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Sample records for amnestic mild cognitive

  1. A behavioral rehabilitation intervention for amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Melanie C.; Hanna, Sherrie M.; Lepore, Susan W.; Smith, Glenn E.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) currently have few treatment options for combating their memory loss. The Memory Support System (MSS) is a calendar and organization system with accompanying 6-week curriculum designed for individuals with progressive memory impairment. Ability to learn the MSS and its utility were assessed in 20 participants. Participants were significantly more likely to successfully use the calendar system after training. Ninety-five percent were compliant with the MSS at training completion, and 89% continued to be compliant at follow-up. Outcome measures revealed a medium effect size for improvement in functional ability. Subjects further reported improved independence, self-confidence, and mood. This initial examination of the MSS suggests that with appropriate training, individuals with amnestic MCI can and will use a memory notebook system to help compensate for memory loss. These results are encouraging that the MSS may help with the symptoms of memory decline in MCI. PMID:18955724

  2. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Kim, Soo Ryon; Baek, Min Jae; Kim, HyangHee

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1) between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal adults and (2) between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI) and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI) and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train) and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy). Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI. PMID:26347214

  3. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ryon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1 between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and normal adults and (2 between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy. Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI.

  4. Olfactory identification in amnestic and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and its neuropsychological correlates.

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    Vyhnalek, Martin; Magerova, Hana; Andel, Ross; Nikolai, Tomas; Kadlecova, Alexandra; Laczo, Jan; Hort, Jakub

    2015-02-15

    Olfactory identification impairment in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients is well documented and considered to be caused by underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, contrasting with less clear evidence in non-amnestic MCI (naMCI). The aim was to (a) compare the degree of olfactory identification dysfunction in aMCI, naMCI, controls and mild AD dementia and (b) assess the relation between olfactory identification and cognitive performance in aMCI compared to naMCI. 75 patients with aMCI and 32 with naMCI, 26 patients with mild AD and 27 controls underwent the multiple choice olfactory identification Motol Hospital Smell Test with 18 different odors together with a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. Controlling for age and gender, patients with aMCI and naMCI did not differ significantly in olfactory identification and both performed significantly worse than controls (pmemory and visuospatial tests were significantly related to better olfactory identification ability. Conversely, no cognitive measure was significantly related to olfactory performance in naMCI. Olfactory identification is similarly impaired in aMCI and naMCI. Olfactory impairment is proportional to cognitive impairment in aMCI but not in naMCI. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Association of body mass index with amnestic and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment risk in elderly.

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    Wang, Feng; Zhao, Minghui; Han, Zhaoli; Li, Dai; Zhang, Shishuang; Zhang, Yongqiang; Kong, Xiaodong; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Qiang; Lei, Ping

    2017-09-15

    Previous studies focused on the relationship between body mass index and cognitive disorder and obtained many conflicting results. This study explored the potential effects of body mass index on the risk of mild cognitive impairment (amnestic and non-amnestic) in the elderly. The study enrolled 240 amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients, 240 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and 480 normal cognitive function controls. Data on admission and retrospective data at baseline (6 years ago) were collected from their medical records. Cognitive function was evaluated using Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Being underweight, overweight or obese at baseline was associated with an increased risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 2.30, 95%CI: 1.50 ~ 3.52; OR: 1.74, 95%CI: 1.36 ~ 2.20; OR: 1.71, 95%CI: 1.32 ~ 2.22, respectively). Being overweight or obese at baseline was also associated with an increased risk of non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 1.51, 95%CI: 1.20 ~ 1.92; OR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.21 ~ 1.97, respectively). In subjects with normal weights at baseline, an increased or decreased body mass index at follow-up was associated with an elevated risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.10 ~ 3.05; OR: 3.96, 95%CI: 2.88 ~ 5.49, respectively), but only an increased body mass index was associated with an elevated risk of non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (OR: 1.71, 95%CI: 1.16 ~ 2.59). Unhealthy body mass index levels at baseline and follow-up might impact the risk of both types of mild cognitive impairment (amnestic and non-amnestic).

  6. Clinical and biological predictors of Alzheimer's disease in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Forlenza,Orestes V.; Diniz,Breno S.; Talib,Leda L.; Radanovic,Marcia; Yassuda,Monica S.; Ojopi,Elida B.; Gattaz,Wagner F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of the progression from pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease is relevant to clinical management and to substantiate the decision of prescribing antidementia drugs. METHOD: Longitudinal study of a cohort of elderly adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls, carried out to estimate the risk and characterize predictors of the progression to Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive...

  7. Memory Binding Test Predicts Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, Wenzhu B; Lipton, Richard B; Katz, Mindy J; Ramratan, Wendy S; Loewenstein, David A; Zimmerman, Molly E; Buschke, Herman

    2016-07-14

    The Memory Binding Test (MBT), previously known as Memory Capacity Test, has demonstrated discriminative validity for distinguishing persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and dementia from cognitively normal elderly. We aimed to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI. In a longitudinal, community-based study of adults aged 70+, we administered the MBT to 246 cognitively normal elderly adults at baseline and followed them annually. Based on previous work, a subtle reduction in memory binding at baseline was defined by a Total Items in the Paired (TIP) condition score of ≤22 on the MBT. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the predictive validity of the MBT for incident aMCI accounting for the effects of covariates. The hazard ratio of incident aMCI was also assessed for different prediction time windows ranging from 4 to 7 years of follow-up, separately. Among 246 controls who were cognitively normal at baseline, 48 developed incident aMCI during follow-up. A baseline MBT reduction was associated with an increased risk for developing incident aMCI (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.30-4.56, p = 0.005). When varying the prediction window from 4-7 years, the MBT reduction remained significant for predicting incident aMCI (HR range: 2.33-3.12, p: 0.0007-0.04). Persons with poor performance on the MBT are at significantly greater risk for developing incident aMCI. High hazard ratios up to seven years of follow-up suggest that the MBT is sensitive to early disease.

  8. Visual selective attention in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    McLaughlin, Paula M; Anderson, Nicole D; Rich, Jill B; Chertkow, Howard; Murtha, Susan J E

    2014-11-01

    Subtle deficits in visual selective attention have been found in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, few studies have explored performance on visual search paradigms or the Simon task, which are known to be sensitive to disease severity in Alzheimer's patients. Furthermore, there is limited research investigating how deficiencies can be ameliorated with exogenous support (auditory cues). Sixteen individuals with aMCI and 14 control participants completed 3 experimental tasks that varied in demand and cue availability: visual search-alerting, visual search-orienting, and Simon task. Visual selective attention was influenced by aMCI, auditory cues, and task characteristics. Visual search abilities were relatively consistent across groups. The aMCI participants were impaired on the Simon task when working memory was required, but conflict resolution was similar to controls. Spatially informative orienting cues improved response times, whereas spatially neutral alerting cues did not influence performance. Finally, spatially informative auditory cues benefited the aMCI group more than controls in the visual search task, specifically at the largest array size where orienting demands were greatest. These findings suggest that individuals with aMCI have working memory deficits and subtle deficiencies in orienting attention and rely on exogenous information to guide attention. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The effect of bilingualism on amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Ossher, Lynn; Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Murphy, Kelly J; Troyer, Angela K

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports have found that lifelong bilingualism is associated with a delay in the onset of dementia, including Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type (DAT). Because amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is often a transition stage between normal aging and DAT, our aim in this paper was to establish whether this delay in symptom onset for bilinguals would also be seen in the onset of symptoms of aMCI and whether this delay would be consistent in different subtypes of aMCI. We examined the effect of bilingualism on the age of diagnosis in individuals with single- or multiple-domain aMCI who were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires about their language and social background. Our results showed an interaction between aMCI type and language history. Only individuals diagnosed with single-domain aMCI demonstrated a later age of diagnosis for bilinguals (M = 79.4 years) than monolinguals (M = 74.9 years). This preliminary evidence suggests that the early protective advantage of bilingualism may be specific to single-domain aMCI, which is the type of aMCI most specifically associated with progression to DAT.

  10. Memory complaints in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

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    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-12-01

    Memory complaints are a frequent phenomenon in elderly individuals and can lead to opportunistic help-seeking behavior. The aim of this study was to compare different aspects of memory complaints (i.e., prospective versus retrospective complaints) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study included a total of 115 participants (mean age: 68.82 ± 8.83 years) with SCI (n = 34), aMCI (n = 46), and mild AD (n = 35). Memory complaints were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which consists of 16 items that describe everyday memory failure of both prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory (RM). For aMCI and AD subjects, informants also completed an informant-rating of the PRMQ. All participants completed detailed neuropsychological tests. Results show that PM complaints were equivalent among the three groups. However, RM complaints differed. Specifically, RM complaints in aMCI were higher than SCI, but similar to AD. Informant-reported memory complaints were higher for AD than aMCI. Our study suggests that RM complaints of memory complaints may be helpful in discriminating between SCI and aMCI, but both PM and RM complaints are of limited value in differentiating aMCI from AD.

  11. Memory deficits for facial identity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

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    Savaskan, Egemen; Summermatter, Daniel; Schroeder, Clemens; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2018-01-01

    Faces are among the most relevant social stimuli revealing an encounter's identity and actual emotional state. Deficits in facial recognition may be an early sign of cognitive decline leading to social deficits. The main objective of the present study is to investigate if individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment show recognition deficits in facial identity. Thirty-seven individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, multiple-domain (15 female; age: 75±8 yrs.) and forty-one healthy volunteers (24 female; age 71±6 yrs.) participated. All participants completed a human portrait memory test presenting unfamiliar faces with happy and angry emotional expressions. Five and thirty minutes later, old and new neutral faces were presented, and discrimination sensitivity (d') and response bias (C) were assessed as signal detection parameters of cued facial identity recognition. Memory performance was lower in amnestic mild cognitive impairment as compared to control subjects, mainly because of an altered response bias towards an increased false alarm rate (favoring false OLD ascription of NEW items). In both groups, memory performance declined between the early and later testing session, and was always better for acquired happy than angry faces. Facial identity memory is impaired in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Liberalization of the response bias may reflect a socially motivated compensatory mechanism maintaining an almost identical recognition hit rate of OLD faces in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

  12. Emotional face recognition deficit in amnestic patients with mild cognitive impairment: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Yang, Xiaochuan Zhao, Lan Wang, Lulu Yu, Mei Song, Xueyi Wang Department of Mental Health, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Medical University Institute of Mental Health, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been conceptualized as a transitional stage between healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, understanding emotional face recognition deficit in patients with amnestic MCI could be useful in determining progression of amnestic MCI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of emotional face processing in amnestic MCI by using event-related potentials (ERPs. Patients with amnestic MCI and healthy controls performed a face recognition task, giving old/new responses to previously studied and novel faces with different emotional messages as the stimulus material. Using the learning-recognition paradigm, the experiments were divided into two steps, ie, a learning phase and a test phase. ERPs were analyzed on electroencephalographic recordings. The behavior data indicated high emotion classification accuracy for patients with amnestic MCI and for healthy controls. The mean percentage of correct classifications was 81.19% for patients with amnestic MCI and 96.46% for controls. Our ERP data suggest that patients with amnestic MCI were still be able to undertake personalizing processing for negative faces, but not for neutral or positive faces, in the early frontal processing stage. In the early time window, no differences in frontal old/new effect were found between patients with amnestic MCI and normal controls. However, in the late time window, the three types of stimuli did not elicit any old/new parietal effects in patients with amnestic MCI, suggesting their recollection was impaired. This impairment may be closely associated with amnestic MCI disease. We conclude from our data that face recognition processing and emotional memory is

  13. Free and Cued Recall Memory in Parkinson’s Disease Associated with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Costa, Alberto; Monaco, Marco; Zabberoni, Silvia; Peppe, Antonella; Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Iannarelli, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis has been advanced that memory disorders in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are related to either retrieval or consolidation failure. However, the characteristics of the memory impairments of PD patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment have not been clarified. This study was aimed at investigating whether memory deficits in PD patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (PDaMCI) are due to failure of retrieval or consolidation processes. Sixteen individuals with PDaMCI, 20 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment without PD (aMCINPD), and 20 healthy controls were recruited. Participants were administered the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. An index of cueing was computed for each subject to capture the advantage in retrieval of cued compared to free recall. Individuals with PDaMCI performed worse than healthy controls on the free recall (pcued recall (p>0.10) task, and they performed better than aMCINPD subjects on both recall measures (p0.10) but it was significantly higher than that of the aMCINPD sample (precall trials was significantly predicted by scores on a test investigating executive functions (i.e., the Modified Card Sorting Test; p = 0.042). Findings of the study document that, in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment associated to PD, episodic memory impairment is related to retrieval rather than to consolidation failure. The same data suggest that, in these individuals, memory deficits might be due to altered frontal-related executive functioning. PMID:24465977

  14. Increased Sensitivity to Proactive and Retroactive Interference in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: New Insights

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    Hanseeuw, Bernard J.; Seron, Xavier; Ivanoiu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Increased sensitivity to proactive (PI) and retroactive (RI) interference has been observed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). PI and RI are often explained as being the result of a response competition mechanism. However, patients with aMCI are supposed to suffer mostly from encoding deficits. We hypothesized that in aMCI…

  15. Spatial navigation deficit in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hort, J.; Laczó, J.; Vyhnálek, M.; Bojar, M.; Bureš, Jan; Vlček, Kamil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 10 (2007), s. 4042-4047 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/0693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer’s Disease Subject RIV: FH - Neuro logy Impact factor: 9.598, year: 2007

  16. Spatial Navigation and APOE in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Vlček, Kamil; Maťoška, V.; Vyhnálek, M.; Tolar, M.; Bojar, M.; Hort, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2011), s. 169-177 ISSN 1660-2854 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/1053; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer's disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2011

  17. Regional analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio of the brain in mild Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Mascalchi, M; Ginestroni, A; Bessi, V; Toschi, N; Padiglioni, S; Ciulli, S; Tessa, C; Giannelli, M; Bracco, L; Diciotti, S

    2013-01-01

    Manually drawn VOI-based analysis shows a decrease in magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer disease. We investigated with whole-brain voxelwise analysis the regional changes of the magnetization transfer ratio in patients with mild Alzheimer disease and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Twenty patients with mild Alzheimer disease, 27 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 30 healthy elderly control subjects were examined with high-resolution T1WI and 3-mm-thick magnetization transfer images. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of magnetization transfer ratio maps was performed by use of Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software and was supplemented by the analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio in FreeSurfer parcellation-derived VOIs. Voxelwise analysis showed 2 clusters of significantly decreased magnetization transfer ratio in the left hippocampus and amygdala and in the left posterior mesial temporal cortex (fusiform gyrus) of patients with Alzheimer disease as compared with control subjects but no difference between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and either patients with Alzheimer disease or control subjects. VOI analysis showed that the magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus and amygdala was significantly lower (bilaterally) in patients with Alzheimer disease when compared with control subjects (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, at P ratio values in the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were between those of healthy control subjects and those of patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Support vector machine-based classification demonstrated improved classification performance after inclusion of magnetization transfer ratio-related features, especially between patients with Alzheimer disease versus healthy subjects. Bilateral but asymmetric decrease of magnetization transfer ratio reflecting microstructural changes of the

  18. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    LAWLOR, BRIAN; COEN, ROBERT; O'MARA, SHANE MICHAEL

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient's daily life. In order to fully explore the impa...

  19. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Irish, Muireann; Lawlor, Brian A; Coen, Robert F; O'Mara, Shane M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient's daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of di...

  20. Free and cued recall memory in Parkinson's disease associated with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Costa

    Full Text Available The hypothesis has been advanced that memory disorders in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD are related to either retrieval or consolidation failure. However, the characteristics of the memory impairments of PD patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment have not been clarified. This study was aimed at investigating whether memory deficits in PD patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (PDaMCI are due to failure of retrieval or consolidation processes. Sixteen individuals with PDaMCI, 20 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment without PD (aMCINPD, and 20 healthy controls were recruited. Participants were administered the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. An index of cueing was computed for each subject to capture the advantage in retrieval of cued compared to free recall. Individuals with PDaMCI performed worse than healthy controls on the free recall (p0.10 task, and they performed better than aMCINPD subjects on both recall measures (p0.10 but it was significantly higher than that of the aMCINPD sample (p<0.01. Moreover, PD patients' performance on free recall trials was significantly predicted by scores on a test investigating executive functions (i.e., the Modified Card Sorting Test; p = 0.042. Findings of the study document that, in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment associated to PD, episodic memory impairment is related to retrieval rather than to consolidation failure. The same data suggest that, in these individuals, memory deficits might be due to altered frontal-related executive functioning.

  1. Dynamic working memory performance in individuals with single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Guild, Emma B; Vasquez, Brandon P; Maione, Andrea M; Mah, Linda; Ween, Jon; Anderson, Nicole D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have observed poorer working memory performance in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment than in healthy older adults. It is unclear, however, whether these difficulties are true only of the multiple-domain clinical subtype in whom poorer executive functioning is common. The current study examined working memory, as measured by the self-ordered pointing task (SOPT) and an n-back task, in healthy older adults and adults with single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Individuals with single-domain aMCI committed more errors and required longer to develop an organizational strategy on the SOPT. The single-domain aMCI group did not differ from healthy older adults on the 1-back or 2-back, but had poorer discrimination on the 3-back task. This is, to our knowledge, the first characterization of dynamic working memory performance in a single-domain aMCI group. These results lend support for the idea that clinical amnestic MCI subtypes may reflect different stages on a continuum of progression to dementia and question whether standardized measures of working memory (span tasks) are sensitive enough to capture subtle changes in performance.

  2. Investigating Simulated Driving Errors in Amnestic Single- and Multiple-Domain Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Hird, Megan A; Vesely, Kristin A; Fischer, Corinne E; Graham, Simon J; Naglie, Gary; Schweizer, Tom A

    2017-01-01

    The areas of driving impairment characteristic of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remain unclear. This study compared the simulated driving performance of 24 individuals with MCI, including amnestic single-domain (sd-MCI, n = 11) and amnestic multiple-domain MCI (md-MCI, n = 13), and 20 age-matched controls. Individuals with MCI committed over twice as many driving errors (20.0 versus 9.9), demonstrated difficulty with lane maintenance, and committed more errors during left turns with traffic compared to healthy controls. Specifically, individuals with md-MCI demonstrated greater driving difficulty compared to healthy controls, relative to those with sd-MCI. Differentiating between different subtypes of MCI may be important when evaluating driving safety.

  3. Callosal degeneration topographically correlated with cognitive function in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease dementia.

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    Wang, Pei-Ning; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chang, Ni-Jung; Lin, Ker-Neng; Chen, Wei-Ta; Lan, Gong-Yau; Lin, Ching-Po; Lirng, Jiing-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) is evident in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the correlation of microstructural damage in the CC on the cognitive performance of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD dementia is undetermined. We enrolled 26 normal controls, 24 patients with AD dementia, and 40 single-domain aMCI patients with at least grade 1 hippocampal atrophy and isolated memory impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (DA), and radial diffusivity (DR) were measured. The entire CC was parcellated based on fiber trajectories to specific cortical Brodmann areas using a probabilistic tractography method. The relationship between the DTI measures in the subregions of the CC and cognitive performance was examined. Although the callosal degeneration in the patients with aMCI was less extended than in the patients with AD dementia, degeneration was already exhibited in several subregions of the CC at the aMCI stage. Scores of various neuropsychological tests were correlated to the severity of microstructural changes in the subregional CC connecting to functionally corresponding cortical regions. Our results confirm that CC degeneration is noticeable as early as the aMCI stage of AD and the disconnection of the CC subregional fibers to the corresponding Brodmann areas has an apparent impact on the related cognitive performance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Informant-reported cognitive symptoms that predict amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek-Ahmadi Michael

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognition is difficult in clinical settings. Self-reported and informant-reported memory complaints occur often in both clinical groups, which then necessitates the use of a comprehensive neuropsychological examination to make a differential diagnosis. However, the ability to identify cognitive symptoms that are predictive of aMCI through informant-based information may provide some clinical utility in accurately identifying individuals who are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods The current study utilized a case-control design using data from an ongoing validation study of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ, an informant-based dementia assessment. Data from 51 cognitively normal (CN individuals participating in a brain donation program and 47 aMCI individuals seen in a neurology practice at the same institute were analyzed to determine which AQ items differentiated aMCI from CN individuals. Results Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis which controlled for age and education showed that 4 AQ items were strong indicators of aMCI which included: repetition of statements and/or questions [OR 13.20 (3.02, 57.66]; trouble knowing the day, date, month, year, and time [OR 17.97 (2.63, 122.77]; difficulty managing finances [OR 11.60 (2.10, 63.99]; and decreased sense of direction [OR 5.84 (1.09, 31.30]. Conclusions Overall, these data indicate that certain informant-reported cognitive symptoms may help clinicians differentiate individuals with aMCI from those with normal cognition. Items pertaining to repetition of statements, orientation, ability to manage finances, and visuospatial disorientation had high discriminatory power.

  5. The Gesture Imitation in Alzheimer's Disease Dementia and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Li, Xudong; Jia, Shuhong; Zhou, Zhi; Hou, Chunlei; Zheng, Wenjing; Rong, Pei; Jiao, Jinsong

    2016-07-14

    Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) has become an important health problem in the world. Visuospatial deficits are considered to be an early symptom besides memory disorder. The gesture imitation test was devised to detect ADD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A total of 117 patients with ADD, 118 with aMCI, and 95 normal controls were included in this study. All participants were administered our gesture imitation test, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Patients with ADD performed worse than normal controls on global scores and had a lower success rate on every item (p imitation test scores were positively correlated with the MMSE (r = 0.637, p imitation test is an easy, rapid tool for detecting ADD, and is suitable for the patients suspected of mild ADD and aMCI in outpatient clinics.

  6. Homotaurine Effects on Hippocampal Volume Loss and Episodic Memory in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Cravello, Luca; Gianni, Walter; Piras, Federica; Iorio, Mariangela; Cacciari, Claudia; Casini, Anna Rosa; Chiapponi, Chiara; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Fratangeli, Claudia; Orfei, Maria Donata; Caltagirone, Carlo; Piras, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Homotaurine supplementation may have a positive effect on early Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigated its potential neuroprotective effect on the hippocampus structure and episodic memory performances in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Neuropsychological, clinical, and neuroimaging assessment in 11 treated and 22 untreated patients were performed at baseline and after 1 year. Magnetic resonance data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry to explore significant differences (Family Wise Error corrected) between the two groups over time. Patients treated with homotaurine showed decreased volume loss in the left and right hippocampal tail, left and right fusiform gyrus, and right inferior temporal cortex which was associated with improved short-term episodic memory performance as measured by the recency effect of the Rey 15-word list learning test immediate recall. Thus, homotaurine supplementation in individuals with aMCI has a positive effect on hippocampus atrophy and episodic memory loss. Future studies should further clarify the mechanisms of its effects on brain morphometry.

  7. Category verbal fluency performance may be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Márcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar

    Full Text Available Abstract To study category verbal fluency (VF for animals in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, mild Alzheimer disease (AD and normal controls. Method: Fifteen mild AD, 15 aMCI, and 15 normal control subjects were included. Diagnosis of AD was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, while aMCI was based on the criteria of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, using CDR 0.5 for aMCI and CDR 1 for mild AD. All subjects underwent testing of category VF for animals, lexical semantic function (Boston Naming-BNT, CAMCOG Similarities item, WAIS-R forward and backward digit span, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVLT, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, and other task relevant functions such as visual perception, attention, and mood state (with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Data analysis used ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey test for intergroup comparisons, and Pearson's coefficient for correlations of memory and FV tests with other task relevant functions (statistical significance level was p<0.05. Results: aMCI patients had lower performance than controls on category VF for animals and on the backward digit span subtest of WAIS-R but higher scores compared with mild AD patients. Mild AD patients scored significantly worse than aMCI and controls across all tests. Conclusion: aMCI patients may have poor performance in some non-memory tests, specifically category VF for animals in our study, where this could be attributable to the influence of working memory.

  8. Gist-based conceptual processing of pictures remains intact in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Deason, Rebecca G; Hussey, Erin P; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2012-03-01

    The picture superiority effect, better memory for pictures compared to words, has been found in young adults, healthy older adults, and, most recently, in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Although the picture superiority effect is widely found, there is still debate over what drives this effect. One main question is whether it is enhanced perceptual or conceptual information that leads to the advantage for pictures over words. In this experiment, we examined the picture superiority effect in healthy older adults and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to better understand the role of gist-based conceptual processing. We had participants study three exemplars of categories as either words or pictures. In the test phase, participants were again shown pictures or words and were asked to determine whether the item was in the same category as something they had studied earlier or whether it was from a new category. We found that all participants demonstrated a robust picture superiority effect, better performance for pictures than for words. These results suggest that the gist-based conceptual processing of pictures is preserved in patients with MCI. While in healthy older adults preserved recollection for pictures could lead to the picture superiority effect, in patients with MCI it is most likely that the picture superiority effect is a result of spared conceptually based familiarity for pictures, perhaps combined with their intact ability to extract and use gist information.

  9. Neural correlates of saccadic inhibition in healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Alichniewicz, K. K.; Brunner, F.; Klünemann, H. H.; Greenlee, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on tasks that require saccadic inhibition declines with age and altered inhibitory functioning has also been reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Although mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is assumed to be a high-risk factor for conversion to AD, little is known about changes in saccadic inhibition and its neural correlates in this condition. Our study determined whether the neural activation associated with saccadic inhibition is altered in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed decreased activation in parietal lobe in healthy elderly persons compared to young persons and decreased activation in frontal eye fields in aMCI patients compared to healthy elderly persons during the execution of anti-saccades. These results illustrate that the decline in inhibitory functions is associated with impaired frontal activation in aMCI. This alteration in function might reflect early manifestations of AD and provide new insights in the neural activation changes that occur in pathological ageing. PMID:23898312

  10. Changes in Parahippocampal White Matter Integrity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

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    E. J. Rogalski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, changes in the parahippocampal white matter (PWM, in the region that includes the perforant path, were investigated, in vivo, in 14 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI compared to 14 elderly controls with no cognitive impairment (NCI. For this purpose, (1 volumetry; (2 diffusion tensor imaging (DTI derived measures of mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA; and (3 tractography were used. In addition, regression models were utilized to examine the association of PWM measurements with memory decline. The results from this study confirm previous findings in our laboratory and others, showing that compared to controls, individuals with aMCI have PWM volume loss. In addition to volume reduction, participants with aMCI demonstrated a significant increase in MD, but no difference in FA, both in the PWM region and in fibers modeled to pass through the PWM region. Further, the DTI metric of MD was associated with declarative memory performance, suggesting it may be a sensitive marker for memory dysfunction. These results indicate that there is general tissue loss and degradation (decreased volume; increased MD in individuals with aMCI compared to older people with normal cognitive function. However, the microstructural organization of remaining fibers, as determined by measures of anisotropic diffusion, is not significantly different from that of controls.

  11. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary investigation.

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    Irish, Muireann; Lawlor, Brian A; Coen, Robert F; O'Mara, Shane M

    2011-08-04

    Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient's daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory), associative memory (face-name pairings), spatial memory (route learning and recall), and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months), 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  12. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary investigation

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    Lawlor Brian A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer's disease (AD and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient's daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory, associative memory (face-name pairings, spatial memory (route learning and recall, and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months, 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  13. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: a preliminary investigation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irish, Muireann

    2011-08-04

    Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient\\'s daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants\\' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory), associative memory (face-name pairings), spatial memory (route learning and recall), and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months), 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  14. Relative power and coherence of EEG series are related to amnestic mild cognitive impairment in diabetes

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    Zhijie eBian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes is a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether some features of resting-state EEG (rsEEG could be applied as a biomarker to distinguish the subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognitive function in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this study, 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls were investigated. Recording of the rsEEG series and neuropsychological assessments were performed. The rsEEG signal was first decomposed into delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma frequency bands. The relative power of each given band/sum of power and the coherence of waves from different brain areas were calculated. The extracted features from rsEEG and neuropsychological assessments were analyzed as well. Results: The main findings of this study were that: 1 compared with the control group, the ratios of power in theta band (P(theta versus power in alpha band (P(alpha (P(theta/P(alpha in the frontal region and left temporal region were significantly higher for aMCI, and 2 for aMCI, the alpha coherences in posterior, fronto-right temporal, fronto-posterior, right temporo-posterior were decreased; the theta coherences in left central-right central (LC-RC and left posterior-right posterior (LP-RP regions were also decreased; but the delta coherences in left temporal-right temporal (LT-RT region were increased. Conclusion: The proposed indexes from rsEEG recordings could be employed to track cognitive function of diabetic patients and also to help in the diagnosis of those who develop aMCI.

  15. The use of the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M) in the detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Cook, Sarah E; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin J M

    2009-06-01

    Many screening tools for detecting cognitive decline require in-person assessment, which is often not cost-effective or feasible for those with physical limitations. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status has been used for screening dementia, but little is known about its usefulness in detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Community-dwelling participants (mean age=74.9, mean education = 16.1 years) were administered the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status during initial screening and subsequently given a multidomain neuropsychological battery. Participants were classified by consensus panel as cognitively normal older adult (noMCI, N=54) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (N=17) based on neuropsychological performance and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale interview, but independent of Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score. There was a significant difference between groups in Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score (t=8.04, PTICS-M alone correctly classified 85.9% of participants into their respective diagnostic classification (sensitivity=82.4%, specificity=87.0%). Receiver operating characteristics analysis resulted in cutoff score of 34 that optimized sensitivity and specificity of amnestic mild cognitive impairment classification. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is a brief, cost-effective screening measure for identifying those with and without amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

  16. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

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    Li Hui-jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.

  17. Frontal white matter hyperintensity predicts lower urinary tract dysfunction in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Ogama, Noriko; Yoshida, Masaki; Nakai, Toshiharu; Niida, Shumpei; Toba, Kenji; Sakurai, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms often limit activities of daily life and impair quality of life in the elderly. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether regional white matter hyperintensity (WMH) can predict lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. The participants were 461 patients aged 65-85 years diagnosed with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Patients and their caregivers were asked about symptoms of lower urinary tract symptoms (urinary difficulty, frequency and incontinence). Cognition, behavior and psychological symptoms of dementia and medication were evaluated. WMH and brain atrophy were analyzed using an automatic segmentation program. Regional WMH was evaluated in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. Patients with urinary incontinence showed significantly greater volume of WMH. WMH increased with age, especially in the frontal lobe. WMH in the frontal lobe was closely associated with urinary incontinence after adjustment for brain atrophy and classical confounding factors. Frontal WMH was a predictive factor for urinary incontinence in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. Urinary incontinence in demented older adults is not an incidental event, and careful insight into regional WMH on brain magnetic resonance imaging might greatly help in diagnosing individuals with a higher risk of urinary incontinence. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Theta and Alpha Alterations in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment in Semantic Go/NoGo Tasks

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    Lydia T. Nguyen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that cognitive control processes are impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; however the nature of these alterations needs further examination. The current study examined differences in electroencephalographic theta and alpha power related to cognitive control processes involving response execution and response inhibition in 22 individuals with aMCI and 22 age-, sex-, and education-matched cognitively normal controls. Two Go/NoGo tasks involving semantic categorization were used. In the basic categorization task, Go/NoGo responses were made based on exemplars of a single car (Go and a single dog (NoGo. In the superordinate categorization task, responses were made based on multiple exemplars of objects (Go and animals (NoGo. Behavioral data showed that the aMCI group had more false alarms during the NoGo trials compared to controls. The EEG data revealed between group differences related to response type in theta (4–7 Hz and low-frequency alpha (8–10 Hz power. In particular, the aMCI group differed from controls in theta power during the NoGo trials at frontal and parietal electrodes, and in low-frequency alpha power during Go trials at parietal electrodes. These results suggest that alterations in theta power converge with behavioral deterioration in response inhibition, whereas alterations in low-frequency alpha power appear to precede behavioral changes in response execution. Both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates combined provide a more comprehensive characterization of cognitive control deficits in aMCI.

  19. Longitudinal brain metabolic changes from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease

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    Fouquet, Marine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Landeau, Brigitte; Duchesnay, Edouard; Mézenge, Florence; De La Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Baron, Jean-Claude; Eustache, Francis; Chételat, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive marker for monitoring progression of early Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) would help to develop and test new therapeutic strategies. The present study aimed at investigating brain metabolism changes over time, as potential monitoring marker, in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), according to their clinical outcome (converters or non-converters), and in relation to their cognitive decline. Seventeen aMCI patients underwent MRI and 18FDG-PET scans both at inclusion and 18 months later. Baseline and follow-up PET data were corrected for partial volume effects and spatially normalized using MRI data, scaled to the vermis and compared using SPM2. ‘PET-PAC’ maps reflecting metabolic percent annual changes were created for correlation analyses with cognitive decline. In the whole sample, the greatest metabolic decrease concerned the posterior cingulate-precuneus area. Converters had significantly greater metabolic decrease than nonconverters in two ventro-medial prefrontal areas, the subgenual (BA25) and anterior cingulate (BA24/32). PET-PAC in BA25 and BA24/32 combined allowed complete between-group discrimination. BA25 PET-PAC significantly correlated with both cognitive decline and PET-PAC in the hippocampal region and temporal pole, while BA24/32 PET-PAC correlated with posterior cingulate PET-PAC. Finally, the metabolic change in BA8/9/10 was inversely related to that in BA25 and showed relative increase with cognitive decline, suggesting that compensatory processes may occur in this dorso-medial prefrontal region. The observed ventro-medial prefrontal disruption is likely to reflect disconnection from the hippocampus, both indirectly through the cingulum bundle and posterior cingulate cortex for BA24/32, and directly through the uncinate fasciculus for BA25. Altogether, our findings emphasize the potential of 18FDG-PET for monitoring early AD progression. PMID:19477964

  20. A combined electrophysiological and morphological examination of episodic memory decline in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Michael eHoppstädter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD are characterized by neuropathological changes within the medial temporal lobe cortex (MTLC, which lead to characteristic impairments in episodic memory, i.e., amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Here, we tested the neural correlates of this memory impairment using event-related potentials (ERPs and voxel-based morphometry. Twenty-four participants were instructed to encode lists of words and were tested in a yes/no recognition memory task. The dual-process model of recognition memory dissociates between acontextual familiarity and recollection of contextual details. The early frontal ERP old/new-effect, which is thought to represent a neural correlate of familiarity-based memory, was absent in aMCI, whereas the control group showed a significant early old/new effect at frontal electrodes. This effect was positively correlated with behavioral episodic memory performance. Analyses of brain morphology revealed a focused gray matter loss in the inferior and medial temporal lobes in aMCI versus healthy controls. Moreover, the positive correlation between gray matter volume in the MTLC and the familiarity-related early frontal old/new effect supports the notion that this effect relies upon the integrity of the MTLC. Thus, the present findings might provide a further functional marker for prodromal AD.

  1. Episodic, but not semantic, autobiographical memory is reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Murphy, Kelly J; Troyer, Angela K; Levine, Brian; Moscovitch, Morris

    2008-11-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by decline in anterograde memory as measured by the ability to learn and remember new information. We investigated whether retrograde memory for autobiographical information was affected by aMCI. Eighteen control (age 66-84 years) and 17 aMCI (age 66-84 years) participants described a personal event from each of the five periods across the lifespan. These events were transcribed and scored according to procedures that separate episodic (specific happenings) from semantic (general knowledge) elements of autobiographical memory. Although both groups generated protocols of similar length, the composition of autobiographical recall differentiated the groups. The aMCI group protocols were characterized by reduced episodic and increased semantic information relative to the control group. Both groups showed a similar pattern of recall across time periods, with no evidence that the aMCI group had more difficulty recalling recent, rather than remote, life events. These results indicate that episodic and semantic autobiographical memories are differentially affected by the early brain changes associated with aMCI. Reduced autobiographical episodic memories in aMCI may be the result of medial temporal lobe dysfunction, consistent with multiple trace theory, or alternatively, could be related to dysfunction of a wider related network of neocortical structures. In contrast, the preservation of autobiographical semantic memories in aMCI suggests neural systems, such as lateral temporal cortex, that support these memories, may remain relatively intact.

  2. Mismatch negativity (MMN amplitude as a biomarker of sensory memory deficit in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Mónica eLindín

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that changes in some event-related potential (ERP parameters associated with controlled processing of stimuli could be used as biomarkers of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. However, data regarding the suitability of ERP components associated with automatic and involuntary processing of stimuli for this purpose are not conclusive. In the present study, we studied the Mismatch Negativity (MMN component, a correlate of the automatic detection of changes in the acoustic environment, in healthy adults and adults with aMCI (age range: 50-87 years. An auditory-visual attention-distraction task, in two evaluations separated by an interval of between 18 and 24 months, was used. In both evaluations, the MMN amplitude was significantly smaller in the aMCI adults than in the control adults. In the first evaluation, such differences were observed for the subgroup of adults between 50 and 64 years of age, but not for the subgroup of 65 years and over. In the aMCI adults, the MMN amplitude was significantly smaller in the second evaluation than in the first evaluation, but no significant changes were observed in the control adult group. The MMN amplitude was found to be a sensitive and specific biomarker of aMCI, in both the first and second evaluation.

  3. Brain metabolic correlates of decision making in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Griffith, H Randall; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; den Hollander, Jan A; Belue, Katherine; Copeland, Jacqueline; Harrell, Lindy E; Brockington, John C; Clark, David G; Marson, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    Persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have subtle impairments in medical decision-making capacity (MDC). We examined the relationship between proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and MDC in MCI. Twenty-nine MCI patients and 42 controls underwent MRS to obtain ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Creatine (Cr), Choline (Cho)/Cr, and myo-Inositol (mI)/Cr of the posterior cingulate. They also completed the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument (CCTI), a vignette-based instrument measuring decisional standards of expressing choice, appreciating consequences of choice, providing rational reasons for choice, and understanding treatment choices. Patients showed abnormal MRS ratios of mI/Cr and Cho/Cr compared to controls, and impairments on the CCTI understanding and reasoning Standards. Performance on the reasoning standard of the CCTI was correlated with NAA/Cr (r = .46, p decision-making suggests a role for posterior cortical neuronal functioning in performance of complex IADLs in MCI.

  4. Resting-state abnormalities in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis.

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    Lau, W K W; Leung, M-K; Lee, T M C; Law, A C K

    2016-04-26

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As no effective drug can cure AD, early diagnosis and intervention for aMCI are urgently needed. The standard diagnostic procedure for aMCI primarily relies on subjective neuropsychological examinations that require the judgment of experienced clinicians. The development of other objective and reliable aMCI markers, such as neural markers, is therefore required. Previous neuroimaging findings revealed various abnormalities in resting-state activity in MCI patients, but the findings have been inconsistent. The current study provides an updated activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data on aMCI. The authors searched on the MEDLINE/PubMed databases for whole-brain resting-state fMRI studies on aMCI published until March 2015. We included 21 whole-brain resting-state fMRI studies that reported a total of 156 distinct foci. Significant regional resting-state differences were consistently found in aMCI patients relative to controls, including the posterior cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left supramarginal gyrus and bilateral middle temporal gyri. Our findings support that abnormalities in resting-state activities of these regions may serve as neuroimaging markers for aMCI.

  5. Recognition Memory in Amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment: Insights from Event-Related Potentials

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    David A Wolk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory loss is the hallmark cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (a-MCI frequently represents a transitional stage between normal aging and early AD. A better understanding of the qualitative features of memory loss in a-MCI may have important implications for predicting those most likely to harbor AD-related pathology and for disease monitoring. Dual process models of memory argue that recognition memory is subserved by the dissociable processes of recollection and familiarity. Work studying recognition memory in a-MCI from this perspective has been controversial, particularly with regard to the integrity of familiarity. Event-related potentials (ERPs offer an alternative means for assessing these functions without the associated assumptions of behavioral estimation methods. ERPs were recorded while a-MCI patients and cognitively normal (CN age-matched adults performed a recognition memory task. When retrieval success was measured (hits versus correct rejections in which performance was matched by group, a-MCI patients displayed similar neural correlates to that of the CN group, including modulation of the FN400 and the late parietal complex (LPC which are thought to index familiarity and recollection, respectively. Alternatively, when the integrity of these components were measured based on retrieval attempts (studied versus unstudied items, a-MCI patients displayed a reduced FN400 and LPC. Furthermore, modulation of the FN400 correlated with a behavioral estimate of familiarity and the LPC with a behavioral estimates of recollection obtained in a separate experiment in the same individuals, consistent with the proposed mappings of these indices. These results support a global decline of recognition memory in a-MCI, which suggests that the memory loss of prodromal AD may be qualitatively distinct from normal aging.

  6. Regional white matter lesions predict falls in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Ogama, Noriko; Sakurai, Takashi; Shimizu, Atsuya; Toba, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Preventive strategy for falls in demented elderly is a clinical challenge. From early-stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients show impaired balance and gait. The purpose of this study is to determine whether regional white matter lesions (WMLs) can predict balance/gait disturbance and falls in elderly with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or AD. Cross-sectional. Hospital out-patient clinic. One hundred sixty-three patients diagnosed with aMCI or AD were classified into groups having experienced falls (n = 63) or not (n = 100) in the previous year. Cognition, depression, behavior and psychological symptoms of dementia, medication, and balance/gait function were evaluated. Regional WMLs were visually analyzed as periventricular hyperintensity in frontal caps, bands, and occipital caps, and as deep white matter hyperintensity in frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem. Brain atrophy was linearly measured. The fallers had a greater volume of WMLs and their posture/gait performance tended to be worse than nonfallers. Several WMLs in particular brain regions were closely associated with balance and gait impairment. Besides polypharmacy, periventricular hyperintensity in frontal caps and occipital WMLs were strong predictors for falls, even after potential risk factors for falls were considered. Regional white matter burden, independent of cognitive decline, correlates with balance/gait disturbance and predicts falls in elderly with aMCI and AD. Careful insight into regional WMLs on brain magnetic resonance may greatly help to diagnose demented elderly with a higher risk of falls. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alteration of affective Theory of Mind in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2013-03-01

    The concept of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) concerns a population of older individuals at high risk of developing probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impairments of the cognitive component of Theory of Mind (ToM), that is the inference about other people's beliefs, have been well documented in AD; on the contrary, controversial findings have been reported on the affective component of ToM (inference about other's feelings), a process mainly based on medial portions of the prefrontal cortex. The current study aimed at evaluating the affective component of ToM in aMCI subjects. Twenty aMCI subjects and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent a standard neuropsychological assessment and the assessment of affective ToM with the full 36-item version of reading the mind in the eyes (RME). Although aMCI subjects had formal impaired performances only in memory tasks, HC outperformed aMCI subjects in several cognitive tasks, including also the RME (mean RME scores 21.7 ± 3.0 vs. 17.0 ± 3.8%; 60.3% of correct answers vs. 47.2%). The lower RME performance of aMCI patients provides the first empirical evidence that aMCI may be associated with difficulties in tasks of affective ToM, in accordance with recent findings of early difficulties of aMCI patients in other processes that are mainly dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex, such as reversal learning and decision making under ambiguity. Findings of the current study need further empirical confirmation in larger samples of aMCI patients and also the investigation of other MCI subtypes is needed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Is emotional memory enhancement preserved in amnestic mild cognitive impairment? Evidence from separating recollection and familiarity.

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    Wang, Pengyun; Li, Juan; Li, Huijie; Li, Bing; Jiang, Yang; Bao, Feng; Zhang, Shouzi

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated whether the observed absence of emotional memory enhancement in recognition tasks in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) could be related to their greater proportion of familiarity-based responses for all stimuli, and whether recognition tests with emotional items had better discriminative power for aMCI patients than those with neutral items. In total, 31 aMCI patients and 30 healthy older adults participated in a recognition test followed by remember/know judgments. Positive, neutral, and negative faces were used as stimuli. For overall recognition performance, emotional memory enhancement was found only in healthy controls; they remembered more negative and positive stimuli than neutral ones. For "remember" responses, we found equivalent emotional memory enhancement in both groups, though a greater proportion of "remember" responses was observed in normal controls. For "know" responses, aMCI patients presented a larger proportion than normal controls did, and their "know" responses were not affected by emotion. A negative correlation was found between emotional enhancement effect and the memory performance related to "know" responses. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed higher diagnostic accuracy for recognition test with emotional stimuli than with neutral stimuli. The present results implied that the absence of the emotional memory enhancement effect in aMCI patients might be related to their tendency to rely more on familiarity-based "know" responses for all stimuli. Furthermore, recognition memory tests using emotional stimuli may be better able than neutral stimuli to differentiate people with aMCI from cognitively normal older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Association of the interleukin 1 beta gene and brain spontaneous activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Zhuang Liying

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The inflammatory response has been associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the rs1143627 polymorphism of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β gene moderates functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-measured brain regional activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Eighty older participants (47 with aMCI and 33 healthy controls were recruited for this study. All of the participants were genotyped for variant rs1143627 in the IL1B gene and were scanned using resting-state fMRI. Brain activity was assessed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF. Results aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions, including decreases in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior temporal lobe and the middle temporal lobe, and increases in the occipital cortex (calcarine, parietal cortex (Pcu and cerebellar cortex. The regions associated with an interaction of group X genotypes of rs1143627 C/T were the parietal cortex (left Pcu, frontal cortex (left superior, middle, and medial gyrus, right anterior cingulum, occipital cortex (left middle lobe, left cuneus and the bilateral posterior lobes of the cerebellum. Regarding the behavioral significance, there were significant correlations between ALFF in different regions of the brain and with the cognitive scores of each genotype group. Conclusions The present study provided evidence that aMCI patients had abnormal ALFF in many brain regions. Specifically, the rs1143627 C/T polymorphism of the IL1B gene may modulate regional spontaneous brain activity in aMCI patients.

  10. Clock Drawing Test and the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: can more detailed scoring systems do the work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubínová, Eva; Nikolai, Tomáš; Marková, Hana; Siffelová, Kamila; Laczó, Jan; Hort, Jakub; Vyhnálek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test is a frequently used cognitive screening test with several scoring systems in elderly populations. We compare simple and complex scoring systems and evaluate the usefulness of the combination of the Clock Drawing Test with the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 48) and age- and education-matched controls (n = 48) underwent neuropsychological examinations, including the Clock Drawing Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Clock drawings were scored by three blinded raters using one simple (6-point scale) and two complex (17- and 18-point scales) systems. The sensitivity and specificity of these scoring systems used alone and in combination with the Mini-Mental State Examination were determined. Complex scoring systems, but not the simple scoring system, were significant predictors of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment diagnosis in logistic regression analysis. At equal levels of sensitivity (87.5%), the Mini-Mental State Examination showed higher specificity (31.3%, compared with 12.5% for the 17-point Clock Drawing Test scoring scale). The combination of Clock Drawing Test and Mini-Mental State Examination scores increased the area under the curve (0.72; p Drawing Test did not differentiate between healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment in our sample. Complex scoring systems were slightly more efficient, yet still were characterized by high rates of false-positive results. We found psychometric improvement using combined scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing Test when complex scoring systems were used. The results of this study support the benefit of using combined scores from simple methods.

  11. Individual cerebral metabolic deficits in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Sole, Angelo; Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni; Clerici, Francesca; Mariani, Claudio; Maggiore, Laura; Chiti, Arturo; Mosconi, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the identification of group and individual subject patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) studies and neuropsychological tests were performed in 16 aMCI patients (ten women, age 75 ± 8 years) and in 14 AD patients (ten women, age 75 ± 9 years). Comparisons between patient subgroups and with a control population were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Clusters of low CMRGlu were observed bilaterally in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus of AD patients. In aMCI patients, reduced CMRGlu was found only in PCC. Areas of low CMRGlu in PCC were wider in AD compared to aMCI and extended to the precuneus, while low CMRGlu was found in the lateral parietal cortex in AD but not in aMCI patients. Individual subject pattern analysis revealed that 86% of AD patients had low CMRGlu in the PCC (including the precuneus in 71%), 71% in the temporal cortex, 64% in the parietal cortex and 35% in the frontal cortex. Among the aMCI patients, 56% had low CMRGlu in the PCC, 44% in the temporal cortex, 18% in the frontal cortex and none in the parietal cortex. This study demonstrates that both AD and aMCI patients have highly heterogeneous metabolic impairment. This potential of individual metabolic PET imaging in patients with AD and aMCI may allow timely identification of brain damage on individual basis and possibly help planning tailored early interventions. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of performance on neuropsychological tests in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease patients

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    Patrícia Helena Figueirêdo do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI can be an intermediate state between normality and dementia in some patients. An early diagnosis, through neuropsychological assessment, could identify individuals at risk of developing dementia. Objective: To verify differences in performance on neuropsychological tests among controls, amnestic MCI (aMCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Methods: Sixty-eight AD patients (mean age 73.77±7.24; mean schooling 9.04±4.83; 40 women and 28 men, 34 aMCI patients (mean age 74.44±7.05; mean schooling 12.35±4.01; 20 women and 60 controls (mean age 68.90±7.48; mean schooling 10.72±4.74; 42 women were submitted to a neuropsychological assessment composed of tasks assessing executive functions, language, constructive abilities, reasoning and memory. Results: There were statistically significant differences in performance across all tests among control, aMCI and AD groups, and also between only controls and AD patients. On comparing control and aMCI groups, we found statistically significant differences in memory tasks, except for immediate recall of Visual Reproduction. There were also statistically significant differences between aMCI and AD groups on tasks of constructive and visuoperceptual abilities, attention, language and memory, except for delayed recall of Visual Reproduction. Conclusions: Neuropsychological assessment was able to discriminate aMCI from AD patients in almost all tests except for delayed recall of Visual Reproduction, visual organization (Hooper and executive functions (WCST; and discriminate controls from AD patients in all tests, and controls from aMCI patients in all memory tests except for immediate recall of Visual Reproduction.

  13. Amyloid-independent functional neural correlates of episodic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun Hyun; Choo, I L Han

    2016-06-01

    Although amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) could have various biological characteristics, little attention has been given to the nature of episodic memory decline in aMCI with pathophysiologies other than Alzheimer's disease (AD), i.e., aMCI with low beta-amyloid (Aβ) burden. This study aimed to identify the functional neural basis of episodic memory impairment in aMCI with Aβ burden negative (aMCI-Aβ-) and to compare these results with aMCI with Aβ burden positive (aMCI-Aβ+). Individuals with aMCI (n = 498) were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Based on the mean florbetapir standard uptake value ratio, participants were classified as aMCI-Aβ- or aMCI-Aβ+. Correlations between memory scores and regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglc) were analyzed separately for the two subgroups using a multiple regression model. For aMCI-Aβ-, significant positive correlations between memory and rCMglc were found in the bilateral claustrum, right thalamus, left anterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and right posterior cingulate. For aMCI-Aβ+, significant positive correlations between memory and rCMglc were found in the temporoparietal areas. These correlation patterns remained unchanged when clinical severity was added as a covariate Our findings indicate that memory impairment in aMCI-Aβ- is related to multimodal integrative processing and the attentional control system, whereas memory impairment in aMCI-Aβ+ is related to the typical brain memory systems and AD signature. These results suggest that although the two subgroups are clinically in the same category as aMCI, the memory impairment process depends on completely different functional brain regions according to their Aβ burden level.

  14. Common effects of amnestic mild cognitive impairment on resting-state connectivity across four independent studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eTam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional connectivity is a promising biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease. However, previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in Alzheimer’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have shown limited reproducibility as they have had small sample sizes and substantial variation in study protocol. We sought to identify functional brain networks and connections that could consistently discriminate normal aging from aMCI despite variations in scanner manufacturer, imaging protocol, and diagnostic procedure. We therefore combined four datasets collected independently, including 112 healthy controls and 143 patients with aMCI. We systematically tested multiple brain connections for associations with aMCI using a weighted average routinely used in meta-analyses. The largest effects involved the superior medial frontal cortex (including the anterior cingulate, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and middle temporal lobe. Compared with controls, patients with aMCI exhibited significantly decreased connectivity between default mode network nodes and between regions of the cortico-striatal-thalamic loop. Despite the heterogeneity of methods among the four datasets, we identified common aMCI-related connectivity changes with small to medium effect sizes and sample size estimates recommending a minimum of 140 to upwards of 600 total subjects to achieve adequate statistical power in the context of a multisite study with 5-10 scanning sites and about 10 subjects per group and per site. If our findings can be replicated and associated with other established biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (e.g. amyloid and tau quantification, then these functional connections may be promising candidate biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. Amyloid burden and sleep blood pressure in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Takashi; Harris, Thomas S.; Hill, Candace; German, Zohre; Riley, Jonathan; Turner, Marcel; Womack, Kyle B.; Kerwin, Diana R.; Monson, Nancy L.; Stowe, Ann M.; Mathews, Dana; Cullum, C. Munro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cortical β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is associated with circadian blood pressure (BP) profiles and dynamic cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods: Forty participants with aMCI were included in this study. Cortical Aβ depositions were measured by 18F-florbetapir PET and expressed as the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) relative to the cerebellum. Circadian BP profiles were measured by 24-hour ambulatory monitoring during awake and sleep periods. The dipping status of sleep BP (i.e., the percent changes from the awake BP) was calculated and dichotomized into the dipper (≥10%) and nondipper (<10%) groups. Dynamic CBF regulation was assessed by a transfer function analysis between beat-to-beat changes in BP and CBF velocity measured from the middle cerebral artery during a repeated sit-stand maneuver. Results: Age was positively correlated with a greater Aβ deposition in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, and mean cortex. Accounting for the age effect, attenuated reductions in sleep systolic BP were associated with higher levels of posterior cingulate SUVR. Consistently, the nondippers exhibited a higher SUVR in the posterior cingulate than the dippers. Transfer function gain between changes in BP and CBF velocity was diminished in the nondippers, and moreover those individuals with a lower gain exhibited a higher SUVR in the posterior cingulate. Conclusions: Attenuated reductions in sleep BP are associated with a greater Aβ burden in the posterior cingulate and altered dynamic CBF regulation in patients with aMCI. PMID:26537049

  16. Association Between Olfactory Dysfunction and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rosebud O; Christianson, Teresa J H; Kremers, Walter K; Mielke, Michelle M; Machulda, Mary M; Vassilaki, Maria; Alhurani, Rabe E; Geda, Yonas E; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C

    2016-01-01

    To increase the opportunity to delay or prevent mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia, markers of early detection are essential. Olfactory impairment may be an important clinical marker and predictor of these conditions and may help identify persons at increased risk. To examine associations of impaired olfaction with incident MCI subtypes and progression from MCI subtypes to AD dementia. Participants enrolled in the population-based, prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging between 2004 and 2010 were clinically evaluated at baseline and every 15 months through 2014. Participants (N = 1630) were classified as having normal cognition, MCI (amnestic MCI [aMCI] and nonamnestic MCI [naMCI]), and dementia. We administered the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) to assess olfactory function. Mild cognitive impairment, AD dementia, and longitudinal change in cognitive performance measures. Of the 1630 participants who were cognitively normal at the time of the smell test, 33 died before follow-up and 167 were lost to follow-up. Among the 1430 cognitively normal participants included, the mean (SD) age was 79.5 (5.3) years, 49.4% were men, the mean duration of education was 14.3 years, and 25.4% were APOE ε4 carriers. Over a mean 3.5 years of follow-up, there were 250 incident cases of MCI among 1430 cognitively normal participants. We observed an association between decreasing olfactory identification, as measured by a decrease in the number of correct responses in B-SIT score, and an increased risk of aMCI. Compared with the upper B-SIT quartile (quartile [Q] 4, best scores), hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) were 1.12 (0.65-1.92) for Q3 (P = .68); 1.95 (1.25-3.03) for Q2 (P = .003); and 2.18 (1.36-3.51) for Q1 (P = .001) (worst scores; P for trend dementia cases among 221 prevalent MCI cases. The B-SIT score also predicted progression from aMCI to AD dementia, with a significant dose-response with worsening B-SIT quartiles

  17. The Use of the Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M) in the Detection of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Sarah E.; Marsiske, Michael; McCoy, Karin J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Many screening tools for detecting cognitive decline require in-person assessment, which is often not cost effective or feasible for those with physical limitations. The Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-M) has been used for screening dementia, but little is known about its usefulness in detecting amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Community-dwelling participants (mean age= 74.9, mean education= 16.1 years) were administered the TICS-M during initial screening an...

  18. THE PRIMACY EFFECT IN AMNESTIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: ASSOCIATIONS WITH HIPPOCAMPAL FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Brueggen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe primacy effect, i.e., increased memory recall for the first items of a series compared to the following items, is reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Memory task-fMRI studies showed that primacy recall is associated with higher activation of the hippocampus and temporo-parietal and frontal cortical regions in healthy subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at resting state showed that hippocampus functional connectivity (FC with neocortical brain areas, including regions of the default mode network (DMN, is altered in aMCI. The present study aimed to investigate whether resting state fMRI FC between the hippocampus and cortical brain regions, especially the DMN, is associated with primacy recall performance in aMCI. MethodsA number of 87 aMCI patients underwent resting state fMRI and verbal episodic memory assessment. FC between the left or right hippocampus, respectively, and all other voxels in grey matter was mapped voxel-wise and used in whole-brain regression analyses, testing whether FC values predicted delayed primacy recall score. The delayed primacy score was defined as the number of the first four words recalled on the California Verbal Learning Test. Additionally, a partial least squares analysis (PLS was performed, using DMN regions as seeds to identify the association of their functional interactions with delayed primacy recall.ResultsVoxel-based analyses showed that delayed primacy recall was mainly (positively associated with higher FC between the left and right hippocampus. Additionally, significant associations were found for higher FC between the left hippocampus and bilateral temporal cortex, frontal cortical regions, and for higher FC between the right hippocampus and right temporal cortex, right frontal cortical regions, left medial frontal cortex and right amygdala (p < 0.01, uncorr.. PLS analysis revealed positive associations of delayed primacy recall with FC between regions of

  19. Cognitive Training Using a Novel Memory Game on an iPad in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulich, George; Piercy, Thomas; Fox, Chris; Suckling, John; Rowe, James B; O'Brien, John T; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive training is effective in patients with mild cognitive impairment but does not typically address the motivational deficits associated with older populations with memory difficulties. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of cognitive training using a novel memory game on an iPad in 42 patients with a diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment assigned to either the cognitive training (n=21; 8 hours of gameplay over 4 weeks) or control (n=21; clinic visits as usual) groups. Significant time-by-pattern-by-group interactions were found for cognitive performance in terms of the number of errors made and trials needed on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Paired Associates Learning task (P=.044; P=.027). Significant time-by-group interactions were also found for the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Paired Associates Learning first trial memory score (P=.002), Mini-Mental State Examination (P=.036), the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (P=.032), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (P=.026). Within-group comparisons revealed highly specific effects of cognitive training on episodic memory. The cognitive training group maintained high levels of enjoyment and motivation to continue after each hour of gameplay, with self-confidence and self-rated memory ability improving over time. Episodic memory robustly improved in the cognitive training group. "Gamified" cognitive training may also enhance visuospatial abilities in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Gamification maximizes engagement with cognitive training by increasing motivation and could complement pharmacological treatments for amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Larger, more controlled trials are needed to replicate and extend these findings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  20. Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial

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    Suzuki Takao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on the cognitive function of older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Design: Twelve months, randomized controlled trial; Setting: Community center in Japan; Participants: Fifty older adults (27 men with aMCI ranging in age from 65 to 93 years (mean age, 75 years; Intervention: Subjects were randomized into either a multicomponent exercise (n = 25 or an education control group (n = 25. Subjects in the multicomponent exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, for a total of 80 times over 12 months. The exercises included aerobic exercises, muscle strength training, and postural balance retraining, and were conducted using multiple conditions to stimulate cognitive functions. Subjects in the control group attended three education classes regarding health during the 12-month period. Measurements were administered before, after the 6-month, and after the 12-month intervention period; Measurements: The performance measures included the mini-mental state examination, logical memory subtest of the Wechsler memory scale-revised, digit symbol coding test, letter and categorical verbal fluency test, and the Stroop color word test. Results The mean adherence to the exercise program was 79.2%. Improvements of cognitive function following multicomponent exercise were superior at treatment end (group × time interactions for the mini-mental state examination (P = 0.04, logical memory of immediate recall (P = 0.03, and letter verbal fluency test (P = 0.02. The logical memory of delayed recall, digit symbol coding, and Stroop color word test showed main effects of time, although there were no group × time interactions. Conclusions This study indicates that exercise improves or supports, at least partly, cognitive performance in older adults with aMCI.

  1. Brain structural, functional, and cognitive correlates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomadesso, Clémence; Perrotin, Audrey; Mutlu, Justine; Mézenge, Florence; Landeau, Brigitte; Egret, Stéphanie; de la Sayette, Vincent; Jonin, Pierre-Yves; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC) underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old) and recent (the ten last years) autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD.

  2. Brain structural, functional, and cognitive correlates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Clémence Tomadesso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old and recent (the ten last years autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD.

  3. Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia in elderly subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Taiki; Ono, Rei; Murata, Shunsuke; Saji, Naoki; Matsui, Yasumoto; Niida, Shumpei; Toba, Kenji; Sakurai, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    To date, very little is known about the nature of sarcopenia in subjects with cognitive impairment. The aims of this study were firstly to clarify the prevalence of sarcopenia at various stages of cognitive impairment, and secondly to examine factors related to sarcopenia in men and women with cognitive impairment. The subjects were 418 outpatients (normal cognition; NC: 35, amnestic mild cognitive impairment; aMCI: 40, Alzheimer disease; AD: 343) who attended the Memory Clinic at the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology of Japan during the period from October 2010 to July 2014. Cognitive status, vitality, depressive mood, body mass index, hand grip strength, timed up and go test, skeletal muscle mass and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, albumin and creatinine were assessed. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of both poor muscle function (low physical performance or low muscle strength) and low muscle mass. We performed the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to explore factors associated with sarcopenia. The overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 21.1% (NC = 8.6%, aMCI = 12.5%, AD = 23.3%). In both sexes, factors associated with sarcopenia were age (P sarcopenia (P sarcopenia. Prevention of sarcopenia in patients with cognitive impairment should be approached from physical and psychologic points of view.

  4. Impairment in proverb interpretation as an executive function deficit in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyhe, Thomas; Saur, Ralf; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Milian, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Proverb interpretation is assumed to reflect executive functions. We hypothesized that proverb interpretation is impaired in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) diagnosed as single-domain impairment by common neuropsychological testing. We compared performance in a proverb interpretation test in single-domain aMCI patients and patients with early Alzheimer's disease (EAD). The groups with aMCI and EAD performed significantly worse than healthy controls. Both patient groups gave concrete answers with a similar frequency. However, patients with EAD tended to give senseless answers more frequently. Our data suggest that in patients diagnosed as single-domain aMCI, deterioration of executive functions is detectable with subtle and appropriate neuropsychological testing. Implementation of these procedures may improve the early prediction of AD.

  5. Perspective taking abilities in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, H.; Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Hort, J.; Vlček, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 281, Mar 15 (2015), s. 229-238 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer's disease * mild cognitive impairment * spatial transformation * standardized road-map test of direction sense * perspective taking task * sexual differences Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2015

  6. Famous Landmark Identification in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sheardová, K.; Laczó, J.; Vyhnálek, M.; Andel, R.; Mokrišová, I.; Vlček, Kamil; Amlerová, J.; Hort, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2014), e105623 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : visual perception * Alzheimer’s disease * brain changes * mild cognitive impairment * medial temporal lobe Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  7. Neural Basis of Cognitive Assessment in Alzheimer Disease, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Subjective Memory Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Cabrera-Martín, María Nieves; Valles-Salgado, María; Pérez-Pérez, Alicia; Rognoni, Teresa; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Carreras, José Luis; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    Interpreting cognitive tests is often challenging. The same test frequently examines multiple cognitive functions, and the functional and anatomical basis underlying test performance is unknown in many cases. This study analyses the correlation of different neuropsychological test results with brain metabolism in a series of patients evaluated for suspected Alzheimer disease. 20 healthy controls and 80 patients consulting for memory loss were included, in which cognitive study and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET were performed. Patients were categorized according to Reisberg's Global Deterioration Scale. Voxel-based analysis was used to determine correlations between brain metabolism and performance on the following tests: Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Trail Making Test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test, Visual Object and Space Perception Battery (VOSP), and Tower of London (ToL) test. Mean age in the patient group was 73.9 ± 10.6 years, and 47 patients were women (58.7%). FCSRT findings were positively correlated with metabolism in the medial and anterior temporal region bilaterally, the left precuneus, and posterior cingulate. BNT results were correlated with metabolism in the middle temporal, superior, fusiform, and frontal medial gyri bilaterally. VOSP results were related to the occipital and parietotemporal regions bilaterally. ToL scores were correlated to metabolism in the right temporoparietal and frontal regions. These results suggest that different areas of the brain are involved in the processes required to complete different cognitive tests. Ascertaining the functional basis underlying these tests may prove helpful for understanding and interpreting them. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences in functional brain connectivity alterations associated with cerebral amyloid deposition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Dahyun eYi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite potential implications for the early detection of impending AD, very little is known about the differences of large scale brain networks between amnestic MCI (aMCI with high cerebral amyloid beta protein (Aβ deposition (i.e., aMCI+ and aMCI with no or very little Aβ deposition (i.e., aMCI-. We first aimed to extend the current literature on altering intrinsic functional connectivity (FC of the default mode network (DMN and salience network (SN from CN to AD dementia. Second, we further examined the differences of the DMN and the SN between aMCI-, aMCI+, and CN. Forty-three older adult (12 CN, 10 aMCI+, 10 aMCI-, and 11 AD dementia subjects were included. All participants received clinical and neuropsychological assessment, resting state functional MRI, structural MRI, and Pittsburgh compound-B-PET scans. FC data were preprocessed using Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components of FSL. Group comparisons were carried out using the dual-regression approach. In addition, to verify presence of grey matter (GM volume changes with intrinsic functional network alterations, Voxel Based Morphometry was performed on the acquired T1-weighted data. As expected, AD dementia participants exhibited decreased FC in the DMN compared to CN (in precuneus and cingulate gyrus. The degree of alteration in the DMN in aMCI+ compared to CN was intermediate to that of AD. In contrast, aMCI- exhibited increased FC in the DMN compared to CN (in precuneus as well as aMCI+. In terms of the SN, aMCI- exhibited decreased FC compared to both CN and aMCI+ particularly in the inferior frontal gyrus. FC within the SN in aMCI+ and AD did not differ from CN. Compared to CN, aMCI- showed atrophy in bilateral superior temporal gyri whereas aMCI+ showed atrophy in right precuneus. The results indicate that despite of the similarity in cross-sectional cognitive features aMCI- has quite different functional brain connectivity compared to

  9. Spatial navigation testing discriminates two types of amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laczó, J.; Vlček, Kamil; Vyhnálek, M.; Vajnerová, O.; Ort, M.; Holmerová, I.; Tolar, M.; Andel, R.; Bojar, M.; Hort, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 202, č. 2 (2009), s. 252-259 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/1053; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer’s disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.220, year: 2009

  10. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment: functional MR imaging study of response in posterior cingulate cortex and adjacent precuneus during problem-solving tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guangwei; Li, Kuncheng; Hu, Yingying; Qin, Yulin; Wang, Xiangqing; Xiang, Jie; Yang, Yanhui; Lu, Jie; Zhong, Ning

    2011-11-01

    To compare the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response, measured with functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and adjacent precuneus regions between healthy control subjects and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) during problem-solving tasks. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Each subject provided written informed consent. Thirteen patients with amnestic MCI and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. The functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging tasks were simplified 4 × 4-grid number placement puzzles that were divided into a simple task (using the row rule or the column rule to solve the puzzle) and a complex task (using both the row and column rules to solve the puzzle). Behavioral results and functional imaging results between the healthy control group and the amnestic MCI group were analyzed. The accuracy for the complex task in the healthy control group was significantly higher than that in the amnestic MCI group (P < .05). The healthy control group exhibited a deactivated BOLD signal intensity (SI) change in the bilateral PCC and adjacent precuneus regions during the complex task, whereas the amnestic MCI group showed activation. The positive linear correlations between the BOLD SI change in bilateral PCC and adjacent precuneus regions and in bilateral hippocampi in the amnestic MCI group were significant (P < .001), while in the healthy control group, they were not (P ≥ .23). These findings suggest that an altered BOLD response in amnestic MCI patients during complex tasks might be related to a decline in problem-solving ability and to memory impairment and, thus, may indicate a compensatory response to memory impairment. RSNA, 2011

  11. Sustaining prospective memory functioning in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A lifespan approach to the critical role of encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Antonina; Altgassen, Mareike; Atchison, Lesley; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Ellis, Judi

    2018-04-16

    Prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember to perform future activities, is a fundamental requirement for independent living. PM tasks pervade our daily lives, and PM failures represent one of the most prominent memory concerns across the entire life span. This study aimed to address this issue by exploring the potential benefits of specific encoding strategies on memory for intentions across healthy adulthood and in the early stages of cognitive impairment. PM performance was explored through an experimental paradigm in 96 participants: 32 amnestic mild cognitively impaired patients aged 64-87 years (M = 6.75, SD = 5.88), 32 healthy older adults aged 62-84 years (M = 76.06, SD = 6.03), and 32 younger adults 18-22 years (M = 19.75, SD = 1.16). The potential benefit of the use of enactment (i.e., physically simulating the intended action) at encoding to support an autonomous performance despite neuronal degeneration was assessed. PM was consistently identified as a sensitive and specific indicator of cognitive impairment. Importantly, enacted encoding was consistently beneficial for PM performance of all the participants, but especially so in the case of healthy and cognitively impaired older adults. These positive results have unveiled the potential of this encoding technique to optimize attentional demands through an adaptive allocation of strategic resources across both healthy and cognitively impaired samples. Theoretical implications of this work are discussed as well as the considerable translational potential to improve social well-being. A better understanding of the strategies that can enhance PM offers the potential for cost-effective and widely applicable tools which may support independent living across the adult life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Altered functional connectivity of fusiform gyrus in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a resting state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuPing eCai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual cognition such as face recognition requires a high level of functional interaction between distributed regions of a network. It has been reported that the fusiform gyrus (FG is an important brain area involved in facial cognition; altered connectivity of FG to some other regions may lead to a deficit in visual cognition especially face recognition. However, whether functional connectivity between the FG and other brain regions changes remains unclear during the resting state in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI subjects. Here, we employed a resting state functional MRI (fMRI to examine changes in functional connectivity of left/right FG comparing aMCI patients with age-matched control subjects. Forty-eight aMCI and thirty-eight control subjects from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI were analyzed. We focused on the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the FG and those in all other brain regions. Compared to the control group, we found some discrepant regions in the aMCI group which presented increased or decreased connectivity with the left/right FG including the left precuneus, left lingual gyrus, right thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, left supplementary motor area, left inferior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampus. More importantly, we also obtained that both left and right FG have increased functional connections with the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG and right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC in aMCI patients. That was not a coincidence and might imply that the MOG and ACC also play a critical role in visual cognition, especially face recognition. These findings in a large part supported our hypothesis and provided a new insight in understanding the important subtype of MCI.

  13. Memory deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are not exclusively caused by executive dysfunction: a comparative neuropsychological study of amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Machts, Judith; Bittner, Verena; Kasper, Elisabeth; Schuster, Christina; Prudlo, Johannes; Abdulla, Susanne; Kollewe, Katja; Petri, Susanne; Dengler, Reinhard; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Vielhaber, Stefan; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Bittner, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent work suggests that ALS and frontotemporal dementia can occur together and share at least in part the same underlying pathophysiology. However, it is unclear at present whether memory deficits in ALS stem from a temporal lobe dysfunction, or are rather driven by frontal executive dysfunction. In this study we sought to investigate the nature of memory deficits by analyzing the neuropsychological performance of 40 ALS patients in comparison to 39 amnestic mild cognitive impair...

  14. Functional neuroimaging using F-18 FDG PET/CT in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Sharma, Rajnish; Jaimini, Abhinav; D'Souza, Maria M.; Saw, Sanjiv; Mondal, Anupam; Kushwaha, Suman

    2013-01-01

    People with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimers Dementia (AD) than their cognitively normal peers. Decreased glucose metabolism with 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a downstream marker of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. The risk of developing AD is higher in patients with aMCI who have a pattern of AD related glucose metabolic changes on FDG-PET than those who do not have these changes. We evaluated the utility of visual and 'statistical parametric mapping (SPM)-supported reading' of the FDG-PET scans of patients clinically classified as aMCI for identification of predementia patterns and for prediction of their progression to AD (PTAD). On visual analysis, four scans were classified as high likelihood of PTAD and reveled hypometabolism in AD related territories. Seven patients had hypometabolism in at least one AD related territory and were classified as intermediate likelihood for PTAD. Two patients had hypometabolism in other than AD territories, while 22 patients did not show any significant hypometabolism on their FDG-PET scans and were classified as low likelihood for PTAD. SPM analysis of these cases confirmed the areas hypometabolism in all 13 patients compared to a normal subgroup (P < 0.05). On follow-up of 24 months, all four cases with high likelihood scans had progression of cognitive deficits and were confirmed as AD in the CDM clinic while none of the others showed cognitive decline. A pattern of AD hypometabolism on the FDG-PET study is useful for predicting PTAD. A longer follow-up of patients with hypometabolism in single AD territories is needed to predict their clinical behavior

  15. Relationship between control beliefs, strategy use, and memory performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Rachel L; Kinsella, Glynda J; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Clare, Linda; Ames, David; Saling, Michael M; Storey, Elsdon; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth; Parsons, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    Little information is available regarding the extent of strategy use and factors that affect strategy use in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). This study aimed to compare spontaneous strategy use and beliefs about the controllability of memory between aMCI and healthy older adult (HOA) samples and to explore the relationships between beliefs, strategy use, and memory performance for both groups. The aMCI and HOA groups each composed of 60 individuals matched for age and education. The Memory Controllability Inventory was used to assess control beliefs, and the extent of semantic clustering on a list-learning task provided a measure of spontaneous strategy use. The aMCI group endorsed lower control beliefs and demonstrated poorer semantic clustering and memory performance compared with the HOA group. Although strategy use partially mediated the control beliefs-memory performance relationship for the HOA group, this was not replicated for the aMCI group. Despite the weak relationship between control beliefs and strategy use, and control beliefs and memory performance for the aMCI group, the strong relationship between strategy use and memory performance provides impetus for further research into factors that can be used as a means of enhancing strategy use in interventions for aMCI.

  16. Memorial familiarity remains intact for pictures but not for words in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Lindsay M; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Semantic error patterns on the Boston Naming Test in normal aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease: is there semantic disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo; Cendes, Fernando; Damasceno, Benito Pereira

    2008-11-01

    Naming difficulty is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the nature of this problem is not well established. The authors investigated the presence of semantic breakdown and the pattern of general and semantic errors in patients with mild AD, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and normal controls by examining their spontaneous answers on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and verifying whether they needed or were benefited by semantic and phonemic cues. The errors in spontaneous answers were classified in four mutually exclusive categories (semantic errors, visual paragnosia, phonological errors, and omission errors), and the semantic errors were further subclassified as coordinate, superordinate, and circumlocutory. Patients with aMCI performed normally on the BNT and needed fewer semantic and phonemic cues than patients with mild AD. After semantic cues, subjects with aMCI and control subjects gave more correct answers than patients with mild AD, but after phonemic cues, there was no difference between the three groups, suggesting that the low performance of patients with AD cannot be completely explained by semantic breakdown. Patterns of spontaneous naming errors and subtypes of semantic errors were similar in the three groups, with decreasing error frequency from coordinate to superordinate to circumlocutory subtypes.

  18. Ill-defined problem solving in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: linking episodic memory to effective solution generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Vandermorris, S; Al-Haj, M; Cohen, S; Winocur, G; Moscovitch, M

    2015-02-01

    It is well accepted that the medial temporal lobes (MTL), and the hippocampus specifically, support episodic memory processes. Emerging evidence suggests that these processes also support the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems which are those that do not have a set routine or solution. To test the relation between episodic memory and problem solving, we examined the ability of individuals with single domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition characterized by episodic memory impairment, to solve ill-defined social problems. Participants with aMCI and age and education matched controls were given a battery of tests that included standardized neuropsychological measures, the Autobiographical Interview (Levine et al., 2002) that scored for episodic content in descriptions of past personal events, and a measure of ill-defined social problem solving. Corroborating previous findings, the aMCI group generated less episodically rich narratives when describing past events. Individuals with aMCI also generated less effective solutions when solving ill-defined problems compared to the control participants. Correlation analyses demonstrated that the ability to recall episodic elements from autobiographical memories was positively related to the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems. The ability to solve these ill-defined problems was related to measures of activities of daily living. In conjunction with previous reports, the results of the present study point to a new functional role of episodic memory in ill-defined goal-directed behavior and other non-memory tasks that require flexible thinking. Our findings also have implications for the cognitive and behavioural profile of aMCI by suggesting that the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems is related to sustained functional independence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional Disorganization of Small-World Brain Networks in mild Alzheimer’s Disease and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: An EEG Study using Relative Wavelet Entropy (RWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Frantzidis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroscientific findings have linked Alzheimer’s disease (AD with less efficient information processing and brain network disorganization. However, pathological alterations of the brain networks during the preclinical phase of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI remain largely unknown. The present study aimed at comparing patterns of the detection of functional disorganization in MCI relative to Mild Dementia (MD. Participants consisted of 23 cognitively healthy adults, 17 aMCI and 24 mild AD patients who underwent electroencephalographic (EEG data acquisition during a resting-state condition. Synchronization analysis through the Orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (ODWT, and directional brain network analysis were applied on the EEG data. This computational model was performed for networks that have the same number of edges (N=500, 600, 700, 800 edges across all participants and groups (fixed density values. All groups exhibited a small-world (SW brain architecture. However, we found a significant reduction in the SW brain architecture in both aMCI and MD patients relative to the group of Healthy controls. This functional disorganization was also correlated with the participant’s generic cognitive status. The deterioration of the network’s organization was caused mainly by deficient local information processing as quantified by the mean cluster coefficient value. Functional hubs were identified through the normalized betweenness centrality metric. Analysis of the local characteristics showed relative hub preservation even with statistically significant reduced strength. Compensatory phenomena were also evident through the formation of additional hubs on left frontal and parietal regions. Our results indicate a declined functional network organization even during the prodromal phase. Degeneration is evident even in the preclinical phase and coexists with transient network reorganization due to compensation.

  20. Topologically convergent and divergent structural connectivity patterns between patients with remitted geriatric depression and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feng; Shu, Ni; Yuan, Yonggui; Shi, Yongmei; Yu, Hui; Wu, Di; Wang, Jinhui; Xia, Mingrui; He, Yong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2012-03-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be conceptualized as a disconnection syndrome. Both remitted geriatric depression (RGD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are associated with a high risk for developing AD. However, little is known about the similarities and differences in the topological patterns of white matter (WM) structural networks between RGD and aMCI. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging and deterministic tractography were used to map the human WM networks of 35 RGD patients, 38 aMCI patients, and 30 healthy subjects. Furthermore, graph theoretical methods were applied to investigate the alterations in the global and regional properties of the WM network in these patients. First, both the RGD and aMCI patients showed abnormal global topology in their WM networks (i.e., reduced network strength, reduced global efficiency, and increased absolute path length) compared with the controls, and there were no significant differences in these global network properties between the patient groups. Second, similar deficits of the regional and connectivity characteristics in the WM networks were primarily found in the frontal brain regions of RGD and aMCI patients compared with the controls, while a different nodal efficiency of the posterior cingulate cortex and several prefrontal brain regions were also observed between the patient groups. Together, our study provides direct evidence for the association of a great majority of convergent and a minority of divergent connectivity of WM structural networks between RGD and aMCI patients, which may lead to increasing attention in defining a population at risk of AD.

  1. Altered Neural Activity during Semantic Object Memory Retrieval in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment as Measured by Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Mudar, Raksha A; Pudhiyidath, Athula; Spence, Jeffrey S; Womack, Kyle B; Cullum, C Munro; Tanner, Jeremy A; Eroh, Justin; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in semantic memory in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have been previously reported, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with semantic memory retrieval in 16 individuals with aMCI as compared to 17 normal controls using the Semantic Object Retrieval Task (EEG SORT). In this task, subjects judged whether pairs of words (object features) elicited retrieval of an object (retrieval trials) or not (non-retrieval trials). Behavioral findings revealed that aMCI subjects had lower accuracy scores and marginally longer reaction time compared to controls. We used a multivariate analytical technique (STAT-PCA) to investigate similarities and differences in ERPs between aMCI and control groups. STAT-PCA revealed a left fronto-temporal component starting at around 750 ms post-stimulus in both groups. However, unlike controls, aMCI subjects showed an increase in the frontal-parietal scalp potential that distinguished retrieval from non-retrieval trials between 950 and 1050 ms post-stimulus negatively correlated with the performance on the logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Thus, individuals with aMCI were not only impaired in their behavioral performance on SORT relative to controls, but also displayed alteration in the corresponding ERPs. The altered neural activity in aMCI compared to controls suggests a more sustained and effortful search during object memory retrieval, which may be a potential marker indicating disease processes at the pre-dementia stage.

  2. Quantitative multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy study of brain metabolites in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhong-Xian; Cheng, Xiao-Fang; Xu, Zhi-Feng; Cao, Zhen; Xiao, Ye-Yu; You, Ke-Zeng; Liu, Yan-Yan [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Huo, Shan-Shan [Science College of Shantou University, Department of Physics, Shantou (China); Zeng, Jie-Xia; Chen, Wei [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Wu, Ren-Hua [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Medical College of Shantou University, Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging, Guangdong, Shantou (China)

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate brain metabolic changes in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MVS). Fourteen aMCI patients and fifteen healthy control subjects participated in this experiment. All MR measurements were acquired using a 1.5-T GE scanner. {sup 1}H-MVS point resolved spectroscopy (2D PROBE-CSI PRESS) pulse sequence (TE = 35 ms; TR = 1,500 ms; phase x frequency, 18 x 18) was used for acquiring MRS data. All data were post-processed using Spectroscopy Analysis by General Electric software and linear combination of model (LCModel). The absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myoinositol (MI), creatine (Cr), and the metabolite ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, and NAA/MI were measured bilaterally in the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG), inferior precuneus (Pr), paratrigonal white matter (PWM), dorsal thalamus (DT), and lentiform nucleus (LN). Patients with aMCI displayed significantly lower NAA levels in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01), PWM (p < 0.05), and left inferior Pr (p < 0.05). The metabolite ratio of NAA/MI was decreased in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01) and PWM (p < 0.05) and in the left DT (p < 0.01). NAA/Cr was decreased in the left PCG (p < 0.01), DT (p < 0.05), right PWM (p < 0.05), and LN (p < 0.05). However, MI/Cr was elevated in the right PCG (p < 0.01) and left PWM (p < 0.05). Significantly increased Cho level was also evident in the left PWM (p < 0.05). Our observations of decreased NAA, NAA/Cr, and NAA/MI, in parallel with increased Cho and MI/Cr might be characteristic of aMCI patients. (orig.)

  3. Disrupted Thalamus White Matter Anatomy and Posterior Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Alderson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD and its prodromal state amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI are characterized by widespread abnormalities in inter-areal white matter fiber pathways and parallel disruption of default mode network (DMN resting state functional and effective connectivity. In healthy subjects, DMN and task positive network interaction are modulated by the thalamus suggesting that abnormal task-based DMN deactivation in aMCI may be a consequence of impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry. Thus, this article uses a multimodal approach to assess white matter integrity between thalamus and DMN components and associated effective connectivity in healthy controls (HCs relative to aMCI patients. Twenty-six HC and 20 older adults with aMCI underwent structural, functional and diffusion MRI scanning using the high angular resolution diffusion-weighted acquisition protocol. The DMN of each subject was identified using independent component analysis (ICA and resting state effective connectivity was calculated between thalamus and DMN nodes. White matter integrity changes between thalamus and DMN were investigated with constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD tractography. Significant structural deficits in thalamic white matter projection fibers to posterior DMN components posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and lateral inferior parietal lobe (IPL were identified together with significantly reduced effective connectivity from left thalamus to left IPL. Crucially, impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry correlated with memory performance. Disrupted thalamo-cortical structure was accompanied by significant reductions in IPL and PCC cortico-cortical effective connectivity. No structural deficits were found between DMN nodes. Abnormal posterior DMN activity may be driven by changes in thalamic white matter connectivity; a view supported by the close anatomical and functional association of thalamic nuclei effected by AD pathology and

  4. MR diffusion tensor imaging voxel-based analysis of whole brain white matter in patients with amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yadi; Feng Xiaoyuan; He Huijin; Ding Ding; Tang Weijun; Zhao Qianhua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) using voxel-based analysis (VBA), and investigate the relationship between WM abnormalities and gray matter (GM) atrophy. Methods: Thirty-three cases with aMCI, 32 cases with mild AD and 31 normal aging volunteers as control subjects were scanned on a 3.0 T MR system using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled (3DSPGR) sequences. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and morphological images were preprocessed by SPM5 and voxel-based comparisons between the 2 patient groups and the control group were performed by t test. Results: Relative to the control group, patients with aMCI showed significantly reduced FA value in bilateral frontal, temporal and left occipital WM, left anterior part of cingulum, left inferior parietal lobule, and the WM adjacent to the triangular part of the right lateral ventricle (k ≥ 20 voxels). In mild AD, significantly reduced FA value was found in bilateral hippocampal, inferior parietal lobular, frontal, temporal, and occipital WM, bilateral corpus callosum, anterior part of cingulums, the WM adjacent to the triangular part of the bilateral lateral ventricles, left temporal stem, left thalamus, right precuneus (k ≥ 20 voxels). Significantly reduced GM volume was found in left hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, lingual gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, bilateral insulae and middle temporal gyri in aMCI group when compared with control group (k ≥ 50 voxels). In mild AD, significantly reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, parahippocampal gyri, amygdalae, thalami, temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital cortex (k ≥ 50 voxels). The pattern of areas with reduced FA differs from that of the GM volumetric reduction. No areas with significantly reduced FA was detected in aMCI compared with mild AD. There was no significant

  5. The effects of healthy aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease on recollection, familiarity and false recognition, estimated by an associative process-dissociation recognition procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarque, Alfonso; Meléndez, Juan C; Sales, Alicia; Mayordomo, Teresa; Satorres, Encar; Escudero, Joaquín; Algarabel, Salvador

    2016-10-01

    Given the uneven experimental results in the literature regarding whether or not familiarity declines with healthy aging and cognitive impairment, we compare four samples (healthy young people, healthy older people, older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment - aMCI -, and older people with Alzheimer's disease - AD -) on an associative recognition task, which, following the logic of the process-dissociation procedure, allowed us to obtain corrected estimates of recollection, familiarity and false recognition. The results show that familiarity does not decline with healthy aging, but it does with cognitive impairment, whereas false recognition increases with healthy aging, but declines significantly with cognitive impairment. These results support the idea that the deficits detected in recollection, familiarity, or false recognition in older people could be used as early prodromal markers of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive and Neural Effects of Vision-Based Speed-of-Processing Training in Older Adults with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Heffner, Kathi L; Ren, Ping; Tivarus, Madalina E; Brasch, Judith; Chen, Ding-Geng; Mapstone, Mark; Porsteinsson, Anton P; Tadin, Duje

    2016-06-01

    To examine the cognitive and neural effects of vision-based speed-of-processing (VSOP) training in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and contrast those effects with an active control (mental leisure activities (MLA)). Randomized single-blind controlled pilot trial. Academic medical center. Individuals with aMCI (N = 21). Six-week computerized VSOP training. Multiple cognitive processing measures, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and two resting state neural networks regulating cognitive processing: central executive network (CEN) and default mode network (DMN). VSOP training led to significantly greater improvements in trained (processing speed and attention: F1,19  = 6.61, partial η(2)  = 0.26, P = .02) and untrained (working memory: F1,19  = 7.33, partial η(2)  = 0.28, P = .01; IADLs: F1,19  = 5.16, partial η(2)  = 0.21, P = .03) cognitive domains than MLA and protective maintenance in DMN (F1, 9  = 14.63, partial η(2)  = 0.62, P = .004). VSOP training, but not MLA, resulted in a significant improvement in CEN connectivity (Z = -2.37, P = .02). Target and transfer effects of VSOP training were identified, and links between VSOP training and two neural networks associated with aMCI were found. These findings highlight the potential of VSOP training to slow cognitive decline in individuals with aMCI. Further delineation of mechanisms underlying VSOP-induced plasticity is necessary to understand in which populations and under what conditions such training may be most effective. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Association between fully automated MRI-based volumetry of different brain regions and neuropsychological test performance in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Sönke; Buchert, Ralph; Spies, Lothar; Eichenlaub, Martin; Lehmbeck, Jan T; Jahn, Holger

    2013-06-01

    Fully automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetry may serve as biomarker for the diagnosis in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. We aimed at investigating the relation between fully automated MRI-based volumetric measures and neuropsychological test performance in amnestic MCI and patients with mild dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. In order to assess a possible prognostic value of fully automated MRI-based volumetry for future cognitive performance, the rate of change of neuropsychological test performance over time was also tested for its correlation with fully automated MRI-based volumetry at baseline. In 50 subjects, 18 with amnestic MCI, 21 with mild AD, and 11 controls, neuropsychological testing and T1-weighted MRI were performed at baseline and at a mean follow-up interval of 2.1 ± 0.5 years (n = 19). Fully automated MRI volumetry of the grey matter volume (GMV) was performed using a combined stereotactic normalisation and segmentation approach as provided by SPM8 and a set of pre-defined binary lobe masks. Left and right hippocampus masks were derived from probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Volumes of the inner and outer liquor space were also determined automatically from the MRI. Pearson's test was used for the correlation analyses. Left hippocampal GMV was significantly correlated with performance in memory tasks, and left temporal GMV was related to performance in language tasks. Bilateral frontal, parietal and occipital GMVs were correlated to performance in neuropsychological tests comprising multiple domains. Rate of GMV change in the left hippocampus was correlated with decline of performance in the Boston Naming Test (BNT), Mini-Mental Status Examination, and trail making test B (TMT-B). The decrease of BNT and TMT-A performance over time correlated with the loss of grey matter in multiple brain regions. We conclude that fully automated MRI

  8. Level of recall, retrieval speed, and variability on the Cued-Recall Retrieval Speed Task (CRRST) in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Ramratan, Wendy S; Rabin, Laura A; Wang, Cuiling; Zimmerman, Molly E; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Buschke, Herman

    2012-03-01

    Individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) show deficits on traditional episodic memory tasks and reductions in speed of performance on reaction time tasks. We present results on a novel task, the Cued-Recall Retrieval Speed Task (CRRST), designed to simultaneously measure level and speed of retrieval. A total of 390 older adults (mean age, 80.2 years), learned 16 words based on corresponding categorical cues. In the retrieval phase, we measured accuracy (% correct) and retrieval speed/reaction time (RT; time from cue presentation to voice onset of a correct response) across 6 trials. Compared to healthy elderly adults (HEA, n = 303), those with aMCI (n = 87) exhibited poorer performance in retrieval speed (difference = -0.13; p cued-learning and processing speed variability may facilitate early detection of dementia in at-risk older adults.

  9. Performance of Hippocampus Volumetry with FSL-FIRST for Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Dementia in at Risk Subjects with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Suppa, Per; Hampel, Harald; Kepp, Timo; Lange, Catharina; Spies, Lothar; Fiebach, Jochen B; Dubois, Bruno; Buchert, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    MRI-based hippocampus volume, a core feasible biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is not yet widely used in clinical patient care, partly due to lack of validation of software tools for hippocampal volumetry that are compatible with routine workflow. Here, we evaluate fully-automated and computationally efficient hippocampal volumetry with FSL-FIRST for prediction of AD dementia (ADD) in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from phase 1 of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of FSL-FIRST hippocampal volume (corrected for head size and age) revealed an area under the curve of 0.79, 0.70, and 0.70 for prediction of aMCI-to-ADD conversion within 12, 24, or 36 months, respectively. Thus, FSL-FIRST provides about the same power for prediction of progression to ADD in aMCI as other volumetry methods.

  10. Impairment in Proverb Interpretation as an Executive Function Deficit in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Thomas Leyhe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Proverb interpretation is assumed to reflect executive functions. We hypothesized that proverb interpretation is impaired in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI diagnosed as single-domain impairment by common neuropsychological testing. Methods: We compared performance in a proverb interpretation test in single-domain aMCI patients and patients with early Alzheimer’s disease (EAD. Results: The groups with aMCI and EAD performed significantly worse than healthy controls. Both patient groups gave concrete answers with a similar frequency. However, patients with EAD tended to give senseless answers more frequently. Conclusions: Our data suggest that in patients diagnosed as single-domain aMCI, deterioration of executive functions is detectable with subtle and appropriate neuropsychological testing. Implementation of these procedures may improve the early prediction of AD.

  11. Tracking Cognitive Decline in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early-Stage Alzheimer Dementia: Mini-Mental State Examination versus Neuropsychological Battery.

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    Kim, Joonho; Na, Han Kyu; Byun, Justin; Shin, Jiwon; Kim, Sungsoo; Lee, Byung Hwa; Na, Duk L

    2017-01-01

    Although the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB), and neuropsychological batteries are widely used for evaluating cognitive function, it remains elusive which instrument best reflects the longitudinal disease progression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and probable Alzheimer disease (AD). We investigated whether changes in these three instruments over time correlate with loss of cortical gray matter volume (cGMV). We retrospectively investigated 204 patients (aMCI, n = 114; AD, n = 90) who had undergone MMSE, CDR-SOB, the dementia version of the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB-D), and 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images at least twice. We investigated the partial correlation between annual decline in test scores and percent change of cGMV. In aMCI patients, changes in the SNSB-D total score (r = 0.340, p < 0.001) and CDR-SOB (r = 0.222, p = 0.020), but not MMSE, showed a correlation with cGMV loss, with the SNSB-D total score showing the strongest correlation. In AD patients, decline in all three test scores correlated significantly with cGMV loss, with MMSE exhibiting the strongest correlation (r = 0.464, p < 0.001). In aMCI patients, neuropsychological battery, though time-consuming, was the most adequate tool in tracking disease progression. In AD patients, however, MMSE may be the most effective longitudinal monitoring tool when considering cost-effectiveness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Efficacy and Safety of an Herbal Therapy in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 24-Week Randomized Phase III Trial

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    Jinzhou Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In the 24-week randomized, double-blind, double-placebo, parallel-controlled trial, we aimed to test the effects of herbal therapy with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods. A total of 324 patients with aMCI entered a 2-week placebo run-in period followed by 24 weeks’ treatment of either (a herbal capsule (5 shenwu capsules/administration, 3 times/day and placebo identical to donepezil tablets (n=216 or (b donepezil (5 mg/day and placebo identical to herbal capsule (n=108. Results. Herbal therapy showed a significant improvement on the primary efficacy measure, measured by Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog, and showed a mean decrease from baseline of 4.23 points at the endpoint, without a significant difference from the donepezil group. Secondary efficacy measurement of the Logical Memory II Delayed Story Recall subtest (DSR showed modest improvement in those taking herbal capsule compared to baseline, and there was no significant difference from donepezil group. The frequency of adverse events was much less in the herbal therapy group than the donepezil. Conclusion. Herbal therapy demonstrated a significant improvement in cognition and memory, which were similar to the donepezil in patients with aMCI. Herbal therapy was safe and well tolerated. Trial Registration. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT01451749.

  13. Short-term delayed recall of auditory verbal learning test is equivalent to long-term delayed recall for identifying amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Qianhua Zhao

    Full Text Available Delayed recall of words in a verbal learning test is a sensitive measure for the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and early Alzheimer's disease (AD. The relative validity of different retention intervals of delayed recall has not been well characterized. Using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Huashan version, we compared the differentiating value of short-term delayed recall (AVL-SR, that is, a 3- to 5-minute delay time and long-term delayed recall (AVL-LR, that is, a 20-minute delay time in distinguishing patients with aMCI (n = 897 and mild AD (n = 530 from the healthy elderly (n = 1215. In patients with aMCI, the correlation between AVL-SR and AVL-LR was very high (r = 0.94, and the difference between the two indicators was less than 0.5 points. There was no difference between AVL-SR and AVL-LR in the frequency of zero scores. In the receiver operating characteristic curves analysis, although the area under the curve (AUC of AVL-SR and AVL-LR for diagnosing aMCI was significantly different, the cut-off scores of the two indicators were identical. In the subgroup of ages 80 to 89, the AUC of the two indicators showed no significant difference. Therefore, we concluded that AVL-SR could substitute for AVL-LR in identifying aMCI, especially for the oldest patients.

  14. Arbitrary and semantic associations in subjective memory impairment and amnestic mild cognitive impairment among Taiwanese individuals: A cross-sectional study

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    Hsin-Te Chang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Researchers have recently proposed a preclinical stage of dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT, referred to as subjective memory impairment (SMI, with the aim of developing methods for the early detection of DAT and subsequent intervention. It has been proposed that the objective memory functions of individuals with SMI are normal; however, arbitrary and semantic associations are both used to describe the processes of memory. No previous studies have investigated these processes among individuals with SMI. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis was used to compare the memory function of individuals with SMI, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, or DAT. One hundred and eighty-three participants were recruited from the Memory Clinic of National Taiwan University Hospital and communities in northern Taiwan, including individuals with no memory complaints (HC, n = 30 and individuals with SMI (n = 61, aMCI-single domain (n = 24, aMCI-multiple domain (n = 33, or DAT (n = 35. The Word Sequence Learning Test (WSLT was used to assess the formation of arbitrary associations and the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition was used to assess the formation of semantic associations. Results: Compared to the HC group, the SMI group performed poorly only on the WSLT, whereas the other groups performed poorly on both of the memory tasks. This study demonstrated that SMI individuals tend to perform poorly in the formation of arbitrary associations. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that tasks requiring arbitrary associations may provide greater sensitivity in the detection cognitive changes associated with preclinical DAT. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, Mild cognitive impairment, Neuropsychology, Dementia

  15. Memory deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are not exclusively caused by executive dysfunction: a comparative neuropsychological study of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Machts, Judith; Bittner, Verena; Kasper, Elisabeth; Schuster, Christina; Prudlo, Johannes; Abdulla, Susanne; Kollewe, Katja; Petri, Susanne; Dengler, Reinhard; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Vielhaber, Stefan; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Bittner, Daniel M

    2014-06-30

    Recent work suggests that ALS and frontotemporal dementia can occur together and share at least in part the same underlying pathophysiology. However, it is unclear at present whether memory deficits in ALS stem from a temporal lobe dysfunction, or are rather driven by frontal executive dysfunction. In this study we sought to investigate the nature of memory deficits by analyzing the neuropsychological performance of 40 ALS patients in comparison to 39 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients and 40 healthy controls (HC). The neuropsychological battery tested for impairment in executive functions, as well as memory and visuo-spatial skills, the results of which were compared across study groups. In addition, we calculated composite scores for memory (learning, recall, recognition) and executive functions (verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, working memory). We hypothesized that the nature of memory impairment in ALS will be different from those exhibited by aMCI patients. Patient groups exhibited significant differences in their type of memory deficit, with the ALS group showing impairment only in recognition, whereas aMCI patients showed short and delayed recall performance deficits as well as reduced short-term capacity. Regression analysis revealed a significant impact of executive function on memory performance exclusively for the ALS group, accounting for one fifth of their memory performance. Interestingly, merging all sub scores into a single memory and an executive function score obscured these differences. The presented results indicate that the interpretation of neuropsychological scores needs to take the distinct cognitive profiles in ALS and aMCI into consideration. Importantly, the observed memory deficits in ALS were distinctly different from those observed in aMCI and can be explained only to some extent in the context of comorbid (coexisting) executive dysfunction. These findings highlight the qualitative differences in temporal lobe

  16. Using virtual reality to distinguish subjects with multiple- but not single-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly subjects.

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    Mohammadi, Alireza; Kargar, Mahmoud; Hesami, Ehsan

    2018-03-01

    Spatial disorientation is a hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Our aim was to use virtual reality to determine the allocentric and egocentric memory deficits of subjects with single-domain aMCI (aMCIsd) and multiple-domain aMCI (aMCImd). For this purpose, we introduced an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) to distinguish these deficits in mild Alzheimer's disease (miAD), aMCIsd, and aMCImd. The VRNT performance of 110 subjects, including 20 with miAD, 30 with pure aMCIsd, 30 with pure aMCImd, and 30 cognitively normal controls was compared. Our newly developed VRNT consists of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and virtual maze (egocentric memory). Verbal and visuospatial memory impairments were also examined with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, respectively. We found that miAD and aMCImd subjects were impaired in both allocentric and egocentric memory, but aMCIsd subjects performed similarly to the normal controls on both tasks. The miAD, aMCImd, and aMCIsd subjects performed worse on finding the target or required more time in the virtual environment than the aMCImd, aMCIsd, and normal controls, respectively. Our findings indicated the aMCImd and miAD subjects, as well as the aMCIsd subjects, were more impaired in egocentric orientation than allocentric orientation. We concluded that VRNT can distinguish aMCImd subjects, but not aMCIsd subjects, from normal elderly subjects. The VRNT, along with the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, can be used as a valid diagnostic tool for properly distinguishing different forms of aMCI. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  17. Semantic memory impairment for biological and man-made objects in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or late-life depression.

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    Callahan, Brandy L; Joubert, Sven; Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Macoir, Joël; Belleville, Sylvie; Rousseau, François; Bouchard, Rémi W; Verret, Louis; Hudon, Carol

    2015-06-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and late-life depression (LLD) both increase the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD). Very little is known about the similarities and differences between these syndromes. The present study addresses this issue by examining the nature of semantic memory impairment (more precisely, object-based knowledge) in patients at risk of developing AD. Participants were 17 elderly patients with aMCI, 18 patients with aMCI plus depressive symptoms (aMCI/D+), 15 patients with LLD, and 29 healthy controls. All participants were aged 55 years or older and were administered a semantic battery designed to assess semantic knowledge for 16 biological and 16 man-made items. Overall performance of aMCI/D+ participants was significantly worse than the 3 other groups, and performance for questions assessing knowledge for biological items was poorer than for questions relating to man-made items. This study is the first to show that aMCI/D+ is associated with object-based semantic memory impairment. These results support the view that semantic deficits in aMCI are associated with concomitant depressive symptoms. However, depressive symptoms alone do not account exclusively for semantic impairment, since patients with LLD showed no semantic memory deficit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Effects of rivastigmine on visual attention in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A serial functional MRI activation pilot-study.

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    Bokde, Arun L W; Cavedo, Enrica; Lopez-Bayo, Patricia; Lista, Simone; Meindl, Thomas; Born, Christine; Galluzzi, Samantha; Faltraco, Frank; Dubois, Bruno; Teipel, Stefan J; Reiser, Maximilian; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hampel, Harald

    2016-03-30

    A pilot study to investigate the effects of rivastigmine on the brain activation pattern due to visual attention tasks in a group of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired patients (aMCI). The design was an initial three-month double blind period with a rivastigmine and placebo arms, followed by a nine-month open-label period. All patients underwent serial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at baseline, and after three and six months of follow-up. Primary endpoint was the effect of rivastigmine on functional brain changes during visual attention (face and location matching) tasks. There were five in the rivastigmine arm and two in the placebo arm. The face matching task showed higher activation of visual areas after three months of treatment but no differences compared to baseline at six months. The location matching task showed a higher activation along the dorsal visual pathway at both three and six months follow ups. Treatment with rivastigmine demonstrates a significant effect on brain activation of the dorsal visual pathway during a location matching task in patients with aMCI. Our data support the potential use of task fMRI to map specific treatment effects of cholinergic drugs during prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity.

  20. Association of the C47T Polymorphism in SOD2 with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease in Carriers of the APOEε4 Allele

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    David Gamarra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays an important part in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, the prodromal phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Recent evidence shows that polymorphisms in the SOD2 gene affect the elimination of the reactive oxygen species (ROS generated in mitochondria. The aim of this study was to determine whether the functional rs4880 SNP in the SOD2 gene is a risk factor associated with aMCI and sporadic AD. 216 subjects with aMCI, 355 with AD, and 245 controls have been studied. The SNP rs4880 of the SOD2 gene was genotyped by RT-PCR and the APOE genotype was determined by PCR and RFLPs. Different multinomial logistic regression models were used to determine the risk levels for aMCI and AD. Although the T allele of the SOD2 rs4880 SNP gene (rs4880-T is not an independent risk for aMCI or AD, this allele increases the risk to aMCI patients carrying at least one APOEε4 allele. Moreover, rs4880-T allele and APOEε4 allele combination has been found to produce an increased risk for AD compared to aMCI reference patients. These results suggest that APOEε4 and rs4880-T genotype may be a risk for aMCI and a predictor of progression from aMCI to AD.

  1. Assessment of Functional Characteristics of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease Using Various Methods of Resting-State FMRI Analysis

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    Jungho Cha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS FMRI has been widely used to analyze functional alterations in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Although many clinical studies of aMCI and AD patients using RS FMRI have been undertaken, conducting a meta-analysis has not been easy because of seed selection bias by the investigators. The purpose of our study was to investigate the functional differences in aMCI and AD patients compared with healthy subjects in a meta-analysis. Thus, a multimethod approach using regional homogeneity, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, fractional ALFF (fALFF, and global brain connectivity was used to investigate differences between three groups based on previously published data. According to the choice of RS FMRI approach used, the patterns of functional alteration were slightly different. Nevertheless, patients with aMCI and AD displayed consistently decreased functional characteristics with all approaches. All approaches showed that the functional characteristics in the left parahippocampal gyrus were decreased in AD patients compared with healthy subjects. Although some regions were slightly different according to the different RS FMRI approaches, patients with aMCI and AD showed a consistent pattern of decreased functional characteristics with all approaches.

  2. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

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    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. The contribution of acetylcholine and dopamine to subprocesses of visual working memory--what patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Parkinson׳s disease can tell us.

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    Blatt, Joana; Vellage, Anne; Baier, Bernhard; Müller, Notger G

    2014-08-01

    Attentional selection, i.e. filtering out of irrelevant sensory input and information storage are two crucial components of working memory (WM). It has been proposed that the two processes are mediated by different neurotransmitters, namely acetylcholine for attentional selection and dopamine for memory storage. However, this hypothesis has been challenged by others, who for example linked a lack in dopamine levels in the brain to filtering deficits. Here we tested the above mentioned hypothesis in two patient cohorts which either served as a proxy for a cholinergic or a dopaminergic deficit. The first group comprised 18 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), the second 22 patients with Parkinson׳s disease (PD). The two groups did not differ regarding their overall cognitive abilities. Both patient groups as well as a control group without neurological deficits (n=25) performed a visuo-spatial working memory task in which both the necessity to filter out irrelevant information and memory load, i.e. the number of items to be held in memory, were manipulated. In accordance with the primary hypothesis, aMCI patients displayed problems with filtering, i.e., were especially impaired when the task required ignoring distracting stimuli. PD patients on the other hand showed difficulties when memory load was increased suggesting that they mainly suffered from a storage deficit. In sum, this study underlines how the investigation of neurologic patients with a presumed neurotransmitter deficit can aid to clarify these neurotransmitters׳ contribution to specific cognitive functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rule induction performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia: examining the role of simple and biconditional rule learning processes.

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    Oosterman, Joukje M; Heringa, Sophie M; Kessels, Roy P C; Biessels, Geert Jan; Koek, Huiberdina L; Maes, Joseph H R; van den Berg, Esther

    2017-04-01

    Rule induction tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test require executive control processes, but also the learning and memorization of simple stimulus-response rules. In this study, we examined the contribution of diminished learning and memorization of simple rules to complex rule induction test performance in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Twenty-six aMCI patients, 39 AD patients, and 32 control participants were included. A task was used in which the memory load and the complexity of the rules were independently manipulated. This task consisted of three conditions: a simple two-rule learning condition (Condition 1), a simple four-rule learning condition (inducing an increase in memory load, Condition 2), and a complex biconditional four-rule learning condition-inducing an increase in complexity and, hence, executive control load (Condition 3). Performance of AD patients declined disproportionately when the number of simple rules that had to be memorized increased (from Condition 1 to 2). An additional increment in complexity (from Condition 2 to 3) did not, however, disproportionately affect performance of the patients. Performance of the aMCI patients did not differ from that of the control participants. In the patient group, correlation analysis showed that memory performance correlated with Condition 1 performance, whereas executive task performance correlated with Condition 2 performance. These results indicate that the reduced learning and memorization of underlying task rules explains a significant part of the diminished complex rule induction performance commonly reported in AD, although results from the correlation analysis suggest involvement of executive control functions as well. Taken together, these findings suggest that care is needed when interpreting rule induction task performance in terms of executive function deficits in these patients.

  5. Using virtual reality to characterize episodic memory profiles in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: influence of active and passive encoding.

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    Plancher, G; Tirard, A; Gyselinck, V; Nicolas, S; Piolino, P

    2012-04-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments of episodic memory bear little similarity to the events that patients actually experience as memories in daily life. The first aim of this study was to use a virtual environment to characterize episodic memory profiles in an ecological fashion, which includes memory for central and perceptual details, spatiotemporal contextual elements, and binding. This study included subjects from three different populations: healthy older adults, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and patients with early to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Second, we sought to determine whether environmental factors that can affect encoding (active vs. passive exploration) influence memory performance in pathological aging. Third, we benchmarked the results of our virtual reality episodic memory test against a classical memory test and a subjective daily memory complaint scale. Here, the participants were successively immersed in two virtual environments; the first, as the driver of a virtual car (active exploration) and the second, as the passenger of that car (passive exploration). Subjects were instructed to encode all elements of the environment as well as the associated spatiotemporal contexts. Following each immersion, we assessed the patient's recall and recognition of central information (i.e., the elements of the environment), contextual information (i.e., temporal, egocentric and allocentric spatial information) and lastly, the quality of binding. We found that the AD patients' performances were inferior to that of the aMCI and even more to that of the healthy aged groups, in line with the progression of hippocampal atrophy reported in the literature. Spatial allocentric memory assessments were found to be particularly useful for distinguishing aMCI patients from healthy older adults. Active exploration yielded enhanced recall of central and allocentric spatial information, as well as binding in all groups. This led a

  6. Increased Amplitude of the P3a ERP Component as a Neurocognitive Marker for Differentiating Amnestic Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Kenia S. Correa-Jaraba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The event-related potential (ERP technique has been shown to be useful for evaluating changes in brain electrical activity associated with different cognitive processes, particularly in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Longitudinal studies have shown that a high proportion of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI go on to develop AD. aMCI is divided into two subtypes according to the presence of memory impairment only (single-domain aMCI: sdaMCI or impairment of memory and other cognitive domains (multi-domain aMCI: mdaMCI. The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of sdaMCI and mdaMCI on the P3a ERP component associated with the involuntary orientation of attention toward unattended infrequent novel auditory stimuli. Participants performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task, in which they were asked to ignore the auditory stimuli (standard, deviant, and novel and to attend to the visual stimuli (responding to some of them: Go stimuli. P3a was identified in the Novel minus Standard difference waveforms, and reaction times (RTs and hits (in response to Go stimuli were also analyzed. Participants were classified into three groups: Control, 20 adults (mean age (M: 65.8 years; sdaMCI, 19 adults (M: 67 years; and mdaMCI, 11 adults (M: 71 years. In all groups, the RTs were significantly longer when Go stimuli were preceded by novel (relative to standard auditory stimuli, suggesting a distraction effect triggered by novel stimuli; mdaMCI participants made significantly fewer hits than control and sdaMCI participants. P3a comprised two consecutive phases in all groups: early-P3a (e-P3a, which may reflect the orienting response toward the irrelevant stimuli, and late-P3a (l-P3a, which may be a correlate of subsequent evaluation of these stimuli. The e-P3a amplitude was significantly larger in mdaMCI than in sdaMCI participants, and the l-P3a amplitude was significantly larger in mdaMCI than in sdaMCI and Control

  7. Response of the medial temporal lobe network in amnestic mild cognitive impairment to therapeutic intervention assessed by fMRI and memory task performance

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    Arnold Bakker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI have detected hyperactivity in the hippocampus during task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Such elevated activation has been localized to the hippocampal dentate gyrus/CA3 (DG/CA3 during performance of a task designed to detect the computational contributions of those hippocampal circuits to episodic memory. The current investigation was conducted to test the hypothesis that greater hippocampal activation in aMCI represents a dysfunctional shift in the normal computational balance of the DG/CA3 regions, augmenting CA3-driven pattern completion at the expense of pattern separation mediated by the dentate gyrus. We tested this hypothesis using an intervention based on animal research demonstrating a beneficial effect on cognition by reducing excess hippocampal neural activity with low doses of the atypical anti-epileptic levetiracetam. In a within-subject design we assessed the effects of levetiracetam in three cohorts of aMCI participants, each receiving a different dose of levetiracetam. Elevated activation in the DG/CA3 region, together with impaired task performance, was detected in each aMCI cohort relative to an aged control group. We observed significant improvement in memory task performance under drug treatment relative to placebo in the aMCI cohorts at the 62.5 and 125 mg BID doses of levetiracetam. Drug treatment in those cohorts increased accuracy dependent on pattern separation processes and reduced errors attributable to an over-riding effect of pattern completion while normalizing fMRI activation in the DG/CA3 and entorhinal cortex. Similar to findings in animal studies, higher dosing at 250 mg BID had no significant benefit on either task performance or fMRI activation. Consistent with predictions based on the computational functions of the DG/CA3 elucidated in basic animal research, these data support a dysfunctional encoding mechanism

  8. Lexical semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease Memória léxico-semântica no comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico e doença de Alzheimer leve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio L.F. Balthazar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study lexical semantic memory in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and normal controls. METHOD: Fifteen mild AD, 15 aMCI, and 15 normal control subjects were included. Diagnosis of AD was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, and that of aMCI, on the criteria of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, using CDR 0.5 for aMCI and CDR 1 for mild AD. All subjects underwent semantic memory tests (Boston Naming-BNT, CAMCOG Similarities item, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, neuropsychological tests (counterproofs, and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Data analysis used Mann-Whitney test for intergroup comparisons and Pearson's coefficient for correlations between memory tests and counterproofs (statistical significance level was pOBJETIVO: Estudar a memória léxico-semântica no comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico (aCCL, doença de Alzheimer (DA leve e controles normais. MÉTODO: Incluímos 15 pacientes com DA leve, 15 com aCCL e 15 controles normais, usando os critérios DSM-IV, NINCDS-ADRDA e CDR 1 para DA, e os do International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, e CDR 0,5 para aCCL. Todos os sujeitos passaram por testes de memória semântica (Teste de nomeação de Boston - TNB, item de Similaridades do CAMCOG, teste de aprendizado auditivo-verbal de Rey (TAAVR, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM, testes neuropsicológicos (contraprovas e Escala Cornell para Depressão em Demência. A análise dos dados usou o teste de Mann-Whitney para comparações entre os grupos e o coeficiente de Pearson para correlação entre testes e contraprovas (nível de significância p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes com aCCL foram semelhantes aos controles no TNB e Similaridades, mas inferiores no MEEM e TAAVR. Pacientes com DA leve tiveram performance inferior à de sujeitos com aCCL e controles em todos os

  9. The visual cognitive network, but not the visual sensory network, is affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a study of brain oscillatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yener, Görsev G; Emek-Savaş, Derya Durusu; Güntekin, Bahar; Başar, Erol

    2014-10-17

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is considered in many as prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Event-related oscillations (ERO) reflect cognitive responses of brain whereas sensory-evoked oscillations (SEO) inform about sensory responses. For this study, we compared visual SEO and ERO responses in MCI to explore brain dynamics (BACKGROUND). Forty-three patients with MCI (mean age=74.0 year) and 41 age- and education-matched healthy-elderly controls (HC) (mean age=71.1 year) participated in the study. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes for each subject's averaged delta response (0.5-3.0 Hz) were measured from two conditions (simple visual stimulation and classical visual oddball paradigm target stimulation) (METHOD). Overall, amplitudes of target ERO responses were higher than SEO amplitudes. The preferential location for maximum amplitude values was frontal lobe for ERO and occipital lobe for SEO. The ANOVA for delta responses showed significant results for the group Xparadigm. Post-hoc tests indicated that (1) the difference between groups were significant for target delta responses, but not for SEO, (2) ERO elicited higher responses for HC than MCI patients, and (3) females had higher target ERO than males and this difference was pronounced in the control group (RESULTS). Overall, cognitive responses display almost double the amplitudes of sensory responses over frontal regions. The topography of oscillatory responses differs depending on stimuli: visualsensory responses are highest over occipitals and -cognitive responses over frontal regions. A group effect is observed in MCI indicating that visual sensory and cognitive circuits behave differently indicating preserved visual sensory responses, but decreased cognitive responses (CONCLUSION). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A pilot study on utility of Malayalam version of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination in detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A critical insight into utility of learning and recall measures

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    Ramshekhar Menon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This pilot study sought to determine whether the Malayalam adaptation of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination (M-ACE can effectively identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI and the impact of measures of learning and free recall. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 23 patients with a-MCI aged between 55-80 years diagnosed as per current criteria and 23 group matched cognitively normal healthy controls (CNHC were studied. The measures of acquisition and delayed recall were the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III (verbal and visual subsets and Delayed Matching-to-sample Test (DMS-48. Test scores of M-ACE registration and recall scores were included. To examine the differences in test performances between the groups, we compared the number of subjects with test scores less than 1.5 standard deviation (SD of the control scores. Comparisons between a-MCI and controls were drawn using Fisher′s exact test and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: M-ACE registration component ascertained on a 24-point scale failed to demonstrate any differences between a-MCI and controls (P = 0.665 as opposed to recall judged on a cumulative 10-point scale (P = 0.001. Significant differences were noted in RAVLT list learning (P < 0.001 and list recall (P = 0.003, WMS-III paragraph learning (P <0.001 and recall (P = 0.007, visual learning (P = 0.004 and recall (P = 0.001. Conclusions: M-ACE recall scores are an effective screening tool to identify patients with suspected a-MCI. Both word list and paragraph learning and recall components have been found to be sensitive to concretely identify a-MCI and impairment on at least 2 tests should be considered in the diagnostic criteria of MCI rather than rely on a single screening battery.

  11. A pilot study on utility of Malayalam version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination in detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A critical insight into utility of learning and recall measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramshekhar; Lekha, Vs; Justus, Sunitha; Sarma, P Sankara; Mathuranath, Ps

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study sought to determine whether the Malayalam adaptation of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (M-ACE) can effectively identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) and the impact of measures of learning and free recall. A cohort of 23 patients with a-MCI aged between 55-80 years diagnosed as per current criteria and 23 group matched cognitively normal healthy controls (CNHC) were studied. The measures of acquisition and delayed recall were the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS)-III (verbal and visual subsets) and Delayed Matching-to-sample Test (DMS)-48. Test scores of M-ACE registration and recall scores were included. To examine the differences in test performances between the groups, we compared the number of subjects with test scores less than 1.5 standard deviation (SD) of the control scores. Comparisons between a-MCI and controls were drawn using Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U tests. M-ACE registration component ascertained on a 24-point scale failed to demonstrate any differences between a-MCI and controls (P = 0.665) as opposed to recall judged on a cumulative 10-point scale (P = 0.001). Significant differences were noted in RAVLT list learning (P < 0.001) and list recall (P = 0.003), WMS-III paragraph learning (P <0.001) and recall (P = 0.007), visual learning (P = 0.004) and recall (P = 0.001). M-ACE recall scores are an effective screening tool to identify patients with suspected a-MCI. Both word list and paragraph learning and recall components have been found to be sensitive to concretely identify a-MCI and impairment on at least 2 tests should be considered in the diagnostic criteria of MCI rather than rely on a single screening battery.

  12. Cognitive and functional neuroimaging correlate for anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Gade, Anders

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD).......To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  13. [Discriminatory validity and association of the mini-mental test (MMSE) and the memory alteration test (M@T) with a neuropsychological battery in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, L; Bosch, B; Valls-Pedret, C; Caprile, C; Sánchez-Valle Díaz, R; Molinuevo, J L

    To establish the discriminatory validity of the mini-mental test (MMSE) and the memory alteration test (M@T) for the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), and also to study the association between the results obtained in screening tests, a neuropsychological battery and a functional questionnaire in healthy persons and in patients with aMCI and AD. We evaluated 27 normal controls, 27 patients with aMCI and 35 patients with AD using the MMSE and a memory screening test, the M@T, a neuropsychological battery and a questionnaire on functional activities of daily living. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relations between the scores on the M@T and the MMSE and the neuropsychological tests. The area below the curve, the sensitivity and the specificity were calculated for the screening tests. In patients with aMCI, the scores on the M@T and the MMSE were strongly associated with the performance in the episodic memory tests in frontal tests and with the scores on the functional questionnaire, but not with tests that evaluated praxias and perceptive functions. In patients with AD, the scores on the M@T and the MMSE were associated with results in semantic memory, language, executive functions and praxias, but not with perceptive tests and functional questionnaires. In patients with aMCI and AD, the association between MMSE and M@T only correlate with some cognitive functions, without there being any association with other cognitive functions. Therefore, screening tests cannot be used as the only instrument for evaluating the cognitive status in patients with suspected dementia.

  14. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  15. Positive Effects of Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C.; Chambon, C.; Michel, B. F.; Paban, V.; Alescio-Lautier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high risk for individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (A-MCI) to progress towards Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated the efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention, that is, cognitive training that could reduce cognitive difficulties and delay the cognitive decline. For this, we evaluated the efficacy of a…

  16. Clinical and biological predictors of Alzheimer's disease in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment Preditores clínicos e biológicos da evolução para doença de Alzheimer em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes V. Forlenza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of the progression from pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease is relevant to clinical management and to substantiate the decision of prescribing antidementia drugs. METHOD: Longitudinal study of a cohort of elderly adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls, carried out to estimate the risk and characterize predictors of the progression to Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment had a higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease during follow-up (odds ratio = 4.5, CI95% [1.3-13.6], p = 0.010. At baseline, older age, lower scores on memory tests and presence of the APOE*4 allele predicted the progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease. In a sub sample of amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients, those who progressed to Alzheimer's disease had lower cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ42, p = 0.020 and higher concentrations of total TAU (p = 0.030 and phosphorylated TAU (p = 0.010, as compared to non-converters. DISCUSSION: This is the first Brazilian study to report cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in the prediction of the conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Our data are in accordance with those reported in other settings. The measurement of cerebrospinal fluid total-TAU, phospho-TAU and Aβ42 may help identify patients with mild cognitive impairment at higher risk for developing Alzheimer's disease.OBJETIVO: A identificação de preditores da conversão para a doença de Alzheimer em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve é relevante para o manejo clínico e para decidir sobre a prescrição de drogas antidemência. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal em coorte de indivíduos idosos com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico e controles saudáveis; estimativa do risco da progressão para doença de Alzheimer nos dois grupos; determinação das vari

  17. Neuroanatomic changes and their association with cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Kleiman, Alexandra; Schulz, Jörg B.; Schneider, Frank; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Reetz, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an acquired syndrome characterised by cognitive decline not affecting activities of daily living. Using a quantitative meta-analytic approach, we aimed to identify consistent neuroanatomic correlates of MCI and how they are related to cognitive dysfunction. The meta-analysis enrols 22 studies, involving 917 MCI (848 amnestic MCI) patients and 809 healthy controls. Only studies investigating local changes in grey matter and reporting whole-brain results in st...

  18. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more: Key Types of Dementia , What Is Alzheimer's? , Alzheimer's Risk Factors Symptoms back to top Experts classify Mild cognitive ... in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy 2014 Thor Stein Genetic Risk Factors Underlying Chronic Trauma and Alzheimer's Disease Pathology 2014 Kun Ping Lu Validation of ...

  19. The Cognitive and Neural Expression of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Sven; Brambati, Simona M.; Ansado, Jennyfer; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Lacombe, Jacinthe; Goldstein, Rachel; Chayer, Celine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease have been widely documented, but little is known about the integrity of semantic memory in the prodromal stage of the illness. The aims of the present study were to: (i) investigate naming abilities and semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to…

  20. Propositional Density in Spoken and Written Language of Czech-Speaking Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolík, Filip; Stepankova, Hana; Vyhnálek, Martin; Nikolai, Tomáš; Horáková, Karolína; Matejka, Štepán

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Propositional density (PD) is a measure of content richness in language production that declines in normal aging and more profoundly in dementia. The present study aimed to develop a PD scoring system for Czech and use it to compare PD in language productions of older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and control…

  1. Cognitive Blackouts in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Dementia

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    Georg Adler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive blackouts, e.g. moments of amnesia, disorientation, or perplexity may be an early sign of incipient Alzheimer’s dementia (AD. A short questionnaire, the checklist for cognitive blackouts (CCB, was evaluated cross-sectionally in users of a memory clinic. Methods: The CCB was performed in 130 subjects, who further underwent a neuropsychological and clinical examination. Subjective memory impairment and depressive symptoms were assessed. Differences in the CCB score between diagnostic groups and relationships with cognitive performance, depression, and subjective memory impairment were analyzed. Results: The CCB score was increased in mild cognitive impairment of the amnestic type or mild AD and correctly predicted 69.2% of the respective subjects. It was negatively correlated with cognitive performance, positively correlated with depressive symptoms, and substantially increased in subjects who estimated their memory poorer than that of other persons of their age. Discussion: The CCB may be a helpful screening tool for the early recognition of AD.

  2. Limbic and Basal Ganglia Neuroanatomical Correlates of Gait and Executive Function: Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Intact Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Weaver, Kurt E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Pike, Kenneth C; Grabowski, Thomas J; Teri, Linda

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal cognition and to examine limbic and basal ganglia neural correlates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia. This was a cross-sectional study of 46 community-dwelling older adults, ages 70-95 yrs, with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 23) and normal cognition (n = 23). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to attain volumetric measures of limbic and basal ganglia structures. Quantitative motion analysis was used to measure spatiotemporal parameters of gait. The Trail Making Test was used to assess executive function. During fast-paced walking, older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated significantly slower gait speed and shorter stride length compared with older adults with normal cognition. Stride length was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and nucleus accumbens volumes (P function was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate volumes (P older adults with normal cognition, those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated slower gait speed and shorter stride length, during fast-paced walking, and lower executive function. Hippocampal and anterior cingulate volumes demonstrated moderate positive correlation with both gait and executive function, after adjusting for age. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) discuss gait performance and cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment versus normal cognition, (2) discuss neurocorrelates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia, and (3) recognize the importance of assessing gait speed and cognitive function in the clinical management of older

  3. A novel biomarker of amnestic MCI based on dynamic Cross-Frequency Coupling patterns during cognitive brain responses

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    Stavros I Dimitriadis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, the transitional stage between normal cognitive changes of aging and the cognitive decline caused by AD, is of paramount clinical importance, since MCI patients are at increased risk of progressing into AD. Electroencephalographic (EEG alterations in the spectral content of brainwaves and connectivity at resting state have been associated with early-stage AD. Recently, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs have entered into the picture as an easy to perform screening test. Motivated by the recent findings about the role of cross-frequency coupling (CFC in cognition, we introduce a relevant methodological approach for detecting MCI based on cognitive responses from a standard auditory oddball paradigm. By using the single trial signals recorded at Pz sensor and comparing the responses to target and non-target stimuli, we first demonstrate that increased CFC is associated with the cognitive task. Then, considering the dynamic character of CFC, we identify instances during which the coupling between particular pairs of brainwave frequencies carries sufficient information for discriminating between normal subjects and patients with MCI. In this way, we form a multiparametric signature of impaired cognition. The new composite biomarker was tested using data from a cohort that consists of 25 amnestic MCI patients and 15 age-matched controls. Standard machine-learning algorithms were employed so as to implement the binary classification task. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation, the measured classification rate was found reaching very high levels (95%. Our approach compares favorably with the traditional alternative of using the morphology of averaged ERP response to make the diagnosis and the usage of features from spectro-temporal analysis of single-trial response. This further indicates that task-related CFC measurements can provide invaluable analytics in AD diagnosis and prognosis.

  4. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease

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    Atsuko Hayashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. Methods: A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. Results: For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. Conclusions: The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

  5. Writing Impairments in Japanese Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Atsuko; Nomura, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Ruriko; Ohnuma, Ayumu; Kimpara, Teiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated writing abilities in patients with the amnestic type of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To examine the earliest changes in writing function, we used writing tests for both words and sentences with different types of Japanese characters (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). A total of 25 aMCI patients, 38 AD patients, and 22 healthy controls performed writing to dictation for Kana and Kanji words, copied Kanji words, and wrote in response to a picture story task. Analysis of variance was used to test the subject group effects on the scores in the above writing tasks. For the written Kanji words, the mild AD group performed worse than the aMCI group and the controls, but there was no difference between the aMCI group and the controls. For the picture story writing task, the mild AD and aMCI groups performed worse than the controls, but the difference between the AD and the aMCI groups was not significant. The mild AD group showed defects in writing Kanji characters, and the aMCI group showed impairments in narrative writing. Our study suggests that narrative writing, which demands complex integration of multiple cognitive functions, can be used to detect the subtle writing deficits in aMCI patients.

  6. Memory evaluation in mild cognitive impairment using recall and recognition tests

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, IJ; Golob, EJ; Parker, ES; Starr, A

    2006-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a selective episodic memory deficit that often indicates early Alzheimer's disease. Episodic memory function in MCI is typically defined by deficits in free recall, but can also be tested using recognition procedures. To assess both recall and recognition in MCI, MCI (n = 21) and older comparison (n = 30) groups completed the USC-Repeatable Episodic Memory Test. Subjects memorized two verbally presented 15-item lists. One list was used for three fre...

  7. Working memory span in mild cognitive impairment. Influence of processing speed and cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facal, David; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Pereiro, Arturo X; Lojo-Seoane, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often includes episodic memory impairment, but can also involve other types of cognitive decline. Although previous studies have shown poorer performance of MCI patients in working memory (WM) span tasks, different MCI subgroups were not studied. In the present exploratory study, 145 participants underwent extensive cognitive evaluation, which included three different WM span tasks, and were classified into the following groups: multiple-domain amnestic MCI (mda-MCI), single-domain amnestic MCI (sda-MCI), and controls. General linear model was conducted by considering the WM span tasks as the within-subject factor; the group (mda-MCI, sda-MCI, and controls) as the inter-subject factor; and processing speed, vocabulary and age as covariates. Multiple linear regression models were also used to test the influence of processing speed, vocabulary, and other cognitive reserve (CR) proxies. Results indicate different levels of impairment of WM, with more severe impairment in mda-MCI patients. The differences were still present when processing resources and CR were controlled. Between-group differences can be understood as a manifestation of the greater severity and widespread memory impairment in mda-MCI patients and may contribute to a better understanding of continuum from normal controls to mda-MCI patients. Processing speed and CR have a limited influence on WM scores, reducing but not removing differences between groups.

  8. Addenbrooke's cognitive examination III: diagnostic utility for mild cognitive impairment and dementia and correlation with standardized neuropsychological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias-Guiu, Jordi A; Cortés-Martínez, Ana; Valles-Salgado, Maria; Rognoni, Teresa; Fernández-Matarrubia, Marta; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) is a screening test that was recently validated for diagnosing dementia. Since it assesses attention, language, memory, fluency, and visuospatial function separately, it may also be useful for general neuropsychological assessments. The aim of this study was to analyze the tool's ability to detect early stages of Alzheimer's disease and to examine the correlation between ACE-III scores and scores on standardized neuropsychological tests. Our study included 200 participants categorized as follows: 25 healthy controls, 48 individuals with subjective memory complaints, 47 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 47 mild Alzheimer's disease, and 33 patients with other neurodegenerative diseases. The ACE-III memory and language domains were highly correlated with the neuropsychological tests specific to those domains (Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.806 for total delayed recall on the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test vs. 0.744 on the Boston Naming Test). ACE-III scores discriminated between controls and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (AUC: 0.906), and between controls and patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AUC: 0.978). Our results suggest that ACE-III is a useful neuropsychological test for assessing the cognitive domains of attention, language, memory, and visuospatial function. It also enables detection of Alzheimer's disease in early stages.

  9. Mild cognitive impairment: applicability of research criteria in a memory clinic and characterization of cognitive profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladi, Suvarna; Arnold, Robert; Mitchell, Joanna; Nestor, Peter J; Hodges, John R

    2006-04-01

    We explored the applicability of recently proposed research criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a memory clinic and changes in case definition related to which memory tests are used and the status of general cognitive function in MCI. A total of 166 consecutive GP referrals to the Cambridge Memory Clinic underwent comprehensive neuropsychological and psychiatric evaluation. Of 166 cases, 42 were excluded (significant depression 8, established dementia 29 and other disorders 5). Of 124 non-demented, non-depressed patients, 72 fulfilled Petersen's criteria for amnestic MCI based upon verbal memory performance [the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)] and 90 met criteria if performance on verbal and/or non-verbal memory tests [the Rey figure recall or the Paired Associates Learning test (PAL)] was considered. Of the 90 broadly defined MCI cases, only 25 had pure amnesia: other subtle semantic and/or attention deficits were typically present. A further 12 were classed as non-amnestic MCI and 22 as 'worried well'. Definition of MCI varies considerably dependent upon the tests used for case definition. The majority have other cognitive deficits despite normal performance on the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and intact activities of daily living (ADL) and fit within multi-domain MCI. Pure amnesic MCI is rare.

  10. Reduced 5-HT2A receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, S G; Madsen, K; Svarer, C

    2008-01-01

    cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and related 5-HT(2A) receptor binding to clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients with MCI of the amnestic type (mean age 73, mean MMSE 26.1) and 17 age and sex matched control subjects were studied with MRI and [(18)F......Previous studies of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have described reduced brain serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor density. It is unclear whether this abnormality sets in early in the course of the disease and whether it is related to early cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. We assessed...

  11. Subclinical naming errors in mild cognitive impairment: A semantic deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra F. Willers

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is the transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Impairments in semantic memory have been demonstrated to be a critical factor in early AD. The Boston Naming Test (BNT is a straightforward method of examining semantic or visuo-perceptual processing and therefore represents a potential diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to examine naming ability and identify error types in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods: Twenty aMCI patients, twenty AD patients and twenty-one normal controls, matched by age, sex and education level were evaluated. As part of a further neuropsychological evaluation, all subjects performed the BNT. A comprehensive classification of error types was devised in order to compare performance and ascertain semantic or perceptual origin of errors. Results: AD patients obtained significantly lower total scores on the BNT than aMCI patients and controls. aMCI patients did not obtain significant differences in total scores, but showed significantly higher semantic errors compared to controls. Conclusion: This study reveals that semantic processing is impaired during confrontation naming in aMCI.

  12. Validation of the Chinese version of Addenbrooke's cognitive examination-revised for screening mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rong; Wang, Gang; Huang, Yue; Zhuang, Jun-Peng; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wang, Ying; Deng, Yu-Lei; Xu, Wei; Chen, Sheng-Di; Ren, Ru-Jing

    2014-01-01

    As a suitable test to screen for Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), studies to validate the Chinese version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) are rare. A total of 151 subjects were recruited and the neuropsychological assessments were employed. One-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni correction were used to compare scores of different psychometric scales. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's coefficient α were used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of ACE-R to screen for mild AD and amnestic subtype of MCI (a-MCI) was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The Chinese ACE-R had good reliability (inter-rater ICC = 0.994; test-retest ICC = 0.967) as well as reliable internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0.859). With its cutoff of 67/68, the sensitivity (0.920) and specificity (0.857) were lower than for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) cutoff (sensitivity 1.000 and specificity 0.937) to screen for mild AD. However, the sensitivity of ACE-R to screen for a-MCI was superior to the MMSE with a cutoff of 85/86. The specificity of ACE-R was lower than that of the MMSE to screen for a-MCI. The area under the ROC curve of ACE-R was much larger than that of the MMSE (0.836 and 0.751) for detecting a-MCI rather than mild AD. The Chinese ACE-R is a reliable assessment tool for cognitive impairment. It is more sensitive and accurate in screening for a-MCI rather than for AD compared to the MMSE.

  13. Cognitive Profiles of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Hildebrandt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD are associated with severe cognitive decline, but it is still unclear to what extent they become functionally more similar over time. Methods: We compared amnestic mild cognitively impaired (aMCI; n = 29 patients to mild cognitively impaired (MCI PD patients (n = 25, and patients with AD (n = 34 to patients with PD dementia (PDD; n = 15 with respect to cognitive functioning and mood. Results: aMCI patients were impaired in episodic memory, while MCI PD patients showed deficits in visuoconstruction and attention. AD and PDD patients showed comparable deficits on tests for language, attention and visuoconstruction. However, unlike PDD patients but similar to aMCI patients, AD patients showed a characteristic memory impairment, especially commission errors on recognition tasks, whereas PDD patients scored higher on the depressive mood questionnaire. Conclusions: In advanced stages of both diseases, the pattern of functional deficits associated with parietal and temporal lobe functions (attention, visuoconstruction and language is similar. However, specific differences, already present in the early stage (recognition errors in AD, associated with mediobasal temporal lobe functioning, and depressed mood in PDD, associated with non-motor basal ganglia loops, are also observed in the late stage.

  14. Electrophysiological Repetition Effects in Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment depend upon Working Memory Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broster, Lucas S; Jenkins, Shonna L; Holmes, Sarah D; Edwards, Matthew G; Jicha, Gregory A; Jiang, Yang

    2018-05-07

    Forms of implicit memory, including repetition effects, are preserved relative to explicit memory in clinical Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, cognitive interventions for persons with Alzheimer's disease have been developed that leverage this fact. However, despite the clinical robustness of behavioral repetition effects, altered neural mechanisms of repetition effects are studied as biomarkers of both clinical Alzheimer's disease and pre-morbid Alzheimer's changes in the brain. We hypothesized that the clinical preservation of behavioral repetition effects results in part from concurrent operation of discrete memory systems. We developed two experiments that included probes of emotional repetition effects differing in that one included an embedded working memory task. We found that neural repetition effects manifested in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, the earliest form of clinical Alzheimer's disease, during emotional working memory tasks, but they did not manifest during the task that lacked the embedded working memory manipulation. Specifically, the working memory task evoked neural repetition effects in the P600 time-window, but the same neural mechanism was only minimally implicated in the task without a working memory component. We also found that group differences in behavioral repetition effects were smaller in the experiment with a working memory task. We suggest that cross-domain cognitive challenge can expose "defunct" neural capabilities of individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Serial position effects in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early and moderate Alzheimer's disease compared with healthy comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, B; Deisenhammer, E A; Marksteiner, J; Papousek, I; Fink, A; Weiss, E M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the serial position effects in memory can differentiate patients with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from healthy controls and patients with different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The serial position effects was tested with the CERAD word list task in 184 persons (39 healthy control subjects, 15 amnestic MCI single domain subjects, 23 amnestic MCI multiple domain subjects, 31 nonamnestic MCI subjects, 45 early or mild AD patients, and 31 moderate AD patients). With progression of dementia, memory deficits increased and the impairment in the primacy effect during the learning trials advanced, whereas the recall of recent items was less impaired. The serial position profile of nonamnestic MCI patients resembled that of healthy control subjects, whereas amnestic MCI patients showed poorer performance in all 3 positions but no significant difference as a function of serial word position. Analyses of the serial position effect may be a useful complement to clinical neuropsychological measures for distinguishing amnestic MCI patients from normal aging and patients with different stages of dementia. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Apathy and Emotion-Based Decision-Making in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bayard, Sophie; Jacus, Jean-Pierre; Raffard, Stéphane; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background. Apathy and reduced emotion-based decision-making are two behavioral modifications independently described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Objectives. The aims of this study were to investigate decision-making based on emotional feedback processing in AD and aMCI and to study the impact of reduced decision-making performances on apathy. Methods. We recruited 20 patients with AD, 20 participants with aMCI, and 20 healthy controls. All parti...

  17. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  18. The neuroimaging approach to the assessment of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucignani, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Imaging techniques, including emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are progressively being exploited for the classification and prognostic evaluation (indispensable for possible treatments) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The main traits of MCI and unsolved issues in its assessment are discussed in two review articles by Feldman and Jacova from the Division of Neurology, Dept. of Medicine, Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders, University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, Canada [1] and Chong and Sahadevan from the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore [2]. Because MCI has different presentations in terms of the type and degree of cognitive deficits observed, several clinical subtypes of MCI besides the amnestic form have now been recognised and characterised on the basis of deficits in different cognitive domains, either in isolation or in combination with amnesia. The different subtypes of MCI suggest that MCI has a heterogeneous nature, with several possible causes that lead to the same symptoms. This is a field in evolution, and a uniform diagnostic classification of MCI has not yet been accomplished. Lopez et al. from the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [3] point out that the classification of MCI subtypes is useful to improve prediction of the subsequent risk of dementia and the type of dementia, and that the manner in which MCI subjects are classified into subgroups has implications for the cognitive profile of the group and thus for our inferences about the aetiology and possible clinical course of the disorder

  19. The neuroimaging approach to the assessment of mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, Giovanni [University of Milan and Unit of Molecular Imaging, Division of Radiation Therapy, European Institute of Oncology, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Imaging techniques, including emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are progressively being exploited for the classification and prognostic evaluation (indispensable for possible treatments) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The main traits of MCI and unsolved issues in its assessment are discussed in two review articles by Feldman and Jacova from the Division of Neurology, Dept. of Medicine, Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders, University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, Canada [1] and Chong and Sahadevan from the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore [2]. Because MCI has different presentations in terms of the type and degree of cognitive deficits observed, several clinical subtypes of MCI besides the amnestic form have now been recognised and characterised on the basis of deficits in different cognitive domains, either in isolation or in combination with amnesia. The different subtypes of MCI suggest that MCI has a heterogeneous nature, with several possible causes that lead to the same symptoms. This is a field in evolution, and a uniform diagnostic classification of MCI has not yet been accomplished. Lopez et al. from the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [3] point out that the classification of MCI subtypes is useful to improve prediction of the subsequent risk of dementia and the type of dementia, and that the manner in which MCI subjects are classified into subgroups has implications for the cognitive profile of the group and thus for our inferences about the aetiology and possible clinical course of the disorder.

  20. Influence of controlled encoding and retrieval facilitation on memory performance in patients with different profiles of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Roberta; Monaco, Marco; Fadda, Lucia; Serra, Laura; Marra, Camillo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bruni, Amalia C; Curcio, Sabrina; Bozzali, M; Carlesimo, Giovanni A

    2015-01-01

    Memory tests able to differentiate encoding and retrieval processes from the memoranda storing ones should be used to differentiate patients in a very early phase of AD. In fact, individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be characterized by two different memory profiles: a pure amnestic one (with poor learning and retrieval and poor improvement when encoding is assisted and retrieval is facilitated) and a dysexecutive one (with inefficient encoding and/or poor retrieval strategies and improvement with assisted encoding and retrieval). The amnestic profile characterizes subjects affected by medio-temporal atrophy typical of AD. In this study, a Grober-Buschke memory procedure was used to evaluate normal controls and MCI patients with different cognitive profiles: pure amnestic (aMCIsd), amnestic plus other cognitive impairments (aMCImd) and non-amnestic (naMCI). An index of sensitivity of cueing (ISC) measured the advantage passing from free to cued recall. Results showed that both strategic and consolidation abilities were impaired in the aMCIsd and aMCImd groups and were preserved in the naMCI group. aMCImd, however, compensated the memory deficit with assisted encoding and retrieval, but aMCIsd performed very poorly. When MCI subjects were defined according to the ISC value, subjects with poor ISC were primarily in the aMCIsd group and, to a lesser extent, in the aMCImd group and the naMCI group. Finally, patients with a poor ISC showed cerebral atrophy documented in the precocious phase of AD and the retrosplenial cerebral areas seemed to be the most useful areas for identifying patients in the early phase of AD.

  1. Amnestic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.; Cautin, R.L.; Lilienfeld, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished:

  2. Medical decision-making capacity in mild cognitive impairment: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, O C; Griffith, H R; Copeland, J N; Belue, K; Lanza, S; Zamrini, E Y; Harrell, L E; Brockington, J C; Clark, D; Raman, R; Marson, D C

    2008-11-04

    To investigate longitudinal change in the medical decision-making capacity (MDC) of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) under different consent standards. Eighty-eight healthy older controls and 116 patients with MCI were administered the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument at baseline and at 1 to 3 (mean = 1.7) annual follow-up visits thereafter. Covariate-adjusted random coefficient regressions were used to examine differences in MDC trajectories across MCI and control participants, as well as to investigate the impact of conversion to Alzheimer disease on MCI patients' MDC trajectories. At baseline, MCI patients performed significantly below controls only on the three clinically relevant standards of appreciation, reasoning, and understanding. Compared with controls, MCI patients experienced significant declines over time on understanding but not on any other consent standard. Conversion affected both the elevation (a decrease in performance) and slope (acceleration in subsequent rate of decline) of MCI patients' MDC trajectories on understanding. A trend emerged for conversion to be associated with a performance decrease on reasoning in the MCI group. Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a relatively slow but detectable process. Over a 3-year period, patients with amnestic MCI show progressive decline in the ability to understand consent information. This decline accelerates after conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD), reflecting increasing vulnerability to decisional impairment. Clinicians and researchers working with MCI patients should give particular attention to the informed consent process when conversion to AD is suspected or confirmed.

  3. Cognitive functioning in mild hyperphenylalaninemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia de la Parra

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Children with mHPA achieved cognitive performance well within the average range and attained significantly higher scores than children with PKU. However, they appeared to have relative weaknesses in working memory and attention, similar to children with PKU.

  4. Old worries and new anxieties: behavioral symptoms and mild cognitive impairment in a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreescu, Carmen; Teverovsky, Esther; Fu, Bo; Hughes, Tiffany F; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Ganguli, Mary

    2014-03-01

    To disentangle the complex associations of depression and anxiety with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at the population level. We examined subgroups of anxiety symptoms and depression symptom profiles in relation to MCI, which we defined using both cognitive and functional approaches. We used an epidemiologic, cross-sectional study with an age-stratified, random, population-based sample of 1,982 individuals aged 65 years and over. Three definitions of MCI were used: 1) a purely cognitive classification into amnestic and nonamnestic MCI, 2) a combined cognitive-functional definition by International Working Group (IWG) criteria, and 3) a purely functional definition by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0.5. Three depression profiles were identified by factor analysis of the modified Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale: core mood, self-esteem/interpersonal, and apathy/neurovegetative profiles. Three anxiety groups, chronic mild worry, chronic severe anxiety, and recent-onset anxiety, were based on screening questions. Recent-onset anxiety was associated with MCI by nonamnestic and IWG criteria, chronic severe anxiety was associated with MCI by all definitions, and chronic mild worry was associated with none. Of the depression profiles, the core mood profile was associated with CDR-defined MCI, the apathy/neurovegetative profile was associated with MCI by amnestic, IWG, and CDR definitions, and the self-esteem/interpersonal profile was associated with none. In this population-based sample, subgroups with different anxiety and depression profiles had different relationships with cognitive and functional definitions of MCI. Anxiety, depression, and MCI are all multidimensional entities, interacting in complex ways that may shed light on underlying neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clock drawing test in screening for Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnálek, Martin; Rubínová, Eva; Marková, Hana; Nikolai, Tomáš; Laczó, Jan; Andel, Ross; Hort, Jakub

    2017-09-01

    The clock drawing test (CDT) is a commonly used brief cognitive measure. We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of subjective ratings of CDT by physicians (with/without specialty in cognitive neurology) and neuropsychologists in discriminating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and cognitively healthy older adults. We further compared the diagnostic accuracy of subjective categorical ratings with complex scoring of CDT. Three cognitive neurologists, three neuropsychologists and six neurology residents without experience in cognitive neurology blinded to the diagnosis rated 187 CDTs (50 mild AD, 49 aMCI and 88 cognitively healthy older adults) using a "yes" (abnormal) versus "suspected" versus "no" (normal) classification. The rating suspected was combined with yes or no to obtain two sets of sensitivity estimates. We also used a 17-point CDT rating system. When using the categorical rating, neuropsychologists had highest sensitivity (89%) in differentiating patients with mild AD (yes/suspected versus no), followed by neurologic residents (80%) and cognitive neurologists (79%). When differentiating patients with aMCI (yes/suspected versus no), the sensitivity was 84% for neuropsychologists, 64% for cognitive neurologists and 62% for residents. The sensitivity using the complex scoring system was 92% in patients with mild AD and 69% in patients with aMCI. A categorical rating of CDT shows high sensitivity for mild AD even in non-experienced raters. Neuropsychologists outperformed physicians in differentiating patients with aMCI from cognitively healthy older adults (specificity), which was counterbalanced by the lower specificity of their ratings. The diagnostic accuracy was not substantially improved by using complex scoring system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of Combined Physical and Cognitive Exercises on Cognition and Mobility in Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Park, Hyuntae; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Verghese, Joe; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-11-17

    Although participation in physical and cognitive activities is encouraged to reduce the risk of dementia, the preventive efficacy of these activities for patients with mild cognitive impairment is unestablished. To compare the cognitive and mobility effects of a 40-week program of combined cognitive and physical activity with those of a health education program. A randomized, parallel, single-blind controlled trial. A population-based study of participants recruited from Obu, a residential suburb of Nagoya, Japan. Between August 2011 and February 2012, we evaluated 945 adults 65 years or older with mild cognitive impairment, enrolled 308, and randomly assigned them to the combined activity group (n = 154) or the health education control group (n = 154). The combined activity program involved weekly 90-minute sessions for 40 weeks focused on physical and cognitive activities. The control group attended 90-minute health promotion classes thrice during the 40-week trial period. The outcome measures were assessed at the study's beginning and end by personnel blinded to mild cognitive impairment subtype and group. The primary endpoints were postintervention changes in scores on (1) the Mini-Mental State Examination as a measure of general cognitive status and memory, (2) the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised-Logical Memory II, and (3) the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. We applied mobility assessments and assessed brain atrophy with magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with the control group, the combined activity group showed significantly greater scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (difference = 0.8 points, P = .012) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised-Logical Memory II (difference = 1.0, P = .004), significant improvements in mobility and the nonmemory domains and reduced left medial temporal lobe atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (Z-score difference = -31.3, P physical and cognitive activity improves or maintains

  7. Acetylcholine receptors in dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, Osama; Kendziorra, Kai [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike; Gertz, Hermann-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); Brust, Peter [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    To clarify whether changes in the cholinergic transmission occur early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A-85380, which is supposed to be specific for {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We included patients with moderate to severe AD and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), presumed to present preclinical AD. Both patients with AD and MCI showed significant reductions in {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs in brain regions typically affected by AD pathology. These findings indicate that a reduction in {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChRs occurs during early symptomatic stages of AD. The {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR availability in these regions correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment, indicating a stage sensitivity of the {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR status. Together, our results provide evidence for the potential of 2-[{sup 18}]F-A-85380 nAChR PET in the diagnosis of patients at risk for AD. Because of the extraordinary long acquisition time with 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A-85380, we developed the new {alpha}4{beta}2 nAChR-specific radioligands (+)- and (-)-[{sup 18}F]norchloro-fluoro-homoepibatidine (NCFHEB) and evaluated them preclinically. (-)-[{sup 18}F]NCFHEB shows twofold higher brain uptake and significantly shorter acquisition times. Therefore, (-)-[{sup 18}F]NCFHEB should be a suitable radioligand for larger clinical investigations. (orig.)

  8. Functional abilities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Catherine L; Strauss, Esther; Bunce, David; Hunter, Michael A; Hultsch, David F

    2009-01-01

    A classification scheme and general set of criteria for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were recently proposed by a multidisciplinary group of experts who met at an international symposium on MCI. One of the proposed criteria included preserved basic activities of daily living and minimal impairment in complex instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). To investigate whether older adults with MCI classified according to the subtypes identified by the Working Group (i.e. amnestic, single non-memory domain, and multiple domain with or without a memory component) differed from cognitively intact older adults on a variety of measures indexing IADLs and to examine how well measures of IADL predict concurrent MCI status. Two hundred and fifty community-dwelling older adults, ranging in age from 66 to 92, completed self-report measures of IADLs (Lawton and Brody IADL Scale, Scales of Independent Behaviour-Revised--SIB-R) and a measure of everyday problem solving indexing IADLs (Everyday Problems Test--EPT). Ratings of participants' IADL functioning were also obtained from informants (e.g. spouse, adult child and friend). Older adults with multiple-domain MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning than older adults with no cognitive impairment on the EPT and the SIB-R (both self- and informant-report versions). The multiple-domain MCI participants also demonstrated poorer IADLs than MCI participants with impairments in a single cognitive domain on the self-reported SIB-R and EPT. The single-domain MCI groups demonstrated poorer IADLs than older adults without cognitive impairment on the informant-reported SIB-R and EPT. No significant group differences were found on the Lawton and Brody IADL Scale. Using the EPT and SIB-R as predictors in a multinomial regression analysis, MCI group status was reliably predicted, but the classification rate was poor. Individuals with MCI demonstrated poorer IADL functioning compared to cognitively intact older adults

  9. Meta-Analysis of Social Cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Yener, Görsev G

    2017-07-01

    Social cognitive abilities are impaired in Alzheimer disease and other dementias. Recent studies suggested that social cognitive abilities might be also impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Current meta-analysis aimed to summarize available evidence for deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition in MCI. In this meta-analysis of 17 studies, facial emotion recognition and ToM performances of 513 individuals with MCI and 693 healthy controls were compared. Mild cognitive impairment was associated with significant impairments falling in the medium effect sizes range in ToM ( d = 0.63) and facial emotion recognition ( d = 0.58). Among individual emotions, recognition of fear and sadness were particularly impaired. There were no significant between-group differences in recognition of disgust, happiness, and surprise. Social cognitive deficits were more severe in multidomain MCI. There is a need for longitudinal studies investigating the potential role of social cognitive impairment in predicting conversion to dementia.

  10. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  11. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia New findings John C.S. ... exami- nations showed that 534 persons had mild cognitive impairment, or MCI (see About MCI, following sec- tion). ...

  12. Mild cognitive impairment: cognitive screening or neuropsychological assessment? Comprometimento cognitivo leve: rastreio cognitivo ou avaliação neuropsicológica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Satler Diniz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the neuropsychological profile of mild cognitive impairment subtypes (amnestic, non-amnestic and multiple-domain of a clinical sample. We further address the diagnostic properties of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Cambridge Cognitive Examination for the identification of the different mild cognitive impairment subtypes in clinical practice. METHOD: Cross-sectional clinical and neuropsychological evaluation of 249 elderly patients attending a memory clinic at a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: The performance of patients with mild cognitive impairment was heterogeneous across the different subtests of the neuropsychological battery, with a trend towards an overall worse performance for amnestic (particularly multiple domain mild cognitive impairment as compared to non-amnestic subtypes. Screening tests for dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination and Cambridge Cognitive Examination adequately discriminated cases of mild Alzheimer's disease from controls, but they were not accurate to discriminate patients with mild cognitive impairment (all subtypes from control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination of mild cognitive impairment subtypes was possible only with the aid of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. It is necessary to develop new strategies for mild cognitive impairment screening in clinical practice.OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil neuropsicológico dos subtipos de comprometimento cognitivo leve, amnéstico, não-amnéstico e múltiplos domínios, de uma amostra clínica. Além disto, avaliou-se as propriedades diagnósticas do Mini-exame do Estado Mental e do Cambridge Cognitive Examination na identificação dos diferentes subtipos de comprometimento cognitivo leve na prática clínica. MÉTODO: Avaliação clínica e neuropsicológica transversal de 249 idosos em uma clínica de memória de um hospital universitário em São Paulo, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Testes de rastreio para

  13. Emotion recognition in mild cognitive impairment: relationship to psychosocial disability and caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCade, Donna; Savage, Greg; Guastella, Adam; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2013-09-01

    Impaired emotion recognition in dementia is associated with increased patient agitation, behavior management difficulties, and caregiver burden. Emerging evidence supports the presence of very early emotion recognition difficulties in mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the relationship between these impairments and psychosocial measures is not yet explored. Emotion recognition abilities of 27 patients with nonamnestic MCI (naMCI), 29 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI), and 22 control participants were assessed. Self-report measures assessed patient functional disability, while informants rated the degree of burden they experienced. Difficulties in recognizing anger was evident in the amnestic subtype. Although both the patient groups reported greater social functioning disability, compared with the controls, a relationship between social dysfunction and anger recognition was evident only for patients with naMCI. A significant association was found between burden and anger recognition in patients with aMCI. Impaired emotion recognition abilities impact MCI subtypes differentially. Interventions targeted at patients with MCI, and caregivers are warranted.

  14. Cognitive profiles in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI patients associated with Parkinson′s disease and cognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pistacchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is rapidly becoming one of the most common clinical manifestations affecting the elderly and represents an heterogeneous clinical syndrome that can be ascribed to different etiologies; the construct of MCI in Parkinson′s disease (PD (MCI-PD is more recent but the range of deficits is still variable. Early recognition and accurate classification of MCI-PD could offer opportunities for novel therapeutic interventions to improve the natural pathologic course. Objective: To investigate the clinical phenotype of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and in patients with PD and MCI (MCI-PD. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three patients with aMCI and in 38 patients with MCI-PD were enrolled. They all underwent Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test and the immediate visual memory (IVM item of the Mental Deterioration Battery, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test included the Rey-immediate (Rey-I, and the delayed recall of the word list (Rey test deferred, Rey-D. The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS was used for mood assessment. Results: The results of the Rey-I and Rey-D and of the IVM item showed statistically significant differences between the aMCI and the MCI-PD group. The mean Rey-I and Rey-D score was significantly lower as well as the IVM score was higher in patients with aMCI than in those with MCI-PD, aMCI patients showed greater impairment in long-term memory, whereas more aMCI than MCI-PD patients had preserved attention, computation, praxis, and conceptualization. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the cognitive deficit profile is specific for each of the two disorders: Memory impairment was a typical feature in aMCI patients while MCI-PD patients suffered from executive functions and visuospatial attention deficits.

  15. Spatial working memory in aging and mild cognitive impairment: effects of task load and contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Roy P C; Meulenbroek, Olga; Fernández, Guillén; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2010-09-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is characterized by episodic memory deficits, while aspects of working memory may also be implicated, but studies into this latter domain are scarce and results are inconclusive. Using a computerized search paradigm, this study compares 25 young adults, 25 typically aging older adults and 15 amnestic MCI patients as to their working-memory capacities for object-location information and potential differential effects of memory load and additional context cues. An age-related deficit in visuospatial working-memory maintenance was found that became more pronounced with increasing task demands. The MCI group additionally showed reduced maintenance of bound information, i.e., object-location associations, again especially at elevated memory load. No effects of contextual cueing were found. The current findings indicate that working memory should be considered when screening patients for suspected MCI and monitoring its progression.

  16. Prediction of Alzheimer’s disease in mild cognitive impairment using sulcal morphology and cortical thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plocharski, Maciej; Østergaard, Lasse Riis

    2019-01-01

    converters, or MCIc). The purpose of this study was to predict future AD-conversion in patients with MCI using machine learning with sulcal morphology and cortical thickness measures as classification features. 32 sulci per subject were extracted from 1.5T T1-weighted ADNI database MRI scans of 90 MCIc......Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate condition between healthy ageing and dementia. The amnestic MCI is often a high risk factor for subsequent Alzheimer’s disease (AD) conversion. Some MCI patients never develop AD (MCI non-converters, or MCInc), but some do progress to AD (MCI...... subjects as future converters, (89.7% sensitivity, 84.4% specificity, 0.94 AUC), using 10-fold cross-validation. These results using sulcal and cortical features are superior to the state-of-the-art methods. The most discriminating predictive features were observed in the temporal and frontal lobes...

  17. Cholinergic Enhancement of Brain Activation in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI during Episodic Memory Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Risacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the physiological impact of treatment with donepezil (Aricept on neural circuitry supporting episodic memory encoding in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI using functional MRI (fMRI. Methods: 18 patients with MCI and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC were scanned twice while performing an event-related verbal episodic encoding task. MCI participants were scanned before treatment and after approximately 3 months on donepezil; HC were untreated but rescanned at the same interval. Voxel-level analyses assessed treatment effects in activation profile relative to retest changes in non-treated HC. Changes in task-related connectivity in medial temporal circuitry were also evaluated, as were associations between brain activation pattern, task-related functional connectivity, task performance, and clinical measures of cognition.Results: At baseline, the MCI group showed reduced activation during encoding relative to HC in the right medial temporal lobe (MTL; hippocampal/parahippocampal and additional regions, as well as attenuated task-related deactivation, relative to rest, in a medial parietal lobe cluster. After treatment, the MCI group showed normalized MTL activation and improved parietal deactivation. These changes were associated with cognitive performance. After treatment, the MCI group also demonstrated increased task-related functional connectivity from the right MTL cluster seed region to a network of other sites including the basal nucleus/caudate and bilateral frontal lobes. Increased functional connectivity was associated with improved task performance.Conclusions: Pharmacologic enhancement of cholinergic function in amnestic MCI is associated with changes in brain activation pattern and functional connectivity during episodic memory processing which are in turn related to increased cognitive performance. fMRI is a promising biomarker for assessing treatment related changes in brain function.

  18. Mild cognitive impairment: loss of linguistic task-induced changes in motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, L; Giovannelli, F; Bessi, V; Borgheresi, A; Di Tullio, A; Sorbi, S; Zaccara, G; Cincotta, M

    2009-03-10

    In amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), functional neuronal connectivity may be altered, as suggested by quantitative EEG and neuroimaging data. In young healthy humans, the execution of linguistic tasks modifies the excitability of the hand area of the dominant primary motor cortex (M1(hand)), as tested by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We used TMS to investigate functional connectivity between language-related cortical areas and M1(hand) in aMCI. Ten elderly women with aMCI and 10 age-matched women were recruited. All participants were right handed and underwent a neuropsychological evaluation. In the first TMS experiment, participants performed three different tasks: reading aloud, viewing of non-letter strings (baseline), and nonverbal oral movements. The second experiment included the baseline condition and three visual searching/matching tasks using letters, geometric shapes, or digits as target stimuli. In controls, motor evoked potentials (MEP) elicited by suprathreshold TMS of the left M1(hand) were significantly larger during reading aloud (170% baseline) than during nonverbal oral movements, whereas no difference was seen for right M1(hand) stimulation. Similarly, MEP elicited by left M1(hand) stimulation during letter and shape searching/matching tasks were significantly larger compared to digit task. In contrast, linguistic task performance did not produce any significant MEP modulation in patients with aMCI, although neuropsychological evaluation showed normal language abilities. Findings suggest that functional connectivity between the language-related brain regions and the dominant M1(hand) may be altered in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Follow-up studies will reveal whether transcranial magnetic stimulation application during linguistic tasks may contribute to characterize the risk of conversion to Alzheimer disease.

  19. The Test Your Memory for Mild Cognitive Impairment (TYM-MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeremy M; Lansdall, Claire J; Wiggins, Julie; Dawson, Kate E; Hunter, Kristina; Rowe, James B; Parker, Richard A

    2017-12-01

    To validate a short cognitive test: the Test Your Memory for Mild Cognitive Impairment (TYM-MCI) in the diagnosis of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease (aMCI/AD). Two hundred and two patients with mild memory problems were recruited. All had 'passed' the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Patients completed the TYM-MCI, the Test Your Memory test (TYM), MMSE and revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), had a neurological examination, clinical diagnostics and multidisciplinary team review. As a single test, the TYM-MCI performed as well as the ACE-R in the distinction of patients with aMCI/AD from patients with subjective memory impairment with a sensitivity of 0.79 and specificity of 0.91. Used in combination with the ACE-R, it provided additional value and identified almost all cases of aMCI/AD. The TYM-MCI correctly classified most patients who had equivocal ACE-R scores. Integrated discriminant improvement analysis showed that the TYM-MCI added value to the conventional memory assessment. Patients initially diagnosed as unknown or with subjective memory impairment who were later rediagnosed with aMCI/AD scored poorly on their original TYM-MCI. The TYM-MCI is a powerful short cognitive test that examines verbal and visual recall and is a valuable addition to the assessment of patients with aMCI/AD. It is simple and cheap to administer and requires minimal staff time and training. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura

    2014-01-01

    : An analysis was conducted on baseline data from the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly study, a cohort study of 430 primary care patients aged 65 or older. Neuropsychological tests identified participants with MCI and further subclassified those with impairment in memory domains (a......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS...

  1. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  2. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.

    We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

  3. Modulatory effects of acupuncture on brain networks in mild cognitive impairment patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used to investigate the effects of acupuncture on neural activity. However, most functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have focused on acute changes in brain activation induced by acupuncture. Thus, the time course of the therapeutic effects of acupuncture remains unclear. In this study, 32 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into two groups, where they received either Tiaoshen Yizhi acupuncture or sham acupoint acupuncture. The needles were either twirled at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints, including Sishencong (EX-HN1, Yintang (EX-HN3, Neiguan (PC6, Taixi (KI3, Fenglong (ST40, and Taichong (LR3, or at related sham acupoints at a depth of approximately 15 mm, an angle of ± 60°, and a rate of approximately 120 times per minute. Acupuncture was conducted for 4 consecutive weeks, five times per week, on weekdays. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that connections between cognition-related regions such as the insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, inferior parietal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex increased after acupuncture at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints. The insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus acted as central brain hubs. Patients in the Tiaoshen Yizhi group exhibited improved cognitive performance after acupuncture. In the sham acupoint acupuncture group, connections between brain regions were dispersed, and we found no differences in cognitive function following the treatment. These results indicate that acupuncture at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints can regulate brain networks by increasing connectivity between cognition-related regions, thereby improving cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

  4. Effects of Tai Chi on Cognition and Fall Risk in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkarat, Somporn; Boripuntakul, Sirinun; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Watcharasaksilp, Kanokwan; Lord, Stephen R

    2017-04-01

    To examine whether combined center- and home-based Tai Chi training can improve cognitive ability and reduce physiological fall risk in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Randomized controlled trial. Chiang Mai, Thailand. Adults aged 60 and older who met Petersen's criteria for multiple-domain a-MCI (N = 66). Three weeks center-based and 12 weeks home-based Tai Chi (50 minutes per session, 3 times per week). Cognitive tests, including Logical Memory (LM) delayed recall, Block Design, Digit Span forward and backward, and Trail-Making Test Part B-A (TMT B-A), and fall risk index using the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA). At the end of the trial, performance on LM, Block Design, and TMT B-A were significantly better for the Tai Chi group than the control group after adjusting for baseline test performance. The Tai Chi group also had significantly better composite PPA score and PPA parameter scores: knee extension strength, reaction time, postural sway, and lower limb proprioception. Combined center- and home-based Tai Chi training three times per week for 15 weeks significantly improved cognitive function and moderately reduced physiological fall risk in older adults with multiple-domain a-MCI. Tai Chi may be particularly beneficial to older adults with this condition. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Which part of the Quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci) discriminates between normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment and dementia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2013-05-01

    the Qmci is a sensitive and specific test to differentiate between normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the subtests of the Qmci to determine which best discriminated NC, MCI and dementia.

  6. Correlation of MRI Visual Scales with Neuropsychological Profile in Mild Cognitive Impairment of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Vasconcellos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI visual scales in Parkinson’s disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI. We selected 79 PD patients and 92 controls (CO to perform neurologic and neuropsychological evaluation. Brain MRI was performed to evaluate the following scales: Global Cortical Atrophy (GCA, Fazekas, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA. The analysis revealed that both PD groups (amnestic and nonamnestic showed worse performance on several tests when compared to CO. Memory, executive function, and attention impairment were more severe in amnestic PD-MCI group. Overall analysis of frequency of MRI visual scales by MCI subtype did not reveal any statistically significant result. Statistically significant inverse correlation was observed between GCA scale and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, semantic verbal fluency, Stroop test, figure memory test, trail making test (TMT B, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT. The MTA scale correlated with Stroop test and Fazekas scale with figure memory test, digit span, and Stroop test according to the subgroup evaluated. Visual scales by MRI in MCI should be evaluated by cognitive domain and might be more useful in more severely impaired MCI or dementia patients.

  7. Prevalence and conversion to dementia of Mild Cognitive Impairment in an elderly Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Noale, Marianna; Gesmundo, Antonella; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2017-06-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) represents a significant risk factor for dementia but there are only a few Italian population studies on its prevalence and its rate of conversion to dementia. Aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MCI, its subtypes, and rates of conversion to dementia 1 year later in an elderly Italian population. The data are based on an Italian multicenter population-based cohort study with both cross-sectional and longitudinal components. Two thousand three hundred thirty-seven individuals over 65 underwent screening, clinical confirmation and 1-year follow-up. The prevalence of MCI was 21.6% and the amnestic multiple domain was the most frequent subtype (63.2%). The conversion rate to dementia was 4.1% and was found only in the amnestic multiple domain and in the unclassifiable subjects, persons with cognitive deficit but neither demented nor with MCI. The prevalence of MCI in this population sample was similar to that found in other population studies using Petersen's modified MCI criteria as well as his original criteria. With regard to conversion to dementia, our results emphasize the importance to better classify the unclassifiable subjects at high risk of progression to dementia and also at risk of being undiagnosed and untreated. MCI is characterized by extreme variability and instability. Data on the prevalence and the rate of conversion from MCI to dementia are difficult to compare given the important differences from study to study especially with regard to the diagnostic criteria utilized and their operationalization.

  8. A Combined Training Program for Veterans with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Clinic, VA Outpatient Neuropsychology Service, Stanford/VA Alzheimer’s Research Center, and the Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical...educate providers in neurology, primary care, neuropsychology , psychiatry, and psychology about the study and the inclusion/exclusion criteria. We have...Exclusionary Criteria Exclusionary Criteria Screen Code Criteria E01  Current severe psychiatric disorder, such as Bipolar I,  Schizophrenia , or Major

  9. A Combined Training Program for Veterans with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Figure 4. Quality of Life: Positive 10 Figure. 5 Quality of Life: Negative Figure 6: Quality of Life: Self - Esteem ...to the project. We have also placed recurring advertisements in two local newsletters, each of which is widely distributed to older adults in the...through electronic medical review. Those selected for review were through VA clinics, provider referral, or self -referral. Of those 699 individuals

  10. Gait, dual task and history of falls in elderly with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ansai, Juliana H.; Andrade, Larissa P.; Rossi, Paulo G.; Takahashi, Anielle C.M.; Vale, Francisco A.C.; Rebelatto, Jos? R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies with functional and applicable methods and new cognitive demands involving executive function are needed to improve screening, prevention and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment and falls. Objective to identify differences in gait, dual task performances, and history of falls between elderly people with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 40 community-dwelling o...

  11. Computer versus Compensatory Calendar Training in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Functional Impact in a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Melanie J; Locke, Dona E C; Duncan, Noah L; Hanna, Sherrie M; Cuc, Andrea V; Fields, Julie A; Hoffman Snyder, Charlene R; Lunde, Angela M; Smith, Glenn E

    2017-09-06

    This pilot study examined the functional impact of computerized versus compensatory calendar training in cognitive rehabilitation participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fifty-seven participants with amnestic MCI completed randomly assigned calendar or computer training. A standard care control group was used for comparison. Measures of adherence, memory-based activities of daily living (mADLs), and self-efficacy were completed. The calendar training group demonstrated significant improvement in mADLs compared to controls, while the computer training group did not. Calendar training may be more effective in improving mADLs than computerized intervention. However, this study highlights how behavioral trials with fewer than 30-50 participants per arm are likely underpowered, resulting in seemingly null findings.

  12. A brain stress test: Cerebral perfusion during memory encoding in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Long; Dolui, Sudipto; Das, Sandhitsu R; Stockbower, Grace E; Daffner, Molly; Rao, Hengyi; Yushkevich, Paul A; Detre, John A; Wolk, David A

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (ASL MRI) provides non-invasive quantification of cerebral blood flow, which can be used as a biomarker of brain function due to the tight coupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain metabolism. A growing body of literature suggests that regional CBF is altered in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we examined ASL MRI CBF in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 65) and cognitively normal healthy controls (n = 62), both at rest and during performance of a memory-encoding task. As compared to rest, task-enhanced ASL MRI improved group discrimination, which supports the notion that physiologic measures during a cognitive challenge, or "stress test", may increase the ability to detect subtle functional changes in early disease stages. Further, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ASL MRI and concomitantly acquired structural MRI provide complementary information of disease status. The current findings support the potential utility of task-enhanced ASL MRI as a biomarker in early Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Sensor-based balance training with motion feedback in people with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Michael; Sabbagh, Marwan; Lin, Ivy; Morgan, Pharah; Grewal, Gurtej S; Mohler, Jane; Coon, David W; Najafi, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Some individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) experience not only cognitive deficits but also a decline in motor function, including postural balance. This pilot study sought to estimate the feasibility, user experience, and effects of a novel sensor-based balance training program. Patients with amnestic MCI (mean age 78.2 yr) were randomized to an intervention group (IG, n = 12) or control group (CG, n = 10). The IG underwent balance training (4 wk, twice a week) that included weight shifting and virtual obstacle crossing. Real-time visual/audio lower-limb motion feedback was provided from wearable sensors. The CG received no training. User experience was measured by a questionnaire. Postintervention effects on balance (center of mass sway during standing with eyes open [EO] and eyes closed), gait (speed, variability), cognition, and fear of falling were measured. Eleven participants (92%) completed the training and expressed fun, safety, and helpfulness of sensor feedback. Sway (EO, p = 0.04) and fear of falling (p = 0.02) were reduced in the IG compared to the CG. Changes in other measures were nonsignificant. Results suggest that the sensor-based training paradigm is well accepted in the target population and beneficial for improving postural control. Future studies should evaluate the added value of the sensor-based training compared to traditional training.

  14. Neuropathology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Shigeo; Saito, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    Described are retrospective pathological studies on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of brain specimens in the brain bank of authors' institute and current clinical studies of outpatients for screening of MCI based on those pathological findings. The study projects, aided by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) from 2003 and from 2007, have aimed to develop the optimal way for prophylaxis of dementia. In the former autopsy, about 10% of the elderly dead registered in the institute are found to have pathological changes of the clinical dementia rating 0.5, in whom the early Alzheimer disease (AD), Lewy body dementia, argentaffin granular disease and neurofibrillary tangle dominant disease are involved in a similar ratio to each other. Clinically, new patients with memory complaint are first screened by neurological tests involving CT, and then those with suspicious dementia undergo the second screening (2-day hospitalization) involving MRI with VSRAD (Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for AD), ECD single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with eZis (easy Z-score imaging system), myocardial scintigraphy with homovanillic acid (HVA)/m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), and if necessary, PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), PIB (Pittsburgh Compound B, an amyloid prove) and/or 11 C-CFT and 11 C-raclopride. Further, new patients with suspicious Parkinson disease undergo the screening (3-day) of various tests involving MRI with voxel-based morphometry and VSRAD, cerebral blood flow ECD SPECT with eZis and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. It is concluded that AD is the most important subject in MCI and systemic diseases can also affect the cognitive ability as well. (R.T.)

  15. Patterns of 11C-PIB cerebral retention in mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzo, I; Jiménez-Bonilla, J F; Martínez-Rodríguez, I; Quirce, R; de Arcocha-Torres, M; Bravo-Ferrer, Z; Lavado-Pérez, C; Sánchez-Juan, P; Rodríguez, E; Jiménez-Alonso, M; López-Defilló, J; Carril, J M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the patterns of cerebral cortical distribution of (11)C-PIB in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The study included 69 patients (37 male, age range 42-79 years) with MCI, sub-classified as 53 with amnestic-MCI (A-MCI), and 16 with non-amnestic-MCI (NA-MCI). Patients underwent (11)C-PIB PET/CT scan 60min after intravenous injection of the radiotracer. A visual analysis of the images was performed by 2 experienced physicians. (11)C-PIB-positive studies were considered when gray matter uptake was equal to or greater than white matter. According to the regions involved, (11)C-PIB-positive studies were classified into A-pattern (predominant retention in frontal, anterior cingulate, lateral temporal, and basal ganglia) and B-pattern (generalized retention). Thirty-nine of the 69 (56%) patients with MCI showed (11)C-PIB retention. Of the 53 A-MCI patients, 36 (68%) showed (11)C-PIB retention. Eleven out of 36 (30%) positive scans in A-MCI patients showed A-pattern, and 25 out of 36 (70%) patients had a B-pattern. Positive (11)C-PIB was observed in 3 out of 16 (19%) patients with NA-MCI. Regional distribution in these 3 patients showed A-pattern in 1, and B-pattern in 2 patients. Cortical retention of (11)C-PIB was more frequent in A-MCI than in NA-MCI patients, and also B-pattern than A-pattern in the (11)C-PIB positive group. The recognition of (11)C-PIB distribution patterns allows MCI patients to be classified, and the A-pattern may offer a therapeutic window for potential future treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Memory for Public Events in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: The Importance of Rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Roxane; Joubert, Sven; Benoit, Sophie; Dostie, Valérie; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Ribot's law refers to the better preservation of remote memories compared with recent ones that presumably characterizes retrograde amnesia. Even if Ribot-type temporal gradient has been extensively studied in retrograde amnesia, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD), this pattern has not been consistently found. One explanation for these results may be that rehearsal frequency rather than remoteness accounts for the better preservation of these memories. Thus, the aim of present study was to address this question by studying retrograde semantic memory in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 20), mild AD (n = 20) and in healthy older controls (HC; n = 19). In order to evaluate the impact of repetition as well as the impact of remoteness, we used a test assessing memory for enduring and transient public events that occurred in the recent and remote past. Results show no clear temporal gradient across time periods (1960-1975; 1976-1990; 1991-2005; 2006-2011), but a better performance was observed in all three groups for enduring compared with transient events. Moreover, although deficits were globally found in both patients groups compared with HC, more specific analyses revealed that aMCI patients were only impaired on transient events while AD patients were impaired on both transient and enduring events. Exploratory analyses also revealed a tendency suggesting preservation of remote transient events in aMCI. These findings are discussed with regards to memory consolidation models.

  17. N-Terminal Pro-B Type Natriuretic Peptide is Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Kaffer; Mahabadi, Amir Abbas; Weimar, Christian; Winkler, Angela; Neumann, Till; Kälsch, Hagen; Dragano, Nico; Moebus, Susanne; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Jokisch, Martha

    2017-01-01

    N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a marker of cardiac stress and is linked with silent cardiac diseases. While associations of cognitive impairment with manifest cardiovascular diseases are established, data on whether subclinical elevation of NT-proBNP levels below clinically established threshold of heart failure is related with cognitive functioning, especially mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is rare. Aim of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional association of NT-proBNP levels and MCI in a population-based study sample without heart failure. We used data from the second examination of the population based Heinz-Nixdorf-Recall-Study. Subjects with overt coronary heart disease and subjects with NT-proBNP levels indicating potential heart failure (NT-proBNP≥300 pg/ml) were excluded from this analysis. Participants performed a validated brief cognitive assessment and were classified either as MCI [subtypes: amnestic-MCI (aMCI), non-amnestic-MCI (naMCI)], or cognitively-normal. We included 419 participants with MCI (63.1±7.4 y; 47% men; aMCI n = 209; naMCI n = 210) and 1,206 cognitively normal participants (62.42±7.1 y; 48% men). NT-proBNP-levels≥125 pg/ml compared to heart failure, higher NT-proBNPlevels are associated with MCI and both MCI subtypes independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and sociodemographic parameters.

  18. Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease-What Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Rimona S; Costantini, Alyssa A; Schrag, Anette E

    2018-03-10

    Mild cognitive impairment is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, even at the earliest disease stages, but there is variation in the nature and severity of cognitive involvement and in the risk of conversion to Parkinson's disease dementia. This review aims to summarise current understanding of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. We consider the presentation, rate of conversion to dementia, underlying pathophysiology and potential biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Finally, we discuss challenges and controversies of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Large-scale longitudinal studies have shown that cognitive involvement is important and common in Parkinson's disease and can present early in the disease course. Recent criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's provide the basis for further study of cognitive decline and for the progression of different cognitive phenotypes and risk of conversion to dementia. Improved understanding of the underlying pathology and progression of cognitive change are likely to lead to opportunities for early intervention for this important aspect of Parkinson's disease.

  19. Gait, dual task and history of falls in elderly with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Juliana H; Andrade, Larissa P; Rossi, Paulo G; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Vale, Francisco A C; Rebelatto, José R

    Studies with functional and applicable methods and new cognitive demands involving executive function are needed to improve screening, prevention and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment and falls. to identify differences in gait, dual task performances, and history of falls between elderly people with preserved cognition, mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 40 community-dwelling older adults with preserved cognition, 40 older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and 38 older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease. The assessment consisted of anamneses, gait (measured by the 10-meter walk test), dual task (measured by the Timed Up and Go Test associated with the motor-cognitive task of calling a phone number), and history of falls in the past year. There were no differences among all groups for all variables. However, the Alzheimer's disease Group performed significantly worse in the dual task than the other groups. No item of dual task could distinguish people with preserved cognition from those with mild cognitive impairment. The groups with cognitive impairment included more fallers, and specific characteristics in history of falls between groups were identified. Dual task could distinguish Alzheimer's disease patients specifically from other cognitive profiles. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Deficits of spatial and task-related attentional selection in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, P; Bublak, P; Sorg, C; Kurz, A; Förstl, H; Müller, H J; Schneider, W X; Perneczky, R; Finke, K

    2012-01-01

    Visual selective attention was assessed with a partial-report task in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy elderly controls. Based on Bundesen's "theory of visual attention" (TVA), two parameters were derived: top-down control of attentional selection, representing task-related attentional weighting for prioritizing relevant visual objects, and spatial distribution of attentional weights across the left and the right hemifield. Compared with controls, MCI patients showed significantly reduced top-down controlled selection, which was further deteriorated in AD subjects. Moreover, attentional weighting was significantly unbalanced across hemifields in MCI and tended to be more lateralized in AD. Across MCI and AD patients, carriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE4) displayed a leftward spatial bias, which was the more pronounced the younger the ApoE4-positive patients and the earlier disease onset. These results indicate that impaired top-down control may be linked to early dysfunction of fronto-parietal networks. An early temporo-parietal interhemispheric asymmetry might cause a pathological spatial bias which is associated with ApoE4 genotype and may therefore function as early cognitive marker of upcoming AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estrogen and cognitive functioning in men with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Barbara B

    2002-01-01

    Although men do not experience an abrupt cessation of gonadal hormone production at midlife as do women, levels of testosterone (T) decrease gradually with aging. Because estradiol (E2) arises mainly from the conversion of T in men, the availability of E2 also decreases with increasing age. In randomized clinical trials, E2 replacement therapy has been shown to maintain aspects of cognition in postmenopausal women, specifically with regard to verbal memory. The present prospective, randomized, cross-over trial is being undertaken in order to determine whether E2 will enhance verbal memory in men with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Men with MCI will randomly receive E2 or placebo for the first 3 mo of treatment and will then be crossed-over to the other treatment for an additional 3 mo. A battery of neuropsychological tests will be administered at pretreatment and, again, following each 3-mo treatment phase. It is hypothesized that elderly men with MCI will perform better on tests of explicit memory when they are being treated with E2 compared to their performance under placebo conditions.

  2. Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Liepelt-Scarfone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparable to Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI is associated with an increased risk for dementia. However different definitions of PD-MCI may have varying predictive accuracy for dementia. In a cohort of 101 nondemented Parkinson patients who underwent neuropsychological testing, the frequency of PD-MCI subjects and PD-MCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic/nonamnestic was determined by use of varying healthy population-based cut-off values. We also investigated the association between defined PD-MCI groups and ADL scales. Varying cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI were found to affect frequency of PD-MCI subjects (9.9%–92.1% and, maybe more important, lead to a “shift” of proportion of detected PD-MCI subtypes especially within the amnestic single-domain subtype. Models using a strict cut-off value were significantly associated with lower ADL scores. Thus, the use of defined cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI is highly relevant for comparison purposes. Strict cut-off values may have a higher predictive value for dementia.

  3. Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I

    2017-09-01

    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei). Twenty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (age 66.6±6.9, 16 males) and 28 healthy, cognitively normal, demographically matched controls (age 66.2±7.1, 15 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of grey matter volumes and high-resolution positron emission tomography with well-established radiotracers for the serotonin transporter and regional cerebral blood flow. Beta-amyloid imaging was performed to evaluate, in combination with the neuropsychological testing, the likelihood of subsequent cognitive decline in the participants with mild cognitive impairment. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the serotonin transporter would be lower in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic regions, 2) in mild cognitive impairment relative to controls, the serotonin transporter would be lower to a greater extent and observed in a more widespread pattern than lower grey matter volumes or lower regional cerebral blood flow and 3) lower cortical and limbic serotonin transporters would be correlated with greater deficits in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. Reduced serotonin transporter availability was observed in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic

  4. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and brain volumetry in mild cognitive impairment. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Nicolás; Modrego, Pedro J; García-Martí, Gracián; Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Marti-Bonmatí, Luis

    2017-05-01

    To assess the accuracy of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and brain volumetry in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to predict conversion to probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty-eight patients fulfilling the criteria of amnestic MCI who underwent a conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) followed by MRS, and T1-3D on 1.5 Tesla MR unit. At baseline the patients underwent neuropsychological examination. 1H-MRS of the brain was carried out by exploring the left medial occipital lobe and ventral posterior cingulated cortex (vPCC) using the LCModel software. A high resolution T1-3D sequence was acquired to carry out the volumetric measurement. A cortical and subcortical parcellation strategy was used to obtain the volumes of each area within the brain. The patients were followed up to detect conversion to probable AD. After a 3-year follow-up, 15 (31.2%) patients converted to AD. The myo-inositol in the occipital cortex and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the posterior cingulate cortex predicted conversion to probable AD at 46.1% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity. The positive predictive value was 66.7%, and the negative predictive value was 80.6%, with an overall cross-validated classification accuracy of 77.8%. The volume of the third ventricle, the total white matter and entorhinal cortex predict conversion to probable AD at 46.7% sensitivity and 90.9% specificity. The positive predictive value was 70%, and the negative predictive value was 78.9%, with an overall cross-validated classification accuracy of 77.1%. Combining volumetric measures in addition to the MRS measures the prediction to probable AD has a 38.5% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity, with a positive predictive value of 55.6%, a negative predictive value of 77.8% and an overall accuracy of 73.3%. Either MRS or brain volumetric measures are markers separately of cognitive decline and may serve as a noninvasive tool to monitor cognitive changes and progression to dementia in patients with

  5. The Impact of Memory Change on Daily Life in Normal Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Preeyam K; Troyer, Angela K; Maione, Andrea M; Murphy, Kelly J

    2016-10-01

    Older adults with age-normal memory changes and those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) report mild memory difficulties with everyday problems such as learning new names or remembering past events. Although the type and extent of memory changes in these populations have been well documented, little is known about how memory changes impact their everyday lives. Using a qualitative research design, data were collected from three focus groups of older adults with normal memory changes (n = 23) and two focus groups of older adults with aMCI (n = 14). A thematic analysis using the constant comparative method was used to identify the impacts of memory change on key life domains. Four major themes emerged from the two groups, including changes in feelings and views of the self, changes in relationships and social interactions, changes in work and leisure activities, and deliberate increases in compensatory behaviors. Participants described both positive and negative consequences of memory change, and these were more substantial and generally more adverse for individuals with aMCI than for those with age-normal memory changes. There are similarities and important differences in the impact of mild memory change on the everyday lives of older adults with age-normal memory changes and those with aMCI. Findings underscore the need for clinical interventions that aim to minimize the emotional impact of memory changes and that increase leisure and social activity in individuals with aMCI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...

  7. Mild cognitive impairment: coping with an uncertain label.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten-Weyn Banningh, E.W.A.; Vernooy-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recently introduced diagnostic label of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) identifies patients with a cognitive decline that is more pronounced than is usual for a person's age and educational level but does not notably interfere with activities of daily living (ADL). The natural course

  8. Memory evaluation in mild cognitive impairment using recall and recognition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J; Golob, Edward J; Parker, Elizabeth S; Starr, Arnold

    2006-11-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a selective episodic memory deficit that often indicates early Alzheimer's disease. Episodic memory function in MCI is typically defined by deficits in free recall, but can also be tested using recognition procedures. To assess both recall and recognition in MCI, MCI (n = 21) and older comparison (n = 30) groups completed the USC-Repeatable Episodic Memory Test. Subjects memorized two verbally presented 15-item lists. One list was used for three free recall trials, immediately followed by yes/no recognition. The second list was used for three-alternative forced-choice recognition. Relative to the comparison group, MCI had significantly fewer hits and more false alarms in yes/no recognition, and were less accurate in forced-choice recognition. Signal detection analysis showed that group differences were not due to response bias. Discriminant function analysis showed that yes/no recognition was a better predictor of group membership than free recall or forced-choice measures. MCI subjects recalled fewer items than comparison subjects, with no group differences in repetitions, intrusions, serial position effects, or measures of recall strategy (subjective organization, recall consistency). Performance deficits on free recall and recognition in MCI suggest a combination of both tests may be useful for defining episodic memory impairment associated with MCI and early Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Apathy and emotion-based decision-making in amnesic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Sophie; Jacus, Jean-Pierre; Raffard, Stéphane; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Apathy and reduced emotion-based decision-making are two behavioral modifications independently described in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). The aims of this study were to investigate decision-making based on emotional feedback processing in AD and aMCI and to study the impact of reduced decision-making performances on apathy. We recruited 20 patients with AD, 20 participants with aMCI, and 20 healthy controls. All participants completed the Lille apathy rating scale (LARS) and the Iowa gambling task (IGT). Both aMCI and AD participants had reduced performances on the IGT and were more apathetic compared to controls without any difference between aMCI and AD groups. For the entire sample, LARS initiation dimension was related to IGT disadvantageous decision-making profile. We provide the first study showing that both aMCI and AD individuals make less profitable decisions than controls, whereas aMCI and AD did not differ. Disadvantageous decision-making profile on the IGT was associated with higher level of apathy on the action initiation dimension. The role of an abnormal IGT performance as a risk factor for the development of apathy needs to be investigated in other clinical populations and in normal aging.

  10. Assessing Working Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment with Serial Order Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrani, Sheina; Libon, David J; Lamar, Melissa; Price, Catherine C; Jefferson, Angela L; Gifford, Katherine A; Hohman, Timothy J; Nation, Daniel A; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Jak, Amy; Bangen, Katherine J; Bondi, Mark W; Brickman, Adam M; Manly, Jennifer; Swenson, Rodney; Au, Rhoda

    2018-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is often assessed with serial order tests such as repeating digits backward. In prior dementia research using the Backward Digit Span Test (BDT), only aggregate test performance was examined. The current research tallied primacy/recency effects, out-of-sequence transposition errors, perseverations, and omissions to assess WM deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Memory clinic patients (n = 66) were classified into three groups: single domain amnestic MCI (aMCI), combined mixed domain/dysexecutive MCI (mixed/dys MCI), and non-MCI where patients did not meet criteria for MCI. Serial order/WM ability was assessed by asking participants to repeat 7 trials of five digits backwards. Serial order position accuracy, transposition errors, perseverations, and omission errors were tallied. A 3 (group)×5 (serial position) repeated measures ANOVA yielded a significant group×trial interaction. Follow-up analyses found attenuation of the recency effect for mixed/dys MCI patients. Mixed/dys MCI patients scored lower than non-MCI patients for serial position 3 (p Mixed/dys MCI patients also produced more transposition errors than both groups (p order parameters obtained from the BDT may provide a useful operational definition as well as additional diagnostic information regarding working memory deficits in MCI.

  11. Attention and inhibition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Zancada-Menéndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment is understood as a cognitive deficit of insufficient severity to fulfil the criteria for Alzheimer’s disease. Many studies have attempted to identify which cognitive functions are most affected by this type of impairment and which is the most sensitive neuropsychological test for early detection. This study investigated sustained and selective attention, processing speed, and the inhibition process using a sample of people divided into three groups mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease and cognitively healthy controls selected and grouped based on their scores in the Mini Mental State Examination and Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised. Three tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (Motor Screening Task, Stop Signal Task and Reaction time were used as well as the d2 attention test. The results show that that participants with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease showed lower levels of concentration compared with the cognitively healthy controls group in the d2 test and longer reaction times in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, although the differences were not marked in the latter test. The impairments in basic cognitive processes, such as reaction time and sustained attention, indicate the need to take these functions into account in the test protocols when discriminating between normal aging and early and preclinical dementia processes.

  12. A dataset of multiresolution functional brain parcellations in an elderly population with no or mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Tam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present group eight resolutions of brain parcellations for clusters generated from resting-state functional magnetic resonance images for 99 cognitively normal elderly persons and 129 patients with mild cognitive impairment, pooled from four independent datasets. This dataset was generated as part of the following study: Common Effects of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment on Resting-State Connectivity Across Four Independent Studies (Tam et al., 2015 [1]. The brain parcellations have been registered to both symmetric and asymmetric MNI brain templates and generated using a method called bootstrap analysis of stable clusters (BASC (Bellec et al., 2010 [2]. We present two variants of these parcellations. One variant contains bihemisphereic parcels (4, 6, 12, 22, 33, 65, 111, and 208 total parcels across eight resolutions. The second variant contains spatially connected regions of interest (ROIs that span only one hemisphere (10, 17, 30, 51, 77, 199, and 322 total ROIs across eight resolutions. We also present maps illustrating functional connectivity differences between patients and controls for four regions of interest (striatum, dorsal prefrontal cortex, middle temporal lobe, and medial frontal cortex. The brain parcels and associated statistical maps have been publicly released as 3D volumes, available in .mnc and .nii file formats on figshare and on Neurovault. Finally, the code used to generate this dataset is available on Github.

  13. Altered Topology in Information Processing of a Narrated Story in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Oren, Noga; Ash, Elissa L; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Lerner, Yulia

    2016-05-03

    The ability to store, integrate, and manipulate information declines with aging. These changes occur earlier, faster, and to a greater degree as a result of neurodegeneration. One of the most common and early characteristics of cognitive decline is difficulty with comprehension of information. The neural mechanisms underlying this breakdown of information processing are poorly understood. Using functional MRI and natural stimuli (e.g., stories), we mapped the neural mechanisms by which the human brain accumulates and processes information with increasing duration and complexity in participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy older adults. To explore the mechanisms of information processing, we measured the reliability of brain responses elicited by listening to different versions of a narrated story created by segmenting the story into words, sentences, and paragraphs and then scrambling the segments. Comparing healthy older adults and participants with aMCI revealed that in both groups, all types of stimuli similarly recruited primary auditory areas. However, prominent differences between groups were found at the level of processing long and complex stimuli. In healthy older adults, parietal and frontal regions demonstrated highly synchronized responses in both the paragraph and full story conditions, as has been previously reported in young adults. Participants with aMCI, however, exhibited a robust functional shift of long time scale processing to the pre- and post-central sulci. Our results suggest that participants with aMCI experienced a functional shift of higher order auditory information processing, possibly reflecting a functional response to concurrent or impending neuronal or synaptic loss. This observation might assist in understanding mechanisms of cognitive decline in aMCI.

  14. Study on the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS performance in healthy individuals, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Garcia da Costa Armentano

    Full Text Available Abstract Executive deficits as well as deficits in episodic memory characterize the initial phases of Alzheimer Disease (AD and are clinically correlated to neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional loss. Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment present more problems as to inhibitory response control, switching and cognitive flexibility. Objective: To compare performance on the BADS with performance on other executive functional tests among patients with mild Alzheimer's disease, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI to performance of control individuals and to examine discriminative capacity of BADS among these groups. Methods: The BADS was performed by 35 healthy controls, 13 patients with aMCI, and 16 mild probable AD patients. Besides performing the BADS, subjects underwent neuropsychological evaluation which comprised: the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS, verbal fluency by phonemic categories (F.A.S and Concentrated Attention Test (CA. Results: There were no differences among groups by educational level, but performance differed for age (p<0.01. No difference between healthy controls and aMCI patients was found on total scores or subitems of the BADS. A significant difference was observed between aMCI and AD patients (p<0.05 and between controls and AD patients (p<0.05 on total and standard scores. Conclusions: Performance on the BADS differed between healthy individuals and mild AD patients. The BADS proved to be a sensitive method for discriminating AD from aMCI.

  15. Higher incidence of mild cognitive impairment in familial hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambón, D.; Quintana, M.; Mata, P.; Alonso, R.; Benavent, J.; Cruz-Sánchez, F.; Gich, J.; Pocoví, M.; Civeira, F.; Capurro, S.; Bachman, D.; Sambamurti, K.; Nicholas, J.; Pappolla, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Hypercholesterolemia is an early risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors may be involved in this disorder. Our objective was to determine the risk of mild cognitive impairment in a population of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, a condition involving LDL receptors dysfunction and life long hypercholesterolemia. Methods Using a cohort study design, patients with (N=47) meeting inclusion criteria and comparison patients without familial hypercholesterolemia (N=70) were consecutively selected from academic specialty and primary care clinics respectively. All patients were older than 50 years. Those with disorders which could impact cognition, including history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks, were excluded from both groups. Thirteen standardized neuropsychological tests were performed in all subjects. Mutational analysis was performed in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and brain imaging was obtained in those with familial hypercholesterolemia and mild cognitive impairment. Results Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia showed a very high incidence of mild cognitive impairment compared to those without familial hypercholesterolemia (21.3% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.00). This diagnosis was unrelated to structural pathology or white matter disease. There were significant differences between the familial hypercholesterolemia and the no-familial hypercholesterolemia groups in several cognitive measures, all in the direction of worse performance for familial hypercholesterolemia patients, independent of apoE4 or apoE2 status. Conclusions Because prior studies have shown that older patients with sporadic hypercholesterolemia do not show higher incidence of mild cognitive impairment, the findings presented here suggest that early exposure to elevated cholesterol or LDL receptors dysfunction may be risk factors for mild cognitive impairment. PMID:20193836

  16. Improvement of Screening Accuracy of Mini-Mental State Examination for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Non-Alzheimer's Disease Dementia by Supplementation of Verbal Fluency Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Dong Young; Seo, Eun Hyun; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Choe, Young Min; Kim, Shin Gyeom; Park, Shin Young; Choo, Il Han; Youn, Jong Chul; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Kim, Ki Woong; Woo, Jong Inn

    2014-01-01

    THIS STUDY AIMED TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER THE SUPPLEMENTATION OF VERBAL FLUENCY: Animal category test (VF) performance can improve the screening ability of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia and their major subtypes. Six hundred fifty-five cognitively normal (CN), 366 MCI [282 amnestic MCI (aMCI); 84 non-amnestic MCI (naMCI)] and 494 dementia [346 Alzheimer's disease (AD); and 148 non-Alzheimer's disease dementia (NAD)] individuals living in the community were included (all aged 50 years and older) in the study. The VF-supplemented MMSE (MMSE+VF) score had a significantly better screening ability for MCI, dementia and overall cognitive impairment (MCI plus dementia) than the MMSE raw score alone. MMSE+VF showed a significantly better ability than MMSE for both MCI subtypes, i.e., aMCI and naMCI. In the case of dementia subtypes, MMSE+VF was better than the MMSE alone for NAD screening, but not for AD screening. The results support the usefulness of VF-supplementation to improve the screening performance of MMSE for MCI and NAD.

  17. Estrogen replacement therapy, Alzheimer's disease, and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnard, Ruth A; Corrada, Marìa M; Kawas, Claudia H

    2004-09-01

    This article highlights the latest findings regarding estrogen replacement therapy in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment in women. Despite considerable evidence from observational studies, recent randomized clinical trials of conjugated equine estrogens, alone and in combination with progestin, have shown no benefit for either the treatment of established AD or for the short-term prevention of AD, mild cognitive impairment, or cognitive decline. Based on the evidence, there is no role at present for estrogen replacement therapy in the treatment or prevention of AD or cognitive decline, despite intriguing results from the laboratory and from observational studies. However, numerous questions remain about the biologic effects of estrogens on brain structure and function. Additional basic and clinical investigations are necessary to examine different forms and dosages of estrogens, other populations, and the relevance of timing and duration of exposure.

  18. Changes of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haoze; Zhou, Peng; Alcauter, Sarael; Chen, Yuanyuan; Cao, Hongbao; Tian, Miao; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hongzhi; Wang, Xuemin; Zhao, Xin; He, Feng; Ni, Hongyan; Gao, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits of working memory, attention, language and many other cognitive functions. Although different stages of the disease are relatively well characterized by clinical criteria, stage-specific pathological changes in the brain remain relatively poorly understood, especially at the level of large-scale functional networks. In this study, we aimed to characterize the potential disruptions of large-scale functional brain networks based on a sample including amnestic mild cognition impairment (aMCI) and AD patients to help delineate the underlying stage-dependent AD pathology. Approach. We sought to identify the neural connectivity mechanisms of aMCI and AD through examination of both intranetwork and internetwork interactions among four of the brain’s key networks, namely dorsal attention network (DAN), default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN) and salience network (SAL). We analyzed functional connectivity based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from 25 Alzheimer’s disease patients, 20 aMCI patients and 35 elderly normal controls (NC). Main results. Intranetwork functional disruptions within the DAN and ECN were detected in both aMCI and AD patients. Disrupted intranetwork connectivity of DMN and anti-correlation between DAN and DMN were observed in AD patients. Moreover, aMCI-specific alterations in the internetwork functional connectivity of SAL were observed. Significance. Our results confirmed previous findings that AD pathology was related to dysconnectivity both within and between resting-state networks but revealed more spatial details. Moreover, the SAL network, reportedly flexibly coupling either with the DAN or DMN networks during different brain states, demonstrated interesting alterations specifically in the early stage of the disease.

  19. Depressive symptoms predict slow cognitive decline in mild dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janzing, J.G.E.; Naarding, P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Depression may be a prognostic marker of subsequent cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Earlier investigations did not find support for this hypothesis, but these considered mainly syndromal depression. In this prospective study, 32 subjects with mild dementia were followed up for 12

  20. Late-Life Depression, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Reitz, Christiane; Honig, Lawrence H.; Schupf, Nicole; Tang, Ming X.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Mayeux, Richard; Devanand, Devangere; Luchsinger, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association of late-life depression with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in a multiethnic community cohort. Design and Setting: A cohort study was conducted in Northern Manhattan, New York, New York. Participants: A total of 2160 community-dwelling Medicare

  1. Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

  2. Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment with Mini Mental State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment is a recently described neuropsychiatric entity with the possibility of evolving into overt dementia. It has been found to respond to therapeutic intervention, thus halting or significantly retarding the progression to dementia. Resource.poor countries like Nigeria can hardly afford to ...

  3. Cognitive Profile of Elderly Patients with Mild Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Gramstad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pattern characterizing cognitive deficits in mild stroke could help in differential diagnosis and rehabilitation planning. Methods: Fifty patients with mild stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤2 at discharge aged >60 years were given the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R and the Stroop test. Results: On HVLT-R, significant impairments were found in learning and recall, but not in delayed recall. The Stroop test revealed significant impairments in reading speed, but not in color-word interference. Using the MMSE, significant deficits were only found in the youngest age group. Conclusion: Elderly patients with mild stroke show deficits in verbal learning/recall and in reading speed, but not in the MMSE, delayed recall or color-word interference. The deficits are consistent with a mild-to-moderate brain dysfunction, with relative sparing of medial brain structures.

  4. Early Detection of Cognitive-Linguistic Change Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Valarie B.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may present with subtle declines in linguistic ability that go undetected by tasks not challenging enough to tax a relatively intact cognitive-linguistic system. This study was designed to replicate and extend a previous study of cognitive-linguistic ability in MCI using a complex discourse…

  5. International Ballroom Dancing Against Neurodegeneration: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Greek Community-Dwelling Elders With Mild Cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, Ioulietta; Parastatidis, Themis; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Gkioka, Mara; Karakostas, Anastasios; Douka, Stella; Tsolaki, Magda

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have highlighted the positive effects of dance in people with neurodegenerative diseases. To explore the effects of International Ballroom Dancing on cognitive function in elders with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). One-hundred twenty-nine elderly patients with aMCI diagnosis (mean age 66.8 ± 10.1 years) were randomly assigned into 2 groups: intervention group (IG, n = 66) and control group (CG, n = 63). The IG exercised systematically for 10 months, and both groups were submitted to extensive neuropsychological assessment prior and after the 10-month period. According to the independent sample t test at the follow-up, significant differences between groups were found in benefit of the IG while the CG showed worse performance in the majority of neuropsychological tests. According to the Student t test, better performance is detected in IG in contrast with CG, which had worse performance almost in all scales. Dance may be an important nonpharmacological approach that can benefit cognitive functions.

  6. Adenosine A2A Receptor and IL-10 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Arosio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine suppresses immune responses through the A2A receptor (A2AR. This study investigated the interleukin 10 (IL-10 genetic profile and the expression of A2AR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Alzheimer disease (AD, and age-matched controls to verify, if they may help distinguish different forms of cognitive decline. We analyzed the IL-10 genotype and the expression of A2AR in 41 subjects with AD, 10 with amnestic MCI (a-MCI, 49 with multiple cognitive domain MCI (mcd-MCI, and 46 controls. There was a significant linear increase in A2AR mRNA levels and A2AR density from mcd-MCI to a-MCI, with intermediate levels being found in AD. The IL-10 AA genotype frequency was 67% in a-MCI, 46% in AD, 35% in mcd-MCI, and 20% in controls. These data suggest that the assessment of the IL-10 genotype and the expression of A2AR in PBMCs may be a valuable means of differentiating between a-MCI and mcd-MCI.

  7. Telephone screening for mild cognitive impairment in hispanics using the Alzheimer's questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ricardo; Velez, Carlos E; Royall, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: There is a need for a simple and reliable screening test to detect individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The authors analyzed the relationship between performance of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ), an informant-rated measure of dementia-related behaviors, relative to the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-modified (TICS-m), Memory Impairment Scale-telephone version (MIS-t), and the Telephone Executive Assessment (TEXAS) as predictors of MCI. Comparative cross-sectional design, with data collected from participants in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium's (TARCC) San Antonio site. One-hundred percent of our sample was Hispanic. The San Antonio subset of TARCC sample is highly enriched with Mexican Americans (MAs). Fifty-five percent of the interviews were conducted in Spanish. Of the 184 persons enrolled, 124 were normal controls (NCs), and 60 participants had MCI. MCI status and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) were determined through clinical consensus and performed blind to telephone assessments. Controlling for age, gender, education, and language of interview, the association between telephone measures and CDR-SOB was evaluated by multivariate regression. AQ scores were not affected by education, gender, and language of interview, but subject's age did show a positive correlation with informant AQ ratings. The AQ predicted CDR-SOB independently of the cognitive measures, adding variance above and beyond demographics. The TICS-m and the TEXAS appear to have additive value in improving the detection of cognitively impaired patients. The MIS-t failed to contribute significantly to CDR-SOB, independent of the other measures. The AQ may have utility as a culture-fair telephone screening for MCI. The AQ was able to modestly distinguish MCI from NCs. The TEXAS adds variance to a model of dementia severity independent of the AQ, suggesting that the latter may weakly assess that

  8. Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette Merete

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING...... Inventory (BPI) were defined as having pain. MCI was defined using age-adjusted scores on a neuropsychological battery. Multivariable linear regression models assessed associations between pain and MCI, together and separately, and mobility performance (habitual gait speed, Short Physical Performance...

  9. Visuomotor adaptability in older adults with mild cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffert, Jeffrey; Lee, Chi-Mei; Neill, Rebecca; Bo, Jin

    2017-02-01

    The current study examined the augmentation of error feedback on visuomotor adaptability in older adults with varying degrees of cognitive decline (assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; MoCA). Twenty-three participants performed a center-out computerized visuomotor adaptation task when the visual feedback of their hand movement error was presented in a regular (ratio=1:1) or enhanced (ratio=1:2) error feedback schedule. Results showed that older adults with lower scores on the MoCA had less adaptability than those with higher MoCA scores during the regular feedback schedule. However, participants demonstrated similar adaptability during the enhanced feedback schedule, regardless of their cognitive ability. Furthermore, individuals with lower MoCA scores showed larger after-effects in spatial control during the enhanced schedule compared to the regular schedule, whereas individuals with higher MoCA scores displayed the opposite pattern. Additional neuro-cognitive assessments revealed that spatial working memory and processing speed were positively related to motor adaptability during the regular scheduled but negatively related to adaptability during the enhanced schedule. We argue that individuals with mild cognitive decline employed different adaptation strategies when encountering enhanced visual feedback, suggesting older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may benefit from enhanced visual error feedback during sensorimotor adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Statistically Derived Subtypes and Associations with Cerebrospinal Fluid and Genetic Biomarkers in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Joel S; Edmonds, Emily C; Campbell, Laura; Sanderson-Cimino, Mark; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W

    2017-08-01

    Research demonstrates heterogeneous neuropsychological profiles among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, few studies have included visuoconstructional ability or used latent mixture modeling to statistically identify MCI subtypes. Therefore, we examined whether unique neuropsychological MCI profiles could be ascertained using latent profile analysis (LPA), and subsequently investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, genotype, and longitudinal clinical outcomes between the empirically derived classes. A total of 806 participants diagnosed by means of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI criteria received a comprehensive neuropsychological battery assessing visuoconstructional ability, language, attention/executive function, and episodic memory. Test scores were adjusted for demographic characteristics using standardized regression coefficients based on "robust" normal control performance (n=260). Calculated Z-scores were subsequently used in the LPA, and CSF-derived biomarkers, genotype, and longitudinal clinical outcome were evaluated between the LPA-derived MCI classes. Statistical fit indices suggested a 3-class model was the optimal LPA solution. The three-class LPA consisted of a mixed impairment MCI class (n=106), an amnestic MCI class (n=455), and an LPA-derived normal class (n=245). Additionally, the amnestic and mixed classes were more likely to be apolipoprotein e4+ and have worse Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers than LPA-derived normal subjects. Our study supports significant heterogeneity in MCI neuropsychological profiles using LPA and extends prior work (Edmonds et al., 2015) by demonstrating a lower rate of progression in the approximately one-third of ADNI MCI individuals who may represent "false-positive" diagnoses. Our results underscore the importance of using sensitive, actuarial methods for diagnosing MCI, as current diagnostic methods may be over-inclusive. (JINS, 2017, 23, 564-576).

  11. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, K. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This

  12. Usefulness of Discriminability and Response Bias Indices for the Evaluation of Recognition Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María Julieta; Cohen, Gabriela; Campos, Jorge; Martin, Maria Eugenia; Clarens, María Florencia; Sabe, Liliana; Barcelo, Ernesto; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2017-01-01

    Most studies examining episodic memory in Alzheimer disease (AD) have focused on patients' impaired ability to remember information. This approach provides only a partial picture of memory deficits since other factors involved are not considered. To evaluate the recognition memory performance by using a yes/no procedure to examine the effect of discriminability and response bias measures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), AD dementia, and normal-aging subjects. We included 43 controls and 45 a-MCI and 51 mild AD dementia patients. Based on the proportions of correct responses (hits) and false alarms from the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), discriminability (d') and response bias (C) indices from signal detection theory (SDT) were calculated. Results showed significant group differences for d' (F (2) = 83.26, p < 0.001), and C (F (2) = 6.05, p = 0.00). The best predictors of group membership were delayed recall and d' scores. The d' measure correctly classified subjects with 82.98% sensitivity and 91.11% specificity. a-MCI and AD dementia subjects exhibit less discrimination accuracy and more liberal response bias than controls. Furthermore, combined indices of delayed recall and discriminability from the RAVLT are effective in defining early AD. SDT may help enhance diagnostic specificity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The heterogeneity and natural history of mild cognitive impairment of visual memory predominant type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Chin, Juhee; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Yunhwan; Hong, Chang Hyung; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Kyung Won; Ku, Bon D; Moon, So Young; Kim, SangYun; Han, Seol-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hong; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Park, Sun Ah; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the longitudinal outcomes of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) according to the modality of memory impairment involved. We recruited 788 aMCI patients and followed them up. aMCI patients were categorized into three groups according to the modality of memory impairment: Visual-aMCI, only visual memory impaired; Verbal-aMCI, only verbal memory impaired; and Both-aMCI, both visual and verbal memory impaired. Each aMCI group was further categorized according to the presence or absence of recognition failure. Risk of progression to dementia was compared with pooled logistic regression analyses while controlling for age, gender, education, and interval from baseline. Of the sample, 219 (27.8%) aMCI patients progressed to dementia. Compared to the Visual-aMCI group, Verbal-aMCI (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.19-3.28, p = 0.009) and Both-aMCI (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.97-4.71, p Memory recognition failure was associated with increased risk of progression to dementia only in the Visual-aMCI group, but not in the Verbal-aMCI and Both-aMCI groups. The Visual-aMCI without recognition failure group were subcategorized into aMCI with depression, small vessel disease, or accelerated aging, and these subgroups showed a variety of progression rates. Our findings underlined the importance of heterogeneous longitudinal outcomes of aMCI, especially Visual-aMCI, for designing and interpreting future treatment trials in aMCI.

  14. Extent and neural basis of semantic memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Didic, Mira; Joubert, Sven; Guedj, Eric; Koric, Lejla; Felician, Olivier; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that semantic memory is impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the extent and the neural basis of this impairment remain unknown. The aim of the present study was: 1) to evaluate whether all or only a subset of semantic domains are impaired in MCI patients; and 2) to assess the neural substrate of the semantic impairment in MCI patients using voxel-based analysis of MR grey matter density and SPECT perfusion. 29 predominantly amnestic MCI patients and 29 matched control subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a full neuropsychological assessment, along with a battery of five tests evaluating different domains of semantic memory. A semantic memory composite Z-score was established on the basis of this battery and was correlated with MRI grey matter density and SPECT perfusion measures. MCI patients were found to have significantly impaired performance across all semantic tasks, in addition to their anterograde memory deficit. Moreover, no temporal gradient was found for famous faces or famous public events and knowledge for the most remote decades was also impaired. Neuroimaging analyses revealed correlations between semantic knowledge and perirhinal/entorhinal areas as well as the anterior hippocampus. Therefore, the deficits in the realm of semantic memory in patients with MCI is more widespread than previously thought and related to dysfunction of brain areas beyond the limbic-diencephalic system involved in episodic memory. The severity of the semantic impairment may indicate a decline of semantic memory that began many years before the patients first consulted.

  15. Implicit perceptual-motor skill learning in mild cognitive impairment and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobel, Eric W; Blomeke, Kelsey; Zadikoff, Cindy; Simuni, Tanya; Weintraub, Sandra; Reber, Paul J

    2013-05-01

    Implicit skill learning is hypothesized to depend on nondeclarative memory that operates independent of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system and instead depends on cortico striatal circuits between the basal ganglia and cortical areas supporting motor function and planning. Research with the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task suggests that patients with memory disorders due to MTL damage exhibit normal implicit sequence learning. However, reports of intact learning rely on observations of no group differences, leading to speculation as to whether implicit sequence learning is fully intact in these patients. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often exhibit impaired sequence learning, but this impairment is not universally observed. Implicit perceptual-motor sequence learning was examined using the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI; n = 11) and patients with PD (n = 15). Sequence learning in SISL is resistant to explicit learning and individually adapted task difficulty controls for baseline performance differences. Patients with MCI exhibited robust sequence learning, equivalent to healthy older adults (n = 20), supporting the hypothesis that the MTL does not contribute to learning in this task. In contrast, the majority of patients with PD exhibited no sequence-specific learning in spite of matched overall task performance. Two patients with PD exhibited performance indicative of an explicit compensatory strategy suggesting that impaired implicit learning may lead to greater reliance on explicit memory in some individuals. The differences in learning between patient groups provides strong evidence in favor of implicit sequence learning depending solely on intact basal ganglia function with no contribution from the MTL memory system.

  16. Hippocampal subfield volumetry in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Joie, Renaud; Perrotin, Audrey; de La Sayette, Vincent; Egret, Stéphanie; Doeuvre, Loïc; Belliard, Serge; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is a well-known feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but sensitivity and specificity of hippocampal volumetry are limited. Neuropathological studies have shown that hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable to AD; hippocampal subfield volumetry may thus prove to be more accurate than global hippocampal volumetry to detect AD. CA1, subiculum and other subfields were manually delineated from 40 healthy controls, 18 AD, 17 amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and 8 semantic dementia (SD) patients using a previously developed high resolution MRI procedure. Non-parametric group comparisons and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted. Complementary analyses were conducted to evaluate differences of hemispheric asymmetry and anterior-predominance between AD and SD patients and to distinguish aMCI patients with or without β-amyloid deposition as assessed by Florbetapir-TEP. Global hippocampi were atrophied in all three patient groups and volume decreases were maximal in the CA1 subfield (22% loss in aMCI, 27% in both AD and SD; all p volumetry was more accurate than global hippocampal measurement to distinguish patients from controls (areas under the ROC curve = 0.88 and 0.76, respectively; p = 0.05) and preliminary analyses suggest that it was independent from the presence of β-amyloid deposition. In patients with SD, whereas the degree of CA1 and subiculum atrophy was similar to that found in AD patients, hemispheric and anterior-posterior asymmetry were significantly more marked than in AD with greater involvement of the left and anterior hippocampal subfields. The findings suggest that CA1 measurement is more sensitive than global hippocampal volumetry to detect structural changes at the pre-dementia stage, although the predominance of CA1 atrophy does not appear to be specific to AD pathophysiological processes.

  17. Reliability measures of functional magnetic resonance imaging in a longitudinal evaluation of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanto, Theodore P; Pa, Judy; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-01-01

    As the aging population grows, it has become increasingly important to carefully characterize amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a valuable tool for monitoring disease progression in selectively vulnerable brain regions associated with AD neuropathology. However, the reliability of fMRI data in longitudinal studies of older adults with aMCI is largely unexplored. To address this, aMCI participants completed two visual working tasks, a Delayed-Recognition task and a One-Back task, on three separate scanning sessions over a three-month period. Test-retest reliability of the fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity was assessed using an intraclass correlation (ICC) analysis approach. Results indicated that brain regions engaged during the task displayed greater reliability across sessions compared to regions that were not utilized by the task. During task-engagement, differential reliability scores were observed across the brain such that the frontal lobe, medial temporal lobe, and subcortical structures exhibited fair to moderate reliability (ICC=0.3-0.6), while temporal, parietal, and occipital regions exhibited moderate to good reliability (ICC=0.4-0.7). Additionally, reliability across brain regions was more stable when three fMRI sessions were used in the ICC calculation relative to two fMRI sessions. In conclusion, the fMRI BOLD signal is reliable across scanning sessions in this population and thus a useful tool for tracking longitudinal change in observational and interventional studies in aMCI. © 2013.

  18. Mild Cognitive Impairment: Diagnosis, Longitudinal Course, and Emerging Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Jennifer N.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is widely regarded as the intermediate stage of cognitive impairment between the changes seen in normal cognitive aging and those associated with dementia. Elderly patients with MCI constitute a high-risk population for developing dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although the core clinical criteria for MCI have remained largely unchanged, the operational definition of MCI has undergone several revisions over the course of the last decade and remains an evolving diagnosis. Prognostic implications of this diagnosis are becoming clearer with regard to the risk of progressive cognitive deterioration. Although patients with MCI may represent an optimal target population for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, results from clinical trials have been mixed and a definitive effective treatment remains elusive. This article provides a brief overview of the evolution of the concept of MCI and reviews current diagnostic criteria, the longitudinal course of the disorder, and current and emerging treatments for MCI. PMID:25160795

  19. Lower-Extremity Function in Cognitively Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Volkers, Karin M.; Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Steinberg, Eric; Nair, Anil; Green, Robert C.; Stern, Robert A.

    Eggermont LH, Gavett BE, Volkers KM, Blankevoort CG, Scherder EJ, Jefferson AL, Steinberg E, Nair A, Green RC, Stern RA. Lower-extremity function in cognitively healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:584-8. Objective: To examine differences

  20. Lower extremity function in normal cognitive aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, L.H.P.; Gavett, B.E.; Volkers, K.M.; Blankevoort, C.G.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Jefferson, A.L.; Steinberg, E.; Nair, A.; Green, R.C.; Stern, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Eggermont LH, Gavett BE, Volkers KM, Blankevoort CG, Scherder EJ, Jefferson AL, Steinberg E, Nair A, Green RC, Stern RA. Lower-extremity function in cognitively healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Objective: To examine differences in lower-extremity function in

  1. Salience Network and Depressive Severities in Parkinson’s Disease with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Structural Covariance Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, we investigated the clinical significance of salience network (SN in depression and cognitive performance.Methods: Seventy seven PD-MCI patients that fulfilled multi-domain and non-amnestic subtype were included. Gray matter structural covariance networks were constructed by 3D T1-magnetic resonance imaging and seed based analysis. The patients were divided into two groups by psychiatric interviews and screening of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS: PD-MCI with depression (PD-MCI-D or without depression (PD-MCI-ND. The seed or peak cluster volume, or the significant differences in the regression slopes in each seed-peak cluster correlation, were used to evaluate the significance with the neurobehavioral scores.Results: This study is the first to demonstrate that the PD-MCI-ND group presented a larger number of voxels of structural covariance in SN than the PD-MCI-D group. The right fronto-insular seed volumes and the peak cluster of left lingual gyrus showed significant inverse correlation with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS; r = -0.231, P = 0.046.Conclusions: This study is the first to validate the clinical significance of the SN in PD-MCI-D. The right insular seed value and the SN correlated with the severity of depression in PD-MCI.

  2. Salience Network and Depressive Severities in Parkinson’s Disease with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Structural Covariance Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Wu, Ming-Kung; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lien, Chia-Yi; Lee, Jun-Jun; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: In Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), we investigated the clinical significance of salience network (SN) in depression and cognitive performance. Methods: Seventy seven PD-MCI patients that fulfilled multi-domain and non-amnestic subtype were included. Gray matter structural covariance networks were constructed by 3D T1-magnetic resonance imaging and seed based analysis. The patients were divided into two groups by psychiatric interviews and screening of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): PD-MCI with depression (PD-MCI-D) or without depression (PD-MCI-ND). The seed or peak cluster volume, or the significant differences in the regression slopes in each seed-peak cluster correlation, were used to evaluate the significance with the neurobehavioral scores. Results: This study is the first to demonstrate that the PD-MCI-ND group presented a larger number of voxels of structural covariance in SN than the PD-MCI-D group. The right fronto-insular seed volumes and the peak cluster of left lingual gyrus showed significant inverse correlation with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS; r = -0.231, P = 0.046). Conclusions: This study is the first to validate the clinical significance of the SN in PD-MCI-D. The right insular seed value and the SN correlated with the severity of depression in PD-MCI. PMID:29375361

  3. Salience Network and Depressive Severities in Parkinson's Disease with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Structural Covariance Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Wu, Ming-Kung; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lien, Chia-Yi; Lee, Jun-Jun; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), we investigated the clinical significance of salience network (SN) in depression and cognitive performance. Methods: Seventy seven PD-MCI patients that fulfilled multi-domain and non-amnestic subtype were included. Gray matter structural covariance networks were constructed by 3D T1-magnetic resonance imaging and seed based analysis. The patients were divided into two groups by psychiatric interviews and screening of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): PD-MCI with depression (PD-MCI-D) or without depression (PD-MCI-ND). The seed or peak cluster volume, or the significant differences in the regression slopes in each seed-peak cluster correlation, were used to evaluate the significance with the neurobehavioral scores. Results: This study is the first to demonstrate that the PD-MCI-ND group presented a larger number of voxels of structural covariance in SN than the PD-MCI-D group. The right fronto-insular seed volumes and the peak cluster of left lingual gyrus showed significant inverse correlation with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS; r = -0.231, P = 0.046). Conclusions: This study is the first to validate the clinical significance of the SN in PD-MCI-D. The right insular seed value and the SN correlated with the severity of depression in PD-MCI.

  4. Comparing Cognitive Profiles of Licensed Drivers with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Yamin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Alzheimer’s disease (AD and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations. Results. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD. Discussion. Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB.

  5. Vitamin B-12 concentration, memory performance, and hippocampal structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbe, Theresa; Witte, A Veronica; Schnelle, Ariane; Grittner, Ulrike; Tesky, Valentina A; Pantel, Johannes; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Bohlken, Jens; Rujescu, Dan; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Low-normal concentrations of vitamin B-12 (VitB12) may be associated with worse cognition. However, previous evidence has been mixed, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We determined whether serum VitB12 concentrations within the normal range were linked to memory functions and related neuronal structures in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a cross-sectional design, we assessed 100 amnestic MCI patients (52 women; age range: 50-80 y) with low- and high-normal VitB12 concentration (median split: 304 pmol/L) for memory functions with the use of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test. MRI was performed at 3 tesla (n= 86) for the estimation of the volume and microstructure of the hippocampus and its subfields as indicated by the mean diffusivity on diffusion-weighted images. With the use of a mediation analysis, we examined whether the relation between VitB12 and memory performance was partially explained by volume or microstructure. MCI patients with low-normal VitB12 showed a significantly poorer learning ability (P= 0.014) and recognition performance (P= 0.008) than did patients with high-normal VitB12. Also, the microstructure integrity of the hippocampus was lower in patients with low-normal VitB12, mainly in the cornu ammonis 4 and dentate gyrus region (P= 0.029), which partially mediated the effect of VitB12 on memory performance (32-48%). Adjustments for age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E e4 status, and total homocysteine, folate, and creatinine did not attenuate the effects. Low VitB12 concentrations within the normal range are associated with poorer memory performance, which is an effect that is partially mediated by the reduced microstructural integrity of the hippocampus. Future interventional trials are needed to assess whether supplementation of VitB12 may improve cognition in MCI patients even in the absence of clinically manifested VitB12 deficiency. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01219244. © 2016

  6. Mild cognitive deficits in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Andela, Cornelie D; Biermasz, Nienke R; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M

    2016-01-01

    The brain is a major target organ for cortisol considering its high density of glucocorticoid receptors. Several states of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal dysregulation point towards impairments in cognitive functioning. However, there is a very limited body of research on the effects of hypocortisolism on cognitive functioning. To evaluate cognitive functioning in patients with hypocortisolism (i.e., primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI)) and to examine the possible effect of postponing early-morning hydrocortisone intake on cognitive functioning. Thirty-one patients with PAI on regular morning hydrocortisone intake and 31 healthy matched controls underwent nine neuropsychological tests, evaluating memory and executive functioning. In addition, the effect of normal timing and postponement of morning hydrocortisone intake on neuropsychological tests were assessed in an additional 29 patients with PAI. Compared to controls, patients with PAI performed worse on auditory and visual memory tasks (all P ≤ 0.024) and executive functioning tasks (all P ≤ 0.012). In contrast, patients performed better on a concentration and an attention task (both Paffect the outcomes of neuropsychological tests. Patients on long-term hydrocortisone replacement for PAI show mild cognitive deficits compared to controls. There was no effect of postponement of regular hydrocortisone intake on cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anosognosia and Anosodiaphoria in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

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    Maria Lindau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the occurrence of anosognosia (lack of awareness and anosodiaphoria (insouciance in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD and to evaluate the influence of a worsening of dementia on these phenomena. Methods: A self-evaluation scale was used assessing degrees of anosognosia and anosodiaphoria; furthermore, a neuropsychological assessment and statistical analyses with nonparametric tests which could cope with data on an ordinal scale level and small samples were employed. Results: Cognitive ability was lower in AD (n = 9 than in MCI patients (n = 12, but AD patients self-rated lower cognitive disabilities, which is interpreted as one relative sign of anosognosia in AD. Awareness of the reasons for cognitive problems was also lower in AD, which is considered as another sign of anosognosia. The main pattern in MCI found that the higher the awareness, the lower the cognitive ability. In AD low awareness paralleled low cognitive functioning. Anosodiaphoria was present in AD but not in MCI. Conclusion: According to the literature anosognosia and anosodiaphoria seem to increase with progression of dementia from MCI as a result of right hemispheric alterations.

  8. Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Doi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years. The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results: We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p Conclusions: Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required.

  9. Mild cognitive decline: Concept, types, presentation, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka A Subramanyam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As advancements are being made in the medical field, the average life span is increasing and more complaints related to the elderly are coming into notice. Of these, mild cognitive decline (MCD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI is recently becoming an increasingly recognized entity that is often considered a precursor of dementia but is found to have other outcomes as well. It also has variations in presentations; it does not present only as memory complaint but also in the form of other cognitive or behavioral manifestations and has always been a point of controversy regarding the objectivity of the diagnosis. It is considered as the appropriate stage for intervention to prevent its progression to dementia and therefore, requires early identification for which various diagnostic modalities such as neuroimaging, neuropsychological tests, and biological markers are considered. Currently, there are no specific treatment guidelines for MCD. Drugs used in Alzheimer′s disease (AD, lifestyle modifications, and other nonpharmacological approaches have shown some benefit in MCI but the results are variable; hence, the need for further research is warranted for effective preventive therapy. In this article, we will be discussing MCD as a clinical construct, evaluation of a person suspected of having MCD, and management of the same.

  10. Stability of cognitive performance in children with mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Oskar G; Fintelmann, Sylvia; Caflisch, Jon; Latal, Beatrice; Rousson, Valentin; Chaouch, Aziz

    2015-05-01

    Longitudinal studies that have examined cognitive performance in children with intellectual disability more than twice over the course of their development are scarce. We assessed population and individual stability of cognitive performance in a clinical sample of children with borderline to mild non-syndromic intellectual disability. Thirty-six children (28 males, eight females; age range 3-19y) with borderline to mild intellectual disability (Full-scale IQ [FSIQ] 50-85) of unknown origin were examined in a retrospective clinical case series using linear mixed models including at least three assessments with standardized intelligence tests. Average cognitive performance remained remarkably stable over time (high population stability, drop of only 0.38 IQ points per year, standard error=0.39, p=0.325) whereas individual stability was at best moderate (intraclass correlation of 0.58), indicating that about 60% of the residual variation in FSIQ scores can be attributed to between-child variability. Neither sex nor socio-economic status had a statistically significant impact on FSIQ. Although intellectual disability during childhood is a relatively stable phenomenon, individual stability of IQ is only moderate, likely to be caused by test-to-test reliability (e.g. level of child's cooperation, motivation, and attention). Therefore, clinical decisions and predictions should not rely on single IQ assessments, but should also consider adaptive functioning and previous developmental history. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  11. [Patterns of detection of mild cognitive impairment in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián Hernández, Ana J; Arranz Santamaría, Luís Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by an acquired cognitive loss that places individuals, mainly older adults, in an intermediate stage between normal cognitive functioning and dementia. This impairment has a high risk of progression to dementia and is suitable for screening, which allows more effective early intervention. Nursing professionals, especially community-based primary care nurses, play an important role in the detection and follow-up of MCI and in interventions for this condition. The first step should be to take a thorough history from both the patient and his or her carers, which should assess the changes occurring in the patient's daily, family and social life through functional patterns. In subsequent assessment of cognitive function, brief screening tests can be used such as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) or other similar tests. Special attention should be paid to the presence of affective or depressive symptoms, sensory deficits, polypharmacy, decompensated cardiovascular risk factors, and rapid functional deterioration, given their particular influence on MCI. Finally, various nurse-led, non-pharmacological interventions that are effective in MCI can be recommended, based on cardiovascular risk factor control, physical exercise, and cognitive and psychosocial interventions. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategies for improving memory: a randomized trial of memory groups for older people, including those with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Glynda J; Ames, David; Storey, Elsdon; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Saling, Michael M; Clare, Linda; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Governments are promoting the importance of maintaining cognitive health into older age to minimize risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are particularly vulnerable to memory challenges in daily activities and are seeking ways to maintain independent living. To evaluate the effectiveness of memory groups for improving memory strategies and memory ability of older people, especially those with aMCI. 113 healthy older adults (HOA) and 106 adults with aMCI were randomized to a six-week memory group or a waitlist control condition. Outcome was evaluated through knowledge and use of memory strategies, memory ability (self-report and neuropsychological tests), and wellbeing. Assessments included a six-month follow-up. Using intention to treat analyses, there were intervention effects for HOA and aMCI groups in strategy knowledge (HOA: η2= 0.20; aMCI: η2= 0.06), strategy use (HOA: η2= 0.18; aMCI: η2= 0.08), and wellbeing (HOA: η2= 0.11; aMCI: η2= 0.05). There were also intervention effects in the HOA group, but not the aMCI group, in self-reported memory ability (η2= 0.06) and prospective memory tests (η2= 0.02). By six-month follow-up, gains were found on most HOA outcomes. In the aMCI group gains were found in strategy use, and by this stage, gains in prospective memory were also found. Memory groups can engage older people in techniques for maintaining cognitive health and improve memory performance, but more modest benefits are seen for older adults with aMCI.

  13. Aerobic exercise effects upon cognition in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammisuli, D M; Innocenti, A; Franzoni, F; Pruneti, C

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have shown that physical activity has positive effects on cognition in healthy older adults without cognitive complains but lesser is known about the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effects of aerobic exercise upon cognition in MCI patients. To this end, PubMed, Cochrane and Web of Science databases were analytically searched for RCTs including aerobic exercise interventions for MCI patients. There is evidence that aerobic exercise improves cognition in MCI patients. Overall research reported moderate effects for global cognition, logical memory, inhibitory control and divided attention. Due to methodological limitations of the investigated studies, findings should be interpreted with caution. Standardized training protocols, larger scale interventions and follow-ups may also provide better insight into the preventive effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deterioration in MCI and its conversion into dementia.

  14. Studies of Implicit Prototype Extraction In Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M.; Denton, Stephen E.; Zaki, Safa R.; Murphy-Knudsen, Anne F.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of incidental category learning support the hypothesis of an implicit prototype-extraction system which is distinct from explicit memory (Smith, 2008). In those studies, patients with explicit-memory impairments due to damage to the medial-temporal lobe performed normally in implicit categorization tasks (Bozoki, Grossman, & Smith, 2006; Knowlton & Squire, 1993). However, alternative interpretations are that: i) even people with impairments to a single memory system have sufficient resources to succeed on the particular categorization tasks that have been tested (Nosofsky & Zaki, 1998; Zaki & Nosofsky, 2001); and ii) working memory can be used at time of test to learn the categories (Palmeri & Flanery, 1999). In the present experiments, patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or early Alzheimer’s disease were tested in prototype-extraction tasks to examine these possibilities. In a categorization task involving discrete-feature stimuli, the majority of subjects relied on memories for exceedingly few features, even when the task structure strongly encouraged reliance on broad-based prototypes. In a dot-pattern categorization task, even the memory-impaired patients were able to use working memory at time of test to extract the category structure (at least for the stimulus set used in past work). We argue that the results weaken the past case made in favor of a separate system of implicit-prototype extraction. PMID:22746953

  15. Apathy and Emotion-Based Decision-Making in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bayard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Apathy and reduced emotion-based decision-making are two behavioral modifications independently described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Objectives. The aims of this study were to investigate decision-making based on emotional feedback processing in AD and aMCI and to study the impact of reduced decision-making performances on apathy. Methods. We recruited 20 patients with AD, 20 participants with aMCI, and 20 healthy controls. All participants completed the Lille apathy rating scale (LARS and the Iowa gambling task (IGT. Results. Both aMCI and AD participants had reduced performances on the IGT and were more apathetic compared to controls without any difference between aMCI and AD groups. For the entire sample, LARS initiation dimension was related to IGT disadvantageous decision-making profile. Conclusions. We provide the first study showing that both aMCI and AD individuals make less profitable decisions than controls, whereas aMCI and AD did not differ. Disadvantageous decision-making profile on the IGT was associated with higher level of apathy on the action initiation dimension. The role of an abnormal IGT performance as a risk factor for the development of apathy needs to be investigated in other clinical populations and in normal aging.

  16. Impact of novelty and type of material on recognition in healthy older adults and persons with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, Sylvie; Ménard, Marie-Claude; Lepage, Emilie

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of novelty on correct recognition (hit minus false alarms) and on recollection and familiarity processes in normal aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recognition tasks compared well-known and novel stimuli in the verbal domain (words vs. pseudowords) and in the musical domain (well-known vs. novel melodies). Results indicated that novel materials associated with lower correct recognition and lower recollection, an effect that can be related to its lower amenability to elaborative encoding in comparison with well-known items. Results also indicated that normal aging impairs recognition of well-known items, whereas MCI impairs recognition of novel items only. Healthy older adults showed impaired recollection and familiarity relative to younger controls and individuals with MCI showed impaired recollection relative to healthy older adults. The recollection deficit in healthy older adults and persons with MCI and their impaired recognition of well-known items is compatible with the difficulty both groups have in encoding information in an elaborate manner. In turn, familiarity deficit could be related to impaired frontal functioning. Therefore, novelty of material has a differential impact on recognition in persons with age-related memory disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Computer-Based Cognitive Training for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results from a Pilot Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Belfor, Nataliya; Jagust, William J.; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce R.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2009-01-01

    We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial of intensive, computer-based cognitive training in 47 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The intervention group performed exercises specifically designed to improve auditory processing speed and accuracy for 100 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks; the control group performed more passive computer activities (reading, listening, visuospatial game) for similar amounts of time. Subjects had a mean age of 74 years and 60% were men; 7...

  18. Yes/No Versus Forced-Choice Recognition Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: Patterns of Impairment and Associations with Dementia Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lindsay R.; Stricker, Nikki H.; Libon, David J.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Salmon, David P.; Delis, Dean C.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Memory tests are sensitive to early identification of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but less useful as the disease advances. However, assessing particular types of recognition memory may better characterize dementia severity in later stages of AD. We sought to examine patterns of recognition memory deficits in individuals with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Memory performance and global cognition data were collected from participants with AD (n=37), MCI (n=37), and cognitively intact older adults (normal controls, NC; n=35). One-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) examined differences between groups on yes/no and forced-choice recognition measures. Individuals with amnestic MCI performed worse than NC and nonamnestic MCI participants on yes/no recognition, but were comparable on forced-choice recognition. AD patients were more impaired across yes/no and forced-choice recognition tasks. Individuals with mild AD (≥120 Dementia Rating Scale, DRS) performed better than those with moderate-to-severe AD (recognition, but were equally impaired on yes/no recognition. There were differences in the relationships between learning, recall, and recognition performance across groups. Although yes/no recognition testing may be sensitive to MCI, forced-choice procedures may provide utility in assessing severity of anterograde amnesia in later stages of AD. Implications for assessment of insufficient effort and malingering are also discussed. PMID:23030301

  19. Effect of physical activity on memory function in older adults with mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Takanori; Takechi, Hajime; Arai, Hidenori; Yamada, Minoru; Nishiguchi, Shu; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2014-10-01

    It is very important to maintain cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive disorder. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the amount of physical activity is associated with memory function in older adults with mild cognitive disorder. A total of 47 older adults with mild cognitive disorder were studied; 30 were diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease and 17 with mild cognitive impairment. The global cognitive function, memory function, physical performance and amount of physical activity were measured in these patients. We divided these patients according to their walking speed (1 m/s). A total of 26 elderly patients were classified as the slow walking group, whereas 21 were classified as the normal walking group. The normal walking group was younger and had significantly better scores than the slow walking group in physical performance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that only the daily step counts were associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in patients of the slow walking group (β=0.471, P=0.031), but not other variables. No variable was significantly associated with the Scenery Picture Memory Test in the normal walking group. Memory function was strongly associated with the amount of physical activity in patients with mild cognitive disorder who showed slow walking speed. The results show that lower physical activities could be a risk factor for cognitive decline, and that cognitive function in the elderly whose motor function and cognitive function are declining can be improved by increasing the amount of physical activity. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Awareness of memory failures and motivation for cognitive training in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werheid, Katja; Ziegler, Matthias; Klapper, Annina; Kühl, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Awareness of cognitive deficits is considered to be decisive for the effectiveness of cognitive training in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is unclear in what way awareness influences motivation to participate in cognitive training. Thirty-two elderly adults with MCI and 72 controls completed the 5-scale Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ) and a motivation questionnaire. The predictive value of the MFQ scales on motivation was analyzed using regression analysis. In the MCI group, but not in controls, higher perceived frequency of memory failures was associated with a lower motivation score. Our findings indicate that, in MCI, greater awareness of cognitive deficits does not necessarily increase motivation to participate in cognitive trainings, and suggest that success expectancy may be a moderating factor. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Evolution of diagnostic criteria and assessments for Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Holden, Samantha K; Litvan, Irene; McKeith, Ian; Stebbins, Glenn T; Taylor, John-Paul

    2018-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment has gained recognition as a construct and a potential prodromal stage to dementia in both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). Although mild cognitive impairment has been recognized in the Alzheimer's disease field, it is a relatively more recent topic of interest in PD. Recent advances include the development of diagnostic criteria for PD mild cognitive impairment to provide more uniform definitions for clinical and research use. Studies reveal that mild cognitive impairment in PD is frequent, but also heterogeneous, with variable clinical presentations, differences in its progression to dementia, and likely differences in underlying pathophysiology. Application of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PD Mild Cognitive Impairment Task Force diagnostic criteria has provided insights regarding cognitive measures, functional assessments, and other key topics that may require additional refinement. Furthermore, it is important to consider definitions of PD mild cognitive impairment in the landscape of other related Lewy body disorders, such as dementia with Lewy bodies, and in the context of prodromal and early-stage PD. This article examines the evolution of mild cognitive impairment in concept and definition, particularly in PD, but also in related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies; the development and application of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society PD Mild Cognitive Impairment diagnostic criteria; and insights and future directions for the field of PD mild cognitive impairment. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Impact of Depressive Symptoms on Memory for Emotional Words in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Late-Life Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brandy L; Simard, Martine; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Rousseau, François; Laforce, Robert; Hudon, Carol

    2016-03-22

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and late-life depression (LLD) are associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is also true for aMCI with concomitant depressive symptoms (aMCI/D+), but few studies have investigated this syndrome. We aimed to clarify the association between cognitive and depressive symptoms in individuals at risk for AD by examining episodic memory for emotional stimuli in aMCI, aMCI/D+, and LLD. Participants were 34 patients with aMCI, 20 patients with aMCI/D+, 19 patients with LLD, and 28 healthy elderly adults. In an implicit encoding task, participants rated the emotional valence of 12 positive, 12 negative, and 12 neutral words. Immediately and 20 minutes later, participants recalled as many words as possible. They were also asked to identify previously presented words during a yes/no recognition trial. At immediate recall, aMCI participants displayed better recall of emotional words, particularly positive words. aMCI/D+ and control participants displayed better recall of positive and negative words compared to neutral words. LLD participants recalled more negative than neutral words. At delayed recall, emotional words were generally better-remembered than neutral words by all groups. At recognition, all subjects responded more liberally to emotional than to neutral words. We find that the type of emotional information remembered by aMCI patients at immediate recall depends on the presence or absence of depressive symptoms. These findings contribute to identifying sources of heterogeneity in individuals at risk for AD, and suggest that the cognitive profile of aMCI/D+ is different from that of aMCI and LLD. Future studies should systematically consider the presence of depressive symptoms in elderly at-risk individuals.

  3. Combining SPECT and Quantitative EEG Analysis for the Automated Differential Diagnosis of Disorders with Amnestic Symptoms

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    Yvonne Höller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and Electroencephalography (EEG have become established tools in routine diagnostics of dementia. We aimed to increase the diagnostic power by combining quantitative markers from SPECT and EEG for differential diagnosis of disorders with amnestic symptoms. We hypothesize that the combination of SPECT with measures of interaction (connectivity in the EEG yields higher diagnostic accuracy than the single modalities. We examined 39 patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD, 69 patients with depressive cognitive impairment (DCI, 71 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and 41 patients with amnestic subjective cognitive complaints (aSCC. We calculated 14 measures of interaction from a standard clinical EEG-recording and derived graph-theoretic network measures. From regional brain perfusion measured by 99mTc-hexamethyl-propylene-aminoxime (HMPAO-SPECT in 46 regions, we calculated relative cerebral perfusion in these patients. Patient groups were classified pairwise with a linear support vector machine. Classification was conducted separately for each biomarker, and then again for each EEG- biomarker combined with SPECT. Combination of SPECT with EEG-biomarkers outperformed single use of SPECT or EEG when classifying aSCC vs. AD (90%, aMCI vs. AD (70%, and AD vs. DCI (100%, while a selection of EEG measures performed best when classifying aSCC vs. aMCI (82% and aMCI vs. DCI (90%. Only the contrast between aSCC and DCI did not result in above-chance classification accuracy (60%. In general, accuracies were higher when measures of interaction (i.e., connectivity measures were applied directly than when graph-theoretical measures were derived. We suggest that quantitative analysis of EEG and machine-learning techniques can support differentiating AD, aMCI, aSCC, and DCC, especially when being combined with imaging methods such as SPECT. Quantitative analysis of EEG connectivity could become

  4. [Screening methods for mild cognitive impairment in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Pérez, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is always clinical and screening methods only indicate that the patient has a higher risk of this condition. In MCI, there is a slight decline in some cognitive abilities that does not affect activities of daily living and therefore does not produce social or occupational disability. The definitive diagnosis of MCI requires a considerable time investment that is very rarely possible to provide in primary care (PC) consultations. Hence the need for PC physicians to employ rapid and simple screening methods (brief cognitive assessment -BCA-) that allow objective identification of patients likely to have MCI in a few minutes. This article reviews the BCA tools that can truly be applied in less than 10 minutes. The phototest is a brief screening tool that is easy to use and interpret by physicians and is well accepted by patients. Consequently, it is one of the most useful tests in PC for screening of both MCI and dementia. In addition to BCA, instrumental activities of daily living scales should also be applied to differentiate MCI from dementia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Caregivers in China: Knowledge of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Baozhen; Mao, Zongfu; Mei, John; Levkoff, Sue; Wang, Huali; Pacheco, Misty; Wu, Bei

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the experience and knowledge of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among Chinese family caregivers of individuals with MCI. The sample was recruited from memory clinics in Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used. Thirteen family members of individuals diagnosed with MCI participated in the study. Data analysis revealed three themes: 1) initial recognition of cognitive decline; 2) experience of the diagnosis of MCI; 3) perception of cognitive decline as a normal part of aging. While family members recognized the serious consequences of memory loss (e.g. getting lost), they would typically not take their family members to see a doctor until something specific triggered their access to the medical care system. The Chinese traditional perception of dementia as part of normal aging may serve to lessen the stigma of individuals with MCI, while the term “laonian chidai” which literally translates to “stupid, demented elderly” may exacerbate the stigma associated with individuals with MCI. It is suggested that family members’ worries may be relieved by improving their access to accurate knowledge of the disease, community-based and institutional care services, and culturally appropriately words are needed for MCI. PMID:23326541

  6. Caregivers in China: knowledge of mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Dai

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the experience and knowledge of mild cognitive impairment (MCI among Chinese family caregivers of individuals with MCI. The sample was recruited from memory clinics in Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used. Thirteen family members of individuals diagnosed with MCI participated in the study. Data analysis revealed three themes: 1 initial recognition of cognitive decline; 2 experience of the diagnosis of MCI; 3 perception of cognitive decline as a normal part of aging. While family members recognized the serious consequences of memory loss (e.g. getting lost, they would typically not take their family members to see a doctor until something specific triggered their access to the medical care system. The Chinese traditional perception of dementia as part of normal aging may serve to lessen the stigma of individuals with MCI, while the term "laonian chidai" which literally translates to "stupid, demented elderly" may exacerbate the stigma associated with individuals with MCI. It is suggested that family members' worries may be relieved by improving their access to accurate knowledge of the disease, community-based and institutional care services, and culturally appropriately words are needed for MCI.

  7. Designing for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A Design Anthropological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Guy; Kayes, Nicola; Reay, Stephen; Bill, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This paper will present a design anthropological perspective on an ongoing project called 'Living Well with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)'. The project explores how people with MCI (and their families) manage and respond to changes in their memory and thinking. One of the primary aims of this project is to design an online resource that will support people to 'Live Well' within the context of possible cognitive decline. The resource was originally proposed to function as a kind of online community, where users could both share and learn about home-grown strategies for managing the cognitive changes associated with MCI in everyday life. Much of this project has been guided by the methodological approach of design anthropology, which encourages project researchers and stakeholders to critically examine underlying assumptions and conceptual frameworks, which in this case revolve around the disputed MCI category. In this paper we will provide some background to the Living Well project before highlighting a number of key insights attained from design anthropology.

  8. Effects of Tai Chi Chuan on cognition of elderly women with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Yumi Tizon Kasai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the effects of Tai Chi Chuan practice on the cognition of elderly subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment. Methods: This is a pilot study with 26 elderly patients (mean age of 74 years with Mild Cognitive Impairment. The evaluation instruments were Subjective Memory Complaint Scale (SMC, Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT and Digit Span Forward and Backward (DSF and DSB from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS. One group of 13 patients received two weekly 60-minute classes of Tai Chi Chuan (Yang style for 6 consecutive months, and the rest formed the Control Group. The Tai Chi Chuan Group was also evaluated as to learning of the Tai Chi Chuan practical exercises by means of a Specific Learning Test applied after three months of intervention. Results: After six months of intervention, the TCC Group showed significant improvement on the RBMT and the SMC (p = 0.007 and p = 0.023, respectively. The Control Group showed no significant differences in the cognitive tests during the study. There was a significant correlation between the Tai Chi Chuan Learning Test and RBMT (p = 0.008, showing that patients with a better performance in exercising TCC also showed a better performance in memory. Conclusions: In this study, a six-month program of Tai Chi Chuan afforded a significant improvement of the performance of memory complaints in the elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment. Additional randomized studies with larger samples and more prolonged follow-up are needed to confirm these benefits.

  9. The Persistence of the Self over Time in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette J. Tippett

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diachronic unity is the belief that, despite changes, we are the same person across the lifespan. We propose that diachronic unity is supported by the experience of remembering the self over time during episodic recall (i.e., phenomenological continuity. However, we also predict that diachronic unity is also possible when episodic memory is impaired, as long as the ability to construct life narratives from semantic memory (i.e., semantic continuity is intact. To examine this prediction, we investigated diachronic unity in Alzheimer's Disease (AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, two conditions characterised by disrupted phenomenological continuity. If semantic continuity is also altered in these conditions, there should be an associated deterioration in diachronic unity. Participants with AD, aMCI, and healthy controls (HC completed a self-persistence interview measuring diachronic unity (beliefs about self-persistence, explanations for stability/change. Semantic continuity was assessed with a life-story interview measuring autobiographical reasoning (self-event connections, and coherence (temporal/thematic/causal of narratives. Our results highlight a complex relationship between semantic continuity and diachronic unity and revealed a divergence between two aspects of diachronic unity: AD/aMCI groups did not differ from HC in continuity beliefs, but AD explanations for self-persistence were less sophisticated. Semantic continuity was most impaired in AD: their narratives had fewer self-event connections (vs. HCs and lower temporal/thematic coherence (vs. HC/aMCI, while both AD/aMCI groups had lower causal coherence. Paradoxically AD participants who scored higher on measures of beliefs in the persistence of the core self, provided less sophisticated explanations for their self-persistence and were less able to explore persistence in their life narratives. These findings support the importance of semantic continuity to diachronic

  10. Montreal Cognitive Assessment Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) as a predictor of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julayanont, Parunyou; Brousseau, Mélanie; Chertkow, Howard; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S

    2014-04-01

    To assess the usefulness of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score (MoCA-TS) and Memory Index Score (MoCA-MIS) in predicting conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Retrospective chart review. Community-based memory clinic. Individuals meeting Petersen's MCI criteria (N = 165). Baseline MoCA scores at MCI diagnosis were collected from charts of eligible individuals with MCI, and MoCA-TS, MoCA-MIS, and a cognitive domain index score were calculated to assess their prognostic value in predicting conversion to AD. One hundred fourteen participants progressed to AD (MCI-AD), and 51 did not (nonconverters; MCI-NC); 90.5% of participants with MCI with a MoCA-TS less than 20/30 and a MoCA-MIS less than 7/15 at baseline converted to AD within the average follow-up period of 18 months, compared with 52.7% of participants with MCI above the cutoffs on both scores. Individuals with multiple-domain amnestic MCI had the highest AD conversion rates (73.9%). Identifying individuals with MCI at high risk of conversion to AD is important clinically and for selecting appropriate subjects for therapeutic trials. Individuals with MCI with a low MoCA-TS and a low newly devised memory index score (MoCA-MIS) are at greater risk of short-term conversion to AD. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Mild cognitive impairment. Diagnostic value of different MR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.; Stieltjes, B.; Essig, M.; Thomann, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    In view of an increasingly aging population the prevalence of dementia is also expected to increase rapidly. As well as clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia which is important in the precursor stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). On the one hand this stage is associated with an increased risk of dementia and on the other hand an early treatment in this stage could attenuate development of the disease. In addition to morphological changes different functional MRI techniques can help in the early diagnosis of dementia and the precursor stages. Moreover, it is important to detect those MCI patients who are at particularly risk for developing dementia. In the differentiation of converters to non-converters initial studies suggest that particularly voxel-based morphometry, MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide important additional information. (orig.) [de

  12. Rivastigmine for refractory REM behavior disorder in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Valerio; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Lapenta, Leonardo; Mariotti, Paolo; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-03-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) are both associated with a degeneration of ponto-medullary cholinergic pathways. We conducted a placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot trial of Rivastigmine (RVT) in 25 consecutive patients with MCI, who presented RBD refractory to conventional first-line treatments (melatonin up to 5 mg/day and clonazepam up to 2 mg/day). RVT treatment was followed by a significant reduction of RBD episodes when compared with placebo. Our data suggest that, in MCI patients with RBD resistant to conventional therapies (muscle relaxants benzodiazepines or melatonin,) treatment with RVT may induce a reduction in the frequency of RBD episodes compared to placebo.

  13. Patterns of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Joubert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the semantic memory impairment has been largely documented in Alzheimer's disease, little is known about semantic memory in the preclinical phase of the disease (Mild Cognitive Impairment. The purpose of this study was to document the nature of semantic breakdown using a battery of tests assessing different aspects of conceptual knowledge: knowledge about common objects, famous people and famous public events. Results indicate that all domains of semantic memory were impaired in MCI individuals but knowledge about famous people and famous events was affected to a greater extent than knowledge about objects. This pattern of results suggests that conceptual entities with distinctive and unique properties may be more prone to semantic breakdown in MCI. In summary, results of this study support the view that genuine semantic deficits are present in MCI. It could be useful to investigate the etiological outcome of patients failing or succeeding at such tests.

  14. Acetylcholine esterase activity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission is a well-established fact in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is controversy about its relevance at the early stages of the disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In vivo positron emission tomography imaging of cortical acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as a marker of cholinergic innervation that is expressed by cholinergic axons and cholinoceptive neurons has demonstrated a reduction of this enzyme activity in manifest AD. The technique is also useful to measure the inhibition of cerebral AChE induced by cholinesterase inhibitors for treatment of dementia symptoms. A reduction of cortical AchE activity was found consistently in all studies of AD and in few cases of MCI who later concerted to AD. The in vivo findings in MCI and very mild AD are still preliminary, and studies seem to suggest that cholinergic innervation and AChE as the main degrading enzyme are both reduced, which might result in partial compensation of their effect. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette M; Ward, Rachel E; Kurlinski, Laura A; Grande, Laura; Kiely, Dan K; Bean, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. Cross-sectional analysis. Academic community outpatient clinic. Individuals aged 65 and older in primary care enrolled in the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly who were at risk of mobility decline (N=430). Participants with an average score greater than three on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) were defined as having pain. MCI was defined using age-adjusted scores on a neuropsychological battery. Multivariable linear regression models assessed associations between pain and MCI, together and separately, and mobility performance (habitual gait speed, Short Physical Performance Battery), and self-reports of function and disability in various day-to-day activities (Late Life Function and Disability Instrument). The prevalence of pain was 34% and of MCI was 42%; 17% had pain only, 25% had MCI only, 17% had pain and MCI, and 41% had neither. Participants with pain and MCI performed significantly worse than all others on all mobility outcomes (Pmobility outcomes than those with neither (Pmobility, and the presence of both comorbidities was associated with the poorest status. Primary care practitioners who encounter older adults in need of mobility rehabilitation should consider screening them for pain and MCI to better inform subsequent therapeutic interventions. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review...

  17. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna B; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Schikowski, Tamara; Weimar, Christian; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) describes the intermediate state between normal cognitive aging and dementia. Adverse effects of air pollution (AP) on cognitive functions have been proposed, but investigations of simultaneous exposure to noise are scarce. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with overall MCI and amnestic (aMCI) and nonamnestic (naMCI) MCI. At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, cognitive assessment was completed in 4,086 participants who were 50-80 years old. Of these, 592 participants were diagnosed as having MCI (aMCI, n = 309; naMCI, n = 283) according to previously published criteria using five neuropsychological subtests. We assessed long-term residential concentrations for size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides with land use regression, and for traffic noise [weighted 24-hr (LDEN) and night-time (LNIGHT) means]. Logistic regression models adjusted for individual risk factors were calculated to estimate the association of environmental exposures with MCI in single- and two-exposure models. Most air pollutants and traffic noise were associated with overall MCI and aMCI. For example, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and a 10 A-weighted decibel [dB(A)] increase in LDEN were associated with overall MCI as follows [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)]: 1.16 (1.05, 1.27) and 1.40 (1.03, 1.91), respectively, and with aMCI as follows: 1.22 (1.08, 1.38) and 1.53 (1.05, 2.24), respectively. In two-exposure models, AP and noise associations were attenuated [e.g., for aMCI, PM2.5 1.13 (0.98, 1.30) and LDEN 1.46 (1.11, 1.92)]. Long-term exposures to air pollution and traffic noise were positively associated with MCI, mainly with the amnestic subtype. Tzivian L, Dlugaj M, Winkler A, Weinmayr G, Hennig F, Fuks KB, Vossoughi M, Schikowski T, Weimar C, Erbel R, Jöckel KH, Moebus S, Hoffmann B, on behalf of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study

  18. Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gates N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance

  19. A depressive endophenotype of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A Johnson

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating public health problem that affects over 5.4 million Americans. Depression increases the risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and AD. By understanding the influence of depression on cognition, the potential exists to identify subgroups of depressed elders at greater risk for cognitive decline and AD. The current study sought to: 1 clinically identify a sub group of geriatric patients who suffer from depression related cognitive impairment; 2 cross validate this depressive endophenotype of MCI/AD in an independent cohort.Data was analyzed from 519 participants of Project FRONTIER. Depression was assessed with the GDS30 and cognition was assessed using the EXIT 25 and RBANS. Five GDS items were used to create the Depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD (DepE. DepE was significantly negatively related to RBANS index scores of Immediate Memory (B=-2.22, SE=.37, p<0.001, visuospatial skills (B=-1.11, SE=0.26, p<0.001, Language (B=-1.03, SE=0.21, p<0.001, Attention (B=-2.56, SE=0.49, p<0.001, and Delayed Memory (B=-1.54, SE = 037, p<0.001, and higher DepE scores were related to poorer executive functioning (EXIT25; B=0.65, SE=0.19, p=0.001. DepE scores significantly increased risk for MCI diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% CI=1.54-2.69. Data from 235 participants in the TARCC (Texas Alzheimer's Research & Care Consortium were analyzed for cross-validation of findings in an independent cohort. The DepE was significantly related to poorer scores on all measures, and a significantly predicted of cognitive change over 12- and 24-months.The current findings suggest that a depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD exists and can be clinically identified using the GDS-30. Higher scores increased risk for MCI and was cross-validated by predicting AD in the TARCC. A key purpose for the search for distinct subgroups of individuals at risk for AD and MCI is to identify novel treatment and preventative opportunities.

  20. Autonomous unobtrusive detection of mild cognitive impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Ahmad; Taati, Babak; Mihailidis, Alex

    2015-05-01

    The current diagnosis process of dementia is resulting in a high percentage of cases with delayed detection. To address this problem, in this paper, we explore the feasibility of autonomously detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the older adult population. We implement a signal processing approach equipped with a machine learning paradigm to process and analyze real-world data acquired using home-based unobtrusive sensing technologies. Using the sensor and clinical data pertaining to 97 subjects, acquired over an average period of three years, a number of measures associated with the subjects' walking speed and general activity in the home were calculated. Different time spans of these measures were used to generate feature vectors to train and test two machine learning algorithms namely support vector machines and random forests. We were able to autonomously detect MCI in older adults with an area under the ROC curve of 0.97 and an area under the precision-recall curve of 0.93 using a time window of 24 weeks. This study is of great significance since it can potentially assist in the early detection of cognitive impairment in older adults.

  1. Interference impacts working memory in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Aurtenetxe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is considered a transitional stage between healthy aging and dementia, specifically Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The most common cognitive impairment of MCI includes episodic memory loss and difficulties in working memory (WM. Interference can deplete WM, and an optimal WM performance requires an effective control of attentional resources between the memoranda and the incoming stimuli. Difficulties in handling interference lead to forgetting. However, the interplay between interference and WM in MCI is not well understood and needs further investigation. The current study investigated the effect of interference during a WM task in 20 MCIs and 20 healthy elder volunteers. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample paradigm which consisted in two interference conditions, distraction and interruption, and one control condition without any interference. Results evidenced a disproportionate impact of interference on the WM performance of MCIs, mainly in the presence of interruption. These findings demonstrate that interference, and more precisely interruption, is an important proxy for memory-related deficits in MCI. Thus the current findings reveal novel evidence regarding the causes of WM forgetting in MCI patients, associated with difficulties in the mechanisms of attentional control.

  2. Naming of objects, faces and buildings in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samrah; Arnold, Robert; Thompson, Sian A; Graham, Kim S; Hodges, John R

    2008-06-01

    Accruing evidence suggests that the cognitive deficits in very early Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are not confined to episodic memory, with a number of studies documenting semantic memory deficits, especially for knowledge of people. To investigate whether this difficulty in naming famous people extends to other proper names based information, three naming tasks - the Graded Naming Test (GNT), which uses objects and animals, the Graded Faces Test (GFT) and the newly designed Graded Buildings Test (GBT) - were administered to 69 participants (32 patients in the early prodromal stage of AD, so-called Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 37 normal control participants). Patients were found to be impaired on all three tests compared to controls, although naming of objects was significantly better than naming of faces and buildings. Discriminant analysis successfully predicted group membership for 100% controls and 78.1% of patients. The results suggest that even in cases that do not yet fulfil criteria for AD naming of famous people and buildings is impaired, and that both these semantic domains show greater vulnerability than general semantic knowledge. A semantic deficit together with the hallmark episodic deficit may be common in MCI, and that the use of graded tasks tapping semantic memory may be useful for the early identification of patients with MCI.

  3. Measurement of Functional Cognition and Complex Everyday Activities in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia: Validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Jacqueline; Clemson, Lindy; Crawford, John D; Kochan, Nicole A; Brodaty, Henry; Reppermund, Simone

    2017-05-01

    To explore the validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen-5 (LACLS-5) as a performance-based measure of functional cognition, representing an ability to perform complex everyday activities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia living in the community. Using cross-sectional data from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, 160 community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition (CN; N = 87), MCI (N = 43), or dementia (N = 30) were studied. Functional cognition (LACLS-5), complex everyday activities (Disability Assessment for Dementia [DAD]), Assessment of Motor and Process Skills [AMPS]), and neuropsychological measures were used. Participants with dementia performed worse than CN on all clinical measures, and MCI participants were intermediate. Correlational analyses showed that LACLS-5 was most strongly related to AMPS Process scores, DAD instrumental activities of daily living subscale, Mini-Mental State Exam, Block Design, Logical Memory, and Trail Making Test B. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both cognitive (Block Design) and functional measures (AMPS Process score) and sex predicted LACLS-5 performance. Finally, LACLS-5 was able to adequately discriminate between CN and dementia and between MCI and dementia but was unable to reliably distinguish between CN and MCI. Construct validity, including convergent and discriminative validity, was supported. LACLS-5 is a valid performance-based measure for evaluating functional cognition. Discriminativevalidity is acceptable for identifying mild dementia but requires further refinement for detecting MCI. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain functional connectivity and cognition in mild traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, K.L.; Zhang, Y.L.; Chen, H.; Zhang, J.N.; Zhang, Y.; Qiu, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze brain functional connectivity and its relationship to cognition in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Twenty-five patients with mTBI and 25 healthy control subjects were studied using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). Amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) and functional connectivity (FC) were calculated and correlated with cognition. Compared with the normal control group, the mTBI patients showed a significant decrease in working memory index (WMI) and processing speed index (PSI), as well as significantly decreased ALFFs in the cingulate gyrus, the middle frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. In contrast, the mTBI patients' ALFFs in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and lingual gyrus increased. Additionally, FC significantly decreased in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, and right hippocampus in the mTBI patients. Statistical analysis further showed a significant positive correlation between the ALFF in the cingulate gyrus and the WMI (R 2 = 0.423, P < 0.05) and a significant positive correlation between the FC in the left thalamus and left middle frontal gyrus and the WMI (R 2 = 0.381, P < 0.05). rs-fMRI can reveal the functional state of the brain in patients with mTBI. This finding differed from observations of the normal control group and was significantly associated with clinical cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, rs-fMRI offers an objective imaging modality for treatment planning and prognosis assessment in patients with mTBI. (orig.)

  5. Global efficiency of structural networks mediates cognitive control in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Berlot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive control has been linked to both the microstructure of individual tracts and the structure of whole-brain networks, but their relative contributions in health and disease remain unclear. Objective: To determine the contribution of both localised white matter tract damage and disruption of global network architecture to cognitive control, in older age and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI.Methods: 25 patients with MCI and 20 age, sex and intelligence-matched healthy volunteers were investigated with 3 Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Cognitive control and episodic memory were evaluated with established tests. Structural network graphs were constructed from diffusion MRI-based whole-brain tractography. Their global measures were calculated using graph theory. Regression models utilized both global network metrics and microstructure of specific connections, known to be critical for each domain, to predict cognitive scores. Results: Global efficiency and the mean clustering coefficient of networks were reduced in MCI. Cognitive control was associated with global network topology. Episodic memory, in contrast, correlated with individual temporal tracts only. Relationships between cognitive control and network topology were attenuated by addition of single tract measures to regression models, consistent with a partial mediation effect. The mediation effect was stronger in MCI than healthy volunteers, explaining 23-36% of the effect of cingulum microstructure on cognitive control performance. Network clustering was a significant mediator in the relationship between tract microstructure and cognitive control in both groups. Conclusions: The status of critical connections and large-scale network topology are both important for maintenance of cognitive control in MCI. Mediation via large-scale networks is more important in patients with MCI than healthy volunteers. This effect is domain-specific, and true for cognitive

  6. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Peter; Evans, Jonathan R; Breen, David P; Mason, Sarah L; Barker, Roger A; Williams-Gray, Caroline H

    2012-08-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), even in the early stages, and appropriate screening tools are needed. We investigated the utility of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised for detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in PD in an incident population-representative cohort (n = 132) and investigated the relationship between performance on this instrument and behavior and quality of life (n = 219). Twenty-two percent met criteria for MCI. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.81. A cutoff Cognitive Rating Scale, and there were significant correlations with the Cambridge Behavioral Inventory-Revised and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire 39. This instrument is a useful screening tool for PD-MCI, and poor performance is significantly related to impaired behavior and quality of life. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Cognitive Load in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pupillometric Assessment of Multiple Attentional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Hershaw Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Medical Psychology Graduate Program Uniformed Services University of the Health ...system while completing a task. The amount of mental effort and cognitive resources required to complete a task depends on cognitive load. Thus, the...load and require greater mental effort for people with mild TBI. PUPILLOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE LOAD Differences in cognitive load in

  8. Prefrontal activation may predict working-memory training gain in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Heskamp, L.; Simons, E.M.F.; Dautzenberg, P.LJ.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive training has been shown to result in improved behavioral performance in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), yet little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive plasticity, or about individual differences in responsiveness to cognitive training. In this study, 21

  9. Cognitive rehabilitation of neuropsychological deficits and mild cognitive impairment: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Correa Miotto

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuropsychological rehabilitation is related to the treatment or optimization of disabilities, handicaps and cognitive deficiencies including emotional, behavioral and personality alterations, aiming at the best cognitive, neurobiological and social re-adaptation. Objective: The main aim of this paper is to review scientific studies published over the last five years on cognitive training with rehabilitation, focusing on elderly subjects with cognitive complaints and patients diagnosed with MCI. Methods: Data were generated from Medline, PsychoInfo and EMBASE including publications from 2002 to 2007 using the search terms "Mild Cognitive Impairment", "Cognitive Complaints", "Rehabilitation" and "Intervention Studies". Data collection criteria were restricted to the quality of evidence Class I. Results: Eight articles out of sixty eight previously selected were chosen because of their randomized studies, including techniques of cognitive rehabilitation in patients with cognitive complaints, MCI and neuropsychological training. Conclusions: The studies showing generalization of rehabilitation techniques to practical real life situations and use of an errorless learning approach were considered more effective in terms of maintaining treatment follow up, although further studies are recommended.

  10. Behavioral symptoms in community-dwelling elderly Nigerians with dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyewu, Olusegun; Unverzagt, Fred W; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Gureje, Oye; Lane, Kathleen A; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have examined the neuropsychiatric status of patients with dementia and cognitive impairment in the developing world despite the fact that current demographic trends suggest an urgent need for such studies. To assess the level of neuropsychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling individuals with dementia, cognitive impairment no dementia and normal cognition. Subjects were from the Ibadan site of Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project with stable diagnoses of normal cognition, cognitive impairment, no dementia/mild cognitive impairment (CIND/MCI), and dementia. Informants of subjects made ratings on the neuropsychiatric inventory and blessed dementia scale; subjects were tested with the mini mental state examination. One hundred and eight subjects were included in the analytic sample, 21 were cognitively normal, 34 were demented, and 53 were CIND/MCI. The diagnostic groups did not differ in age, per cent female, or per cent with any formal education. The most frequent symptoms among subjects with CIND/MCI were depression (45.3%), apathy (37.7%), night time behavior (28.3%), appetite change (24.5%), irritability (22.6%), delusions (22.6%), anxiety (18.9%), and agitation (17.0%). Depression was significantly more frequent among the CIND/MCI and dementia (44.1%) groups compared with the normal cognition group (9.5%). Distress scores were highest for the dementia group, lowest for the normal cognition group, and intermediate for the CIND/MCI group. Significant neuropsychiatric symptomatology and distress are present among cognitively impaired persons in this community-based study of older adults in this sub-Saharan African country. Programs to assist family members of cognitively impaired and demented persons should be created or adapted for use in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Improving Sensitivity to Detect Mild Cognitive Impairment: Cognitive Load Dual-Task Gait Speed Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAulay, Rebecca K; Wagner, Mark T; Szeles, Dana; Milano, Nicholas J

    2017-07-01

    Longitudinal research indicates that cognitive load dual-task gait assessment is predictive of cognitive decline and thus might provide a sensitive measure to screen for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, research among older adults being clinically evaluated for cognitive concerns, a defining feature of MCI, is lacking. The present study investigated the effect of performing a cognitive task on normal walking speed in patients presenting to a memory clinic with cognitive complaints. Sixty-one patients with a mean age of 68 years underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical interview, and gait speed (simple- and dual-task conditions) assessments. Thirty-four of the 61 patients met criteria for MCI. Repeated measure analyses of covariance revealed that greater age and MCI both significantly associated with slower gait speed, pscognitive dual task within a clinically representative population. Cognitive load dual-task gait assessment may provide a cost efficient and sensitive measure to detect older adults at high risk of a dementia disorder. (JINS, 2017, 23, 493-501).

  12. RBANS memory percentage retention: No evidence of incremental validity beyond RBANS scores for diagnostic classification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia and for prediction of daily function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodouin, Kara A; O'Connell, Megan E; Morgan, Debra G

    2017-01-01

    RBANS percentage retention scores may be useful for diagnosis, but their incremental validity is unclear. Percentage retention versus RBANS immediate and delayed memory subtests and delayed index scores were compared for diagnostic classification and for prediction of function. Data from 173 memory clinic patients with an interdisciplinary diagnosis (no cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment [aMCI], and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease [AD]) and complete RBANS data were analyzed. Across diagnostic contrasts, list percentage retention classification accuracy was similar to List Learning delayed recall, but below the Delayed Memory Index (DMI). Similarly, for classifying no cognitive impairment versus aMCI or dementia due to AD, story percentage retention was similar to Story Memory subtests and below the DMI. For classifying aMCI versus AD; however, Story Memory exceeded the DMI, but was similar to Story Memory subtest scores. Similarly, for prediction of function percentage retention measures did not predict variance beyond that predicted by the RBANS subtest or index scores. In sum, there is no evidence that calculation of percentage retention for RBANS adds clinical utility beyond those provided by the standard RBANS scores.

  13. Prognostic value of posteromedial cortex deactivation in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Petrella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal subjects deactivate specific brain regions, notably the posteromedial cortex (PMC, during many tasks. Recent cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data suggests that deactivation during memory tasks is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD. The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the prognostic significance of PMC deactivation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI.75 subjects (34 MCI, 13 AD subjects and 28 controls underwent baseline fMRI scanning during encoding of novel and familiar face-name pairs. MCI subjects were followed longitudinally to determine conversion to AD. Regression and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of PMC activation/deactivation on conversion to dementia as well as in the longitudinal change in dementia measures. At longitudinal follow up of up to 3.5 years (mean 2.5+/-0.79 years, 11 MCI subjects converted to AD. The proportion of deactivators was significantly different across all groups: controls (79%, MCI-Nonconverters (73%, MCI-converters (45%, and AD (23% (p<0.05. Mean PMC activation magnitude parameter estimates, at baseline, were negative in the control (-0.57+/-0.12 and MCI-Nonconverter (-0.33+/-0.14 groups, and positive in the MCI-Converter (0.37+/-0.40 and AD (0.92+/-0.30 groups. The effect of diagnosis on PMC deactivation remained significant after adjusting for age, education and baseline Mini-Mental State Exam (p<0.05. Baseline PMC activation magnitude was correlated with change in dementia ratings from baseline.Loss of physiological functional deactivation in the PMC may have prognostic value in preclinical AD, and could aid in profiling subgroups of MCI subjects at greatest risk for progressive cognitive decline.

  14. Effects of mild cognitive impairment on emotional scene memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, J D; Dimsdale-Zucker, H R; Flannery, S; Budson, A E; Kensinger, E A

    2017-02-01

    Young and older adults experience benefits in attention and memory for emotional compared to neutral information, but this memory benefit is greatly diminished in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Little is known about whether this impairment arises early or late in the time course between healthy aging and AD. This study compared memory for positive, negative, and neutral items with neutral backgrounds between patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy older adults. We also used a divided attention condition in older adults as a possible model for the deficits observed in MCI patients. Results showed a similar pattern of selective memory for emotional items while forgetting their backgrounds in older adults and MCI patients, but MCI patients had poorer memory overall. Dividing attention during encoding disproportionately reduced memory for backgrounds (versus items) relative to a full attention condition. Participants performing in the lower half on the divided attention task qualitatively and quantitatively mirrored the results in MCI patients. Exploratory analyses comparing lower- and higher-performing MCI patients showed that only higher-performing MCI patients had the characteristic scene memory pattern observed in healthy older adults. Together, these results suggest that the effects of emotion on memory are relatively well preserved for patients with MCI, although emotional memory patterns may start to be altered once memory deficits become more pronounced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The progress of functional neuroimaging in the study of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zugui

    2006-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a transitional state between healthy aging and very mild Alzheimer's disease. MCI patients have a substantially higher rate of progression to Alzheimer's disease compared with cognitively normal elderly people. Functional neutroimaging modalities, including PET, SPECT and functional MRI show that MCI patients have special abnormalities in brain metabolism and perfusion, so they can offer great value in the predicting cognitive decline and early diagnosis of dementia. (authors)

  16. Cognitive decline and amyloid accumulation in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivunen, Jaana; Karrasch, Mira; Scheinin, Noora M

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: The relationship between baseline (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PIB) uptake and cognitive decline during a 2-year follow-up was studied in 9 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 7 who remained with MCI. Methods: (11)C......: At baseline, there were statistically significant differences in (11)C-PIB uptake, but not in cognitive test performances between the converters and nonconverters. Memory and executive function declined only in the converters during follow-up. In the converters, lower baseline frontal (11)C-PIB uptake...... was associated with faster decline in verbal learning. Higher baseline uptake in the caudate nucleus was related to faster decline in memory consolidation, and higher temporal uptake was associated with decline in executive function. Conclusion: Higher (11)C-PIB uptake in the caudate nucleus and temporal lobe...

  17. Frontal lobe hypoperfusion in mild cognitive impairment patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, S.Q.; Chung, C.P.; Liao, Y.C.; Wang, P.N.; Lee, Y.C.; Liu, H.C.; Liu, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Mild cognitive impairement (MCI) refers to the clinical state of individuals who are memory impaired subjectively but are functioning well and do not meet the criteria of dementia. MCI subjects have a high risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is important to detect the earliest evidence of AD for clinicians to recognize the high risk subjects and to implicate the therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the early change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in MCI with high risk of AD by SPECT. Methods: Subjects complained of memory impairment with normal cognitive function and intact daily activities were enrolled. Each patient underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT at the time of initial evaluation. Patients were followed for one to five years. The diagnosis of AD was based on the criteria of the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. There were 8 patients (4 males, 4 females; age range, 64-80 yrs; mean, 73.5 yrs) progressing to AD within one year. Ten gender and age matched normal control subjects (NC) were also included. The SPECT images were analyzed by using SPM 99. The image data were transformed into a standard stereotactic space, using a 12-parameter linear and 2x2x2 nonlinear spatial normalization with the template image. Group comparisons of the SPECT images between the 8 rapid AD converters and 10 NCs were performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using t test. The t statistics was transformed to a normal statistic yielding a Z score for every voxel. Results: In 8 rapid AD converters, rCBF in the right medial frontal gyms (Brodmann area 10; BA 10), anterior cingulated gyms (BA 32) and middle frontal gyms (BA 46) was significantly lower than in NCs (p<0.001). The neuropsychological performances of these 8 cases revealed decrement in short-term memory, mental manipulation and list-generation frequency. Conclusions: rCBF is decreased in right medial frontal, anterior cingulated and middle frontal gyms in MCI patients who

  18. Cognitive profiling of Parkinson disease patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biundo, Roberta; Weis, Luca; Facchini, Silvia; Formento-Dojot, Patrizia; Vallelunga, Annamaria; Pilleri, Manuela; Antonini, Angelo

    2014-04-01

    Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in Parkinson disease (PD) is variable because different classification criteria are applied and there is lack of consensus about neuropsychological tests and cut-off used for cognitive profiling. Given the important therapeutic consequences for patient management, we aimed at identifying suitable diagnostic cognitive tests and respective screening cut-off values for MCI and dementia in PD (PDD). We evaluated 105 PD patients using an extensive neuropsychological battery categorized as PD without cognitive impairment (PD-CNT) (35%), PD-MCI (47%) and PDD (18%) based on established criteria and calculated Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. We found different sensitivity and specificity among neuropsychological tests in detecting PD-MCI and PDD. In particular performance in attention/set shifting, verbal memory and language abilities, discriminated both PD-MCI and PDD from PD-CNT. Abilities involved mainly in semantic retrieval mechanisms discriminated PD-CNT from PD-MCI but also PD-MCI from PDD. Finally deficits in executive and visual-spatial abilities were only affected in PDD. Our data point to an independent and different load of each test in defining different PD cognitive statuses. These findings can help selection of appropriate cognitive batteries in longitudinal studies and definition of stage-specific therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Different perception of cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances, and functional disabilities between persons with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onor, M L; Trevisiol, M; Negro, C; Aguglia, E

    2006-01-01

    Insight in dementia is a multifaceted concept and ability, which includes the persons' perception of their behavioral and cognitive symptoms and functional disability. This ability seems to deteriorate as dementia progresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of insight in the cognitive, behavioral, and functional disorders in a group of persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild AD (Alzheimer's disease) and to compare their perception of their illness with that of their caregivers. The study involved a group of 121 persons with MCI and mild AD and their caregivers. The persons with MCI and mild AD were administered the tests Mini-Mental State Examination, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Activities of Daily Living, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, Schedule for the Assessment of Insight, Clinical Insight Rating Scale, and a short interview. Major differences were identified between how the persons with MCI or mild AD and their caregivers perceived the persons' cognitive and behavioral disorders. The group with MCI or mild AD underestimated their deficits, which were considered serious and disabling by their caregivers.

  20. The use of metacognitive strategies to decrease false memories in source monitoring in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, Rebecca G; Nadkarni, Neil A; Tat, Michelle J; Flannery, Sean; Frustace, Bruno; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2017-06-01

    Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) often demonstrate high rates of false memories, leading to stressful and frustrating situations for both patients and caregivers in everyday life. Sometimes these false memories are due to failures in monitoring the source of the information. In the current study, we examined interventions aimed to enhance the use of the metacognitive "recall-to-reject" memory strategy. Such interventions could improve source memory and decrease false memory in patients with MCI. Because the picture superiority effect (better memory for pictures compared to words) has been shown to be present in both patients with MCI and healthy older controls, we investigated whether pictures could help patients with MCI use a recall-to-reject strategy in a simulation of real-world source memory task. In this experiment, patients with MCI and healthy older adults were asked to simulate preparing for and then taking a trip to the market. Subjects first studied 30 pictures of items in their "cupboard," followed by a list of 30 words of items on their "shopping list." At test, participants saw 90 pictures (30 cupboard, 30 list, 30 new) organized as they would be if walking down the market aisles, and are provided with either standard or metacognitive instructions. With standard instructions, they were asked if they needed to buy the item. With the metacognitive instructions, they were asked a series of questions to help guide them through a recall-to-reject strategy to highlight the different sources of memories. Results showed that the metacognitive instructions did significantly reduce the false memory rates for patients with MCI. Further studies need to investigate how to best implement these practical strategies into the everyday lives of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 3D characterization of brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using tensor-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D.; Lee, Suh; Klunder, Andrea D.; Toga, Arthur W.; Lepore, Natasha; Chou, Yi-Yu; Brun, Caroline; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Barysheva, Marina; Jack, Clifford R.; Bernstein, Matt A.; Britson, Paula J.; Ward, Chadwick P.; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Borowski, Bret; Fleisher, Adam S.; Fox, Nick C.; Boyes, Richard G.; Barnes, Josephine; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Boreta, Lauren; Alexander, Gene E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) creates three-dimensional maps of disease-related differences in brain structure, based on nonlinearly registering brain MRI scans to a common image template. Using two different TBM designs (averaging individual differences versus aligning group average templates), we compared the anatomical distribution of brain atrophy in 40 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 healthy elderly controls, and 40 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition conferring increased risk for AD. We created an unbiased geometrical average image template for each of the three groups, which were matched for sex and age (mean age: 76.1 years+/−7.7 SD). We warped each individual brain image (N=120) to the control group average template to create Jacobian maps, which show the local expansion or compression factor at each point in the image, reflecting individual volumetric differences. Statistical maps of group differences revealed widespread medial temporal and limbic atrophy in AD, with a lesser, more restricted distribution in MCI. Atrophy and CSF space expansion both correlated strongly with Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Using cumulative p-value plots, we investigated how detection sensitivity was influenced by the sample size, the choice of search region (whole brain, temporal lobe, hippocampus), the initial linear registration method (9- versus 12-parameter), and the type of TBM design. In the future, TBM may help to (1) identify factors that resist or accelerate the disease process, and (2) measure disease burden in treatment trials. PMID:18378167

  2. Establishing a New Screening System for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease with Mental Rotation Tasks that Evaluate Visuospatial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayuko; Shinozaki, Jun; Yazawa, Shogo; Ueki, Yoshino; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Shimohama, Shun; Nagamine, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The mental rotation task is well-known for the assessment of visuospatial function; however, it has not been used for screening of dementia patients. The aim of this study was to create a simple screening test for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) by focusing on non-amnestic symptoms. Age-matched healthy controls (age 75.3±6.8), patients with MCI (76.5±5.5), and AD (78.2±5.0) participated in this study. They carried out mental rotation tasks targeting geometric graphics or alphabetical characters with three rotating angles (0°, 90°, and 180°) and indicated the correct answer. Response accuracy and reaction time were recorded along with their eye movements using an eye tracker. To quantify their visual processing strategy, the run count ratio (RC ratio) was calculated by dividing the mean number of fixations in incorrect answers by that in correct answers. AD patients showed lower accuracy and longer reaction time than controls. They also showed a significantly greater number of fixation and smaller saccade amplitude than controls, while fixation duration did not differ significantly. The RC ratio was higher for AD, followed by MCI and control groups. By setting the cut-off value to 0.47 in the 180° rotating angle task, we could differentiate MCI patients from controls with a probability of 80.0%. We established a new screening system for dementia patients by evaluating visuospatial function. The RC ratio during a mental rotation task is useful for discriminating MCI patients from controls.

  3. Parametric mapping using spectral analysis for 11C-PBR28 PET reveals neuroinflammation in mild cognitive impairment subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen; Dani, Melanie; Femminella, Grazia D; Wood, Melanie; Calsolaro, Valeria; Veronese, Mattia; Turkheimer, Federico; Gentleman, Steve; Brooks, David J; Hinz, Rainer; Edison, Paul

    2018-07-01

    Neuroinflammation and microglial activation play an important role in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of neuroinflammation in MCI subjects, using spectral analysis (SA) to generate parametric maps and quantify 11 C-PBR28 PET, and compared these with compartmental and other kinetic models of quantification. Thirteen MCI and nine healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Subjects underwent 11 C-PBR28 PET scans with arterial cannulation. Spectral analysis with an arterial plasma input function was used to generate 11 C-PBR28 parametric maps. These maps were then compared with regional 11 C-PBR28 V T (volume of distribution) using a two-tissue compartment model and Logan graphic analysis. Amyloid load was also assessed with 18 F-Flutemetamol PET. With SA, three component peaks were identified in addition to blood volume. The 11 C-PBR28 impulse response function (IRF) at 90 min produced the lowest coefficient of variation. Single-subject analysis using this IRF demonstrated microglial activation in five out of seven amyloid-positive MCI subjects. IRF parametric maps of 11 C-PBR28 uptake revealed a group-wise significant increase in neuroinflammation in amyloid-positive MCI subjects versus HC in multiple cortical association areas, and particularly in the temporal lobe. Interestingly, compartmental analysis detected group-wise increase in 11 C-PBR28 binding in the thalamus of amyloid-positive MCI subjects, while Logan parametric maps did not perform well. This study demonstrates for the first time that spectral analysis can be used to generate parametric maps of 11 C-PBR28 uptake, and is able to detect microglial activation in amyloid-positive MCI subjects. IRF parametric maps of 11 C-PBR28 uptake allow voxel-wise single-subject analysis and could be used to evaluate microglial activation in individual subjects.

  4. Chronic Depressive Symptomatology in Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Associated with Frontal Atrophy Rate which Hastens Conversion to Alzheimer Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacuiu, Simona; Insel, Philip S; Mueller, Susanne; Tosun, Duygu; Mattsson, Niklas; Jack, Clifford R; DeCarli, Charles; Petersen, Ronald; Aisen, Paul S; Weiner, Michael W; Mackin, R Scott

    2016-02-01

    Investigate the association of chronic depressive symptomatology (chrDS) with cortical atrophy rates and conversion to Alzheimer dementia (AD) over 3 years in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a multicenter, clinic-based study, MCI elderly participants were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative repository, based on availability of both serial structural magnetic resonance imaging and chrDS endorsed on three depression-related items from the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (chrDS N = 32 or no depressive symptoms N = 62) throughout follow-up. Clinical and laboratory investigations were performed every 6 months during the first 2 years and yearly thereafter (median follow-up: 3 years; interquartile range: 1.5-4.0 years). Cortical atrophy rates in 16 predefined frontotemporoparietal regions affected in major depression and AD and the rate of incident AD at follow-up. ChrDS in a single domain amnestic MCI sample were associated with accelerated cortical atrophy in the frontal lobe and anterior cingulate but not with atrophy rates in temporomedial or other AD-affected regions. During follow-up, 38 participants (42.7%) developed AD. Participants with chrDS had 60% shorter conversion time to AD than those without depressive symptoms. This association remained significant in survival models adjusted for temporomedial atrophy rates and showed the same trend in models adjusted for frontal cortical atrophy rate, which all increased the risk of AD. Our results suggest that chrDS associated with progressive atrophy of frontal regions may represent an additional risk factor for conversion to dementia in MCI as opposite to representing typical prodromal AD symptomatology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Advance prediction of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Yohsuke

    2008-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is considered as a precursor state of Alzheimer disease (AD). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain blood flow imaging was investigated in MCI and it's relevance to the prognosis of MCI was evaluated in an attempt define the characteristics of brain blood flow imaging of MCI (amnestic MCI; aMCI) converting to AD. Ninety-two patients over 60 years old with amnesia were studied. 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT brain blood flow examinations of the subject under drug-free conditions were conducted and imaging was analyzed according to the first clinical diagnosis. Patients given a diagnosis of MCI on the first clinical diagnosis, were examined again after 2 years and the SPECT imaging before 2 years previously was classified and analyzed. Of them, there were 35 MCI patients, converting of 13 AD patients (37.1%; aMCI), 10 MCI patients (28.6%; non-converter), 4 depression patients (11.4%; Depression type MCI (dMCI)), 1 Geriatric psychosis patient, but 7 patients dropped out. In the aMCI group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the posterior cingulate and the precuneus. In the dMCI group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the anterior cingulate. In the non-converter group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the basal forebrain. The hypoperfusion of the precuneus in aMCI, and the hypoperfusion of the right frontal lobe (DLPFC, dorsal-anterior cingulate) in dMCI were characteristic brain blood-flow abnormalities. We believe 99m Tc-ECD SPECT brain blood flow imaging to be useful in the diagnosis of aMCI and in the early detection of depression. (author)

  6. Automated Volumetry and Regional Thickness Analysis of Hippocampal Subfields and Medial Temporal Cortical Structures in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkevich, Paul A.; Pluta, John B.; Wang, Hongzhi; Xie, Long; Ding, Song-Lin; Gertje, E. C.; Mancuso, Lauren; Kliot, Daria; Das, Sandhitsu R.; Wolk, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a fully automatic technique for labeling hippocampal subfields and cortical subregions in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in in vivo 3 Tesla MRI. The method performs segmentation on a T2-weighted MRI scan with 0.4 × 0.4 × 2.0 mm3 resolution, partial brain coverage, and oblique orientation. Hippocampal subfields, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex are labeled using a pipeline that combines multi-atlas label fusion and learning-based error correction. In contrast to earlier work on automatic subfield segmentation in T2-weighted MRI (Yushkevich et al., 2010), our approach requires no manual initialization, labels hippocampal subfields over a greater anterior-posterior extent, and labels the perirhinal cortex, which is further subdivided into Brodmann areas 35 and 36. The accuracy of the automatic segmentation relative to manual segmentation is measured using cross-validation in 29 subjects from a study of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and is highest for the dentate gyrus (Dice coefficient is 0.823), CA1 (0.803), perirhinal cortex (0.797) and entorhinal cortex (0.786) labels. A larger cohort of 83 subjects is used to examine the effects of aMCI in the hippocampal region using both subfield volume and regional subfield thickness maps. Most significant differences between aMCI and healthy aging are observed bilaterally in the CA1 subfield and in the left Brodmann area 35. Thickness analysis results are consistent with volumetry, but provide additional regional specificity and suggest non-uniformity in the effects of aMCI on hippocampal subfields and MTL cortical subregions. PMID:25181316

  7. The Effect of Psychological Distress and Personality Traits on Cognitive Performances and the Risk of Dementia in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Honings, S.T.H.; Ponds, R.W.; Aalten, P.; Kohler, S.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relation between psychological distress, personality traits, and cognitive decline in cognitively impaired patients remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the effect of psychological distress and personality traits on cognitive functioning in subjects with mild cognitive

  8. Self-reference effect on memory in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Influence of identity valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Mona; Laisney, Mickaël; Lamidey, Virginie; Egret, Stéphanie; de La Sayette, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Piolino, Pascale; Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit episodic memory in healthy individuals. In healthy aging, its preservation is acknowledged, but in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the jury is still out. Furthermore, there has yet to be a study of the SRE in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). As self-reference implies subjective self-representations, and positive information enhance memory performance, we set out to examine the effects of 1) material and 2) identity valence on the SRE across the early stages of AD. Twenty healthy older individuals and 40 patients (20 diagnosed with aMCI and 20 diagnosed with mild AD) performed a memory task. Participants had to judge positive and negative personality trait adjectives with reference to themselves or to another person, or else process these adjectives semantically. We then administered a recognition task. Participants also completed a questionnaire on identity valence. Among healthy older individuals, the SRE benefited episodic memory independently of material and identity valence. By contrast, among aMCI patients, we only observed the SRE when the material was positive. When self-referential material was negative, patients' performance depended on the valence of their self-representations: negative self-representations correlated with poor recognition of negative self-referential adjectives. Finally, performance of patients with mild AD by condition and material valence were too low and inappropriate to be subjected to relevant analyses. The persistence of an SRE for positive adjectives in aMCI suggests the existence of a positivity effect for self-related information, which contributes to wellbeing. The absence of an SRE for negative adjectives, which led aMCI patients to dismiss negative self-related information, could be due to low self-esteem. These results corroborate the mnenic neglect model and point out the importance of the psychoaffective dimension in patients with aMCI, which could constitute a

  9. Clinical and Cognitive Phenotype of Mild Cognitive Impairment Evolving to Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annachiara Cagnin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine which characteristics could better distinguish dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI stage, with particular emphasis on visual space and object perception abilities. Methods: Fifty-three patients with mild cognitive deficits that were eventually diagnosed with probable DLB (MCI-DLB: n = 25 and AD (MCI-AD: n = 28 at a 3-year follow-up were retrospectively studied. At the first visit, the patients underwent cognitive assessment including the Qualitative Scoring Mini Mental State Examination Pentagon Test and the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS and questionnaires for cognitive fluctuations and sleep disorders were also administered. Results: The best clinical predictor of DLB was the presence of soft extrapyramidal signs (mean UPDRS score: 4.04 ± 5.9 detected in 72% of patients, followed by REM sleep behavior disorder (60% and fluctuations (60%. Wrong performances in the pentagon's number of angles were obtained in 44% of DLB and 3.7% of AD patients and correlated with speed of visual attention. Executive functions, visual attention and visuospatial abilities were worse in DLB, while verbal episodic memory impairment was greater in AD. Deficits in the visual-perceptual domain were present in both MCI-DLB and AD. Conclusions: Poor performance in the pentagon's number of angles is specific of DLB and correlates with speed of visual attention. The dorsal visual stream seems specifically more impaired in MCI-DLB with respect to the ventral visual stream, the latter being involved in both DLB and AD. These cognitive features, associated with subtle extrapyramidal signs, should alert clinicians to a diagnostic hypothesis of DLB.

  10. Validation of the Dutch version of the quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci-D).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bunt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from dementia is important, as treatment options differ. There are few short (<5 min) but accurate screening tools that discriminate between MCI, normal cognition (NC) and dementia, in the Dutch language. The Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen is sensitive and specific in differentiating MCI from NC and mild dementia. Given this, we adapted the Qmci for use in Dutch-language countries and validated the Dutch version, the Qmci-D, against the Dutch translation of the Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE-D).

  11. Recovery from Proactive Semantic Interference in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Normal Aging: Relationship to Atrophy in Brain Regions Vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, David A; Curiel, Rosie E; Wright, Clinton; Sun, Xiaoyan; Alperin, Noam; Crocco, Elzabeth; Czaja, Sara J; Raffo, Arlene; Penate, Ailyn; Melo, Jose; Capp, Kimberly; Gamez, Monica; Duara, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that proactive semantic interference (PSI) and failure to recover from PSI may represent early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the association between PSI, recovery from PSI, and reduced MRI volumes in AD signature regions among cognitively impaired and unimpaired older adults. Performance on the LASSI-L (a novel test of PSI and recovery from PSI) and regional brain volumetric measures were compared between 38 cognitively normal (CN) elders and 29 older participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relationship between MRI measures and performance on the LASSI-L as well as traditional memory and non-memory cognitive measures was also evaluated in both diagnostic groups. Relative to traditional neuropsychological measures, MCI patients' failure to recover from PSI was associated with reduced volumes in the hippocampus (rs = 0.48), precuneus (rs = 0.50); rostral middle frontal lobules (rs = 0.54); inferior temporal lobules (rs = 0.49), superior parietal lobules (rs = 0.47), temporal pole (rs = 0.44), and increased dilatation of the inferior lateral ventricle (rs = -0.49). For CN elders, only increased inferior lateral ventricular size was associated with vulnerability to PSI (rs = -0.49), the failure to recover from PSI (rs = -0.57), and delayed recall on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (rs = -0.48). LASSI-L indices eliciting failure to recover from PSI were more highly associated with more MRI regional biomarkers of AD than other traditional cognitive measures. These results as well as recent amyloid imaging studies with otherwise cognitively normal subjects, suggest that recovery from PSI may be a sensitive marker of preclinical AD and deserves further investigation.

  12. Role of cognitive reserve in progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo F. Allegri

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive reserve is the ability to optimize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks, which may reflect the use of alternative cognitive strategies. Objectives: To identify factors related to cognitive reserve associated with progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI to degenerative dementia. Methods: A cohort of 239 subjects with MCI (age: 72.2±8.1 years, 58% women, education: 12 years was assessed and followed for five years (2001 to 2006. Results: In the first year, 13.7% of MCI converted to dementia and 34.7% converted within three years (78.3% converted to Alzheimer's dementia. Risk factors for those who converted were education less than 12 years, MMSE score less than 27, Boston naming test score less than 51, IQ (Intelligence Quotient less than 111, age over 75 years, lack of occupation at retirement, and presence of intrusions in memory recall (all account for 56% of the variability of conversion. Conclusions: MCI patients are a population at high risk for dementia. The study of risk factors (e.g. IQ, education and occupation, particularly those related to cognitive reserve, can contribute important evidence to guide the decision-making process in routine clinical activity and public health policy.

  13. Different Functional and Microstructural Changes Depending on Duration of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, N-Y; Shin, Y S; Lee, P H; Yoon, U; Han, S; Kim, D J; Lee, S-K

    2016-05-01

    The higher cortical burden of Lewy body and Alzheimer disease-type pathology has been reported to be associated with a faster onset of cognitive impairment of Parkinson disease. So far, there has been a few studies only about the changes of gray matter volume depending on duration of cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the different patterns of structural and functional changes in Parkinson disease with mild cognitive impairment according to the duration of parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment. Fifty-nine patients with Parkinson disease with mild cognitive impairment were classified into 2 groups on the basis of shorter (parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment. Fifteen drug-naïve patients with de novo Parkinson disease with intact cognition were included for comparison. Cortical thickness, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analyses were performed. Age, sex, years of education, age at onset of parkinsonism, and levodopa-equivalent dose were included as covariates. The group with shorter duration of parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment showed decreased fractional anisotropy and increased mean and radial diffusivity values in the frontal areas compared with the group with longer duration of parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment (corrected P parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment showed decreased resting-state functional connectivity in the default mode network area when the left or right posterior cingulate was used as a seed, and in the dorsolateral prefrontal areas when the left or right caudate was used as a seed (corrected P parkinsonism before mild cognitive impairment showed decreased resting-state functional connectivity mainly in the medial prefrontal cortex when the left or right posterior cingulate was used as a seed, and in the parieto-occipital areas when the left or right caudate was used as a seed (corrected P Parkinson

  14. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Function are Positively Related Among Participants with Mild and Subjective Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckenschneider, Tim; Askew, Christopher David; Rüdiger, Stefanie; Cristina Polidori, Maria; Abeln, Vera; Vogt, Tobias; Krome, Andreas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Lawlor, Brian; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    By 2030, about 74 million people will be diagnosed with dementia, and many more will experience subjective (SCI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As physical inactivity has been identified to be a strong modifiable risk factor for dementia, exercise and physical activity (PA) may be important parameters to predict the progression from MCI to dementia, but might also represent disease trajectory modifying strategies for SCI and MCI. A better understanding of the relationship between activity, fitness, and cognitive function across the spectrum of MCI and SCI would provide an insight into the potential utility of PA and fitness as early markers, and treatment targets to prevent cognitive decline. 121 participants were stratified into three groups, late MCI (LMCI), early MCI (EMCI), and SCI based on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Cognitive function assessments also included the Trail Making Test A+B, and a verbal fluency test. PA levels were evaluated with an interviewer-administered questionnaire (LAPAQ) and an activity monitor. An incremental exercise test was performed to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness and to determine exercise capacity relative to population normative data. ANCOVA revealed that LMCI subjects had the lowest PA levels (LAPAQ, p = 0.018; activity monitor, p = 0.041), and the lowest exercise capacity in relation to normative values (p = 0.041). Moreover, a modest correlation between MoCA and cardiorespiratory fitness (r = 0.25; p cognitive impairment PA and exercise capacity might present a marker for the risk of further cognitive decline. This finding warrants further investigation using longitudinal cohort studies.

  15. Classifying cognitive profiles using machine learning with privileged information in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanin Hamdan Alahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalised Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a ``Learning with privileged information'' approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task. The resulting classifier operates solely on the cognitive data while it incorporates the fMRI data as privileged information (PI during training. This novel classifier is of practical use as the collection of brain imaging data is not always possible with patients and older participants.MCI patients and healthy age-matched controls were trained to extract structure from temporal sequences. We ask whether machine learning classifiers can be used to discriminate patients from controls based on the learning performance and whether differences between these groups relate to individual cognitive profiles. To this end, we tested participants in four cognitive tasks: working memory, cognitive inhibition, divided attention, and selective attention. We also collected fMRI data before and after training on the learning task and extracted fMRI responses and connectivity as features for machine learning classifiers. Our results show that the PI guided GMLVQ classifiers outperform the baseline classifier that only used the cognitive data. In addition, we found that for the baseline classifier, divided attention is the only relevant cognitive feature. When PI was incorporated, divided attention remained the most relevant feature while cognitive inhibition became also relevant for the task. Interestingly, this analysis for the fMRI GMLVQ classifier suggests that (1 when overall fMRI signal for structured stimuli is

  16. Positive effects of combined cognitive and physical exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssemeijer, Esther G. A.; Aaronson, Justine A.; Bossers, Willem J.; Smits, Tara; Rikkert, Marcel G. M. Olde; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2017-01-01

    Combined cognitive and physical exercise interventions have potential to elicit cognitive benefits in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This meta-analysis aims to quantify the overall effect of these interventions on global cognitive functioning in older adults with MCI

  17. Positive effects of combined cognitive and physical exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssemeijer, Esther G. A.; Aaronson, Justine A.; Bossers, Willem J.; Smits, Tara; Rikkert, Marcel G. M. Olde; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    Combined cognitive and physical exercise interventions have potential to elicit cognitive benefits in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This meta-analysis aims to quantify the overall effect of these interventions on global cognitive functioning in older adults with MCI

  18. Quantifying cognition and behavior in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Diana L.; Sijbers, Jan; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is based on neuropsychological evaluation of the patient. Different cognitive and memory functions are assessed by a battery of tests that are composed of items devised to specifically evaluate such upper functions. This work aims to identify and quantify the factors that determine the performance in neuropsychological evaluation by conducting an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). For this purpose, using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), EFA was applied to 67 item scores taken from the baseline neuropsychological battery of the three phases of ADNI study. The found factors are directly related to specific brain functions such as memory, behavior, orientation, or verbal fluency. The identification of factors is followed by the calculation of factor scores given by weighted linear combinations of the items scores.

  19. Predicting Stability of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): Findings of a Community Based Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellendt, S.; Vobeta, B.; Kohn, N.; Wagels, L.; Goerlich, K.S.; Drexler, E.; Schneider, F.; Habel, U.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia. However, much heterogeneity concerning neuropsychological measures, prevalence and progression rates impedes distinct diagnosis and treatment implications. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the

  20. The process of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Svensson, Birthe Hjorth; Rohr, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Method A total of 54 specialist physicians in Danish dementia diagnostic departments completed an online survey on their practices regarding diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. The influence...... of respondent characteristics was assessed, and differences on key aspects of disclosing a diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment were analyzed. Results The results suggest that among Danish specialist physicians, there is a general consensus regarding the organization of diagnostic disclosure...... meetings. However, differences in employed terminology and information provided when disclosing a dementia diagnosis were evident. Significant differences were present on key aspects of the diagnostic disclosure of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. For instance, 91% would use the term dementia during...

  1. Conversion Discriminative Analysis on Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Multiple Cortical Features from MR Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Shengwen; Lai, Chunren; Wu, Congling; Cen, Guiyin; Hariharan, A.; Vijayakumari, Anupa A.; Aarabi, Mohammad Hadi; Aballi, John; Nour, Abd Elazeim Abd Alla Mohamed; Abdelaziz, Mohammed; Abdolalizadeh, AmirHussein; Abdollahi, Mahsa; Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Salam, Amritha Abdul; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Abdullah, Sachal; Abdullah, Osama; Abrigo, Jill; Adachi, Noriaki; Adamson, Christopher; Adduru, Viraj; Adel, Tameem; Aderghal, Karim; Ades-Aron, Benjamin; Adeyosoye, Michael; Adlard, Paul; Srinivasa, Ag; Aganj, Iman; Agarwal, Ayush; Agarwal, Anupam; Agarwal, Anchit; Aguero, Cinthya; Aguiar, Pablo; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahmad, Fayyaz; Ahmad, Rziwan; Ahmadi, Hessam; Ahmed, Nisar; Sid, Farid Ahmed; Ai, Edward; Ai, Qing; Aicha, Benyahia; Aitharaju, Sai; Aiyer, Aditya; Akkus, Zeynettin; Akodad, Sanae; Akramifard, Hamid; Aksman, Leon; Aktas, Said; Al-Janabi, Omar; Al-Nuaimi, Ali; AlAila, BahaaEddin; Alakwaa, Fadhl; Alam, Saruar; Alam, Fakhre; Alam Zaidi, Syed Farhan; Alan, Wiener; Alansari, Mukhtar; Alareqi, Ebrahim; Alberdi, Ane; Albsoul, Mohammad; Alderson, Thomas; Aleem, Hassan; Alex, Aishwarya; Alexander, Jacob; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Alfoldi, Jessica; Ali, Ayesha; Ali, Imdad; Alimoradian, Shirin; Aljabar, Paul; Aljabbouli, Hasan; Aljovic, Almir; Allen, Genevera; Alliende, Luz Maria; Almaguel, Frankis; Almgren, Hannes; Montes, Carmen Alonso; Alowaisheq, Tasneem; Alryalat, Saif Aldeen; Alsado, Majd; Alsaedi, Abdalrahman; Alshehri, Haifa; Altaf, Tooba; Altendahl, Marie; Altmann, Andre; Alvand, Ashkan; Filho, Manoel Alves; Alzubi, Raid; Amaral, Robert; Ambatipudi, Mythri; Amernath, Remya; Amlien, Inge; Amoroso, Nicola; Amri, Hakima; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Anbarasi, Jani; Anbarjafari, Gholamreza; Anderson, Wes; Anderson, Jeff; Anderson, Valerie; Anderson, Loretta; Andonov, Jovan; Andova, Vesna; Andreopoulou, Irene; Andrews, K. Abigail; Andrews, Cameron; Angeles, Michel; Anne-Laure, Aziz; Ansari, Ghulam Jillani; Ansari, Sharaf; Anstey, Kaarin; Antunes, Augusto; Aoshuang, Zhang; Aouf, Mazin; Aow Yong, Li Yew; Aporntewan, Chatchawit; Apostolova, Liana; Appiah, Frank; Apsvalka, Dace; Arab, Abazar; Araque Caballero, Miguel Ángel; Arbabyazd, Mohammad; Arbelaez, Pablo; Archer, Kellie; Ardekani, Babak; Aretouli, Eleni; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arisi, Ivan; Armentrout, Steven; Arnold, Matthias; Arnold, Steven; Arslan, Salim; Artacho-Perula, Emilio; Arthofer, Christoph; Aruchamy, Srinivasan; Arya, Zobair; Pizarro, Carlos Asensio; Ashford, Wes; Ashraf, Azhaar; Askland, Kathleen; Aslaksen, Per; Aslakson, Eric; Aso, Toshihiko; Astphan, Michele; Ataloglou, Dimitrios; Atay, Meltem; Athanas, Argus; Atri, Roozbeh; Au, April; Aurich, Maike; Avants, Brian; Awasthi, Niharika; Awate, Suyash; Ayaz, Aymen; Son, Yesim Aydin; Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Ayhan, Murat; Ayton, Scott; Aziz, Adel; Azmi, Mohd Hafrizal; Ba, Maowen; Bach, Kevin; Badea, Alexandra; Bag, Asim; Bagewadi, Shweta; Bai, Xiangqi; Bai, Zilong; Bai, Haoli; Baird, Geoffrey; Baiwen, Zhang; Baker, Elizabeth; Baker, John; Bakker, Arnold; Ball, Erika; Ballén Galindo, Miguel Ángel; Banaei, Amin; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Bang, Ki Hun; Bangen, Katherine; Banks, Sarah; Banning, Leonie; Bao, Wan Yun; Barakat, Rita; Barbará, Eduardo; Barber, Philip; Barber, Robert; de Araujo, Flavia Roberta Barbosa; Barnes, Josephine; Barredo, Jennifer; Barret, Olivier; Barrett, Matthew; Barsamian, Barsam; Barsky, Andrey; Bartel, Fabian; Bartoszewicz, Jakub; Bartram-Shaw, David; Barwood, Caroline; Basavaraj, Suryakanth; Basavaraj, Arshitha; Basiouny, Ahmed; Baskaran, Bhuvaneshwari; Basu, Arindam; Baths, Veeky; Bathula, Deepti; Batmanghelich, Nematollah Kayhan; Bauer, Roman; Bauer, Corinna; Bawa, Vanshika; Bayley, Peter; Bayram, Ali; Bazi, Yakoub; Beach, Thomas; Beaudoin, Kristin; Beaulieu, Christian; Becker, Cassiano; Beckett, Laurel; Bedding, Alun; Beer, Simone; Beer, Joanne; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Behfar, Qumars; Behjat, Hamed; Behjat, Hamid; Behseta, Sam; Bekris, Lynn; Suresh, Mahanand Belathur; Belichenko, Nadia; Bellio, Maura; Belyaev, Mikhail; Bemiller, Shane; Ahmed, Olfa Ben; Ben Bouallègue, Fayçal; Benedikt, Michael; Benge, Jared; Benitez, Andreana; Benlloch, Jose María; Benn, Marianne; Benyoussef, El Mehdi; Bergeron, David; Bermudez, Elaine; Bessadok, Alaa; Betzel, Richard; Bezuidenhoudt, Mauritz; Bhagwat, Nikhil; Bhalerao, Shailesh; Bhandari, Anindya; Bhasin, Harsh; Bhati, Radhika; Bhatkoti, Pushkar; Bhatt, Priya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Bi, Rui; Bi, Jinbo; Bi, Harvy; Biancardi, Alberto; Bidart, Rene; Bilgel, Murat; Billiet, Thibo; Binczyk, Franciszek; Bingsheng, Huang; Bird, Christopher; Bischof, Gérard; Bishnoi, Ram; Biswas, Shameek; Bjelke, David; Black, Sandra; Blackwood, Jennifer; Blaese, Elise; Blair, James; Blanchard, Gilles; Bloom, Toby; Blujus, Jenna; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Bo, Wu; Bo, Jun; Boda, Ravi; Boellaard, Ronald; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Bokde, Arun; Bolhasani, Ehsan; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Bonazzoli, Matthew; Bône, Alexandre; Borkowsky, Jennifer; Borrajo, Danielle; Bos, Isabelle; Bosco, Paolo; Bott, Nicholas; Rodrigues, Renato Botter Maio Lopes; Boughanmi, Amani; Bougias, Haralabos; Boulier, Thomas; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Bouyagoub, Samira; Bowes, Mike; Boyes, Richard; Bozoki, Andrea; Bradshaw, Tyler; Pereira, Joana Braga; Brahami, Yoann; Brambati, Simona Maria; Bras, Jose; Braskie, Meredith; Brecheisen, Ralph; Bregman, Noa; Brewer, James; Briassouli, Alexia; Brickman, Adam; Bridges, Robert; Brihmat, Nabila; Brinkmann, Benjamin; Britschgi, Markus; Broers, Thomas; Bron, Esther; Brown, Jesse; Brown, Matthew; Brown, Abel; Brown, Maria; Brunberg, James; Bu, Tao; Bubbico, Giovanna; Bubenik, Peter; Bubu, Omonigho; Buchanan, Daniel; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Buchsbaum, Bradley; Buck, Katharina; Buckley, Rachel; Budgeon, Charley; Buhl, Derek; Sánchez, Manuel Buitrago; Bundela, Saurabh; Burciu, Irina; Burgos, Ninon; Burke, Shanna; Burn, Katherine; Burns, Jeffrey; Burns, Gully; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Bush, Sammie; Buss, Stephanie; Butcher, Bradley; Butt, Victoria; Buxbaum, Joseph; Sandeep, C. S.; Cabrera, Cristóbal; Cahyaningrum, Winda; Cai, Zhen-Nao; Cai, Siqi; Cai, Erik; Cajka, Tomas; Calamia, Matthew; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Calixte, Christopher; Calon, Frederic; Cameron, Briana; Campbell, Roy; Lopez, Jose Antonio Campos; Cao, Hongliu; Cao, Jiguo; Cao, Guanqun; Cao, Bo; Capizzano, Aristides; Capon, Daniel; Carmasin, Jeremy; Carmichael, Owen; Carr, Sarah; Carrier, Jason; Carter, Greg; Carvalho, Luis; Carvalho, Janessa; Carvalho, Carolina; Casamitjana, Adrià; Casanova, Ramon; Casas, Josep R.; Cash, David; Castelluccio, Pete; Castiglioni, Isabella; Caswell, Carrie; Cattell, Liam; Cauda, Franco; Cepeda, Ileana; Çevik, Alper; Cha, Jungho; Chakrabarti, Shreya; Chakraborty, Shouvik; Chammam, Takwa; Chan, Christina; Chand, Ganesh; Chang, Catie; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chang, Rui; Chang, Hyunggi; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Ki Jung; Chang, Che-Wei; Chantrel, Steeve; Chao, Justin; Chao, Linda; Chapleau, Marianne; Charil, Arnaud; Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Chatterjee, Sambit; Chaudhry, Zainab; Chauhan, Harmanpreet; Chehade, Abdallah; Chekuri, Omkar; Cheloshkina, Kseniia; Chen, Jianhong; Chen, Gang; Chen, Geng; Chen, Ting-Huei; Chen, Yin Jie; Chen, Xi; Chen, Tzu-Chieh; Chen, Guojun; Chen, Shuzhong; Chen, Jerome; Chen, Fang; Chen, Kaifeng; Chen, Gennan; Chen, Jason; Chen, Guanhua; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Chen, Chenbingyao; Chen, S. Y.; Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Chen, Xing; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Yuhan; Chen, Hugo; Chen, Rong; Chen, Ing-jou; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jean; Chen, Bo; Cheng, Danni; Cheng, Hewei; Cheng, Yong; Cheng, Yang; Cheng, Zhang; Cheng, Wai Ho; Chenhall, Tanya; Chepkoech, Joy-Loi; Cherukuri, Venkateswararao; Chhibber, Aparna; Chi, Haoyuan; Chi, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Gloria; Chiesa, Patrizia; Childress, Daniel Micah; Chilukuri, Yogitha; Fatt, Cherise Chin; Chincarini, Andrea; Ching, Christopher; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Cho, Soo Hyun; Cho, Yongrae; Cho, Sooyun; Choi, Jun-Sik; Choi, Hongyoon; Choi, Yeoreum; Choi, Sophia; Choi, Jaesik; Choi, Euna; Choo, I. L. Han; Chopra, Vishal; Chougrad, Hiba; Chouraki, Vincent; Christini, Amanda; Chu, Yufang; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Chuanji, Luo; Chuanjian, Yu; Chun, Marvin; Chun, Sung; Chung, Ai; Chung, Yu-Min; Chung, Jung-Che; Chung, Ai Wern; Chung, Jaeeun; Chyzhyk, Darya; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioli, Claudia; Cittanti, Corrado; Cives, Ana; Clark, Marissa; Clayton, David; Clement, Mark; Clifft, Daniel; Climer, Sharlee; Clouston, Sean; Clunie, David; Cohen, Phoebe; Cohen, Taco; Cole, Michael; Cole, James; Colletti, Patrick; Collingwood, Joanna; Comley, Robert; Conklin, Bryan; Conner, Lindsay; Conover, Joanne; Contardo-Berning, Ivona; Conway, Ronan; Copani, Agata; Coppola, Giovanni; Corbett, Syl; Corlier, Fabian; Correia, Rui; Cosman, Joshua; Costantino, Sebastian; Coubard, Olivier; Coulson, Elizabeth; Couser, Elizabeth; Cox, Kris; Coyle, Patrick; Cozzi, Brian; Craddock, Cameron; Crawford, Karen; Creese, Byron; Cribben, Ivor; Crisostomo-Wynne, Theodore; Crossley, Nicolas; Croteau, Etienne; Cruchaga, Carlos; Cuajungco, Math; Cui, Jing; Cui, Sue; Cullen, Nicholas; Cuneo, Daniel; Cutanda, Vicente; Cynader, Max; Binu, D.; D'Avossa, Giovanni; Dai, Tian; Dai, Peng; Dai, Hui; Davied Hong, Daivied Hong; Dakovic, Marko; Dalca, Adrian; Damiani, Stefano; Dammak, Mouna; Damoiseaux, Jessica; Dan, Zou; Dang, Xuan Hong; Dang, Shilpa; Daniel, Zinkert; Danjou, Fabrice; Darby, Eveleen; Darby, Ryan; Dardzinska, Agnieszka; Darst, Burcu; Darvesh, Sultan; Das, Kalyan; Das, Devsmita; Das, Sandhitsu; Das, Dulumani; Datta, Shounak; Dauvillier, Jérôme; Davatzikos, Christos; Davidson, Ian; de Boer, Renske; de Bruijne, Marleen; de Buhan, Maya; de Jager, Philip; de La Concha Vega, Nuño; de Lange, Siemon; de Luis Garcia, Rodrigo; de Marco, Matteo; de Sitter, Alexandra; Dean, Scott; Decarli, Charles; Decker, Summer; del Gaizo, John; Demir, Zeynep; Denby, Charles; Deng, Yanjia; Deng, Wanyu; Denisova, Kristina; Denney, William; Depue, Brendan; DeRamus, Thomas; Desikan, Rahul; Desplats, Paula; Desrosiers, Christian; Devadas, Vivek; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Devarajan, Sridharan; Devenyi, Gabriel; Dezhina, Zalina; Dhami, Devendra; Dharsee, Moyez; Dhillon, Permesh; Di, Xin; Di Mauro, Nicola; Diah, Kimberly; Diamond, Sara; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Diciotti, Stefano; Dickerson, Bradford; Dickie, David Alexander; Dickinson, Philip; Dicks, Ellen; Diedrich, Karl; Dieumegarde, Louis; Dill, Vanderson; Dilliott, Allison; Ding, Zhaohua; Ding, Shanshan; Ding, Yanhui; Ding, Xiuhua; Ding, Xuemei; Dinov, Ivo; Dinu, Valentin; Diouf, Ibrahima; Dmitriev, Phillip; Dobromyslin, Vitaly; Dodge, Hiroko; Dolui, Sudipto; Dona, Olga; Dondelinger, Frank; Dong, Wen; Dong, Hao-Ming; Kehoe, Patricio Donnelly; Donohue, Michael; Dore, Vincent; Dougherty, Chase; Doughty, Mitchell; Dowling, N. Maritza; Doyle, Senan; Doyle, Andrew; Dragan, Matthew; Draganski, Bogdan; Draghici, Sorin; Dragomir, Andrei; Drake, Derek; Drake, Erin; Drd, Shilpa; Dronkers, Nina; Drozdowski, Madelyn; Du, Changde; Du, Yuhui; Du, Lei; Du, Guangwei; Du, Xingqi; Duan, Fang; Duan, Yuzhuo; Duan, Kuaikuai; Duchesne, Simon; Duggento, Andrea; Dukart, Juergen; Dumont, Matthieu; Dunn, Ruth; Duong, Vu; Duraisamy, Baskar; Duran, Tugce; Durrleman, Stanley; Dutta, Joyita; Dyrba, Martin; Dyvorne, Hadrien; R, Amulya E.; Eads, Jennifer; Eastman, Jennifer; Eaton, Susan; Edlund, Christopher; Edmonds, Emily; Edmondson, Mackenzie; Ehsan, Fatima; El-Gabalawy, Fady; Elander, Annie; Elango, Vidhya E.; Eldeeb, Ghaidaa; Elgamal, Fatmaelzahraa; Rodrigues, Yuri Elias; Elman, Jeremy; Elrakaiby, Nada; Emahazion, Tesfai; Emami, Behnaz; Embrechts, Jurriën; Emran Khan Emon, Mohammad Asif; Emrani, Saba; Emrani, Asieh; Emri, Miklós; Engelhardt, Barbara; Engle, Bob; Epstein, Noam; Er, Fusun; Erhardt, Erik; Eriksson, Oscar; Omay, Zeynep Erson; Escudero, Javier; Eshleman, Jason; Eskildsen, Simon; Espinosa, Luis; Essex, Ryan; Esteban, Oscar; Estrada, Karol; Ethell, Douglas; Ethridge, Kimberly; Ettehadi, Seyedrohollah; Eva, Bouguen; Evenden, Dave; Evtikheeve, Rina; Ewert, Siobhan; Fague, Scot; Fahmi, Rachid; Faizal, Sherin; Falahati, Farshad; Fan, Li; Fan, Zhen; Fan, Yong; Fan, Maohua; Fan, Yonghui; Fan, Sili; Fan, Ruzong; Fang, Chen; Fang, Xiaoling; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Fanti, Alessandro; Far, Bab; Farah, Martha; Farahani, Naemeh; Farahibozorg, Seyedehrezvan; Farahnak, Farhood; Farajpour, Maryam; Fardo, David; Farkhani, Sadaf; Farnsworth, Bryn; Farooq, Hamza; Farooq, Ammarah; Farouk, Yasmeen; Farrar, Danielle; Farrer, Lindsay; Fatemehh, Fatemeh; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Fatfat, Kim; Fatima, Shizza; Faux, Noel; Favan-Niven, Anne; Favary, Clélia; Fazlollahi, Amir; Fei, Gao; Feingold, Franklin; Feizi, Soheil; Félix, Eloy; Femminella, Grazia Daniela; Feng, Zijun; Feng, Ao; Feng, Brad; Feng, Xinyang; Feragen, Aasa; Fereidouni, Marzieh; Fernandes, Miguel; Fernández, Víctor; Ferrari, Ricardo; Ferraris, Sebastiano; Ferreira, Francisco; Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Ferreira, Hugo; Fiecas, Mark; Fieremans, Els; Fiford, Cassidy; Figurski, Michal; Filippi, Massimo; Filshtein, Teresa; Findley, Caleigh; Finger, Elizabeth; Firth, Nicholas; Fischer, Christopher; Fischer, Florian; Fitall, Simon; Fleet, Blair; Fleishman, Greg; Flokas, Lambros; Flores, Alberto; Focke, Niels; Fok, Wai Yan; Foldi, Nancy; Fôlego, Guilherme; Forero, Aura; Fornage, Myriam; Fos Guarinos, Belén; Founshtein, Gregory; Franc, Benjamin; Francois, Clement; Franke, Katja; Fraser, Mark; Frasier, Mark; Frederick, Blaise; Freitas, Fernandho; Escalin, Frency Jj; Freudenberg-Hua, Yun; Friedman, Brad; Friedmann, Theodore; Friedrich, Christoph M.; Frings, Lars; Frisoni, Giovanni; Fritzsche, Klaus; Frolov, Alexander; Frost, Robert; Fu, Ling; Fu, Zening; Fudao, Ke; Fuentes, Emmanuel; Fujishima, Motonobu; Fujiwara, Ken; Fukami, Tadanori; Funk, Cory; Furcila, Diana; Fuselier, Jessica; Nagarjuna Reddy, G.; Gaasterland, Terry; Gabelle, Audrey; Gahm, Jin; Gaiteri, Chris; Gajawelli, Niharika; Galantino, Alexis; Galarza Hernández, Javier; Galasko, Douglas; Galea, Liisa; Galisot, Gaetan; Sánchez, Antonio Javier Gallego; Gallins, Paul; Gamberger, Dragan; Gan, Hong Seng; Gan, Gavin; Ganapathi, Subha; Gancayco, Christina; Gangishetti, Umesh; Ganzetti, Marco; Gao, Fei; Gao, Jingjing; Gao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Gao, Yuanyuan; Gao, Xiaohong; Garani, Ranjini; Garbarino, Sara; Garcia, Ivan; Garcia, Xiadnai; Garcia, Jorge; Garcia, Tanya; Garcia Arias, Hernan Felipe; de La Garza, Angel Garcia; Gaig, Mireia Garcia; Novoa, Jorge Garcia; Valero, Mar Garcia; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jord; García-Polo, Pablo; Garg, Rahul; Garg, Gaurav; Garg, Divya; Garibotto, Valentina; Garvey, Matthew; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo; Gaubert, Malo; Gauthier, Serge; Gavett, Brandon; Gavidia, Giovana; Gavtash, Barzin; Gawryluk, Jodie; Gbah, Messon; Ge, Tian; Geerts, Hugo; Geisser, Niklaus; Geng, Junxian; Gentili, Claudio; Gess, Felix; Ghaderi, Halleh; Ghahari, Shabnam; Ghanbari, Yaghoob; Ghazi-Saidi, Ladan; Ghodrati, Mojgan; Ghorbani, Behnaz; Ghoreishiamiri, Reyhaneh; Ghosal, Sayan; Ghosh, Sukanta; Ghosh, Saheb; Ghosh, Sreya; Ghoshal, Ankur; Giannicola, Galetta; Gibert, Karina; Gibson, Gary; Gieschke, Ronald; Gil Valencia, Jorge Mario; Gillen, Daniel; Giordani, Alessandro; Giraldo, Diana; Gispert, Juan D.; Gitelman, Darren; Giuffrida, Mario Valerio; Madhu, G. K.; Glass, Jesse; Glazier, Brad; Gleason, Carey; Glerean, Enrico; Glozman, Tanya; Godbey, Michael; Goettlich, Martin; Gogoi, Minakshi; Gola, Kelly; Golbabaei, Soroosh; Golden, Daniel; Goldstein, Felicia; Gomes, Carlos; de Olivera, Ramon Gomes Durães; Gomez, Isabel; Gomez Gonzalez, Juan Pablo; Gomez-Verdejo, Vanessa; Gong, Weikang; Gong, Enhao; Gong, Kuang; Gonneaud, Julie; Gonzalez, Clio; Gonzalez, Evelio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Moreira, Eduardo Gonzalez; Goodman, James; Gopinath, Srinath; Gopu, Anusharani; Gordon, Brian; Gordon, David; Gordon, Mark; Gorriz, Juan Manuel; Gors, Dorothy; Göttler, Jens; Gounari, Xanthippi; Goyal, Devendra; Graf, John; Graff, Ariel; Graham, Leah; Graham, Jinko; Grajski, Kamil; Grami, Maziyar; Grand'Maison, Marilyn; Grant, Kiran; Grassi, Elena; Gray, Katherine; Grecchi, Elisabetta; Green, Robert; Green, Elaine; Greenberg, Jonathan; Greening, Steven; Greenwood, Bryson; Gregori, Johannes; Gregory, Michael; Greicius, Michael; Greve, Douglas; Griffin, Jason; Grill, Joshua; Grodner, Kelsey; Grolmusz, Vince; Groot, Perry; Groothuis, Irme; Gross, Alden; Grundstad, Arne; Grundy, Edward; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz; Nandith, G. S.; Gu, David; Gu, Jiena; Gu, Yun; Gu, Ginam; Guan, Sheng; Guan, Yuanfang; Guennel, Tobias; Guerin, Laurent; Guerrero, Ricardo; Guerrier, Laura; Guevara, Pamela; Guggari, Shankru; Roy, Abhijit Guha; Guidotti, Roberto; Guillon, Jérémy; Gulcher, Jeff; Gulia, Sarita; Gumedze, Freedom; Gunawardena, Nishan; Gunn, Roger; Guo, Michael; Guo, Xiao; Guo, Xingzhi; Guo, Yi; Kai, Zhang Guo; Zhao, Ma Guo; Gupta, Navin; Gupta, Anubha; Gupta, Ishaan; Guren, Onan; Gurnani, Ashita; Gurol, Mahmut Edip; Guzman, Gloria; Gyy, Gyy; Rajanna, Vanamala H.; Ha, Seongwook; Haacke, Ewart; Haaksma, Miriam; Habadi, Maryam; Habeck, Christian; Habes, Mohamad; Hackspiel Zarate, Maria Mercedes; Hadimani, Ravi; Hahn, William; Hahn, Tim; Haight, Thaddeus; Hair, Nicole; Haixing, Wang; Hajarolasvadi, Noushin; Hajjar, Ihab; Hajjo, Rima; Halchenko, Yaroslav; Hall, Anette; Hallock, Kevin; Hamdi, Shah Muhammad; Hameed, Farhan; Hamidian, Hajar; Han, Dong; Han, Yang; Han, Hio-Been; Han, Qingchang; Han, Beomsoo; Han, Duke; Han, Shizhong; Han, Xiaoxia; Han, Peipei; Han, Joo Yoon; Han, Dong-Sig; Handsaker, Robert; Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Hansson, Björn; Hao, Yang; Hao, Jhon; Happ, Clara; Harischandra, Dilshan; Haritaoglu, Esin; Harris, Richard; Harris, Breanna; Hart, Brian; Hartzell, James; Harvey, Danielle; Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi; Hasooni, Hossein; Hassan, Moaied; Hassan, Mehdi; Hassanzadeh, Hamid Reza; Hassanzadeh, Oktie; Hatton, Sean; Hawchar, Jinan; Hayashi, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Norio; Hayes, Jasmeet; Hayete, Boris; Haynor, David; He, Linchen; He, Yan; He, Yao; He, Huiguang; Heegaard, Niels; Hefny, Mohamed; Heil, Julius; Heindel, William; Henderson, Samuel; Henf, Judith; Henriquez, Claudio; Herholz, Karl; Hermessi, Haithem; Hernandez, Monica; Herrera, Luis; Hibar, Derrek; Hidane, Moncef; Higuchi, Satomi; Hind, Jade; Hives, Florent; Hoang, Mimi; Hobel, Zachary; Hoffman, John; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Hohman, Timothy; Holder, Daniel; Holguin, Jess; Holmes, Robin; Hong, John; Hongliang, Zou; Hongyu, Guo; Hopkins, Paul; Hor, Soheil; Hornbeck, Russ; Horng, Andy; Horton, Wesley; Hosny, Khalid; Hosseini, Eghbal; Hosseini, Hadi; Hosseini, Zahra; Asl, Ehsan Hosseini; Hou, Beibei; Houghton, Richard; Houghton, Katherine; Householder, Erin; Howlett, James; Hsiao, John; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Hu, Xixi; Hu, Lingjing; Hu, Nan; Hu, Kun; Hu, Tao; Hu, Li; Hu, Xiaolan; Hua, Fei; Huang, Marissa; Huang, Qi; Huang, Michelle; Huang, Chao; Huang, JunMing; Huang, Xingyuan; Huang, Yuhan; Huang, Sing-Hang; Huang, Shuai; Huang, Peiyu; Huang, Chun-Chao; Huang, Zhiyue; Huang, Meiyan; Huang, Zhiwen; Hubrich, Markus; Huestis, Michael; Huey, Edward; Hufton, Andrew; Huijbers, Willem; Huisman, Sjoerd; Hung, Joe; Hunsaker, Naomi; Hunt, Fostor; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Huser, Vojtech; Hussain, Lal; Hutchison, R. Matthew; Hutton, Alexandre; Huyck, Els; Hwang, Jihye; Hyun, JungMoon; Iakovakis, Dimitris; Ibañez, Victoria; Ide, Kayoko; Igarashi, Takuma; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Muñoz, Laura Igual; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Ikhena, John; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Im, Hyung-Jun; Insausti, Ana; Insel, Philip; Invernizzi, Azzurra; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Ip, Nancy; Irizarry, Sierra; Irmak, Emrah; Irwin, David; Isaza, Mariano; Ishii, Makoto; Ishii, Kenji; Islam, Jyoti; Israel, Ariel; Isufi, Elvin; Ito, Kaori; Ito, Masato; Izquierdo, Walter; Alphin, J.; Akhila, J. A.; Jaberzadeh, Amir; Jackowiak, Edward; Jackson, Eric; Jackson, Chris; Jackson, Jonathan; Jacob, Samson; Jacobsen, Nina; Jacobsen, Jörn; Jacquemont, Thomas; Jacques, Nerline; Jaeger, Ralf; Jafari, Tahere; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Jagadish, Akshay Kumar; Jagtap, Priti; Jagust, William; Jahr, Joseph; Jain, Shubhankar; Jain, Shubham; Jaiswal, Ayush; Jaiswal, Akshay; Jait, Amine; Jakkoju, Chetan; Jakobsson, Andreas; James, Olga; James, Oliver; Jamlai, Maedeh; Jammeh, Emmanuel; Janardhana, Lajavanthi; Jang, Jinseong; Jang, Jae-Won; Jang, Jinhee; Jang, Hyesue; Janghel, Rekh Ram; Jawahar, Shasvat; Jean, Kharne; Jean-Baptiste, Schiratti; Jedynak, Bruno; Jefferson, Angela; Jennings, Danna; Jennings, Dominique; Jeon, Seun; Jeong, Yong; Jester, Charles; Jethwa, Ketan; Jha, Debesh; Ji, Gong-Jun; Ji, Chong; Ji, Jin; Jia, Bowen; Jiacheng, Lee; Jiajia, Guo; Jian, Weijian; Jiang, Shan; Jiang, Chunxiang; Jianhua, Gao; Jiao, Zhuqing; Jiao, Zeyu; Jiao, Du; Jimenez Alaniz, Juan Ramon; Gomez, Carolina Jimenez; Jiménez-Huete, Adolfo; Jimura, Koji; Jin, Yan; Jin, Zhu; Jogia, Jigar; Johansson, Per; John, Kimberley; Johnsen, Stian; Johnson, Leonard; Johnson, Sterling; Johnson, Kent; Johnston, Jane; Johnston, Stephen; Jomeiri, Alireza; Jonas, Katherine; Jones, Richard; Jones-Davis, Dorothy; Jönsson, Linus; Joseph, Jane; Joshi, Himanshu; Joshi, Shantanu; Joshi, Abhinay; Joyce, Katherine; Juengling, Freimut; Jung, Youngjin; Junker, Viv; Junwei, Ding; Jyothi, Singaraju; Jyotiyana, Monika; Sarthaj, K.; Kachouane, Mouloud; Kadian, Amit; Kaewaramsri, Yothin; Kaicheng, Li; Kaiser, Marcus; Kakinami, Lisa; Kalra, Sanjay; Kam, Hye Jin; Kamarudin, Nur Shazwani; Kaminker, Josh; Kandel, Benjamin; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Kaneko, Tomoki; Kang, Yun Seok; Kang, Ju Hee; Kang, Hakmook; Kang, Jian; Kansal, Anuraag; Kaouache, Mohammed; Kaplan, Adam; Kottaram, Akhil Karazhma; Karim, Faizan; Karimi-Mostowfi, Nicki; Karjoo, Mahboobe; Karlin, Daniel; Karp, Juliana; Karray, Chiheb; Kartsonis, Nick; Karu, Naama; Kasa, Jaya; Kasiri, Keyvan; Katako, Audrey; Kato, Ryo; Katsonis, Panagiotis; Katti, Hkkatti; Kaur, Prabhjot; Kauwe, John; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Kazemi, Samaneh; Kazemi, Yosra; Rijan, K. C.; Kechin, Andrey; Kelkhoff, Douglas; Kelleher, Thomas; Kellner-Weldon, Frauke; Kennion, Oliver; Kerr, Daniel; Kesler, Shelli; Kesselman, Carl; Kessler, Daniel; Keuken, Max; Keyvanfard, Farzaneh; Khademi, April; Khajehnejad, Moein; Khan, Wasim; Khan, Tabrej; Khan, Hikmat; Khan, Anzalee; Khan, Samreen; Khanmohammadi, Sina; Khasanova, Tatiana; Khazaee, Ali; Khazan, Lenny; Kherif, Ferath; Khl, Aym; KHlif, Mohamed Salah; Khondoker, Mizanur; Khoo, Sok Kean; Khosrowabadi, Reza; Khurshid, Kiran; Kianfard, Reihaneh; Kida, Satoshi; Kiddle, Steven; Kikuchi, Masashi; Killiany, Ron; Kim, Jeongchul; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jongin; Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Jung-Jae; Kim, Hang-Rai; Kim, Jaeyeol; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Joseph; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Mijung; Kim, Jeongsik; Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Seonjik; Kim, Nakyoung; Kim, Byeongnam; Kim, ChanMi; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Seong Yoon; Kim, Sunhee; Kingery, Lisle; Kinnunen, Kirsi; Kinomes, Marie; Kirchner, Jan Hendrik; Caldwell, Jessica Kirkland; Kirwan, Brock; Kitamura, Chiemi; Kitty, Kitty; Kiviat, David; Kiyasova, Vera; Klein, Richard; Klein, Alison; Klein, Gregory; Klein, Jan; Kleinman, Aaron; Kling, Mitchel; Klinger, Joern; Klinger, Rebecca; Klink, Katharina; Kocaturk, Mustafa; Koch, Philipp Johannes; Kochova, Elena; Koenig, Loren; Koh, Natalie; Köhler, Jens Erik; Koikkalainen, Juha; Koini, Marisa; Kolachalama, Vijaya; Koncz, Rebecca; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Kong, Vincent; Kong, Xiangzhen; Kong, Dehan; Kong, Linglong; Konukoglu, Ender; Kopeinigg, Daniel; Kopera, Krzysztof; Koppers, Simon; Korb, Matheus; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Korolev, Igor; Korolev, Sergey; Korostyshevskiy, Valeriy; Koshiya, Heena; Kost, James; Kotari, Vikas; Koutra, Danai; Koychev, Ivan; Kruthika, K. R.; Krahnke, Tillmann; Krause, Matthew; Kraybill, Matt; Kriebel, Martin; Hari Krishna, M.; Krohn, Stephan; Kruggel, Frithjof; Kuceyeski, Amy; Kuhl, Donald; Kulshreshtha, Devang; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Sambath; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, A.; Kumar, Saurabh; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Ambar; Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rishab; Kumarasinghe, Janaka; Kundu, Suprateek; Kung, Te-Han; Kuo, Li-Wei; Kuo, Phillip; Channappa, Usha Kuppe; Kuriakose, Elmy; Kurian, P.; Kwan, Kenneth; Kwasigroch, Arkadiusz; Kwon, Young Hye; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Fleur, Claire La; Wungo, Supriyadi La; Labbe, Tomas; Lacombe, Daniel; Lad, Meher; Lahoti, Geet; Lai, Ying Liang; Lai, Catherine; Lai, Dongbing; Laird, Dillon; Lakatos, Anita; Lam, Alice; Lama, Ramesh; Lambert, Christian; Landau, Susan; Landman, Bennett; Landre, Victor; Lane, Elizabeth; Lange, Catharina; Langenieux, Alexandre; Lareau, Caleb; Larson, Katelyn; Latif, Ghazanfar; Lauber, Ross; Lawliet, Z. H.; Lawrence, Emma; Lazar, Anca; Le, Ngan; Le, Thi Khuyen; Le, Matthieu; Guen, Yann Le; Scouiller, Stephanie Le; Leandrou, Stephanos; Leatherday, Christopher; Leavitt, Mackenzie; Ledbetter, Christina; Lee, Hyekyoung; Lee, Wook; Lee, Annie; Lee, Jaehong; Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Joel; Lee, Song-Ting; Lee, Kuo-Jung; Lee, Subin; Lee, Jaeho; Lee, Catherine; Lee, Gyungtae; Lee, Suzee; Lee, Erik; Lee, Yunseong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Lee, Seonjoo; Lee, Peng Jung; Lee, Hyunna; Lee, Cheng-Hsien; Lee, Hengtong; Lee, Mi Ri; Lee, Ilgu; Lee, Qixiang; Lefterov, Iliya; Leger, Charlie; Lehallier, Benoit; Lei, B.; Lei, Shi; Lei, Hongxing; Lei, Haoyun; Leong, Tze Yun; Leong, Sharlene; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Lepore, Natasha; Lerch, Ondrej; Leung, Yip Sang; Leung, Yuk Yee; Leung, Shuyu; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Leung, Ming-Ying; Levakov, Gidon; Levine, Abraham; Li, Chawn; Li, Miranda; Li, Huijie; Li, Junning; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Yi; Li, Jinchao; Li, Tianhong; Li, Yongming; Li, Xiangrui; Li, Tieqiang; Li, Yan; Li, Fuhai; Li, Feijiang; Li, Shuyang; Li, Zhi; Li, Xing; Li, Rongjian; Li, Rui; Li, Y. U.; Li, Kang; Li, Zhenzhen; Li, Qingqin; Li, Wenjun; Li, Yang; Li, Jialu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Michelle; Li, Yibai; Li, Yupeng; Li, Tao; Li, Zhujun; Li, Yafen; Li, Muwei; Li, Xuan; Li, Yi-Ju; Li, Cen Sing; Li, X. W.; Li, Yingjie; Li, Lin; Li, Yihan Jessie; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiantao; Li, Xingfeng; Li, Chenxi; Li, Chao; Li, Jicong; Li, Jiewei; Li, Tengfei; Li, Wei; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Nannan; Li, Chunfei; Li, Yeshu; Liang, Chen; Liang, Nanying; Liang, Jingjing; Liang, Shengxiang; Liang, Xiaoyun; Liang, Xia; Liang, Ying; Liberman, Sofia; Libon, David; Liébana, Sergio; Liedes, Hilkka; Lim, Wee Keong; Lim, Yen Ying; Lin, Yenching; Lin, Katherine; Lin, Ming; Lin, Ai-Ling; Lin, Ching-Heng; Lin, Bing; Lin, Lin; Lin, Jyh-Miin; Lin, W. M.; Lin, Chien-Tong; Lin, Liyan; Lin, Jing; Lindberg, Olof; Linesch, Paul; Linn, Kristin; Lippert, Christoph; Litovka, Nikita; Little, Graham; Liu, Man-Yun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chin-Fu; Liu, Zhaowen; Liu, Eulanca; Liu, Weixiang; Liu, K. E.; Liu, Hao Chen; Liu, Jia; Liu, Richann; Liu, Dongbo; Liu, Victor; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Tao; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Yong; Liu, Lin; Liu, Dan; Liu, Xiuwen; Liu, Mengmeng; Liu, Chia-Shang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yan; Liu, Xueqing; Liu, Han; Liu, Chien-Liang; Liu, Sidong; Liu, Jundong; Liu, Yang; Liu, Tianming; Liu, Tingshan; Liu, Ning; Liu, Lan; Liuyu, Liuyu; Lizarraga, Gabriel; Llido, Jerome; Lobach, Iryna; Lockhart, Samuel; Loft, Henrik; Lohr, Kelly; Lon, Hoi Kei; Lone, Kashif Javed; Long, Ziyi; Long, Xiaojing; Longo, Frank; Alves, Isadora Lopes; Lopez, Guadalupe; Lorenzi, Marco; Lotan, Eyal; Louie, Gregory; Louis, Maxime; Loukas, Andreas; Love, Seth; Lowe, Deborah; Lu, Bin; Lu, Chia-Feng; Lu, Zixiang; Lu, Lijun; Lu, Pascal; Lu, Shen; Lu, Qing; Lu, Zheshen; Lu, Chuan; Lu, Patty; Lu, Hangquan; Lu, Bo; Luktuke, Yadnyesh; Luo, Wei; Luo, Suhuai; Luo, Sheng; Luo, Shaojun; Luo, Peggy; Luo, Shan; Luo, Weidong; Luo, Liao; Luo, Xiao; Lupton, Michelle; Lutz, Michael; Lv, Eric; Lyu, Juan; Angshul, M.; Radha, M. R.; Dinesh, M. S.; Ma, Xiangyu; Ma, Chao; Ma, Li; Ma, Yu; Ma, Qianli; MacArthur, Daniel; Macey, Paul; Mach, Eric; MacPhee, Imola; Madadi, Mahboubeh; Madan, Christopher; Madan, Bharat; Madero, Giovanny; Madhavan, Radhika; Madhyastha, Tara; Maeno, Nobuhisa; Magsood, Hamzah; Mah, Linda; Mahdavi, Shirin; Mahdavi, Asef; Mahmoud, Abeer; Mahmoud, Hentati; Mahmoud, Kariman; Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Dehkordi, Siamak Mahmoudian; Mahor, Monika; Mahseredjian, Taleen; Mai, Cha; Maia, Rui; Maiti, Taps; Maj, Carlo; Maji, Pradipta; Majidpour, Jafar; Makhlouf, Laouchedi; Makino, Satoshi; Makrievski, Stefan; Makse, Hernan; Malagi, Archana; Malakhova, Katerina; Malamon, John; Malashenkova, Irina; Malchano, Zach; Maleki-Balajoo, Somayeh; Malik, Sadia; Malik, Tamoor; Mallik, Abhirup; Malm, Tarja; Malpas, Charles; Malpica, Norberto; Malviya, Meenakshi; Mamandi, A.; Manandhar, Abinash; Mandal, Pravat; Mandali, Alekhya; Mane, Prajakta; Manning, Emily; Manoufali, Mohamed; Manser, Paul; Mantini, Dante; Mantri, Ninad; Manyakov, Nikolay; Manzak, Dİlek; Mao, Shuai; Maoyu, Tian; Maple Grødem, Jodi; Maravilla, Kenneth; Marco, Simonetti; Marcus, Daniel; Margetis, John; Margolin, Richard; Mariano, Laura; Marinescu, Razvan Valentin; Markett, Sebastian; Markiewicz, Pawel; Marnane, Michael; Maroof, Asif; Marple, Laura; Marques, Cristiane; Marrakchi, Linda; Marshall, Gad; Märtens, Kaspar; Mårtensson, Gustav; Marti, Cristian; Martin, Harold; Martinaud, Olivier; Martinez, Victor; Martinez, Oliver; Martinez, Jesus; Martinez, Carlos; Abadías, Neus Martinez; Torteya, Antonio Martinez; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; Martins, Samuel; Masciotra, Viviane; Masmoudi, Ahmed; Masny, Aliaksandr; Shah, Pir Masoom; Massaro, Tyler; Masumoto, Jun; Matan, Cristy; Mate, Karen; Mateus, Pedro; Mather, Mara; Mather, Karen; Mathew, Jesia; Mathias, Samuel; Mathiyalagan, Tamilalaghan; Matloff, Will; Matsubara, Keisuke; Matsubara, Takashi; Matsuda, Yukihisa; Matthews, Dawn; Mattis, Paul; May, Patrick; Mayburd, Anatoly; Mayo, Chantel; Mayordomo, Elvira; Mbuyi, Gaylord; McCallum, Colleen; McCann, Bryony; McCollough, Todd; McCormick, Shannon; McCurdy, Sean; McDonald, Carrie; McEligot, Archana; McEvoy, Linda; McGeown, William; McGinnis, Scott; McHugh, Thomas; McIntosh, Elissa; McIntosh, Randy; McKenzie, Andrew; McLaren, Donald; McMillan, Corey; McMillan, Alan; McPherson, Brent; McRae-McKee, Kevin; Zaini, Muhammad Hafiz Md; Meadowcroft, Mark; Mecca, Adam; Meda, Shashwath; Medikonda, Venkata Srinu; Meeker, Karin; Megherbi, Thinhinane; Mehmood, Anum; Mehrtash, Alireza; Meiberth, Dix; Meier, Dominik; Meijerman, Antoine; Mejia, Jose; Mekkayil, Lasitha; Meles, Sanne; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Melo, Hans; Melrose, Rebecca; Melzer, Corina; Mendes, Aline; Leon, Ricardo Antonio Mendoza; Gonzalez, Manuel Menendez; Meng, Dewen; Meng, Xianglai; Meng, Guilin; Mengel, David; Menon, Ramesh; Menon, Ravi; Mercado, Flavio; Messick, Viviana; Meyer, Pierre-Francois; Meyer, Carsten; Mezher, Adam; Mi, Liang; Miao, Hongyu; Michailovich, Oleg; Michels, Lars; Mickael, Guedj; Mikhail, Mark; Mikhno, Arthur; Milana, Diletta; Miller, Rachel; Miller, Brendan; Millikin, Colleen; Min, Byung Wook; Minadakis, George; Minghui, Hu; Chinh, Truong Minh; Minkova, Lora; Miranda, Michelle; Misevic, Dusan; Mishra, Amit; Mishra, Chetan; Mishra, Shiwangi; Mishra, Ashutosh; Mishra, Krishna; Misquitta, Karen; Mitchell, Brian; Mithawala, Keyur; Mitnitski, Arnold; Mitra, Sinjini; Mittal, Gaurav; Mittner, Matthias; Miyapuram, Krishna Prasad; Mlalazi, Rebaone; Mo, Daojun; Moghekar, Abhay; Moguilner, Sebastian; Moh, Heba; Mohabir, Mark; Mohajer, Bahram; Mohamed, Moataz; Mohammadi, Sadeq; Mohammadi-Nejad, Ali-Reza; Mohammady, Saed; Taqi, Arwa Mohammed; Mohan, Kishore Kumar; Mohy-Ud-Din, Hassan; Moitra, Dipanjan; Mojaradi, Mehdi; Mojtabavi, Alireza; Molina, Helena; Mollon, Jennifer; Molteni, Erika; Montajabi, Mohaddeseh; Montal, Victor; Montazami, Aram; Monté-Rubio, Gemma; Montembeault, Maxime; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Montillo, Albert; Moon, Byung-Seung; Moon, Chan; Moon, Chooza; Moore, Archer; Morabito, Francesco C.; Moradi, Masoud; Moraes, Renato; Ballesteros, Orlando Morales; Morales-Henriquez, Daniela; Moratal, David; Moreno, Herman; Morihara, Ryuta; Mormino, Elizabeth; Morris, Jeffrey; Mortamet, Bénédicte; Morton, John; Moscato, Pablo; Rial, Alexis Moscoso; Mossa, Abdela Ahmed; Mottaghi, Setare; Mouelhi, Aymen; Moussavi, Arezou; Moustafa, Ahmed; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Mtetwa, Lungile; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Mueller, Susanne; Mueller-Sarnowski, Felix; Mufidah, Ratna; Mukherjee, Rik; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Müller, Christian; Müller, Hans-Peter; Mullins, Paul; Mullins, Roger; Muncy, Nathan; Munir, Akhtar; Munirathinam, Ramesh; Munoz, David; Munro, Catherine; Muranevici, Gabriela; Rendon, Santiago Murillo; Murilo, Robson; Murphy, Sonya; Muscio, Cristina; Musso, Gabriel; Mustafa, Yasser; Myall, Daniel; Gayathri, N.; Nabavi, Shahab; Nabeel, Eman; Nagele, Robert; Naghshbandi, Hane; Naik, Shruti; Najmitabrizi, Neda; Nakawah, Mohammad Obadah; Nalls, Mike; Namboori, Krishnan; Nancy, Annie; Napolitano, Giulio; Narayan, Manjari; Narkhede, Atul; Naseri, Mahsa; Nasrallah, Ilya; Nasrallah, Fatima; Nassif, Rana; Nath, Sruthi R.; Nathoo, Farouk; Nation, Daniel; Naughton, Brian; Nault, Larry; Nautiyal, Deeksha; Nayak, Deepak Ranjan; Naz, Mufassra; Nazemian, Shayan; Nazeri, Arash; Neckoska, Emilija; Neelamegam, Malinee; Nehary, Ebrahim; Nelson, Peter; Nelson, Linda; Nematzadeh, Hosein; Nerur, Shubha; Nesteruk, Thomas; Neu, Scott; Ng, Yen-Bee; Nguyen, Tin; Nguyen, Thanh; Nguyen, Harrison; Nguyen, Nghi; Trung, Hieu Nguyen; Ni, Lucy; Nian, Yongjian; Nichols, Thomas; Nicodemus, Kristin; Nie, Yunlong; Nielsen, Casper; Nikolov, Robert; Nila, Jessica; Nishioka, Christopher; Njeh, Ines; Njie, Emalick; Nobakht, Samaneh; Noble, Andrew; Noda, Art; Noroozi, Ali; Norton, Derek; Nosarti, Chiara; Nosheny, Rachel; Notsu, Akifumi; Novak, Gerald; Nozadi, Seyed Hossein; Nu, Fen; Nudelman, Kelly; Nunes, Adonay; Nunes, Ana; Núñez, Christian; Nuno, Michelle; Nuriel, Tal; Nygaard, Haakon; Nyquist, Paul; O'Bott, Jacob; O'Charoen, Sirimon; O'Neill, William; O'Rawe, Jonathan; Obrzut, Grzegorz; Och, Ganzorig; Odaibo, David; Odry, Benjamin; Oehmichen, Axel; Ofori, Edward; Ogunsanmi, Abdulfatai; Oguz, Kaya; Oh, Jungsu; Oh, Minyoung; Oh, Hwamee; Ohigashi, Hironori; Oishi, Kenichi; Oishi, Naoya; Okhravi, Hamid; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Okyay, Savaş; Oliveira, Cyrill; Oliveira, João; Oliveira, Francisco; Oliver, Ruth; Olmos, Salvador; Olszowy, Wiktor; Oltra-Cucarella, Javier; Önen, Zehra; Ong, Rowena; Onoda, Keiichi; Onyike, Chiadi; Operto, Grégory; Oppedal, Ketil; Orejuela, Juan; Orhon, Atila; Orozco, Max; Ortuño, Juan; Osadebey, Michael; Osborn, Joseph; Osoba, Osonde; Ostadrahimi, Hamid; Ostovari, Parisa; Otis, Sarah; Overgaard, Shauna; Owen, Catrin Elin; Oxtoby, Neil; Öziç, Muhammet Üsame; Ozkaya, Gorkem; Okur, Ozlem Ozmen; Ozsolak, Fatih; Ozyildirim, Melis; Pa, Judy; Pacheco, Joe; Pack, Gary; Padilla, Daniel; Cerezo, Berizohar Padilla; Padovese, Bruno; Pae, Chongwon; Pagano, Gennaro; Pahuja, Gunjan; Pai, Shraddha; Pajavand, Shahryar; Pajula, Juha; Pak, Kyoungjune; Pakzad, Ashkan; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan; Palanisamy, Sindhu; Palmqvist, Sebastian; Palsson, Frosti; Pan, Dan; Pan, Tiffany; Pan, Yuqing; Pan, Wei; Pan, Sun; Pan, Hongliang; Pan, Xiaoxi; Pandey, Lokesh; Pang, Qiaoyu; Pangilinan, Erin; Pannetier, Nicolas; Panpan, Xu; Panyavaraporn, Jantana; Pardini, Matteo; Paredes, José; Parikh, Jignesh; Park, Seongbeom; Park, Young Ho; Park, Min Tae; Park, Hyunjin; Park, Sejin; Park, JongSeong; Park, DooHyun; Park, Ji Eun; Park, Yuhyun; Park, Jiyong; Parker, Jason; Parker, Richard; Parodi, Alice; Bautista, Yohn Jairo Parra; Parrish, Marcus; Parthiban, Preethy; Pascariello, Guido; Pascual, Belen; Paskov, Hristo; Pasquini, Lorenzo; Tantaleán, Julio Sergio Eduardo Pastor; Pastur, Lucas; Patel, Raihaan; Patel, Sejal; Paterson, Ross; Paton, Bryan; Patriarche, Julia; Patriat, Rémi; Pattichis, Constantinos; Paul, Debashis; Pawar, Kuldeep; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Paz, Rotem; Pedroto, Maria; Pelekanos, Matthew; Péléraux, Annick; Peng, Dan; Peng, Jing; Pengfei, Tian; Perani, Daniela; Peraza, Luis; Pereira, Fabricio; Pereira, Francisco; Perkins, Diana; Perneczky, Robert; Persad, Umesh; Peter, Jessica; Peters, Mette; Peters, Ruth; Pether, Mark; Petrella, Jeffrey; Petrenko, Roman; Petrone, Paula; Petrov, Dmitry; Pezzatini, Daniele; Pfenning, Andreas; Pham, Chi-Tuan; Philipson, Pete; Phillips, Jeffrey; Phillips, Nicole; Phophalia, Ashish; Phuah, Chia-Ling; Pichai, Shanthi; Pichardo, Cesar; Binette, Alexa Pichet; Pietras, Olga; Pietrzyk, Mariusz; Pike, Kerryn; Pillai, Jagan; Piludu, Francesca; Pineda, Joanna; Ping, He; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Pither, Richard; Piyush, Ranjan; Pizzi, Nick; Gonzalez, Luis Fernando Planella; Plassard, Andrew; Platero, Carlos; Plocharski, Maciej; Podhorski, Adam; Poggiali, Davide; Poghosyan, Mher; Pohl, Kilian; Poirier, Judes; Polakow, Jean Jacques; Politis, Marios; Poljak, Anne; Poloni, Katia Maria; Poole, Victoria; Poppenk, Jordan; Porsteinsson, Anton; Portelius, Erik; Posta, Filippo; Posthuma, Danielle; Potashman, Michele; Poulin, Stephane; Pourmennati, Bahar; Prahlad, Tejas; Pranav, Lee; Prasanth, Isaac; Prashar, Ajay; Prescott, Jeff; Prevedello, Luciano; Previtali, Fabio; Pricer, James; Prichard, James; Prince, Jerry; Prins, Samantha; Pritchard, Christopher; Priya, Priya; Priya, Anandh; Priyanka, Ahana; Properzi, Michael; Prosser, Angus; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Pruessner, Jens; Pu, Jian; Punjabi, Arjun; Punugu, Venkatapavani Pallavi; Puri, Dilip; Renjini, Anurenjan Purushothaman; Pyeon, DoYeong; Qader, Abu; Qi, Zeyao; Qi, Baihong; Qian, Xiaoning; Qian, Long; Qiao, Ju; Qiao, Jocelin; Qiaoli, Zhang; Qin, Hongsen; Qin, Wang; Qin, Tian; Qin, Yuanyuan; Qin, Qinxiaotie; Qin, Qiao; Qing, Zhao; Qiongling, Li; Qiu, Yu; Qiu, Wendy; Qiu, Deqiang; Qiu, Yingwei; Quadrelli, Scott; Qualls, Jake; Quan, Li; Quarg, Peter; Qureshi, Adnan; Anand, R.; Chitra, R.; Balaji, R.; Madhusudhan, R. N.; Raamana, Pradeep Reddy; Rabbia, Michael; Rabin, Laura; Radke, David; Pc, Muhammed Raees; Rafeiean, Mahsa; Raha, Oindrila; Rahimi, Amir; Arashloo, Shervin Rahimzadeh; Rai, Vipin; Rajamanickam, Karunanithi; Rajan, Surya; Rajapakse, Jagath; Rajaram, Sampath; Rajendran, Rajeswari; Rakovski, Cyril; Ramalhosa, Ivo; Raman, Fabio; Ramasamy, Ellankavi; Ramasangu, Hariharan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Ramos Pérez, Ana Victoria; Rana, Rahul; Rane, Swati; Rao, Anil; Rao, Vikram; Rashidi, Arash; Rasoanaivo, Oly; Rassem, Taha; Rastgoo, Hossein; Rath, Daniel; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Ravikirthi, Prabhasa; Ravipati, Kaushik; RaviPrakash, Harish; Rawdha, Bousseta; Ray, Meredith; Ray, Debashree; Ray, Nilanjan; Ray, Dipankar; Ray, Soumi; Rebbah, Sana; Redding, Morgan; Regnerus, Bouke; Rehn, Patrick; Rehouma, Rokaya; Reid, Robert; Reimer, Alyssa; Reiss, Philip; Reitz, Christiane; Rekabi, Maryam; Rekik, Islem; Ren, Xuhua; Ren, Fujia; Ren, Xiaowei; Ren, Weijie; Renehan, William; Rennert, Lior; Rey, Samuel; Reyes, Pablo; Reza, Rifat; Rezaee, Khosro; Rhinn, Herve; Lorenzo, Pablo Ribalta; Ribeiro, Adèle Helena; Richards, John; Richards, Burt; Richards, Todd; Richardson, Hamish; Richiardi, Jonas; Richter, Nils; Ridge, Perry; Ridgway, Gerard; Ridha, Basil; Ried, Janina; Riedel, Brandalyn; Riphagen, Joost; Ritter, Kerstin; Rivaz, Hassan; Rivers-Auty, Jack; Allah, Mina Rizk; Rizzi, Massimo; Roalf, David; Robb, Catherine; Roberson, Erik; Robieson, Weining; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Rodrigues, Marcos Antonio; Rodriguez, Alain; Aguiar, Güise Lorenzo Rodríguez; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Antonio; Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Roes, Meighen; Rogalski, Emily; Rogers, James; Rogers, Baxter; Rohani, Hosna; Rollins, Carin; Rollo, Jenny; Romanillos, Adrian; Romero, Marcelo; Romero, Klaus; Rominger, Axel; Rondina, Jane; Ronquillo, Jeremiah; Roohparvar, Sanaz; Rosand, Jonathan; Rose, Gregory; Roshchupkin, Gennady; Rosoce, Jeremy; Ross, David; Ross, Joel; Ross, Owen; Rossi, Stephanie; Roussarie, Jean-Pierre; Roy, Arkaprava; Roy, Snehashis; Ruble, Cara; Rubright, Jonathan; Rudovic, Ognjen; Ruggiero, Denise; Rui, Qiao; Ruiz, Pablo; Rullmann, Michael; Rusmevichientong, Pimbucha; Russell, Rolf; Rutten, Julie; Saadatmand-Tarzjan, Mahdi; Saba, Valiallah; Sabuncu, Mert; Sacuiu, Simona; Sampathkumar, Srihari Sadhu; Sadikhov, Shamil; Saeedi, Sarah; Saf, Naz; Safapur, Alireza; Safi, Asad; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Saito, Noboru; Saito, Naomi; Sakata, Muneyuki; Frigerio, Carlo Sala; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Salah, Zainab; Salamanca, Luis; Salat, David; Salehzade, Mahdi; Salter, Hugh; Samatova, Nagiza; Sampat, Mehul; Gonzalez, Jorge Samper; Samtani, Mahesh; Samuel, Pearl; Bohorquez, Sandra Sanabria; Sanbao, Cheng; Sanchez, Iñigo; Sánchez, Irina; Sandella, Nick; Sanderlin, Ashley Hannah; Sanders, Elizabeth; Sankar, Tejas; Sanroma, Gerard; Sanson, Horacio; Santamaria, Mar; de Lourdes, Daniella; de Andrade, Luna Santana; Santhanam, Prasanna; Ribeiro, Andre Santos; Sardi, Pablo; Sardina, Davide; Saremi, Arvin; Sarica, Alessia; Sarnowski, Chloé; Sarraf, Saman; Saslow, Adam; Sato, Takayuki; Sato, Joao; Sattler, Sophia; Savic, Milos; Saxon, Jillian; Saya, Boson; Saykin, Andrew; Sbeiti, Elia; Scarapicchia, Vanessa; Scelsi, Marzia Antonella; Schaerer, Joel; Scharre, Douglas; Scherr, Martin; Schevenels, Klara; Schibler, Tony; Schiller, Florian; Schirmer, Markus; Schmansky, Nick; Schmidt, Marco; Schmidt, Paul; Schmitz, Taylor; Schmuker, Michael; Schneider, Anja; Schneider, Reinhard; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Schöll, Michael; Schouten, Tijn; Schramm, Hauke; Schreiber, Frank; Schultz, Timothy; Schultz, Aaron; Schürmann, Heike; Schwab, Patrick; Schwartz, Pamela; Schwarz, Adam; Schwarz, Christopher; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Scott, Julia; Scott, F. Jeffrey; Scott, David; Scussel, Artur; Seale, William; Seamons, John; Seemiller, Joseph; Sekine, Tetsuro; Selnes, Per; Sembritzki, Klaus; Senanayake, Vijitha; Seneca, Nicholas; Senjem, Matthew; Filho, Antonio Carlos Senra; Sensi, Stefano; Seo, Eun Hyun; Seo, Kangwon; Seong, Sibaek; Sepeta, Leigh; Seraji-Bozorgzad, Navid; Serra-Cayuela, Arnau; Seshadri, Sudha; Sgouros, Nicholas; Sha, Miao; Shackman, Alexander; Shafee, Rebecca; Shah, Rupali; Shah, Hitul; Shahid, Mohammad; Shahparian, Nastaran; Shakeri, Mahsa; Shams, Sara; Shams, Ali; Baboli, Aref Shams; Shamul, Naomi; Shan, Guogen; Shang, Yuan; Shao, Rui; Shao, Hanyu; Shao, Xiaozhe; Shaoxun, Yuan; Noghabi, Hossein Sharifi; Sharlene, Newman; Sharma, Avinash; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Aman; Shaw, Leslie; Shaw, Saurabh; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Sheline, Yvette; Shen, Li; Shen, Yanhe; Shen, Qian; Sherriff, Ian; Shi, Xin; Shi, Lei; Shi, Yonggang; Shi, Yue; Shi, Yupan; Shi, Jie; Shi, Feng; Shiban, Nisreen; Shields, Trevor; Shiiba, Takuro; Shiino, Akihiko; Shin, Peter; Shin, Hoo Chang; Shin, Daniel; Shine, James; Shinohara, Russell; Shirakashi, Yoshitomo; Shirali, Ramin; Shirer, William; Shiva, Karthik; Shmuel, Amir; Shojaei, Zahra; Shojaei, Samane; Shokouhi, Sepideh; Short, Jennifer; Shu, Qing; Shu, Ziyu; Shu, Hao; Shu, Xinghui; Shukla, Rahul; Sibilia, Francesca; Sikka, Apoorva; Rincón, Santiago Smith Silva; Silveira, Margarida; Simon, Howard; Simonneau, Michel; Simonovsky, Martin; Singanamalli, Asha; Singh, TirathaRaj; Singh, Ambuj; Singh, Satya; Singlelob, John; Sinha, Sampada; Sipko, Maciej; Sistla, Kamala; Sivera, Raphael; Skillbäck, Tobias; Skocik, Michael; Slade, Emily; Smisek, Miroslav; Smith, Louise; Smith, Emily; Smith, Elliot; Smith, Lidia; de Lima, John Wesley Soares; Soemedi, Rachel; Sohail, Aamir; Soheili-Nezhad, Sourena; Sokolow, Sophie; Sokurenko, Maria; Soldan, Anja; Soman, Salil; Sone, Je Yeong; Song, Joonyoung; Song, Xiaowei; Soni, Ameet; Soni, Priyank; Sonkar, Gaurav; Sonmez, Ege; Sonpatki, Pranali; Sorooshyari, Siamak; Diaz, Roberto Carlos Sotero; Sotolongo-Grau, Oscar; Sou, Ka Lon; Soursou, Georgia; Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Spedding, Alexander; Spenger, Christian; Spiegel, Jonathan; Spiegel, RenÃ; Spies, Lothar; Spiro, Oliver; Spooner, Annette; Springate, Beth; Spronk, Marjolein; Squillario, Margherita; Sreenivasan, Karthik; Srikanth, Velandai; Srinivasan, Sneha; Srivastava, Mashrin; Srivastava, Anant; Srivatsa, Shantanu; Stage, Eddie; Stanley-Olson, Alexis; Steenland, Nelson; Steffener, Jason; Steyvers, Mark; Stickel, Ariana; Stone, David; Storkey, Amos; Storrs, Judd; Straminsky, Axel; Strittmatter, Stephen; Su, Yi; Sudmann-Day, Matthew; Sudre, Carole; Sudsanguan, Salintip; Sugishita, Morihiro; Suh, Devin; Suk, Heung-Il; Sulimov, Pavel; Sullivan, Margot; Sullivan, Kenneth; Sullivan, Jenna; Sumbaly, Ronak; Sun, Liyan; Sun, Xinwei; Sun, Haoran; Sun, Chung-Kai; Sun, Yongcong; Sun, Yu; Sun, Mingjie; Sun, Qian; Sun, Zeyu; Sun, Liang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Sun, Wei; Sundaramoorthy, Karthik Prakash; Sundaresan, Mali; Sunderland, John; Sundermann, Erin; Sunkishala, Raja; Surampudi, Govinda; Surampudi Venkata, Suresh Kumar; Surendran, Neha; Suresh, Adarsh; Suryavanshi, Priya; Susi, Gianluca; Suthaharan, Praveen; Sutphen, Courtney; Swati, Zar Nawab Khan; Sweet, Robert; Swinford, Cecily; Syaifullah, Ali Haidar; Szoeke, Cassandra; Sørensen, Lauge; Cuenco, Karen T.; Jafari, Hossein Tabatabaei; Tadayon, Ehsan; Taebi, Yasaman; Tahaei, Marzieh S.; Tahmasebi, Amir; Tai, Leon; Takahashi, Ryoji; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Takao, Hidemasa; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Talib, Sophie; Taljan, Kyle; Tam, Angela; Tam, Roger; Tamang, Kishan; Tan, Chin Hong; Tan, Luqiao; Tan, Lin; Tan, Tian Swee; Tancredi, Daniel; Tanenbaum, Aaron; Tang, Yucong; Tang, Xiaoying; Tang, Chuangao; Tang, Cheng; Tang, Lingkai; Tang, Min; Tang, Hao; Tanigaki, Kenji; Tanoori, Betsabeh; Tansey, Wesley; Tantiwetchayanon, Khajonsak; Tanveer, M.; Tao, Qiushan; Tao, Chong; Tarawneh, Rawan; Tarnow, Eugen; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Tasaki, Shinya; Taswell, Koby; Taswell, Carl; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Taylan, Pakize; Taylor, Jonathan; Taylor, Brad; Tayubi, Iftikhar; Tchistiakova, Ekaterina; tee, Yee Kai; Teipel, Stefan; Temizer, Leyla; Kate, Mara Ten; Tenbergen, Carlijn; Tenenbaum, Jessica; Teng, Zi; Teng, Yuan-Ching; Teng, Edmond; Termenon, Maite; Terry, Eloise; Thaker, Ashesh; Theobald, Chuck; Thiel, Taylor; Thiele, Ines; Thiele, Frank; Thierry, Jean Pierre; Thirunavu, Vineeth; Thomas, Chris; Thomas, Kelsey; Thomas, Anoop Jacob; Thomas, Benjamin; Thomas, Ronald; Thomas, Adam; Thomopoulos, Sophia; Thompson, Gerard; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Will; Thompson, Paul; Thung, Kimhan; Tian, Sijia; Tierney, Mary; Tilquin, Florian; Tingay, Karen; Tirrell, Lee; Tirumalai, Sindhuja; Tobis, Jonathan; Todkari, Suhasini; Tohka, Jussi; Tokuda, Takahiko; Toledo, Juan B.; Toledo, Jon; Tolonen, Antti; Tombari, Federico; Tomiyama, Tetsuro; Tomola, Lauren; Tong, Yunjie; Tong, Liz; Tong, Li; Tong, Xiaoran; Torgerson, Carinna; Toro, Roberto; Torok, Levente; Toschi, Nicola; Tosto, Giuseppe; Tosun, Duygu; Tourandaz, Morteza; Toussaint, Paule; Towhidi, Sasan Maximilian; Towler, Stephen; Toyama, Teruhide; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Tran, Thao; Tran, Daniel; Trapani, Benjamin; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Tripathi, Shashi; Trittschuh, Emily; Trivedi, Ashish; Trojacanec, Katarina; Truong, Dennis; Tsanas, Athanasios; Tse, Kai-Hei; Tsoy, Elena; Tu, Yanshuai; Tubeleviciute-Aydin, Agne; Tubi, Meral; Tucholka, Alan; Tufail, Ahsan; Tumati, Shankar; Tuo, Shouheng; Tuovinen, Timo; Tustison, Nicholas; Tutunji, Rayyan; Tward, Daniel; Tyagi, Gaurav; Tzioras, Nikolaos; Raghavendra, U.; Uberti, Daniela; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Ueki, Masao; Ulug, Aziz; Umek, Robert; University, Northwestern; de Almeida, Sofia Urioste Y. Nunes; Urrutia, Leandro; Usama, Ahmed; Ustun, Ali Alp; Uus, Alena; Uyar, Muharrem Umit; Visalatchi, V.; Rajinikanth, V.; Vafaei, Amin; Vairre, Darlene; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev; Vaithinathan, Krishnakumar; Vakorin, Vasily; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van Bokhoven, Pieter; Deerlin, Vivianna Van; van der Brug, Marcel; Dijk, Koene Van; van Duijn, Cornelia; van Erp, Theo; van Hooren, Roy; Leemput, Koen Van; van Loenhoud, Anita; Schependom, Jeroen Van; van Velden, Floris; van Westen, Danielle; Vandekar, Simon; Vandijck, Manu; Vanhoutte, Matthieu; Vannini, Patrizia; Vansteenkiste, Elias; Varatharajah, Yogatheesan; Vardarajan, Badri; Varey, Stephen; Vargas, Hernan; Varkey, Julia; Varma, Susheel; Varma, Vijay; Varma, Sudhr; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Vashi, Tejal; Vasilchuk, Kseniia; Vassileva, Albena; Vatsalan, Dinusha; Vb, Nastaran; Veeramacheneni, Teja; Veeranah, Darvesh; Vejdani, Kaveh; Veldsman, Michele; Velgos, Stefanie; Veloso, Adriano; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Venero, Cesar; Venkataraman, Ashwin; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai; Venkatraghavan, Vikram; Venugopal, Vinisha; Venugopalan, Janani; Verbeeck, Rudi; Verbel, David; Verbist, Bie; Verdoliva, Luisa; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Verma, Tarun; Verma, Ishan; Veronese, Mattia; Grabovetsky, Alejandro Vicente; Victor, Jonathan; Vieira, Domingos; Vijayaraj, Vinesh Raja; Vikas, Vinutha; Vilaplana, Veronica; Vilaplana, Eduard; Villar, José Ramón; Vincent, Fabrice; Vinkler, Mojmir; Viswanath, Satish; Viswanathan, Srikrishnan; Vitek, Michael; Viti, Mario; Vladutu, Liviu; Vlock, Daniel; Voineskos, Aristotle; Vora, Anvi; Vos, Stephanie; Voyle, Nicola; Vrenken, Hugo; Vu, Tien Duong; Vucetic, Zivjena; Vuksanovic, Vesna; Wachinger, Christian; Wada, Masataka; Wade, Sara; Wagstyl, Konrad; Wahba, Grace; Waldorf, Johannes; Walker, Douglas; Moore, Kim Poki Walker; Walsh, Dominic; Wan, Lin; Wang, Di; Wang, Jane-Ling; Wang, Yongmao; Wang, Huaming; Wang, Miao; Wang, Zi-Rui; Wang, Zheyu; Wang, Z. E.; Wang, Lucy; Wang, Bin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jason; Wang, Cathy; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiuyuan; Wang, Dai; Wang, Lingyu; Wang, Jianjia; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yujiang; Wang, Ming-Liang; Wang, De; Wang, Ling; Wang, Liangliang; Wang, Jianxin; Wang, Zhanyu; Wang, William Shi-Yuan; Wang, HuiFu; Wang, Weixin; Wang, Zhenxun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junwen; Wang, Yipei; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yinying; Wang, Chengjia; Wang, Yuanjia; Wang, Kerry; Wang, Li-San; Wang, Kangcheng; Wang, Rui; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Xinying; Wang, Xinglong; Wang, Jeff; Wang, Tianyi; Wang, Honglang; Wang, Xuekuan; Wang, Yongxiang; Wang, Hong; Wang, Silun; Waring, Stephen; Warren, David; Wasule, Vijay; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Wearn, Alfie; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Wegmayr, Viktor; Wehenkel, Marie; Wei, Rizhen; Wei, Zheng; Wei, Penghu; Wei, Yongbin; Wei, Guohui; Wei, Changshuai; Weichart, Emily; Weiler, Marina; Weise, Christopher; Weisong, Zhong; Weisshuhn, Philip; Weizheng, Yan; Wen, Canhong; Wen, Junhao; Wen, Wei; Wen, Zhenfu; Wen, Hao; Wenzel, Fabian; Werhane, Madeleine; Westaway, Shawn; Westlye, Lars T.; Westman, Eric; Whardana, Adithya; Whitcher, Brandon; Whittington, Alexander; Wicks, Stephen; Wiens, Jenna; Wildsmith, Kristin; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Wilkinson, Andrea; Willette, Auriel; Williams, Kristin; Williams, Robert; Williams, Rebecca; Wilman, Alan; Wilmot, Beth; Wilson, Lorraine; Win, Juliet; Windpass, F. C.; Wink, Alle Meije; Winter, Nils; Winzeck, Stefan; Wirth, Miranka; Wishart, Heather; Wisniewski, Gary; Wiste, Heather; Wolpe, Noham; Wolz, Robin; Wong, Stephen; Wong, Swee Seong; Wong, Tak-Lam; Woo, Jongwook; Woo, Taekang; Woo, Young; Wood, Levi; Worth, Andrew; Wrenn, Jesse; Wright, Paul; Wu, Guorong; Wu, Lynn; Wu, Shawn; Wu, Menglin; Wu, Ruige; Wu, Shaoju; Wu, Chong; Wu, Juhao; Wu, Liyun; Wu, Yu-Te; Wu, Yuankai; Wu, Helen; Xia, Weiming; Xiang, Xu; Xiangmao, Kong; Xiao, Yiming; Xiao, Jie; Xiao, Y. U.; Xiaoxi, Ji; Xiaoya, Zhu; Xiaoying, Qi; Xie, Yuchen; Xie, Zhiyong; Xie, Lei; Xie, Xiancheng; Xin, Huang; Xingyi, Huang; Xiong, Yuanpeng; Xiong, Momiao; Xu, Yongchao; Xu, XiaoYing; Xu, Qiqi; Xu, Lijun; Xu, Hewen; Xu, Yunlong; Xu, Zhilei; Xu, Ziliang; Xu, Jiayuan; Xu, Yadong; Xu, Lu; Xu, Shuoyu; Xue, Fei; Xuesong, Yang; Xz, Zarric; Yadav, Rishi; Yaish, Aviv; Yakushev, Igor; Yamada, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Utako; Yamashita, Alexandre; Yamashita, Fumio; Yan, Li; Yan, Yu; Yan, Jianhua; Yan, Shiju; Yan, Chao-Gan; Yan, Qingyu; Yan, Jingwen; Yan, Chen; Yan, Meng; Yang, Meng; Yang, Bin; Yang, Jiarui; Yang, Zhi; Yang, Xianfeng; Yang, Sli; Yang, Liang; Yang, Robert; Yang, Aleex; Yang, Hyungjeong; Yang, ChengHao; Yang, Haiwei; Yang, Jhih-Ying; Yang, Xu; Yangyang, Xia; Yao, Xufeng; Yaping, Wang; Yaqiong, Bi; Yared, Surafael; Yashin, Anatoliy; Yassine, Hussein; Yau, Tat; Yavorsky, Christian; Ye, Chang; Ye, Byoung Seok; Ye, Joy; Ye, Yongkai; Ye, Yuting; Ye, Wu; Yelampalli, Praveen Kumar Reddy; Thomas Yeo, B. T.; Yi, Zhao; Yi, Wang; Yi, Yuan; Yijing, Ruan; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Yin, Baocai; Yin, Tang-Kai; Ying, Li; Yingjiang, Wu; Yiyun, Yu; Yoichiro, Sato; Yokoyama, Jennifer; Yong, Zhang; Yonghong, Shi; Yonghu, Guo; Yongqi, Huang; Yoo, Inwan; Yoon, So Hoon; Yoon, Jee Seok; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Yoshida, Hisako; Yoshio, Kiyofumi; You, Jia; You, You; You, Xiaozhen; Young, Alexandra; Yu, Peng; Yu, Jaemin; Yu, Lin; Yu, Sui; Yu, Philip S.; Yu, Guan; Yu, Fengli; Yu, Jiaxin; Yu, Shaode; Yu, Suizhi; Yu, Donghyeon; Yuan, Yue; Yuan, Shaofeng; Yuan, Shuai; Yuanyuan, Chen; Yue, Ye; Yue, Cynthia; Yunaiyama, Daisuke; YushaoChen, YushaoChen; Yushkevich, Paul; Yx, W.; Zafeiris, Dimitrios; Zagorchev, Lyubomir; Zalocusky, Kelly; Zamorano, Francisco; Zandifar, Azar; Zanella, Laura; Zang, Yufeng; Zanke, Brent; Zaranek, Alexander Wait; Zawaideh, Mazen; Zawawi, Nour; Zee, Jarcy; Zeighami, Yashar; Zeitzer, Jamie; Zemla, Jeffrey; Zeng, Qi; Zeng, Fan; Zeng, Donglin; Zeng, Wei; Zeng, Yingying; Ženko, Bernard; Zereshki, Ehsan; Zeskind, Benjamin; Zhan, Justin; Zhang, Chenghui; Zhang, Yixuan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Jianlun; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yufei; Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Changle; Zhang, Qingtian; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiangliang; Zhang, Linda; Zhang, Yingteng; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Ziwei; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, ChengZhi; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Guishan; Zhang, Xixue; Zhang, Tianhao; Zhangyi, Zhangyi; Zhao, Wenting; Zhao, Xuewu; Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Yifei; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Zhao, Di; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Lu; Zheng, Lijuan; Zheng, Kaiping; Zheng, Weihao; Zheng, Du; Zheng, Muhua; Zheng, Qiang; Zheng, Bichen; Zheng, Lihong; Zhong, Wenxuan; Zhong, Yujia; Zhou, Tian; Zhou, Jiayin; Zhou, Zhen; Zhou, Yongxia; Zhou, Lixin; Zhou, Bowei; Zhou, Juan; Zhou, Qixin; Zhou, Levi; Zhou, Fengfeng; Zhou, Jiayu; Zhou, Luping; Zhou, Yun; Zhou, Yingjie; Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Frankie; Zhu, Zonghai; Zhu, Xiaoya; Zhu, Xiaolu; Zhu, Shanfeng; Zhu, David; Zhu, Hongxiao; Zhu, Lida; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhuxin, Jin; Zigon, Robert; Zille, Pascal; Zimmer, Eduardo; Zimmer, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Earl; Zimmerman, Karl; Zimmermann, Joelle; Zipperer, Erin; Zito, Giancarlo; Zou, Yang; Zuo, Maria; Zywiec, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging measurements derived from magnetic resonance imaging provide important information required for detecting changes related to the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical features and changes play a crucial role in revealing unique anatomical patterns of brain regions,

  2. Validation of the Cuban Version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised for Screening Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broche-Pérez, Yunier; López-Pujol, Héctor Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of the Cuban version of the revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) in identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in comparison with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was assessed. The Cuban ACE-R was administered to a group of 129 elderly subjects (92 cognitively healthy and 37 subjects with MCI). The t tests for independent samples were used to compare scores of different psychometric scales between groups, and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated. Cronbach's coefficient α was used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of ACE-R to screen for MCI was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The Cuban ACE-R had reliable internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0. 879). The optimal cut-off score for ACE-R for detecting MCI was 84/85. The sensitivity and specificity of ACE-R to screen for MCI was superior to those of MMSE. The area under the ROC curve of the Cuban ACE-R was much larger than that of MMSE (0.93 and 0.63) for detecting MCI. The Cuban ACE-R is a valid screening tool for detecting cognitive impairment. It is more sensitive and accurate in screening for MCI than MMSE. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Transitions to mild cognitive impairments, dementia, and death: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Suzanne L; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Riley, Kathryn P; Mendiondo, Marta S; Kryscio, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    The potential of early interventions for dementia has increased interest in cognitive impairments less severe than dementia. However, predictors of the trajectory from intact cognition to dementia have not yet been clearly identified. The purpose of this study was to determine whether known risk factors for dementia increased the risk of mild cognitive impairments or progression from mild cognitive impairments to dementia. A polytomous logistic regression model was used, with parameters governing transitions within transient states (intact cognition, mild cognitive impairments, global impairment) estimated separately from parameters governing the transition from transient to absorbing state (dementia or death). Analyses were based on seven annual examinations (1991-2002) of 470 Nun Study participants aged > or = 75 years at baseline and living in the United States. Odds of developing dementia increased with age primarily for those with low educational levels. In these women, presence of an apolipoprotein E gene *E4 allele increased the odds more than fourfold by age 95 years. Age, education, and the apolipoprotein E gene were all significantly associated with mild cognitive impairments. Only age, however, was associated with progression to dementia. Thus, risk factors for dementia may operate primarily by predisposing individuals to develop mild cognitive impairments; subsequent progression to dementia then depends on only time and competing mortality.

  4. Biological Factors Contributing to the Response to Cognitive Training in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jessica; Schumacher, Lena V; Landerer, Verena; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Kaller, Christoph P; Lahr, Jacob; Klöppel, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), small benefits from cognitive training were observed for memory functions but there appears to be great variability in the response to treatment. Our study aimed to improve the characterization and selection of those participants who will benefit from cognitive intervention. We evaluated the predictive value of disease-specific biological factors for the outcome after cognitive training in MCI (n = 25) and also considered motivation of the participants. We compared the results of the cognitive intervention group with two independent control groups of MCI patients (local memory clinic, n = 20; ADNI cohort, n = 302). The primary outcome measure was episodic memory as measured by verbal delayed recall of a 10-word list. Episodic memory remained stable after treatment and slightly increased 6 months after the intervention. In contrast, in MCI patients who did not receive an intervention, episodic memory significantly decreased during the same time interval. A larger left entorhinal cortex predicted more improvement in episodic memory after treatment and so did higher levels of motivation. Adding disease-specific biological factors significantly improved the prediction of training-related change compared to a model based simply on age and baseline performance. Bootstrapping with resampling (n = 1000) verified the stability of our finding. Cognitive training might be particularly helpful in individuals with a bigger left entorhinal cortex as individuals who did not benefit from intervention showed 17% less volume in this area. When extended to alternative treatment options, stratification based on disease-specific biological factors is a useful step towards individualized medicine.

  5. {alpha}4 {beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a study with 5-[I-123]iodo-A-85380 SPECT

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    Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    It has been reported that the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cholinergic deficit is correlated with cognitive impairment. We examined neuronal nAChR distribution of AD patients using 5-[I-123]iodo-A85380 (5-IA) SPECT and correlated it with the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolic impairment and the severity of cognitive impairment. Five clinically diagnosed AD patients, 5 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied with 5-IA SPECT and brain FDG PET. 5-IA SPECT was performed for 30 min at 120 min after radiotracer injection. FDG PET was done within one month interval. Neuropsychological tests were done for cognitive evaluation. A nAChR parameter DV was calculated in brain regions using cerebellum as reference tissue. All scan images were analyzed using SPM2 and ANOVA was done for group comparison. P value less than 0.005 was considered significant. 5-IA SPECT images of AD patients revealed significantly reduced nAChR distribution in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and the left temporal cortex. MCI patients demonstrated decreased receptor distribution mainly in the subcortical areas. Cortical nAChR distribution showed correlation with cortical glucose metabolism and subcortical with that of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency showed significant correlation with nAChR distribution of periventricular white matter (PVWM), visuospatial function evaluated with RCFT with that of PCC, left temporoparietal cortex, and frontal lobe white matter, and MMSE with that of PVWM, frontal cortex, and striatum. These data demonstrate reduction of nAChR distribution in patients with AD, which has significant correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive impairment. It might be useful for diagnosis of AD, and for monitoring individualized treatments targeted at nAChRs.

  6. α4 β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a study with 5-[I-123]iodo-A-85380 SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cholinergic deficit is correlated with cognitive impairment. We examined neuronal nAChR distribution of AD patients using 5-[I-123]iodo-A85380 (5-IA) SPECT and correlated it with the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolic impairment and the severity of cognitive impairment. Five clinically diagnosed AD patients, 5 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied with 5-IA SPECT and brain FDG PET. 5-IA SPECT was performed for 30 min at 120 min after radiotracer injection. FDG PET was done within one month interval. Neuropsychological tests were done for cognitive evaluation. A nAChR parameter DV was calculated in brain regions using cerebellum as reference tissue. All scan images were analyzed using SPM2 and ANOVA was done for group comparison. P value less than 0.005 was considered significant. 5-IA SPECT images of AD patients revealed significantly reduced nAChR distribution in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and the left temporal cortex. MCI patients demonstrated decreased receptor distribution mainly in the subcortical areas. Cortical nAChR distribution showed correlation with cortical glucose metabolism and subcortical with that of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency showed significant correlation with nAChR distribution of periventricular white matter (PVWM), visuospatial function evaluated with RCFT with that of PCC, left temporoparietal cortex, and frontal lobe white matter, and MMSE with that of PVWM, frontal cortex, and striatum. These data demonstrate reduction of nAChR distribution in patients with AD, which has significant correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive impairment. It might be useful for diagnosis of AD, and for monitoring individualized treatments targeted at nAChRs

  7. Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces test performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelye, Adriana M; Howieson, Diane B; Wild, Katherine V; Moore, Mindy Milar; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the sensitivity of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III) Faces subtest to memory impairment associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, Faces performance was examined in 24 MCI patients, 46 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and 98 elderly controls. We hypothesized that participants with diagnoses of MCI or AD would be impaired relative to controls on Faces. Analyses showed that AD participants performed significantly worse than MCI and intact participants, although there were no significant differences between MCI and intact participants. Data suggest that brain areas specialized for face recognition memory may be less affected by MCI and mild AD than regions specialized for verbal memory.

  8. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Rognstad Mellingsæter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods: Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°. Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV, and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results: At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions: The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD.

  9. Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of aerobic exercise or vitamin B supplementation on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design: Randomised placebo-controlled trial. Setting: General community. Participants: Community-dwelling adults aged 70-80 with MCI.

  10. Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uffelen, J.G.Z.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of aerobic exercise or vitamin B supplementation on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design: Randomised placebo-controlled trial. Setting: General community. Participants: Community-dwelling adults aged 70-80 with MCI.

  11. Accelerated Age-Dependent Hippocampal Volume Loss in Parkinson Disease With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine B; Donix, Markus; Linse, Katharina; Werner, Annett; Fauser, Mareike; Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Löhle, Matthias; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease are at high risk of developing dementia. During the course of the disease, a substantial number of patients will experience a cognitive decline, indicating the dynamics of the underlying neuropathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful for identifying structural characteristics in radiological brain anatomy existing prior to clinical symptoms. Whether these changes reflect pathology, whether they are aging related, or both often remains unclear. We hypothesized that aging-associated brain structural changes would be more pronounced in the hippocampal region among patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive deficits relative to cognitively unimpaired patients. Using MRI, we investigated 30 cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease and 33 patients with nondemented Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment. All participants underwent structural MRI scanning and extensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Irrespective of the study participants' cognitive status, older age was associated with reduced cortical thickness in various neocortical regions. Having mild cognitive impairment was not associated with an increased rate of cortical thinning or volume loss in these regions, except in the hippocampus bilaterally. Patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment show an accelerated age-dependent hippocampal volume loss when compared with cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease. This may indicate pathological processes in a key region for memory functioning in patients with Parkinson disease at risk of developing dementia. Structural MRI of the hippocampal region could potentially contribute to identifying patients who should receive early treatment aimed at delaying the clinical onset of dementia.

  12. Exercise-related changes of networks in aging and mild cognitive impairment brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging and mild cognitive impairment are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and mild cognitive impairment populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and mild cognitive impairment population, and physical exercise could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective physical exercise programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions.

  13. Face-Name Associative Recognition Deficits in Subjective Cognitive Decline and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcher, Alexandra; Frommann, Ingo; Koppara, Alexander; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Jessen, Frank; Wagner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for more sensitive neuropsychological tests to detect subtle cognitive deficits emerging in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associative memory is a cognitive function supported by the hippocampus and affected early in the process of AD. We developed a short computerized face-name associative recognition test (FNART) and tested whether it would detect memory impairment in memory clinic patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We recruited 61 elderly patients with either SCD (n = 32) or MCI (n = 29) and 28 healthy controls (HC) and compared performance on FNART, self-reported cognitive deterioration in different domains (ECog-39), and, in a reduced sample (n = 46), performance on the visual Paired Associates Learning of the CANTAB battery. A significant effect of group on FNART test performance in the total sample was found (p < 0.001). Planned contrasts indicated a significantly lower associative memory performance in the SCD (p = 0.001, d = 0.82) and MCI group (p < 0.001, d = 1.54), as compared to HCs, respectively. The CANTAB-PAL discriminated only between HC and MCI, possibly because of reduced statistical power. Adjusted for depression, performance on FNART was significantly related to ECog-39 Memory in SCD patients (p = 0.024) but not in MCI patients. Associative memory is substantially impaired in memory clinic patients with SCD and correlates specifically with memory complaints at this putative preclinical stage of AD. Further studies will need to examine the predictive validity of the FNART in SCD patients with regard to longitudinal (i.e., conversion to MCI/AD) and biomarker outcomes.

  14. Daily stressors and emotional reactivity in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Condeelis, Kristen L; Haley, William E

    2015-06-01

    Daily experiences of stress are common and have been associated with worse affect among older adults. People with mild cognitive impairment (PWMCI) have measurable memory deficits in between normal cognition and dementia and have been identified as having greater psychological distress than cognitively healthy older adults (CHOAs). Little is known about whether daily stressors contribute to distress among PWMCI. We hypothesized that compared with CHOAs, PWMCI would have higher daily negative affect and lower daily positive affect, report greater numbers and severity of daily stressors, and experience greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Fifteen clinically diagnosed PWMCI and 25 CHOAs completed daily reports of stressors, stressor severity, and positive and negative affect over an 8-day period. PWMCI reported higher daily negative affect, lower daily positive affect, and higher numbers and greater severity of memory stressors but did not differ from CHOAs in numbers or severity of general stressors. Cognitive status was a moderator of the daily stress-affect relationship. Days with greater numbers and severity of general daily stressors were associated with higher negative affect only for PWMCI. The numbers and severity of memory stressors were not associated with negative affect. In addition, more severe general daily stressors and memory stressors were associated with lower positive affect for all participants. Results suggest that PWMCI are less resilient in the face of daily stress than are CHOAs in terms of negative affect, perhaps because of declines in reserve capacity. The study presents a promising approach to understanding stress and coping in predementia states of cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kazuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years) consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability. In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027) and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034). A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (β = -0.322, P = 0.026) and MMSE score (β = -0.295, P = 0.041), controlling for age and gender. General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to examine the effects of exercise programs designed to address cognitive obstacles in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

  16. Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment: application and validation of the criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, Gert J.; Hoogland, Jeroen; Goldman, Jennifer G.; Schmand, Ben A.; Tröster, Alexander I.; Burn, David J.; Litvan, Irene; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Hurtig, Howard; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Adler, Charles H.; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Leverenz, Jim; Zabetian, Cyrus; Huang, Xuemei; Eslinger, Paul J.; Marras, Connie; Duff-Canning, Sarah; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.; Anderson, Tim J.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Lewis, Simon J. G.; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Yu, Rwei-Ling; Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Breen, David P.; Barker, Roger A.; Yarnall, Alison J.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Koene, Ted; Klein, Martin; Trautmann, Ellen; Mollenhauer, Brit; Dodel, Richard; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Pagonabaragga, Javier; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C.; Gasca-Salas, Carmen; Junque, Carme; Segura, Barbara; Sportiello, Marco Timpano; Cammisuli, Davide M.; Barone, Paolo; Pedersen, Kenn Freddy; Alves, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a serious health issue and a major concern for many patients. In most cases mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional stage between normal cognitive functioning and dementia which is of potential importance in the early identification of

  17. Dimensions of Ambiguous Loss in Couples Coping with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.; Wilcox, Karen L.; Barham, Elizabeth J.; Winston, Brianne L.

    2007-01-01

    We applied the theory of ambiguous loss to couples with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an age-related decline in memory and other cognitive processes assumed not to interfere with daily activities or the maintenance of personal relationships. Face-to-face interviews with 67 older married couples revealed that lack of understanding about the…

  18. Anosognosia for memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment: Insight into the neural mechanism using functional and molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Vannini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anosognosia, or loss of insight of memory deficits, is a common and striking symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Previous findings in AD dementia patients suggest that anosognosia is due to both functional metabolic changes within cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processes, as well as functional disconnection between these regions. The present study aims to extend these findings by investigating the neural correlates of anosognosia in the prodromal stage of AD. Here, we used regional brain metabolism (resting state 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET to unravel the metabolic correlates of anosognosia in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and subsequently resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI to investigate the intrinsic connectivity disruption between brain regions. Thirty-one subjects (mean age: 74.1; Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR global score: 0.5 with aMCI, and 251 cognitively normal (CN older adults (mean age: 73.3; CDR: 0 were included as a reference group for behavioral and FDG data. An anosognosia index was obtained by calculating a discrepancy score between subjective and objective memory scores. All subjects underwent FDG-PET for glucose metabolism measurement, and aMCI subjects underwent additional rs-fMRI for intrinsic connectivity measurement. Voxel-wise correlations between anosognosia and neuroimaging data were conducted in the aMCI subjects. Subjects with aMCI had significantly decreased memory awareness as compared to the CN older adults. Greater anosognosia in aMCI subjects was associated with reduced glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate (PCC cortices and hippocampus. Intrinsic connectivity analyses revealed a significant association between anosognosia and attenuated functional connectivity between the PCC seed region and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC as well as bilateral inferior parietal lobes (IPL. These findings provide further

  19. Vitamin B12 supplementation and cognitive scores in geriatric patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Komal Chauhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly affecting the elderly with a severe impact on their brain health. There is a wide gap in supplementation based studies for increasing the cognition levels of the geriatric population, especially in developing countries like India which are at extreme risk of developing neurological disorders. And recently Vitamin B12 has drawn considerable attention due to its ability to improve the cognitive status. Current literature has linked the possibility of alleviating neurological disorders in the elderly with effective vitamin B12 management. Abundant animal and human models have proved that supplementation of vitamin B12 is beneficial for the restoration of cognitive functions. Objective: To supplement vitamin B12 deficient mild cognitively impaired geriatric patients with injectable doses of vitamin B12 followed by impact evaluation. Methods: Screening of the mild cognitively impaired patients was carried out using the Mini- Mental State Examination and Yamaguchi Fox Pigeon Imitation test. Baseline information was elicited from the patients residing in urban Vadodara (a district in the state of Gujarat, India. This included socio-demographic, medical and drug history, anthropometric and physical activity pattern, in addition to biochemical parameters comprising of serum vitamin B12 and glycated haemoglobin profile. A sub-sample of 60 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI demonstrating severe vitamin B12 deficiency were conveniently enrolled for injectable doses of Vitamin B 12 in the dosage of 1,000 µg every day for one week, followed by 1,000 µg every week for 4 weeks & finishing with 1,000 µg for the remaining 4 months. An intervention six- month after the experiment with all the parameters were elicited. Results: Vitamin B12 supplementation resulted in a significant (p<0.001 improvement in the MMSE scores of the patients with a rise of 9.63% in the total patients. Gender

  20. Decreased cerebral {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease assessed with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendziorra, Kai; Meyer, Philipp Mael; Barthel, Henryk; Hesse, Swen; Becker, Georg Alexander; Luthardt, Julia; Schildan, Andreas; Patt, Marianne; Sorger, Dietlind; Seese, Anita; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); University of Zurich, Department of Old Age Psychiatry and Psychiatry Research, Psychiatric University Hospital (PUK) Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Gertz, Herman-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Postmortem studies indicate a loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to establish whether these changes in the cholinergic system occur at an early stage of AD, we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with a specific radioligand for the {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}4{beta}2* nAChR) in patients with mild to moderate AD and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), who have a high risk to progress to AD. Nine patients with moderate AD, eight patients with MCI and seven age-matched healthy controls underwent 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380) PET. After coregistration with individual magnetic resonance imaging the binding potential (BP{sub ND}) of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 was calculated using either the corpus callosum or the cerebellum as reference regions. PET data were analysed by region of interest analysis and by voxel-based analysis. Both patients with AD and MCI showed a significant reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} in typical AD-affected brain regions. Thereby, the corpus callosum was identified as the most suitable reference region. The 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment. Only MCI patients that converted to AD in the later course (n = 5) had a reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND}. 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET appears to be a sensitive and feasible tool for the detection of a reduction in {alpha}4{beta}2* nAChRs which seems to be an early event in AD. In addition, 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET might give prognostic information about a conversion from MCI to AD. (orig.)

  1. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

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    K. M. Volkers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years. Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.

  2. Anosognosia for cognitive and behavioral symptoms in Parkinson's disease with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment: Frequency and neuropsychological/neuropsychiatric correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Maria Donata; Assogna, Francesca; Pellicano, Clelia; Pontieri, Francesco Ernesto; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Stefani, Alessandro; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2018-04-17

    Anosognosia is a multidimensional phenomenon with detrimental effects on patients' illness course, therapy compliance and quality of life. We aimed at investigating anosognosia for cognitive and behavioral symptoms in Parkinson's Disease (PD) with dementia (PDD) and, for the first time, in PD with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI-PD). Community dwelling subjects (47 mild PDD, 136 multidomain MCI-PD (mdMCI-PD), 5 single domain MCI-PD (sdMCI-PD), and 197 PD without cognitive impairment (noCI-PD) were enrolled in a cross-sectional design study. All the subjects were administered the Anosognosia Questionnaire for Dementia, the Mental Deterioration Battery and a number of neuropsychiatric inventories. A diagnosis of anosognosia was made in 36% of patients with mild PDD and 16% with mdMCI-PD, whether it was negligible in sdMCI-PD and noCI-PD. Higher severity of anosognosia for cognitive impairment was also found in PDD and in mdMCI-PD. SdMCI-PD had the lower severity of anosognosia for cognitive impairment. Higher anosognosia for cognitive impairment was associated to lower depression in noCI-PD (r = -0.227, p = 0.0013) and mdMCI-PD (r = -0.266, p = 0.0016), and to reduced hedonic tone in noCI-PD (r = -0.191, p = 0.0071). Greater anosognosia was associated to lower executive performances in PDD (r = 0.424, p = 0.0074). Anosognosia for non-motor symptoms is frequent in PD patients with mild dementia or mdMCI. Results confirm the role of neuropsychiatric characteristics in anosognosia also in PD, the high prevalence of anosognosia in neurodegenerative illnesses and suggest a common pathogenic path for anosognosia in different neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying Dietary Patterns Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults Using Reduced Rank Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayeon Shin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a crucial role in cognitive function. Few studies have examined the relationship between dietary patterns and cognitive functions of older adults in the Korean population. This study aimed to identify the effect of dietary patterns on the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 239 participants, including 88 men and 151 women, aged 65 years and older were selected from health centers in the district of Seoul, Gyeonggi province, and Incheon, in Korea. Dietary patterns were determined using Reduced Rank Regression (RRR methods with responses regarding vitamin B6, vitamin C, and iron intakes, based on both a one-day 24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between dietary pattern score and the risk of mild cognitive impairment. A total of 20 (8% out of the 239 participants had mild cognitive impairment. Three dietary patterns were identified: seafood and vegetables, high meat, and bread, ham, and alcohol. Among the three dietary patterns, the older adult population who adhered to the seafood and vegetables pattern, characterized by high intake of seafood, vegetables, fruits, bread, snacks, soy products, beans, chicken, pork, ham, egg, and milk had a decreased risk of mild cognitive impairment compared to those who did not (adjusted odds ratios 0.06, 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.72 after controlling for gender, supplementation, education, history of dementia, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, and duration of sleep. The other two dietary patterns were not significantly associated with the risk of mild cognitive impairment. In conclusion, high consumption of fruits, vegetables, seafood, and protein foods was significantly associated with reduced mild cognitive impairment in older Korean adults. These results can contribute to the establishment of

  4. Slowing down after a mild traumatic brain injury: a strategy to improve cognitive task performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Lana J; Fernandes, Myra A

    2012-01-01

    Long-term persistent attention and memory difficulties following a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) often go undetected on standard neuropsychological tests, despite complaints by mild TBI individuals. We conducted a visual Repetition Detection working memory task to digits, in which we manipulated task difficulty by increasing cognitive load, to identify subtle deficits long after a mild TBI. Twenty-six undergraduate students with a self-report of one mild TBI, which occurred at least 6 months prior, and 31 non-head-injured controls took part in the study. Participants were not informed until study completion that the study's purpose was to examine cognitive changes following a mild TBI, to reduce the influence of "diagnosis threat" on performance. Neuropsychological tasks did not differentiate the groups, though mild TBI participants reported higher state anxiety levels. On our working memory task, the mild TBI group took significantly longer to accurately detect repeated targets on our task, suggesting that slowed information processing is a long-term consequence of mild TBI. Accuracy was comparable in the low-load condition and, unexpectedly, mild TBI performance surpassed that of controls in the high-load condition. Temporal analysis of target identification suggested a strategy difference between groups: mild TBI participants made a significantly greater number of accurate responses following the target's offset, and significantly fewer erroneous distracter responses prior to target onset, compared with controls. Results suggest that long after a mild TBI, high-functioning young adults invoke a strategy of delaying their identification of targets in order to maintain, and facilitate, accuracy on cognitively demanding tasks. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual-task as a predictor of falls in older people with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jessica; Ansai, Juliana Hotta; Masse, Fernando Arturo Arriagada; Vale, Francisco Assis Carvalho; Takahashi, Anielle Cristhine de Medeiros; Andrade, Larissa Pires de

    2018-04-04

    A dual-task tool with a challenging and daily secondary task, which involves executive functions, could facilitate the screening for risk of falls in older people with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease. To verify if a motor-cognitive dual-task test could predict falls in older people with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease, and to establish cutoff scores for the tool for both groups. A prospective study was conducted with community-dwelling older adults, including 40 with mild cognitive impairment and 38 with mild Alzheimer's disease. The dual-task test consisted of the Timed up and Go Test associated with a motor-cognitive task using a phone to call. Falls were recorded during six months by calendar and monthly telephone calls and the participants were categorized as fallers or non-fallers. In the Mild cognitive impairment Group, fallers presented higher values in time (35.2s), number of steps (33.7 steps) and motor task cost (116%) on dual-task compared to non-fallers. Time, number of steps and motor task cost were significantly associated with falls in people with mild cognitive impairment. Multivariate analysis identified higher number of steps spent on the test to be independently associated with falls. A time greater than 23.88s (sensitivity=80%; specificity=61%) and a number of steps over 29.50 (sensitivity=65%; specificity=83%) indicated prediction of risk of falls in the Mild cognitive impairment Group. Among people with Alzheimer's disease, no differences in dual-task between fallers and non-fallers were found and no variable of the tool was able to predict falls. The dual-task predicts falls only in older people with mild cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Aerobic Training on Cognition and Brain Glucose Metabolism in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Fábio Henrique de Gobbi; Coutinho, Artur Martins Novaes; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá; Gualano, Bruno; Duran, Fabio Luís de Souza; Prando, Silvana; Ono, Carla Rachel; Spíndola, Lívia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; do Vale, Patrícia Helena Figuerêdo; Nitrini, Ricardo; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic training (AT) is a promising intervention for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To evaluate the effects of AT on cognition and regional brain glucose metabolism (rBGM) in MCI patients. Subjects performed a twice-a-week, moderate intensity, AT program for 24 weeks. Assessment with ADAS-cog, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and evaluation of rBGM with positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG-PET) were performed before and after the intervention. Aerobic capacity was compared using the maximal oxygen consumption VO2max (mL/Kg/min). [18F]FDG-PET data were analyzed on a voxel-by-voxel basis with SPM8 software. Forty subjects were included, with a mean (M) age of 70.3 (5.4) years and an initial Mini-Mental State Exam score of 27.4 (1.7). Comparisons using paired t-tests revealed improvements in the ADAS-cog (M difference: -2.7 (3.7), p <  0.001) and VO2max scores (M difference: 1.8 (2.0) mL/kg/min, p <  0.001). Brain metabolic analysis revealed a bilateral decrease in the rBGM of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, pFWE = 0.04. This rBGM decrease was negatively correlated with improvement in a visuospatial function/attentional test (rho =-0.31, p = 0.04). Several other brain areas also showed increases or decreases in rBGM. Of note, there was an increase in the retrosplenial cortex, an important node of the default mode network, that was negatively correlated with the metabolic decrease in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (r =-0.51, p = 0.001). AT improved cognition and changed rBGM in areas related to cognition in subjects with MCI.

  7. Mild cognitive impairment in symptomatic and asymptomatic cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Irena Martinić; Serić, Vesna; Demarin, Vida

    2007-06-15

    We tried to evaluate and to compare usefulness of two brief cognitive tests in early detection of cognitive decline in subjects with increased cerebrovascular (CV) risk. As CV risk factors are recognised as important in etiology of dementia, we also aimed to determine the possible associations of specific CV risk factors and cognitive results. Patients (PGs) with first-ever stroke or TIA (N=110) and CV symptoms-free controls (CGs) with CV risk factors present (N=45) matched for age, gender and education level were tested using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) on admission, at three- and six-month points. In all subjects, detailed CV risk factors profile was assessed. We observed the decrement in cognitive performance during the six-month study period in both groups, more evident if MoCA (pdecrement and multiple CV risk factors (>2) were found (p=0.034 for MMSE; p=0.002 for MoCA). In CGs, positive associations were found for cognitive decrement and arterial hypertension with increased IMT values (pmultiple CV risk factors and arterial hypertension (p=0.003 for MoCA). The use of MoCA could aid to early recognition of cognitive deficits in persons with increased CV risk. Individuals with multiple CV risk factors seem to have increased risk of cognitive decline.

  8. Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test is superior to the Wechsler Memory Scale in discriminating mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Raquel; Cunha, Catarina; Marôco, João; Afonso, Ana; Simões, Mário R; Santana, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    The Logical Memory (LM) and the Verbal Paired Associative Learning (VPAL) are subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale commonly used to characterize the memory deficit of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) was suggested to assess the memory impairment of AD spectrum patients by the International Working Group on AD. In the present study, we compared the properties of the tests and their accuracy in classifying aMCI and AD. A group of aMCI patients (n = 85) and AD patients (n = 43) were included. The reliability and the validity of the three tests were analyzed. AD patients showed a significant pattern of worse impairment on all tests than aMCI. The FCSRT was able to classify more patients as having memory impairment in the aMCI group rather than the WMS subtests. The FCSRT proved to be good in discriminating the two groups in both lower and higher educational levels, whereas the LM was more useful in higher educated patients. Although the instruments had good results, the FCSRT was more accurate in discriminating MCI from AD, and less influenced by the educational level. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Fully Automated Atlas-Based Hippocampus Volumetry for Clinical Routine: Validation in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment from the ADNI Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Per; Hampel, Harald; Spies, Lothar; Fiebach, Jochen B; Dubois, Bruno; Buchert, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampus volumetry based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been translated into everyday clinical diagnostic patient care, at least in part due to limited availability of appropriate software tools. In the present study, we evaluate a fully-automated and computationally efficient processing pipeline for atlas based hippocampal volumetry using freely available Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software in 198 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI1). Subjects were grouped into MCI stable and MCI to probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) converters according to follow-up diagnoses at 12, 24, and 36 months. Hippocampal grey matter volume (HGMV) was obtained from baseline T1-weighted MRI and then corrected for total intracranial volume and age. Average processing time per subject was less than 4 minutes on a standard PC. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of the corrected HGMV for identification of MCI to probable AD converters within 12, 24, and 36 months was 0.78, 0.72, and 0.71, respectively. Thus, hippocampal volume computed with the fully-automated processing pipeline provides similar power for prediction of MCI to probable AD conversion as computationally more expensive methods. The whole processing pipeline has been made freely available as an SPM8 toolbox. It is easily set up and integrated into everyday clinical patient care.

  10. Frequent mild cognitive deficits in several functional domains in elderly patients with heart failure without known cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Arto; Berggren, Jens; Holmström, Alexandra; Fu, Michael; Wallin, Anders

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether mild cognitive deficits are present in patients with heart failure (HF) despite absence of any known cognitive disorder. A well defined group of patients (n = 40) with heart failure completed a cognitive screening check list, a depression screening questionnaire, and a battery consisting of neuropsychological tests assessing 5 different cognitive domains: speed/attention, episodic memory, visuospatial functions, language, and executive functions. The neuropsychological results were compared with those from a group of healthy control subjects (n = 41). The patients with HF displayed cognitive impairment compared with the control group within the domains speed and attention, episodic memory, visuospatial functions, and language. Among them, 34 HF patients (85%) could be classified with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the majority as nonamnestic MCI, ie, with no memory impairment. Considering the high occurrence of mild cognitive deficits among HF patients without known cognitive disorders, closer attention should be paid to their self-care and compliance. Inadequate self-care and compliance could lead to more frequent hospitalizations. Furthermore, the HF patients may be at increased risk of dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of cognitive and physical fatigue in post-acute mild-moderate traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiehser, Dawn M; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Jak, Amy J; Hanson, Karen L; Sorg, Scott F; Orff, Henry; Clark, Alexandra L

    2017-10-01

    Post-traumatic fatigue (PTF) is a common, disabling, and often chronic symptom following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Yet, the impact of chronic cognitive and physical fatigue and their associations with psychiatric, sleep, cognitive, and psychosocial sequelae in mild-moderate TBI remain poorly understood. Sixty Veterans with a history of mild-moderate TBI and 40 Veteran controls (VC) were administered the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, a validated measure of TBI-related cognitive and physical fatigue as well as measures of neuropsychiatric, psychosocial, sleep, and objective cognitive functioning. Compared to VC, TBI Veterans endorsed significantly greater levels of cognitive and physical fatigue. In TBI, psychiatric symptoms, sleep disturbance, and post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) were associated with both cognitive and physical fatigue, while loss of consciousness (LOC) and poor attention/processing speed were related to elevations in cognitive fatigue only. In regression analyses, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and LOC significantly predicted cognitive fatigue, while only post-traumatic stress symptoms and PTA contributed to physical fatigue. Cognitive and physical fatigue are problematic symptoms following mild-moderate TBI that are differentially associated with specific injury and psychiatric sequelae. Findings provide potential symptom targets for interventions aimed at ameliorating fatigue, and further underscore the importance of assessing and treating fatigue as a multi-dimensional symptom following TBI.

  12. Volume changes in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: cognitive associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Matthew C.; Barnes, Josephine; Nielsen, Casper; Clegg, Shona L.; Blair, Melanie; Douiri, Abdel; Boyes, Richard G.; Fox, Nick C.; Kim, Lois G.; Leung, Kelvin K.; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    To assess the relationship between MRI-derived changes in whole-brain and ventricular volume with change in cognitive scores in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control subjects. In total 131 control, 231 MCI and 99 AD subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort with T1-weighted volumetric MRIs from baseline and 12-month follow-up were used to derive volume changes. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale (ADAS)-cog and trails test changes were calculated over the same period. Brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between subject groups (p < 0.0005) and in MCI and AD were associated with MMSE changes. Both measures were additionally associated with ADAS-cog and trails-B in MCI patients, and ventricular expansion was associated with ADAS-cog in AD patients. Brain atrophy (p < 0.0005) and ventricular expansion rates (p = 0.001) were higher in MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months of follow-up compared with MCI subjects who remained stable. MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months had similar atrophy rates to AD subjects. Whole-brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between patient groups and healthy controls, and tracked disease progression and psychological decline, demonstrating their relevance as biomarkers. (orig.)

  13. The effect of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsangas, Panagiotis; McCauley, Michael E; Becker, William

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance. Despite knowledge on general motion sickness, little is known about the effect of motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance. Specifically, there is a gap in existing knowledge in the gray area of mild motion sickness. Fifty-one healthy individuals performed a multitasking battery. Three independent groups of participants were exposed to two experimental sessions. Two groups received motion only in the first or the second session, whereas the control group did not receive motion. Measurements of motion sickness, sopite syndrome, alertness, and performance were collected during the experiment Only during the second session, motion sickness and sopite syndrome had a significant negative association with cognitive performance. Significant performance differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic participants in the second session were identified in composite (9.43%), memory (31.7%), and arithmetic (14.7%) task scores. The results suggest that performance retention between sessions was not affected by mild motion sickness. Multitasking cognitive performance declined even when motion sickness and soporific symptoms were mild. The results also show an order effect. We postulate that the differential effect of session on the association between symptomatology and multitasking performance may be related to the attentional resources allocated to performing the multiple tasks. Results suggest an inverse relationship between motion sickness effects on performance and the cognitive effort focused on performing a task. Even mild motion sickness has potential implications for multitasking operational performance.

  14. Beta-amyloid deposition and cognitive function in patients with major depressive disorder with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment: 18F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kuan-Yi; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Lee, Chin-Pang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the amyloid burden, as assessed by 18 F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) positron emission tomography PET, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the relationship between amyloid burden and cognition in MDD patients. The study included 55 MDD patients without dementia and 21 healthy control subjects (HCs) who were assessed using a comprehensive cognitive test battery and 18 F-florbetapir PET imaging. The standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) in eight cortical regions using the whole cerebellum as reference region were determined and voxel-wise comparisons between the HC and MDD groups were performed. Vascular risk factors, serum homocysteine level and the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype were also determined. Among the 55 MDD patients, 22 (40.0 %) had MCI, 12 (21.8 %) non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) and 10 (18.2 %) amnestic MCI (aMCI). The MDD patients with aMCI had the highest relative 18 F-florbetapir uptake in all cortical regions, and a significant difference in relative 18 F-florbetapir uptake was found in the parietal region as compared with that in naMCI subjects (P < 0.05) and HCs (P < 0.01). Voxel-wise analyses revealed significantly increased relative 18 F-florbetapir uptake in the MDD patients with aMCI and naMCI in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital areas (P < 0.005). The global cortical SUVR was significantly negatively correlated with MMSE score (r = -0.342, P = 0.010) and memory function (r = -0.328, P = 0.015). The negative correlation between the global SUVR and memory in the MDD patients remained significant in multiple regression analyses that included age, educational level, ApoE genotype, and depression severity (β = -3.607, t = -2.874, P = 0.006). We found preliminary evidence of brain beta-amyloid deposition in MDD patients with different subtypes of MCI. Our findings in MDD patients support the hypothesis that a higher

  15. Beta-amyloid deposition and cognitive function in patients with major depressive disorder with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment: {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kuan-Yi; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Lee, Chin-Pang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Psychiatry, Tao-Yuan (China); Chen, Cheng-Sheng [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital and College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung (China); Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Kuei Shan Hsiang, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Tao-Yuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the amyloid burden, as assessed by {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) positron emission tomography PET, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the relationship between amyloid burden and cognition in MDD patients. The study included 55 MDD patients without dementia and 21 healthy control subjects (HCs) who were assessed using a comprehensive cognitive test battery and {sup 18}F-florbetapir PET imaging. The standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) in eight cortical regions using the whole cerebellum as reference region were determined and voxel-wise comparisons between the HC and MDD groups were performed. Vascular risk factors, serum homocysteine level and the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype were also determined. Among the 55 MDD patients, 22 (40.0 %) had MCI, 12 (21.8 %) non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) and 10 (18.2 %) amnestic MCI (aMCI). The MDD patients with aMCI had the highest relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake in all cortical regions, and a significant difference in relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake was found in the parietal region as compared with that in naMCI subjects (P < 0.05) and HCs (P < 0.01). Voxel-wise analyses revealed significantly increased relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake in the MDD patients with aMCI and naMCI in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital areas (P < 0.005). The global cortical SUVR was significantly negatively correlated with MMSE score (r = -0.342, P = 0.010) and memory function (r = -0.328, P = 0.015). The negative correlation between the global SUVR and memory in the MDD patients remained significant in multiple regression analyses that included age, educational level, ApoE genotype, and depression severity (β = -3.607, t = -2.874, P = 0.006). We found preliminary evidence of brain beta-amyloid deposition in MDD patients with different subtypes of MCI. Our findings in MDD patients support the

  16. Neural correlates of true and false memory in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Riddell, Patricia M; Ellis, Judi A; Freeman, Jayne E; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer's disease, which has been described as a 'disconnection syndrome'.

  17. Neural Correlates of True and False Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M.; Riddell, Patricia M.; Ellis, Judi A.; Freeman, Jayne E.; Nasuto, Slawomir J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer’s disease, which has been described as a ‘disconnection syndrome’. PMID:23118992

  18. Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: psychometrics for mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Ramón; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Martínez-Horta, Saül; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Campolongo, Antonia; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    Lack of validated data on cutoff scores for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sensitivity to change in predementia stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) limit the utility of instruments measuring global cognition as screening and outcome measures in therapeutic trials. Investigators who were blinded to PD-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) scores classified a cohort of prospectively recruited, nondemented patients into a PD with normal cognition (PD-NC) group and a PD with MCI (PD-MCI) group using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (MDRS-2). The discriminative power of the PD-CRS for PD-MCI was examined in a representative sample of 234 patients (145 in the PD-NC group; 89 in the PD-MCI group) and in a control group of 98 healthy individuals. Sensitivity to change in the PD-CRS score (the minimal clinically important difference was examined with the Clinical Global Impression of Change scale and was calculated with a combination of distribution-based and anchor-based approaches) was explored in a 6-month observational multicenter trial involving a subset of 120 patients (PD-NC, 63; PD-MCI, 57). Regression analysis demonstrated that PD-CRS total scores (P < 0.001) and age (P = 0.01) independently differentiated PD-NC from PD-MCI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis (AUC, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) indicated that a score ≤ 81 of 134 was the optimal cutoff point on the total score for the PD-CRS (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 59%; negative predictive value, 91%). A range of change from 10 to 13 points on the PD-CRS total score was indicative of clinically significant change. These findings suggest that the PD-CRS is a useful tool to identify PD-MCI and to track cognitive changes in nondemented patients with PD. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Electroacupuncture for older adults with mild cognitive impairment: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Albert Wing Nang; Lam, Linda Chiu Wa; Kwan, Andrew Ka Lun; Tsang, Celia Lai Lin; Zhang, Hong Wei; Guo, Yuan Qi; Xu, Chuan Shan

    2015-05-27

    Mild cognitive impairment is an intermediary state between normal aging and clinical Alzheimer's disease. Early intervention of mild cognitive impairment may be an important strategy in the management of Alzheimer's disease. The proposal aims to evaluate if electroacupuncture would optimize cognitive function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and understand the role of electroacupuncture in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. A randomised patient- and assessor-blind sham-controlled trial is designed to assess whether electroacupuncture intervention decreases the rate of cognitive decline amongst older adults with mild cognitive impairment. One hundred and fifty subjects aged 65 years of age or over with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment are recruited from the community and elderly centre in Hong Kong. All subjects are randomly allocated into two groups (75 subjects each group): the electroacupuncture group and sham control. Participants in the electroacupuncture group receive electroacupuncture stimulation by sterile, disposable acupuncture needles inserted to the acupoints with a depth of 1 to 3 cm. The acupuncture needles are subjected to 2 Hz electroacupuncture with an intensity of 5 to 10 mA. Each participant receives electroacupuncture for 8 weeks (once a day, 3 days a week) and the treatment lasts for 30 minutes each time. For sham electroacupuncture, needles are inserted to a depth of 1 to 2 mm, and connected to the electroacupuncture device without any current passing through. Outcome measures (including primary and secondary outcome measures) are collected at baseline, at the end day of intervention, and months 4 and 6 after intervention. The primary outcome is measured by the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale. Secondary outcomes are measured by the mini-mental state examination, category fluency text and the Short Form 12. The study will provide evidence for evaluating and understanding the role of electroacupuncture

  20. Brain inflammation accompanies amyloid in the majority of mild cognitive impairment cases due to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbo, Peter; Ismail, Rola; Hansen, Kim V; Amidi, Ali; Mårup, Frederik H; Gottrup, Hanne; Brændgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Bengt O; Eskildsen, Simon F; Lund, Torben E; Tietze, Anna; Edison, Paul; Pavese, Nicola; Stokholm, Morten G; Borghammer, Per; Hinz, Rainer; Aanerud, Joel; Brooks, David J

    2017-07-01

    See Kreisl (doi:10.1093/awx151) for a scientific commentary on this article.Subjects with mild cognitive impairment associated with cortical amyloid-β have a greatly increased risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that neuroinflammation occurs early in Alzheimer's disease and would be present in most amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment cases. 11C-Pittsburgh compound B and 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography was used to determine the amyloid load and detect the extent of neuroinflammation (microglial activation) in 42 mild cognitive impairment cases. Twelve age-matched healthy control subjects had 11C-Pittsburgh compound B and 10 healthy control subjects had 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography for comparison. Amyloid-positivity was defined as 11C-Pittsburgh compound B target-to-cerebellar ratio above 1.5 within a composite cortical volume of interest. Supervised cluster analysis was used to generate parametric maps of 11C-(R)-PK11195 binding potential. Levels of 11C-(R)-PK11195 binding potential were measured in a selection of cortical volumes of interest and at a voxel level. Twenty-six (62%) of 42 mild cognitive impairment cases showed a raised cortical amyloid load compared to healthy controls. Twenty-two (85%) of the 26 amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment cases showed clusters of increased cortical microglial activation accompanying the amyloid. There was a positive correlation between levels of amyloid load and 11C-(R)-PK11195 binding potentials at a voxel level within subregions of frontal, parietal and temporal cortices. 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography reveals increased inflammation in a majority of amyloid positive mild cognitive impairment cases, its cortical distribution overlapping that of amyloid deposition. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Older people with mild cognitive impairment -- their views about assessing driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David A; Frank, Oliver; Pond, Dimity; Stocks, Nigel

    2013-05-01

    Driving is important for older people to maintain agency, independence and social connectedness. Little research has been conducted into the views of older people with mild cognitive impairment about who decides if they are safe to drive. This qualitative study investigates the views of older people with mild cognitive impairment about decision making on driving cessation. Participants value their agency; they wanted to decide when they should stop driving themselves. However, they were also prepared to accept their general practitioner's advice when they became unfit to drive. In the interim, they self regulated the timing and distance of their driving to reduce accident risk.

  2. Role of inflammatory markers in Elderly Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Salwa S; Bahaaeldin, Ahmed M; Khater, Mohamed S; Bekhet, Meram M; Hebah, Hayam A; Hasanin, Ghada A

    2018-04-22

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. The etiology of cognitive impairment in people with T2DM is uncertain but, chronic hyperglycemia, cerebral micro vascular disease, severe hypoglycemia, and increased prevalence of macro vascular disease are implicated. to determine the serum levels of soluble vascular adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in elderly type 2 diabetics with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Our study was conducted on 90 elderly subjects (aged 60 years old or more). They were divided into Group І, 30 patients with T2DM and mild cognitive impairment, group ІІ, 30 patients with T2DM without cognitive impairment and group III, 30 healthy subjects as a control group. They were subjected to history taking, full clinical examination, anthropometric measurement, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE---III 2012), Fasting plasma glucose, 2 hours plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, protein/creatinine ratio, serum sVCAM-1 and hs-CRP. Serum levels of sVCAM-1 in diabetic elderly patients with MCI were significantly higher (946.7 ± 162.01 ng/ml) than diabetic elderly patients without cognitive impairment (479.06 ± 65.27 ng/ml) and control (263.7 ± 72.05 ng/ml) with (P=0.002). Serum levels of Hs-CRP in diabetic elderly patients with MCI were significantly higher than as diabetic elderly patients without cognitive impairment and control with (P=0.005). Elderly diabetic patients with mild cognitive impairment, have higher levels of soluble adhesion molecules and markers of low-grade systemic inflammation than other groups. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Development of a decision-making tool for reporting drivers with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment to transportation administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Duncan H; Zucchero Sarracini, Carla; Rozmovits, Linda; Naglie, Gary; Herrmann, Nathan; Molnar, Frank; Jordan, John; Byszewski, Anna; Tang-Wai, David; Dow, Jamie; Frank, Christopher; Henry, Blair; Pimlott, Nicholas; Seitz, Dallas; Vrkljan, Brenda; Taylor, Rebecca; Masellis, Mario; Rapoport, Mark J

    2017-09-01

    Driving in persons with dementia poses risks that must be counterbalanced with the importance of the care for autonomy and mobility. Physicians often find substantial challenges in the assessment and reporting of driving safety for persons with dementia. This paper describes a driving in dementia decision tool (DD-DT) developed to aid physicians in deciding when to report older drivers with either mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to local transportation administrators. A multi-faceted, computerized decision support tool was developed, using a systematic literature and guideline review, expert opinion from an earlier Delphi study, as well as qualitative interviews and focus groups with physicians, caregivers of former drivers with dementia, and transportation administrators. The tool integrates inputs from the physician-user about the patient's clinical and driving history as well as cognitive findings, and it produces a recommendation for reporting to transportation administrators. This recommendation is translated into a customized reporting form for the transportation authority, if applicable, and additional resources are provided for the patient and caregiver. An innovative approach was needed to develop the DD-DT. The literature and guideline review confirmed the algorithm derived from the earlier Delphi study, and barriers identified in the qualitative research were incorporated into the design of the tool.

  4. Validation of the German revised Addenbrooke's cognitive examination for detecting mild cognitive impairment, mild dementia in alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, P; Ebert, A; Richter-Schmidinger, T; Schöll, E; Natale, B; Aguilar, C A; Gourzis, P; Weih, M; Perneczky, R; Diehl-Schmid, J; Kneib, T; Förstl, H; Kurz, A; Danek, A; Kornhuber, J

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of the German version of the revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) in identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild dementia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in comparison with the conventional Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was assessed. The study encompasses 76 cognitively healthy elderly individuals, 75 patients with MCI, 56 with AD and 22 with FTLD. ACE-R and MMSE were validated against an expert diagnosis based on a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using the receiver operating characteristic method and regression analyses. The optimal cut-off score for the ACE-R for detecting MCI, AD, and FTLD was 86/87, 82/83 and 83/84, respectively. ACE-R was superior to MMSE only in the detection of patients with FTLD [area under the curve (AUC): 0.97 vs. 0.92], whilst the accuracy of the two instruments did not differ in identifying MCI and AD. The ratio of the scores of the memory ACE-R subtest to verbal fluency subtest contributed significantly to the discrimination between AD and FTLD (optimal cut-off score: 2.30/2.31, AUC: 0.77), whereas the MMSE and ACE-R total scores did not. The German ACE-R is superior to the most commonly employed MMSE in detecting mild dementia in FTLD and in the differential diagnosis between AD and FTLD. Thus it might serve as a valuable instrument as part of a comprehensive diagnostic workup in specialist centres/clinics contributing to the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the cause of dementia.

  5. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: do MCI patients have impaired insight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...... heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of awareness. The results demonstrate that subjective memory problems should not be a mandatory prerequisite in suspected dementia or MCI, which makes reports from informants together with thorough clinical interview and observation central when assessing suspected...

  6. Numerical and spatial cognition of students with physical disabilities and mild intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Vidmar, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics has an important effect on an individual's successfulness and satisfaction in the field of education and life. Numerical and spatial cognition are of crucial importance to successfully master mathematics. If this kind of cognition is poorly developed, it represents one of the most important obstacles to achieving success in the field of mathematics. Students with mild intellectual disabilities are in a worse position already at the starting point of the educational process, as the...

  7. Apathy and noradrenaline: silent partners to mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Loued-Khenissi Leyla; Preuschoff Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a comorbid factor in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this review is to examine the recent neuroimaging findings in the search for Parkinson's disease MCI (PD MCI) biomarkers to gain insight on whether MCI and specific cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease implicate striatal dopamine or another system. RECENT FINDINGS: The evidence implicates a diffuse pathophysiology in PD MCI rather than acute dopaminergic involvement. On the one han...

  8. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uemura K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Uemura,1,3 Hiroyuki Shimada,1 Hyuma Makizako,1,3 Takehiko Doi,1 Daisuke Yoshida,1 Kota Tsutsumimoto,1 Yuya Anan,1 Takao Suzuki21Section for Health Promotion, Department for Research and Development to Support Independent Life of Elderly, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 2Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability.Results: In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027 and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034. A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (ß = -0.322, P = 0.026 and MMSE score (ß = -0.295, P = 0.041, controlling for age and gender.Conclusion: General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in

  9. Erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acid status, memory, cognition and mood in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milte, Catherine M; Sinn, Natalie; Street, Steven J; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Howe, Peter R C

    2011-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are altered in adults with cognitive decline and also depression. Depression facilitates progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. We investigated associations between omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and cognition, memory and depression in 50 adults ≥65 years with MCI and 29 controls. Memory, depressive symptoms and erythrocyte PUFAs (% total fatty acids) were assessed. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was lower in MCI vs controls (.94% vs 1.26%, pcognitive decline in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-modal MRI analysis with disease-specific spatial filtering: initial testing to predict mild cognitive impairment patients who convert to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi eOishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alterations of the gray and white matter have been identified in Alzheimer’s disease (AD by structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. However, whether the combination of these modalities could increase the diagnostic performance is unknown.Methods: Participants included 19 AD patients, 22 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients, and 22 cognitively normal elderly (NC. The aMCI group was further divided into an aMCI-converter group (converted to AD dementia within three years, and an aMCI-stable group who did not convert in this time period. A T1-weighted image, a T2 map, and a DTI of each participant were normalized, and voxel-based comparisons between AD and NC groups were performed. Regions-of-interest, which defined the areas with significant differences between AD and NC, were created for each modality and named disease-specific spatial filters (DSF. Linear discriminant analysis was used to optimize the combination of multiple MRI measurements extracted by DSF to effectively differentiate AD from NC. The resultant DSF and the discriminant function were applied to the aMCI group to investigate the power to differentiate the aMCI-converters from the aMCI-stable patients. Results: The multi-modal approach with AD-specific filters led to a predictive model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.93, in differentiating aMCI-converters from aMCI-stable patients. This AUC was better than that of a single-contrast-based approach, such as T1-based morphometry or diffusion anisotropy analysis. Conclusion: The multi-modal approach has the potential to increase the value of MRI in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD.

  11. Associations between physical performance and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: gait speed and the timed "up & go" test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Cochrane, Barbara B; Engel, Joyce M; Teri, Linda

    2011-08-01

    Older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer disease. Physical performance decline on gait and mobility tasks in conjunction with executive dysfunction has implications for accelerated functional decline, disability, and institutionalization in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The purpose of this study was to examine whether performance on 2 tests commonly used by physical therapists (usual gait speed and Timed "Up & Go" Test [TUG]) are associated with performance on 2 neuropsychological tests of executive function (Trail Making Test, part B [TMT-B], and Stroop-Interference, calculated from the Stroop Word Color Test) in sedentary older adults with aMCI. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 201 sedentary older adults with memory impairment participating in a longitudinal intervention study of cognitive function, aging, exercise, and health promotion. Physical performance speed on gait and mobility tasks was measured via usual gait speed and the TUG (at fast pace). Executive function was measured with the TMT-B and Stroop-Interference measures. Applying multiple linear regression, usual gait speed was associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=-0.215, P=.003) and Stroop-Interference (β=-0.195, P=.01) measures, indicating that slower usual gait speed was associated with lower executive function performance. Timed "Up & Go" Test scores (in logarithmic transformation) also were associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=0.256, Pfunction performance. All associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and body mass index. The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for inferences of causation. Physical performance speed was associated with executive function after adjusting for age, sex, and age-related factors in sedentary older adults with aMCI. Further research is needed to determine

  12. CURRENT PROBLEMS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Karkashadze

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical pediatrics specialists paid wrongly little attention to identification and treatment of cognitive disorders in children. At the same time it is difficult to overestimate the influence of cognitive functions on the formation of human personality and social maladjustment in this part of population. The paper is devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairments. In addition, the classification of this pathology, highlighting aetiopathogenetic factors, prognosis are showed. One of the important problems of early revealing of cognitive impairments and appropriate management of children with this pathology according to the authors opinion are the following: the deficiency of educational programs for training specialists in neurology, lack of knowledge concerning the possibilities of psychological-pedagogical correction, inefficient system of neurological techniques for primary care. Key words: cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment, classification, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, social maladjustment, psychopedagogical support, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 37–41.

  13. Is mild cognitive impairment a precursor of Alzheimer´s disease? Short review.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoutová, J.; Šerý, Omar; Hosák, L.; Janout, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 365-367 ISSN 1210-7778 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mild cognitive impairment * Alzheimer´s dementia * terminology Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  14. Real-space path integration is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mokrišová, I.; Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Gažová, I.; Vyhnálek, M.; Nedělská, Z.; Levčík, David; Cerman, J.; Vlček, Kamil; Hort, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 307, Jul 1 (2016), s. 150-158 ISSN 0166-4328 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Alzheimer disease * mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * hippocampus * path integration Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2016

  15. Mild Cognitive Impairment as a Risk Factor for Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, Jeroen; Boel, Judith A.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Schmand, Ben A.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.; Marras, Connie; Adler, Charles H.; Goldman, Jennifer G.; Tröster, Alexander I.; Burn, David J.; Litvan, Irene; Geurtsen, Gert J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD were recently formulated. Objectives: The aim of this international study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the comprehensive (level II) version of these criteria by assessment

  16. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  17. Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jekel, K.; Damian, M.; Wattmo, C.; Hausner, L.; Bullock, R.; Connelly, P.J.; Dubois, B.; Eriksdotter, M.; Ewers, M.; Graessel, E.; Kramberger, M.G.; Law, E.; Mecocci, P.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Nygard, L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Pasquier, F.; Peres, K.; Salmon, E.; Sikkes, S.A.; Sobow, T.; Spiegel, R.; Tsolaki, M.; Winblad, B.; Frolich, L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a growing body of evidence that subtle deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may be present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not clear if there are IADL domains that are consistently affected across patients with MCI. In this systematic

  18. COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism is associated with nonverbal cognition following mild traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Winkler (Ethan A.); J.K. Yue (John); T.W. McAllister (Thomas W.); N.R. Temkin (Nancy); S.S. Oh (Sam S.); E.G. Burchard (Esteban); D. Hu (Donglei); A.R. Ferguson (Adam); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); J.F. Burke (John F.); M.D. Sorani (Marco); J. Rosand (Jonathan); E.L. Yuh (Esther); J. Barber (Jason); P.E. Tarapore (Phiroz E.); R.C. Gardner (Raquel C.); S. Sharma (Sourabh); G.G. Satris (Gabriela G.); C. Eng (Celeste); A.M. Puccio (Ava); K.K.W. Wang (Kevin K. W.); P. Mukherjee (Pratik); A.B. Valadka (Alex); D. Okonkwo (David); R. Diaz-Arrastia (Ramon); G. Manley (Geoffrey)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical outcomes, which may be influenced by genetic variation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme which degrades catecholamine neurotransmitters, may influence cognitive deficits

  19. Spatial working memory in aging and mild cognitive impairment: effects of task load and contextual cueing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is characterized by episodic memory deficits, while aspects of working memory may also be implicated, but studies into this latter domain are scarce and results are inconclusive. Using a computerized search paradigm, this study compares 25 young adults, 25 typically

  20. Spatial Working Memory in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Effects of Task Load and Contextual Cueing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is characterized by episodic memory deficits, while aspects of working memory may also be implicated, but studies into this latter domain are scarce and results are inconclusive. Using a computerized search paradigm, this study compares 25 young adults, 25 typically

  1. Prevalence and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease at the mild cognitive impairment stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, S.J.B.; Verhey, F.; Frolich, L.; Kornhuber, J.; Wiltfang, J.; Maier, W.; Peters, O.; Ruther, E.; Nobili, F.; Morbelli, S.; Frisoni, G. B.; Drzezga, A.; Didic, M.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Simmons, A.; Soininen, H.; Kloszewska, I.; Mecocci, P.; Tsolaki, M.; Vellas, B.; Lovestone, S.; Muscio, C.; Herukka, S.K.; Salmon, E.; Bastin, C.; Wallin, A.; Nordlund, A.; de Mendonca, A.; Silva, D.; Santana, I.; Lemos, R.; Engelborghs, S.; Van der Mussele, S.; Freund-Levi, Y.; Wallin, A.K.; Hampel, H.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Three sets of research criteria are available for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: the International Working Group-1, International Working Group-2, and National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer Association criteria. We compared the prevalence and prognosis of

  2. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  3. Cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability and alcohol use-related problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking

  4. (Social) Cognitive skills and social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline

  5. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  6. Optimizing the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Koikkalainen, Juha

    2012-01-01

    of the disease. Several studies have analyzed data of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, showing that conversion from MCI to AD can be predicted with a classification accuracy of 60-80%. This accuracy may not be high enough for influencing diagnostic decisions. In this work, the prediction problem...

  7. Various MRS application tools for Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F; Barker, P B

    2014-06-01

    MR spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique that allows the detection of several naturally occurring compounds (metabolites) from well-defined regions of interest within the human brain. Alzheimer disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. During the past 20 years, multiple studies have been performed on MR spectroscopy in patients with both mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Generally, MR spectroscopy studies have found decreased N-acetylaspartate and increased myo-inositol in both patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease, with greater changes in Alzheimer disease than in mild cognitive impairment. This review summarizes the information content of proton brain MR spectroscopy and its related technical aspects, as well as applications of MR spectroscopy to mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. While MR spectroscopy may have some value in the differential diagnosis of dementias and assessing prognosis, more likely its role in the near future will be predominantly as a tool for monitoring disease response or progression in treatment trials. More work is needed to evaluate the role of MR spectroscopy as a biomarker in Alzheimer disease and its relationship to other imaging modalities. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenbode, N. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2018-01-01

    We examined cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID). Problematic drinkers were expected to show a significantly lower estimated performance IQ (PIQ), but not a lower estimated verbal IQ (VIQ), compared to light drinkers.

  9. Brain perfusion SPECT analysis : New insights in mild cognitive impairment and neuromyelitis optica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez Catasùs, Carlos Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    Het doel van dit proefschrift was om aan te tonen dat hersenperfusie SPECT kan helpen bij het verhelderen van belangrijke vragen met betrekking tot het prodromale “Mild Cognitive Impairment” (MCI) stadium van de ziekte van Alzheimer (AD) en recidiverende Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO). Dit is niet

  10. Brain Substrates of Learning and Retention in Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosis and Progression to Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Bondi, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; McEvoy, Linda K.; Hagler, Donald J., Jr.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Dale, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the underlying qualitative features of memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can provide critical information for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study sought to investigate the utility of both learning and retention measures in (a) the diagnosis of MCI, (b) predicting progression to AD, and (c)…

  11. Rasagiline for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: A placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Daniel; Hauser, Robert A; Elm, Jordan J; Pagan, Fernando; Davis, Matthew D; Choudhry, Azhar

    2016-05-01

    This study's aims were to determine the efficacy and tolerability of rasagiline, a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor B, for PD patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients on stable dopaminergic therapy were randomized to adjunct rasagiline 1 mg/day or placebo in this 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multisite study. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to week 24 on the Scales for Outcomes of Parkinson's Disease-Cognition total score. Key secondary measures included changes in cognition, activities of daily living, motor scores, and Clinical Global Impression of Change, as well as safety and tolerability measures. Of the 170 patients randomized, 151 (88.2%) completed the study. Change in Scales for Outcomes of Parkinson's Disease-Cognition scores were not significantly different in the rasagiline and placebo groups (adjusted mean: 1.6 [standard error {SE} = 0.5] vs. 0.8 [SE = 0.5] points; LS means difference = 0.8; 95% confidence interval: -0.48, 2.05; P = 0.22). There were no between-group differences in change in the MoCA (p=0.84) or Penn Daily Activities Questionnaire (P = 0.48) scores or in the distribution of Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change modified for mild cognitive impairment (P = 0.1). Changes in motor (UPDRS part III; P = 0.02) and activities of daily living (UPDRS part II; P rasagiline. Rasagiline was well tolerated; the most common adverse events in both groups were falls and dizziness. Rasagiline treatment in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment was not associated with cognitive improvement. Rasagiline did not worsen cognition, improved motor symptoms and activities of daily living, and was well tolerated in elderly cognitively impaired patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  12. Semantic memory and depressive symptoms in patients with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrner, J; Coutinho, G; Mattos, P; Moser, D; Pflüger, M; Gleiss, A; Auff, E; Dal-Bianco, P; Pusswald, G; Stögmann, E

    2017-07-01

    Semantic memory may be impaired in clinically recognized states of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationship between semantic memory and depressive symptoms (DS) in patients with cognitive impairment. 323 cognitively healthy controls and 848 patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia were included. Semantic knowledge for famous faces, world capitals, and word vocabulary was investigated. Compared to healthy controls, we found a statistically significant difference of semantic knowledge in the MCI groups and the AD group, respectively. Results of the SCD group were mixed. However, two of the three semantic memory measures (world capitals and word vocabulary) showed a significant association with DS. We found a difference in semantic memory performance in MCI and AD as well as an association with DS. Results suggest that the difference in semantic memory is due to a storage loss rather than to a retrieval problem.

  13. New DSM-V neurocognitive disorders criteria and their impact on diagnostic classifications of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in a memory clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Laura; Lim, Wee Shiong; Chan, Mark; Ali, Noorhazlina; Mahanum, Shariffah; Chew, Pamela; Lim, June; Chong, Mei Sian

    2015-08-01

    To examine diagnostic agreement between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) Neurocognitive Disorders (NCDs) criteria and DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for dementia and International Working Group (IWG) criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and DSM-V's impact on diagnostic classifications of NCDs. The authors further examined clinical factors for discrepancy in diagnostic classifications between the different operational definitions. Using a cross-sectional study in tertiary memory clinic, the authors studied consecutive new patients aged 55 years or older who presented with cognitive symptoms. Dementia severity was scored based on the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). All patients completed neuropsychological evaluation. Agreement in diagnostic classifications between DSM-IV/IWG and DSM-V was examined using the kappa test and AC1 statistic, with multinomial logistic regression for factors contributing to MCI reclassification as major NCDs as opposed to diagnostically concordant MCI and dementia groups. Of 234 patients studied, 166 patients achieved concordant diagnostic classifications, with overall kappa of 0.41. Eighty-six patients (36.7%) were diagnosed with MCI and 131 (56.0%) with DSM-IV-defined dementia. With DSM-V, 40 patients (17.1%) were classified as mild NCDs and 183 (78.2%) as major NCDs, representing a 39.7% increase in frequency of dementia diagnoses. CDR sum-of-boxes score contributed independently to differentiation of MCI patients reclassified as mild versus major NCDs (OR: 0.01; 95% CI: 0-0.09). CDR sum-of-boxes score (OR: 5.18; 95% CI: 2.04-13.15), performance in amnestic (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.06-0.34) and language (Boston naming: OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94) tests, were independent determinants of diagnostically concordant dementia diagnosis. The authors observed moderate agreement between the different operational definitions and a 40% increase in dementia diagnoses with

  14. Mild cognitive impairment as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, Jeroen; Boel, Judith A; de Bie, Rob M A; Geskus, Ronald B; Schmand, Ben A; Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Marras, Connie; Adler, Charles H; Goldman, Jennifer G; Tröster, Alexander I; Burn, David J; Litvan, Irene; Geurtsen, Gert J

    2017-07-01

    The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD were recently formulated. The aim of this international study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the comprehensive (level II) version of these criteria by assessment of their contribution to the hazard of PD dementia. Individual patient data were selected from four separate studies on cognition in PD that provided information on demographics, motor examination, depression, neuropsychological examination suitable for application of level II criteria, and longitudinal follow-up for conversion to dementia. Survival analysis evaluated the predictive value of level II criteria for cognitive decline toward dementia as expressed by the relative hazard of dementia. A total of 467 patients were included. The analyses showed a clear contribution of impairment according to level II mild cognitive impairment criteria, age, and severity of PD motor symptoms to the hazard of dementia. There was a trend of increasing hazard of dementia with declining neuropsychological performance. This is the first large international study evaluating the predictive validity of level II mild cognitive impairment criteria for PD. The results showed a clear and unique contribution of classification according to level II criteria to the hazard of PD dementia. This finding supports their predictive validity and shows that they contribute important new information on the hazard of dementia, beyond known demographic and PD-specific factors of influence. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Principal component analysis of FDG PET in amnestic MCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobili, Flavio; Girtler, Nicola; Brugnolo, Andrea; Dessi, Barbara; Rodriguez, Guido; Salmaso, Dario; Morbelli, Silvia; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Larsson, Stig A.; Pagani, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the combined accuracy of episodic memory performance and 18 F-FDG PET in identifying patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's disease (AD), aMCI non-converters, and controls. Thirty-three patients with aMCI and 15 controls (CTR) were followed up for a mean of 21 months. Eleven patients developed AD (MCI/AD) and 22 remained with aMCI (MCI/MCI). 18 F-FDG PET volumetric regions of interest underwent principal component analysis (PCA) that identified 12 principal components (PC), expressed by coarse component scores (CCS). Discriminant analysis was performed using the significant PCs and episodic memory scores. PCA highlighted relative hypometabolism in PC5, including bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole, and in PC7, including the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, both in MCI/MCI and MCI/AD vs CTR. PC5 itself plus PC12, including the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC: BAs 44, 45, 46, 47), were significantly different between MCI/AD and MCI/MCI. By a three-group discriminant analysis, CTR were more accurately identified by PET-CCS + delayed recall score (100%), MCI/MCI by PET-CCS + either immediate or delayed recall scores (91%), while MCI/AD was identified by PET-CCS alone (82%). PET increased by 25% the correct allocations achieved by memory scores, while memory scores increased by 15% the correct allocations achieved by PET. Combining memory performance and 18 F-FDG PET yielded a higher accuracy than each single tool in identifying CTR and MCI/MCI. The PC containing bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole was the hallmark of MCI/MCI patients, while the PC including the left LFC was the hallmark of conversion to AD. (orig.)

  16. Principal component analysis of FDG PET in amnestic MCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio; Girtler, Nicola; Brugnolo, Andrea; Dessi, Barbara; Rodriguez, Guido [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Medical Sciences, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Alzheimer Evaluation Unit, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Head-Neck Department, Genoa (Italy); Salmaso, Dario [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Imaging Diagnostics, Genoa (Italy); Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the combined accuracy of episodic memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET in identifying patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's disease (AD), aMCI non-converters, and controls. Thirty-three patients with aMCI and 15 controls (CTR) were followed up for a mean of 21 months. Eleven patients developed AD (MCI/AD) and 22 remained with aMCI (MCI/MCI). {sup 18}F-FDG PET volumetric regions of interest underwent principal component analysis (PCA) that identified 12 principal components (PC), expressed by coarse component scores (CCS). Discriminant analysis was performed using the significant PCs and episodic memory scores. PCA highlighted relative hypometabolism in PC5, including bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole, and in PC7, including the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, both in MCI/MCI and MCI/AD vs CTR. PC5 itself plus PC12, including the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC: BAs 44, 45, 46, 47), were significantly different between MCI/AD and MCI/MCI. By a three-group discriminant analysis, CTR were more accurately identified by PET-CCS + delayed recall score (100%), MCI/MCI by PET-CCS + either immediate or delayed recall scores (91%), while MCI/AD was identified by PET-CCS alone (82%). PET increased by 25% the correct allocations achieved by memory scores, while memory scores increased by 15% the correct allocations achieved by PET. Combining memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET yielded a higher accuracy than each single tool in identifying CTR and MCI/MCI. The PC containing bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole was the hallmark of MCI/MCI patients, while the PC including the left LFC was the hallmark of conversion to AD. (orig.)

  17. Including persistency of impairment in mild cognitive impairment classification enhances prediction of 5-year decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermorris, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Strauss, Esther

    2011-02-01

    Although older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) show elevated rates of conversion to dementia as a group, heterogeneity of outcomes is common at the individual level. Using data from a prospective 5-year longitudinal investigation of cognitive change in healthy older adults (N = 262, aged 64-92 years), this study addressed limitations in contemporary MCI identification procedures which rely on single occasion assessment ("Single-Assessment [SA] MCI") by evaluating an alternate operational definition of MCI requiring evidence of persistent cognitive impairment over multiple-testing sessions ("Multiple-Assessment [MA] MCI"). As hypothesized, prevalence of SA-MCI exceeded that of MA-MCI. Further, the MA-MCI groups showed lower baseline cognitive and functional performance and steeper cognitive decline compared with Control and SA-MCI group. Results are discussed with reference to retest effects and clinical implications.

  18. Subjective memory complaint only relates to verbal episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Katherine A.; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M.; Chapman, William G.; Romano, Raymond R.; Samuels, Lauren R.; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Background A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. Objective We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. Method MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n=191, 77±7 years; complaint n=206, 73±8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Results Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E-4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β=−1.07, pmemory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β=−1.06, p=0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Conclusions Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer’s disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum. PMID:25281602

  19. Subjective memory complaint only relates to verbal episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Katherine A; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M; Chapman, William G; Romano Iii, Raymond R; Samuels, Lauren R; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L

    2015-01-01

    A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n = 191, 77 ± 7 years; complaint n = 206, 73 ± 8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β = -1.07, p memory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β = -1.06, p = 0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer's disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum.

  20. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus; Lolk, Annette; Gottrup, Hanne; Høgh, Peter; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Beyer, Nina

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes a gradual decline in cognition, limitations of dual-tasking and physical function leading to total dependence. Hence, information about the interaction between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition may lead to new treatment strategies with the purpose of preserving function and quality of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in community-dwelling patients with mild AD. Baseline results from 185 participants (50-90 years old) in the single blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50 or naming the months backwards; and cognition, i.e., Mini Mental State Examination, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and Lexical verbal fluency test. Results in the 30-s chair stand test correlated significantly with all tests of cognition (r = .208-.242) while the other physical function tests only randomly correlated with tests of cognition. Results in the dual-task counting backwards correlated significantly with results in all tests of cognition (r = .259-.388), which accounted for 7%-15% of the variation indicating that a faster time to complete dual-task performance was associated with better cognitive performance. The evidence of the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition is important when creating new rehabilitation interventions to patients with mild AD.

  1. Cognitive Interventions in Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Therapy-Evaluation Study on the Interaction of Medication and Cognitive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schecker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Many studies have shown that not only pharmacological treatment but also cognitive stimulation in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD improves language processing and (other cognitive functions, stabilizes Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL functions and increases the subjective quality of life (wherein a combination of pharmacological intervention and cognitive stimulation could provide greater relief of clinical symptoms than either intervention given alone. Today, it is no longer the question of whether cognitive stimulation helps but rather what kind of stimulation helps more than others. Methods: A sample of 42 subjects with mild AD (all medicated with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and well adjusted underwent clinical and cognitive evaluation and participated in a 6-month study with 2 experimental groups (i.e. ‘client-centered' global stimulation vs. cognitive training and a control group. Since the test performance also depends on the individual test, we used a wide variety of tests; we z-transformed the results and then calculated the mean value for the global cognitive status (using the Mini-Mental State Examination as well as for the single functional areas. Results: Between-group differences were found, they were overall in favor of the experimental groups. Different functional areas led to different treatment and test patterns. Client-centered, global, cognitive therapy stimulated many cognitive functions and thus led to a better performance in language processing and ADL/IADL. The subjective quality of life increased as well. The cognitive training (of working memory improved only the ADL/IADL performance (more, however, than client-centered, global, cognitive stimulation and stabilized the level of performance in the other three functional areas.

  2. Adding Recognition Discriminability Index to the Delayed Recall Is Useful to Predict Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María J; Campos, Jorge; Vázquez, Silvia; Sevlever, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ongoing research is focusing on the identification of those individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are most likely to convert to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether recognition memory tasks in combination with delayed recall measure of episodic memory and CSF biomarkers can predict MCI to AD conversion at 24-month follow-up. Methods: A total of 397 amnestic-MCI subjects from Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative were included. Logistic regression modeling was done to assess the predictive value of all RAVLT measures, risk factors such as age, sex, education, APOE genotype, and CSF biomarkers for progression to AD. Estimating adjusted odds ratios was used to determine which variables would produce an optimal predictive model, and whether adding tests of interaction between the RAVLT Delayed Recall and recognition measures (traditional score and d-prime) would improve prediction of the conversion from a-MCI to AD. Results: 112 (28.2%) subjects developed dementia and 285 (71.8%) subjects did not. Of the all included variables, CSF Aβ1-42 levels, RAVLT Delayed Recall, and the combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime were predictive of progression to AD (χ 2 = 38.23, df = 14, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime measures may be predictor of conversion from MCI to AD in the ADNI cohort, especially in combination with amyloid biomarkers. A predictive model to help identify individuals at-risk for dementia should include not only traditional episodic memory measures (delayed recall or recognition), but also additional variables (d-prime) that allow the homogenization of the assessment procedures in the diagnosis of MCI.

  3. Optimizing power to track brain degeneration in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment with tensor-based morphometry: an ADNI study of 515 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Yanovsky, Igor; Leow, Alex D; Chou, Yi-Yu; Ho, April J; Gutman, Boris; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Reiman, Eric M; Harvey, Danielle J; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2009-12-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful method to map the 3D profile of brain degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We optimized a TBM-based image analysis method to determine what methodological factors, and which image-derived measures, maximize statistical power to track brain change. 3D maps, tracking rates of structural atrophy over time, were created from 1030 longitudinal brain MRI scans (1-year follow-up) of 104 AD patients (age: 75.7+/-7.2 years; MMSE: 23.3+/-1.8, at baseline), 254 amnestic MCI subjects (75.0+/-7.2 years; 27.0+/-1.8), and 157 healthy elderly subjects (75.9+/-5.1 years; 29.1+/-1.0), as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). To determine which TBM designs gave greatest statistical power, we compared different linear and nonlinear registration parameters (including different regularization functions), and different numerical summary measures derived from the maps. Detection power was greatly enhanced by summarizing changes in a statistically-defined region-of-interest (ROI) derived from an independent training sample of 22 AD patients. Effect sizes were compared using cumulative distribution function (CDF) plots and false discovery rate methods. In power analyses, the best method required only 48 AD and 88 MCI subjects to give 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the mean annual change using a two-sided test (at alpha=0.05). This is a drastic sample size reduction relative to using clinical scores as outcome measures (619 AD/6797 MCI for the ADAS-Cog, and 408 AD/796 MCI for the Clinical Dementia Rating sum-of-boxes scores). TBM offers high statistical power to track brain changes in large, multi-site neuroimaging studies and clinical trials of AD.

  4. Optimizing power to track brain degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment with tensor-based morphometry: An ADNI study of 515 subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Yanovsky, Igor; Leow, Alex D.; Chou, Yi-Yu; Ho, April J.; Gutman, Boris; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Bernstein, Matt A.; Reiman, Eric M.; Harvey, Danielle J.; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Alexander, Gene E.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is a powerful method to map the 3D profile of brain degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We optimized a TBM-based image analysis method to determine what methodological factors, and which image-derived measures, maximize statistical power to track brain change. 3D maps, tracking rates of structural atrophy over time, were created from 1030 longitudinal brain MRI scans (1-year follow-up) of 104 AD patients (age: 75.7 ± 7.2 years; MMSE: 23.3 ± 1.8, at baseline), 254 amnestic MCI subjects (75.0 ± 7.2 years; 27.0 ± 1.8), and 157 healthy elderly subjects (75.9 ± 5.1 years; 29.1 ± 1.0), as part of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). To determine which TBM designs gave greatest statistical power, we compared different linear and nonlinear registration parameters (including different regularization functions), and different numerical summary measures derived from the maps. Detection power was greatly enhanced by summarizing changes in a statistically-defined region-of-interest (ROI) derived from an independent training sample of 22 AD patients. Effect sizes were compared using cumulative distribution function (CDF) plots and false discovery rate methods. In power analyses, the best method required only 48 AD and 88 MCI subjects to give 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the mean annual change using a two-sided test (at α = 0.05). This is a drastic sample size reduction relative to using clinical scores as outcome measures (619 AD/6797 MCI for the ADAS-Cog, and 408 AD/796 MCI for the Clinical Dementia Rating sum-of-boxes scores). TBM offers high statistical power to track brain changes in large, multi-site neuroimaging studies and clinical trials of AD. PMID:19615450

  5. Grey-matter volume as a potential feature for the classification of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yane; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Pan; Yao, Hongxiang; Yuan, Minshao; An, Ningyu; Dai, Haitao; Wang, Luning; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Specific patterns of brain atrophy may be helpful in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we set out to evaluate the utility of grey-matter volume in the classification of AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) compared to normal control (NC) individuals. Voxel-based morphometric analyses were performed on structural MRIs from 35 AD patients, 27 aMCI patients, and 27 NC participants. A two-sample two-tailed t-test was computed between the NC and AD groups to create a map of abnormal grey matter in AD. The brain areas with significant differences were extracted as regions of interest (ROIs), and the grey-matter volumes in the ROIs of the aMCI patients were included to evaluate the patterns of change across different disease severities. Next, correlation analyses between the grey-matter volumes in the ROIs and all clinical variables were performed in aMCI and AD patients to determine whether they varied with disease progression. The results revealed significantly decreased grey matter in the bilateral hippocampus/parahippocampus, the bilateral superior/middle temporal gyri, and the right precuneus in AD patients. The grey-matter volumes were positively correlated with clinical variables. Finally, we performed exploratory linear discriminative analyses to assess the classifying capacity of grey-matter volumes in the bilateral hippocampus and parahippocampus among AD, aMCI, and NC. Leave-one-out cross-validation analyses demonstrated that grey-matter volumes in hippocampus and parahippocampus accurately distinguished AD from NC. These findings indicate that grey-matter volumes are useful in the classification of AD.

  6. Fornix white matter is correlated with resting state functional connectivity of the thalamus and hippocampus in healthy aging but not in mild cognitive impairment- a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Grace Kehoe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we wished to examine the relationship between the structural connectivity of the fornix, a white matter (WM tract in the limbic system which is affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and the resting state functional connectivity (FC of two key related subcortical structures, the thalamus and hippocampus. Twenty-two older healthy controls (HC and 18 older adults with aMCI underwent multi-modal MRI scanning. The fornix was reconstructed using constrained-spherical deconvolution (CSD-based tractography. The FC between the thalamus and hippocampus was calculated using a region-of-interest approach from which the mean time series were exacted and correlated. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measures of the white matter microstructure of the fornix were correlated against the Fisher Z correlation values from the FC analysis. There was no difference between the groups in the fornix white matter measures, nor in the resting state FC of the thalamus and hippocampus. We did however find that the relationship between functional and structural connectivity differed significantly between the groups. In the HCs there was a significant positive association between linear diffusion (CL in the fornix and the FC of the thalamus and hippocampus, however there was no relationship between these measures in the aMCI group. These preliminary findings suggest that in aMCI, the relationship between the functional and structural connectivity of regions of the limbic system may be significantly altered compared to healthy ageing. The combined use of DWI and fMRI may advance our understanding of neural network changes in aMCI, and elucidate subtle changes in the relationship between structural and functional brain networks.

  7. Poorer Financial and Health Literacy Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; James, Bryan D; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A

    2015-09-01

    Literacy is an important determinant of financial and health outcomes in old age, and cognitive decline has been linked with lower literacy. We tested the hypothesis that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer financial and health literacy. Participants (n = 730) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project were given a clinical evaluation and an assessment of total, financial, and health literacy. Regression was used to examine whether MCI was associated with lower literacy. In secondary analyses, we investigated the association of particular cognitive systems with literacy. MCI was associated with lower total, financial, and health literacy. An interaction was observed such that higher education reduced the effect of MCI on total and financial literacy. Multiple cognitive systems were associated with literacy in participants with MCI, and semantic memory accounted for the most variance. Persons with MCI exhibit poorer financial and health literacy, and education mitigates this effect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. A comparison of two assessments of high level cognitive communication disorders in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Tanya; Scott, Amanda; Bond, Annabelle; Paul, Eldho

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently encounter cognitive communication disorders. Deficits can be subtle but can seriously influence an individual's ability to achieve life goals. Feedback from rehabilitation facilities indicated that high level cognitive communication disorders are not consistently identified in the acute setting. This study aimed to compare the cognitive communication results from two screening assessments, the Cognistat and the Cognitive Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT), in participants with a mild traumatic brain injury and to relate these findings to a range of prognostic indicators. Eighty-three adults post-TBI (16-81 years; 79.5% males) were recruited at an acute trauma centre. The language components of the two tests were analysed. The CLQT identified more participants with an impairment in language than the Cognistat, 19.3% compared to 1.2% (p communication deficits than the Cognistat in the acute setting.

  9. Cognitive reserve and Aβ1-42 in mild cognitive impairment (Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Paula Harris,1,2 Marcos Fernandez Suarez,1 Ezequiel I Surace,1,2 Patricio Chrem Méndez,1 María Eugenia Martín,1 María Florencia Clarens,1 Fernanda Tapajóz,1,2 Maria Julieta Russo,1 Jorge Campos,1 Salvador M Guinjoan,1,2 Gustavo Sevlever,1 Ricardo F Allegri1,2 1Instituto de Investigaciones Neurológicas, 2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve and concentration of Aβ1-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of patients with mild cognitive impairment, those with Alzheimer’s disease, and in control subjects. Methods: Thirty-three participants from the Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database completed a cognitive battery, the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ, and an Argentinian accentuation reading test (TAP-BA as a measure of premorbid intelligence, and underwent lumbar puncture for CSF biomarker quantification. Results: The CRQ significantly correlated with TAP-BA, education, and Aβ1-42. When considering Aβ1-42 levels, significant differences were found in CRQ scores; higher levels of CSF Aβ1-42 were associated with higher CRQ scores. Conclusion: Reduced Aβ1-42 in CSF is considered as evidence of amyloid deposition in the brain. Previous results suggest that individuals with higher education, higher occupational attainment, and participation in leisure activities (cognitive reserve have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Our results support the notion that enhanced neural activity has a protective role in mild cognitive impairment, as evidenced by higher CSF Aβ1-42 levels in individuals with more cognitive reserve. Keywords: amyloid, biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid, Alzheimer’s disease 

  10. Dosimetry of patients submitted to cerebral PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de; Bernardes, Felipe Dias; Mamede, Marcelo, E-mail: pridili@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mourao, Arnaldo Prata [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Teogenes Augusto da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the effective radiation dose in patients submitted to PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Materials and methods: TLD-100 detectors inserted into an Alderson Rando® anthropomorphic phantom were utilized to measure the absorbed dose coming from the CT imaging modality. The anthropomorphic phantoms (male and female adult versions) were submitted to the same technical protocols for patients’ images acquisition. The absorbed dose resulting from the radiopharmaceutical injection was estimated by means of the model proposed by the ICRP publication 106. Results: the effective dose in patients submitted to this diagnostic technique was approximately (5.34 ± 1.99) mSv. Conclusion: optimized protocols for calculation of radioactive activity injected into patients submitted to this diagnostic technique might contribute to reduce the effective radiation dose resulting from PET/CT in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  11. Dosimetry of patients submitted to cerebral PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de; Bernardes, Felipe Dias; Mamede, Marcelo; Mourao, Arnaldo Prata; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da

    2014-01-01

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the effective radiation dose in patients submitted to PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Materials and methods: TLD-100 detectors inserted into an Alderson Rando® anthropomorphic phantom were utilized to measure the absorbed dose coming from the CT imaging modality. The anthropomorphic phantoms (male and female adult versions) were submitted to the same technical protocols for patients’ images acquisition. The absorbed dose resulting from the radiopharmaceutical injection was estimated by means of the model proposed by the ICRP publication 106. Results: the effective dose in patients submitted to this diagnostic technique was approximately (5.34 ± 1.99) mSv. Conclusion: optimized protocols for calculation of radioactive activity injected into patients submitted to this diagnostic technique might contribute to reduce the effective radiation dose resulting from PET/CT in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  12. Atrophy-specific MRI brain template for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonov, Vladimir; Coupe, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    Background Rapid brain loss is characteristic for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [1]. Increase of the lateral ventricular volume is strongly correlated with the progression of the disease. High variability in the degree of atrophy for subjects with AD....... Alzheimer's and Dementia, 2010. 6(4, Supplement 1). [3] Fonov, V, et al. NeuroImage, 2011. 54(1).......Background Rapid brain loss is characteristic for the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) [1]. Increase of the lateral ventricular volume is strongly correlated with the progression of the disease. High variability in the degree of atrophy for subjects with AD...... of the brain and the contrast between different tissue types for the given level of atrophy. Figure 1 shows images through 6 example values of increasing RLVV. Conclusions The proposed method and resulting template will be useful tools for the development of robust automatic image processing methods targeted...

  13. Dependence and caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2011-03-01

    The dependence scale has been designed to be sensitive to the overall care needs of the patient and is considered distinct from standard measures of functional ability in this regard. Little is known regarding the relationship between patient dependence and caregiver burden. We recruited 100 patients with Alzheimer\\'s disease or mild cognitive impairment and their caregivers through a memory clinic. Patient function, dependence, hours of care, cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and caregiver burden were assessed. Dependence was significantly correlated with caregiver burden. Functional decline and dependence were most predictive of caregiver burden in patients with mild impairment while behavioral symptoms were most predictive in patients with moderate to severe disease. The dependence scale demonstrated good utility as a predictor of caregiver burden. Interventions to reduce caregiver burden should address patient dependence, functional decline, and behavioral symptoms while successful management of the latter becomes more critical with disease progression.

  14. Novel Virtual User Models of Mild Cognitive Impairment for Simulating Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segkouli, Sofia; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Tsakiris, Thanos; Tsolaki, Magda; Karagiannidis, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    Virtual user modeling research has attempted to address critical issues of human-computer interaction (HCI) such as usability and utility through a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches as cognitive models in order to provide users with experiences fitting to their specific needs. However, there is demand for more specific modules embodied in cognitive architecture that will detect abnormal cognitive decline across new synthetic task environments. Also, accessibility evaluation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) requires considerable effort for enhancing ICT products accessibility for older adults. The main aim of this study is to develop and test virtual user models (VUM) simulating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through novel specific modules, embodied at cognitive models and defined by estimations of cognitive parameters. Well-established MCI detection tests assessed users' cognition, elaborated their ability to perform multitasks, and monitored the performance of infotainment related tasks to provide more accurate simulation results on existing conceptual frameworks and enhanced predictive validity in interfaces' design supported by increased tasks' complexity to capture a more detailed profile of users' capabilities and limitations. The final outcome is a more robust cognitive prediction model, accurately fitted to human data to be used for more reliable interfaces' evaluation through simulation on the basis of virtual models of MCI users. PMID:26339282

  15. Novel Virtual User Models of Mild Cognitive Impairment for Simulating Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Segkouli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual user modeling research has attempted to address critical issues of human-computer interaction (HCI such as usability and utility through a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches as cognitive models in order to provide users with experiences fitting to their specific needs. However, there is demand for more specific modules embodied in cognitive architecture that will detect abnormal cognitive decline across new synthetic task environments. Also, accessibility evaluation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs requires considerable effort for enhancing ICT products accessibility for older adults. The main aim of this study is to develop and test virtual user models (VUM simulating mild cognitive impairment (MCI through novel specific modules, embodied at cognitive models and defined by estimations of cognitive parameters. Well-established MCI detection tests assessed users’ cognition, elaborated their ability to perform multitasks, and monitored the performance of infotainment related tasks to provide more accurate simulation results on existing conceptual frameworks and enhanced predictive validity in interfaces’ design supported by increased tasks’ complexity to capture a more detailed profile of users’ capabilities and limitations. The final outcome is a more robust cognitive prediction model, accurately fitted to human data to be used for more reliable interfaces’ evaluation through simulation on the basis of virtual models of MCI users.

  16. Prediction of time trends in recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Kay; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2009-01-01

    . There was significant improvement of performance after 6 months. APOE-epsilon4 genotype was the only independent factor significantly predicting less improvement. CONCLUSION: The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele predicts less recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury....... change. RESULTS: A Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15, traumatic brain injury demonstrated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum S-100B greater than 0.14 microg/L predicted impaired cognitive performance both at baseline and after 6 months; APOE genotype did not...

  17. Anxiety and behavioural disturbance as markers of prodromal Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2011-02-01

    Depression and anxiety have been reported to be independently predictive of conversion to Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Anxiety symptoms have been less well studied and findings in this regard have been inconsistent. The objectives of this study are to determine which symptoms among a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms known to commonly occur in patients with MCI are predictive of later conversion to AD. We also wish to determine whether these symptoms track existing measures of declining cognitive and functional status or may be considered distinct and sensitive biomarkers of evolving Alzheimer\\'s pathology.

  18. The picture superiority effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Ally, Brandon A.; Gold, Carl A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    The fact that pictures are better remembered than words has been reported in the literature for over 30 years. While this picture superiority effect has been consistently found in healthy young and older adults, no study has directly evaluated the presence of the effect in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Clinical observations have indicated that pictures enhance memory in these patients, suggesting that the picture superiority effect may be intact. H...

  19. Intraindividual Stepping Reaction Time Variability Predicts Falls in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Bunce, D; Haynes, BI; Lord, SR; Gschwind, YJ; Kochan, NA; Reppermund, S; Brodaty, H; Sachdev, PS; Delbaere, K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reaction time measures have considerable potential to aid neuropsychological assessment in a variety of health care settings. One such measure, the intraindividual reaction time variability (IIV), is of particular interest as it is thought to reflect neurobiological disturbance. IIV is associated with a variety of age-related neurological disorders, as well as gait impairment and future falls in older adults. However, although persons diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)...

  20. The Effect of Mild Motion Sickness and Sopite Syndrome on Multitasking Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    useful as a predictor of performance in occupations such as pilot , where demands on multitasking are presumably high.” 33 It is interesting to assess...Council Committee on Selection and Training of Aircraft Pilots , Executive Subcommittee. Washington, D.C. Wendt, G. R. (1951). Vestibular functions. In S...public release; distribution is unlimited THE EFFECT OF MILD MOTION SICKNESS AND SOPITE SYNDROME ON MULTITASKING COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE by

  1. Neural correlates of spatial navigation changes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Kamil; Laczó, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, Mar 17 (2014), s. 89 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.100/02/0123 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spatial navigation * Alzheimer’s disease * spatial disorientation * brain changes * mild cognitive impairment Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  2. Fast decay of iconic memory in observers with mild cognitive impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhong-Lin; Neuse, James; Madigan, Stephen; Dosher, Barbara Anne

    2005-01-01

    In a previous clinical report, unusually fast decay of iconic memory was obtained from a subject who later developed Alzheimer's disease. By using the partial-report paradigm, iconic memory (a form of visual sensory memory) in a group of observers with mild cognitive impairments (MCI) was characterized and compared with that of young college-age adults and older controls. Relatively long stimulus exposures were used for all three groups to ensure that older observers could perceive the stimul...

  3. Longitudinal changes in task-evoked brain responses in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban eEkman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson’s disease. Previous cross-sectional research has demonstrated a link between cognitive impairments and fronto-striatal dopaminergic dysmodulation. However, longitudinal studies that link disease progression with altered task-evoked brain activity are lacking. Therefore, our objective was to longitudinally evaluate working-memory related brain activity changes in Parkinson’s disease patients with and without mild cognitive impairment.Patients were recruited within a longitudinal cohort study of incident patients with idiopathic parkinsonism. We longitudinally (at baseline examination and at 12-months follow-up compared 28 patients with Parkinson’s disease without mild cognitive impairment with 11 patients with Parkinson’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Functional MRI blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured during a verbal two-back working-memory task. Patients with mild cognitive impairment under-recruited bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, right putamen, and lateral parietal cortex at both time-points (main effect of group: p<0.001, uncorrected. Critically, a significant group-by-time interaction effect (p<0.001, uncorrected was found in the right fusiform gyrus, indicating that working-memory related activity decreased for patients with Parkinson’s disease and mild cognitive impairment between baseline and follow-up, while patients without mild cognitive impairment were stable across time-points. The functional connectivity between right fusiform gyrus and bilateral caudate nucleus was stronger for patients without MCI relative to patients with MCI.Our findings support the view that deficits in working-memory updating are related to persistent fronto-striatal under-recruitments in patients with early phase Parkinson’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. The longitudinal evolution of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease translates into additional task

  4. Using Virtual Reality to Characterize Episodic Memory Profiles in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: Influence of Active and Passive Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, G.; Tirard, A.; Gyselinck, V.; Nicolas, S.; Piolino, P.

    2012-01-01

    Most neuropsychological assessments of episodic memory bear little similarity to the events that patients actually experience as memories in daily life. The first aim of this study was to use a virtual environment to characterize episodic memory profiles in an ecological fashion, which includes memory for central and perceptual details,…

  5. A study on the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment using a co-occurrence matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Shimada, Tetsuo; Kaeriyama, Tomoharu; Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Fukumoto, Ichiro

    2004-01-01

    We studied the possibility of making an objective diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. An image of the cerebral parenchyma was created from original MR images, and the brain, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the amount of the features from the co-occurrence matrix were measured. When the brain-intracranial ratio, hippocampus-intracranial ratio, and parahippocampal-intracranial ratio were computed, a significant difference was not detected. Discriminant analysis using the hippocampus-intracranial ratio and parahippocampal-intracranial ratio showed an overall accuracy of 63.8%. These are not sufficient results to use clinically. Therefore it is possible to make an objective diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment using the co-occurrence matrix. A statistically significant difference was found in 8 of the 13 features obtained from the co-occurrence matrix. Moreover, discriminant analysis using the eight features showed an overall accuracy of 85.1%. These results indicate that they can be used as an objective diagnostic technique for mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  6. Relationship between Delusion of Theft and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hae-Ran; Kang, Dong Woo; Woo, Young-Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong; Lee, Chang-Uk; Lim, Hyun Kook

    2018-01-01

    Although delusion of theft (DT) is the most frequent type of delusion in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), its relationship to cognitive functions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between DT and cognitive functions in mild AD. Two hundred eighty-nine mild AD patients were enrolled in this study. These subjects were classified into three groups: patients with no delusions (ND, n=82), patients with paranoid delusions (PD, n=114) and patients with DT (n=93). Cognitive functions and their associations with the degree of delusion were compared among the three groups. The results showed that verbal Fluency scores were significantly lower in the PD group than in the DT and ND groups. Word List Recall scores were significantly lower in the DT group than in the PD and ND groups. Interestingly, delusion severity measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory delusion subscale correlated negatively with the Word List Recall scores in the DT group. In this study, we demonstrated that episodic memory functions in mild AD patients were associated with DT, but not with PD. Further studies might be needed to clarify the pathophysiology of delusions associated with AD. PMID:29669410

  7. Relationship between Delusion of Theft and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hae-Ran; Kang, Dong Woo; Woo, Young-Sup; Bahk, Won-Myong; Lee, Chang-Uk; Lim, Hyun Kook

    2018-04-01

    Although delusion of theft (DT) is the most frequent type of delusion in Alzheimer's disease (AD), its relationship to cognitive functions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between DT and cognitive functions in mild AD. Two hundred eighty-nine mild AD patients were enrolled in this study. These subjects were classified into three groups: patients with no delusions (ND, n=82), patients with paranoid delusions (PD, n=114) and patients with DT (n=93). Cognitive functions and their associations with the degree of delusion were compared among the three groups. The results showed that verbal Fluency scores were significantly lower in the PD group than in the DT and ND groups. Word List Recall scores were significantly lower in the DT group than in the PD and ND groups. Interestingly, delusion severity measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory delusion subscale correlated negatively with the Word List Recall scores in the DT group. In this study, we demonstrated that episodic memory functions in mild AD patients were associated with DT, but not with PD. Further studies might be needed to clarify the pathophysiology of delusions associated with AD.

  8. Sex differences in progression to mild cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholerton, Brenna; Johnson, Catherine O; Fish, Brian; Quinn, Joseph F; Chung, Kathryn A; Peterson-Hiller, Amie L; Rosenthal, Liana S; Dawson, Ted M; Albert, Marilyn S; Hu, Shu-Ching; Mata, Ignacio F; Leverenz, James B; Poston, Kathleen L; Montine, Thomas J; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Edwards, Karen L

    2018-05-01

    Identification of factors associated with progression of cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is important for treatment planning, clinical care, and design of future clinical trials. The current study sought to identify whether prediction of cognitive progression is aided by examining baseline cognitive features, and whether this differs according to stage of cognitive disease. Participants with PD in the Pacific Udall Center Clinical Consortium who had longitudinal data available and were nondemented at baseline were included in the study (n = 418). Logistic and Cox regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between cognitive, demographic, and clinical variables with risk and time to progression from no cognitive impairment to mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) or dementia (PDD), and from PD-MCI to PDD. Processing speed (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009) and working memory (OR = 1.01, p = 0.03) were associated with conversion to PDD among those with PD-MCI at baseline, over and above demographic variables. Conversely, the primary predictive factor in the transition from no cognitive impairment to PD-MCI or PDD was male sex (OR = 4.47, p = 0.004), and males progressed more rapidly than females (p = 0.01). Further, among females with shorter disease duration, progression was slower than for their male counterparts, and poor baseline performance on semantic verbal fluency was associated with shorter time to cognitive impairment in females but not in males. This study provides evidence for sex differences in the progression to cognitive impairment in PD, while specific cognitive features become more important indicators of progression with impending conversion to PDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Roles of Education and IQ in Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Armstrong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The role of cognitive reserve in Parkinson’s disease (PD-mild cognitive impairment (MCI is incompletely understood. Methods: The relationships between PD-MCI, years of education, and estimated premorbid IQ were examined in 119 consecutive non-demented PD patients using logistic regression models. Results: Higher education and IQ were associated with reduced odds of PD-MCI in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, a higher IQ was associated with a significantly decreased odds of PD-MCI, but education was not. Conclusion: The association of higher IQ and decreased odds of PD-MCI supports a role for cognitive reserve in PD, but further studies are needed to clarify the interaction of IQ and education and the impact of other contributors such as employment and hobbies.

  10. Delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Mei, Xi; Chen, Andrew C N

    2015-02-01

    Information on fine motor and basic cognitive functions in spastic diplegia is sparse in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate index finger's tapping speed and cognitive functions in categorization and old/new recognition of pictures in patients with mild spastic diplegia. Fifteen preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia and 15 healthy male teenagers participated in this study. Finger-tapping tests and cognitive tests were performed on all participants. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. In the finger-tapping tests, the tapping speed was significantly slower in patients than in controls. In the tests of tapping one key persistently and tapping two keys alternately, the reaction time gaps between the left and right digits were larger in patients than in controls. In the categorization tests, the accuracies and reaction times for animal/plant and girl face pictures, but not for boy face pictures, were significantly worse in patients than in controls. In the recognition tests, the accuracies for old/new, animal/plant, and boy/girl face pictures were significantly lower in patients than in controls. The reaction times for old/new, animal/plant, and new face pictures, but not for old face pictures, were significantly longer in patients compared with controls. Our results demonstrate delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia. Our experimental paradigm is sensitive for the study of fine motor and cognitive functions between patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Driving with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia: Cognitive Test Performance and Proxy Report of Daily Life Function in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Hogan, Patricia E; Rapp, Stephen R; Dugan, Elizabeth; Marottoli, Richard A; Snively, Beverly M; Shumaker, Sally A; Sink, Kaycee M

    2015-09-01

    To investigate associations between proxy report of cognitive and functional limitations and cognitive performance and current or former driving status in older women with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and all-cause dementia. Cross-sectional data analysis of retrospectively identified older women with adjudicated MCI and all-cause dementia in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Epidemiology of Cognitive Health Outcomes (WHIMS-ECHO). Academic medical center. Women (mean age ± standard deviation 83.7 ± 3.5) adjudicated with MCI or dementia during Year 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the WHIMS-ECHO follow-up period (N = 385). The telephone-administered cognitive battery included tests of attention, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, working memory, and global cognitive function plus self-report measures of depressive symptomatology. The Dementia Questionnaire (DQ) was administered to a knowledgeable proxy (family member, friend). Sixty percent of women with MCI and 40% of those with dementia are current drivers. Proxy reports of functional limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are associated with current driving status in women with MCI, whereas performance-based cognitive tests are not. In women with dementia, proxy reports of functional limitations in IADLs and performance-based cognitive tests are associated with current driving status, as expected. These findings have clinical implications for the importance of evaluating driving concurrently with other instrumental functional abilities in MCI and dementia. Additional work is needed to determine whether proxy report of cognitive and functional impairments should help guide referrals for driving assessment and rehabilitation or counseling for driving transition. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Relationship between Motor Symptoms, Cognition, and Demographic Characteristics in Treated Mild/Moderate Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay S Schneider

    Full Text Available Although Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized primarily by motor symptoms, PD patients, at all stages of the disease, can experience cognitive dysfunction. However, the relationships between cognitive and motor symptoms and specific demographic characteristics are not well defined, particularly for patients who have progressed to requiring dopaminergic medication.To examine relationships between motor and cognitive symptoms and various demographic factors in mild to moderate, PD patients requiring anti-PD medication.Cognitive function was assessed in 94 subjects with a variety of neuropsychological tests during baseline evaluations as part of an experimental treatment study. Data were analyzed in relation to Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores and demographic variables.Of the UPDRS subscores analyzed, posture/balance/gait was associated with the highest number of adverse cognitive outcomes followed by speech/facial expression, bradykinesia, and rigidity. No associations were detected between any of the cognitive performance measures and tremor. Motor functioning assessed in the "off" condition correlated primarily with disease duration; neuropsychological performance in general was primarily related to age.In PD patients who have advanced to requiring anti-PD therapies, there are salient associations between axial signs and cognitive performance and in particular, with different aspects of visuospatial function suggesting involvement of similar circuits in these functions. Associations between executive functions and bradykinesia also suggest involvement similar circuits in these functions.

  13. Structural brain differences between monolingual and multilingual patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease: Evidence for cognitive reserve.

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    Duncan, Hilary D; Nikelski, Jim; Pilon, Randi; Steffener, Jason; Chertkow, Howard; Phillips, Natalie A

    2018-01-31

    Two independent lines of research provide evidence that speaking more than one language may 1) contribute to increased grey matter in healthy younger and older adults and 2) delay cognitive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined cortical thickness and tissue density in monolingual and multilingual MCI and AD patients matched (within Diagnosis Groups) on demographic and cognitive variables. In medial temporal disease-related (DR) areas, we found higher tissue density in multilingual MCIs versus monolingual MCIs, but similar or lower tissue density in multilingual AD versus monolingual AD, a pattern consistent with cognitive reserve in AD. In areas related to language and cognitive control (LCC), both multilingual MCI and AD patients had thicker cortex than the monolinguals. Results were largely replicated in our native-born Canadian MCI participants, ruling out immigration as a potential confound. Finally, multilingual patients showed a correlation between cortical thickness in LCC regions and performance on episodic memory tasks. Given that multilinguals and monolinguals were matched on memory functioning, this suggests that increased gray matter in these regions may provide support to memory functioning. Our results suggest that being multilingual may contribute to increased gray matter in LCC areas and may also delay the cognitive effects of disease-related atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Depressive Symptom Clusters and Neuropsychological Performance in Mild Alzheimer's and Cognitively Normal Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the relationship between depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological test performance in an elderly cohort of cognitively normal controls and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD. Design. Cross-sectional analysis. Setting. Four health science centers in Texas. Participants. 628 elderly individuals (272 diagnosed with mild AD and 356 controls from ongoing longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease. Measurements. Standard battery of neuropsychological tests and the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale with regressions model generated on GDS-30 subscale scores (dysphoria, apathy, meaninglessness and cognitive impairment as predictors and neuropsychological tests as outcome variables. Follow-up analyses by gender were conducted. Results. For AD, all symptom clusters were related to specific neurocognitive domains; among controls apathy and cognitive impairment were significantly related to neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between performance and symptom clusters was significantly different for males and females in each group. Conclusion. Findings suggest the need to examine disease status and gender when considering the impact of depressive symptoms on cognition.

  15. Remembering a visit to the psychology lab: Implications of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Patrick S R; Cooper, Lara; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Morris Moscovitch has emphasized the importance of sensitively and carefully measuring cognition in the real world. With this lesson in mind, we examined the real-world episodic memory problems of older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). MCI patients often complain of episodic memory problems and perform poorly on standardized neuropsychological measures, but we still do not know enough about their actual difficulties remembering real experiences. A few days after their visit to the laboratory for an experimental session, we telephoned 19 MCI patients and 34 healthy participants without warning to ask what they could recollect about 16 elements of their visit. The patients had difficulty remembering the details of their visit, and reported lower ratings of memory vividness compared to healthy participants. Patients' memory for the visit was commensurate with their performance on three standard clinical memory assessment measures (delayed 5 word recall from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, long delay free recall from the California Verbal Learning Test-II and recall of the details of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Logical Memory stories), providing evidence for the generalizability of the clinical measures. Putting these findings together with those from Moscovitch and colleagues (Murphy et al., 2008) can help us better understand the real-world memory implications of Mild Cognitive Impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mild cognitive impairment. Diagnostic value of different MR techniques; ''Mild cognitive impairment''. Diagnostische Wertigkeit verschiedener MR-Techniken

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    Hauser, T.; Stieltjes, B.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung E010 Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Thomann, P.A. [Zentrum fuer Psychosoziale Medizin, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, AG Strukturelle Bildgebung, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Psychiatrie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    In view of an increasingly aging population the prevalence of dementia is also expected to increase rapidly. As well as clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia which is important in the precursor stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). On the one hand this stage is associated with an increased risk of dementia and on the other hand an early treatment in this stage could attenuate development of the disease. In addition to morphological changes different functional MRI techniques can help in the early diagnosis of dementia and the precursor stages. Moreover, it is important to detect those MCI patients who are at particularly risk for developing dementia. In the differentiation of converters to non-converters initial studies suggest that particularly voxel-based morphometry, MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide important additional information. (orig.) [German] Angesichts einer immer aelter werdenden Bevoelkerung sind wir mit dem Problem einer zunehmenden Zahl an Patienten mit Demenzerkrankungen konfrontiert. In der Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz spielen neben klinischen, neuropsychologischen und laborchemischen Untersuchungen nichtinvasive Bildgebungsverfahren wie die MRT eine bedeutende Rolle. Wichtig ist dabei die Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz bereits im Vorstadium der leichten kognitiven Beeintraechtigung (''mild cognitive impairment'', MCI), da dieses Krankheitsbild mit einem deutlich erhoehten Demenzrisiko einhergeht und durch eine fruehzeitige Therapie der Krankheitsverlauf abgemildert oder deutlich verzoegert werden kann. Neben morphologischen Veraenderungen helfen verschiedene funktionelle MR-Verfahren bei der Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz. Darueber hinaus ist es von grosser Bedeutung, diejenigen MCI-Patienten zu detektieren, die in besonderem Masse von einer Demenz bedroht sind. Bei der Differenzierung von

  17. Cognitive sequelae in survivors of traumatic frontal lobe injury: comparison between mild and moderate injury effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, A.; Ahmad, W.; Tahir, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of cognitive deficits in the survivors of traumatic frontal lobe injury of mild to moderate severity. Study Design: Mix method study. Place and Duration of Study: Nishter Hospital Multan, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur and Sheikh Zaid Hospital Rahim Yar Khan, from Sep 2010 to Jun 2011. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 55 participants. Fifteen of these were taken from healthy population with the age range of 20-30 years (Mean = 25.7 ± SD = 4.6) and 40 participants were medically documented patients of frontal lobe injury of mild (20) to moderate (20) severity. The age range of mild traumatic frontal lobe injury patients was 20-32 years (Mean= 26.5 ± SD = 4.9). The age range of moderate severity patients was also 20-32 years (Mean= 26.4 ± SD = 5.0). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale revised and case history interview were administered to determine cognitive deficits following traumatic frontal lobe injury. Results: Statistical test, one way analysis was used to compare the performance of all these three (control, mild and moderate) groups. Results of present study reflected that cognitive deficits like memory deficits, language problems, trouble in concentrating and difficulty in planning are the major consequences of traumatic frontal lobe injury. Conclusion: To conclude, frontal lobe injury patients not only showed poor performance in clinically-driven structured and comprehensive memory tests when they were compared with healthy people but their performance also varied according to the severity of injury. (author)

  18. Łagodne zaburzenia poznawcze – aktualny problem geriatryczny = Mild cognitive impairment – current geriatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwia Beck

    2016-04-01

      Streszczenie Artykuł przedstawia aktualny stan wiedzy dotyczący łagodnych zaburzeń poznawczych (Mild Cognitive Impairment, MCI. Termin ten, początkowo uważany za stan przejściowy pomiędzy prawidłowym funkcjonowaniem poznawczym a objawami choroby Alzheimera (Alzheimer’s disease, AD, obecnie oznacza heterogenną grupę widocznych i obiektywnych deficytów kognitywnych u pacjentów bez rozpoznanego otępienia. Deficyty te, choć zauważalne zarówno dla osób nimi dotkniętych, jak i ich otoczenia, są na tyle nieznaczne, że nie wpływają na podstawowe czynności życia codziennego i zdolność do samodzielnej egzystencji. Rozpowszechnienie MCI szacuje się na 15 – 30% wśród osób powyżej 60 roku życia; rośnie ono wraz z wiekiem. Łagodnym zaburzeniom poznawczym – zwłaszcza ich postaci amnestycznej - przypisuje się podwyższone ryzyko rozwinięcia się otępienia, wynoszące 10 – 15% rocznie (przy 1 – 2% dla populacji ogólnej. Z tego powodu identyfikacja osób z MCI jest obecnie najważniejszą strategią opóźniania postępu otępień i zapobiegania im.   Słowa kluczowe: łagodne zaburzenia poznawcze, funkcjonowanie poznawcze, wiek podeszły, otępienie       Summary The article describes current state of knowledge on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. The term, initially considered a transitional state between normal cognitive aging and mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, currently covers heterogenous group of noticeable and objective cognitive deficits in patients without the diagnosis of dementia. These deficits, although apparent for both afflicted persons and their environment, do not interfere substantially with basic activities of daily living nor result in inability to live independently. The prevalence of MCI is estimated between 15 and 30% in individuals over 60 years old. Subjects with MCI constitute a high risk group because they develop dementia at a rate of 10% to 15% per year compared with 1% to 2% per year in the general

  19. Cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; VanDerNagel, Joanne El; Korzilius, Hubert Plm; Engels, Rutger Cme

    2018-03-01

    We examined cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers with and without mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID). Problematic drinkers were expected to show a significantly lower estimated performance IQ (PIQ), but not a lower estimated verbal IQ (VIQ), compared to light drinkers. Participants ( N = 474) were divided into four groups based on IQ and severity of alcohol use-related problems. IQ was estimated using (a short form of) the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale third edition. Severity of alcohol use-related problems was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Overall, there were no significant differences between light and problematic drinkers on estimated VIQ. Within the group without MBID, estimated PIQ was significantly lower. Estimated PIQ was not lower in problematic drinkers with MBID compared to light drinkers with MBID. The results are indicative of cognitive deficits in problematic drinkers without MBID. Screening for cognitive deficits with additional instruments is advised.

  20. Awareness of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer's Disease Dementia Diagnoses Associated With Lower Self-Ratings of Quality of Life in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Shana D; Karlawish, Jason; Harkins, Kristin; Rubright, Jonathan D; Wolk, David

    2017-10-01

    This study examined how awareness of diagnostic label impacted self-reported quality of life (QOL) in persons with varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Older adults (n = 259) with normal cognition, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), or mild Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) completed tests of cognition and self-report questionnaires that assessed diagnosis awareness and multiple domains of QOL: cognitive problems, activities of daily living, physical functioning, mental wellbeing, and perceptions of one's daily life. We compared measures of QOL by cognitive performance, diagnosis awareness, and diagnostic group. Persons with MCI or AD who were aware of their diagnosis reported lower average satisfaction with daily life (QOL-AD), basic functioning (BADL Scale), and physical wellbeing (SF-12 PCS), and more difficulties in daily life (DEM-QOL) than those who were unaware (all p ≤ .007). Controlling for gender, those expecting their condition to worsen over time reported greater depression (GDS), higher stress (PSS), lower quality of daily life (QOL-AD, DEM-QOL), and more cognitive difficulties (CDS) compared to others (all p cognitive impairment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept and diagnostic entity in need of input from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Mark W; Smith, Glenn E

    2014-02-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individuals with subtle cognitive declines or mis-diagnose MCI in those who are otherwise cognitively normal on a broader neuropsychological battery of tests. The assembled articles highlight the perils of relying on these conventional criteria for MCI diagnosis and reveal how the reliability of diagnosis is improved when sound neuropsychological approaches are adopted. When these requirements are met, we illustrate with a second series of articles that neuropsychological measures associate strongly with biomarkers and often reflect pathology beyond or instead of typical AD distributions. The final set of articles reveal that people with MCI demonstrate mild but identifiable functional difficulties, and a challenge for neuropsychology is how to incorporate this information to better define MCI and distinguish it from early dementia. Neuropsychology is uniquely positioned to improve upon the state of the science in MCI research and practice by providing critically important empirical information on the specific cognitive domains affected by the predominant neurodegenerative disorders of late life as well as on the diagnostic decision-making strategies used in studies. When such efforts to more comprehensively assess neuropsychological functions are undertaken, better characterizations of spared and impaired cognitive and functional abilities result and lead to more convincing associations with other biomarkers as well as to prediction of clinical outcomes.

  2. Do subjective memory complaints herald the onset of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Roberto; Santangelo, Gabriella; Barone, Paolo; Picillo, Marina; Amboni, Marianna; Longo, Katia; Giordano, Flavio; Moccia, Marcello; Allocca, Roberto; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Vitale, Carmine

    2014-12-01

    Longitudinal studies on healthy participants have shown that subjective memory impairment (defined as subjective cognitive complaints with normal cognitive objective performance) might be a strong predictor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Parkinson disease (PD) also manifests cognitive disturbances, but whether subjective memory complaints may predict the development of MCI in PD has not yet been explored. We prospectively screened newly diagnosed, untreated patients with PD in order to evaluate whether subjective memory complaints may predict development of MCI over a 2-year follow-up evaluation. We enrolled 76 de novo untreated patients with PD. Of the 76 patients, 23 (30.3%) complained memory issues. Among the patients cognitively unimpaired at baseline, those with subjective complaints were more likely to develop MCI at follow-up. The regression model confirmed that presence of subjective memory complaints at baseline was an independent predictor of development of MCI at follow-up. This is the first prospective study to explore the relationship between subjective and objective cognitive deficits in newly diagnosed, untreated patients. Our results provide preliminary evidence that subjective memory complaints might predict future development of MCI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Computer related self-efficacy and anxiety in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Katherine V.; Mattek, Nora; Maxwell, Shoshana A.; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Jimison, Holly B.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines differences in computer related self-efficacy and anxiety in subgroups of older adults, and changes in those measures following exposure to a systematic training program and subsequent computer use. Methods Participants were volunteers in the Intelligent Systems for Assessment of Aging Changes Study (ISAAC) carried out by the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology. Participants were administered two questionnaires prior to training and again one year later, related to computer self-efficacy and anxiety. Continuous recording of computer use was also assessed for a subset of participants. Results Baseline comparisons by gender, age, education, living arrangement, and computer proficiency, but not cognitive status, yielded significant differences in confidence and anxiety related to specific aspects of computer use. At one-year follow-up, participants reported less anxiety and greater confidence. However, the benefits of training and exposure varied by group and task. Comparisons based on cognitive status showed that the cognitively intact participants benefited more from training and/or experience with computers than did participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), who after one year continued to report less confidence and more anxiety regarding certain aspects of computer use. Conclusion After one year of consistent computer use, cognitively intact participants in this study reported reduced levels of anxiety and increased self-confidence in their abil