects white matter microstructure in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papma, Janne M; de Groot, Marius; de Koning, Inge; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U; van der Lugt, Aad; Vernooij, Meike W; Niessen, Wiro J; van Swieten, John C; Koudstaal, Peter J; Prins, Niels D; Smits, Marion

    2014-06-01

    Microstructural white matter deterioration is a frequent finding in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), potentially underlying default mode network (DMN) dysfunctioning. Thus far, microstructural damage in MCI has been attributed to Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. A cerebrovascular role, in particular the role of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), received less interest. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the role of CSVD in microstructural deterioration within the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in MCI. MCI patients were subdivided into those with (n = 20) and without (n = 31) macrostructural CSVD evidence on MRI. Using TBSS we performed microstructural integrity comparisons within the whole brain NAWM. Secondly, we segmented white matter tracts interconnecting DMN brain regions by means of automated tractography segmentation. We used NAWM DTI measures from these tracts as dependent variables in a stepwise-linear regression analysis, with structural and demographical predictors. Our results indicated microstructural deterioration within the anterior corpus callosum, internal and external capsule and periventricular white matter in MCI patients with CSVD, while in MCI patients without CSVD, deterioration was restricted to the right perforant path, a tract along the hippocampus. Within the full cohort of MCI patients, microstructure within the NAWM of the DMN fiber tracts was affected by the presence of CSVD. Within the cingulum along the hippocampal cortex we found a relationship between microstructural integrity and ipsilateral hippocampal volume and the extent of white matter hyperintensity. In conclusion, we found evidence of CSVD-related microstructural damage in fiber tracts subserving the DMN in MCI. PMID:24115179

  8. FMRI of working memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and probable Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this study were to evaluate brain activation in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and controls while performing a working memory (WM) task. Eleven AD patients, ten MCI subjects, and nine controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a visual WM task. Statistical parametric maps of brain activation were obtained in each group, and group activation difference maps were generated. Ability to perform the task did not differ among the groups. Activation was observed in the parahippocampal region, superior-middle-inferior frontal gyri, parietal region, anterior-posterior cingulate, fusiform gyrus, and basal ganglia. MCI and AD groups showed more activation than the controls in the right superior frontal gyrus, bilateral middle temporal, middle frontal, anterior cingulate, and fusiform gyri. Activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral cingulate and lingual gyri, right lentiform nucleus, right fusiform gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus in the AD group was less than in the MCI group. The WM task evoked activation in widely distributed regions, consistent with previous fMRI studies. AD and MCI patients showed an increased extent of activation and recruitment of additional areas. (orig.)

  9. MRI correlates of episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Claire E; Mackay, Clare E; Lonie, Jane A; Bastin, Mark E; Terrière, Emma; O'Carroll, Ronan E; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2010-10-30

    Episodic memory is a core feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Impaired episodic memory in AD results from the dysfunction of an integrated network and involves both gray and white matter pathologies. We explored the neural correlates of episodic memory in AD, MCI and healthy aging by correlating a measure of episodic memory with hippocampal volume and fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of the cingulum and fornix. Episodic memory was associated with hippocampal volume and MD of the cingulum and fornix. In contrast, there were fewer significant associations between episodic memory and FA. These findings support a relationship between episodic memory and hippocampal circuitry, and suggest that MD is a more sensitive marker of decreased white matter integrity in the study of AD and MCI than FA. Furthermore, MD was significantly associated with hippocampal volume, indicating that white matter pathology is not completely independent of gray matter pathology. However, the pattern of diffusivity differences in AD and MCI implies a more complex pathology than simply Wallerian degeneration. PMID:20832251

  10. Is the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale appropriate to detect Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Belaus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have tried to assess the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS capability to detect incipient dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, but the results are not clear. The aim of this research was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the MDRS, and to localize the optimal cutoff score for MCI. Methodology. A neuropsychological battery that included the MDRS was administered to 60 older adults of both genders (Mean age=68.38, SD=6.80 in Cór- doba, Argentina, who were then classified as “Control” (34 cases or “MCI” (26 cases according to performance in the neuropsychological evaluation, excluding the MDRS. The criteria used were those stated by the Sociedad Española de Neurología. We performed mean comparisons in order to evaluate if the MDRS was able to detect the group differences. Then, a logistic regression with the MDRS total score as the predictor variable and the group as the criterion variable was performed to determine the cutoff score. Results. Even though the mean comparisons showed a significant difference in the MDRS (p=.004, the diagnostic accuracy was only 63% with a 133 points cutoff score. The sensitivity was 42% and the specificity was 79%. Conclusions. The MDRS does not seem to be a useful tool to detect MCI since it generates numerous misclassified cases. The development of more accurate tools becomes fundamental in order to detect MCI.

  11. The Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the corpus callosum (CC) area and brain volume among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). To evaluate the relationship of CC area and brain volume in 111 subjects (M:F = 48:63; mean age, 56.9 years) without memory disturbance and 28 subjects (11:17; 66.7years) with memory disturbance. The 11 AD (3:8; 75.7 years), 17 MCI (8:9; 60.9 years) and 28 selected HC (11:17; 66.4 years) patients were investigated for comparison of their CC area and brain volume. A good positive linear correlation was found between CC area and brain volume in subjects without and with memory disturbance (r = 0.64 and 0.66, respectively, p 2, 715.4 ± 107 cm3) were significantly smaller than in MCI patients (595.9 ± 108, 844.1 ± 85) and the HCs (563.2 ± 75, 818.9 ± 109) (p < 0.05). The CC area and brain volume were not significantly different between MCI patients and the HCs. The CC area was significantly correlated with brain volume. Both CC area and brain volume were significantly smaller in the AD patients

  12. Analysis of neural dynamics in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using wavelet turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, Jesús; Gómez, Carlos; García, María; Corralejo, Rebeca; Fernández, Alberto; Hornero, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Current diagnostic guidelines encourage further research for the development of novel Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers, especially in its prodromal form (i.e. mild cognitive impairment, MCI). Magnetoencephalography (MEG) can provide essential information about AD brain dynamics; however, only a few studies have addressed the characterization of MEG in incipient AD. Approach. We analyzed MEG rhythms from 36 AD patients, 18 MCI subjects and 27 controls, introducing a new wavelet-based parameter to quantify their dynamical properties: the wavelet turbulence. Main results. Our results suggest that AD progression elicits statistically significant regional-dependent patterns of abnormalities in the neural activity (p < 0.05), including a progressive loss of irregularity, variability, symmetry and Gaussianity. Furthermore, the highest accuracies to discriminate AD and MCI subjects from controls were 79.4% and 68.9%, whereas, in the three-class setting, the accuracy reached 67.9%. Significance. Our findings provide an original description of several dynamical properties of neural activity in early AD and offer preliminary evidence that the proposed methodology is a promising tool for assessing brain changes at different stages of dementia.

  13. Improved multimodal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment diagnosis: data from ADNI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Torteya, Antonio; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor; Tamez-Peña, José

    2013-02-01

    The accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) confers many clinical research and patient care benefits. Studies have shown that multimodal biomarkers provide better diagnosis accuracy of AD and MCI than unimodal biomarkers, but their construction has been based on traditional statistical approaches. The objective of this work was the creation of accurate AD and MCI diagnostic multimodal biomarkers using advanced bioinformatics tools. The biomarkers were created by exploring multimodal combinations of features using machine learning techniques. Data was obtained from the ADNI database. The baseline information (e.g. MRI analyses, PET analyses and laboratory essays) from AD, MCI and healthy control (HC) subjects with available diagnosis up to June 2012 was mined for case/controls candidates. The data mining yielded 47 HC, 83 MCI and 43 AD subjects for biomarker creation. Each subject was characterized by at least 980 ADNI features. A genetic algorithm feature selection strategy was used to obtain compact and accurate cross-validated nearest centroid biomarkers. The biomarkers achieved training classification accuracies of 0.983, 0.871 and 0.917 for HC vs. AD, HC vs. MCI and MCI vs. AD respectively. The constructed biomarkers were relatively compact: from 5 to 11 features. Those multimodal biomarkers included several widely accepted univariate biomarkers and novel image and biochemical features. Multimodal biomarkers constructed from previously and non-previously AD associated features showed improved diagnostic performance when compared to those based solely on previously AD associated features.

  14. Application of contemporary imaging methods in diagnostics of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as a heterogeneous clinical syndrome associated with high risk of the development of dementia, especially Alzheimer disease (AD). Owing to the recent advances in understanding of the molecular phenomena underlying AD there is a chance of introducing effective therapy for this disease in the near future. Therefore, improvement of early diagnostics methods and finding the markers of AD progression, especially in the high risk population of patients with MCI becomes a crucial issue. From the clinical point of view, great expectations are associated with neuroradiologic methods, which are hoped to make it possible to find the markers of conversion from MCI to dementia and the markers of dementia progression in subjects at risk of the development of AD. Growing interest in the problem of MCI diagnostics, reflected in numerous medical publications that have appeared during the recent few years, has prompted the authors to review and summarize the current knowledge concerning the application of modern neuroradiologic methods in the diagnostics of subjects with MCI. (author)

  15. An fMRI study of neural pathways following acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Bai, Lijun; Wang, Hu; Zhong, Chongguang; You, Youbo; Zhang, Wensheng; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    While the use of acupuncture as a complementary therapeutic method for treating MCI is popular in certain parts of the world, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. In the current study, we adopted multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA) to explore the causal interactions of brain networks involving acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). The fMRI experiment was performed with two different paradigms: namely, deep acupuncture (DA) and superficial acupuncture (SA) at acupoint KI3. Results demonstrated that deep acupuncture could modulate the abnormal regions in MCI group. These regions are implicated in memory encoding and retrieving. This may relate to the purported therapeutically beneficial effects of acupuncture for the treatment of MCI. However, the most significant causal interactions were found in the sensorimotor regions in HC group. This may because acupuncture has a greater modulatory effect on patients with a pathological imbalance. This paper provides the preliminary neurophysiological evidence for the potential efficacy effect of acupuncture on MCI.

  16. Disrupted Network Topology in Patients with Stable and Progressive Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana B; Mijalkov, Mite; Kakaei, Ehsan; Mecocci, Patricia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilka; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simmon; Simmons, Andrew; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Volpe, Giovanni; Westman, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Recent findings suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disconnection syndrome characterized by abnormalities in large-scale networks. However, the alterations that occur in network topology during the prodromal stages of AD, particularly in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and those that show a slow or faster progression to dementia, are still poorly understood. In this study, we used graph theory to assess the organization of structural MRI networks in stable MCI (sMCI) subjects, late MCI converters (lMCIc), early MCI converters (eMCIc), and AD patients from 2 large multicenter cohorts: ADNI and AddNeuroMed. Our findings showed an abnormal global network organization in all patient groups, as reflected by an increased path length, reduced transitivity, and increased modularity compared with controls. In addition, lMCIc, eMCIc, and AD patients showed a decreased path length and mean clustering compared with the sMCI group. At the local level, there were nodal clustering decreases mostly in AD patients, while the nodal closeness centrality detected abnormalities across all patient groups, showing overlapping changes in the hippocampi and amygdala and nonoverlapping changes in parietal, entorhinal, and orbitofrontal regions. These findings suggest that the prodromal and clinical stages of AD are associated with an abnormal network topology. PMID:27178195

  17. Investigating the Effects of Mild Induced Hypothermia on Cognition using a Measure of Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Lacey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mild Induced hypothermia has come to be recognised as a successful method of providing neuro-protective treatment for patients suffering ischemic stroke, cardiac arrest and traumatic brain injury (TBI. Anti-inflammatory responses and the lowering of cerebral metabolic rates, leading to a reduction in neuronal apoptosis, are considered to be the main mechanisms by which this process benefits patients. Assessment of a new hydro based cooling device, which could potentially be used by emergency service units, provided the impetus for the current research. Neurologically normal participants underwent two treatments: a cooling procedure where the temperature of water circulating in a cooling helmet was maintained at 4 °C and a non-cooling/sham procedure where the temperature was set at 18 °C. During treatment participants were required to perform a computer-based task that measured sustained attention/vigilance via participant response times during target detection. Electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were also acquired before and after each treatment condition. Participants' core temperature (recorded via tympanic membrane was monitored throughout the process. The findings revealed a statistically reliable 0.62 °C decrease in temperature as a result of cooling after controlling for participants' body mass index (BMI. However, there were no reliable cognitive or EEG spectral changes induced by the decrease in temperature.

  18. Is Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise Feasible for People with Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intzandt, Brittany; Black, Sandra E.; Lanctôt, Krista L.; Herrmann, Nathan; Oh, Paul; Middleton, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise is a promising strategy to prevent dementia, but no clinically supervised exercise program is widely available to people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The objective was to survey health professionals to assess the feasibility of using cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs for MCI populations. Methods We distributed surveys to: 1) health professionals working in cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs (36/72 responded); and 2) physicians who treat MCI (22/32 responded). Questions addressed clinician and clinic characteristics and feasibility of referring and accommodating people with MCI. Results Most cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs currently treat people with MCI (61.1%). Nearly all were willing and able to accept people with MCI and comorbid vascular risk (91.7%), though only a minority could accept MCI without vascular risk (16.7%). Although most physicians recommend exercise to people with MCI (63.6%), few referred patients with MCI to programs or people to guide exercise (27.3%). However, all physicians (100%) would refer patients with MCI to a cardiac rehabilitation exercise program. Conclusions Our study supports cardiac rehabilitation exercise programs as a feasible model of exercise for patients with MCI with vascular risk. Patients with and without vascular risk could likely be accommodated if program mandates were expanded. PMID:26180562

  19. Male patients dosimetry undergoing brain PET/CT exam for diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) can indicate an initial dementia framework, or increase in the likelihood of developing this. The PET/CT (positron emission tomography associated with computed tomography) has shown excellent prospects for MCI diagnosis. The PET/CT helps diagnosis, but the patients effective dose is higher, it depends on the computed tomography (CT) protocol and the radiopharmaceutical patient injected activity. This study evaluates the dose in 38 male patients undergoing this technique for MCI diagnosis. To assess the radiation level from CT modality imaging was used TLD100 detectors embedded in a male anthropomorphic Alderson Randon® phantom, undergoing the same imaging protocol to which patients were referred. The dose resulting of radiopharmaceutical injected activity was estimated using the ICRP106 model proposed. The PET / CT effective dose for producing image was (5.12 ± 0.90) mSv. The contribution to the effective dose due to the FDG brain incorporation was (0.12 ± 0.01) mSv and thyroid (0.13 ± 0.02) mSv. The effective dose contribution due to brain and thyroid CT irradiation was (0.18 ± 0.01) mSv and (0.010 ± 0.001) mSv, respectively. The use of optimized CT protocols and FDG injected activity reduction can assist in this procedure dose reduction. (author)

  20. Dysfunctional Incidental Olfaction in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI: An Electroencephalography (EEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Duregger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study provides evidence that Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI is associated with olfactory dysfunction on both conscious and non-conscious levels. MCI patients and age-matched controls underwent a face processing task during which sympathy decisions had to be made via button presses. Incidentally, some of the faces were associated with a simultaneously presented odour. Although attention was paid to faces, brain activities were analysed with respect to odour versus no-odour conditions. Behavioural differences were found related to overall face recognition performance, but these were not statistically significant. However, odour-related neurophysiology differed between both groups. Normal controls demonstrated brain activity differences between odour and no-odour conditions that resemble difference activity patterns in healthy young participants as described in a previous magnetoencephalography (MEG study [1]. They showed odour-related activity patterns between about 160 ms and 320 ms after stimulus onset and between about 640 ms and 720 ms. On the other hand, the patient group did not show any such difference activities. Based on previous research we interpret the early odour-related brain activity pattern in controls as being associated with subliminal olfaction and the later activity pattern with conscious olfaction. None of these were found in MCI patients, although it has to be emphasised that our sample size was rather small. We confirm previous findings about olfactory related dysfunction in patients with MCI and conclude from our findings that even subliminal odour-related information processing is impaired.

  1. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Marra, Hellen Livia; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Maia Memória, Cláudia; Arnaut, Débora; Leite Ribeiro, Philip; Sardinha Mansur, Carlos Gustavo; Lancelote Alberto, Rodrigo; Boura Bellini, Bianca; Alves Fernandes da Silva, Adriano; Tortella, Gabriel; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS) on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen's MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th) and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction (p = 0.05), favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration. PMID:26160997

  2. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Livia Drumond Marra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI, which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen’s MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction p=0.05, favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration.

  3. Verbal serial list learning in mild cognitive impairment: a profile analysis of interference, forgetting, and errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libon, David J; Bondi, Mark W; Price, Catherine C; Lamar, Melissa; Eppig, Joel; Wambach, Denene M; Nieves, Christine; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Giovannetti, Tania; Lippa, Carol; Kabasakalian, Anahid; Cosentino, Stephanie; Swenson, Rod; Penney, Dana L

    2011-09-01

    Using cluster analysis Libon et al. (2010) found three verbal serial list-learning profiles involving delay memory test performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Amnesic MCI (aMCI) patients presented with low scores on delay free recall and recognition tests; mixed MCI (mxMCI) patients scored higher on recognition compared to delay free recall tests; and dysexecutive MCI (dMCI) patients generated relatively intact scores on both delay test conditions. The aim of the current research was to further characterize memory impairment in MCI by examining forgetting/savings, interference from a competing word list, intrusion errors/perseverations, intrusion word frequency, and recognition foils in these three statistically determined MCI groups compared to normal control (NC) participants. The aMCI patients exhibited little savings, generated more highly prototypic intrusion errors, and displayed indiscriminate responding to delayed recognition foils. The mxMCI patients exhibited higher saving scores, fewer and less prototypic intrusion errors, and selectively endorsed recognition foils from the interference list. dMCI patients also selectively endorsed recognition foils from the interference list but performed similarly compared to NC participants. These data suggest the existence of distinct memory impairments in MCI and caution against the routine use of a single memory test score to operationally define MCI. PMID:21880171

  4. Atomic connectomics signatures for characterization and differentiation of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jinli; Xie, Li; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Dajiang; Terry, Douglas P; Puente, A Nicholas; Jiang, Rongxin; Chen, Yaowu; Wang, Lihong; Shen, Dinggang; Zhang, Jing; Miller, L Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, functional connectomics signatures have been shown to be a very valuable tool in characterizing and differentiating brain disorders from normal controls. However, if the functional connectivity alterations in a brain disease are localized within sub-networks of a connectome, then accurate identification of such disease-specific sub-networks is critical and this capability entails both fine-granularity definition of connectome nodes and effective clustering of connectome nodes into disease-specific and non-disease-specific sub-networks. In this work, we adopted the recently developed DICCCOL (dense individualized and common connectivity-based cortical landmarks) system as a fine-granularity high-resolution connectome construction method to deal with the first issue, and employed an effective variant of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) method to pinpoint disease-specific sub-networks, which we called atomic connectomics signatures in this work. We have implemented and applied this novel framework to two mild cognitive impairment (MCI) datasets from two different research centers, and our experimental results demonstrated that the derived atomic connectomics signatures can effectively characterize and differentiate MCI patients from their normal controls. In general, our work contributed a novel computational framework for deriving descriptive and distinctive atomic connectomics signatures in brain disorders. PMID:25355371

  5. A Method to Differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer in MR Images using Eigen Value Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandh, K R; Sujatha, C M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2016-01-01

    Automated analysis and differentiation of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's condition using MR images is clinically significant in dementic disorder. Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a fatal and common form of dementia that progressively affects the patients. Shape descriptors could better differentiate the morphological alterations of brain structures and aid in the development of prospective disease modifying therapies. Ventricle enlargement is considered as a significant biomarker in the AD diagnosis. In this work, a method has been proposed to differentiate MCI from the healthy normal and AD subjects using Laplace-Beltrami (LB) eigen value shape descriptors. Prior to this, Reaction Diffusion (RD) level set is used to segment the ventricles in MR images and the results are validated against the Ground Truth (GT). LB eigen values are infinite series of spectrum that describes the intrinsic geometry of objects. Most significant LB shape descriptors are identified and their performance is analysed using linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Results show that, the RD level set is able to segment the ventricles. The segmented ventricles are found to have high correlation with GT. The eigen values in the LB spectrum could show distinction in the feature space better than the geometric features. High accuracy is observed in the classification results of linear SVM. The proposed automated system is able to distinctly separate the MCI from normal and AD subjects. Thus this pipeline of work seems to be clinically significant in the automated analysis of dementic subjects. PMID:26547845

  6. Disrupted Network Topology in Patients with Stable and Progressive Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana B.; Mijalkov, Mite; Kakaei, Ehsan; Mecocci, Patricia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilka; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simmon; Simmons, Andrew; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Volpe, Giovanni; Westman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disconnection syndrome characterized by abnormalities in large-scale networks. However, the alterations that occur in network topology during the prodromal stages of AD, particularly in patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and those that show a slow or faster progression to dementia, are still poorly understood. In this study, we used graph theory to assess the organization of structural MRI networks in stable MCI (sMCI) subjects, late MCI converters (lMCIc), early MCI converters (eMCIc), and AD patients from 2 large multicenter cohorts: ADNI and AddNeuroMed. Our findings showed an abnormal global network organization in all patient groups, as reflected by an increased path length, reduced transitivity, and increased modularity compared with controls. In addition, lMCIc, eMCIc, and AD patients showed a decreased path length and mean clustering compared with the sMCI group. At the local level, there were nodal clustering decreases mostly in AD patients, while the nodal closeness centrality detected abnormalities across all patient groups, showing overlapping changes in the hippocampi and amygdala and nonoverlapping changes in parietal, entorhinal, and orbitofrontal regions. These findings suggest that the prodromal and clinical stages of AD are associated with an abnormal network topology. PMID:27178195

  7. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, G.; Monetta, L.; Macoir, J.; Poulin, S.; Laforce, R. Jr.; Hudon, C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing. PMID:26199459

  8. ApoE4 effects on automated diagnostic classifiers for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana G. Apostolova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are the only feasible way to detect and monitor presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD. No single biomarker can predict future cognitive decline with an acceptable level of accuracy. In addition to designing powerful multimodal diagnostic platforms, a careful investigation of the major sources of disease heterogeneity and their influence on biomarker changes is needed. Here we investigated the accuracy of a novel multimodal biomarker classifier for differentiating cognitively normal (NC, mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD subjects with and without stratification by ApoE4 genotype. 111 NC, 182 MCI and 95 AD ADNI participants provided both structural MRI and CSF data at baseline. We used an automated machine-learning classifier to test the ability of hippocampal volume and CSF Aβ, t-tau and p-tau levels, both separately and in combination, to differentiate NC, MCI and AD subjects, and predict conversion. We hypothesized that the combined hippocampal/CSF biomarker classifier model would achieve the highest accuracy in differentiating between the three diagnostic groups and that ApoE4 genotype will affect both diagnostic accuracy and biomarker selection. The combined hippocampal/CSF classifier performed better than hippocampus-only classifier in differentiating NC from MCI and NC from AD. It also outperformed the CSF-only classifier in differentiating NC vs. AD. Our amyloid marker played a role in discriminating NC from MCI or AD but not for MCI vs. AD. Neurodegenerative markers contributed to accurate discrimination of AD from NC and MCI but not NC from MCI. Classifiers predicting MCI conversion performed well only after ApoE4 stratification. Hippocampal volume and sex achieved AUC = 0.68 for predicting conversion in the ApoE4-positive MCI, while CSF p-tau, education and sex achieved AUC = 0.89 for predicting conversion in ApoE4-negative MCI. These observations support the proposed biomarker trajectory in AD, which postulates

  9. COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism is associated with nonverbal cognition following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; McAllister, Thomas W; Temkin, Nancy R; Oh, Sam S; Burchard, Esteban G; Hu, Donglei; Ferguson, Adam R; Lingsma, Hester F; Burke, John F; Sorani, Marco D; Rosand, Jonathan; Yuh, Esther L; Barber, Jason; Tarapore, Phiroz E; Gardner, Raquel C; Sharma, Sourabh; Satris, Gabriela G; Eng, Celeste; Puccio, Ava M; Wang, Kevin K W; Mukherjee, Pratik; Valadka, Alex B; Okonkwo, David O; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Manley, Geoffrey T

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical outcomes, which may be influenced by genetic variation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme which degrades catecholamine neurotransmitters, may influence cognitive deficits following moderate and/or severe head trauma. However, this has been disputed, and its role in mTBI has not been studied. Here, we utilize the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study to investigate whether the COMT Val (158) Met polymorphism influences outcome on a cognitive battery 6 months following mTBI--Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test Processing Speed Index Composite Score (WAIS-PSI), Trail Making Test (TMT) Trail B minus Trail A time, and California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition Trial 1-5 Standard Score (CVLT-II). All patients had an emergency department Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13-15, no acute intracranial pathology on head CT, and no polytrauma as defined by an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of ≥3 in any extracranial region. Results in 100 subjects aged 40.9 (SD 15.2) years (COMT Met (158) /Met (158) 29 %, Met (158) /Val (158) 47 %, Val (158) /Val (158) 24 %) show that the COMT Met (158) allele (mean 101.6 ± SE 2.1) associates with higher nonverbal processing speed on the WAIS-PSI when compared to Val (158) /Val (158) homozygotes (93.8 ± SE 3.0) after controlling for demographics and injury severity (mean increase 7.9 points, 95 % CI [1.4 to 14.3], p = 0.017). The COMT Val (158) Met polymorphism did not associate with mental flexibility on the TMT or with verbal learning on the CVLT-II. Hence, COMT Val (158) Met may preferentially modulate nonverbal cognition following uncomplicated mTBI.Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01565551. PMID:26576546

  10. Is it possible to identify individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using a 30-minute neuropsychological battery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Coutinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available evaluation. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-one consecutive referred elderly patients (37 clinical-controls, 41 with amnestic MCI and 53 with possible/probable AD were diagnosed with a comprehensive (full neuropsychological battery, MRI and clinical data. All of the results were blindly coded and evaluated latter with a subset of the tests to reclassify the subjects as MCI, dementia or clinical-control. Agreement rates between both batteries were calculated. We also used ROC curves to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the brief battery for discriminating (i clinical-control individuals from a group dementia and MCI patients; (ii individuals with dementia from individuals without dementia; (iii clinical-control individuals from a group of MCI. We compared performance of the three groups on all full battery tasks. RESULTS: All neuropsychological tests showed differences between clinical-control and dementia groups. The comparison between MCI and the other groups mainly showed memory differences. Agreement between brief and full batteries was substantial (kappa = 0.805. Analyses with ROC curves showed good sensitivity and specificity to discriminate non-demented (clinical control plus MCI groups and AD group and also to discriminate clinical-control individuals from individuals with cognitive decline (MCI plus AD group. However, sensitivity and specificity significantly decreased when brief battery was tested to discriminate only normal and MCI diagnosis. DISCUSSION: The use of a brief battery might not be indicated to discriminate MCI and clinical-control individuals, but its use might be adequate to discriminate less specific groups (demented versus non-demented and pathological [dementia and MCI] and non-pathological [clinical-control] groups.

  11. Effects of Pioglitazone or Exercise in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L. Hildreth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To examine the effects of pioglitazone or endurance exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and insulin resistance. Methods: Seventy-eight adults (mean age ± SD: 65 ± 7 years with central obesity and MCI were randomized to 6 months of endurance exercise, pioglitazone or control. Results: Sixty-six participants completed the study. Exercise training did not significantly increase peak oxygen uptake compared to control (p = 0.12. Compared to control, insulin resistance improved in the pioglitazone group (p = 0.002 but not in the exercise group (p = 0.25. There was no measureable effect of pioglitazone or exercise on cognitive performance compared to control. Conclusion: In this pilot study, pioglitazone improved insulin resistance but not cognitive performance in older adults with MCI and insulin resistance.

  12. Association between mild cognitive impairment and cerebral vasoreactivity documented by transcranial Doppler in subjects older than 60 years.

    OpenAIRE

    Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Identifying Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) allows us to start treatment to delay or modify the course of the dementiasyndrome and can find new diagnostic tools and therapeutic monitoring.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association of demographic, clinical and laboratory alterations in cerebral vasoreactivity measured by transcranial Doppler sonography in the population of subjects aged 60 years and its possible association with the DCL.MATERIAL AND METHODS...

  13. Can an 18-point clock-drawing scoring system predict dementia in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babins, Lennie; Slater, Marie-Eve; Whitehead, Victor; Chertkow, Howard

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a clock-drawing scoring system better suited to detecting possible early markers of dementia in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We modified the scoring system of Freedman et al. (1994), in which the major components are integrity of the circle, placement and size of the hands, and placement and sequence of the numbers. We rescored the clock-drawing test using a novel 18-point scoring system, which emphasizes hand elements-number of hands, direction indicated, and size differences. We retrospectively assessed 123 individuals (ages 58-88 years) selected from the Memory Clinic at the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal. These consisted of 21 normal elderly individuals (NORM group), 41 participants with mild cognitive impairment who did not develop dementia on follow-up visits (MCI-NP), 41 participants with mild cognitive impairment who became demented after a 48-month follow-up (MCI-D), and 20 participants diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the 18-point system, the MCI-NP and the MCI-D did not show any difference on overall total score (p = .166), However, using Pearson chi-squares to examine the within-categories effects comparing the mildly cognitively impaired groups (MCI-NP and MCI-D), there were three significant hand items that appear to be possible early markers of progression to dementia. The clock has two hands (p = .043), hour hand is towards correct number (p = .023), and size difference of the hands is respected (p = .004), all showed significant differences between progressors and nonprogressors. The 18-point clock-drawing scoring system may have advantages in better indicating MCI individuals more likely to progress to dementia. PMID:18938669

  14. Assessing the tolerance of a telepresence robot in users with Mild Cognitive Impairment - A protocol for studying users' physiological response

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberio, Lorenza; Padua, Luca; Pellegrino, Anna Rita; Aprile, Irene; Cortellessa, Gabriella; Cesta, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes preliminary work of a research study which supports the use of tele-operated robots for rehabilitation, home care assistance and social interaction. Specifically our idea is to use a telepresence robot, called Giraff, to interact with elderly people suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment. In order to evaluate the potential implications in the use of Giraff with this specific target of users, a first step has been identified which aims at evaluating the tolerability an...

  15. Set-Shifting Ability Is Associated with Gray Matter Volume in Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims An understanding of the association between gray matter volume and executive functioning could provide strategies to reduce dementia risk in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed executive functioning in 83 older people with MCI using three standard neuropsychological tests: set shifting (difference between Trail Making Test Parts B and A), working memory (difference between Digit Span forward and backward from th...

  16. Posterior Cingulum White Matter Disruption and Its Associations with Verbal Memory and Stroke Risk in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Delano-Wood, Lisa; Stricker, Nikki H.; Sorg, Scott F; Nation, Daniel A.; Jak, Amy J.; Woods, Steven P.; Libon, David J.; Delis, Dean C.; Frank, Lawrence R.; Bondi, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe and temporoparietal brain regions are among the earliest neocortical sites to undergo pathophysiologic alterations in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), although the underlying white matter changes in these regions is less well known. We employed diffusion tensor imaging to evaluate early alterations in regional white matter integrity in participants diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The following regions of interests (ROIs) were examined: 1) anterior cingulum (AC); ...

  17. Impaired generation of new subcategories and switching in a semantic verbal fluency test in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Laiss eBertola; Maria Luiza eCunha Lima; Marco Aurelio Romano-Silva; Edgar Nunes de Moraes; Breno Satler Oliveira Diniz; Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz

    2014-01-01

    The semantic verbal fluency task is broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects. Even some studies have identified differences in verbal fluency clustering and switching measures between subjects with normal aging and a clinical condition such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease, the results are not always consistent. This study aimed to compare clustering and switching measures of an animal’s semantic verbal fluency task among normal controls ...

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau proteins as predictors of Alzheimer’s disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Šimić, Goran; Boban, Marina; Patrick R Hof

    2008-01-01

    Major efforts are under way to define reliable biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease. Highly significant increases of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins in cerebrospinal fluid have been recently reported in Alzheimer’s disease patients compared to controls by several independent groups, including ours. These findings support the notion that cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau proteins may be very useful biomarkers in the early identification of Alzheimer’s disease in patients with mild cognit...

  19. Mitochondrial Alterations in Peripheral Mononuclear Blood Cells from Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Delbarba, A.; Abate, G; Prandelli, C; Marziano, M.; Buizza, L.; Arce Varas, N.; Novelli, A.; Cuetos, F.; Martinez, C.; C. Lanni; Memo, M.; Uberti, D.

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to neurodegeneration occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, evidences of mitochondrial defects in AD peripheral cells are still inconclusive. Here, some mitochondrial-encoded and nuclear-encoded proteins, involved in maintaining the correct mitochondria machine, were investigated in terms of protein expression and enzymatic activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from AD and Mild Cognitive Impair...

  20. Heightened emotional contagion in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease is associated with temporal lobe degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Virginia E; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Seeley, William W.; KRAMER, JOEL H.; Bruce L. Miller; Rankin, Katherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional changes are common in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Intrinsic connectivity imaging studies suggest that default mode network degradation in AD is accompanied by the release of an emotion-relevant salience network. We investigated whether emotional contagion, an evolutionarily conserved affect-sharing mechanism, is higher in MCI and AD secondary to biological alterations in neural networks that support emotion. We measured emotional contagion in 237 pa...

  1. Old wine in new bottles: validating the clinical utility of SPECT in predicting cognitive performance in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Kristoffer; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Black, Sandra E; Ehrlich, Lisa; Feinstein, Anthony

    2015-01-30

    The neural underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are not fully understood. Consequently, patient prognosis using existing clinical imaging is somewhat imprecise. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a frequently employed investigation in this population, notwithstanding uncertainty over the clinical utility of the data obtained. In this study, subjects with mild TBI underwent (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT scanning, and were administered a brief battery of cognitive tests and self-report symptom scales of concussion and emotional distress. Testing took place 2 weeks (n=84) and 1 year (n=49) post-injury. Multivariate analysis (i.e., partial least squares analysis) revealed that frontal perfusion in right superior frontal and middle frontal gyri predicted poorer performance on the Stroop test, an index of executive function, both at initial and follow-up testing. Conversely, SPECT scans categorized as normal or abnormal by radiologists did not differentiate cognitively impaired from intact subjects. These results demonstrate the clinical utility of SPECT in mild TBI, but only when data are subjected to blood flow quantification analysis. PMID:25466236

  2. Hippocampal volumes among older Indian adults: Comparison with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dhikav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippocampal volume data from India have recently been reported in younger adults. Data in older adults are unknown. The present paper describes hippocampal volume from India among older adults and compares the same with patients having Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 cognitively normal subjects, 20 patients with AD, and 13 patients with MCI were enrolled. Patients were evaluated for the diagnosis of AD/MCI using the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Related Disorders Association criteria and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR Scale (score = 0.5, respectively. Hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI machine by manual segmentation (Megnatom Symphony 1.5T scanner three-dimensional (3D sequences. Results: Age and duration of illness in the MCI group were 70.6 ± 8.6 years and 1.9 ± 0.9 years, respectively. In the AD group, age and duration of illness were 72 ± 8.1 years and 3.1 ± 2.2 years, respectively. In cognitively normal subjects, the age range was 45-88 years (66.9 ± 10.32 years. Mean mini–mental status examination (MMSE score of healthy subjects was 28.28 ± 1.33. In the MCI group, MMSE was 27.05 ± 1.79. In the AD group, MMSE was 13.32 ± 5.6. In the healthy group, the hippocampal volume was 2.73 ± 0.53 cm3 on the left side and 2.77 ± 0.6 cm3 on the right side. Likewise, in MCI, the volume on the left side was 2.35 ± 0.42 cm3 and the volume on the right side was 2.36 ± 0.38 cm3. Similarly, in the AD group, the volume on the right side was 1.64 ± 0.55 cm3 and on the left side it was 1.59 ± 0.55 cm3. Post hoc analysis using Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD showed, using analysis of variance (ANOVA that there was a statistically significant difference between healthy and AD (P ≤ 0.01, and between healthy and MCI (P ≤ 0.01 subjects. There was a correlation between

  3. Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanotta D; Puricelli S; Bonoldi G

    2014-01-01

    Danilo Zanotta, Silvana Puricelli, Guido Bonoldi Unità Operativa di Medicina 2, Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio, Varese, Italy Abstract: A prospective cohort, noncomparative, multicenter trial was conducted to explore the potential of a phytotherapeutic compound, available as a dietary supplement and containing extracts of Bacopa monnieri and Haematococcus pluvialis (astaxanthin) plus phosphatidylserine and vitamin E, in improving cognition in subjects diagnosed with mild cog...

  4. Repurposing psychiatric medicines to target activated microglia in anxious mild cognitive impairment and early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the pre-motor stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). A concomitant and possible cause of this anxiety is microglial activation, also considered a key promoter of neurodegeneration in MCI and early PD via inflammatory mechanisms and the generation of degenerative proinflammatory cytokines. Psychiatric disorders, prevalent in AD and PD, are often treated with psychiatric drugs (psychotropics), raising the question of whether psychotropics might therapeutically affect microglial activation, MCI, and PD. The literature of common psychotropics used in treating psychiatric disorders was reviewed for preclinical and clinical findings regarding microglial activation. Findings potentially compatible with reduced microglial activation or reduced microglial inflammogen release were evident for: antipsychotics including neuroleptics (chlorpromazine, thioridazine, loxapine) and atypicals (aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone); mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, valproate, lithium); antidepressants including tricyclics (amitriptyline, clomipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline), SSRIs (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline), venlafaxine, and bupropion; benzodiazepine anxiolytics (clonazepam, diazepam); cognitive enhancers (donepezil, galantamine, memantine); and other drugs (dextromethorphan, quinidine, amantadine). In contrast, pramipexole and methylphenidate might promote microglial activation. The most promising replicated findings of reduced microglial activation are for quetiapine, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine but further study is needed and translation of their microglial effects to human disease still requires investigation. In AD-relevant models, risperidone, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, bupropion, donepezil, and memantine have therapeutic microglial effects in need of replication. Limited

  5. Hypothyroidism and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Persons - A Population Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Singh, Balwinder; Roberts, Rosebud O; Pankratz, Shane; Edwards, Kelly K.; Geda, Yonas E; Gharib, H; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not established. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with MCI in a large population based cohort. DESIGN A cross-sectional, population-based study. SETTING Olmsted County, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS Randomly selected participants were aged 70 to 89 years on October 1, 2004, and were without documented prevalent dementia. A total of 2,050 participants were evaluated and underwent in-person interview, neurological evaluation and neuropsychological testing to assess performance in memory, attention/executive function, visuospatial, and language domains. Subjects were diagnosed by consensus as cognitively normal, MCI or dementia according to published criteria. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism was ascertained from a medical records-linkage system. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Association of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism with MCI. Results Among 1904 eligible participants, the frequency of MCI was 16% in 1450 subjects with normal thyroid function, 17% in 313 subjects with clinical hypothyroidism, and 18% in 141 subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism. After adjusting for covariates (age, gender, education, education years, sex, ApoE ε 4, depression, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, BMI and coronary artery disease) we found no significant association between clinical or subclinial hypothyroidism and MCI [OR 0.99 (95% CI 0.66–1.48) and OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.38–2.03) respectively]. No effect of gender interaction was seen on these effects. In stratified analysis, the odds of MCI with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidisn among males was 1.02 (95%CI, 0.57–1.82) and 1.29 (95%CI 0.68–2.44), among females was 1.04 (95% 0.66–1.66) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.37–2.02) respectively. Conclusion In this population based cohort of eldery, neither clinical nor subclinical hypothyrpodism was associated with MCI. Our findings

  6. MR diffusion tensor imaging-based white matter studies in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) using DTI technique, and to explore the relationship between WM abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Methods: Nine cases of amnesic MCI, 15 cases of mild probable AD and 11 cases of normal controls (NC) with normal-appearing WM (NAWM) were studied using 3.0 T MR system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in different WM areas. One-way analysis of variance was used to test the difference among the three groups for DTI indices. Spearman Correlation analysis was applied to reveal the correlation between the DTI indices and the MMSE and CASI scores. Results: The FA value in parietal, centrum semiovale, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampus, temporal and frontal WM in MCI was 0.31±0.03,0.39± 0.03,0.62±0.05,0.59±0.05,0.47±0.08,0.32±0.04, respectively, and MD value was (899±30) x 10-6,(782±53) x 10-6, (732±45) x 10-6, (806±38) x 10-6, (772±55) x 10-6, (792±35) x 10-6 mm2/s. The FA value of these regions in AD was 0.28±0.04, 0.37±0.03,0.55±0.06,0.52± 0.05,0.40±0.05,0.27±0.04, and MD value was (912±37) x 10-6, (800±67) x 10-6, (762±46) x 10-6, (874 ± 57) x 10-6, (822 + 55) x 10-6, (822±39) x 10-6 mm2/s. The FA value in NC was 0.36 ± 0.03,0.43 ± 0.05,0.64 ± 0.057 0.60 ± 0.05, 0.52 ± 0.05, 0.33±0.03, and MD value was (866±37) x 10-6, (754+54) x 10-6, (718 ± 32) x 10-6, (810±39) x 10-6 (755 ± 48) x 10-6 (785 ± 23) x 10-6 mm2/s. Compared with NC, the FA value in parietal WM was significantly decreased in MCI(P<0.01), The significantly reduced FA values in parietal, centrum semiovale, posterior cingulate gyms, parahippocampus, temporal and frontal WM, as well as significantly elevated MD values were found in AD (P<0.05). There was significant correlation between these DTI indices and MMSE and CASI scores (P<0.05). Conclusions: MR DTI can detect WM abnormalities in AD and

  7. Association between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Neuropsychological Performance in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpening, Zoe; Lewis, Simon J G; Yee, Brendon J; Grunstein, Ron R; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing in middle-age and older adults has been shown to be linked to a range of neuropsychological deficits, but the extent to which these relationships are evident in older people 'at risk' of developing dementia in unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine whether changes in sleep-disordered breathing and sleep fragmentation during nocturnal sleep were related to neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Forty-six patients with MCI (mean age = 66.1 y, sd = 8.4) and 40 age-matched healthy controls (mean age = 63.5 y, sd = 8.9) underwent psychiatric, medical, and neuropsychological assessment, in addition to overnight polysomnography and self-report questionnaires. Measures of hypoxemia, sleep fragmentation, and sleep quality were derived including the apnoea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index, percentage of total sleep time spent below 90% oxygen saturation, arousal index, sleep efficiency, and wake after sleep onset. Patients with MCI did not differ from healthy aging on any measure of sleep-disordered breathing or sleep fragmentation. In MCI, processing speed was negatively correlated with greater sleep time spent below 90% oxygen saturation and a higher apnoea-hypopnea index. In contrast, in the healthy aging, processing speed was negatively correlated with an increased oxygen desaturation index and the arousal index. Sleep-disordered breathing is evident in both healthy aging and MCI with associated decrements in processing speed. Future research is needed to determine the unique and synergistic effects of these differential associations, their potential to inform disease trajectory, and possible therapeutic interventions. PMID:25720400

  8. Oxidative stress and APO E polymorphisms in Alzheimer's disease and in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, L; Simoncini, C; Lo Gerfo, A; Rocchi, A; Petrozzi, L; Carlesi, C; Volpi, L; Tognoni, G; Siciliano, G; Bonuccelli, U

    2013-08-01

    A number of evidences indicates oxidative stress as a relevant pathogenic factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Considering its recognized major genetic risk factors in AD, apolipoprotein (APO E) has been investigated in several experimental settings regarding its role in the process of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate possible relationships between APO E genotype and plasma levels of selected oxidative stress markers in both AD and MCI patients. APO E genotypes were determined using restriction enzyme analysis. Plasma levels of oxidative markers, advanced oxidation protein products, iron-reducing ability of plasma and, in MCI, activity of superoxide dismutases were evaluated using spectrophotometric analysis. We found, compared to controls, increased levels of oxidized proteins and decreased values of plasma-reducing capacity in both AD patients (p < 0.0001) and MCI patients (p < 0.001); the difference between AD and MCI patients was significant only for plasma-reducing capacity (p < 0.0001), the former showing the lowest values. Superoxide dismutase activity was reduced, although not at statistical level, in MCI compared with that in controls. E4 allele was statistically associated (p < 0.05) with AD patients. When comparing different APO E genotype subgroups, no difference was present, as far as advanced oxidation protein products and iron-reducing ability of plasma levels were concerned, between E4 and non-E4 carriers, in both AD and MCI; on the contrary, E4 carriers MCI patients showed significantly decreased (p < 0.05) superoxide dismutase activity with respect to non-E4 carriers. This study, in confirming the occurrence of oxidative stress in AD and MCI patients, shows how it can be related, at least for superoxide dismutase activity in MCI, to APO E4 allele risk factor. PMID:23668794

  9. Multimodal Classification of Mild Cognitive Impairment Based on Partial Least Squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingyue; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Hu, Bin; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Jiacai; Ye, Qing; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-08-10

    In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the identification of the conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain neuroimaging techniques have been widely used to support the classification or prediction of MCI. The present study combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET), and 18F-florbetapir PET (florbetapir-PET) to discriminate MCI converters (MCI-c, individuals with MCI who convert to AD) from MCI non-converters (MCI-nc, individuals with MCI who have not converted to AD in the follow-up period) based on the partial least squares (PLS) method. Two types of PLS models (informed PLS and agnostic PLS) were built based on 64 MCI-c and 65 MCI-nc from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The results showed that the three-modality informed PLS model achieved better classification accuracy of 81.40%, sensitivity of 79.69%, and specificity of 83.08% compared with the single-modality model, and the three-modality agnostic PLS model also achieved better classification compared with the two-modality model. Moreover, combining the three modalities with clinical test score (ADAS-cog), the agnostic PLS model (independent data: florbetapir-PET; dependent data: FDG-PET and MRI) achieved optimal accuracy of 86.05%, sensitivity of 81.25%, and specificity of 90.77%. In addition, the comparison of PLS, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF) showed greater diagnostic power of PLS. These results suggested that our multimodal PLS model has the potential to discriminate MCI-c from the MCI-nc and may therefore be helpful in the early diagnosis of AD. PMID:27567818

  10. Brain metabolic maps in Mild Cognitive Impairment predict heterogeneity of progression to dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cerami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [18F]FDG-PET imaging has been recognized as a crucial diagnostic marker in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, supporting the presence or the exclusion of Alzheimer's Disease (AD pathology. A clinical heterogeneity, however, underlies MCI definition. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the predictive role of single-subject voxel-based maps of [18F]FDG distribution generated through statistical parametric mapping (SPM in the progression to different dementia subtypes in a sample of 45 MCI. Their scans were compared to a large normal reference dataset developed and validated for comparison at single-subject level. Additionally, Aβ42 and Tau CSF values were available in 34 MCI subjects. Clinical follow-up (mean 28.5 ± 7.8 months assessed subsequent progression to AD or non-AD dementias. The SPM analysis showed: 1 normal brain metabolism in 14 MCI cases, none of them progressing to dementia; 2 the typical temporo-parietal pattern suggestive for prodromal AD in 15 cases, 11 of them progressing to AD; 3 brain hypometabolism suggestive of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD subtypes in 7 and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB in 2 subjects (all fulfilled FTLD or DLB clinical criteria at follow-up; and 4 7 MCI cases showed a selective unilateral or bilateral temporo-medial hypometabolism without the typical AD pattern, and they all remained stable. In our sample, objective voxel-based analysis of [18F]FDG-PET scans showed high predictive prognostic value, by identifying either normal brain metabolism or hypometabolic patterns suggestive of different underlying pathologies, as confirmed by progression at follow-up. These data support the potential usefulness of this SPM [18F]FDG PET analysis in the early dementia diagnosis and for improving subject selection in clinical trials based on MCI definition.

  11. Risk classification in mild cognitive impairment patients for developing Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Nakatani, Eiji; Teramukai, Satoshi; Nagai, Yoji; Fukushima, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new risk classifications for conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by comparing the relative reliability of classifiers in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The 397 MCI subjects and all baseline data, including characteristics, neuropsychological tests, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and MRI findings in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), were used for analysis by Cox proportional hazard regression, bootstrap sampling, and c-index. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed the following factors to be associated with increased risk of conversion from MCI to AD during the 53-month follow-up period: AVLT 30-minute delayed recall, AVLT trial 1, Boston naming, logical delayed recall, trail-making B, CDR-sob, ADAS13, the cortical thickness of the right inferior temporal lobe (st91ta), and the left hippocampus volume. The combinations of ADAS13 at a cutoff point of 15.67 with CDR-sob at 1.5 or with the cortical thickness of the right inferior temporal lobe at 2.56 mm3 produced high conversion rates of 92.7% (82.4%-100.0%) and 88.8% (77.3%-100.0%), respectively, at 48 months. The discriminative ability based on c-index for the proposed combination was 0.68. The sample size was estimated as 504 in the group with a combination of ADAS13 and CDR-sob whose conversion rate is highest. The combination of ADAS13 with CDR-sob at an optimal cutoff point has a high reliability in classifying the MCI patients into high- and low-risk conversion to AD and will be benefit for patients' assessment and potentially facilitate the clinical development of novel therapeutics. PMID:22426014

  12. 'Kitchen and cooking,' a serious game for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, Valeria; Petit, Pierre-David; Derreumaux, Alexandre; Orvieto, Ivan; Romagnoli, Matteo; Lyttle, Graham; David, Renaud; Robert, Philippe H

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in employing serious games (SGs) for the assessment and rehabilitation of elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and related disorders. In the present study we examined the acceptability of 'Kitchen and cooking' - a SG developed in the context of the EU project VERVE (http://www.verveconsortium.eu/) - in these populations. In this game a cooking plot is employed to assess and stimulate executive functions (such as planning abilities) and praxis. The game is installed on a tablet, to be flexibly employed at home and in nursing homes. Twenty one elderly participants (9 MCI and 12 AD, including 14 outpatients and 7 patients living in nursing homes, as well as 11 apathetic and 10 non-apathetic) took part in a 1-month trail, including a clinical and neuropsychological assessment, and 4-week training where the participants were free to play as long as they wanted on a personal tablet. During the training, participants met once a week with a clinician in order to fill in self-report questionnaires assessing their overall game experience (including acceptability, motivation, and perceived emotions). The results of the self reports and of the data concerning game performance (e.g., time spent playing, number of errors, etc) confirm the overall acceptability of Kitchen and cooking for both patients with MCI and patients with AD and related disorders, and the utility to employ it for training purposes. Interestingly, the results confirm that the game is adapted also to apathetic patients. PMID:25852542

  13. Prediction of progression in patients with mild cognitive impairment using IMP-SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the difference in functional brain imaging between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal aging, we measured rCBF on functional brain imaging using 123I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (IMP-SPECT) in 19 MCI patients who progressed to develop AD on follow-up and 23 probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as well as 15 age-matched normal subjects. Baseline MMSE score was 25.3 (SD 1.2) in the MCI group and 17.5 (SD 3.3) in the AD group. The regions of interest (ROI) in the posterior cingulate gyrus, frontal, temporal and parietal cortices were drawn on the image of IMP-SPECT with reference to an individual MRI image. The rCBF ratio was calculated using ROI value in the cerebellum as a reference. Voxel-based analysis was also preformed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The rCBF ratio in the posterior cingulate gyrus was significantly reduced in the MCI group (mean 0.956, SD 0.080) and the AD group (mean 0.833, SD 0.118) compared to that in the normal group (mean 1.083, SD 0.084). In the frontal, temporal and parietal cortices, the rCBF ratio was significantly reduced only in the AD group compared to the normal group. At a fixed specificity of 80%, the diagnostic sensitivity in the discrimination between MCI patients and normal subjects was 80.5% when using rCBF ratio in posterior cingulate gyrus. In the SPM analysis, significant reduction of the rCBF in MCI group was observed only in the posterior cingulate gyrus, compared with normal subject group. Our results suggest that MCI patients presenting with a posterior cingulate hypoperfusion are at higher risk for transition from MCI to clinically recognizable AD. (author)

  14. Identification of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease using multivariate predictors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Cui

    Full Text Available Prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD is of major interest in AD research. A large number of potential predictors have been proposed, with most investigations tending to examine one or a set of related predictors. In this study, we simultaneously examined multiple features from different modalities of data, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI morphometry, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers and neuropsychological and functional measures (NMs, to explore an optimal set of predictors of conversion from MCI to AD in an Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI cohort. After FreeSurfer-derived MRI feature extraction, CSF and NM feature collection, feature selection was employed to choose optimal subsets of features from each modality. Support vector machine (SVM classifiers were then trained on normal control (NC and AD participants. Testing was conducted on MCIc (MCI individuals who have converted to AD within 24 months and MCInc (MCI individuals who have not converted to AD within 24 months groups. Classification results demonstrated that NMs outperformed CSF and MRI features. The combination of selected NM, MRI and CSF features attained an accuracy of 67.13%, a sensitivity of 96.43%, a specificity of 48.28%, and an AUC (area under curve of 0.796. Analysis of the predictive values of MCIc who converted at different follow-up evaluations showed that the predictive values were significantly different between individuals who converted within 12 months and after 12 months. This study establishes meaningful multivariate predictors composed of selected NM, MRI and CSF measures which may be useful and practical for clinical diagnosis.

  15. Brain-wide slowing of spontaneous alpha rhythms in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Garcés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI include an increase in low frequency activity, as measured with electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (MEG. A relevant property of spectral measures is the alpha peak, which corresponds to the dominant alpha rhythm. Here we studied the spatial distribution of MEG resting state alpha peak frequency and amplitude values in a sample of 27 MCI patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Power spectra were reconstructed in source space with linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer. Then, 88 Regions of Interest (ROIs were defined and an alpha peak per ROI and subject was identified. Statistical analyses were performed at every ROI, accounting for age, sex and educational level. Peak frequency was significantly decreased (p< 0.05 in MCIs in many posterior ROIs. The average peak frequency over all ROIs was 9.68±0.71 Hz for controls and 9.05±0.90 Hz for MCIs and the average normalized amplitude was (2.57±0.59•10-2 for controls and (2.70±0.49•10-2 for MCIs. Age and gender were also found to play a role in the alpha peak, since its frequency was higher in females than in males in posterior ROIs and correlated negatively with age in frontal ROIs. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of peak parameters with hippocampal volume, which is a commonly used marker of early structural AD-related damage. Peak frequency was positively correlated with hippocampal volume in many posterior ROIs. Overall, these findings indicate a pathological alpha slowing in MCI.

  16. A retrospective study of white matter integrity in mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, Thomas; Stieltjes, Bram; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Fritzsche, Klaus H.

    2011-03-01

    Prior work has shown that white matter fiber integrity decreases in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This can be achieved by quantifying anisotropic water movement in the brain using diffusion tensor imaging techniques. Since less than half (but still a considerable amount) of the MCI patients convert to AD it is important to identify features that can predict the chance of conversion to AD within a certain time frame. In this study we applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) in order to perform this task, which overcomes limitations that are commonly associated with ROI-based approaches and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Diffusion weighted images were taken from 15 healthy controls, 15 AD patients and 17 MCI patients. 8 MCI patients remained stable within 3 years of follow-up investigations ("non-converters" or MCI-nc) and 9 converted to AD ("converters" or MCI-c). Significant differences between the MCI-nc and MCI-c groups were found in large parts of the fornix, the corpus callosum and the cingulum. In comparison, the MCI-c group did not differ significantly from the AD group and the MCI-nc group exhibited features similar to the control group in most parts of the structures. These results demonstrate that, although MCI-c and MCI-nc patients were clinically similar at time of inclusion, the MCI-c group already exhibited pathologic features of fiber integrity associated with AD. This finding could lead to more powerful techniques in the early identification of AD and thus support an earlier and more successful treatment.

  17. Modulation of the spatial attention network by incentives in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagurdes, Lisa A; Mesulam, Marsel M; Gitelman, Darren R; Weintraub, Sandra; Small, Dana M

    2008-10-01

    Impairments of spatial attention are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but may develop earlier in the course of the disease, a condition referred to as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a previous experiment, we showed that emotional content overcame the AD-related decline in selective attention to novel events [LaBar, K. S., Mesulam, M., Gitelman, D. R., & Weintraub, S. (2000). Emotional curiosity: Modulation of visuospatial attention by arousal is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychologia, 38(13), 1734-1740]. The current experiment examined the influence of secondary reinforcers upon selective spatial attention in MCI and healthy aging (EC). Subjects performed a covert attention task while undergoing fMRI. They won money for fast responses and lost money for slow responses. In young subjects, this task had shown that the influence of incentive upon spatial attention is mediated by the posterior cingulate (PCC) and orbitofrontal cortices (OFC) [Small, D. M., Gitelman, D., Simmons, K., Bloise, S. M., Parrish, T., & Mesulam, M. M. (2005). Monetary incentives enhance processing in brain regions mediating top-down control of attention. Cerebral Cortex, 15(12), 1855-1865]. Both groups were able to use spatial cues to generate an anticipatory attentional shift towards the cued location. The prospect of winning (but not losing) money enhanced attentional shifts in EC subjects, an effect that was mediated by OFC activation. In contrast, only the prospect of losing money enhanced attentional shifts in MCI subjects, an effect that correlated with PCC activation. Behavioral effects of incentive upon spatial attention are only partially maintained in EC and MCI with corresponding modifications in the underlying neural circuitry. These results suggest a reorganization of the relationships between the limbic system and spatial attention network in healthy aging and MCI. PMID:18602410

  18. Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Stebbins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies of Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI have focused on the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex; gray matter structures in the medial temporal lobe. Few studies have investigated the integrity of white matter in patients with AD or MCI. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a MRI technique that allows for the interrogation of the microstructural integrity of white matter. Based on increases in translational diffusion (mean diffusivity: MD and decreases directional diffusion (fractional anisotropy: FA damage to white matter can be assessed. Studies have identified regions of increased MD and decreased FA in patients with AD and MCI in all lobes of the brain, as well as medial temporal lobe structures including the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal white matter. The pattern of white matter integrity disruption tends to follow an anterior to posterior gradient with greater damage noted in posterior regions in AD and MCI. Recent studies have exploited inter-voxel directional similarities to develop models of white matter pathways, and have used these models to assess the integrity of inter-cerebral connections. Particular focus has been applied to the parahippocampal white matter (including the perforant path and the posterior cingulum. Although many studies have found DTI indicators of impaired white matter in AD and MCI, other studies have failed to detect any differences in MD or FA between the groups, demonstrating the need for large replicative studies. DTI is an evolving technique and advances in its application ought to provide new insights into AD and MCI.

  19. Efficacy of Galantamine on Cognition in Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's Dementia after Failure to Respond to Donepezil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Tae-Young; Ahn, Inn-Sook; Kim, Seonwoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study compares the efficacy of the cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) galantamine on cognition in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's dementia (AD) who were either naïve to ChEI drugs or who had failed a trial of the ChEI donepezil. Methods Outpatients with AD were sequentially referred for screening and enrollment. Current outpatients who had taken donepezil for at least 6 months without demonstrated efficacy on cognition were switched to galantamine (switched group). New outpatients with no ChEI prescription history were classified as the naïve group and were given galantamine. The primary outcome measures for the between-group comparison were response rate on cognition at 26 and 52 weeks (categorical) and change on the Korean version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (dimensional). Secondary cognitive outcomes were measured using the subset of frontal executive function and the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination. Results Seventy outpatients were enrolled and 66 were analyzed by Intent-to-treat (ITT). There were 42 cases in the naïve group and 24 in the switched group. Response rates did not differ at 26 weeks (71.4% naïve vs. 58.3% switched; p=0.277) or at 52 weeks (59.5% naïve vs. 41.6% switched; p=0.162). No significant differences were observed in the pattern of change over the 52 weeks on the primary and secondary cognitive scales. Conclusion As the efficacy of galantamine on cognition was not inferior in the switched group compared to that in the naïve group, switching ChEI drugs is clinically feasible for non-responding patients with mild-to-moderate AD. PMID:27247602

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels correlate with cognitive performance in Parkinson’s disease patients with mild cognitive impairment

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    Alberto eCosta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a trophic factor regulating cell survival and synaptic plasticity. Recent findings indicate that BDNF could be a potential regulatory factor for cognitive functioning in normal and/or neuropathological conditions. With regard to neurological disorders, recent data suggest that individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD may be affected by cognitive deficits and that they have altered BDNF production. Therefore, the hypothesis can be advanced that BDNF levels are associated with the cognitive state of these patients. With this in mind, the present study was aimed at exploring the relationship between BDNF serum levels and cognitive functioning in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Thirteen PD patients with MCI were included in the study. They were administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery that investigated executive, episodic memory, attention, visual-spatial and language domains. A single score was obtained for each cognitive domain by averaging z-scores on tests belonging to that specific domain. BDNF serum levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA. Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed between BDNF serum levels and cognitive performance. Results showed a significant positive correlation between BDNF serum levels and both attention (p<0.05 and executive (p<0.05 domains. Moreover, in the executive domain we found a significant correlation between BDNF levels and scores on tests assessing working memory and self-monitoring/inhibition. These preliminary data suggest that BDNF serum levels are associated with cognitive state in PD patients with MCI. Given the role of BDNF in regulating synaptic plasticity, the present findings give further support to the hypothesis that this trophic factor may be a potential biomarker for evaluating cognitive changes in PD and other neurological syndromes associated with cognitive decline.

  1. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Piccini, Alessandra [Cell Biology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa (Italy); Caroli, Anna [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy); Mario Negri Institute, Medical Imaging Unit, Biomedical Engineering Department, Bergamo (Italy); Frisoni, Giovanni [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  2. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  3. Specificity of Cognitive and Behavioral Complaints in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Pineau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of cognitive and behavioral complaints is explored in Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI samples according to the severity of PTSD, depression and general anxiety conditions. Self-reported questionnaires on cognitive and behavioral changes are administered to PTSD, MTBI, MTBI/PTSD and control groups. Confounding variables are controlled. All groups report more complaints since the traumatic event. PTSD and MTBI/PTSD groups report more anxiety symptoms, depression and complaints compared to the MTBI group. Relatives of the PTSD group confirm most of the behavioral changes reported. Results suggest the utility of self-reported questionnaires to personalize cognitive and behavioral interventions in PTSD and MTBI to cope with the impacts of the traumatic event.

  4. Detection of changes in the locus coeruleus in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: High-resolution fast spin-echo T1-weighted imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Junko; Shibata, Toshihide; Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Masako; Yanezawa, Hisashi; Obara, Satoko; Kudo, Kohsuke; Ito, Kenji; Yamashita, Fumio; Terayama, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Aim Neuronal degeneration in the locus coeruleus occurs in the early phase of Alzheimer's disease, similar to mild cognitive impairment. The locus coeruleus produces norepinephrine, a deficiency of which causes both memory disturbance and psychological symptoms. Thus, we evaluated signal alterations in the locus coeruleus of patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using a high-resolution fast spin-echo T1-weighted imaging. Methods A total of 22 patients with Alzheimer'...

  5. Working Memory and Executive Function Decline across Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Mariya Kirova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease marked by deficits in episodic memory, working memory (WM, and executive function. Examples of executive dysfunction in AD include poor selective and divided attention, failed inhibition of interfering stimuli, and poor manipulation skills. Although episodic deficits during disease progression have been widely studied and are the benchmark of a probable AD diagnosis, more recent research has investigated WM and executive function decline during mild cognitive impairment (MCI, also referred to as the preclinical stage of AD. MCI is a critical period during which cognitive restructuring and neuroplasticity such as compensation still occur; therefore, cognitive therapies could have a beneficial effect on decreasing the likelihood of AD progression during MCI. Monitoring performance on working memory and executive function tasks to track cognitive function may signal progression from normal cognition to MCI to AD. The present review tracks WM decline through normal aging, MCI, and AD to highlight the behavioral and neurological differences that distinguish these three stages in an effort to guide future research on MCI diagnosis, cognitive therapy, and AD prevention.

  6. Learning to live with a loved one with mild cognitive impairment: effectiveness of a waiting list controlled trial of a group intervention on significant others' sense of competence and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banningh, L.W.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Vullings, M.; Prins, J.B.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This controlled study examines the efficacy of a comprehensive group program aimed at care partners of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which comprises elements of psychoeducation, cognitive rehabilitation, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Pre- and posttreatment quantitative and quali

  7. Learning to live with a loved one with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Effectiveness of a waiting-list controlled trial of a group intervention on significant others' sense of competence and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, E.W.A.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Vullings, M.; Prins, J.B.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This controlled study examines the efficacy of a comprehensive group program aimed at care partners of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which comprises elements of psychoeducation, cognitive rehabilitation, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Pre- and posttreatment quantitative and quali

  8. Effect of Cognitive and Aerobic Training Intervention on Older Adults with Mild or No Cognitive Impairment: A Derivative Study of the Nakajima Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Sugano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An increasing elderly population in Japan requires effective cognitive intervention programs for dementia. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of such programs for older adults. Methods: The participants were local community-dwelling non-demented older adults and adults with mild cognitive impairment who underwent executive function and group aerobic training. In addition, a non-intervention group participated in activity sessions involving handicraft, Skutt ball matches, and cooking. The four criteria for assessment were cognitive function, instrumental activities of daily living, human relationships, and physical function. Results: The participants in both intervention groups showed a significant improvement in their memory function compared with the non-intervention group. Conclusion: Early rehabilitation intervention using executive function and aerobic training programs may improve memory.

  9. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood Is Associated with Cognitive Test Profiles in the Geriatric Population but Not with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ivanchak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of ADHD in the aging population and its relationship to late-life cognitive decline has not been studied previously. To address this gap in our understanding, the Wender-Utah ADHD Rating scale (WURS was administered to 310 geriatric subjects with cognitive status ranging from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment to overt dementia. The frequency of WURS-positive ADHD in this sample was 4.4%. WURS scores were not related to cognitive diagnoses, but did show nonlinear associations with tasks requiring sustained attention. The frequency of ADHD appears stable across generations and does not appear to be associated with MCI or dementia diagnoses. The association of attentional processing deficits and WURS scores in geriatric subjects could suggest that such traits remain stable throughout life. Caution should be considered when interpreting cognitive test profiles in the aging population that exhibit signs and symptoms of ADHD, as attentional deficits may not necessarily imply the existence of an underlying neurodegenerative disease state.

  10. Study on EEG power and coherence in patients with mild cognitive impairment during working memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zheng-yan

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the features of electroencephalography (EEG) power and coherence at rest and during a working memory task of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty-five patients (17 males, 18 females; 52~71 years old) and 34 sex- and age-matched controls (17 males, 17 females; 51~63 years old) were recruited in the present study. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) of 35 patients with MCI and 34 normal controls revealed that the scores of MCI patients did not differ significantly from those of normal controls (P>0.05). Then, EEGs at rest and during working memory task with three levels of working memory load were recorded. The EEG power was computed over 10 channels: right and left frontal (F3, F4), central (C3,C4), parietal (P3, P4), temporal (TS, T6) and occipital (O1, O2); inter-hemispheric coherences were computed from five electrode pairs of F3-F4, C3-C4, P3-P4, T5-T6 and O1-O2 for delta (1.0~3.5 Hz), theta (4.0~7.5 Hz), alpha-1 (8.0~10.0 Hz), alpha-2 (10.5~13.0 Hz), beta-1 (13.5~18.0 Hz) and beta-2 (18.5~30.0 Hz) frequency bands. All values of the EEG power of MCI patients were found to be higher than those of normal controls at rest and during working memory tasks. Furthermore, the values of EEG power in the theta, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-1 bands of patients with MCI were significantly high (P<0.05) in comparison with those of normal controls. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between the EEG powers and MMSE scores. In addition, during working memory tasks, the EEG coherences in all bands were significantly higher in the MCI group in comparison with those in the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in EEG coherences between two groups at rest. These findings comprise evidence that MCI patients have higher EEG power at rest, and higher EEG power and coherence during working conditions. It suggests that MCI may be associated with compensatory processes at

  11. [User friendliness of computer-based cognitive training for psychogeriatric patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Eva S; Hoorweg, Angela; van der Lee, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with dementia is characterized by a continuous decline. Cognitive training is a method to train specific brain functions such as memory and attention to prevent or slow down cognitive decline. A small number of studies has shown that cognitive training on a computer has a positive effect on both cognition and mood in people with cognitive impairment. This pilot study tested if serious games could be integrated in a psychogeriatric rehabilitation center. Fourteen psychogeriatric patients participated twice weekly in cognitive training sessions on a computer. Both the participants and the facilitator reported positive interactions and outcomes. However, after five weeks only half of the sample still participated in the training. This was partly because of patient turn-over as well as incorporating this new task in the facilitators' daily work. Fear of failure, physical limitations and rapidly decreasing cognitive function led to drop out according to the facilitator. The engagement of patients in the games and the role of the facilitator seemed essential for success, especially monitoring (and adjusting) the difficulty level of the program for every individual participant. PMID:26821167

  12. Mangifera indica Fruit Extract Improves Memory Impairment, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress Damage in Animal Model of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg·kg−1 BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv. At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg·kg−1 BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism.

  13. Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Seniors with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hua-Tsen; Li, Shu-Ying; Yang, Ya-Ping; Lin, Linda L; Lin, Sang-I; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the relationships between overall cognitive function and the quality of life (QOL) domains, and to compare the differences in these by age, gender, and educational level in community-dwelling seniors in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study was conducted, with the participants screened and recruited from Southern Tainan. The Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination was used to screen the cognitive status of the participants. A total of 144 seniors participated in this study were assessed using the Taiwanese version of WHOQOL-BREF. The results showed that the participants performed better in the cognitive domains of "figure identification" and "orientation" while they performed poor in "delayed recall" and "immediate paragraph recall". No significant relationship between cognitive function and overall QOL, but a positive relationship between cognitive function and the physical health domain of QOL was found. The findings of this study provide valuable information for community healthcare providers. PMID:26993652

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Performance of Untreated Depressed Patients with Mild Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Li; Ning Zhong; Shengfu Lu; Gang Wang; Lei Feng; Bin Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the working memory performance of 18 patients experiencing their first onset of mild depression without treatment and 18 healthy matched controls. The results demonstrated that working memory impairment in patients with mild depression occurred when memorizing the position of a picture but not when memorizing the pictures themselves. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the emotional impact on the working memory, indicating that the attenuation of...

  15. Long-term effects of a group therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others: A 6- to 8-month follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, E.W.A.; Roelofs, S.C.F.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Prins, J.B.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the long-term effects of a 10-session cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and their significant others 6 to 8 months after completion of the intervention. Forty-seven MCI patients and 47 significant others participated in t

  16. Mild fluid percussion injury in mice produces evolving selective axonal pathology and cognitive deficits relevant to human brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Aisling; Daumas, Stephanie; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Rhodes, Jonathan; Andrews, Peter J D; Horsburgh, Karen; Fowler, Jill H

    2010-08-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for up to 80% of clinical TBI and can result in cognitive impairment and white matter damage that may develop and persist over several years. Clinically relevant models of mild TBI for investigation of neurobiological changes and the development of therapeutic strategies are poorly developed. In this study we investigated the temporal profile of axonal and somal injury that may contribute to cognitive impairments in a mouse model of mild TBI. Neuronal perikaryal damage (hematoxylin and eosin and Fluoro-Jade C), myelin integrity (myelin basic protein and myelin-associated glycoprotein), and axonal damage (amyloid precursor protein), were evaluated by immunohistochemistry at 4 h, 24 h, 72 h, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after mild lateral fluid percussion brain injury (0.9 atm; righting time 167 +/- 15 sec). At 3 weeks post-injury spatial reference learning and memory were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). Levels of damage to neuronal cell bodies were comparable in the brain-injured and sham groups. Myelin integrity was minimally altered following injury. Clear alterations in axonal damage were observed at various time points after injury. Axonal damage was localized to the cingulum at 4 h post-injury. At 4 and 6 weeks post-injury, axonal damage was evident in the external capsule, and was seen at 6 weeks in the dorsal thalamic nuclei. At 3 weeks post-injury, injured mice showed an impaired ability to learn the water maze task, suggesting injury-induced alterations in search strategy learning. The evolving localization of axonal damage points to ongoing degeneration after injury that is concomitant with a deficit in learning. PMID:20528171

  17. Imaging characteristic of dual-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET for the concomitant detection of perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yen, Tzu-Chen [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Taoyuan (China); Hsu, Jung-Lung [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Section of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment, Department of Neurology, Taoyuan (China); Taipei Medical University, Graduate Institute of Humanities in Medicine, Taipei (China); Huang, Chin-Chang; Huang, Kuo-Lun [Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and University, Department of Neurology, Taoyuan (China)

    2016-07-15

    We investigated dual-phase {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET imaging for the concomitant detection of brain perfusion deficits and beta-amyloid deposition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and in cognitively healthy controls (HCs). A total of 82 subjects (24 AD patients, 44 MCI patients and 14 HCs) underwent both dual-phase {sup 18}F-AV-45 PET and MRI imaging. Dual-phase dynamic PET imaging consisted of (1) five 1-min scans obtained 1 - 6 min after tracer injection (perfusion {sup 18}F-AV-45 imaging, pAV-45), and (2) ten 1-min scans obtained 50 - 60 min after tracer injection (amyloid {sup 18}F-AV-45 imaging). Amyloid-negative MCI/AD patients were excluded. Volume of interest analysis and statistical parametric mapping of pAV-45 and {sup 18}F-AV-45 images were performed to investigate the perfusion deficits and the beta-amyloid burden in the three study groups. The associations between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and global perfusion deficits and amyloid deposition were investigated with linear and segmental linear correlation analyses. HCs generally had normal pAV-45 findings, whereas perfusion deficits were evident in the hippocampus, and temporal, parietal and middle frontal cortices in both MCI and AD patients. The motor-sensory cortex was relatively preserved. MMSE scores in the entire study cohort were significantly associated with the degree of perfusion impairment as assessed by pAV-45 imaging (r = 0.5156, P < 0.0001). {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake was significantly higher in AD patients than in the two other study groups. However, the correlation between MMSE scores and {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake in MCI patients was more of a binary phenomenon and began in MCI patients with MMSE score 23.14 when {sup 18}F-AV-45 uptake was higher and MMSE score lower than in patients with early MCI. Amyloid deposition started in the precuneus and the frontal and temporal regions in early MCI, ultimately

  18. Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotta D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Zanotta, Silvana Puricelli, Guido Bonoldi Unità Operativa di Medicina 2, Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio, Varese, Italy Abstract: A prospective cohort, noncomparative, multicenter trial was conducted to explore the potential of a phytotherapeutic compound, available as a dietary supplement and containing extracts of Bacopa monnieri and Haematococcus pluvialis (astaxanthin plus phosphatidylserine and vitamin E, in improving cognition in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. Enrolled subjects (n=104 were aged 71.2±9.9 years and had a mini-mental state examination score of 26.0±2.0 (mean ± standard deviation. They underwent the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog test and the clock drawing test at baseline and upon completion of a 60-day period of dietary supplementation with one tablet daily of the tested compound. In 102 assessable subjects, total ADAS-cog scores improved from 13.7±5.8 at baseline to 9.7±4.9 on day 60, and the clock drawing test scores improved from 8.5±2.3 to 9.1±1.9. Both changes were statistically significant (P<0.001. Memory tasks were the individual components of ADAS-cog showing the largest improvements. In a multivariate analysis, larger improvements in total ADAS-cog score were associated with less compromised baseline mini-mental state examination scores. Perceived efficacy was rated as excellent or good by 62% of study subjects. The tested compound was well tolerated; one nonserious adverse event was reported in the overall study population, and perceived tolerability was rated excellent or good by 99% of the subjects. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with the tested compound shows potential for counteracting cognitive impairment in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and warrants further investigation in adequately controlled, longer-term studies. Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, ADAS-cog test, clock drawing

  19. Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic alpha rhythms deteriorate across time in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Lizio, Roberta; Marzano, Nicola; Infarinato, Francesco; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Elena; Ferri, Raffaele; Bonforte, Cinzia; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Montella, Patrizia; Baglieri, Annalisa; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio; Vernieri, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are abnormal in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we tested the hypothesis that these sources in amnesic MCI subjects further deteriorate over 1 year. To this aim, the resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 54 MCI subjects at baseline (Mini Mental State Examination I ¼ 26.9; standard error [SE], 0.2) and at approximately 1-year follow-up (13.8 months; SE, 0.5; Mini Mental State Ex...

  20. Clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment%轻度认知损害的临床诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鲁宁

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 轻度认知损害(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)的概念 MCI于1997年由Petersen提出.MCI填补了认知功能增龄性老化和痴呆的病理性老化之间的空白,是正常衰老与极早期阿尔茨海默病(AD)之间的一种以认知功能损害为主要特征的过渡状态.