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Sample records for amnestic mild cognitive

  1. Visual personal familiarity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Luisa Jurjanz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Besides episodic memory dysfunction they show deficits in accessing contextual knowledge that further specifies a general concept or helps to identify an object or a person. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural networks associated with the perception of personal familiar faces and places in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy control subjects. Irrespective of stimulus type, patients compared to control subjects showed lower activity in right prefrontal brain regions when perceiving personally familiar versus unfamiliar faces and places. Both groups did not show different neural activity when perceiving faces or places irrespective of familiarity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight changes in a frontal cortical network associated with knowledge-based personal familiarity among patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. These changes could contribute to deficits in social cognition and may reduce the patients' ability to transition from basic to complex situations and tasks.

  2. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment with low myocardial metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake

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    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Ogata, Takeshi; Haruta, Masayuki; Kishi, Masahiko; Tsuyusaki, Yohei; Tateno, Akihiko; Tateno, Fuyuki; Mouri, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We reported cases of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) without the core clinical features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (dementia and spontaneous parkinsonism) with low uptake in 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. Methods: During a 3-year period at a university clinic, we had 254 patients with memory complaints; 106 men, 148 women; mean age 72.5 years (48-95 years). In all patients we performed neurologic examination; memory tests including the MMSE, ADAScog, FAB and additional WMS-R; and imaging tests including brain MRI, SPECT and MIBG scintigraphy. Results: The criteria of amnestic MCI were fulfilled in 44 patients; and 13 of them (30%) showed low MIBG uptake. They had the following: uniformly elderly, with an equal sex ratio, have relatively slow progression, preserved general cognitive function (MMSE 24.8/30). In addition to memory impairment, they commonly showed low frontal function by FAB (12.5/18) and some had mild visual hallucination (5). Other than memory disorder, they had autonomic disorder (nocturia in 7, constipation in 2, postural hypotension in one), REM sleep behavioral disorder (in 3) and occipital hypoperfusion by SPECT (in 5). Conclusion: This cohort of multidomain amnestic MCI cases may present with early stage DLB because of the presence of low MIBG uptake. Clinically, they commonly have low FAB, and may have visual hallucination, autonomic and sleep disorders. PMID:23383388

  3. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Soo Ryon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1 between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and normal adults and (2 between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy. Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI.

  4. Analysis of Verbal Fluency Ability in Amnestic and Non-Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Anderson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of performance on letter and category fluency tests of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Previous research has suggested that organization strategies, including “clustering” (i.e., groups of related words) and “switching” (i.e., shift from one cluster to another), are important for efficient verbal fluency performance. Participants were 25 individuals with single-domain amnestic MCI (aMCI), 49 with multidomain aMCI, 16 with non-amnestic MCI (naMCI), and 90 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performances were analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, cluster size, and switching. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with follow-up tests revealed that the single-domain aMCI group performed comparably with healthy controls on each dependent measure across both fluency tasks. In contrast, the multidomain aMCI group showed performance decrements in total words and switching production compared with healthy controls on both fluency tasks, whereas the naMCI group produced fewer words and switches on letter fluency. Each group generated more words and switches during the first 30-s on both fluency tasks, with the exception of the naMCI group, whose switching on letter fluency did not decrease as the task progressed. As indicated by the single-domain aMCI group's unimpaired performance, our findings demonstrate that verbal fluency performance decreases as domains beyond memory become impaired in MCI. Reduced switching ability, which has been linked to prefrontal executive functioning, contributed the most to the poorer performance of individuals with multidomain MCI and naMCI. PMID:23917346

  5. The Effect of Bilingualism on Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Troyer, Angela K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Previous reports have found that lifelong bilingualism is associated with a delay in the onset of dementia, including Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type (DAT). Because amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is often a transition stage between normal aging and DAT, our aim in this paper was to establish whether this delay in symptom onset for bilinguals would also be seen in the onset of symptoms of aMCI and whether this delay would be consistent in different subtypes of aMCI. Method. We examined the effect of bilingualism on the age of diagnosis in individuals with single- or multiple-domain aMCI who were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires about their language and social background. Results. Our results showed an interaction between aMCI type and language history. Only individuals diagnosed with single-domain aMCI demonstrated a later age of diagnosis for bilinguals (M = 79.4 years) than monolinguals (M = 74.9 years). Discussion. This preliminary evidence suggests that the early protective advantage of bilingualism may be specific to single-domain aMCI, which is the type of aMCI most specifically associated with progression to DAT. PMID:22454387

  6. Memory complaints in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.

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    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-12-01

    Memory complaints are a frequent phenomenon in elderly individuals and can lead to opportunistic help-seeking behavior. The aim of this study was to compare different aspects of memory complaints (i.e., prospective versus retrospective complaints) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study included a total of 115 participants (mean age: 68.82 ± 8.83 years) with SCI (n = 34), aMCI (n = 46), and mild AD (n = 35). Memory complaints were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which consists of 16 items that describe everyday memory failure of both prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory (RM). For aMCI and AD subjects, informants also completed an informant-rating of the PRMQ. All participants completed detailed neuropsychological tests. Results show that PM complaints were equivalent among the three groups. However, RM complaints differed. Specifically, RM complaints in aMCI were higher than SCI, but similar to AD. Informant-reported memory complaints were higher for AD than aMCI. Our study suggests that RM complaints of memory complaints may be helpful in discriminating between SCI and aMCI, but both PM and RM complaints are of limited value in differentiating aMCI from AD.

  7. Emotional face recognition deficit in amnestic patients with mild cognitive impairment: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

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    Yang L; Zhao X; Wang L; Yu L; Song M; Wang X.

    2015-01-01

    Linlin Yang, Xiaochuan Zhao, Lan Wang, Lulu Yu, Mei Song, Xueyi Wang Department of Mental Health, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Medical University Institute of Mental Health, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been conceptualized as a transitional stage between healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, understanding emotional face recognition deficit in patients with amnestic...

  8. Emotional face recognition deficit in amnestic patients with mild cognitive impairment: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

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    Yang L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Yang, Xiaochuan Zhao, Lan Wang, Lulu Yu, Mei Song, Xueyi Wang Department of Mental Health, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Medical University Institute of Mental Health, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been conceptualized as a transitional stage between healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, understanding emotional face recognition deficit in patients with amnestic MCI could be useful in determining progression of amnestic MCI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of emotional face processing in amnestic MCI by using event-related potentials (ERPs. Patients with amnestic MCI and healthy controls performed a face recognition task, giving old/new responses to previously studied and novel faces with different emotional messages as the stimulus material. Using the learning-recognition paradigm, the experiments were divided into two steps, ie, a learning phase and a test phase. ERPs were analyzed on electroencephalographic recordings. The behavior data indicated high emotion classification accuracy for patients with amnestic MCI and for healthy controls. The mean percentage of correct classifications was 81.19% for patients with amnestic MCI and 96.46% for controls. Our ERP data suggest that patients with amnestic MCI were still be able to undertake personalizing processing for negative faces, but not for neutral or positive faces, in the early frontal processing stage. In the early time window, no differences in frontal old/new effect were found between patients with amnestic MCI and normal controls. However, in the late time window, the three types of stimuli did not elicit any old/new parietal effects in patients with amnestic MCI, suggesting their recollection was impaired. This impairment may be closely associated with amnestic MCI disease. We conclude from our data that face recognition processing and emotional memory is

  9. Similar Verbal Fluency Patterns in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

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    Teng, Edmond; Leone-Friedman, Judith; Lee, Grace J.; Woo, Stephanie; Apostolova, Liana G.; Harrell, Shelly; Ringman, John M.; Lu, Po H.

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionately greater deficits in semantic relative to phonemic verbal fluency are seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have been attributed to neurodegenerative changes in the temporal lobe. Amnestic (AMN) mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which often represents incipient AD, is also characterized by early temporal lobe neuropathology, but previous comparisons of verbal fluency between AD and AMN MCI have yielded mixed results. We examined semantic and phonemic verbal fluency performance in 399 individuals (78 AD, 138 AMN MCI, 72 non-amnestic MCI, and 111 cognitively normal controls). Similar verbal fluency patterns were seen in AMN MCI and AD; both groups exhibited disproportionately poorer performance on semantic verbal fluency relative to normal controls. However, relative verbal fluency indices performed more poorly than individual semantic or phonemic verbal fluency indices for discriminating AMN MCI or AD participants from normal controls, suggesting that they are unlikely to provide additional utility for predicting progression from MCI to AD. PMID:23752677

  10. Informant-reported cognitive symptoms that predict amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Malek-Ahmadi Michael

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognition is difficult in clinical settings. Self-reported and informant-reported memory complaints occur often in both clinical groups, which then necessitates the use of a comprehensive neuropsychological examination to make a differential diagnosis. However, the ability to identify cognitive symptoms that are predictive of aMCI through informant-based information may provide some clinical utility in accurately identifying individuals who are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods The current study utilized a case-control design using data from an ongoing validation study of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ, an informant-based dementia assessment. Data from 51 cognitively normal (CN individuals participating in a brain donation program and 47 aMCI individuals seen in a neurology practice at the same institute were analyzed to determine which AQ items differentiated aMCI from CN individuals. Results Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis which controlled for age and education showed that 4 AQ items were strong indicators of aMCI which included: repetition of statements and/or questions [OR 13.20 (3.02, 57.66]; trouble knowing the day, date, month, year, and time [OR 17.97 (2.63, 122.77]; difficulty managing finances [OR 11.60 (2.10, 63.99]; and decreased sense of direction [OR 5.84 (1.09, 31.30]. Conclusions Overall, these data indicate that certain informant-reported cognitive symptoms may help clinicians differentiate individuals with aMCI from those with normal cognition. Items pertaining to repetition of statements, orientation, ability to manage finances, and visuospatial disorientation had high discriminatory power.

  11. Plasma Levels of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 3 and Beta-Nerve Growth Factor Increase with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Kang Soo Lee; Ji Hyung Chung; Kyung Hye Lee; Min-Jeong Shin; Byoung Hoon Oh; Soo Hyung Lee; Chang Hyung Hong

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated peripheral inflammatory indices, including plasma cytokines and related molecules according to subtypes of dementia, but not in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we used multiplex cytokine assay to assess the plasma levels of 22 cytokines in patients with MCI subtyped as amnestic and non-amnestic, according to cognitive features. When comparing the levels of plasma growth factors, chemokines and cytokines, plasma levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3), and beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) in these two groups, they were found to be significantly higher in amnestic MCI patients than in non-amnestic MCI patients, after adjusting for age and gender. This suggests that plasma MCP-3 and β-NGF may be useful in differentiating subtypes of MCI. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  12. Emotion recognition deficits exist in mild cognitive impairment, but only in the amnestic subtype.

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    McCade, Donna; Savage, Greg; Guastella, Adam; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2013-09-01

    Emotion recognition is impaired in dementia and there is some initial evidence to suggest that milder deficits may be present in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients, an "at risk" population for transition to dementia. In this study, we investigated the emotion recognition profile of MCI subgroups. Results show emotion recognition deficits exist for the amnestic subtype with impairment in multiple domains, with an emotion-specific deficit for anger recognition. Impaired emotion recognition in aMCI was independent of patient mood and cognitive deficits. The study is the first to examine the nonamnestic subtype. No emotion recognition deficits were found. This finding is surprising given the association between the nonamnestic subtype and frontal systems dysfunction. Impaired emotion recognition could be related to the selective pathophysiology in neural pathways, particularly the temporal lobe and connected limbic and prefrontal regions, implicated in both aMCI and emotion processing. These findings may have implications for early diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical management.

  13. Movements Execution in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Rosolino Camarda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between motor and neuropsychological deficits in subjects affected by amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI and early Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Kinematics of goal-directed movement of aMCI and AD subjects were compared to those of age-matched control subjects. AD showed a slowing down of motor performance compared to aMCI and controls. No relationships were found between motor and cognitive performances in both AD and aMCI. Our results suggest that the different motor behaviour between AD and aMCI cannot be related to memory deficits, probably reflecting the initial degeneration of parietal-frontal circuits for movement planning. The onset of motor dysfunction in early AD could represent the transition from aMCI to AD.

  14. Regional cingulum disruption, not gray matter atrophy, detects cognitive changes in amnestic mild cognitive impairment subtypes.

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    Chang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Ta-Fu; Shih, Yao-Chia; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Yan, Sui-Hing; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which has a high risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD), can be classified into single domain (S-aMCI) and multiple domain (M-aMCI) subtypes. We investigated the integrity of regional gray matter and segments of the cingulum bundle with diffusion spectrum imaging tract-specific analysis, and their relationships to neuropsychological functioning, in 46 individuals with aMCI (S-aMCI n = 24; M-aMCI n = 22) and 36 healthy controls (HC). Results demonstrated that although both aMCI groups were impaired on all memory measures relative to HCs, the M-aMCI group demonstrated worse performance on paired association memory and on selective executive function relative to the S-aMCI group. The two aMCI groups did not show significant atrophy in regional gray matter indices as compared to the HC group, but the M-aMCI group showed significant disruption in white matter of the left anterior and inferior cingulum bundles relative to the S-aMCI and HC groups. Furthermore, disruption in the inferior cingulum bundles was significantly associated with executive function and attention/processing speed in all aMCI participants above and beyond the contribution of bilateral hippocampal volumes. Overall, these results indicate that the degeneration of cingulum fibers did not appear to arise from degeneration of the corresponding cerebral cortex. It also suggests relatively greater sensitivity of a white matter biomarker and comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation over gray matter biomarkers in early detection of AD.

  15. Deficits in episodic memory retrieval reveal impaired default mode network connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Cameron J. Dunn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI is believed to represent a transitional stage between normal healthy ageing and the development of dementia. In particular, aMCI patients have been shown to have higher annual transition rates to Alzheimer's Disease (AD than individuals without cognitive impairment. Despite intensifying interest investigating the neuroanatomical basis of this transition, there remain a number of questions regarding the pathophysiological process underlying aMCI itself. A number of recent studies in aMCI have shown specific impairments in connectivity within the default mode network (DMN, which is a group of regions strongly related to episodic memory capacities. However to date, no study has investigated the integrity of the DMN between patients with aMCI and those with a non-amnestic pattern of MCI (naMCI, who have cognitive impairment, but intact memory storage systems. In this study, we contrasted the DMN connectivity in 24 aMCI and 33 naMCI patients using seed-based resting state fMRI. The two groups showed no statistical difference in their DMN intra-connectivity. However when connectivity was analysed according to performance on measures of episodic memory retrieval, the two groups were separable, with aMCI patients demonstrating impaired functional connectivity between the hippocampal formation and the posterior cingulate cortex. We provide evidence that this lack of connectivity is driven by impaired communication from the posterior cingulate hub and does not simply represent hippocampal atrophy, suggesting that posterior cingulate degeneration is the driving force behind impaired DMN connectivity in aMCI.

  16. Deficits in episodic memory retrieval reveal impaired default mode network connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Dunn, Cameron J.; Duffy, Shantel L; Hickie, Ian B; Lagopoulos, Jim; Lewis, Simon J.G.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Shine, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is believed to represent a transitional stage between normal healthy ageing and the development of dementia. In particular, aMCI patients have been shown to have higher annual transition rates to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) than individuals without cognitive impairment. Despite intensifying interest investigating the neuroanatomical basis of this transition, there remain a number of questions regarding the pathophysiological process underlying aMCI itself. A number of recent studies in aMCI have shown specific impairments in connectivity within the default mode network (DMN), which is a group of regions strongly related to episodic memory capacities. However to date, no study has investigated the integrity of the DMN between patients with aMCI and those with a non-amnestic pattern of MCI (naMCI), who have cognitive impairment, but intact memory storage systems. In this study, we contrasted the DMN connectivity in 24 aMCI and 33 naMCI patients using seed-based resting state fMRI. The two groups showed no statistical difference in their DMN intra-connectivity. However when connectivity was analysed according to performance on measures of episodic memory retrieval, the two groups were separable, with aMCI patients demonstrating impaired functional connectivity between the hippocampal formation and the posterior cingulate cortex. We provide evidence that this lack of connectivity is driven by impaired communication from the posterior cingulate hub and does not simply represent hippocampal atrophy, suggesting that posterior cingulate degeneration is the driving force behind impaired DMN connectivity in aMCI. PMID:24634833

  17. Naturalistic Action Performance Distinguishes Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment from Healthy Aging.

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    Gold, David A; Park, Norman W; Murphy, Kelly J; Troyer, Angela K

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) show minor decrements in their instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Sensitive measures of IADL performance are needed to capture the mild difficulties observed in aMCI groups. Routine naturalistic actions (NAs) are familiar IADL-type activities that require individuals to enact everyday tasks such as preparing coffee. In the current study we examined the extent to which NAs could be used to help facilitate differential diagnosis of aMCI relative to composite measures of episodic memory, semantic knowledge, and executive function. Healthy older adults (n=24) and individuals with aMCI (n=24) enacted two highly familiar NAs and completed tests of episodic memory, semantic knowledge, and executive function. Binary logistic regression was used to predict group membership (aMCI vs. control participants). The regression analyses indicated that NA performance could reliably predict group membership, over and above measures of cognitive functioning. These findings indicated that NA performance can be used to help facilitate differential diagnosis of healthy aging and aMCI and used as an outcome measure in intervention studies.

  18. Plasma fatty acid lipidomics in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Iuliano, Luigi; Pacelli, Antonio; Ciacciarelli, Marco; Zerbinati, Chiara; Fagioli, Sabrina; Piras, Fabrizio; Orfei, Maria Donata; Bossù, Paola; Pazzelli, Floriana; Serviddio, Gaetano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 series have been linked to brain physiology and cognitive decline, but little is known about the other components of the complex fatty acids category. Here, we compared 30 molecular species pertaining to saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids, measured in plasma by gas chromatography, in 14 patients with a diagnosis of amnestic single domain mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 30 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 30 healthy controls (HC). As no participants showed neuroimaging evidence of cerebrovascular disease, patients could be considered as purely neurodegenerative. We found differences in specific components of almost all fatty acid classes except n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids. Compared with HC, aMCI and AD patients had higher levels of arachidic (C20:0), erucic (C22:1, n-9), and vaccenic acid (C18:1, n-9) and lower levels of cerotic (C26:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6). In particular, level of linoleic acid decreased and level of mead acid increased progressively from HC to aMCI to AD patients, and they were also inversely correlated in AD and aMCI patients. In conclusion, we found a previously unrecognized linoleic acid deficiency in the early phase of neurodegeneration that was strongly supported by an increased, compensatory mead acid level. These findings suggest the importance of creating new dietary manipulation strategies to counteract disease progression.

  19. Intraindividual variability in performance on associative memory tasks is elevated in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Troyer, Angela K; Vandermorris, Susan; Murphy, Kelly J

    2016-09-01

    Elevations in intraindividual variability (IIV) are an indicator of neurocognitive compromise and are seen on reaction time tasks in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We examined IIV on memory tasks known to be sensitive to early cognitive change in a group of 24 individuals with amnestic MCI and 21 matched controls. Traditional measures of accuracy and speed, as well as indices of IIV statistically purified for systematic between-group and trial effects, were derived from performance on two computer-based associative recognition tests of word-word and face-name pairs. Accuracy and speed were reduced and IIV was elevated in the MCI group compared to controls on both tasks. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that IIV, but not speed, was a unique predictor of group membership, over and above performance accuracy. Observed elevations in IIV in MCI are congruent with the notion that IIV may reflect disturbance in distributed neural networks, including medial temporal regions, in addition to frontal systems dysfunction. Present findings have diagnostic implications for accurate identification of individuals with MCI and add to the growing literature on IIV as an early indicator of cognitive decline in older adults.

  20. Changes in Parahippocampal White Matter Integrity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

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    E. J. Rogalski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, changes in the parahippocampal white matter (PWM, in the region that includes the perforant path, were investigated, in vivo, in 14 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI compared to 14 elderly controls with no cognitive impairment (NCI. For this purpose, (1 volumetry; (2 diffusion tensor imaging (DTI derived measures of mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA; and (3 tractography were used. In addition, regression models were utilized to examine the association of PWM measurements with memory decline. The results from this study confirm previous findings in our laboratory and others, showing that compared to controls, individuals with aMCI have PWM volume loss. In addition to volume reduction, participants with aMCI demonstrated a significant increase in MD, but no difference in FA, both in the PWM region and in fibers modeled to pass through the PWM region. Further, the DTI metric of MD was associated with declarative memory performance, suggesting it may be a sensitive marker for memory dysfunction. These results indicate that there is general tissue loss and degradation (decreased volume; increased MD in individuals with aMCI compared to older people with normal cognitive function. However, the microstructural organization of remaining fibers, as determined by measures of anisotropic diffusion, is not significantly different from that of controls.

  1. Weighted-Permutation Entropy Analysis of Resting State EEG from Diabetics with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Zhijie Bian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a significant public health issue as it increases the risk for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In this study, we aim to investigate whether weighted-permutation entropy (WPE and permutation entropy (PE of resting-state EEG (rsEEG could be applied as potential objective biomarkers to distinguish type 2 diabetes patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from those with normal cognitive function. rsEEG series were acquired from 28 patients with type 2 diabetes (16 aMCI patients and 12 controls, and neuropsychological assessments were performed. The rsEEG signals were analysed using WPE and PE methods. The correlations between the PE or WPE of the rsEEG and the neuropsychological assessments were analysed as well. The WPE in the right temporal (RT region of the aMCI diabetics was lower than the controls, and the WPE was significantly positively correlated to the scores of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT (AVLT-Immediate recall, AVLT-Delayed recall, AVLT-Delayed recognition and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Digit Span Test (WAIS-DST. These findings were not obtained with PE. We concluded that the WPE of rsEEG recordings could distinguish aMCI diabetics from normal cognitive function diabetic controls among the current sample of diabetic patients. Thus, the WPE could be a potential index for assisting diagnosis of aMCI in type 2 diabetes.

  2. Everyday episodic memory in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: a preliminary investigation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irish, Muireann

    2011-08-04

    Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient\\'s daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants\\' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory), associative memory (face-name pairings), spatial memory (route learning and recall), and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months), 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  3. Disrupted white matter integrity is associated with cognitive deficits in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: An atlas-based study

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    Duan Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated white matter integrity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment by diffusion tensor imaging. Methods: A total of 83 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 85 elderly healthy controls underwent neuropsychological testing and a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Whole-brain white matter data were parcellated into 50 regions based on the anatomical ICBM-DTI-81 atlas, and regional diffusion metrics consisting of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity were calculated for each region. Diffusion tensor imaging indices were compared between groups, and it was determined that between-group differences were significantly correlated with neurocognitive performance. Results: Relative to the healthy controls group, the amnestic mild cognitive impairment group exhibited poorer cognitive performance in all neuropsychological tests except the complex figure test (p = 0.083 and showed decreased mean fractional anisotropy in the fornix, increased mean diffusivity in the fornix and bilateral uncinate fasciculus, elevated axial diffusivity in the fornix and genu of corpus callosum, and elevated radial diffusivity in the fornix and bilateral uncinate fasciculus (p < 0.05. Behaviorally, integrity of the bilateral uncinate fasciculus was correlated positively with episodic memory function, while left uncinate fasciculus integrity was positively associated with language function in the amnestic mild cognitive impairment group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: White matter abnormalities in neural pathways associated with memory were correlated with neurocognitive deficiencies in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Given that amnestic mild cognitive impairment is putatively a prodromal syndrome for Alzheimer’s disease, this study furthers our understanding of the white matter changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis in the predementia stage.

  4. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

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    Li Hui-jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.

  5. Item and associative memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: performance on standardized memory tests.

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    Troyer, Angela K; Murphy, Kelly J; Anderson, Nicole D; Hayman-Abello, Brent A; Craik, Fergus I M; Moscovitch, Morris

    2008-01-01

    The earliest neuroanatomical changes in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) involve the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, structures implicated in the integration and learning of associative information. The authors hypothesized that individuals with aMCI would have impairments in associative memory above and beyond the known impairments in item memory. A group of 29 individuals with aMCI and 30 matched control participants were administered standardized tests of object-location recall and symbol-symbol recall, from which both item and associative recall scores were derived. As expected, item recall was impaired in the aMCI group relative to controls. Associative recall in the aMCI group was even more impaired than was item recall. The best group discriminators were measures of associative recall, with which the sensitivity and specificity for detecting aMCI were 76% and 90% for symbol-symbol recall and were 86% and 97% for object-location recall. Associative recall may be particularly sensitive to early cognitive change in aMCI, because this ability relies heavily on the medial temporal lobe structures that are affected earliest in aMCI. Incorporating measures of associative recall into clinical evaluations of individuals with memory change may be useful for detecting aMCI.

  6. Abnormal salience network in normal aging and in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    He, Xiaoxi; Qin, Wen; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Xinqing; Duan, Yunyun; Song, Jinyu; Li, Kuncheng; Jiang, Tianzi; Yu, Chunshui

    2014-07-01

    The salience network (SN) serves to identify salient stimuli and to switch between the central executive network (CEN) and the default-mode network (DMN), both of which are impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD)/amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). We hypothesized that both the structural and functional organization of the SN and functional interactions between the SN and CEN/DMN are altered in normal aging and in AD/aMCI. Gray matter volume (GMV) and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) were analyzed from healthy younger (HYC) to older controls (HOC) and from HOC to aMCI and AD patients. All the SN components showed significant differences in the GMV, intranetwork FC, and internetwork FC between the HYC and HOC. Most of the SN components showed differences in the GMV between the HOC and AD and between the aMCI and AD. Compared with the HOC, AD patients exhibited significant differences in intra- and internetwork FCs of the SN, whereas aMCI patients demonstrated differences in internetwork FC of the SN. Most of the GMVs and internetwork FCs of the SN and part of the intranetwork FC of the SN were correlated with cognitive differences in older subjects. Our findings suggested that structural and functional impairments of the SN may occur as early as in normal aging and that functional disconnection between the SN and CEN/ DMN may also be associated with both normal aging and disease progression.

  7. Short-Term Memory Depends on Dissociable Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Das, Sandhitsu R; Mancuso, Lauren; Olson, Ingrid R; Arnold, Steven E; Wolk, David A

    2016-05-01

    Short-term memory (STM) has generally been thought to be independent of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in contrast to long-term memory (LTM). Prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a condition in which the MTL is a major early focus of pathology and LTM is thought disproportionately affected relative to STM. However, recent studies have suggested a role for the MTL in STM, particularly hippocampus, when binding of different elements is required. Other work has suggested involvement of extrahippocampal MTL structures, particularly in STM tasks that involve item-level memory. We examined STM for individual objects, locations, and object-location conjunctions in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), often associated with prodromal AD. Relative to age-matched, cognitively normal controls, MCI patients not only displayed impairment on object-location conjunctions but were similarly impaired for non-bound objects and locations. Moreover, across all participants, these conditions displayed dissociable correlations of cortical thinning along the long axis of the MTL and associated cortical nodes of anterior and posterior MTL networks. These findings support the role of the MTL in visual STM tasks and the division of labor of MTL in support of different types of memory representations, overlapping with findings in LTM.

  8. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

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    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia.

  9. Biased recognition of positive faces in aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Werheid, Katja; Gruno, Maria; Kathmann, Norbert; Fischer, Håkan; Almkvist, Ove; Winblad, Bengt

    2010-03-01

    We investigated age differences in biased recognition of happy, neutral, or angry faces in 4 experiments. Experiment 1 revealed increased true and false recognition for happy faces in older adults, which persisted even when changing each face's emotional expression from study to test in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, we examined the influence of reduced memory capacity on the positivity-induced recognition bias, which showed the absence of emotion-induced memory enhancement but a preserved recognition bias for positive faces in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment compared with older adults with normal memory performance. In Experiment 4, we used semantic differentials to measure the connotations of happy and angry faces. Younger and older participants regarded happy faces as more familiar than angry faces, but the older group showed a larger recognition bias for happy faces. This finding indicates that older adults use a gist-based memory strategy based on a semantic association between positive emotion and familiarity. Moreover, older adults' judgments of valence were more positive for both angry and happy faces, supporting the hypothesis of socioemotional selectivity. We propose that the positivity-induced recognition bias might be based on fluency, which in turn is based on both positivity-oriented emotional goals and on preexisting semantic associations.

  10. Executive dysfunction and gray matter atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Zheng, Dongming; Sun, Hongzan; Dong, Xiaoyu; Liu, Baiwei; Xu, Yongchuan; Chen, Sipan; Song, Lichun; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that impairment in executive function (EF) is common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the neuroanatomic basis of executive impairment in patients with aMCI remains unclear. In this study, multiple regression voxel-based morphometry analyses were used to examine the relationship between regional gray matter volumes and EF performance in 50 patients with aMCI and 48 healthy age-matched controls. The core EF components (response inhibition, working memory and task switching, based on the EF model of Miyake et al) were accessed with computerized tasks. Atrophic brain areas related to decreases in the three EF components in patients with aMCI were located in the frontal and temporal cortices. Within the frontal cortex, the brain region related to response inhibition was identified in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Brain regions related to working memory were located in the left anterior cingulate gyrus, left premotor cortex, and right inferior frontal gyrus, and brain regions related to task shifting were distributed in the bilateral frontal cortex. Atrophy in the right inferior frontal gyrus was most closely associated with a decrease in all three EF components in patients with aMCI. Our data, from the perspective of brain morphology, contribute to a better understanding of the role of these brain areas in the neural network of EF.

  11. Structural Neuroimaging of Concomitant Depressive Symptoms in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study

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    Jean-François Morin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Late-life depression (LLD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI can both denote prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. While the two concepts share common clinical features, differential diagnosis between them is crucial. The objective of this pilot study was to explore differences in terms of the hippocampal (HC and entorhinal cortex (EC volume reduction between LLD and aMCI patients with (aMCI/D+ group or without (aMCI group depressive symptoms. Six LLD, 6 aMCI, and 6 aMCI/D+ participants were assessed using a structural magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Manual segmentation of HC and EC was carried out. The results of volumetric comparisons suggest that the HC was larger in aMCI/D+ and LLD subjects compared to aMCI participants. The left EC mean volume was slightly lower in aMCI/D+ subjects. Power analyses revealed that 36 participants per group would suffice to confirm these findings. Overall, these pilot findings suggest that aMCI can be distinguished from LLD based on cerebral atrophy measures, and that HC and EC atrophy in aMCI varies according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms.

  12. Metformin in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results of a Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial.

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    Luchsinger, José A; Perez, Thania; Chang, Helena; Mehta, Pankaj; Steffener, Jason; Pradabhan, Gnanavalli; Ichise, Masanori; Manly, Jennifer; Devanand, Davangere P; Bagiella, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and hyperinsulinemia may be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a pilot study of metformin, a medication efficacious in treating and preventing diabetes while reducing hyperinsulinemia, among persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) with the goal of collecting preliminary data on feasibility, safety, and efficacy. Participants were 80 men and women aged 55 to 90 years with aMCI, overweight or obese, without treated diabetes. We randomized participants to metformin 1000 mg twice a day or matching placebo for 12 months. The co-primary clinical outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 months in total recall of the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) and the score of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). The secondary outcome was change in relative glucose uptake in the posterior cingulate-precuneus in brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Change in plasma Aβ42 was an exploratory outcome. The mean age of participants was 65 years. Fifty percent of participants were women. The only baseline variable that was different between the arms was the ADAS-Cog. Metformin could not be tolerated by 7.5% of participants; 15% tolerated 500 mg/day, 35% tolerated 1000 mg/day, 32.5% tolerated 1500 mg/day, and only 10% tolerated the maximum dose. There were no serious adverse events related to metformin. The 7.5% of persons who did not tolerate metformin reported gastrointestinal symptoms. After adjusting for baseline ADAS-cog, changes in total recall of the SRT favored the metformin group (9.7±8.5 versus 5.3±8.5; p = 0.02). Differences for other outcomes were not significant. A larger trial seems warranted to evaluate the efficacy and cognitive safety of metformin in prodromal AD.

  13. White Matter Abnormalities in Two Different Subtypes of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Liu, Jianghong; Liang, Peipeng; Yin, Linlin; Shu, Ni; Zhao, Tengda; Xing, Yi; Li, Fangyu; Zhao, Zhilian; Li, Kuncheng; Han, Ying

    2017-01-01

    White matter (WM) degeneration has been found during the course of cognitive decline in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), however, it is unclear whether there are different WM microstructural abnormalities between two subtypes of aMCI, including single domain aMCI (aMCI-s) and multiple domain aMCI (aMCI-m). Thirty-two patients of aMCI single-domain (aMCI-s), twenty-three patients of aMCI multiple-domain (aMCI-m) and twenty-three healthy normal controls (NC) participated in this study. Neuropsychological measures and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired from each subject and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was implemented. It was found that both aMCI groups showed significantly reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) than NC. It was also identified that, as compared to aMCI-m, aMCI-s showed significantly decreased FA in the left SLF, left uncinate fasciculus (UF) and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), while significantly increased FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation (ATR). The correlation analysis showed that FA values in the regions with group difference were significantly correlated with cognitive functions as measured by Boston naming test and trail making test. These results suggested that the variations of aMCI may be differentiated by FA indexes and DTI may help to understand why specific signs and symptoms occur in patients. PMID:28107493

  14. Microstructural white matter changes, not hippocampal atrophy, detect early amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Lin Zhuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is generally considered to be characterized by pathology in gray matter of the brain, but convergent evidence suggests that white matter degradation also plays a vital role in its pathogenesis. The evolution of white matter deterioration and its relationship with gray matter atrophy remains elusive in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, a prodromal stage of AD. METHODS: We studied 155 cognitively normal (CN and 27 'late' aMCI individuals with stable diagnosis over 2 years, and 39 'early' aMCI individuals who had converted from CN to aMCI at 2-year follow up. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI tractography was used to reconstruct six white matter tracts three limbic tracts critical for episodic memory function - the fornix, the parahippocampal cingulum, and the uncinate fasciculus; two cortico-cortical association fiber tracts - superior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus; and one projection fiber tract - corticospinal tract. Microstructural integrity as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, radial diffusivity (RD and axial diffusivity (AxD was assessed for these tracts. RESULTS: Compared with CN, late aMCI had lower white matter integrity in the fornix, the parahippocampal cingulum, and the uncinate fasciculus, while early aMCI showed white matter damage in the fornix. In addition, fornical measures were correlated with hippocampal atrophy in late aMCI, whereas abnormality of the fornix in early aMCI occurred in the absence of hippocampal atrophy and did not correlate with hippocampal volumes. CONCLUSIONS: Limbic white matter tracts are preferentially affected in the early stages of cognitive dysfunction. Microstructural degradation of the fornix preceding hippocampal atrophy may serve as a novel imaging marker for aMCI at an early stage.

  15. Fast, but not slow, familiarity is preserved in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Besson, Gabriel; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Tramoni, Eve; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Barbeau, Emmanuel J

    2015-04-01

    Recognition memory--affected early in the course of Alzheimer Disease (AD)--is supposed to rely on two processes: recollection (i.e., retrieval of details from the encoding episode) and familiarity (i.e., acontextual sense of prior exposure). Recollection has repeatedly been shown to be impaired in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI)--known to be at high risk for AD. However, studies that evaluated familiarity in these patients have reported conflicting results. Here, we assessed familiarity in single-domain aMCI patients (n = 19) and healthy matched controls (n = 22). All participants underwent a classic yes/no recognition memory paradigm with confidence judgements, allowing an estimation of familiarity and recollection similar to the approach used in previous studies. In addition, they underwent a novel speeded recognition memory task, the Speed and Accuracy Boosting procedure, based on the idea that familiarity is fast and hence that fast answers rely on familiarity. On the classic yes/no task, aMCI patients were found to have impaired performance, reaction times, recollection and familiarity. However, performance and reaction times of aMCI patients did not differ from that of controls in the speeded task. This is noteworthy since this task was comparatively difficult for control subjects. This dissociation within familiarity suggests that a very basic component of declarative memory, probably at the interface between implicit and explicit memory, may be preserved, or possibly released, in patients with aMCI. It is suggested that early subprocesses (e.g., fluency based familiarity) could be preserved in aMCI patients, while delayed ones (e.g., conceptual fluency, post-retrieval monitoring, confidence assessment, or even access to awareness) may be impaired. These findings may provide support for recent suggestions that familiarity may result from the combination of a set of subprocesses, each with its specific temporal signature.

  16. Perspective taking abilities in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Marková, Hana; Laczó, Jan; Andel, Ross; Hort, Jakub; Vlček, Kamil

    2015-03-15

    Perspective taking is the ability to imagine what a scene looks like from a different viewpoint, which has been reported to be impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study compared overhead and first-person view perspective taking abilities in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. A newly developed Arena Perspective Taking Task (APTT), using an environment of a circular arena, was used to compare 23 AD patients and 38 amnestic MCI patients with 18 healthy controls. The results were contrasted with a published perspective taking test (Standardized Road-Map Test of Direction Sense, RMTDS). The AD group was impaired in both overhead and first-person view APTT versions, but the impairment in the overhead view version applied specifically to women. Patients with aMCI were impaired in the first-person view but not in the overhead view version. Substantial sexual differences were found in the overhead but not in the first-person view APTT version. The RMTDS resembled both APTT versions: patients with aMCI were impaired in this test and also women in both patient groups were less accurate than men. Using the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the highest predictive power for MCI and AD patients diagnosis versus controls was observed for their success rate in the first-person view version. The results suggest distinction between overhead and first-person view perspective taking in the impairment of aMCI patients and the sex differences. The first-person view perspective taking is a potentially important candidate psychological marker for AD.

  17. Hippocampal atrophy and verbal episodic memory performance in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease: A preliminary study

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    Nathalia Carollina Peruzza Marchiani

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate hippocampal volume in patients with AD and aMCI, and correlate its atrophy with verbal episodic memory performance. Methods: We studied 42 individuals older than 50 years, including 14 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, 14 with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and 14 normal controls. All individuals were submitted to the Rey auditory verbal learning test (RAVLT to evaluate episodic memory. They were also submitted to the forward (FDS and backward digit span (BDS subtest of WAIS-R to evaluate working memory and attention, and to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Hippocampal volumetric measurements were performed according to anatomic guidelines from a standard protocol using high-resolution T1-inversion recovery 3-mm coronal MRI slices. Hippocampal volumes (HV were corrected for the variation in total intracranial volume. There was no significant difference between the three groups concerning age and education. Results: On RAVLT, there was a continuum between the three groups, with AD recalling less words, controls more, and aMCI subjects showing an intermediate performance on all sub-items. We found an asymmetry between HVs, with smaller mean left HV for all groups. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test for comparisons of HV showed a significant difference among groups, with difference between controls and both AD and aMCI, although there was no significant difference between AD and aMCI groups. Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between hippocampal volumes and scores on RAVLT, confirming that medial temporal structures are closely associated with memory performance in normal ageing as well as in aMCI and AD.

  18. Characteristics of Agraphia in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Jiong Zhou; Biao Jiang; Xian-Hong Huang; Lin-Lin Kong; Hong-Lei Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest progressive decline in writing abilities.Most studies on agraphia in AD have been performed in the alphabetic system,such as English.However,these findings may not be applicable to other written language systems.The unique features of the Chinese written script could affect the patterns of agraphia in Chinese AD patients.The aim of this study was to explore the features of writing errors in Chinese patients with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI),as well as to study the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions.Methods:In this study,we performed an observational study in a group of subjects including 17 AD patients,14 patients with a-MCI,and 16 elderly healthy controls.We analyzed the writing errors in these subjects and also studied the relationship between their writing errors and neuropsychological functions.Results:Our study showed that in patients whose mother tongue is Chinese,writing ability was comparatively well preserved in the MCI phase but significantly impaired when the disease progressed to the stage of AD.The writing errors showed corresponding increase with the severity of cognition decline,both in the types of errors and rate of occurrence.Analysis of the writing errors showed that word substitution and unintelligible words were the most frequent error types that occurred in all the three study groups.The occurrence rate of unintelligible words was significantly higher in the AD group compared with the a-MCI group (P =0.024) and control group (P =0.018).In addition,the occurrence rates of word substitution were also significantly higher in AD (P =0.013) and a-MCI groups (P =0.037) than that of control group.However,errors such as totally no response,visuospatial impairment,paragraph agraphia,ideograph,and perseverative writing errors were only seen in AD group.Besides,we also found a high occurrence rate of visuoconstructional errors (13.3

  19. The Primacy Effect in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Associations with Hippocampal Functional Connectivity

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    Brueggen, Katharina; Kasper, Elisabeth; Dyrba, Martin; Bruno, Davide; Pomara, Nunzio; Ewers, Michael; Duering, Marco; Bürger, Katharina; Teipel, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The “primacy effect,” i.e., increased memory recall for the first items of a series compared to the following items, is reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Memory task-fMRI studies demonstrated that primacy recall is associated with higher activation of the hippocampus and temporo-parietal and frontal cortical regions in healthy subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at resting state revealed that hippocampus functional connectivity (FC) with neocortical brain areas, including regions of the default mode network (DMN), is altered in aMCI. The present study aimed to investigate whether resting state fMRI FC between the hippocampus and cortical brain regions, especially the DMN, is associated with primacy recall performance in aMCI. Methods: A number of 87 aMCI patients underwent resting state fMRI and verbal episodic memory assessment. FC between the left or right hippocampus, respectively, and all other voxels in gray matter was mapped voxel-wise and used in whole-brain regression analyses, testing whether FC values predicted delayed primacy recall score. The delayed primacy score was defined as the number of the first four words recalled on the California Verbal Learning Test. Additionally, a partial least squares (PLS) analysis was performed, using DMN regions as seeds to identify the association of their functional interactions with delayed primacy recall. Results: Voxel-based analyses indicated that delayed primacy recall was mainly (positively) associated with higher FC between the left and right hippocampus. Additionally, significant associations were found for higher FC between the left hippocampus and bilateral temporal cortex, frontal cortical regions, and for higher FC between the right hippocampus and right temporal cortex, right frontal cortical regions, left medial frontal cortex and right amygdala (p < 0.01, uncorr.). PLS analysis revealed positive associations of delayed primacy recall with FC between

  20. Exercise-induced noradrenergic activation enhances memory consolidation in both normal aging and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Segal, Sabrina K; Cotman, Carl W; Cahill, Lawrence F

    2012-01-01

    Post-trial pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system can facilitate memory consolidation. Because exercise activates the locus coeruleus and increases brain norepinephrine release, we hypothesized that post-trial exercise could function as a natural stimulus to enhance memory consolidation. We investigated this in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and cognitively normal elderly individuals by examining the effects of an acute bout of post-learning, aerobic exercise (6 minutes at 70% VO2 max on a stationary bicycle) on memory for some emotional images. Exercise significantly elevated endogenous norepinephrine (measured via the biomarker, salivary alpha-amylase) in both aMCI patients and controls. Additionally, exercise retrogradely enhanced memory in both aMCI patients and controls. Acute exercise that activates the noradrenergic system may serve as a beneficial, natural, and practical therapeutic intervention for cognitive decline in the aging population.

  1. Brain structural, functional, and cognitive correlates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Clémence Tomadesso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in autobiographical memory appear earlier for recent than for remote life periods over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The present study aims to further our understanding of this graded effect by investigating the cognitive and neural substrates of recent versus remote autobiographical memories in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI thanks to an autobiographical fluency task. 20 aMCI patients and 25 Healthy elderly Controls (HC underwent neuropsychological tests assessing remote (20-to-30 years old and recent (the ten last years autobiographical memory as well as episodic and semantic memory, executive function and global cognition. All patients also had a structural MRI and an FDG-PET scan. Correlations were assessed between each autobiographical memory score and the other tests as well as grey matter volume and metabolism. Within the aMCI, performances for the remote period correlated with personal semantic memory and episodic memory retrieval whereas performances for the recent period only correlated with episodic memory retrieval. Neuroimaging analyses revealed significant correlations between performances for the remote period and temporal pole and temporo-parietal cortex volumes and anterior cingulate gyrus metabolism, while performances for the recent period correlated with hippocampal volume and posterior cingulate, medial prefrontal and hippocampus metabolism. The brain regions related with the retrieval of events from the recent period showed greater atrophy/hypometabolism in aMCI patients compared to HC than those involved in remote memories. Recall of recent memories essentially relies on episodic memory processes and brain network while remote memories also involve other processes such as semantic memory. This is consistent with the semanticization of memories with time and may explain the better resistance of remote memory in AD.

  2. A Two-Year Treatment of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment using a Compound Chinese Medicine: A Placebo Controlled Randomized Trail

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    Zhang, Junying; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Huamin; Yang, Caishui; Li, He; Li, Xin; Chen, Kewei; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the long-term therapeutic effects of a compound Chinese medicine, the Bushen capsule, on cognition and brain connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Thus, sixty aMCI participants were recruited to this 24-month study and were randomly divided into treatment (30 with a Bushen capsule) and placebo (30 with a placebo capsule) groups. Neuropsychological tests with MMSE and episodic memory as the primary outcomes and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were analyzed before and after the treatment over 24 month period. In contrast to the placebo group, the drug group presented improved or stable general cognitive function, memory, language and executive function especially the primary outcomes MMSE and episodic memory with Bushen capsule treatment. FMRI results showed increased connectivity in the right precuneus and the global connectivity indexed with goodness of fit (GOF) of the default mode network (DMN) in the drug group and decreased GOF in the placebo group. More importantly, we found the GOF change was positively correlated with changes in MMSE and memory scores after 24 months in the drug group. Over 24 months, treatment with the compound Chinese medicine Bushen capsule can improve multiple domains of cognition and increase the functional local (right precuneus) and global connectivity within the DMN, which are associated with better performance. PMID:27373556

  3. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging changes during relational retrieval in normal aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

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    Giovanello, Kelly S; De Brigard, Felipe; Hennessey Ford, Jaclyn; Kaufer, Daniel I; Burke, James R; Browndyke, Jeffrey N; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2012-09-01

    The earliest cognitive deficits observed in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) appear to center on memory tasks that require relational memory (RM), the ability to link or integrate unrelated pieces of information. RM impairments in aMCI likely reflect neural changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We tested the hypothesis that individuals with aMCI, as compared to cognitively normal (CN) controls, would recruit neural regions outside of the MTL and PPC to support relational memory. To this end, we directly compared the neural underpinnings of successful relational retrieval in aMCI and CN groups, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), holding constant the stimuli and encoding task. The fMRI data showed that the CN, compared to the aMCI, group activated left precuneus, left angular gyrus, right posterior cingulate, and right parahippocampal cortex during relational retrieval, while the aMCI group, relative to the CN group, activated superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus for this comparison. Such findings indicate an early shift in the functional neural architecture of relational retrieval in aMCI, and may prove useful in future studies aimed at capitalizing on functionally intact neural regions as targets for treatment and slowing of the disease course. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-12).

  4. Differences in functional brain connectivity alterations associated with cerebral amyloid deposition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

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    Dahyun eYi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite potential implications for the early detection of impending AD, very little is known about the differences of large scale brain networks between amnestic MCI (aMCI with high cerebral amyloid beta protein (Aβ deposition (i.e., aMCI+ and aMCI with no or very little Aβ deposition (i.e., aMCI-. We first aimed to extend the current literature on altering intrinsic functional connectivity (FC of the default mode network (DMN and salience network (SN from CN to AD dementia. Second, we further examined the differences of the DMN and the SN between aMCI-, aMCI+, and CN. Forty-three older adult (12 CN, 10 aMCI+, 10 aMCI-, and 11 AD dementia subjects were included. All participants received clinical and neuropsychological assessment, resting state functional MRI, structural MRI, and Pittsburgh compound-B-PET scans. FC data were preprocessed using Multivariate Exploratory Linear Optimized Decomposition into Independent Components of FSL. Group comparisons were carried out using the dual-regression approach. In addition, to verify presence of grey matter (GM volume changes with intrinsic functional network alterations, Voxel Based Morphometry was performed on the acquired T1-weighted data. As expected, AD dementia participants exhibited decreased FC in the DMN compared to CN (in precuneus and cingulate gyrus. The degree of alteration in the DMN in aMCI+ compared to CN was intermediate to that of AD. In contrast, aMCI- exhibited increased FC in the DMN compared to CN (in precuneus as well as aMCI+. In terms of the SN, aMCI- exhibited decreased FC compared to both CN and aMCI+ particularly in the inferior frontal gyrus. FC within the SN in aMCI+ and AD did not differ from CN. Compared to CN, aMCI- showed atrophy in bilateral superior temporal gyri whereas aMCI+ showed atrophy in right precuneus. The results indicate that despite of the similarity in cross-sectional cognitive features aMCI- has quite different functional brain connectivity compared to

  5. Disrupted functional brain connectivity and its association to structural connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Yu Sun

    Full Text Available Although anomalies in the topological architecture of whole-brain connectivity have been found to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD, our understanding about the progression of AD in a functional connectivity (FC perspective is still rudimentary and few study has explored the function-structure relations in brain networks of AD patients. By using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI, this study firstly investigated organizational alternations in FC networks in 12 AD patients, 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients, and 14 age-matched healthy aging subjects and found that all three groups exhibit economical small-world network properties. Nonetheless, we found a decline of the optimal architecture in the progression of AD, represented by a more localized modular organization with less efficient local information transfer. Our results also show that aMCI forms a boundary between normal aging and AD and represents a functional continuum between healthy aging and the earliest signs of dementia. Moreover, we revealed a dissociated relationship between the overall FC and structural connectivity (SC in AD patients. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging tractography was used to map the structural network of the same individuals. The decreased FC-SC coupling may be indicative of more stringent and less dynamic brain function in AD patients. Our findings provided insightful implications for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of brain dysfunctions in aMCI and AD patients and demonstrated that functional disorders can be characterized by multimodal neuroimaging-based metrics.

  6. A longitudinal study of atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal aging revealed by cortical thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Yao

    Full Text Available In recent years, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI has attracted significant attention as an indicator of high risk for Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the pathology of aMCI may benefit the development of effective clinical treatments for dementia. In this work, we measured the cortical thickness of 109 aMCI subjects and 99 normal controls (NC twice over two years. The longitudinal changes and the cross-sectional differences between the two types of participants were explored using the vertex thickness values. The thickness of the cortex in aMCI was found significantly reduced in both longitudinal and between-group comparisons, mainly in the temporal lobe, superolateral parietal lobe and some regions of the frontal cortices. Compared to NC, the aMCI showed a significantly high atrophy rate in the left lateral temporal lobe and left parahippocampal gyrus over two years. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between brain atrophy and the decline of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores was also found in the left superior and left middle temporal gyrus in aMCI. These findings demonstrated specific longitudinal spatial patterns of cortical atrophy in aMCI and NC. The higher atrophy rate in aMCI might be responsible for the accelerated functional decline in the aMCI progression process.

  7. A longitudinal study of atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal aging revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhijun; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chuanjiang; Zhao, Lina; Jackson, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) has attracted significant attention as an indicator of high risk for Alzheimer's disease. An understanding of the pathology of aMCI may benefit the development of effective clinical treatments for dementia. In this work, we measured the cortical thickness of 109 aMCI subjects and 99 normal controls (NC) twice over two years. The longitudinal changes and the cross-sectional differences between the two types of participants were explored using the vertex thickness values. The thickness of the cortex in aMCI was found significantly reduced in both longitudinal and between-group comparisons, mainly in the temporal lobe, superolateral parietal lobe and some regions of the frontal cortices. Compared to NC, the aMCI showed a significantly high atrophy rate in the left lateral temporal lobe and left parahippocampal gyrus over two years. Additionally, a significant positive correlation between brain atrophy and the decline of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores was also found in the left superior and left middle temporal gyrus in aMCI. These findings demonstrated specific longitudinal spatial patterns of cortical atrophy in aMCI and NC. The higher atrophy rate in aMCI might be responsible for the accelerated functional decline in the aMCI progression process.

  8. Relation between aerobic fitness and brain structures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Rezende, Thiago J R; Weiler, Marina; Nogueira, Mateus H; Campos, Brunno M; Pegoraro, Luiz F L; Vicentini, Jessica E; Scriptore, Gabriela; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio L F

    2016-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition, with high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease. Physical exercise may have positive effect on cognition and brain structure in older adults. However, it is still under research whether these influences are true on aMCI subjects with low Ab_42 and high total tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is considered a biomarker for AD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible relation between aerobic fitness (AF) and gray matter (GM) volume and AF and white matter (WM) integrity in aMCI with a CSF biomarker. Twenty-two participants with aMCI acquired the images on a 3.0-T MRI. AF was assessed by a graded exercise test on a treadmill. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistic methods were used to analyze the GM volume and WM microstructural integrity, respectively. We correlated AF and GM volume and WM integrity in aMCI (p aerobic fitness may have a positive influence on protection of brain even in aMCI CSF biomarker, a high-risk population to convert to AD.

  9. Differences and the relationship in default mode network intrinsic activity and functional connectivity in mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Marina; Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Nogueira, Mateus Henrique; de Campos, Brunno Machado; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando; Balthazar, Marcio Luiz Figueredo

    2014-10-01

    There is evidence that the default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and few studies also reported a decrease in DMN intrinsic activity, measured by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs). In this study, we analyzed the relationship between DMN intrinsic activity and functional connectivity, as well as their possible implications on cognition in patients with mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls. In addition, we evaluated the differences both in connectivity and ALFF values between these groups. We recruited 29 controls, 20 aMCI, and 32 mild AD patients. To identify the DMN, functional connectivity was calculated by placing a seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Within the DMN mask obtained, we calculated regional average ALFFs. Compared with controls, aMCI patients showed decreased ALFFs in the temporal region; compared with AD, aMCI showed higher values in the PCC but lower in the temporal area. The mild AD group had lower ALFFs in the PCC compared with controls. There was no difference between the connectivity in the aMCI group compared with the other groups, but AD patients showed decreased connectivity in the frontal, parietal, and PCC. Also, PCC ALFFs correlated to functional connectivity in nearly all subregions. Cognitive tests correlated to connectivity values but not to ALFFs. In conclusion, we found that DMN connectivity and ALFFs are correlated in these groups. Decreased PCC ALFFs disrupt the DMN functional organization, leading to cognitive problems in the AD spectrum.

  10. Ill-defined problem solving in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: linking episodic memory to effective solution generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Vandermorris, S; Al-Haj, M; Cohen, S; Winocur, G; Moscovitch, M

    2015-02-01

    It is well accepted that the medial temporal lobes (MTL), and the hippocampus specifically, support episodic memory processes. Emerging evidence suggests that these processes also support the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems which are those that do not have a set routine or solution. To test the relation between episodic memory and problem solving, we examined the ability of individuals with single domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition characterized by episodic memory impairment, to solve ill-defined social problems. Participants with aMCI and age and education matched controls were given a battery of tests that included standardized neuropsychological measures, the Autobiographical Interview (Levine et al., 2002) that scored for episodic content in descriptions of past personal events, and a measure of ill-defined social problem solving. Corroborating previous findings, the aMCI group generated less episodically rich narratives when describing past events. Individuals with aMCI also generated less effective solutions when solving ill-defined problems compared to the control participants. Correlation analyses demonstrated that the ability to recall episodic elements from autobiographical memories was positively related to the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems. The ability to solve these ill-defined problems was related to measures of activities of daily living. In conjunction with previous reports, the results of the present study point to a new functional role of episodic memory in ill-defined goal-directed behavior and other non-memory tasks that require flexible thinking. Our findings also have implications for the cognitive and behavioural profile of aMCI by suggesting that the ability to effectively solve ill-defined problems is related to sustained functional independence.

  11. Individual cerebral metabolic deficits in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sole, Angelo; Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni [Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital San Paolo, Institute of Radiological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Clerici, Francesca; Mariani, Claudio; Maggiore, Laura [University of Milan, Center for Research and Treatment on Cognitive Dysfunctions, Institute of Clinical Neurology, Department of Clinical Sciences, ' Luigi Sacco' Hospital, Milan (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Clinical Institute Humanitas, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Mosconi, Lisa [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The purpose of the study was the identification of group and individual subject patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) studies and neuropsychological tests were performed in 16 aMCI patients (ten women, age 75 {+-} 8 years) and in 14 AD patients (ten women, age 75 {+-} 9 years). Comparisons between patient subgroups and with a control population were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Clusters of low CMRGlu were observed bilaterally in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus of AD patients. In aMCI patients, reduced CMRGlu was found only in PCC. Areas of low CMRGlu in PCC were wider in AD compared to aMCI and extended to the precuneus, while low CMRGlu was found in the lateral parietal cortex in AD but not in aMCI patients. Individual subject pattern analysis revealed that 86% of AD patients had low CMRGlu in the PCC (including the precuneus in 71%), 71% in the temporal cortex, 64% in the parietal cortex and 35% in the frontal cortex. Among the aMCI patients, 56% had low CMRGlu in the PCC, 44% in the temporal cortex, 18% in the frontal cortex and none in the parietal cortex. This study demonstrates that both AD and aMCI patients have highly heterogeneous metabolic impairment. This potential of individual metabolic PET imaging in patients with AD and aMCI may allow timely identification of brain damage on individual basis and possibly help planning tailored early interventions. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy study of brain metabolites in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhong-Xian; Cheng, Xiao-Fang; Xu, Zhi-Feng; Cao, Zhen; Xiao, Ye-Yu; You, Ke-Zeng; Liu, Yan-Yan [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Huo, Shan-Shan [Science College of Shantou University, Department of Physics, Shantou (China); Zeng, Jie-Xia; Chen, Wei [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Wu, Ren-Hua [Medical College of Shantou University, Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou (China); Medical College of Shantou University, Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging, Guangdong, Shantou (China)

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate brain metabolic changes in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using multivoxel proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MVS). Fourteen aMCI patients and fifteen healthy control subjects participated in this experiment. All MR measurements were acquired using a 1.5-T GE scanner. {sup 1}H-MVS point resolved spectroscopy (2D PROBE-CSI PRESS) pulse sequence (TE = 35 ms; TR = 1,500 ms; phase x frequency, 18 x 18) was used for acquiring MRS data. All data were post-processed using Spectroscopy Analysis by General Electric software and linear combination of model (LCModel). The absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myoinositol (MI), creatine (Cr), and the metabolite ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, MI/Cr, and NAA/MI were measured bilaterally in the posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG), inferior precuneus (Pr), paratrigonal white matter (PWM), dorsal thalamus (DT), and lentiform nucleus (LN). Patients with aMCI displayed significantly lower NAA levels in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01), PWM (p < 0.05), and left inferior Pr (p < 0.05). The metabolite ratio of NAA/MI was decreased in the bilateral PCG (p < 0.01) and PWM (p < 0.05) and in the left DT (p < 0.01). NAA/Cr was decreased in the left PCG (p < 0.01), DT (p < 0.05), right PWM (p < 0.05), and LN (p < 0.05). However, MI/Cr was elevated in the right PCG (p < 0.01) and left PWM (p < 0.05). Significantly increased Cho level was also evident in the left PWM (p < 0.05). Our observations of decreased NAA, NAA/Cr, and NAA/MI, in parallel with increased Cho and MI/Cr might be characteristic of aMCI patients. (orig.)

  13. High avidity HSV-1 antibodies correlate with absence of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment conversion to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Simone; Mancuso, Roberta; Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Hernis, Ambra; Costa, Andrea Saul; Calabrese, Elena; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) is an alteration in cognitive abilities that can progress to Alzheimer's disease (AD), a condition in which herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) infection might play a pathogenetic role. Prognostic indexes capable of predicting aMCI conversion to AD are only partially understood. The objective of the present work is to verify whether HSV-1 immune responses is involved in conversion of aMCI to AD and correlate with grey matter brain morphometry. Two homogeneous groups of individuals who did or did not convert to AD over a 24-months period were selected after retrospective analysis of a cohort of patients with a diagnosis of aMCI. The selection of subjects was based on: a) clinical follow-up; b) neurocognitive evaluation at baseline and after 24months; c) availability of serum and DNA samples at baseline. 36 aMCI individuals, 21 of whom did (aMCI-converters) and 15 of whom did not (aMCI-non-converters) convert to AD, were included in the study. HSV-1 antibody (Ab) titers, avidity index and APOE genotyping were performed in all the enrolled individuals at baseline. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by 1.5T scanner results at baseline were available as well in most (29/36) of these individuals. HSV-1-specific Ab titers were increased at baseline in aMCI-non-converters, and the avidity of these Ab was significantly higher in aMCI-non-converter compared to aMCI-converter (p=0.0018). Receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that HSV-1 avidity had a predictive value in distinguishing between aMCI-non-converters and aMCI-converters (pHSV-1 antibody titers and MRI-evaluated cortical volumes in the left hippocampus and amigdala (pcorrHSV-1-specific humoral responses associate with protection against AD conversion and better-preserved cortical volumes. These results reinforce the hypothesis for a role for HSV-1 in the pathogenesis of AD.

  14. Association between fully automated MRI-based volumetry of different brain regions and neuropsychological test performance in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Sönke; Buchert, Ralph; Spies, Lothar; Eichenlaub, Martin; Lehmbeck, Jan T; Jahn, Holger

    2013-06-01

    Fully automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetry may serve as biomarker for the diagnosis in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. We aimed at investigating the relation between fully automated MRI-based volumetric measures and neuropsychological test performance in amnestic MCI and patients with mild dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. In order to assess a possible prognostic value of fully automated MRI-based volumetry for future cognitive performance, the rate of change of neuropsychological test performance over time was also tested for its correlation with fully automated MRI-based volumetry at baseline. In 50 subjects, 18 with amnestic MCI, 21 with mild AD, and 11 controls, neuropsychological testing and T1-weighted MRI were performed at baseline and at a mean follow-up interval of 2.1 ± 0.5 years (n = 19). Fully automated MRI volumetry of the grey matter volume (GMV) was performed using a combined stereotactic normalisation and segmentation approach as provided by SPM8 and a set of pre-defined binary lobe masks. Left and right hippocampus masks were derived from probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Volumes of the inner and outer liquor space were also determined automatically from the MRI. Pearson's test was used for the correlation analyses. Left hippocampal GMV was significantly correlated with performance in memory tasks, and left temporal GMV was related to performance in language tasks. Bilateral frontal, parietal and occipital GMVs were correlated to performance in neuropsychological tests comprising multiple domains. Rate of GMV change in the left hippocampus was correlated with decline of performance in the Boston Naming Test (BNT), Mini-Mental Status Examination, and trail making test B (TMT-B). The decrease of BNT and TMT-A performance over time correlated with the loss of grey matter in multiple brain regions. We conclude that fully automated MRI

  15. How Does the Hippocampal Formation Mediate Memory for Stimuli Processed by the Magnocellular and Parvocellular Visual Pathways? Evidence from the Comparison of Schizophrenia and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Szabolcs; Szamosi, Andras; Benedek, Gyorgy; Kelemen, Oguz

    2012-01-01

    Paired associates learning is impaired in both schizophrenia and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which may reflect hippocampal pathology. In addition, schizophrenia is characterized by the dysfunction of the retino-geniculo-striatal magnocellular (M) visual pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between…

  16. Single-Domain Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Identified by Cluster Analysis Predicts Alzheimer's Disease in the European Prospective DESCRIPA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damian, M.; Hausner, L.; Jekel, K.; Richter, M.; Froelich, L.; Almkvist, O.; Boada, M.; Bullock, R.; Deyn, P.P. de; Frisoni, G.B.; Hampel, H.; Jones, R.W.; Kehoe, P.; Lenoir, H.; Minthon, L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Rodriguez, G.; Scheltens, P.; Soininen, H.; Spiru, L.; Touchon, J.; Tsolaki, M.; Vellas, B.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Winblad, B.; Wahlund, L.O.; Wilcock, G.; Visser, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: To identify prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects using a data-driven approach to determine cognitive profiles in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A total of 881 MCI subjects were recruited from 20 memory clinics and followed for up to 5 years. Outcome measures includ

  17. Performance of Hippocampus Volumetry with FSL-FIRST for Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease Dementia in at Risk Subjects with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Per; Hampel, Harald; Kepp, Timo; Lange, Catharina; Spies, Lothar; Fiebach, Jochen B; Dubois, Bruno; Buchert, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    MRI-based hippocampus volume, a core feasible biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is not yet widely used in clinical patient care, partly due to lack of validation of software tools for hippocampal volumetry that are compatible with routine workflow. Here, we evaluate fully-automated and computationally efficient hippocampal volumetry with FSL-FIRST for prediction of AD dementia (ADD) in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from phase 1 of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of FSL-FIRST hippocampal volume (corrected for head size and age) revealed an area under the curve of 0.79, 0.70, and 0.70 for prediction of aMCI-to-ADD conversion within 12, 24, or 36 months, respectively. Thus, FSL-FIRST provides about the same power for prediction of progression to ADD in aMCI as other volumetry methods.

  18. Is the WMS-IV verbal paired associates as effective as other memory tasks in discriminating amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kerryn E; Kinsella, Glynda J; Ong, Ben; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth; Storey, Elsdon; Ames, David; Saling, Michael; Clare, Linda; Parsons, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Paired associate learning tasks are reportedly particularly sensitive to preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of the recently updated Wechsler Memory Scale verbal paired associates (VPA) in distinguishing the earliest stages of memory impairment (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI), and the clinical application at the case level, compared with other episodic memory tasks. Participants were 77 people with aMCI and 77 matched healthy older adults (HOA). VPA performance distinguished aMCI from HOA at the group level with large effect sizes, of similar size to the other tasks at immediate recall, but smaller than the CVLT-II list-learning task at delayed recall. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated good discrimination, similar to other tasks, but again with CVLT-II more accurate at delayed recall. Although group differences remained for normative data, on a case basis using existing normative data the VPA failed to identify 70% of aMCI as impaired. The findings suggest further examination of the normative data is required before the VPA is useful in clinical practice, and highlight the importance of comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in detecting mild memory changes in older adults.

  19. Abnormal Changes of Brain Cortical Anatomy and the Association with Plasma MicroRNA107 Level in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA107 (Mir107 has been thought to relate to the brain structure phenotype of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we evaluated the cortical anatomy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and the relation between cortical anatomy and plasma levels of Mir107 and beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1. 20 aMCI and 24 cognitively normal control (NC subjects were recruited, and T1-weighted MR images were acquired. Cortical anatomical measurements, including cortical thickness (CT, surface area (SA, and local gyrification index (LGI, were assessed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine plasma expression of Mir107, BACE1 mRNA. Thinner cortex was found in aMCI in areas associated with episodic memory and language, but with thicker cortex in other areas. SA decreased in aMCI in the areas associated with working memory and emotion. LGI showed a significant reduction in aMCI in the areas involved in language function. Changes in Mir107 and BACE1 messenger RNA plasma expression were correlated with changes in CT and SA. We found alterations in key left brain regions associated with memory, language, and emotion in aMCI that were significantly correlated with plasma expression of mir107 and BACE1 mRNA. This combination study of brain anatomical alterations and gene information may shed lights on our understanding of the pathology of AD.

  20. Pattern of cerebral hyperperfusion in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment using voxel-based analysis of 3D arterial spin-labeling imaging: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bei Ding,1 Hua-wei Ling,1 Yong Zhang,2 Juan Huang,1 Huan Zhang,1 Tao Wang,3 Fu Hua Yan11Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, 3Department of Gerontology, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaPurpose: A three-dimensional (3D continuous pulse arterial spin labeling (ASL technique was used to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and age- and sex-matched healthy controls.Materials and methods: Three groups were recruited for comparison, 24 AD patients, 17 MCI patients, and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Three-dimensional ASL scans covering the entire brain were acquired with a 3.0 T magnetic resonance scanner. Spatial processing was performed with statistical parametric mapping 8. A second-level one-way analysis of variance analysis (threshold at P<0.05 was performed on the preprocessed ASL data. An average whole-brain CBF for each subject was also included as group-level covariates for the perfusion data, to control for individual CBF variations.Results: Significantly increased CBF was detected in bilateral frontal lobes and right temporal subgyral regions in aMCI compared with controls. When comparing AD with aMCI, the major hyperperfusion regions were the right limbic lobe and basal ganglia regions, including the putamen, caudate, lentiform nucleus, and thalamus, and hypoperfusion was found in the left medial frontal lobe, parietal cortex, the right middle temporo-occipital lobe, and particularly, the left anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found decreased CBF in the bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortices and left limbic lobe in AD patients, relative to the control group. aMCI subjects showed decreased blood flow in the left occipital lobe, bilateral inferior temporal cortex, and right middle temporal cortex

  1. Abnormal intrinsic brain activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment revealed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Qian; ZHAO Xiao-hu; WANG Pei-jun; GUO Qi-hao; HE Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that brain functional activity in the resting state is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.However,alterations in intrinsic brain activity patterns in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients are poorly understood.This study aimed to explore the differences in regional intrinsic activities throughout the whole brain between aMCI patients and controls.Methods In the present study,resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 18 amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients,18 mild AD patients and 20 healthy elderly subjects.And amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method was used.Results Compared with healthy elderly subjects,aMCI patients showed decreased ALFF in the right hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex,left lateral temporal cortex,and right ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and increased ALFF in the left temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and inferior parietal Iobule (IPL).Mild AD patients showed decreased ALFF in the left TPJ,posterior IPL (plPL),and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared with aMCI patients.Mild AD patients also had decreased ALFF in the right posterior cingulate cortex,right vMPFC and bilateral dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) compared with healthy elderly subjects.Conclusions Decreased intrinsic activities in brain regions closely related to episodic memory were found in aMCI and AD patients.Increased TPJ and IPL activity may indicate compensatory mechanisms for loss of memory function in aMCI patients.These findings suggest that the fMRI based on ALFF analysis may provide a useful tool in the study of aMCI patients.

  2. Impact of frontal white matter hyperintensity on instrumental activities of daily living in elderly women with Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogama, Noriko; Sakurai, Takashi; Nakai, Toshiharu; Niida, Shumpei; Saji, Naoki; Toba, Kenji; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Background Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) start to decline during the progression of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD). Cognitive and physical decline are involved in the loss of functional independence. However, little is known about AD-related neural change that leads to IADL impairment. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of regional white matter hyperintensity (WMH) on IADL impairment in persons with AD and aMCI. Methods The participants were 347 female subjects aged 65–85 years diagnosed with AD (n = 227), aMCI (n = 44) or normal cognition (n = 76). IADL was assessed by the Lawton Index. Cognition, mood and mobility function were evaluated by comprehensive geriatric assessment batteries. WMH and brain atrophy were analyzed with brain magnetic resonance imaging, using an automatic segmentation program. Regional WMH was measured in the frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal lobes. Results Ability to carry out IADL of shopping, food preparation, mode of transportation, responsibility for own medication, and ability to handle finances was obviously impaired in the early stage of AD. Frontal WMH was specifically associated with disability to do shopping and food preparation even after adjusting for several confounders including brain atrophy. Conclusions IADL subcategories were differentially impaired along with cognitive status in persons with AD and aMCI. Frontal WMH was an important predictor of impaired ability to do shopping and food preparation. A preventive strategy for WMH might lead to suppression of IADL disability and slow the progression of AD. PMID:28253275

  3. KIF6 719Arg Carrier Status Association with Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Malek-Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated associations between statin use, KIF6 719Arg carrier status, and cholesterol levels and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. The association between 719Arg carrier status with homocysteine (tHcy and c-reactive protein (CRP levels in aMCI and AD has not been previously investigated. Data from 175 aMCI and AD patients were used for the analysis. 719Arg carriers had significantly lower levels of tHcy than noncarriers (P=0.02. No significant difference in CRP levels between 719Arg carriers and noncarriers was present (P=0.37. Logistic regression yielded no significant effect for 719Arg status on CRP [OR = 1.79 (0.85, 3.83, P=0.13] but did demonstrate a significant effect for tHcy [OR = 0.44 (0.23, 0.83, P=0.01] after adjusting for ApoE ε4 carrier status, age, gender, and statin use. This study is the first to explore the relationship between KIF6 719Arg carrier status with tHcy and CRP levels. 719Arg carriers were more likely to have normal tHcy levels after adjusting for ApoE ε4 status, age, gender, and statin use. These results suggest that the KIF6 gene might influence cardiovascular pathways associated with AD.

  4. Assessment of Functional Characteristics of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease Using Various Methods of Resting-State FMRI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Cha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS FMRI has been widely used to analyze functional alterations in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. Although many clinical studies of aMCI and AD patients using RS FMRI have been undertaken, conducting a meta-analysis has not been easy because of seed selection bias by the investigators. The purpose of our study was to investigate the functional differences in aMCI and AD patients compared with healthy subjects in a meta-analysis. Thus, a multimethod approach using regional homogeneity, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, fractional ALFF (fALFF, and global brain connectivity was used to investigate differences between three groups based on previously published data. According to the choice of RS FMRI approach used, the patterns of functional alteration were slightly different. Nevertheless, patients with aMCI and AD displayed consistently decreased functional characteristics with all approaches. All approaches showed that the functional characteristics in the left parahippocampal gyrus were decreased in AD patients compared with healthy subjects. Although some regions were slightly different according to the different RS FMRI approaches, patients with aMCI and AD showed a consistent pattern of decreased functional characteristics with all approaches.

  5. Comparison of diffusion tensor image study in association fiber tracts among normal, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer′s patients

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    Yu-Zhen Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To compare diffusion tensor image (DTI study in association fiber tracts among normal control (NC, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and Alzheimer′s disease (AD subjects. To assess diagnostic value of DTI in aMCI and differential diagnosis of DTI study between aMCI and AD. Material and Methods : DTI was used to assess changes in cerebral association fiber tracts in NC, aMCI, and AD subjects (n = 20/group. Regions of interest included the inferior fronto-occipital fascicles (IFOF, superior longitudinal fascicles and cingulum tract, genu of corpus callosum (Gcc was set right, splenium of corpus callosum was set left. Bilateral fractional anisotropy (FA and apparent diffusion coefficient values were compared in three groups. Results : Relative to NC, aMCI subjects had significantly different FA values for the IFOF and cingulum tract, while AD subjects had significantly different FA values of IFOF, Gcc, and cingulum tract. Relative to aMCI, AD subjects had significantly different FA values of cingulum tract. Conclusion : Based on the results, DTI could be used as a diagnostic method for aMCI with abnormal changes in IFOF and cingulum tract. DTI could also be used for differential diagnosis of aMCI and AD by comparing FA values of the cingulum tract. Abnormal FA values of IFOF, Gcc, and cingulum tract in AD patients may help to elucidate the pathological processes in this disease.

  6. The effects of healthy aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease on recollection and familiarity: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Joshua D; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that healthy aging, amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are associated with substantial declines in episodic memory. However, there is still debate as to how two forms of episodic memory - recollection and familiarity - are affected by healthy and pathological aging. To address this issue we conducted a meta-analytic review of the effect sizes reported in studies using remember/know (RK), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and process dissociation (PD) methods to examine recollection and familiarity in healthy aging (25 published reports), aMCI (9 published reports), and AD (5 published reports). The results from the meta-analysis revealed that healthy aging is associated with moderate-to-large recollection impairments. Familiarity was not impaired in studies using ROC or PD methods but was impaired in studies that used the RK procedure. aMCI was associated with large decreases in recollection whereas familiarity only tended to show a decrease in studies with a patient sample comprised of both single-domain and multiple-domain aMCI patients. Lastly, AD was associated with large decreases in both recollection and familiarity. The results are consistent with neuroimaging evidence suggesting that the hippocampus is critical for recollection whereas familiarity is dependent on the integrity of the surrounding perirhinal cortex. Moreover, the results highlight the relevance of method selection when examining aging, and suggest that familiarity deficits might be a useful behavioral marker for identifying individuals that will develop dementia.

  7. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity.

  8. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

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    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Greater default-mode network abnormalities compared to high order visual processing systems in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an integrated multi-modal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bosch, Beatriz; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Rami, Lorena; Bargalló, Núria; Junqué, Carme; Molinuevo, José-Luis; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2010-01-01

    We conducted an integrated multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study based on functional MRI (fMRI) data during a complex but cognitively preserved visual task in 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) patients and 15 Healthy Elders (HE). Independent Component Analysis of fMRI data identified a functional network containing an Activation Task Related Pattern (ATRP), including regions of the dorsal and ventral visual stream, and a Deactivation Task Related Pattern network (DTRP), with high spatial correspondence with the default-mode network (DMN). Gray matter (GM) volumes of the underlying ATRP and DTRP cortical areas were measured, and probabilistic tractography (based on diffusion MRI) identified fiber pathways within each functional network. For the ATRP network, a-MCI patients exhibited increased fMRI responses in inferior-ventral visual areas, possibly reflecting compensatory activations for more compromised dorsal regions. However, no significant GM or white matter group differences were observed within the ATRP network. For the DTRP/DMN, a-MCI showed deactivation deficits and reduced GM volumes in the posterior cingulate/precuneus, excessive deactivations in the inferior parietal lobe, and less fiber tract integrity in the cingulate bundles. Task performance correlated with DTRP-functionality in the HE group. Besides allowing the identification of functional reorganizations in the cortical network directly processing the task-stimuli, these findings highlight the importance of conducting integrated multi-modal MRI studies in MCI based on spared cognitive domains in order to identify functional abnormalities in critical areas of the DMN and their precise anatomical substrates. These latter findings may reflect early neuroimaging biomarkers in dementia.

  10. Regional amyloid deposition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease evaluated by [18F]AV-45 positron emission tomography in Chinese population.

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    Kuo-Lun Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To compare the neocortical amyloid loads among cognitively normal (CN, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, and Alzheimer's disease (AD subjects with [(18F]AV-45 positron emission tomography (PET. MATERIALS AND METHODS: [(18F]AV-45 PET was performed in 11 CN, 13 aMCI, and 12 AD subjects to compare the cerebral cortex-to-whole cerebellum standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs of global and individual volumes of interest (VOIs cerebral cortex. The correlation between global cortical [(18F]AV-45 SUVRs and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores was analyzed. RESULTS: The global cortical [(18F]AV-45 SUVRs were significantly different among the CN (1.08±0.08, aMCI (1.27±0.06, and AD groups (1.34±0.13 (p = 0.0003 with amyloidosis positivity rates of 9%, 62%, and 92% in the three groups respectively. Compared to CN subjects, AD subjects had higher SUVRs in the global cortical, precuneus, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and posterior cingulate areas; while aMCI subjects had higher values in the global cortical, precuneus, frontal, occipital and posterior cingulate areas. There were negative correlations of MMSE scores with SUVRs in the global cortical, precuneus, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, posterior cingulate and anterior cingulate areas on a combined subject pool of the three groups after age and education attainment adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Amyloid deposition occurs relatively early in precuneus, frontal and posterior cingulate in aMCI subjects. Higher [(18F]AV-45 accumulation is present in parietal, occipital and temporal gyri in AD subjects compared to the aMCI group. Significant correlation between MMSE scores and [(18F]AV-45 SUVRs can be observed among CN, aMCI and AD subjects.

  11. Where did I put that? Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrate widespread reductions in activity during the encoding of ecologically relevant object-location associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampstead, Benjamin M.; Stringer, Anthony Y.; Stilla, Randall F.; Amaraneni, Akshay; Sathian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the location of objects in the environment is both important in everyday life and difficult for patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a clinical precursor to Alzheimer’s disease. To test the hypothesis that memory impairment for object location in aMCI reflects hippocampal dysfunction, we used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to compare patients with aMCI and healthy elderly controls (HEC) as they encoded 90 ecologically-relevant object-location associations (OLAs). Two additional OLAs, repeated a total of 45 times, served as control stimuli. Memory for these OLAs was assessed following a 1-hour delay. The groups were well matched on demographics and brain volumetrics. Behaviorally, HEC remembered significantly more OLAs than did aMCI patients. Activity differences were assessed by contrasting activation for successfully encoded novel stimuli vs. repeated stimuli. The HEC demonstrated activity within object-related (ventral visual stream), spatial location-related (dorsal visual stream), and feature binding-related cortical regions (hippocampus and other memory-related regions) as well as in frontal cortex and associated subcortical structures. Activity in most of these regions correlated with memory test performance. Although the aMCI patients demonstrated a similar activation pattern, the HEC showed significantly greater activity within each of these regions. Memory test performance in aMCI patients, in contrast to the HEC, was correlated with activity in regions involved in sensorimotor processing. We conclude that aMCI patients demonstrate widespread cerebral dysfunction, not limited to the hippocampus, and rely on encoding-related mechanisms that differ substantially from healthy individuals. PMID:21530556

  12. Mild cognitive impairment

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    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy.

  13. A pilot study on utility of Malayalam version of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination in detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A critical insight into utility of learning and recall measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This pilot study sought to determine whether the Malayalam adaptation of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination (M-ACE can effectively identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI and the impact of measures of learning and free recall. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 23 patients with a-MCI aged between 55-80 years diagnosed as per current criteria and 23 group matched cognitively normal healthy controls (CNHC were studied. The measures of acquisition and delayed recall were the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III (verbal and visual subsets and Delayed Matching-to-sample Test (DMS-48. Test scores of M-ACE registration and recall scores were included. To examine the differences in test performances between the groups, we compared the number of subjects with test scores less than 1.5 standard deviation (SD of the control scores. Comparisons between a-MCI and controls were drawn using Fisher′s exact test and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: M-ACE registration component ascertained on a 24-point scale failed to demonstrate any differences between a-MCI and controls (P = 0.665 as opposed to recall judged on a cumulative 10-point scale (P = 0.001. Significant differences were noted in RAVLT list learning (P < 0.001 and list recall (P = 0.003, WMS-III paragraph learning (P <0.001 and recall (P = 0.007, visual learning (P = 0.004 and recall (P = 0.001. Conclusions: M-ACE recall scores are an effective screening tool to identify patients with suspected a-MCI. Both word list and paragraph learning and recall components have been found to be sensitive to concretely identify a-MCI and impairment on at least 2 tests should be considered in the diagnostic criteria of MCI rather than rely on a single screening battery.

  14. Cognitive and functional neuroimaging correlate for anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Gade, Anders;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD).......To investigate the correlation between anosognosia and behavioural symptoms, performance on executive tests, and frontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with 'amnestic mild cognitive impairment' (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD)....

  15. Comparison of Model-Based Indices of Cerebral Autoregulation and Vasomotor Reactivity Using Transcranial Doppler versus Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Shin, Dae C.; Tarumi, Takashi; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    We recently introduced model-based “physiomarkers” of dynamic cerebral autoregulation and CO2 vasomotor reactivity as an aid for diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD) [1], where significant impairment of dynamic vasomotor reactivity (DVR) was observed in early-stage AD patients relative to age-matched controls. Milder impairment of DVR was shown in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the same approach in a subsequent study [2]. The advocated approach utilizes subject-specific data-based models of cerebral hemodynamics to quantify the dynamic effects of resting-state changes in arterial blood pressure and end-tidal CO2 (the putative inputs) upon cerebral blood flow velocity (the putative output) measured at the middle cerebral artery via transcranial Doppler (TCD). The obtained input-output models are then used to compute model-based indices of DCA and DVR from model-predicted responses to an input pressure pulse or an input CO2 pulse, respectively. In this paper, we compare these model-based indices of DVR and DCA in 46 amnestic MCI patients, relative to 20 age-matched controls, using TCD measurements with their counterparts using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements of blood oxygenation at the lateral prefrontal cortex in 43 patients and 22 age-matched controls. The goal of the study is to assess whether NIRS measurements can be used instead of TCD measurements to obtain model-based physiomarkers with comparable diagnostic utility. The results corroborate this view in terms of the ability of either output to yield model-based physiomarkers that can differentiate the group of aMCI patients from age-matched healthy controls. PMID:27911329

  16. The Default Mode Network is functionally and structurally disrupted in amnestic mild cognitive impairment — A bimodal MEG–DTI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Garcés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, several studies on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD have reported Default Mode Network (DMN deficits. This network is attracting increasing interest in the AD community, as it seems to play an important role in cognitive functioning and in beta amyloid deposition. Attention has been particularly drawn to how different DMN regions are connected using functional or structural connectivity. To this end, most studies have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Positron Emission Tomography (PET or Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI. In this study we evaluated (1 functional connectivity from resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG and (2 structural connectivity from DTI in 26 MCI patients and 31 age-matched controls. Compared to controls, the DMN in the MCI group was functionally disrupted in the alpha band, while no differences were found for delta, theta, beta and gamma frequency bands. In addition, structural disconnection could be assessed through a decreased fractional anisotropy along tracts connecting different DMN regions. This suggests that the DMN functional and anatomical disconnection could represent a core feature of MCI.

  17. MRI patterns of grey matter atrophy in amnestic Mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知损害的全脑灰质基于体素的MRI形态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志莲; 韩璎; 卢洁; 贾秀琴; 李坤成; 张苗; 戎冬冬; 贾建平

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare the patterns of grey matter loss between subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal health eldly. Methods: We studied 20 patients with aMCI and 18 age-and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D data aets. The data were collected on a 3 T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate grey matter volume maps. Results: VBM revealed diffusively reduccd grey matter in aMCI prominently including the right uncus, the bilateral inferior, superior and midial frontal gyrus, the bilatcral medial temporal gyrus , the left inferior temporal gyrus, the left superior temporal gyrus, the right superior parietal gyrus ,and the left middle occipital gyrus ( P <0. 001). Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automatic approach providing a full brain assessment of aMCI grey morphology. It is important for diagnosing aMCI.%目的:利用优化基于体素的MRI形态分析(voxel-based morphometry,VBM),研究遗忘型轻度认知损害(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)和正常老年人的脑灰质体积变化.方法:选取aMCl患者20例和正常老年对照18例,MRI排除脑内其他病变,然后行高分辨率三维T1 WI扫描.应用优化VBM方法处理数据,将脑组织分割成灰质、白质和脑脊液,最后应用两样本t检验比较两组被试灰质体积改变.结果:VBM结果显示与正常老年对照组比较,aMCI患者组双侧额颞叶出现广泛的灰质体积减少,具体脑区为右侧海马钩回、双侧额下回、双侧额中回、右侧额上回、双颞叶额中回、左侧颞下回、左侧颞上回,右侧顶上小叶、左侧枕中回等结构灰质体积小于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001).结论:VBM方法可显示aMCI患者全脑灰质萎缩情况,对临床早期诊断aMCl患者有重要价值,具有广阔的临床应用前景.

  18. Alteration of mTOR signaling occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD): analysis of brain from subjects with pre-clinical AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and late-stage AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramutola, Antonella; Triplett, Judy C; Di Domenico, Fabio; Niedowicz, Dana M; Murphy, Michael P; Coccia, Raffaella; Perluigi, Marzia; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-06-01

    The clinical symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) include a gradual memory loss and subsequent dementia, and neuropathological deposition of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. At the molecular level, AD subjects present overt amyloid β (Aβ) production and tau hyperphosphorylation. Aβ species have been proposed to overactivate the phosphoinositide3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis, which plays a central role in proteostasis. The current study investigated the status of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in post-mortem tissue from the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) at three different stages of AD: late AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and pre-clinical AD (PCAD). Our findings suggest that the alteration of mTOR signaling and autophagy occurs at early stages of AD. We found a significant increase in Aβ (1-42) levels, associated with reduction in autophagy (Beclin-1 and LC-3) observed in PCAD, MCI, and AD subjects. Related to the autophagy impairment, we found a hyperactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in IPL of MCI and AD subjects, but not in PCAD, along with a significant decrease in phosphatase and tensin homolog. An increase in two mTOR downstream targets, p70S6K and 4EBP1, occurred in AD and MCI subjects. Both AD and MCI subjects showed increased, insulin receptor substrate 1, a candidate biomarker of brain insulin resistance, and GSK-3β, a kinase targeting tau phosphorylation. Nevertheless, tau phosphorylation was increased in the clinical groups. The results hint at a link between Aβ and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and provide further insights into the relationship between AD pathology and insulin resistance. In addition, we speculate that the alteration of mTOR signaling in the IPL of AD and MCI subjects, but not in PCAD, is due to the lack of substantial increase in oxidative stress. The figure represents the three different stages of Alzheimer Disease: Preclinical Alzheimer Disease (PCAD), Mild cognitive impairment (MCI

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid beta 1-43 in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or early Alzheimer’s disease: a 2-year follow-up study

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    Camilla eLauridsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract IntroductionBiomarkers that will reliably predict the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD are urgently needed. Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42, total tau and phosphorylated tau can be used to complement the clinical diagnosis of AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, the prodromal phase of AD, is heterogeneous. Biomarkers should be able to determine which patients with aMCI are at greatest risk of AD. Histological studies and animal models indicate that amyloid beta 1-43 (Aβ43 aggregates early, and may play a role in the pathological process of AD. We have examined levels of CSF Aβ43 in a two-year longitudinal study of aMCI and early AD. Materials and methodsCSF was collected at baseline, and after one and two years from patients with AD (n=19, and patients with aMCI (n=42. Of these, 21 progressed to AD during the two years of study, whereas 21 did not. Controls (n=32 were lumbar punctured at baseline only. CSF analyses of Aβ43, Aβ42 and total tau were carried out with ELISA.ResultsAt baseline, CSF Aβ43, CSF Aβ42 and ratios with total tau could be used to separate controls from all three patient groups. CSF Aβ43, but not Aβ42, could separate patients with aMCI who progressed to AD during the two years of follow-up, from those that did not. The CSF total tau/Aβ43 ratio had a slightly but significantly larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve when compared to the CSF total tau/Aβ42 ratio. CSF Aβ43 levels, but not Aβ42 levels, decreased from baseline to two years in the AD group.Discussion and conclusionCSF Aβ43 was demonstrated to be significantly reduced in patients already by the time that aMCI or AD was diagnosed, compared to controls, and this change must have occurred during the preclinical period. Since our results suggested that CSF Aβ43 distinguishes between subgroups of patients with aMCI better than CSF Aβ42, it may prove to be a useful additional biomarker for

  20. 基于支持向量机的遗忘型轻度认知障碍个体识别研究%Individual identification research of amnestic mild cognitive impairment based on support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠敏; 崔再续; 郭艳芹; 李坤成; 贾建平; 韩璎

    2014-01-01

    Objective In recent years , multivariate pattern analysis ( MVPA) method was proposed and considered to be a promising tool for automated identification of various neuropsychiatric populations .Support vector machine ( SVM) is one of the most widely used methods of MVPA .Using SVM classifier for MVPA of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal control (NC) group, the present study aims to build an individual diagnostic model with significant discriminative power and investigate the gray matter abnor-malities of aMCI patients . Methods Fifty-one aMCI patients and 68 normal controls were scanned on the 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for high-resolution T1-weighted images.Gray matter volume map was calculated for each subject and used as features for subsequent discriminative analysis .We first applied feature selection to remove redundant information and reduce feature dimension , and then trained an SVM classifier . Leave-one-out cross validation ( LOOCV) was used to estimate the performance of the classifier , and finally the most discriminative features were identified . Results The proposed classifier achieved a classification accuracy of 83.19%with a sensitivity of 76.47%and a specificity of 88.24%.In ad-dition, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.8368.Further analysis revealed that the most discrimi-native features for classification included bilateral parahippocampal gyri , bilateral hippocampi , bilateral amygdala , bilateral thalamus , right cingulate , right precuneus , left caudate , left superior temporal gyrus , left middle temporal gyrus , left insula and left orbitofrontal cortex. Conclusion The proposed classification model has achieved significant accuracy for aMCI prediction , and it also displayed the whole brain gray matter atrophy pattern in aMCI patients .It suggests that the proposed method may have important implications for early clinical diagnosis of aMCI patients .%目的:

  1. 遗忘型轻度认知损害患者白质弥散张量成像特点%White matter change in diffusion tensor imaging of amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘端; 束昊; 王赞; 岳春贤; 施咏梅; 谢春明; 张志珺

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the features of white matter impairment and its relationship with cognition in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).Methods Eighty-three cases of aMCI and 85 normal aging volunteers were scanned with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using MR system.All subjects completed the neuropsychological battery.We analyzed the differences between two groups using tract-based spatial statistics and the association between regions in difference and cognition using correlation analysis.Results There were significant differences between aMCI and normal control in the neuropsychological battery including the Mini-Mental State Examination(26.2 ± 2.6 vs 28.3 ± 1.3,F =43.224,P =0.000),Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (131.4 ± 6.9 vs 138.0 ± 3.5,F =62.308,P =0.000),Auditory Verbal Learning Test-delayed recall(2.4 ± 1.6 vs 7.5 ± 2.0,F =324.018,P =0.000),Boston Naming Test(8.7 ± 1.4 vs 9.2 ± 1.0,F =6.821,P =0.010),Rey-Osterrich Complex Figure Test (12.1 ± 7.3 vs 18.5 ± 6.1,F =40.674,P =0.000),Symbol Digit Modulation Test (30.0 ± 10.1 vs 38.6 ± 9.8,F =30.786,P =0.000),Trail-Making Test Part B ((256.8 ± 124.5) s vs (178.1 ± 59.0) s,F =27.601,P =0.000).Significantly higher diffusivity indexes and radial diffusivity were also found in aMCI subjects compared to healthy elders in the parahippocampal,superior longitudinal fasciculus,inferior longitudinal fasciculus,superior fronto-occipital fasciculus,inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus,unciform fasciculus,corticospinal tract,corpus callosum,cingulum,corona radiate.We also found that axial diffusivity was significantly increased in the parahippocampal,superior longitudinal fasciculus,inferior longitudinal fasciculus,superior fronto-occipital fasciculus,inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus,unciform fasciculus,corticospinal tract and corpus callosum,whereas fractional anisotropy changes were not observed in aMCI.Diffusivity indexes values in bilateral frontal lobe (left r =0.67 ; right r =0

  2. Prevalence and prognostic value of CSF markers of Alzheimer's disease pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment or mild cognitive impairment in the DESCRIPA study: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.; Verhey, F.; Knol, D.L.; Scheltens, P.; Wahlund, L.O.; Freund-Levi, Y.; Tsolaki, M.; Minthon, L.; Wallin, A.K.; Hampel, H.; Burger, K.; Pirttila, T.; Soininen, H.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Verbeek, M.M.; Spiru, L.; Blennow, K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) without dementia, but the prevalence of AD pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) is unknown. AD is charact

  3. Clinical and biological predictors of Alzheimer's disease in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment Preditores clínicos e biológicos da evolução para doença de Alzheimer em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes V. Forlenza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of the progression from pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease is relevant to clinical management and to substantiate the decision of prescribing antidementia drugs. METHOD: Longitudinal study of a cohort of elderly adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls, carried out to estimate the risk and characterize predictors of the progression to Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment had a higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease during follow-up (odds ratio = 4.5, CI95% [1.3-13.6], p = 0.010. At baseline, older age, lower scores on memory tests and presence of the APOE*4 allele predicted the progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease. In a sub sample of amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients, those who progressed to Alzheimer's disease had lower cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ42, p = 0.020 and higher concentrations of total TAU (p = 0.030 and phosphorylated TAU (p = 0.010, as compared to non-converters. DISCUSSION: This is the first Brazilian study to report cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in the prediction of the conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Our data are in accordance with those reported in other settings. The measurement of cerebrospinal fluid total-TAU, phospho-TAU and Aβ42 may help identify patients with mild cognitive impairment at higher risk for developing Alzheimer's disease.OBJETIVO: A identificação de preditores da conversão para a doença de Alzheimer em pacientes com comprometimento cognitivo leve é relevante para o manejo clínico e para decidir sobre a prescrição de drogas antidemência. MÉTODO: Estudo longitudinal em coorte de indivíduos idosos com comprometimento cognitivo leve amnéstico e controles saudáveis; estimativa do risco da progressão para doença de Alzheimer nos dois grupos; determinação das vari

  4. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes. If you have mild cognitive impairment, you may ...

  5. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease: heterogenous mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson disease (PD), with long-term longitudinal studies reporting that most PD patients develop dementia. A high proportion of patients with PD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) progress to dementia within a short time. Impairments occur in a range of cognitive domains, but single-domain impairment is more common than multiple one, non-amnestic more common than amnestic impairment. Although the term MCI applied to PD (PD-MCI) is not without controversy due to the lack of uniform diagnostic consensus criteria, the biological validity of PD-MCI is supported by many recent studies that show heterogenous mechanisms in the clinical presentation, neuropsychology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, and neuropathology, suggesting abnormal metabolic network activities involving several cortical and subcortical nervous systems. Prospective studies using specific biomarkers, including amyloid imaging, and cerebro-spinal fluid biomarkers are warranted for an exact diagnosis and prognostic assessment of early cognitive deficits in PD patients.

  6. Profiles of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraita, Herminia; Chacón, José; Díaz-Mardomingo, Carmen; Martínez-Arias, Rosario

    2015-11-20

    We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to a set of neuropsychological data with the aim of corroborating the three cognitive profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) described in the literature, namely: healthy, amnestic, non-amnestic, and multidomain. The ultimate purpose of the LCA was to try to find the underlying classification of MCI and related pathologies by means of the participants' response patterns, rather than on more classical psychometric criteria, such as the standard deviation of the mean. We computed 547 neuropsychological assessments derived from 223 participants who were assessed annually for three consecutive years. The battery included tests of memory, language, executive function, and praxis. The results obtained by means of LCA, with a four-group solution and using the 40th percentile as the criterion, confirm prior classifications obtained with more questionable psychometric criteria, while providing longitudinal data on the course of MCI and the stability of group assignment over time.

  7. 基于体素的遗忘型轻度认知障碍和轻度阿尔茨海默病全脑白质MR扩散张量成像分析%MR diffusion tensor imaging voxel-based analysis of whole brain white matter in patients with amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚迪; 冯晓源; 何慧瑾; 丁玎; 汤伟军; 赵倩华

    2011-01-01

    microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) using voxel-based analysis (VBA), and investigate the relationship between WM abnormalities and gray matter(GM) atrophy.Methods Thirty-three cases with aMCI, 32 cases with mild AD and 31 normal aging volunteers as control subjects were scanned on a 3.0 T MR system using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled(3DSPGR) sequences. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and morphological images were preprocessed by SPM5 and voxel-based comparisons between the 2 patient groups and the control group were performed by t test. Results Relative to the control group, patients with aMCI showed significantly reduced FA value in bilateral frontal, temporal and left occipital WM, left anterior part of cingulum, left inferior parietal lobule, and the W M adjacent to the triangular part of the right lateral ventricle(k≥20 voxels).In mild AD,significantly reduced FA value was found in bilateral hippocampal,inferior parietal lobular,frontal,temporal,and occipital WM,bilateral corpus callosum,anterior part of cingulums,the WM adjacent to the triaangular part of the bilateral lateral ventricles,left temporal stem,left thalamus,right precuneus(k≥20 voxels).Significantly reduced GM volume was found in left hippocampus,parahippocampal gyrus,lingual gyrus and superior temporal gyrus,bilateral insulae and middle temporal gyri in aMCl group whencompared with control group(k≥50 voxels).In mild AD,significantly reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippoeampi,parahippocampal gyri,amygdalae,thalami,temporal,parietal,frontal,occipital cortex(k≥50 voxels).The pattern of areas with reduced FA differs;from that of the GM volumetric reduction.No areas with significantlv reduced FA was detected in aMCl compared with mild AD. There was no significant correlation between FA value of WM in patient groups and Mini-Mental State Examination

  8. 健脑增智饮对遗忘型轻度认知损害患者认知功能及AchE的影响%The effect of Jiannao Zengzhi Yin on the cognitive function and AchE of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成银; 梁妍霞; 邝仰东; 吕金丹; 梁洁; 刘健红; 何子意; 黄德弘

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察健脑增智饮对遗忘型轻度认知损害(aMCI)患者认知功能的改善情况及AchE水平的影响。方法:将70例aMCI患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各35例,治疗组给予健脑增智饮(熟地、茯苓、巴戟天、山茱萸、石斛、肉苁蓉、麦冬、石菖蒲、远志、川芎、丹参、赤芍、五味子、生姜、大枣)治疗,对照组给予脑复康片(吡拉西坦片)治疗,两组疗程均为16周。两组患者在治疗前、治疗8周后、治疗16周后分别进行神经心理学测试,包括CMS、ADL、MMSE、CDT,抽血查AchE活性变化。另设健康组20例,只进行神经心理学测试及抽血查AchE水平,不进行治疗。结果:治疗组CMS指标、MMSE评分、血清AchE含量治疗8周后及治疗16周后明显改善(P<0.05,P<0.01),且显著优于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:健脑增智饮能提高aMCI患者记忆功能,CMS评分及MMSE评分均明显改善,降低胆碱酯酶的活性,AchE水平明显降低,提示健脑增智饮有显著提高智能的作用。%Objective:To observe the effect of Jiannao Zengzhi Yin on improvement of the cognitive function and AchE of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods:70 aMCI patients were randomly divided into the control group and the treatment group, with 35 cases in each group. The control group was treated with Naofukang Tablets (Piracetam Tablets) while the observation group was treated with Jiannao Zengzhi Yin (composed of Rehmannia, Poria, Morinda officinalis, dogwood, Dendrobium, Cistanche, ophiopogon root, calamus, Polygala, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Salvia miltiorrhiza, radix paeoniae rubra, Schisandra, ginger, jujube), the treatment of both groups lasted 16 weeks. Neuropsychological test which contains test of CMS, ADL, MMSE and CDT of was given to patients in two groups 8 weeks before and after treatment, 16 weeks after treatment respectively, changes of AchE activity in

  9. The Cognitive and Neural Expression of Semantic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Sven; Brambati, Simona M.; Ansado, Jennyfer; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Lacombe, Jacinthe; Goldstein, Rachel; Chayer, Celine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease have been widely documented, but little is known about the integrity of semantic memory in the prodromal stage of the illness. The aims of the present study were to: (i) investigate naming abilities and semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to…

  10. Association of polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E and genes associated with β-amyloid with amnestic mild cognitive impairment%载脂蛋白E及淀粉样蛋白变性相关基因多态性与遗忘型轻度认知障碍的关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳春贤; 张志珺; 宇辉; 施咏梅; 滕玉环; 束昊; 刘晓燕; 庄丽英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore neuropsychological characteristics in amnestic mild cognitive impairment(aMCI) and to verify the association of aMCI with polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E and genes associated with β-amyloid.Methods In this case-control study,multiple-dimension neuropsychological tests were used to estimate 116 clinically-diagnosed aMCI patients and 93 normal controls.Sequenom MassARRAY (R) chip were used to detect the polymorphisms.SHEsis and UNPHASED-3.0.13 software were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium and genotype and haplotype associations with aMCI.Results (1) Except Rey-Osterrich complex figure test and clock drawing test,most neuropsychological battery scores in aMCI patients were significantly lower than those in control (all P < 0.05).(2) The frequency of APOE epsilon4 allele carriers in aMCI was higher than control(x2 =12.40,P =0.00).(3)Significant association of the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 gene (TOMM40) with aMCI was found for the rs157581 G (P < 0.02),and rs2075650 G (P < 0.01) alleles.Conclusions It indicates that SNPs in the APOE gene may be associated with aMCI in Chinese Han population.The association of TOMM40 SNPs (rs157581G and rs2075650G) with aMCI suggests that this gene is a further risk factor for the development of dementia.%目的 探讨遗忘型轻度认知障碍(amnestic mild cognitive impairment,aMCI)的认知特征及载脂蛋白E(apolipoprotein E,APOE)和淀粉样蛋白(β-amyloid,Aβ)变性相关基因多态性与aMCI的关联性.方法 采用病例对照研究,应用多维度神经心理测试量表评估,筛选出116例aMCI患者(患者组)和93例对照者(对照组)后,以单核苷酸多态(single nuclear polymorphism,SNP)芯片检测APOE及Aβ代谢相关的10个基因23个SNP位点的基因多态性,分析2组等位基因、基因型频率分布的差异及其与aMCI的关联.结果 (1)除Rey-Osterrich复杂图形测验和画钟测验外,aMCI组其他神经认知功能测试

  11. Cognitive Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Poteet, James A.

    Research regarding the cognitive processing of students with learning disabilities, mild mental handicap, and emotional handicap is reviewed. In considering cognitive processing for students with mild mental handicap, research attention has been directed to the issues of memory and learning, acquisition and retrieval deficits, inefficient…

  12. 不同亚型遗忘型轻度认知障碍与轻度阿尔茨海默病弥散张量成像特点的比较研究%Comparison of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Characteristics Between Different Subtypes of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李香春; 王海平; 韩德昌; 刘丽娟; 牛春华; 孙正君; 刘江红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changing characteristics of FA and ADC values in patients with two subtypes of amnestic mild cognitive impairment(aMCI)and mild Alzheimer disease(AD)by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI),and to evaluate the application value of DTI in the diagnosis of aMCI and AD. Methods A total of 118 patients who accorded with inclusion criteria and were admitted into Tangshan Gongren Hospital from June 2012 to June 2015 were selected using MoCA,MMSE and AVMT. The patients were divided into three groups:AD group(n = 41),aMCI-s group(n = 37) and aMCI-m group( n = 40). Superconducting magnetic resonance instrument was employed to conduct axis TSE sequence continuous scanning. The original data were managed after scanning,and FA and ADC values of corpus callosum knee,corporis callosita splenium,parietal lobe,cooipital lobe,frontal lobe and gyrus cinguli were measured on B0 images and color tensor images at different levels;the measurement was controlled in region of interest(ROI)with 2 voxels. Data were all measured with blind method,and remeasurement and recalculation were made the next day,and average values were calculated. Results The three groups were not significantly in the FA value of corpus callosum knee,corpus callosum splenium,right parietal lobe,right occipital lobe and right frontal lobe(P ﹥ 0. 05). The three groups were significantly different in the FA value of left parietal lobe, right occipital lobe,left occipital lobe,left frontal lobe,right cingulum and left cingulum(P ﹤ 0. 05);the AD group was lower than the aMCI-s group in the FA value of left parietal lobe,left occipital lobe,left frontal lobe,right cingulum and left cingulum (P ﹤ 0. 05). The three groups were significantly different in ADC value among different brain regions(P ﹤ 0. 05);the aMCI-m group and the AD group were higher than aMCI-s group in ADC value of corpus callosum knee,corpus callosum splenium,right parietal lobe,right occipital lobe

  13. Effect of Betahistine combined with Donepezil on amnestic mild cognitive impairment%倍他司汀联合多奈哌齐对遗忘型轻度认知功能损害的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄志清; 吴晓燕; 陈正东; 鞠贵平; 叶兴荣; 朱军; 陈小华; 顾卫霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究倍他司汀联合多奈哌齐对遗忘型轻度认知功能损害(aMCI)患者记忆减退的治疗作用.方法 将aMCI患者随机分为联合治疗组和对照组,分别予倍他司汀+多奈哌齐和多奈哌齐治疗,并于治疗前、治疗第4周和第12周末时进行简明精神状态量表(MMSE)、听觉词语学习测试(AVLT)、Rey-Oriterrish复杂图形测试(CFT)评定.结果 两组MMSE评分均随治疗时间延长而增高,但组内及组间比较均无差异(P>0.05);AVLT延迟回忆项(AVLT-DR)、CFT延迟回忆项(CFT-DR)评分均随治疗时间延长而增高,但治疗后联合治疗组AVLT-DR均较对照组评分高(P0. 05). The scores of delayed recall of AVLT ( AVLT-DR) and delayed recall of CFT ( CFT-DR) increased obviously ( P < 0. 05 ) , but compared with the control group ,the scores of AVLT-DR of combined treatment group increased at both 4 weeks and 12 weeks (P < 0. 05 ) , and the scores of CFT-DR increased at 12 weeks only (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions Betahistine can increase the effect of donepezil on cognition , maybe resulting from its effect on the cerebral vascular.

  14. A novel biomarker of amnestic MCI based on dynamic Cross-Frequency Coupling patterns during cognitive brain responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I Dimitriadis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, the transitional stage between normal cognitive changes of aging and the cognitive decline caused by AD, is of paramount clinical importance, since MCI patients are at increased risk of progressing into AD. Electroencephalographic (EEG alterations in the spectral content of brainwaves and connectivity at resting state have been associated with early-stage AD. Recently, cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs have entered into the picture as an easy to perform screening test. Motivated by the recent findings about the role of cross-frequency coupling (CFC in cognition, we introduce a relevant methodological approach for detecting MCI based on cognitive responses from a standard auditory oddball paradigm. By using the single trial signals recorded at Pz sensor and comparing the responses to target and non-target stimuli, we first demonstrate that increased CFC is associated with the cognitive task. Then, considering the dynamic character of CFC, we identify instances during which the coupling between particular pairs of brainwave frequencies carries sufficient information for discriminating between normal subjects and patients with MCI. In this way, we form a multiparametric signature of impaired cognition. The new composite biomarker was tested using data from a cohort that consists of 25 amnestic MCI patients and 15 age-matched controls. Standard machine-learning algorithms were employed so as to implement the binary classification task. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation, the measured classification rate was found reaching very high levels (95%. Our approach compares favorably with the traditional alternative of using the morphology of averaged ERP response to make the diagnosis and the usage of features from spectro-temporal analysis of single-trial response. This further indicates that task-related CFC measurements can provide invaluable analytics in AD diagnosis and prognosis.

  15. 遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍患者的内嗅皮层形态学与功能变化的研究%Morphological and functional changes of the entorhinal cortex in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭东; 焦劲松; Itsuki Jibiki

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍(aMCI)患者内嗅皮层的形态学改变和相关功能变化的关系.方法:16例遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍患者入选.认知功能通过长谷川痴呆量表修订版(HDS-R)评价.通过基于体素的阿尔茨海默病特异性局部分析系统(VSRAD)的Z评分来评价内嗅皮层的萎缩程度.同时利用单光子发射计算机断层显像(SPECT)的FineSRT技术定量分析各个相关脑区局部脑血流(rCBF)的绝对值.结果:VSRAD的Z评分与年龄呈正相关,与双侧海马、杏仁核、丘脑、右侧海马旁回rCBF的绝对值均显著负相关(均P<0.05).此外,Z评分与左侧海马旁回、双侧扣带回中、后部rCBF的绝对值也存在一定程度的负相关趋势.结论:在aMCI患者中,内嗅皮层萎缩与海马相关结构、丘脑、扣带回rCBF变化存在明显的功能联系.这种联系可能与解剖和生理学的网络有关.%Objective:To investigate the relationships between morphological and functional changes of the entorhinal cortex in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).Methods:Sixteen aMCI patients were enrolled,whose cognitive function were evaluated by revised version of Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R).Z scores of voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD)were determined to assess the degree of atrophy of the entorhinal cortex.Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)and Fine stereotaxic region of interest template(FineSRT)were used to quantify absolute values of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF).Results:The Z scores of VSRAD were found to have significant negative correlations with the absolute rCBF in the bilateral hippocampus,thalamus,amygdala and right parahippocampal gyrus and positive correlation with age.A tendency of negative correlation between Z scores and rCBF of left parahippocampal gyrus,bilateral central and posterior cingnlated gyrus was also noted.Conclusion:Atrophy of the

  16. Cross-sectional study of sleep quantity and quality and amnestic and non-amnestic cognitive function in an ageing population: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and cognitive function in younger and older individuals from an ageing population. METHODS: 3,968 male and 4,821 female white participants, aged 50 years and over, from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA were studied. Information on sleep quality and quantity as well as both amnestic (memory, ACF and non-amnestic (non-memory, nACF function was available at Wave 4 (2008. Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the relationship between sleep and cognitive function. RESULTS: After adjustment for multiple confounders in the younger group (50-64 years duration of sleep explained 15.2% of the variance in ACF (p = 0.003 and 20.6% of nACF (p = 0.010. In the older group (65+ years the estimates were 21.3% (p<0.001 and 25.6% (p<0.001, respectively. For sleep quality, there was a statistically significant association between sleep quality and both ACF (p<0.001 and nACF (p<0.001 in the older age group, but not in the younger age group (p = 0.586 and p = 0.373, respectively; interaction between age and sleep quality in the study sample including both age groups: p<0.001 for ACF and p = 0.018 for nACF. Sleep quality explained between 15.1% and 25.5% of the variance in cognition. The interaction with age was independent of duration of sleep. At any level of sleep duration there was a steeper association between sleep quality and ACF in the older than the younger group. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between sleep disturbances and cognitive function vary between younger and older adults. Prospective studies will determine the temporal relationships between sleep disturbances and changes in cognition in different age groups.

  17. 阿尔茨海默病和遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍患者脑血流变化的研究%Changes in regional cerebral blood flow in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭东; 焦劲松; Jibiki Itsuki

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨阿尔茨海默病(AD)和遗忘型轻度认知功能障碍(aMCI)患者脑血流变化的差异及其与内嗅皮层的关系. 方法 共纳入28例患者,其中轻度AD患者9例、中重度AD患者9例、aMCI患者10例.认知功能通过长谷川痴呆量表修订版(HDS-R)和AD评定量表认知部分(ADAS-cog)进行评价.通过99mTc标记双半胱乙酯(99mTc-ECD)进行单光子计算机断层扫描(SPECT)以显示局部脑血流灌注情况,并通过简单Z评分影像系统(eZIS)进行视觉分析;同时通过基于体素的AD特异性局部分析系统(VSRAD)的Z评分来评价内嗅皮质的萎缩程度. 结果 中重度、轻度AD患者扣带回eZIS主观评分分别为(1.57±0.46)分、(1.50±0.54)分,高于aMCI患者(1.00±0.50)分(F=4.58,P=0.022),表明轻度、中重度AD患者的扣带回血流灌注明显低于aMCI患者(均P<0.05);中重度AD患者左侧额叶、右侧额叶、左侧海马eZIS评分分别为(1.43±0.79)分、(1.43±0.79)分、(1.86±0.50)分,高于aMCI组(0.67±0.50)分、(0.67±0.50)分、(1.33±0.50)分和轻度AD患者(0.88±0.64)分、(0.75±0.46)分、(1.75±0.46)分(F=2.90、3.81、3.06,P=0.077、0.039、0.068),表明中重度AD患者双侧额叶、左侧海马灌注也低于aMCI患者(均P<0.05).患者HDS-R评分与左侧、右侧海马的血流灌注呈负相关(r=-0.568、-0.481,P=0.004、0.017),而ADAS-cog评分与左侧、右侧海马的血流灌注呈正相关(r=0.462、0.459,P=0.030、0.032).结论 AD患者在早期即出现扣带回血流灌注的下降,随着病情加重累及额叶、海马,而认知功能改变与海马的血流灌注有关;eZIS系统可以有效评估aMCI和AD患者血流变化.%Objective To investigate the changes in regional cerebral blood flow and its relationship with atrophy of the entorhinal cortex in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD).Methods Twenty eight patients including ten cases with aMCI,nine case with mild AD and nine

  18. Sleep-disordered breathing, sleep quality, and mild cognitive impairment in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugaj, Martha; Weinreich, Gerhard; Weimar, Christian; Stang, Andreas; Dragano, Nico; Wessendorf, Thomas E; Teschler, Helmut; Winkler, Angela; Wege, Natalia; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that sleep disorders are associated with cognitive decline. We, therefore, examined the cross-sectional association of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep quality, and three types of sleep complaints (difficulties initiating sleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and its subtypes. A group of 1,793 participants (51% men; 63.8 ± 7.5 years) of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (total sample n = 4,157) received a screening for SDB and self-report measures of sleep complaints. Group comparisons were used to compare performances among five cognitive subtests. Multivariate logistic regression models were calculated to determine the association of MCI (n = 230) and MCI subtypes (amnestic MCI, n = 120; non-amnestic MCI, n = 110) with SDB severity levels, poor sleep quality, and sleep complaints. Severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index ≥30/h, n = 143) was not associated with MCI, amnestic MCI, or non-amnestic MCI. Poor sleep quality was associated with MCI (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.03; fully adjusted) as well as frequently reported difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 1.94, 1.20-3.14), difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.27-4.63), and early morning awakening (OR = 2.30, 1.32-4.00). Severe difficulties initiating sleep (OR = 2.23, 1.21-4.13) and early morning awakening (OR = 2.88, 1.45-5.73) were solely associated with the amnestic MCI subtype, whereas, severe difficulties maintaining sleep (OR = 3.84, 1.13-13.08) were associated with non-amnestic MCI. Our results suggest that poor sleep quality, rather than SDB, is associated with MCI. The selective association of difficulties initiating sleep and early morning awakening with amnestic MCI and of difficulties maintaining sleep with non-amnestic MCI might serve as a marker to improve diagnostic accuracy in the earliest stages of cognitive impairment and will be further

  19. Research on characteristics of resting-state functional connectivity strengths in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment%遗忘型轻度认知障碍患者的静息态功能连接强度特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛灿; 陈观群; 李坤成; 韩璎; 夏明睿; 陈晓丹; 孙宇; 王晓妮; 李红艳; 李瑜霞; 李轩宇; 于洋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore a new index for reflecting the topological information of brain functional networks in patients at high risk of Alzheimer disease using characteristics of resting-state functional connectivity strengths(FCS) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment(aMCI). Methods Thirty-one aMCI patients and 42 age, gender and years of education matched normal controls were enrolled between September 2009 and April 2011 in this study. The resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data of all participants were acquired and preprocessed. Then the whole-brain functional connectivities were constructed for exploring the distribution characteristics of hub regions which had higher FCS values. Using two-sample t test to compare group differences in age, years of education and each neuropsychological assessment. In addition, using Chi-squared test to compare group differences in gender. Group differences in FCS values were analyzed by general linear model. Finally, correlation analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the FCS values of the brain regions with group differences and behavioral scores in aMCI patients. Results The hub regions of the functional networks in the aMCI patients were mainly located in the association cortices such as the precuneuses, posterior cingulate cortices, medial prefrontal cortices, angular gyri, superior occipital gyri, fusiform gyri and lingual gyri. The distribution models in the aMCI patients were consistent with those in the normal controls. However, the FCS values of these brain regions were significantly lower in the aMCI patients than those in the normal controls. In comparison to the normal controls, the aMCI patients had significantly decreased FCS values in the bilateral fusiform gyri, lingual gyri, superior occipital gyri, left middle occipital gyrus and postcentral gyrus (the cluster was 389, 230, 187 and 107 voxels, respectively;P<0.05, respectively), and they had decreased trends of FCS values in

  20. Familiarity-based recognition in the young, healthy elderly, mild cognitive impaired and Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarabel, Salvador; Escudero, Joaquín; Mazón, José Francisco; Pitarque, Alfonso; Fuentes, Manuel; Peset, Vicente; Lacruz, Laura

    2009-08-01

    This study investigates the possible existence of deficits in familiarity in five samples of participants spanning a broad range of ages and cognitive states. Five groups of 16 participants with a diagnosis of multi-domain cognitive impairment with a slight or no deficit in memory, 16 multi-domain amnestic, and 16 Alzheimer's disease patients were compared in a recognition test with equivalent samples of old and young healthy participants. In one of the tests, participants studied words extracted from a restricted set of letters of the alphabet that were later mixed with new words from a different set. The unconscious use of the fluency produced by the repeated use of the set of letters was compared with a condition in which the same letter set did not play a role. Results indicated that amnestic mild cognitive impaired and Alzheimer's patients were unable to use letter fluency to improve recognition. However, young and old controls did not differ among themselves, whereas the multi-domain sample, whose memory performance was almost at the same level as that of controls showed slight levels of deficit in familiarity in the forced choice test but not in the recognition test. These results contrast sharply with those reported by Westerberg et al. [Westerberg, C. E., Paller, K. E., Holdstock, J. S., Mayes, A. R., & Reber, p. J. (2006). When memory does not fail: Familiarity-based recognition in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology, 20, 193-205] and Anderson et al. [Anderson, N. D., Ebert, P. L., Jennings, J. M., Grady, C. L., Cabeza, R., & Graham, S. J. (2008). Recollection- and familiarity-based memory in healthy aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology, 22, 177-187], who concluded that there were no deficits in familiarity in these types of pre-dementia and dementia patients.

  1. Subclinical naming errors in mild cognitive impairment: A semantic deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra F. Willers

    Full Text Available Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is the transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Impairments in semantic memory have been demonstrated to be a critical factor in early AD. The Boston Naming Test (BNT is a straightforward method of examining semantic or visuo-perceptual processing and therefore represents a potential diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to examine naming ability and identify error types in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods: Twenty aMCI patients, twenty AD patients and twenty-one normal controls, matched by age, sex and education level were evaluated. As part of a further neuropsychological evaluation, all subjects performed the BNT. A comprehensive classification of error types was devised in order to compare performance and ascertain semantic or perceptual origin of errors. Results: AD patients obtained significantly lower total scores on the BNT than aMCI patients and controls. aMCI patients did not obtain significant differences in total scores, but showed significantly higher semantic errors compared to controls. Conclusion: This study reveals that semantic processing is impaired during confrontation naming in aMCI.

  2. Apathy is associated with lower inferior temporal cortical thickness in mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Brendan; Donovan, Nancy J.; Ward, Andrew; Schultz, Aaron; Lorius, Natacha; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2014-01-01

    Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and is associated with cortical atrophy in AD dementia. This study investigated possible correlations between apathy and cortical atrophy in 47 individuals with MCI and 19 clinically normal elderly (CN). Backward elimination multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between scores on the Apathy Evaluation Scale and thickness of several cortical regions and covariates. Lower inferior temporal cortical thickness was predictive of greater apathy. Greater anterior cingulate cortical thickness was also predictive of greater apathy, suggesting an underlying reactive process. PMID:25716491

  3. 补肾化痰祛瘀中药治疗遗忘型轻度认知损害的随机、双盲、平行对照临床研究%Effects of Chinese medicine for tonifying the kidney and resolving phlegm and blood stasis in treating patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized,double-blind and parallel-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗迎春; 田金洲; 时晶; 毛敏

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It is important to detect and prevent Alzheimer disease (AD) at its early stage.Constituting the early stage sign of AD,amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) has drawn much attention.Studies have shown that donepezil could reduce the AD assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) score in MCI patients and improve the patient's attention and speed of response; however,it also has many side effects.Therefore,the authors aim to explore the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating aMCI.OBJECTIVE:To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine for tonifying the kidney,and resolving phlegm and blood stasis in the treatment of aMCI.DESIGN,SETTING,PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS:This clinical trial used randomized,double-blind,double-dummy and parallel-controlled design.According to the randomized,double-blind principle,some aMCl patients were randomly divided into Chinese medicine group and donepezil group.Other patients who did not receive any treatment were enrolled as the control.Patients in the Chinese medicine group received oral administration of Chinese medicine,1 bag/dose,two doses per day,while patients in the donepezil group received donepezil hydrochloride,5 mg/day.Twelve weeks were allocated as the trial period.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:After 12 weeks,the Chinese medicine group patients,the donepezil group patients and those patients who did not receive any treatment were accessed using the scores of ADAS-Cog and mini-mental status examination (MMSE).RESULTS:The ADAS-Cog and MMSE scores of the Chinese medicine group and the donepezil group were both improved from baseline (P=0.001,P=0.000),but the non-treatment group showed no change from baseline (P=0.151,P=0.125); furthermore,there was no significant difference between the Chinese medicine group and the donepezil group.The attention function of the Chinese medicine group was better than baseline ( P=0.015),but no change was seen in the donepezil group (P=0.085) at the 12th

  4. Prevalence and Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Blake J.; Gasson, Natalie; Loftus, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in an Australian sample of people with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Seventy participants with PD completed neuropsychological assessments of their cognitive performance, using MDS Task Force Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. A cut-off score of less than one standard deviation (SD) below normative data determined impaired performance on a neuropsychological test. Of 70 participants, 45 (64%) met Level II diagnostic criteria for PD-MCI. Among those with PD-MCI, 42 (93%) were identified as having multiple domain impairment (28 as amnestic multiple domain and 14 as nonamnestic multiple domain). Single domain impairment was less frequent (2 amnestic/1 nonamnestic). Significant differences were found between the PD-MCI and Normal Cognition groups, across all cognitive domains. Multiple domain cognitive impairment was more frequent than single domain impairment in an Australian sample of people with PD. However, PD-MCI is heterogeneous and current prevalence and subtyping statistics may be an artifact of variable application methods of the criteria (e.g., cut off scores and number of tests). Future longitudinal studies refining the criteria will assist with subtyping the progression of PD-MCI, while identifying individuals who may benefit from pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. PMID:27650569

  5. The neuroimaging approach to the assessment of mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, Giovanni [University of Milan and Unit of Molecular Imaging, Division of Radiation Therapy, European Institute of Oncology, Institute of Radiological Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Imaging techniques, including emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are progressively being exploited for the classification and prognostic evaluation (indispensable for possible treatments) of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The main traits of MCI and unsolved issues in its assessment are discussed in two review articles by Feldman and Jacova from the Division of Neurology, Dept. of Medicine, Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders, University of British Columbia, in Vancouver, Canada [1] and Chong and Sahadevan from the Department of Geriatric Medicine, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore [2]. Because MCI has different presentations in terms of the type and degree of cognitive deficits observed, several clinical subtypes of MCI besides the amnestic form have now been recognised and characterised on the basis of deficits in different cognitive domains, either in isolation or in combination with amnesia. The different subtypes of MCI suggest that MCI has a heterogeneous nature, with several possible causes that lead to the same symptoms. This is a field in evolution, and a uniform diagnostic classification of MCI has not yet been accomplished. Lopez et al. from the Departments of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA [3] point out that the classification of MCI subtypes is useful to improve prediction of the subsequent risk of dementia and the type of dementia, and that the manner in which MCI subjects are classified into subgroups has implications for the cognitive profile of the group and thus for our inferences about the aetiology and possible clinical course of the disorder.

  6. Abnormal organization of white matter networks in patients with subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Qun; Zhang, Yi-He; Li, Xuan-Yu; Hao, Xu-Yang; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Meng; Sheng, Can; Li, Yu-Xia; Sun, Yu; Li, Hong-Yan; Song, Yang; Li, Kun-Cheng; Yan, Tian-Yi; Tang, Xiao-Ying; Han, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Network analysis has been widely used in studying Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, how the white matter network changes in cognitive impaired patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) (a symptom emerging during early stage of AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (a pre-dementia stage of AD) is still unclear. Here, structural networks were constructed respectively based on FA and FN for 36 normal controls, 21 SCD patients, and 33 aMCI patients by diffusion tensor imaging and graph theory. Significantly lower efficiency was found in aMCI patients than normal controls (NC). Though not significant, the values in those with SCD were intermediate between aMCI and NC. In addition, our results showed significantly altered betweenness centrality located in right precuneus, calcarine, putamen, and left anterior cingulate in aMCI patients. Furthermore, association was found between network metrics and cognitive impairment. Our study suggests that the structural network properties might be preserved in SCD stage and disrupted in aMCI stage, which may provide novel insights into pathological mechanisms of AD. PMID:27418146

  7. Comparison of the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen and the SMMSE in screening for mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2012-09-01

    differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal cognition (NC) is difficult. The AB Cognitive Screen (ABCS) 135, sensitive in differentiating MCI from dementia, was modified to improve sensitivity and specificity, producing the quick mild cognitive impairment (Qmci) screen.

  8. Prevalence of Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Rural Island Town of Ama-cho, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Wada-Isoe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In order to determine the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, we conducted a population-based study in Japan. Methods: Participants included 924 subjects aged 65 years or older who resided in the town of Ama-cho. In phase 1 of the study, the Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Dementia Rating were administered for screening purposes. In phase 2 of the study, the subjects who screened positive were further examined by neurologists. Dementia and MCI were diagnosed by means of DSM-IV and International Working Group on MCI criteria, respectively. Results: By the prevalence date of June 1, 2010, 24 subjects had deceased or lived outside the town. In total, 723 of the remaining 900 subjects received a phase 1 test. In phase 2, 98 subjects were diagnosed with amnestic MCI, 113 subjects with non-amnestic MCI, and 82 subjects with dementia. Of the subjects who did not receive the phase 1 test, 66 subjects were diagnosed as having dementia according to data from their town medical card or the Long-term Care Insurance System. The crude prevalence of amnestic MCI, non-amnestic MCI, and dementia were 10.9, 12.6, and 16.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Consistent with the striking increase in the number of elderly individuals, we report higher prevalence of MCI and dementia in Japan than previously described.

  9. NOX Activity Is Increased in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunita; Parrino, Taryn E.; Knight, Alecia G.; Ebenezer, Philip J.; Weidner, Adam M.; LeVine, Harry; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Markesbery, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study was undertaken to investigate the profile of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, NOX activity and expression of the regulatory subunit p47phox and the catalytic subunit gp91phox was evaluated in affected (superior and middle temporal gyri) and unaffected (cerebellum) brain regions from a longitudinally followed group of patients. This group included both control and late-stage AD subjects, and also subjects with preclinical AD and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to evaluate the profile of NOX in the earliest stages of dementia. Data show significant elevations in NOX activity and expression in the temporal gyri of MCI patients as compared with controls, but not in preclinical or late-stage AD samples, and not in the cerebellum. Immunohistochemical evaluations of NOX expression indicate that whereas microglia express high levels of gp91phox, moderate levels of gp91phox also are expressed in neurons. Finally, in vitro experiments showed that NOX inhibition blunted the ability of oligomeric amyloid beta peptides to injure cultured neurons. Collectively, these data show that NOX expression and activity are upregulated specifically in a vulnerable brain region of MCI patients, and suggest that increases in NOX-associated redox pathways in neurons might participate in the early pathogenesis of AD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1371–1382. PMID:19929442

  10. Cognitive functioning in mild hyperphenylalaninemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia de la Parra

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Children with mHPA achieved cognitive performance well within the average range and attained significantly higher scores than children with PKU. However, they appeared to have relative weaknesses in working memory and attention, similar to children with PKU.

  11. Correlation of MRI Visual Scales with Neuropsychological Profile in Mild Cognitive Impairment of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, João Santos; Adachi, Marcelo; Greca, Denise; Cruz, Manuela; Malak, Ana Lara; Charchat-Fichman, Helenice; Spitz, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visual scales in Parkinson's disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI). We selected 79 PD patients and 92 controls (CO) to perform neurologic and neuropsychological evaluation. Brain MRI was performed to evaluate the following scales: Global Cortical Atrophy (GCA), Fazekas, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA). The analysis revealed that both PD groups (amnestic and nonamnestic) showed worse performance on several tests when compared to CO. Memory, executive function, and attention impairment were more severe in amnestic PD-MCI group. Overall analysis of frequency of MRI visual scales by MCI subtype did not reveal any statistically significant result. Statistically significant inverse correlation was observed between GCA scale and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), semantic verbal fluency, Stroop test, figure memory test, trail making test (TMT) B, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The MTA scale correlated with Stroop test and Fazekas scale with figure memory test, digit span, and Stroop test according to the subgroup evaluated. Visual scales by MRI in MCI should be evaluated by cognitive domain and might be more useful in more severely impaired MCI or dementia patients.

  12. Amnestic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished: anterograd

  13. Reduced 5-HT2A receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, S G; Madsen, K; Svarer, C;

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have described reduced brain serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor density. It is unclear whether this abnormality sets in early in the course of the disease and whether it is related to early cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. We assessed...... cerebral 5-HT(2A) receptor binding in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and related 5-HT(2A) receptor binding to clinical symptoms. Sixteen patients with MCI of the amnestic type (mean age 73, mean MMSE 26.1) and 17 age and sex matched control subjects were studied with MRI and [(18)F......]altanserin PET in a bolus-infusion approach. A significant global reduction of 20-30% in 5-HT(2A) binding (atrophy corrected) was found in most neocortical areas. Reduced 5-HT(2A) binding in the striatum correlated significantly with Neuropsychiatric Inventory depression and anxiety scores. We conclude...

  14. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Xiao-guang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD and a major influencing factor on patients' daily living ability. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a cognitive state between normal aging and dementia, and the living capability of MCI patients relatively remains. MCI often occurs in PD, with its clinical features presenting as the impairment in working memory and (or attention, executive function, language ability, memory and visuospatial function. Here we try to depict the general picture of PD-MCI from the view of epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, imaging and diagnostic criteria.

  15. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  16. Prospective memory on a novel clinical task in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Laura A; Chi, Susan Y; Wang, Cuiling; Fogel, Joshua; Kann, Sarah J; Aronov, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Despite the relevance of prospective memory to everyday functioning and the ability to live independently, prospective memory tasks are rarely incorporated into clinical evaluations of older adults. We investigated the validity and clinical utility of a recently developed measure, the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test (RPA-ProMem), in a demographically diverse, non-demented, community-dwelling sample of 257 older adults (mean age = 80.78 years, 67.7% female) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 18), nonamestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI, n = 38), subjective cognitive decline (SCD, n = 83) despite intact performance on traditional episodic memory tests, and healthy controls (HC, n = 118). Those with aMCI and naMCI performed significantly worse than controls on the RPA-ProMem and its subtasks (time-based, event-based, short-term, long-term). Also, those with SCD scored significantly lower than controls on long-term, more naturalistic subtasks. Additional results supported the validity and inter-rater reliability of the RPA-ProMem and demonstrated a relation between test scores and informant reports of real-world functioning. The RPA-ProMem may help detect subtle cognitive changes manifested by individuals in the earliest stages of dementia, which may be difficult to capture with traditional episodic memory tests. Also, assessment of prospective memory can help guide the development of cognitive interventions for older adults at risk for dementia.

  17. Grey matter atrophy of basal forebrain and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haobo; Trollor, Julian N; Wen, Wei; Zhu, Wanlin; Crawford, John D; Kochan, Nicole A; Slavin, Melissa J; Brodaty, Henry; Reppermund, Simone; Kang, Kristan; Mather, Karen A; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2011-05-01

    The basal forebrain area (BFA) is closely connected to the hippocampus by virtue of cholinergic neuronal projections. Structural neuroimaging studies have shown reduced volumes of both structures in Alzheimer's disease and its prodromal stage mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but generally not in the same investigation. By combining voxel based morphometry and region of interest methods, we measured the grey matter (GM) volumes of the two brain regions with the goal of elucidating their contributions to MCI and its two subtypes (amnestic MCI and non-amnestic MCI) in an elderly epidemiological sample. The results replicated previous findings that the atrophies of both brain regions were associated with an increased likelihood of MCI and its two subtypes. However, in a regression model for the prediction of MCI with GM volumes for both regions used as predictors, only hippocampal atrophy remained significant. Two possible interpretations for this pattern of results were discussed. One is that the observed correlation between BFA atrophy and MCI is spurious and due to the hippocampal atrophy correlated with both. Alternatively, our observation is consistent with the possibility that BFA atrophy has a causal effect on MCI, which is mediated via its influence on hippocampal atrophy. Furthermore, we found that the left hippocampal atrophy had a stronger effect than the right hippocampus and bilateral BFA in the prediction of amnestic MCI occurrence when the four unilateral areas were entered into one regression model. In addition, a slight but statistically significant difference was found in the left hippocampal volume between APOE ε4 allele carriers and non-carriers, consistent with prior studies.

  18. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-hua LI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is common non-motor symptom (NMS in Parkinson's disease (PD, which affects the patients' quality of life and increases the burden of caregivers. Cognitive dysfunction in PD can be mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia. MCI presents in the early stage of PD and the incidence rate is increasing with the disease progression. In some cases it can advance to dementia. The diagnosis of MCI in PD includes inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and damage level evaluation. Non-pharmacological therapy, such as exercise and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT can improve the symptoms of MCI in PD, while the pharmacological treatment remains to be further studied. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.06.002

  19. Mild cognitive impairment: cognitive screening or neuropsychological assessment? Comprometimento cognitivo leve: rastreio cognitivo ou avaliação neuropsicológica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Satler Diniz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the neuropsychological profile of mild cognitive impairment subtypes (amnestic, non-amnestic and multiple-domain of a clinical sample. We further address the diagnostic properties of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Cambridge Cognitive Examination for the identification of the different mild cognitive impairment subtypes in clinical practice. METHOD: Cross-sectional clinical and neuropsychological evaluation of 249 elderly patients attending a memory clinic at a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: The performance of patients with mild cognitive impairment was heterogeneous across the different subtests of the neuropsychological battery, with a trend towards an overall worse performance for amnestic (particularly multiple domain mild cognitive impairment as compared to non-amnestic subtypes. Screening tests for dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination and Cambridge Cognitive Examination adequately discriminated cases of mild Alzheimer's disease from controls, but they were not accurate to discriminate patients with mild cognitive impairment (all subtypes from control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The discrimination of mild cognitive impairment subtypes was possible only with the aid of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. It is necessary to develop new strategies for mild cognitive impairment screening in clinical practice.OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil neuropsicológico dos subtipos de comprometimento cognitivo leve, amnéstico, não-amnéstico e múltiplos domínios, de uma amostra clínica. Além disto, avaliou-se as propriedades diagnósticas do Mini-exame do Estado Mental e do Cambridge Cognitive Examination na identificação dos diferentes subtipos de comprometimento cognitivo leve na prática clínica. MÉTODO: Avaliação clínica e neuropsicológica transversal de 249 idosos em uma clínica de memória de um hospital universitário em São Paulo, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Testes de rastreio para

  20. A randomized controlled trial of multicomponent exercise in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Suzuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of multicomponent exercise program on memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and identify biomarkers associated with improvement of cognitive functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were 100 older adults (mean age, 75 years with MCI. The subjects were classified to an amnestic MCI group (n = 50 with neuroimaging measures, and other MCI group (n = 50 before the randomization. Subjects in each group were randomized to either a multicomponent exercise or an education control group using a ratio of 1∶1. The exercise group exercised for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, 40 times for 6 months. The exercise program was conducted under multitask conditions to stimulate attention and memory. The control group attended two education classes. A repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that no group × time interactions on the cognitive tests and brain atrophy in MCI patients. A sub-analysis of amnestic MCI patients for group × time interactions revealed that the exercise group exhibited significantly better Mini-Mental State Examination (p = .04 and logical memory scores (p = .04, and reducing whole brain cortical atrophy (p<.05 compared to the control group. Low total cholesterol levels before the intervention were associated with an improvement of logical memory scores (p<.05, and a higher level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was significantly related to improved ADAS-cog scores (p<.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that an exercise intervention is beneficial for improving logical memory and maintaining general cognitive function and reducing whole brain cortical atrophy in older adults with amnestic MCI. Low total cholesterol and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor may predict improvement of cognitive functions in older adults with MCI. Further studies are required to determine the positive effects of exercise on cognitive function in older adults with

  1. Mild cognitive impairment: safe to drive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirsty; Taylor, John-Paul; Thomas, Alan

    2014-06-01

    Driving is an important aspect of daily living and for many older people provides autonomy and psycho-social benefits. Cognitive impairment has been found to impact driving skills at the level of dementia, however, uncertainty remains around the impact of a diagnosis of the pre-dementia condition mild cognitive impairment. Current official guidelines are unclear, and assessment of fitness to drive can be problematical. This editorial examines current official guidance available to the clinician and problems with existing assessment as well as the current position of research specifically into MCI and driving, and considers future direction for research in this field.

  2. Cholinergic Enhancement of Brain Activation in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI during Episodic Memory Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Risacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the physiological impact of treatment with donepezil (Aricept on neural circuitry supporting episodic memory encoding in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI using functional MRI (fMRI. Methods: 18 patients with MCI and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC were scanned twice while performing an event-related verbal episodic encoding task. MCI participants were scanned before treatment and after approximately 3 months on donepezil; HC were untreated but rescanned at the same interval. Voxel-level analyses assessed treatment effects in activation profile relative to retest changes in non-treated HC. Changes in task-related connectivity in medial temporal circuitry were also evaluated, as were associations between brain activation pattern, task-related functional connectivity, task performance, and clinical measures of cognition.Results: At baseline, the MCI group showed reduced activation during encoding relative to HC in the right medial temporal lobe (MTL; hippocampal/parahippocampal and additional regions, as well as attenuated task-related deactivation, relative to rest, in a medial parietal lobe cluster. After treatment, the MCI group showed normalized MTL activation and improved parietal deactivation. These changes were associated with cognitive performance. After treatment, the MCI group also demonstrated increased task-related functional connectivity from the right MTL cluster seed region to a network of other sites including the basal nucleus/caudate and bilateral frontal lobes. Increased functional connectivity was associated with improved task performance.Conclusions: Pharmacologic enhancement of cholinergic function in amnestic MCI is associated with changes in brain activation pattern and functional connectivity during episodic memory processing which are in turn related to increased cognitive performance. fMRI is a promising biomarker for assessing treatment related changes in brain function.

  3. False Recognition Helps to Distinguish Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic MCI from Patients with Other Kinds of Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, H.; Haldenwanger, A.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Two recent reviews on neuropsychological assessment argue that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deficits in delayed recall and that this allows differentiating AD from other types of dementia. We attempted to differentiate patients with AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) fro

  4. Preventing cognitive decline in older African Americans with mild cognitive impairment: design and methods of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Leiby, Benjamin E

    2012-07-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) affects 25% of older African Americans and predicts progression to Alzheimer's disease. An extensive epidemiologic literature suggests that cognitive, physical, and/or social activities may prevent cognitive decline. We describe the methods of a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of Behavior Activation to prevent cognitive decline in older African Americans with the amnestic multiple domain subtype of MCI. Community Health Workers deliver 6 initial in-home treatment sessions over 2-3 months and then 6 subsequent in-home booster sessions using language, materials, and concepts that are culturally relevant to older African Americans during this 24 month clinical trial. We are randomizing 200 subjects who are recruited from churches, senior centers, and medical clinics to Behavior Activation or Supportive Therapy, which controls for attention. The primary outcome is episodic memory as measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised at baseline and at months 3, 12, 18, and 24. The secondary outcomes are general and domain-specific neuropsychological function, activities of daily living, depression, and quality-of-life. The negative results of recent clinical trials of drug treatments for MCI and Alzheimer's disease suggest that behavioral interventions may provide an alternative treatment approach to preserve cognition in an aging society.

  5. Mild cognitive impairment: Profile of a cohort from a private sector memory clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikanth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Private hospital memory clinics might see a different clientele than university or academic institutes due to referral biases. Objective: To characterize the profile of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from a private sector memory clinic. Materials and Methods: MCI was diagnosed according to revised clinical criteria of Petersen et al. For a subset of patients with MCI medial temporal atrophy and cerebral small vessel disease (white matter lesions and lacunes) were rated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and analyzed for their contribution towards cognitive impairment. Results: Subjects with MCI formed one-third (113/371) of this memory clinic sample from a private hospital. MCI could be effectively diagnosed and subtyped using a brief cognitive scale (Concise Cognitive Test (CONCOG)). The amnestic MCI (single and multiple domains) subtype comprised the majority of cases with MCI. In a subsample of 33 patients, lacunar infarcts were more common than white matter lesions and hippocampal atrophy and were inversely associated with verbal fluency. Conclusions: MCI may be more commonly encountered in private hospital settings probably due to early referrals. It is possible to diagnose and subtype MCI using a brief cognitive instrument such as the CONCOG. In this sample, lacunar infarcts were more commonly encountered than medial temporal atrophy in such patients. PMID:25221408

  6. Mild cognitive impairment: Profile of a cohort from a private sector memory clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Private hospital memory clinics might see a different clientele than university or academic institutes due to referral biases. Objective: To characterize the profile of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from a private sector memory clinic. Materials and Methods: MCI was diagnosed according to revised clinical criteria of Petersen et al. For a subset of patients with MCI medial temporal atrophy and cerebral small vessel disease (white matter lesions and lacunes were rated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans and analyzed for their contribution towards cognitive impairment. Results: Subjects with MCI formed one-third (113/371 of this memory clinic sample from a private hospital. MCI could be effectively diagnosed and subtyped using a brief cognitive scale (Concise Cognitive Test (CONCOG. The amnestic MCI (single and multiple domains subtype comprised the majority of cases with MCI. In a subsample of 33 patients, lacunar infarcts were more common than white matter lesions and hippocampal atrophy and were inversely associated with verbal fluency. Conclusions: MCI may be more commonly encountered in private hospital settings probably due to early referrals. It is possible to diagnose and subtype MCI using a brief cognitive instrument such as the CONCOG. In this sample, lacunar infarcts were more commonly encountered than medial temporal atrophy in such patients.

  7. Modulatory effects of acupuncture on brain networks in mild cognitive impairment patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ting-ting; Wang, Dan; Huang, Ju-ke; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Yuan, Xu; Liang, Jiu-ping; Yin, Liang; Xie, Hong-liang; Jia, Xin-yan; Shi, Jiao; Wang, Fang; Yang, Hao-bo; Chen, Shang-jie

    2017-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been widely used to investigate the effects of acupuncture on neural activity. However, most functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have focused on acute changes in brain activation induced by acupuncture. Thus, the time course of the therapeutic effects of acupuncture remains unclear. In this study, 32 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into two groups, where they received either Tiaoshen Yizhi acupuncture or sham acupoint acupuncture. The needles were either twirled at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints, including Sishencong (EX-HN1), Yintang (EX-HN3), Neiguan (PC6), Taixi (KI3), Fenglong (ST40), and Taichong (LR3), or at related sham acupoints at a depth of approximately 15 mm, an angle of ± 60°, and a rate of approximately 120 times per minute. Acupuncture was conducted for 4 consecutive weeks, five times per week, on weekdays. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that connections between cognition-related regions such as the insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, inferior parietal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex increased after acupuncture at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints. The insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus acted as central brain hubs. Patients in the Tiaoshen Yizhi group exhibited improved cognitive performance after acupuncture. In the sham acupoint acupuncture group, connections between brain regions were dispersed, and we found no differences in cognitive function following the treatment. These results indicate that acupuncture at Tiaoshen Yizhi acupoints can regulate brain networks by increasing connectivity between cognition-related regions, thereby improving cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

  8. Cognitive Training in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin Yan; LI Li; XIAO Jia Qing; HE Chang Zhi; LYU Xiu Lin; GAO Lei; YANG Xiao Wei; CUI Xin Gang; FAN Li Hua

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveWe investigated the feasibility and efficacy of cognitive training for older adults in rural settings and with low education levels, who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MethodsForty-five older adults (ages >65 years) with MCI were assigned to treatment or control groups, at a 2:1 ratio. Cognitivetraining occurred in the treatment group for 2 months. The cognitive abilities of the participants were assessed at pre-training, metaphase, and post-training time points, using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D). ResultsFollowing training, cognitive abilities improved in the treatment group, based on the total scores of all 4 measures, as well as specifically on the MoCA and LOTCA. There were differences in the main effects of group and time point on some subscales, but these differences had little, if any, effect on the overall analyses. ConclusionThe present study demonstrated that cognitive training has beneficial effects on attention, language, orientation, visual perception, organization of visual movement, and logical questioning in patients with MCI. Furthermore, the observed effects are long-term changes.

  9. Probabilistic Sequence Learning in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezso eNemeth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI causes slight but noticeable disruption in cognitive systems, primarily executive and memory functions. However, it is not clear if the development of sequence learning is affected by an impaired cognitive system and, if so, how. The goal of our study was to investigate the development of probabilistic sequence learning, from the initial acquisition to consolidation, in MCI and healthy elderly control groups. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task (ASRT to measure probabilistic sequence learning. Individuals with MCI showed weaker learning performance than the healthy elderly group. However, using the reaction times only from the second half of each learning block – after the reactivation phase - we found intact learning in MCI. Based on the assumption that the first part of each learning block is related to reactivation/recall processes, we suggest that these processes are affected in MCI. The 24-hour offline period showed no effect on sequence-specific learning in either group but did on general skill learning: the healthy elderly group showed offline improvement in general reaction times while individuals with MCI did not. Our findings deepen our understanding regarding the underlying mechanisms and time course of sequence acquisition and consolidation.

  10. Which part of the Quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci) discriminates between normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment and dementia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Caoimh, Rónán

    2013-05-01

    the Qmci is a sensitive and specific test to differentiate between normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the subtests of the Qmci to determine which best discriminated NC, MCI and dementia.

  11. Mild Cognitive Impairment Status and Mobility Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette; Holt, Nicole E; Grande, Laura

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mobility limitations is high among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCI status and both performance-based and self-report measures of mobility in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS......MCI), nonmemory domains (naMCI), and multiple domains (mdMCI). Linear regression models were used to assess the association between MCI status and mobility performance in the Habitual Gait Speed, Figure of 8 Walk, Short Physical Performance Battery, and self-reported Late Life Function and Disability Instrument......). All MCI subtypes performed significantly worse than No-MCI on all mobility measures (p Figure of 8 Walk (p = .054) and Basic Lower Extremity (p = .11). Moreover, compared with aMCI, mdMCI manifested worse performance on the Figure of 8 Walk and Short...

  12. A Combined Training Program for Veterans with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Did not have sedentary lifestyle for the past six months E15 2% (N=1) Unwilling to participate for 8 months E_Other 23% (N=11) Participants did not...and functional status  E13  Did not have sufficient visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing  E14*  Did not have  sedentary ... lifestyle  for past sixth months (defined as ណ minutes of structured  physical activity < three times a week in past six months).   E15  Did not have

  13. Characteristics of Agraphia in Chinese Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study confirmed that agraphia is an important feature in patients with AD. The writing error profile in patients whose native language is Chinese was unique compared to patients using the alphabetic language system.

  14. A Combined Training Program for Veterans with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    educate providers in neurology, primary care, neuropsychology, psychiatry, and psychology about the study and the inclusion/exclusion criteria. We have...position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. Palo Alto Institute for Research & Education , Inc. Palo Alto, CA 94303... physical exercise; intervention; older adults 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  15. A Combined Training Program for Veterans with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Medical Media at the VA Palo Alto at no cost to the project. We have also placed recurring advertisements in two local newsletters, each of which is... Facebook page as well as the weekly newsletter distributed to staff. We continued our recruitment efforts to those veterans outside of the VA health...mailings to veterans across the Bay Area in Santa Clara and San Mateo County. Postcards advertising our study were sent out to thousands of veterans

  16. A Combined Training Program for Veterans with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Figure 4. Quality of Life: Positive 10 Figure. 5 Quality of Life: Negative Figure 6: Quality of Life: Self - Esteem ...Association (www.alz.org). Information regarding the study has been placed on the VA Palo Alto’s Facebook page as well as the weekly newsletter...through electronic medical review. Those selected for review were through VA clinics, provider referral, or self -referral. Of those 699 individuals

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Small Hippocampal Volume Accelerate the Progression to Dementia from Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Ku; Plitman, Eric; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Caravaggio, Fernando; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Gerretsen, Philip; Iwata, Yusuke; Patel, Raihaan; Mulsant, Benoit H; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have highlighted that decreased hippocampal volume, an early neural correlate of dementia, is commonly observed in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is unclear whether neurodegenerative and resultant clinical trajectories are accelerated in MCI patients with concomitant depressive symptoms, leading to a faster conversion to dementia stages than those who are not depressed. No longitudinal study has investigated whether depressed amnestic MCI (DEP+aMCI) patients show an earlier onset of progression to dementia than non-depressed amnestic MCI (DEP-aMCI) patients and whether progressive hippocampal volume reductions are related in the conversion process. Using data from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, we examined 2-year follow-up data from 38 DEP+aMCI patients and 38 matched DEP-aMCI patients and compared their ages of conversion from aMCI to AD and trajectories of progressive hippocampal volume changes. DEP+ and DEP- patients were defined as having baseline Geriatric Depression Scale scores of 5 or above and 0, respectively. DEP+ converters showed earlier ages of conversion to dementia (p = 0.009) and greater left hippocampal volume loss than both DEP- converters and DEP+ non-converters over the 2-year period (p = 0.003, p = 0.001, respectively). These findings could not be explained by changes in total brain volume, differences in their clinical symptoms of dementia, daily functioning, or apolipoprotein E4 genotypes. No difference in conversion rate to dementia or progressive hippocampal volume change was found between DEP+ patients and DEP-patients, which suggested depressive symptoms themselves may not lead to progression of dementia from MCI. In conclusion, there is a synergistic effect of depressive symptoms and smaller left hippocampal volume in MCI patients that accelerates conversion to dementia.

  18. Deterioration of semantic associative relationships in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Nicoletta; Di Giacomo, Dina; Aloisio, Federica; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study semantic abilities and their loss in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in dementia, while analyzing efficiency in the use of associative relations, within verbal and visuoperceptual modalities. Participants were split into 4 groups: 19 participants with amnestic MCI, 16 patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD), 20 patients with moderate AD, and 20 healthy controls (HCs). All participants performed standardized neuropsychological tests and experimental (naming and semantic associations) tasks to evaluate verbal and visuoperceptual semantic abilities. We analyzed 4 associative relations (part/whole, function, superordinate, and contiguity) in both verbal and visuoperceptual code. Our results suggest a progressive impairment in semantic categorization knowledge, with worse performance in the AD groups relative to the MCI and HC groups. Our data show a different pattern in the 4 associative relations and the involvement of associative semantic relations already in the early stage of disease, as well as a different pattern of deterioration between verbal and visuoperceptual modalities. Our data indicate that the visuoperceptual semantic network appears to be less deteriorated than the verbal network in AD. The verbal semantic network may be more sensitive in detecting patients at an early stage of the disease.

  19. Model-based physiomarkers of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarelis, V Z; Shin, D C; Orme, M E; Zhang, R

    2014-05-01

    In our previous studies, we have introduced model-based "functional biomarkers" or "physiomarkers" of cerebral hemodynamics that hold promise for improved diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). The advocated methodology utilizes subject-specific data-based dynamic nonlinear models of cerebral hemodynamics to compute indices (serving as possible diagnostic physiomarkers) that quantify the state of cerebral blood flow autoregulation to pressure-changes (CFAP) and cerebral CO2 vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) in each subject. The model is estimated from beat-to-beat measurements of mean arterial blood pressure, mean cerebral blood flow velocity and end-tidal CO2, which can be made reliably and non-invasively under resting conditions. In a previous study, it was found that a CVMR index quantifying the impairment in CO2 vasomotor reactivity correlates with clinical indications of early AD, offering the prospect of a potentially useful diagnostic tool. In this paper, we explore the use of the same model-based indices for patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a preclinical stage of AD, relative to a control subjects and clinical cognitive assessments. It was found that the model-based CVMR values were lower for MCI patients relative to the control subjects.

  20. Cerebral and blood correlates of reduced functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escamilla, Gabriel; Atienza, Mercedes; Garcia-Solis, David; Cantero, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that decreased functional connectivity in cortical networks precedes clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although our knowledge about cerebral and biological correlates of this phenomenon is limited. To shed light on this issue, we have investigated whether resting-state oscillatory connectivity patterns in healthy older (HO) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects are related to anatomical grey matter (GM) and functional (2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET) changes of neuroelectric sources of alpha rhythms, and/or to changes in plasma amyloid-beta (Aβ) and serum lipid levels, blood markers tied to AD pathogenesis and aging-related cognitive decline. We found that aMCI subjects showed decreased levels of cortical connectivity, reduced FDG-PET intake of the precuneus, and GM atrophy of the thalamus, together with higher levels of Aβ and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) compared to HO. Interestingly, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were positively correlated with the strength of neural-phase coupling in aMCI subjects, and increased triglycerides accompanied bilateral GM loss in the precuneus of aMCI subjects. Together, these findings provide peripheral blood correlates of reduced resting-state cortical connectivity in aMCI, supported by anatomo-functional changes in cerebral sources of alpha rhythms. This framework constitutes an integrated approach to assess functional changes in cortical networks through neuroimaging and peripheral blood markers during early stages of neurodegeneration.

  1. Validation of the Argentine version of the Memory Binding Test (MBT for Early Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Roman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: "Forgetfulness" is frequent in normal aging and characteristic of the early stages of dementia syndromes. The episodic memory test is central for detecting amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The Memory Binding Test (MBT is a simple, easy and brief memory test to detect the early stage of episodic memory impairment. Objective: To validate the Argentine version of the MBT in a Latin American population and to estimate the diagnostic accuracy as a tool for early detection of MCI. Methods: 88 subjects (46 healthy controls and 42 patients with amnestic MCI matched for age and educational level were evaluated by an extensive neuropsychological battery and the memory binding test. Results: A significantly better performance was detected in the control group; all MBT scales were predictive of MCI diagnosis (p<.01. The MBT showed high sensitivity (69% and high specificity (88%, with a PPV of 93% and a NPV of 55% for associative paired recall. A statistically significant difference (c2=14,164, p<.001 was obtained when comparing the area under the curve (AUC of the MBT (0.88 and the MMSE (0.70. Conclusion: The Argentine version of the MBT correlated significantly with the MMSE and the memory battery and is a useful tool in the detection of MCI. The operating characteristics of the MBT are well suited, surpassing other tests commonly used for detecting MCI.

  2. Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Liepelt-Scarfone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparable to Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI is associated with an increased risk for dementia. However different definitions of PD-MCI may have varying predictive accuracy for dementia. In a cohort of 101 nondemented Parkinson patients who underwent neuropsychological testing, the frequency of PD-MCI subjects and PD-MCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic/nonamnestic was determined by use of varying healthy population-based cut-off values. We also investigated the association between defined PD-MCI groups and ADL scales. Varying cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI were found to affect frequency of PD-MCI subjects (9.9%–92.1% and, maybe more important, lead to a “shift” of proportion of detected PD-MCI subtypes especially within the amnestic single-domain subtype. Models using a strict cut-off value were significantly associated with lower ADL scores. Thus, the use of defined cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI is highly relevant for comparison purposes. Strict cut-off values may have a higher predictive value for dementia.

  3. Different Characteristics of Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s Disease in the Mild Cognitive Impairment Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kazui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared indices of the revised version of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R and scaled scores of the five subtests of the revised version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R in 30 elderly schizophrenia (ES patients and 25 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients in the amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI stage (AD-aMCI. In the WMS-R, attention/concentration was rated lower and delayed recall was rated higher in ES than in AD-aMCI, although general memory was comparable in the two groups. In WAIS-R, digit symbol substitution, similarity, picture completion, and block design scores were significantly lower in ES than in AD-aMCI, but the information scores were comparable between the two groups. Delayed recall and forgetfulness were less impaired, and attention, working memory and executive function were more impaired in ES than in AD-aMCI. These results should help clinicians to distinguish ES combined with AD-aMCI from ES alone.

  4. Biomarkers for dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Gago, Belén; Navalpotro-Gomez, Irene; Jiménez-Urbieta, Haritz; Rodriguez-Oroz, María C

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive decline is one of the most frequent and disabling nonmotor features of Parkinson's disease. Around 30% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience mild cognitive impairment, a well-established risk factor for the development of dementia. However, mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is a heterogeneous entity that involves different types and extents of cognitive deficits. Because it is not currently known which type of mild cognitive impairment confers a higher risk of progression to dementia, it would be useful to define biomarkers that could identify these patients to better study disease progression and possible interventions. In this sense, the identification among patients with Parkinson's disease and mild cognitive impairment of biomarkers associated with dementia would allow the early detection of this process. This review summarizes studies from the past 25 years that have assessed the potential biomarkers of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease patients. Despite the potential importance, no biomarker has as yet been validated. However, features such as low levels of epidermal and insulin-like growth factors or uric acid in plasma/serum and of Aß in CSF, reduction of cerebral cholinergic innervation and metabolism measured by PET mainly in posterior areas, and hippocampal atrophy in MRI might be indicative of distinct deficits with a distinct risk of dementia in subgroups of patients. Longitudinal studies combining the existing techniques and new approaches are needed to identify patients at higher risk of dementia. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Selective Reminding and Free and Cued Selective Reminding in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Raquel; Afonso, Ana; Martins, Cristina; Waters, James H; Blanco, Filipe Sobral; Simões, Mário R; Santana, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The Selective Reminding Test (SRT) and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) are multitrial memory tests that use a common "selective reminding" paradigm that aims to facilitate learning by presenting only the missing words from the previous recall trial. While in the FCSRT semantic cues are provided to elicit recall, in the SRT, participants are merely reminded of the missing items by repeating them. These tests have been used to assess age-related memory changes and to predict dementia. The performance of healthy elders on these tests has been compared before, and results have shown that twice as many words were retrieved from long-term memory in the FCSRT compared with the SRT. In this study, we compared the tests' properties and their accuracy in discriminating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 20) from Alzheimer disease (AD; n = 18). Patients with AD performed significantly worse than patients with aMCI on both tests. The percentage of items recalled during the learning trials was significantly higher for the FCSRT in both groups, and a higher number of items were later retrieved, showing the benefit of category cueing. Our key finding was that the FCSRT showed higher accuracy in discriminating patients with aMCI from those with AD.

  6. Demyelination in mild cognitive impairment suggests progression path to Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Carmeli

    Full Text Available The preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD - amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI - is manifested by phenotypes classified into exclusively memory (single-domain MCI (sMCI and multiple-domain MCI (mMCI. We suggest that typical MCI-to-AD progression occurs through the sMCI-to-mMCI sequence as a result of the extension of initial pathological processes. To support this hypothesis, we assess myelin content with a Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR in 21 sMCI and 21 mMCI patients and in 42 age-, sex-, and education-matched controls. A conjunction analysis revealed MTR reduction shared by sMCI and mMCI groups in the medial temporal lobe and posterior structures including white matter (WM: splenium, posterior corona radiata and gray matter (GM: hippocampus; parahippocampal and lingual gyri. A disjunction analysis showed the spread of demyelination to prefrontal WM and insula GM in executive mMCI. Our findings suggest that demyelination starts in the structures affected by neurofibrillary pathology; its presence correlates with the clinical picture and indicates the method of MCI-to-AD progression. In vivo staging of preclinical AD can be developed in terms of WM/GM demyelination.

  7. Awareness of deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Gade, Anders

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated impaired awareness of cognitive deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Very few studies have addressed this topic, and methodological inconsistencies make the comparison of previous studies difficult. From a prospective...

  8. Heterogenous mechanisms of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD-MCI) shows heterogeneity in the clinical presentation, neuropsychology, neuroimaging, and neuropathology, suggesting abnormal metabolic network activities involving several cortical and subcortical systems. Prospective studies using specific biomarkers, including amyloid imaging and CSF biomarkers are important for the diagnosis and prognostic assessment of early cognitive deficits in PD patients.

  9. A dataset of multiresolution functional brain parcellations in an elderly population with no or mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Tam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present group eight resolutions of brain parcellations for clusters generated from resting-state functional magnetic resonance images for 99 cognitively normal elderly persons and 129 patients with mild cognitive impairment, pooled from four independent datasets. This dataset was generated as part of the following study: Common Effects of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment on Resting-State Connectivity Across Four Independent Studies (Tam et al., 2015 [1]. The brain parcellations have been registered to both symmetric and asymmetric MNI brain templates and generated using a method called bootstrap analysis of stable clusters (BASC (Bellec et al., 2010 [2]. We present two variants of these parcellations. One variant contains bihemisphereic parcels (4, 6, 12, 22, 33, 65, 111, and 208 total parcels across eight resolutions. The second variant contains spatially connected regions of interest (ROIs that span only one hemisphere (10, 17, 30, 51, 77, 199, and 322 total ROIs across eight resolutions. We also present maps illustrating functional connectivity differences between patients and controls for four regions of interest (striatum, dorsal prefrontal cortex, middle temporal lobe, and medial frontal cortex. The brain parcels and associated statistical maps have been publicly released as 3D volumes, available in .mnc and .nii file formats on figshare and on Neurovault. Finally, the code used to generate this dataset is available on Github.

  10. Attention and inhibition in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Zancada-Menéndez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment is understood as a cognitive deficit of insufficient severity to fulfil the criteria for Alzheimer’s disease. Many studies have attempted to identify which cognitive functions are most affected by this type of impairment and which is the most sensitive neuropsychological test for early detection. This study investigated sustained and selective attention, processing speed, and the inhibition process using a sample of people divided into three groups mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease and cognitively healthy controls selected and grouped based on their scores in the Mini Mental State Examination and Cambridge Cognitive Examination-revised. Three tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (Motor Screening Task, Stop Signal Task and Reaction time were used as well as the d2 attention test. The results show that that participants with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease showed lower levels of concentration compared with the cognitively healthy controls group in the d2 test and longer reaction times in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, although the differences were not marked in the latter test. The impairments in basic cognitive processes, such as reaction time and sustained attention, indicate the need to take these functions into account in the test protocols when discriminating between normal aging and early and preclinical dementia processes.

  11. Measuring Information Processing Speed in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Clinical Versus Research Dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Judy; Phillips, Michelle; Newson, Margaret; Rogers, Peter J; Torrens-Burton, Anna; Tales, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A substantial body of research evidence is indicative of disproportionately slowed information processing speed in a wide range of multi-trial, computer-based, neuroimaging- and electroencephalography-based reaction time (RT) tests in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, in what is arguably a dichotomy between research evidence and clinical practice, RT associated with different brain functions is rarely assessed as part of their diagnosis. Indeed, often only the time taken to perform a single, specific task, commonly the Trail making test (TMT), is measured. In clinical practice therefore, there can be a failure to assess adequately the integrity of the rapid, serial information processing and response, necessary for efficient, appropriate, and safe interaction with the environment. We examined whether a typical research-based RT task could at least match the TMT in differentiating amnestic MCI (aMCI) from cognitively healthy aging at group level. As aMCI is a heterogeneous group, typically containing only a proportion of individuals for whom aMCI represents the early stages of dementia, we examined the ability of each test to provide intra-group performance variation. The results indicate that as well as significant slowing in performance of the operations involved in TMT part B (but not part A), individuals with aMCI also experience significant slowing in RT compared to controls. The results also suggest that research-typical RT tests may be superior to the TMT in differentiating between cognitively healthy aging and aMCI at group level and in revealing the performance variability one would expect from an etiologically heterogeneous disorder such as aMCI.

  12. Altered Topology in Information Processing of a Narrated Story in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Oren, Noga; Ash, Elissa L; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Lerner, Yulia

    2016-05-03

    The ability to store, integrate, and manipulate information declines with aging. These changes occur earlier, faster, and to a greater degree as a result of neurodegeneration. One of the most common and early characteristics of cognitive decline is difficulty with comprehension of information. The neural mechanisms underlying this breakdown of information processing are poorly understood. Using functional MRI and natural stimuli (e.g., stories), we mapped the neural mechanisms by which the human brain accumulates and processes information with increasing duration and complexity in participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy older adults. To explore the mechanisms of information processing, we measured the reliability of brain responses elicited by listening to different versions of a narrated story created by segmenting the story into words, sentences, and paragraphs and then scrambling the segments. Comparing healthy older adults and participants with aMCI revealed that in both groups, all types of stimuli similarly recruited primary auditory areas. However, prominent differences between groups were found at the level of processing long and complex stimuli. In healthy older adults, parietal and frontal regions demonstrated highly synchronized responses in both the paragraph and full story conditions, as has been previously reported in young adults. Participants with aMCI, however, exhibited a robust functional shift of long time scale processing to the pre- and post-central sulci. Our results suggest that participants with aMCI experienced a functional shift of higher order auditory information processing, possibly reflecting a functional response to concurrent or impending neuronal or synaptic loss. This observation might assist in understanding mechanisms of cognitive decline in aMCI.

  13. MRI-based comparative study of different mild cognitive impairment subtypes: protocol for an observational case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhao, Weina; Li, Siou; Yin, Changhao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) comprise the 2 main types of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The first condition generally progresses to Alzheimer's disease, whereas the second is likely to develop into vascular dementia (VD). The brain structure and function of patients with MCI differ from those of normal elderly individuals. However, whether brain structures or functions differ between these 2 MCI subtypes has not been studied. This study is designed to analyse neuroimages of brain in patients with VaMCI and aMCI using multimodality MRI (structural MRI (sMRI), functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)). Methods and analysis In this study, 80 participants diagnosed with aMCI, 80 participants diagnosed with VaMCI, and 80 age-matched, gender-matched and education-matched normal controls (NCs) will be recruited to the Hongqi Hospital of Mudanjiang Medical University, Heilongjiang, China. All participants will undergo neuroimaging and neuropsychological evaluations. The primary outcome measures will be (1) microstructural alterations revealed by multimodal MRIs, including sMRI, resting-state functional MRI and DTI; and (2) a neuropsychological evaluation, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Memory and Executive Screening (MES), trail making test, Stroop colour naming condition and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, to evaluate global cognition, memory function, attention, visuospatial skills, processing speed, executive function and emotion, respectively. Trial registration number NCT02706210; Pre-results. PMID:28274963

  14. Everyday Cognition scale items that best discriminate between and predict progression from clinically normal to mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Zoller, Amy S.; Kelly, Kathleen E.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) starts as individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) transition to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. However, most IADL scales have not shown IADL alterations in clinically normal (CN) elderly. The objective of this study was to determine which of the IADL-related Everyday Cognition (ECog) scale items are most sensitive for detection of early functional changes. Methods We assessed 290 CN and 495 MCI participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We performed logistic regression analyses predicting the probability of CN vs. MCI diagnosis using only the 17 participant-based and 17 informant-based ECog items related to IADL. We then performed Cox regression analyses to predict progression from CN to MCI. All analyses were adjusted for demographic characteristics. Results We found that worse performance on “remembering a few shopping items” (participant and informant-based p<0.0001), “remembering appointments” (participant and informant-based p<0.0001), “developing a schedule in advance of anticipated events” (participant-based p=0.007), “balancing checkbook” (participant-based p=0.02), and “keeping mail and papers organized” (informant-based p=0.002) best discriminated MCI from CN. We found that worse performance on “keeping mail and papers organized” (participant-based Hazard Ratio (HR)=2.27, p=0.07) marginally predicted greater hazard of progressing from CN to MCI. Conclusions Our results indicate that a few simple questions targeting early functional changes, addressed either to the individual or informant, can effectively distinguish between CN elderly and individuals with MCI. Additionally, one of the above questions related to organization suggested which CN individuals are likely to progress to MCI. PMID:25274110

  15. Transfer and maintenance effects of online working-memory training in normal ageing and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Anouk; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Dautzenberg, Paul L J; Kessels, Roy P C

    2016-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is one of the cognitive functions that is susceptible to ageing-related decline. Interventions that are able to improve WM functioning at older age are thus highly relevant. In this pilot study, we explored the transfer effects of core WM training on the WM domain and other cognitive domains in 23 healthy older adults and 18 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Performance on neuropsychological tests was assessed before and after completion of the online five-week adaptive WM training, and after a three-month follow-up period. After training, both groups improved on the Digit Span and Spatial Span, gains that were maintained at follow-up. At an individual level, a limited number of participants showed reliable training gain. Healthy older adults, and to a lesser extent MCI patients, additionally improved on figural fluency at group level, but not at individual level. Results furthermore showed that global brain atrophy and hippocampal atrophy, as assessed by MRI, may negatively affect training outcome. Our study examined core WM training, showing gains on trained and untrained tasks within the WM domain, but no broad generalisation to other cognitive domains. More research is needed to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to identify participant characteristics that are predictive of training gain.

  16. Mild cognitive impairment is not “mild” at all in altered activation of episodic memory brain networks: evidence from ALE meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyun Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study conducted a quantitative meta-analysis aiming at assessing consensus across the functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and elucidating consistent activation patterns. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE was conducted on the functional neuroimaging studies of episodic encoding and retrieval in aMCI individuals published up to March 31, 2015. Analyses covered 24 studies, which yielded 770 distinct foci. Compared to healthy controls, aMCI individuals showed statistically significant consistent activation differences in a widespread episodic memory network, not only in the bilateral medial temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex, but also in the angular gyrus, precunes, posterior cingulate cortex, and even certain more basic structures. The present ALE meta-analysis revealed that the abnormal patterns of widespread episodic memory network indicated that individuals with aMCI may not be completely mild in nature.

  17. Changes of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haoze; Zhou, Peng; Alcauter, Sarael; Chen, Yuanyuan; Cao, Hongbao; Tian, Miao; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hongzhi; Wang, Xuemin; Zhao, Xin; He, Feng; Ni, Hongyan; Gao, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits of working memory, attention, language and many other cognitive functions. Although different stages of the disease are relatively well characterized by clinical criteria, stage-specific pathological changes in the brain remain relatively poorly understood, especially at the level of large-scale functional networks. In this study, we aimed to characterize the potential disruptions of large-scale functional brain networks based on a sample including amnestic mild cognition impairment (aMCI) and AD patients to help delineate the underlying stage-dependent AD pathology. Approach. We sought to identify the neural connectivity mechanisms of aMCI and AD through examination of both intranetwork and internetwork interactions among four of the brain’s key networks, namely dorsal attention network (DAN), default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN) and salience network (SAL). We analyzed functional connectivity based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from 25 Alzheimer’s disease patients, 20 aMCI patients and 35 elderly normal controls (NC). Main results. Intranetwork functional disruptions within the DAN and ECN were detected in both aMCI and AD patients. Disrupted intranetwork connectivity of DMN and anti-correlation between DAN and DMN were observed in AD patients. Moreover, aMCI-specific alterations in the internetwork functional connectivity of SAL were observed. Significance. Our results confirmed previous findings that AD pathology was related to dysconnectivity both within and between resting-state networks but revealed more spatial details. Moreover, the SAL network, reportedly flexibly coupling either with the DAN or DMN networks during different brain states, demonstrated interesting alterations specifically in the early stage of the disease.

  18. Efficacy of Cellex in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Abusueva; M. A. Evzel’man; P R Kamchatnov; Kh. Yu. Umarova

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cognitive disorders may often lead to professional invalidisation and increasing dependence on the external assistance in every day life. Identification of patients with preserved intellectual status and social adaptation but with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be an effective measure. MCI detection and timely initiation of treatment in most patients is essential to delay the onset of severe dementia.Objective. Investigating influence of Cellex in patients with c...

  19. Cognitive Rehabilitation for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-08

    Cate Miller, Dr. Maria Mouratidis, Dr. George Prigatano, Dr. Carole Roth, LTC Michael Russell, LT Rick Schobitz, Dr. Joel Scholten, CAPT Edward Simmer...comprehensive reviews, approaches based on repetitive drills, "memory as a muscle," have shown little evidence of efficacy ( Rees , 2007; Schutz 2007...neuropsychological rehabilitation program. Neuropsychology, 6, 395-415. Rees , L., Marshall, S., Hartridge, C., Mackie, D., & Weiser, M. (2007). Cognitive

  20. Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

  1. Predictors of functional disability in mild cognitive impairment and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, M. E.; Koek, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Knowledge about factors predicting functional disability in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia would help health care providers to identify those patients who are at high risk of functional disability. Previous research is scarce and focused on only a small number of possible pre

  2. Adenosine A2A Receptor and IL-10 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Arosio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine suppresses immune responses through the A2A receptor (A2AR. This study investigated the interleukin 10 (IL-10 genetic profile and the expression of A2AR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Alzheimer disease (AD, and age-matched controls to verify, if they may help distinguish different forms of cognitive decline. We analyzed the IL-10 genotype and the expression of A2AR in 41 subjects with AD, 10 with amnestic MCI (a-MCI, 49 with multiple cognitive domain MCI (mcd-MCI, and 46 controls. There was a significant linear increase in A2AR mRNA levels and A2AR density from mcd-MCI to a-MCI, with intermediate levels being found in AD. The IL-10 AA genotype frequency was 67% in a-MCI, 46% in AD, 35% in mcd-MCI, and 20% in controls. These data suggest that the assessment of the IL-10 genotype and the expression of A2AR in PBMCs may be a valuable means of differentiating between a-MCI and mcd-MCI.

  3. Different patterns of white matter degeneration using multiple diffusion indices and volumetric data in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sousa Alves

    Full Text Available Alzheimeŕs disease (AD represents the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that causes cognitive decline in old age. In its early stages, AD is associated with microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM. In the current study, multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and brain volumetric measurements were employed to comprehensively investigate the landscape of AD pathology. The sample comprised 58 individuals including cognitively normal subjects (controls, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD patients. Relative to controls, both MCI and AD subjects showed widespread changes of anisotropic fraction (FA in the corpus callosum, cingulate and uncinate fasciculus. Mean diffusivity and radial changes were also observed in AD patients in comparison with controls. After controlling for the gray matter atrophy the number of regions of significantly lower FA in AD patients relative to controls was decreased; nonetheless, unique areas of microstructural damage remained, e.g., the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus. Despite sample size limitations, the current results suggest that a combination of secondary and primary degeneration occurrs in MCI and AD, although the secondary degeneration appears to have a more critical role during the stages of disease involving dementia.

  4. Cognitive bibliotherapy for mild and moderate adolescent depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, J; Scogin, F; McKendree-Smith, N; Lyman, R D

    1998-08-01

    The efficacy of cognitive bibliotherapy for adolescents experiencing mild and moderate depressive symptomatology was examined with a group of 22 community-dwelling adolescents. Cognitive bibliotherapy was determined to be superior to a delayed-treatment control condition. The treatment produced both statistically and clinically significant improvements in depressive symptoms. Treatment gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up. A significant decrease in dysfunctional thoughts, but not in negative automatic thoughts, was found after treatment. These results contribute to converging evidence on the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatments for adolescents experiencing depressive symptoms.

  5. SPECT imaging of GABA{sub A}/benzodiazepine receptors and cerebral perfusion in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappata, Sabina; Varrone, Andrea; Vicidomini, Caterina; Sansone, Valeria; Comerci, Marco; Panico, Maria Rosaria; Quarantelli, Mario [CNR, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Milan, Graziella; De Falco, Caterina; Lore, Elisa; Postiglione, Alfredo [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Naples (Italy); Iavarone, Alessandro [Neurologic and Stroke Unit, CTO Hospital, Naples (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [CNR, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The involvement of neocortical and limbic GABA{sub A}/benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial and mainly reported in advanced stages. The status of these receptors in the very early stages of AD is unclear and has not been explored in vivo. Our aims were to investigate in vivo the integrity of cerebral cortical GABA{sub A}/BZD receptors in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to compare possible receptor changes to those in cerebral perfusion. [{sup 123}I]Iomazenil and [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO SPECT images were acquired in 16 patients with amnestic MCI and in 14 normal elderly control subjects (only [{sup 123}I]iomazenil imaging in 5, only [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO imaging in 4, and both [{sup 123}I]iomazenil and [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO imaging in 5). Region of interest (ROI) analysis and voxel-based analysis were performed with cerebellar normalization. Neither ROI analysis nor voxel-based analysis showed significant [{sup 123}I]iomazenil binding changes in MCI patients compared to control subjects, either as a whole group or when considering only those patients with MCI that converted to AD within 2 years of clinical follow-up. In contrast, the ROI analysis revealed significant hypoperfusion of the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex in the whole group of MCI patients and in MCI converters as compared to control subjects. Voxel-based analysis showed similar results. These results indicate that in the very early stages of AD, neocortical and limbic neurons/synapses expressing GABA{sub A}/BZD receptors are essentially preserved. They suggest that in MCI patients functional changes precede neuronal/synaptic loss in neocortical posterior regions and that [{sup 99m}Tc]HMPAO rCBF imaging is more sensitive than [{sup 123}I]iomazenil GABA{sub A}/BZD receptor imaging in detecting prodromal AD. (orig.)

  6. Guiding functional connectivity estimation by structural connectivity in MEG: an application to discrimination of conditions of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Pardo, José Angel; Bruña, Ricardo; Woolrich, Mark; Marcos, Alberto; Nobre, Anna C; Maestú, Fernando; Vidaurre, Diego

    2014-11-01

    Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were multiple-domain amnestic MCI. An atlas-based anatomical parcellation of 66 regions was obtained for each subject, and time series were assigned to each of the regions. The fiber densities between the regions, obtained with deterministic tractography from diffusion-weighted MRI, were used to define the anatomical connectivity. Precision matrices were obtained with the region specific time series in five different frequency bands. We compared our method with the traditional GL and a functional adaptive version of the GL, in terms of log-likelihood and classification accuracies between the three groups. We conclude that introducing an anatomical prior improves the expressivity of the model and, in most cases, leads to a better classification between groups.

  7. Cognitive based interventions for elderly people with mild cognitive impairement: Review of effects and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima González Palau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in the percentage of older adults, as well as degenerative diseases, there is growing interest in the determination of effective psychosocial approaches aimed to subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Recent experimental studies indicate positive effects of cognitive interventions in population with DCL in both, traditional methods and computer based interventions. The present review provides a systematic analysis of the literature in order to assess the effect and scope of actual non-pharmacological cognitive interventions, aimed to older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

  8. Sleep disturbance in mild cognitive impairment is associated with alterations in the brain's default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Andrew C; Lagopoulos, Jim; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron; Hickie, Ian B; Batchelor, Jennifer; Lewis, Simon J G; Duffy, Shantel; Shine, James M; Naismith, Sharon L

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sleep disturbance, relative to those with MCI and no sleep disturbance. A control group was included to aid in identifying DMN changes specific to MCI. A cross-sectional, single-center study was performed at the Brain and Mind Research Centre in Sydney, Australia. Participants (95 adults over the age of 65: 38 controls and 57 meeting criteria for MCI) underwent resting-state functional MRI along with comprehensive neuropsychological, medical, and psychiatric assessment. Self-report data were collected including sleep quality assessment via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. A total score of greater than 5 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to signify the presence of significant sleep disturbance, as per commonly used methodology. Using this criterion, 53% (n = 30) of our MCI group were classified as sleep-disturbed. Whereas the total group of MCI subjects and controls demonstrated no significant differences, sleep-disturbed MCIs demonstrated increased connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, and decreased connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the temporoparietal junction relative to sleep-disturbed controls. Relative to those MCIs without sleep disturbance, sleep-disturbed MCI participants demonstrated significantly diminished DMN connectivity between temporal and parietal regions, a finding that was particularly pronounced in amnestic MCI. Sleep disturbance in MCI is associated with distinct alterations in DMN functional connectivity in brain regions underpinning salient memory and sleep systems. Future studies may build on these results via experimental manipulation and objective measurement of sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. A nationwide survey on the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Moon Doo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Shin-Kyum; Kim, Jeong Lan; Moon, Seok Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Woo, Jong Inn; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Yoon, Jong Chul; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Dong Young; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Seok Bum; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Jun-Young; Lee, Chang-Uk; Chang, Sung Man; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the factors associate with risk of dementia from a representative nationwide sample of Korean elders. 8,199 randomly-sampled Koreans aged 65 years or older were invited to participate in the Phase I screening assessment using Mini-Mental State Examination by door-to-door home visit, and 6,141 subjects (response rate = 74.9%) responded. Among them, 2,336 subjects were invited to participate in the Phase II diagnostic assessment for dementia and MCI, and 1,673 subjects responded (response rate = 71.6%). Diagnostic assessments were administered using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) Clinical Assessment Battery. The CERAD-K Neuropsychological Assessment Battery was used for diagnosing MCI. Age-, gender-, education-, and urbanicity-standardized prevalence of dementia was estimated to be 8.1% (95% CI = 6.9-9.2) for overall dementia and 24.1% (95% CI = 21.0-27.2) for MCI. Alzheimer's disease (AD) was the most prevalent type (5.7%) followed by vascular dementia (2.0%). Amnestic subtype (20.1%) was much more prevalent than nonamnestic subtype in MCI (4.0%). Older age, being male, lower education level, illiteracy, smoking, and histories of head trauma or depression were associated with increased dementia risk, and alcohol use and moderately intense exercise were associated with decreased dementia risk. We expect numbers of dementia patients to double every 20 years until 2050 in Korea and expect AD to account for progressively more dementia cases in the future.

  10. Brain imaging of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhao Yin; Siou Li; Weina Zhao; Jiachun Feng

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing prevalence of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease has the potential to create a major worldwide healthcare crisis. Structural MRI studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are currently attracting considerable interest. It is extremely important to study early structural and metabolic changes, such as those in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and gray matter structures in the medial temporal lobe, to allow the early detection of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The microstructural integrity of white matter can be studied with diffusion tensor imaging. Increased mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy are found in subjects with white matter damage. Functional imaging studies with positron emission tomography tracer compounds enable detection of amyloid plaques in the living brain in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we will focus on key findings from brain imaging studies in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, including structural brain changes studied with MRI and white matter changes seen with diffusion tensor imaging, and other specific imaging methodologies will also be discussed.

  11. Deficits in narrative discourse elicited by visual stimuli are already present in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Cláudia; Coutinho, Gabriel; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Assunção, Naima; Teldeschi, Alina; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Mattos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Language batteries used to assess the skills of elderly individuals, such as naming and semantic verbal fluency, present some limitations in differentiating healthy controls from patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Deficits in narrative discourse occur early in dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the narrative discourse abilities of a-MCI patients are poorly documented. The present study sought to propose and evaluate parameters for investigating narrative discourse in these populations. After a pilot study of 30 healthy subjects who served as a preliminary investigation of macro- and micro-linguistic aspects, 77 individuals (patients with AD and a-MCI and a control group) were evaluated. The experimental task required the participants to narrate a story based on a sequence of actions visually presented. The Control and AD groups differed in all parameters except narrative time and the total number of words recalled. The a-MCI group displayed mild discursive difficulties that were characterized as an intermediate stage between the Control and AD groups' performances. The a-MCI and Control groups differed from the AD group with respect to global coherence, discourse type and referential cohesion. The a-MCI and AD groups were similar to one another but differed from the Control group with respect to the type of words recalled, the repetition of words in the same sentence, the narrative structure and the inclusion of irrelevant propositions in the narrative. The narrative parameter that best distinguished the three groups was the speech effectiveness index. The proposed task was able to reveal differences between healthy controls and groups with cognitive decline. According to our findings, patients with a-MCI already present narrative deficits that are characterized by mild discursive difficulties that are less severe than those found in patients with AD. PMID:26074814

  12. Deficits in narrative discourse elicited by visual stimuli are already present in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Cláudia eDrummond

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Language batteries used to assess the skills of elderly individuals, such as naming and semantic verbal fluency, present some limitations in differentiating healthy controls from patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI. Deficits in narrative discourse occur early in dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and the narrative discourse abilities of a-MCI patients are poorly documented. The present study sought to propose and evaluate parameters for investigating narrative discourse in these populations. After a pilot study of 30 healthy subjects who served as a preliminary investigation of macro- and microlinguistic aspects, 77 individuals (patients with AD and a-MCI and a control group were evaluated. The experimental task required the participants to narrate a story based on a sequence of actions visually presented. The Control and AD groups differed in all parameters except narrative time and the total number of words recalled. The a-MCI group displayed mild discursive difficulties that were characterized as an intermediate stage between the Control and AD groups’ performances. The a-MCI and Control groups differed from the AD group with respect to global coherence, discourse type and referential cohesion. The a-MCI and AD groups were similar to one another but differed from the Control group with respect to the type of words recalled, the repetition of words in the same sentence, the narrative structure and the inclusion of irrelevant propositions in the narrative. The narrative parameter that best distinguished the three groups was the speech effectiveness index. The proposed task was able to reveal differences between healthy controls and groups with cognitive decline. According to our findings, patients with a-MCI already present narrative deficits that are characterized by mild discursive difficulties that are less severe than those found in patients with AD.

  13. Depressive Symptoms are the Main Predictor for Subjective Sleep Quality in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment--A Controlled Study.

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    Stefan Seidel

    Full Text Available Controlled data on predictors of subjective sleep quality in patients with memory complaints are sparse. To improve the amount of comprehensive data on this topic, we assessed factors associated with subjective sleep quality in patients from our memory clinic and healthy individuals.Between February 2012 and August 2014 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and subjective cognitive decline (SCD from our memory clinic and healthy controls were recruited. Apart from a detailed neuropsychological assessment, the subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II.One hundred fifty eight consecutive patients (132 (84% MCI patients and 26 (16% SCD patients and 75 healthy controls were included in the study. Pairwise comparison of PSQI scores showed that non-amnestic MCI (naMCI patients (5.4 ± 3.5 had significantly higher PSQI scores than controls (4.3 ± 2.8, p = .003 Pairwise comparison of PSQI subscores showed that naMCI patients (1.1 ± 0.4 had significantly more "sleep disturbances" than controls (0.9 ± 0.5, p = .003. Amnestic MCI (aMCI (0.8 ± 1.2, p = .006 and naMCI patients (0.7 ± 1.2, p = .002 used "sleep medication" significantly more often than controls (0.1 ± 0.6 Both, aMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 and naMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 patients showed significantly higher BDI-II scores than healthy controls (6.1 ± 5.3. Linear regression analysis showed that the subjective sleep quality was predicted by depressive symptoms in aMCI (p < .0001 and naMCI (p < .0001 patients as well as controls (p < .0001. This means, that more depressive symptoms worsened subjective sleep quality. In aMCI patients we also found a significant interaction between depressive symptoms and global cognitive function (p = .002.Depressive symptoms were the main predictor of subjective sleep quality in MCI

  14. Cognitive Stimulation Modulates Platelet Total Phospholipases A2 Activity in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

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    Balietti, Marta; Giuli, Cinzia; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Fabbietti, Paolo; Postacchini, Demetrio; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of cognitive stimulation (CS) on platelet total phospholipases A2 activity (tPLA2A) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI_P). At baseline, tPLA2A negatively correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE_s): patients with MMSE_s cognitive conditions of MCI_P, and that CS acts selectively on subjects with a dysregulated tPLA2A.

  15. Comparing Cognitive Profiles of Licensed Drivers with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies

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    Stephanie Yamin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Alzheimer’s disease (AD and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB constitute two of the most common forms of dementia in North America. Driving is a primary means of mobility among older adults and the risk of dementia increases with advanced age. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cognitive profile of licensed drivers with mild AD and mild DLB. Method. Licensed drivers with mild AD, mild DLB, and healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests measuring general cognition, attention, visuospatial/perception, language, and cognitive fluctuations. Results. The results showed differences between healthy controls and demented participants on almost all neuropsychological measures. Participants with early DLB were found to perform significantly worse on some measures of attention and visuospatial functioning in comparison with early AD. Discussion. Future research should examine the relationship between neuropsychological measures and driving outcomes among individuals with mild AD and mild DLB.

  16. Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Takehiko Doi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years. The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results: We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p Conclusions: Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required.

  17. Validity of a novel computerized cognitive battery for mild cognitive impairment

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    Schweiger Avraham

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NeuroTrax Mindstreams computerized cognitive assessment system was designed for widespread clinical and research use in detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, the capability of Mindstreams tests to discriminate elderly with MCI from those who are cognitively healthy has yet to be evaluated. Moreover, the comparability between these tests and traditional neuropsychological tests in detecting MCI has not been examined. Methods A 2-center study was designed to assess discriminant validity of tests in the Mindstreams Mild Impairment Battery. Participants were 30 individuals diagnosed with MCI, 29 with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD, and 39 healthy elderly. Testing was with the Mindstreams battery and traditional neuropsychological tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to examine the ability of Mindstreams and traditional measures to discriminate those with MCI from cognitively healthy elderly. Between-group comparisons were made (Mann-Whitney U test between MCI and healthy elderly and between MCI and mild AD groups. Results Mindstreams outcome parameters across multiple cognitive domains significantly discriminated among MCI and healthy elderly with considerable effect sizes (p Conclusions Mindstreams tests are effective in detecting MCI, providing a comprehensive profile of cognitive function. Further, the enhanced precision and ease of use of these computerized tests make the NeuroTrax system a valuable clinical tool in the identification of elderly at high risk for dementia.

  18. Effect of Pain and Mild Cognitive Impairment on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepker, Caroline A; Leveille, Suzanne G; Pedersen, Mette Merete;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-together and separately-on performance-based and self-reported mobility outcomes in older adults in primary care with mild to moderate self-reported mobility limitations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING...... mobility, and the presence of both comorbidities was associated with the poorest status. Primary care practitioners who encounter older adults in need of mobility rehabilitation should consider screening them for pain and MCI to better inform subsequent therapeutic interventions.......: Academic community outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older in primary care enrolled in the Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study in the Elderly who were at risk of mobility decline (N = 430). MEASUREMENTS: Participants with an average score greater than three on the Brief Pain...

  19. Impaired cognitive function and mental performance in mild dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M-M G; Morley, J E

    2003-12-01

    Dehydration is a reliable predictor of impaired cognitive status. Objective data, using tests of cortical function, support the deterioration of mental performance in mildly dehydrated younger adults. Dehydration frequently results in delirium as a manifestation of cognitive dysfunction. Although, the occurrence of delirium suggests transient acute global cerebral dysfunction, cognitive impairment may not be completely reversible. Animal studies have identified neuronal mitochondrial damage and glutamate hypertransmission in dehydrated rats. Additional studies have identified an increase in cerebral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity (nitric oxide synthase, NOS) with dehydration. Available evidence also implicates NOS as a neurotransmitter in long-term potentiation, rendering this a critical enzyme in facilitating learning and memory. With ageing, a reduction of NOS activity has been identified in the cortex and striatum of rats. The reduction of NOs synthase activity that occurs with ageing may blunt the rise that occurs with dehydration, and possibly interfere with memory processing and cognitive function. Dehydration has been shown to be a reliable predictor of increasing frailty, deteriorating mental performance and poor quality of life. Intervention models directed toward improving outcomes in dehydration must incorporate strategies to enhance prompt recognition of cognitive dysfunction.

  20. Prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease based on bayesian data mining with ensemble learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Young, K; Chao, L L; Miller, B; Yaffe, K; Weiner, M W; Herskovits, E H

    2012-03-01

    Prediction of disease progress is of great importance to Alzheimer disease (AD) researchers and clinicians. Previous attempts at constructing predictive models have been hindered by undersampling, and restriction to linear associations among variables, among other problems. To address these problems, we propose a novel Bayesian data-mining method called Bayesian Outcome Prediction with Ensemble Learning (BOPEL). BOPEL uses a Bayesian-network representation with boosting, to allow the detection of nonlinear multivariate associations, and incorporates resampling-based feature selection to prevent over-fitting caused by undersampling. We demonstrate the use of this approach in predicting conversion to AD in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), based on structural magnetic-resonance and magnetic-resonance- spectroscopy data. This study includes 26 subjects with amnestic MCI: the converter group (n = 8) met MCI criteria at baseline, but converted to AD within five years, whereas the non-converter group (n = 18) met MCI criteria at baseline and at follow-up. We found that BOPEL accurately differentiates MCI converters from non-converters, based on the baseline volumes of the left hippocampus, the banks of the right superior temporal sulcus, the right entorhinal cortex, the left lingual gyrus, and the rostral aspect of the left middle frontal gyrus. Prediction accuracy was 0.81, sensitivity was 0.63 and specificity was 0.89. We validated the generated predictive model with an independent data set constructed from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, and again found high predictive accuracy (0.75).

  1. Apathy and Emotion-Based Decision-Making in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Sophie Bayard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Apathy and reduced emotion-based decision-making are two behavioral modifications independently described in Alzheimer’s disease (AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Objectives. The aims of this study were to investigate decision-making based on emotional feedback processing in AD and aMCI and to study the impact of reduced decision-making performances on apathy. Methods. We recruited 20 patients with AD, 20 participants with aMCI, and 20 healthy controls. All participants completed the Lille apathy rating scale (LARS and the Iowa gambling task (IGT. Results. Both aMCI and AD participants had reduced performances on the IGT and were more apathetic compared to controls without any difference between aMCI and AD groups. For the entire sample, LARS initiation dimension was related to IGT disadvantageous decision-making profile. Conclusions. We provide the first study showing that both aMCI and AD individuals make less profitable decisions than controls, whereas aMCI and AD did not differ. Disadvantageous decision-making profile on the IGT was associated with higher level of apathy on the action initiation dimension. The role of an abnormal IGT performance as a risk factor for the development of apathy needs to be investigated in other clinical populations and in normal aging.

  2. Yes/no versus forced-choice recognition memory in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: patterns of impairment and associations with dementia severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lindsay R; Stricker, Nikki H; Libon, David J; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Salmon, David P; Delis, Dean C; Bondi, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Memory tests are sensitive to early identification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but less useful as the disease advances. However, assessing particular types of recognition memory may better characterize dementia severity in later stages of AD. We sought to examine patterns of recognition memory deficits in individuals with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Memory performance and global cognition data were collected from participants with AD (n = 37), MCI (n = 37), and cognitively intact older adults (normal controls, NC; n = 35). One-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) examined differences between groups on yes/no and forced-choice recognition measures. Individuals with amnestic MCI performed worse than NC and nonamnestic MCI participants on yes/no recognition, but were comparable on forced-choice recognition. AD patients were more impaired across yes/no and forced-choice recognition tasks. Individuals with mild AD (≥120 Dementia Rating Scale, DRS) performed better than those with moderate-to-severe AD (yes/no recognition. There were differences in the relationships between learning, recall, and recognition performance across groups. Although yes/no recognition testing may be sensitive to MCI, forced-choice procedures may provide utility in assessing severity of anterograde amnesia in later stages of AD. Implications for assessment of insufficient effort and malingering are also discussed.

  3. CSF cortisol in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Julius; Schaper, Karsten; Kölsch, Heike; Cvetanovska, Gabriela; Rommel, Fatima; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Dodel, Richard; Wüllner, Ullrich; Jessen, Frank

    2009-03-01

    Hypercortisolaemia occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may be involved in the AD related neurodegenerative process. In order to determine whether brain structures are exposed to high cortisol concentrations early in AD, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol in 66 subjects with AD, 33 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 34 control subjects. CSF cortisol concentrations were higher in AD subjects compared to controls (pcortisol in MCI subjects compared with controls suggesting that the increase of CSF cortisol is not an early event in the course of AD.

  4. A Potential VEP Biomarker for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Evidence from Selective Visual Deficit of Higher-Level Dorsal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takao; Horie, Shizuka; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Tanaka, Eri; Nakamura, Norimichi; Goto, Yoshinobu; Kanba, Shigenobu; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-05-23

    Visual dysfunctions are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to establish a neurophysiological biomarker for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded in aMCI patients who later developed AD (n = 15) and in healthy older (n = 15) and younger controls (n = 15). Visual stimuli were optimized to separately activate lower and higher levels of the ventral and dorsal streams. We compared VEP parameters across the three groups of participants and conducted a linear correlation analysis between VEPs and data from neuropsychological tests. We then used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to discriminate those with aMCI from those who were healthy older adults. The latency and phase of VEPs to lower-level stimuli (chromatic and achromatic gratings) were significantly affected by age but not by cognitive decline. Conversely, VEP latencies for higher-ventral (faces and kanji-words) and dorsal (kana-words and optic flow motion) stimuli were not affected by age, but they were significantly prolonged in aMCI patients. Interestingly, VEPs for higher-dorsal stimuli were related to outcomes of neuropsychological tests. Furthermore, the ROC analysis showed that the highest areas under the curve were obtained for VEP latencies in response to higher-dorsal stimuli. These results suggest aMCI-related functional impairment specific to higher-level visual processing. Further, dysfunction in the higher-level of the dorsal stream could be an early indicator of cognitive decline. Therefore, we conclude that VEPs associated with higher-level dorsal stream activity can be a sensitive biomarker for early detection of aMCI.

  5. Intraindividual Variability in Domain-Specific Cognition and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

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    Leslie Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraindividual variability among cognitive domains may predict dementia independently of interindividual differences in cognition. A multidomain cognitive battery was administered to 2305 older adult women (mean age 74 years enrolled in an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative. Women were evaluated annually for probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI for an average of 5.3 years using a standardized protocol. Proportional hazards regression showed that lower baseline domain-specific cognitive scores significantly predicted MCI (N=74, probable dementia (N=45, and MCI or probable dementia combined (N=101 and that verbal and figural memory predicted each outcome independently of all other cognitive domains. The baseline intraindividual standard deviation across test scores (IAV Cognitive Domains significantly predicted probable dementia and this effect was attenuated by interindividual differences in verbal episodic memory. Slope increases in IAV Cognitive Domains across measurement occasions (IAV Time explained additional risk for MCI and MCI or probable dementia, beyond that accounted for by interindividual differences in multiple cognitive measures, but risk for probable dementia was attenuated by mean decreases in verbal episodic memory slope. These findings demonstrate that within-person variability across cognitive domains both at baseline and longitudinally independently accounts for risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in support of the predictive utility of within-person variability.

  6. Quantitative analysis of brain metabolites in patients,with non-dementia vascular cognitive impairment and mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate metabolite changes in the brain of patients with non-dementia vascular cognitive impairment(VCIND) and mild cognitive impairment(MCI) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy(MRS)

  7. Plasma clusterin concentration is associated with longitudinal brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambisetty, Madhav; An, Yang; Kinsey, Anna; Koka, Deepthi; Saleem, Muzamil; Güntert, Andreas; Kraut, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Davatzikos, Christos; Lovestone, Simon; Resnick, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Recent genetic and proteomic studies demonstrate that clusterin/apolipoprotein-J is associated with risk, pathology, and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our main aim was to examine associations between plasma clusterin concentration and longitudinal changes in brain volume in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A secondary objective was to examine associations between peripheral concentration of clusterin and its concentration in the brain within regions that undergo neuropathological changes in AD. Non-demented individuals (N=139; mean baseline age 70.5 years) received annual volumetric MRI (912 MRI scans in total) over a mean six-year interval. Sixteen participants (92 MRI scans in total) were diagnosed during the course of the study with amnestic MCI. Clusterin concentration was assayed by ELISA in plasma samples collected within a year of the baseline MRI. Mixed effects regression models investigated whether plasma clusterin concentration was associated with rates of brain atrophy for control and MCI groups and whether these associations differed between groups. In a separate autopsy sample of individuals with AD (N=17) and healthy controls (N=4), we examined the association between antemortem clusterin concentration in plasma and postmortem levels in the superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus and cerebellum. The associations of plasma clusterin concentration with rates of change in brain volume were significantly different between MCI and control groups in several volumes including whole brain, ventricular CSF, temporal gray matter as well as parahippocampal, superior temporal and cingulate gyri. Within the MCI but not control group, higher baseline concentration of plasma clusterin was associated with slower rates of brain atrophy in these regions. In the combined autopsy sample of AD and control cases, representing a range of severity in AD pathology, we observed a significant association between clusterin concentration in the plasma and

  8. Caregivers in China: knowledge of mild cognitive impairment.

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    Baozhen Dai

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the experience and knowledge of mild cognitive impairment (MCI among Chinese family caregivers of individuals with MCI. The sample was recruited from memory clinics in Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used. Thirteen family members of individuals diagnosed with MCI participated in the study. Data analysis revealed three themes: 1 initial recognition of cognitive decline; 2 experience of the diagnosis of MCI; 3 perception of cognitive decline as a normal part of aging. While family members recognized the serious consequences of memory loss (e.g. getting lost, they would typically not take their family members to see a doctor until something specific triggered their access to the medical care system. The Chinese traditional perception of dementia as part of normal aging may serve to lessen the stigma of individuals with MCI, while the term "laonian chidai" which literally translates to "stupid, demented elderly" may exacerbate the stigma associated with individuals with MCI. It is suggested that family members' worries may be relieved by improving their access to accurate knowledge of the disease, community-based and institutional care services, and culturally appropriately words are needed for MCI.

  9. Effect of the cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive impairment and identified brain atrophy

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    Petr Nilius

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of this study was to analyse the development of cognitive functions and effect of cognitive rehabilitation on patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, as a result of brain atrophy. Design: A quantitative non-randomized intervention study on a control sample of patients. Methods: The effect was observed in a group of patients ranging 59-91 years of age (N = 36. Only patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of mild cognitive disorder diagnosed by tomography (CT that had undergone 22 sessions, were involved in the clinical sample (n = 21. The control sample (n = 15 consisted of patients without any neurological diagnosis and who did not undergo cognitive sessions. Results: The effect of cognitive rehabilitation was measured by Addenbrooke's cognitive test, revised in 2010 (ACE-R; affective changes were measured by Beck´s scale of depression BDI-2 and by a scale used to detect anxiety and depression: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Subjective change and improvement were observed using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI psychiatric scale. Changes in the functional state of patients were measured by means of the activities of daily living scale (ADL, including the instrumental version (IADL. The effect was examined in the form of entry and output tests, which were verified by statistical analysis, a significant level being p > 0.05. Conclusions: Significant differences in verbal tests and ACE-R were observed in the clinical sample of patients. Some significant changes were observed in the field of affective symptoms, according to the HADS and BDI-2. The clinical sample showed a significant improvement in subjective clinical state (CGI. The ADL and IADL questionnaires seem to have been inadequate for purpose due to their low sensitivity. The effect of cognitive rehabilitation in patients diagnosed with mild cognitive disorder can be seen and verified in comparison with the control sample

  10. DNA-repair in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholtz, Nina; Demuth, Ilja

    2013-10-01

    While the pathogenesis of the sporadic form of Alzheimer disease (late onset Alzheimer disease, LOAD) is not fully understood, it seems to be clear that a combination of genetic and environmental factors are involved and influence the course of the disease. Among these factors, elevated levels of oxidative stress have been recognized and individual differences in the capacity to deal with DNA damage caused by its effects have been the subject of numerous studies. This review summarizes the research on DNA repair proteins and genes in the context of LOAD pathogenesis and its possible prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The current status of the research in this field is discussed with respect to methodological issues which might have compromised the outcome of some studies and future directions of investigation on this subject are depicted.

  11. A depressive endophenotype of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Leigh A Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating public health problem that affects over 5.4 million Americans. Depression increases the risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and AD. By understanding the influence of depression on cognition, the potential exists to identify subgroups of depressed elders at greater risk for cognitive decline and AD. The current study sought to: 1 clinically identify a sub group of geriatric patients who suffer from depression related cognitive impairment; 2 cross validate this depressive endophenotype of MCI/AD in an independent cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data was analyzed from 519 participants of Project FRONTIER. Depression was assessed with the GDS30 and cognition was assessed using the EXIT 25 and RBANS. Five GDS items were used to create the Depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD (DepE. DepE was significantly negatively related to RBANS index scores of Immediate Memory (B=-2.22, SE=.37, p<0.001, visuospatial skills (B=-1.11, SE=0.26, p<0.001, Language (B=-1.03, SE=0.21, p<0.001, Attention (B=-2.56, SE=0.49, p<0.001, and Delayed Memory (B=-1.54, SE = 037, p<0.001, and higher DepE scores were related to poorer executive functioning (EXIT25; B=0.65, SE=0.19, p=0.001. DepE scores significantly increased risk for MCI diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% CI=1.54-2.69. Data from 235 participants in the TARCC (Texas Alzheimer's Research & Care Consortium were analyzed for cross-validation of findings in an independent cohort. The DepE was significantly related to poorer scores on all measures, and a significantly predicted of cognitive change over 12- and 24-months. CONCLUSION: The current findings suggest that a depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD exists and can be clinically identified using the GDS-30. Higher scores increased risk for MCI and was cross-validated by predicting AD in the TARCC. A key purpose for the search for distinct subgroups of individuals at risk for AD and MCI is to identify

  12. Psychological well-being in individuals with mild cognitive impairment

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    Gates N

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance

  13. Global efficiency of structural networks mediates cognitive control in Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Rok Berlot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive control has been linked to both the microstructure of individual tracts and the structure of whole-brain networks, but their relative contributions in health and disease remain unclear. Objective: To determine the contribution of both localised white matter tract damage and disruption of global network architecture to cognitive control, in older age and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI.Methods: 25 patients with MCI and 20 age, sex and intelligence-matched healthy volunteers were investigated with 3 Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Cognitive control and episodic memory were evaluated with established tests. Structural network graphs were constructed from diffusion MRI-based whole-brain tractography. Their global measures were calculated using graph theory. Regression models utilized both global network metrics and microstructure of specific connections, known to be critical for each domain, to predict cognitive scores. Results: Global efficiency and the mean clustering coefficient of networks were reduced in MCI. Cognitive control was associated with global network topology. Episodic memory, in contrast, correlated with individual temporal tracts only. Relationships between cognitive control and network topology were attenuated by addition of single tract measures to regression models, consistent with a partial mediation effect. The mediation effect was stronger in MCI than healthy volunteers, explaining 23-36% of the effect of cingulum microstructure on cognitive control performance. Network clustering was a significant mediator in the relationship between tract microstructure and cognitive control in both groups. Conclusions: The status of critical connections and large-scale network topology are both important for maintenance of cognitive control in MCI. Mediation via large-scale networks is more important in patients with MCI than healthy volunteers. This effect is domain-specific, and true for cognitive

  14. Cognitive stimulation of executive functions in mild cognitive impairment: specific efficacy and impact in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, V; Condoleo, M T; Valbusa, V; Broggio, E; Moretto, G; Gambina, G

    2015-03-01

    Executive functions play an important role in the maintenance of autonomy in day-to-day activities. Nevertheless, there is little research into specific cognitive training for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We present the results of a program which aims to teach specific strategies and metacognitive abilities in order for patients to be able to carry out attentional and executive tasks. Two groups (A and B) were compared in a cross-over design. After the first evaluation, Group A (but not B) participated in a six month cognitive stimulation program. After a second assessment, only Group B received treatment and then a final evaluation was carried out on both groups. The results show that: i) both groups improved their performance as an effect of training; ii) improvements generalized to memory and general cognitive tasks; iii) in the interval without training, Group B's performance worsened and iv) Group A partially maintained their results over time.

  15. Cognitive decline and amyloid accumulation in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivunen, Jaana; Karrasch, Mira; Scheinin, Noora M

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: The relationship between baseline (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PIB) uptake and cognitive decline during a 2-year follow-up was studied in 9 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 7 who remained with MCI. Methods: (11)C-PIB...... PET scan was conducted at baseline and cognitive assessment both at baseline and at follow-up. To obtain quantitative regional values of (11)C-PIB uptake, automated region of interest analysis was done using spatially normalized parametric ratio (region-to-cerebellar cortex) images. Results......: At baseline, there were statistically significant differences in (11)C-PIB uptake, but not in cognitive test performances between the converters and nonconverters. Memory and executive function declined only in the converters during follow-up. In the converters, lower baseline frontal (11)C-PIB uptake...

  16. Visuospatial memory and neuroimaging correlates in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitolo, Micaela; Gardini, Simona; Fasano, Fabrizio; Crisi, Girolamo; Pelosi, Annalisa; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Caffarra, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Spatial abilities decline in normal aging and decrease faster and earlier in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but these deficits are under investigated. The main goals of this study were to assess visuospatial memory abilities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), in order to verify whether these tasks might be valid as the standard cognitive test to differentiate MCI individuals from normal controls and to investigate the brain structural correlates of visuospatial deficits. Twenty MCI patients and fourteen healthy elderly controls underwent an experimental visuospatial battery, which also included self-rating spatial questionnaires, and structural MRI brain imaging. Compared to healthy elderly controls, MCI patients scored significantly worse in almost all visuospatial tasks. ROC analysis showed that visuospatial tasks had an elevated discriminant power between groups (AUC >0.90). Voxel-based morphometry analysis, compared to controls, disclosed a higher level of atrophy in frontal and medio-temporal regions and a different pattern of correlation between grey matter values and visuospatial performance, with wider distributed areas of the occipital and middle temporal cortex in the map and route learning. This study indicates that visuospatial memory tests are valid tools in completing the diagnostic evaluation of MCI.

  17. The Early Indicators of Functional Decrease in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Alexandre; Fautrelle, Lilian; Bourrelier, Julien; Rouaud, Olivier; Mourey, France

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Motor deficiency is associated with cognitive frailty in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI). In this study we aimed to test the integrity in muscle synergies involved in an arm-pointing movement in functionally unimpaired MCI patients. We hypothesized that early motor indicators exist in this population at a preclinical level. Methods: Electromyographic signals were collected for 11 muscles in 3 groups: Young Adults (YA), Older Adults (OA), and MCI patients. The OA and MCI groups presented the same functional status. Each subject performed 20 arm-pointing movements from a standing position. Results: The main differences were (1) an earlier activation of the left Obliquus internus in MCI compared with OA group, (2) an earlier activation for the MCI compared with both OA and YA. The temporal differences in muscle synergies between MCI and OA groups were linked with executive functions of MCI patients, assessed by the trail making test. Moreover, the results show a delayed activation of the right Biceps Femoris and the right Erector Spinae at l3 in MCI and OA compared with YA. Interpretation: The motor program changes highlighted in our patient MCI group suggest that discrete modifications of the motor command seem to exist even in the absence of functional impairment. Instead of showing an indication of delayed muscle activation in the MCI patients, our results highlight some early activation of several trunk muscles. PMID:27570509

  18. Hippocampal complex atrophy in poststroke and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selnes, Per; Grambaite, Ramune; Rincon, Mariano; Bjørnerud, Atle; Gjerstad, Leif; Hessen, Erik; Auning, Eirik; Johansen, Krisztina; Almdahl, Ina S; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Vegge, Kjetil; Bjelke, Börje; Fladby, Tormod

    2015-11-01

    To investigate putative interacting or distinct pathways for hippocampal complex substructure (HCS) atrophy and cognitive affection in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD), we recruited healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and poststroke patients. HCSs were segmented, and quantitative white-matter hyperintensity (WMH) load and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β concentrations were determined. The WMH load was higher poststroke. All examined HCSs were smaller in amyloid-positive MCI than in controls, and the subicular regions were smaller poststroke. Memory was reduced in amyloid-positive MCI, and psychomotor speed and executive function were reduced in poststroke and amyloid-positive MCI. Size of several HCS correlated with WMH load poststroke and with CSF amyloid-β concentrations in MCI. In poststroke and amyloid-positive MCI, neuropsychological function correlated with WMH load and hippocampal volume. There are similar patterns of HCS atrophy in CVD and early-stage AD, but different HCS associations with WMH and CSF biomarkers. WMHs add to hippocampal atrophy and the archetypal AD deficit delayed recall. In line with mounting evidence of a mechanistic link between primary AD pathology and CVD, these additive effects suggest interacting pathologic processes.

  19. Efficacy of Cellex in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Abusueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive disorders may often lead to professional invalidisation and increasing dependence on the external assistance in every day life. Identification of patients with preserved intellectual status and social adaptation but with mild cognitive impairment (MCI is considered to be an effective measure. MCI detection and timely initiation of treatment in most patients is essential to delay the onset of severe dementia.Objective. Investigating influence of Cellex in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia and MCI.Materials and methods. As a part of non-interventional observational comparative study we evaluated the results of Cellex administration in 90 patients with MCI. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Patients from both groups received 1 course of 10 subcutaneous injections of Cellex drug at the dose of 1 mL, and patients from group 2 received two identical courses with an interval of two months. The survey, which included psychometric testing by using special questionnaires (Mini-Mental State Examination, “Frontal Assessment Battery” and “Clock Drawing” tests, Schulte test was performed before treatment, and at months 1 and 2 after its completion.Results. Neuropsychological examination revealed improvement in the patients state, more pronounced after the 2nd course of therapy.Discussion. Our results provide a basis for using Cellex in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia and MCI, allowing to proceede with further studies on the optimal dosage of that drug.

  20. Interference impacts working memory in mild cognitive impairment

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    Sara Aurtenetxe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is considered a transitional stage between healthy aging and dementia, specifically Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The most common cognitive impairment of MCI includes episodic memory loss and difficulties in working memory (WM. Interference can deplete WM, and an optimal WM performance requires an effective control of attentional resources between the memoranda and the incoming stimuli. Difficulties in handling interference lead to forgetting. However, the interplay between interference and WM in MCI is not well understood and needs further investigation. The current study investigated the effect of interference during a WM task in 20 MCIs and 20 healthy elder volunteers. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample paradigm which consisted in two interference conditions, distraction and interruption, and one control condition without any interference. Results evidenced a disproportionate impact of interference on the WM performance of MCIs, mainly in the presence of interruption. These findings demonstrate that interference, and more precisely interruption, is an important proxy for memory-related deficits in MCI. Thus the current findings reveal novel evidence regarding the causes of WM forgetting in MCI patients, associated with difficulties in the mechanisms of attentional control.

  1. Interference Impacts Working Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurtenetxe, Sara; García-Pacios, Javier; del Río, David; López, María E.; Pineda-Pardo, José A.; Marcos, Alberto; Delgado Losada, Maria L.; López-Frutos, José M.; Maestú, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional stage between healthy aging and dementia, specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most common cognitive impairment of MCI includes episodic memory loss and difficulties in working memory (WM). Interference can deplete WM, and an optimal WM performance requires an effective control of attentional resources between the memoranda and the incoming stimuli. Difficulties in handling interference lead to forgetting. However, the interplay between interference and WM in MCI is not well-understood and needs further investigation. The current study investigated the effect of interference during a WM task in 20 MCIs and 20 healthy elder volunteers. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample paradigm which consisted in two interference conditions, distraction and interruption, and one control condition without any interference. Results evidenced a disproportionate impact of interference on the WM performance of MCIs, mainly in the presence of interruption. These findings demonstrate that interference, and more precisely interruption, is an important proxy for memory-related deficits in MCI. Thus, the current findings reveal novel evidence regarding the causes of WM forgetting in MCI patients, associated with difficulties in the mechanisms of attentional control. PMID:27790082

  2. Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Matthew S; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Lee, Elaine C; Yamamoto, Linda M; Marzano, Stefania; Lopez, Rebecca M; Jimenez, Liliana; Le Bellego, Laurent; Chevillotte, Emmanuel; Lieberman, Harris R

    2011-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of mild dehydration on cognitive performance and mood of young males. A total of twenty-six men (age 20·0 (sd 0·3) years) participated in three randomised, single-blind, repeated-measures trials: exercise-induced dehydration plus a diuretic (DD; 40 mg furosemide); exercise-induced dehydration plus placebo containing no diuretic (DN); exercise while maintaining euhydration plus placebo (EU; control condition). Each trial included three 40 min treadmill walks at 5·6 km/h, 5 % grade in a 27·7°C environment. A comprehensive computerised six-task cognitive test battery, the profile of mood states questionnaire and the symptom questionnaire (headache, concentration and task difficulty) were administered during each trial. Paired t tests compared the DD and DN trials resulting in >1 % body mass loss (mean 1·59 (sd 0·42) %) with the volunteer's EU trial (0·01 (sd 0·03) %). Dehydration degraded specific aspects of cognitive performance: errors increased on visual vigilance (P = 0·048) and visual working memory response latency slowed (P = 0·021). Fatigue and tension/anxiety increased due to dehydration at rest (P = 0·040 and 0·029) and fatigue during exercise (P = 0·026). Plasma osmolality increased due to dehydration (P dehydration without hyperthermia in men induced adverse changes in vigilance and working memory, and increased tension/anxiety and fatigue.

  3. Diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: Movement Disorder Society Task Force guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvan, I.; Goldman, J.G.; Tröster, A.I.; Schmand, B.A.; Weintraub, D.; Petersen, R.C.; Mollenhauer, B.; Adler, C.H.; Marder, K.; Williams-Gray, C.H.; Aarsland, D.; Kulisevsky, J.; Rodriguez-Oroz, M.C.; Burn, D.J.; Barker, R.A.; Emre, M.

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment is common in nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and may be a harbinger of dementia. In view of its importance, the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to delineate diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD. The proposed diagnostic cr

  4. Response to Algarabel et al., 2012 "Recognition memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment". Reconsidering claims of familiarity disruptions in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migo, E M; Westerberg, C E

    2014-01-01

    There is some debate over the relative impairment of recollection and familiarity in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A recent publication by Algarabel et al. (2012, Recognition memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment, Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 19, 608-619) claims to undermine previous studies reporting preserved familiarity in patients with MCI. Here, we respond to their main criticisms, concluding that they are not sufficiently supported by the data presented. The role of recollection and familiarity in MCI remains unresolved and further work will be required to disentangle the mixed literature.

  5. Sparse multivariate autoregressive modeling for mild cognitive impairment classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Jie, Biao; Peng, Ziwen; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-07-01

    Brain connectivity network derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is becoming increasingly prevalent in the researches related to cognitive and perceptual processes. The capability to detect causal or effective connectivity is highly desirable for understanding the cooperative nature of brain network, particularly when the ultimate goal is to obtain good performance of control-patient classification with biological meaningful interpretations. Understanding directed functional interactions between brain regions via brain connectivity network is a challenging task. Since many genetic and biomedical networks are intrinsically sparse, incorporating sparsity property into connectivity modeling can make the derived models more biologically plausible. Accordingly, we propose an effective connectivity modeling of resting-state fMRI data based on the multivariate autoregressive (MAR) modeling technique, which is widely used to characterize temporal information of dynamic systems. This MAR modeling technique allows for the identification of effective connectivity using the Granger causality concept and reducing the spurious causality connectivity in assessment of directed functional interaction from fMRI data. A forward orthogonal least squares (OLS) regression algorithm is further used to construct a sparse MAR model. By applying the proposed modeling to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) classification, we identify several most discriminative regions, including middle cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus and caudate regions, in line with results reported in previous findings. A relatively high classification accuracy of 91.89 % is also achieved, with an increment of 5.4 % compared to the fully-connected, non-directional Pearson-correlation-based functional connectivity approach.

  6. Prognostic value of posteromedial cortex deactivation in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Petrella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Normal subjects deactivate specific brain regions, notably the posteromedial cortex (PMC, during many tasks. Recent cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data suggests that deactivation during memory tasks is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD. The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the prognostic significance of PMC deactivation in mild cognitive impairment (MCI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 75 subjects (34 MCI, 13 AD subjects and 28 controls underwent baseline fMRI scanning during encoding of novel and familiar face-name pairs. MCI subjects were followed longitudinally to determine conversion to AD. Regression and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of PMC activation/deactivation on conversion to dementia as well as in the longitudinal change in dementia measures. At longitudinal follow up of up to 3.5 years (mean 2.5+/-0.79 years, 11 MCI subjects converted to AD. The proportion of deactivators was significantly different across all groups: controls (79%, MCI-Nonconverters (73%, MCI-converters (45%, and AD (23% (p<0.05. Mean PMC activation magnitude parameter estimates, at baseline, were negative in the control (-0.57+/-0.12 and MCI-Nonconverter (-0.33+/-0.14 groups, and positive in the MCI-Converter (0.37+/-0.40 and AD (0.92+/-0.30 groups. The effect of diagnosis on PMC deactivation remained significant after adjusting for age, education and baseline Mini-Mental State Exam (p<0.05. Baseline PMC activation magnitude was correlated with change in dementia ratings from baseline. CONCLUSION: Loss of physiological functional deactivation in the PMC may have prognostic value in preclinical AD, and could aid in profiling subgroups of MCI subjects at greatest risk for progressive cognitive decline.

  7. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Catherine E.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Guercio, Brendan J.; Wigman, Sarah E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), such as apathy and depression, commonly accompany cognitive and functional decline in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prior studies have shown associations between affective NPS symptoms and neurodegeneration of medial frontal and inferior temporal regions in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia. Objective To investigate the association between functional connectivity in four brain networks and NPS in elderly with MCI. Methods NPS were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory in 42 subjects with MCI. Resting-state functional connectivity in four networks (default mode network, fronto-parietal control network (FPCN), dorsal attention network, and ventral attention network) was assessed using seed-based magnetic resonance imaging. Factor analysis was used to identify two factors of NPS: Affective and Hyperactivity. Linear regression models were utilized with the neuropsychiatric factors as the dependent variable and the four networks as the predictors of interest. Covariates included age, sex, premorbid intelligence, processing speed, memory, head movement, and signal-to-noise ratio. These analyses were repeated with the individual items of the Affective factor, using the same predictors. Results There was a significant association between greater Affective factor symptoms and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.03). There was no association between the Hyperactivity factor and any of the networks. Secondary analyses revealed an association between greater apathy and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.005), but none in other networks. Conclusions Decreased connectivity in the FPCN may be associated with greater affective symptoms, particularly apathy, early in AD. These findings extend prior studies, using different functional imaging modalities in individuals with greater disease severity. PMID:25854929

  8. The use of metacognitive strategies to decrease false memories in source monitoring in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, Rebecca G; Nadkarni, Neil A; Tat, Michelle J; Flannery, Sean; Frustace, Bruno; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2017-02-03

    Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) often demonstrate high rates of false memories, leading to stressful and frustrating situations for both patients and caregivers in everyday life. Sometimes these false memories are due to failures in monitoring the source of the information. In the current study, we examined interventions aimed to enhance the use of the metacognitive "recall-to-reject" memory strategy. Such interventions could improve source memory and decrease false memory in patients with MCI. Because the picture superiority effect (better memory for pictures compared to words) has been shown to be present in both patients with MCI and healthy older controls, we investigated whether pictures could help patients with MCI use a recall-to-reject strategy in a simulation of real-world source memory task. In this experiment, patients with MCI and healthy older adults were asked to simulate preparing for and then taking a trip to the market. Subjects first studied 30 pictures of items in their "cupboard," followed by a list of 30 words of items on their "shopping list." At test, participants saw 90 pictures (30 cupboard, 30 list, 30 new) organized as they would be if walking down the market aisles, and are provided with either standard or metacognitive instructions. With standard instructions, they were asked if they needed to buy the item. With the metacognitive instructions, they were asked a series of questions to help guide them through a recall-to-reject strategy to highlight the different sources of memories. Results showed that the metacognitive instructions did significantly reduce the false memory rates for patients with MCI. Further studies need to investigate how to best implement these practical strategies into the everyday lives of patients.

  9. 3D characterization of brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using tensor-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D; Lee, Suh; Klunder, Andrea D; Toga, Arthur W; Lepore, Natasha; Chou, Yi-Yu; Brun, Caroline; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Barysheva, Marina; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Britson, Paula J; Ward, Chadwick P; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Borowski, Bret; Fleisher, Adam S; Fox, Nick C; Boyes, Richard G; Barnes, Josephine; Harvey, Danielle; Kornak, John; Schuff, Norbert; Boreta, Lauren; Alexander, Gene E; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-05-15

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) creates three-dimensional maps of disease-related differences in brain structure, based on nonlinearly registering brain MRI scans to a common image template. Using two different TBM designs (averaging individual differences versus aligning group average templates), we compared the anatomical distribution of brain atrophy in 40 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 healthy elderly controls, and 40 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition conferring increased risk for AD. We created an unbiased geometrical average image template for each of the three groups, which were matched for sex and age (mean age: 76.1 years+/-7.7 SD). We warped each individual brain image (N=120) to the control group average template to create Jacobian maps, which show the local expansion or compression factor at each point in the image, reflecting individual volumetric differences. Statistical maps of group differences revealed widespread medial temporal and limbic atrophy in AD, with a lesser, more restricted distribution in MCI. Atrophy and CSF space expansion both correlated strongly with Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Using cumulative p-value plots, we investigated how detection sensitivity was influenced by the sample size, the choice of search region (whole brain, temporal lobe, hippocampus), the initial linear registration method (9- versus 12-parameter), and the type of TBM design. In the future, TBM may help to (1) identify factors that resist or accelerate the disease process, and (2) measure disease burden in treatment trials.

  10. Selective brain gray matter atrophy associated with APOE ε4 and MAPT H1 in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Joaquín; Cervantes, Sebastián; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Lamet, Isabel; Pastor, Pau; Pastor, María A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to elucidate whether specific patterns of gray matter loss were associated with apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)-H1) genetic variants in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at a baseline visit. Gray matter voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1 magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed in 65 amnestic-MCI subjects. MCI APOE ε4 carriers compared with non-carriers showed increased brain atrophy in right hippocampus and rostral amygdala, superior and middle temporal gyrus, and right parietal operculum, including inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal, and supramarginal gyrus. MAPT-H1/H1 MCI carriers showed an increased bilateral atrophy in superior frontal gyri (including frontal eye fields and left prefrontal cortex) and precentral gyrus but also unilateral left atrophy in the inferior temporal gyrus and calcarine gyrus. In addition, MCI subjects carrying both APOE ε4 and MAPT-H1/H1 variants showed gray matter loss in the supplementary motor area and right pre- and postcentral gyri. The effect of APOE ε4 on gray matter loss in right hippocampus suggests that, at least in some AD sub-types, the neuronal vulnerability could be increased in the right hemisphere. The pattern of frontal gray matter loss observed among MCI MAPT H1/H1 carriers has also been found in other tauopathies, suggesting that MCI may share etiological factors with other tauopathies. Frontal and parietal cortex vulnerability was found when adding MAPT H1/H1 and APOE ε4 effects, suggesting a synergistic effect of these variants. These results could be due to changes in APOE ε4 and MAPT expression.

  11. Reorganization of functional networks in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M Buldú

    Full Text Available Whether the balance between integration and segregation of information in the brain is damaged in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI subjects is still a matter of debate. Here we characterize the functional network architecture of MCI subjects by means of complex networks analysis. Magnetoencephalograms (MEG time series obtained during a memory task were evaluated by synchronization likelihood (SL, to quantify the statistical dependence between MEG signals and to obtain the functional networks. Graphs from MCI subjects show an enhancement of the strength of connections, together with an increase in the outreach parameter, suggesting that memory processing in MCI subjects is associated with higher energy expenditure and a tendency toward random structure, which breaks the balance between integration and segregation. All features are reproduced by an evolutionary network model that simulates the degenerative process of a healthy functional network to that associated with MCI. Due to the high rate of conversion from MCI to Alzheimer Disease (AD, these results show that the analysis of functional networks could be an appropriate tool for the early detection of both MCI and AD.

  12. Connectivity network measures predict volumetric atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Talia M; Jahanshad, Neda; Toga, Arthur W; Bernstein, Matt A; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cortical atrophy and disrupted anatomic connectivity, and leads to abnormal interactions between neural systems. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and graph theory can be used to evaluate major brain networks and detect signs of a breakdown in network connectivity. In a longitudinal study using both DWI and standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we assessed baseline white-matter connectivity patterns in 30 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, mean age 71.8 ± 7.5 years, 18 males and 12 females) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Using both standard MRI-based cortical parcellations and whole-brain tractography, we computed baseline connectivity maps from which we calculated global "small-world" architecture measures, including mean clustering coefficient and characteristic path length. We evaluated whether these baseline network measures predicted future volumetric brain atrophy in MCI subjects, who are at risk for developing AD, as determined by 3-dimensional Jacobian "expansion factor maps" between baseline and 6-month follow-up anatomic scans. This study suggests that DWI-based network measures may be a novel predictor of AD progression.

  13. Mild cognitive impairment is associated with falls among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Lara, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The role of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on falls among older adults remains under-investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between MCI and number of falls or occurrence of non-accidental falls among older adults. METHODS: Data from the first wave......; and no limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). Multivariable Poisson and logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between MCI and number of falls or the presence of non-accidental falls in the past 12 months. RESULTS: The prevalence of MCI was 10.1%. In the fully-adjusted model......, MCI was associated with a higher rate of falls (PR=1.41 95%CI=1.05-1.89) and odds for non-accidental falls in the past 12 months (OR=1.67 95%CI=1.07-2.61). Muscle strength and performance indicators, and medical health conditions were influential factors in the association between MCI and falls...

  14. Self-reference effect on memory in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Influence of identity valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Mona; Laisney, Mickaël; Lamidey, Virginie; Egret, Stéphanie; de La Sayette, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Piolino, Pascale; Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit episodic memory in healthy individuals. In healthy aging, its preservation is acknowledged, but in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the jury is still out. Furthermore, there has yet to be a study of the SRE in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). As self-reference implies subjective self-representations, and positive information enhance memory performance, we set out to examine the effects of 1) material and 2) identity valence on the SRE across the early stages of AD. Twenty healthy older individuals and 40 patients (20 diagnosed with aMCI and 20 diagnosed with mild AD) performed a memory task. Participants had to judge positive and negative personality trait adjectives with reference to themselves or to another person, or else process these adjectives semantically. We then administered a recognition task. Participants also completed a questionnaire on identity valence. Among healthy older individuals, the SRE benefited episodic memory independently of material and identity valence. By contrast, among aMCI patients, we only observed the SRE when the material was positive. When self-referential material was negative, patients' performance depended on the valence of their self-representations: negative self-representations correlated with poor recognition of negative self-referential adjectives. Finally, performance of patients with mild AD by condition and material valence were too low and inappropriate to be subjected to relevant analyses. The persistence of an SRE for positive adjectives in aMCI suggests the existence of a positivity effect for self-related information, which contributes to wellbeing. The absence of an SRE for negative adjectives, which led aMCI patients to dismiss negative self-related information, could be due to low self-esteem. These results corroborate the mnenic neglect model and point out the importance of the psychoaffective dimension in patients with aMCI, which could constitute a

  15. Clinical and Cognitive Phenotype of Mild Cognitive Impairment Evolving to Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annachiara Cagnin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine which characteristics could better distinguish dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI stage, with particular emphasis on visual space and object perception abilities. Methods: Fifty-three patients with mild cognitive deficits that were eventually diagnosed with probable DLB (MCI-DLB: n = 25 and AD (MCI-AD: n = 28 at a 3-year follow-up were retrospectively studied. At the first visit, the patients underwent cognitive assessment including the Qualitative Scoring Mini Mental State Examination Pentagon Test and the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS and questionnaires for cognitive fluctuations and sleep disorders were also administered. Results: The best clinical predictor of DLB was the presence of soft extrapyramidal signs (mean UPDRS score: 4.04 ± 5.9 detected in 72% of patients, followed by REM sleep behavior disorder (60% and fluctuations (60%. Wrong performances in the pentagon's number of angles were obtained in 44% of DLB and 3.7% of AD patients and correlated with speed of visual attention. Executive functions, visual attention and visuospatial abilities were worse in DLB, while verbal episodic memory impairment was greater in AD. Deficits in the visual-perceptual domain were present in both MCI-DLB and AD. Conclusions: Poor performance in the pentagon's number of angles is specific of DLB and correlates with speed of visual attention. The dorsal visual stream seems specifically more impaired in MCI-DLB with respect to the ventral visual stream, the latter being involved in both DLB and AD. These cognitive features, associated with subtle extrapyramidal signs, should alert clinicians to a diagnostic hypothesis of DLB.

  16. Clinical and Cognitive Phenotype of Mild Cognitive Impairment Evolving to Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnin, Annachiara; Bussè, Cinzia; Gardini, Simona; Jelcic, Nela; Guzzo, Caterina; Gnoato, Francesca; Mitolo, Micaela; Ermani, Mario; Caffarra, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine which characteristics could better distinguish dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage, with particular emphasis on visual space and object perception abilities. Methods Fifty-three patients with mild cognitive deficits that were eventually diagnosed with probable DLB (MCI-DLB: n = 25) and AD (MCI-AD: n = 28) at a 3-year follow-up were retrospectively studied. At the first visit, the patients underwent cognitive assessment including the Qualitative Scoring Mini Mental State Examination Pentagon Test and the Visual Object and Space Perception Battery. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and questionnaires for cognitive fluctuations and sleep disorders were also administered. Results The best clinical predictor of DLB was the presence of soft extrapyramidal signs (mean UPDRS score: 4.04 ± 5.9) detected in 72% of patients, followed by REM sleep behavior disorder (60%) and fluctuations (60%). Wrong performances in the pentagon's number of angles were obtained in 44% of DLB and 3.7% of AD patients and correlated with speed of visual attention. Executive functions, visual attention and visuospatial abilities were worse in DLB, while verbal episodic memory impairment was greater in AD. Deficits in the visual-perceptual domain were present in both MCI-DLB and AD. Conclusions Poor performance in the pentagon's number of angles is specific of DLB and correlates with speed of visual attention. The dorsal visual stream seems specifically more impaired in MCI-DLB with respect to the ventral visual stream, the latter being involved in both DLB and AD. These cognitive features, associated with subtle extrapyramidal signs, should alert clinicians to a diagnostic hypothesis of DLB. PMID:26674638

  17. From mild cognitive impairment to subjective cognitive decline: conceptual and methodological evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Wen; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chiu, Ming-Jang

    2017-01-01

    Identification of subjects at the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is fundamental for drug development and possible intervention or prevention of cognitive decline. The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) evolved during the past two decades to define subjects at the transitional stage between normal aging and dementia. Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies has shown that MCI is associated with an increased risk of positive AD biomarkers and an increased annual conversion rate of 5%–17% to AD. The presence of AD biomarkers in subjects with MCI was associated with an even higher risk of progression to dementia. However, earlier clinical trials for pharmacotherapy in subjects with MCI were disappointing. To extend the spectrum of AD to an earlier stage before MCI, subjective cognitive decline (SCD) was introduced and was defined as self-reported cognitive decline before the deficits could be detected by cognitive tests. Subjects with SCD have an increased risk of underlying AD pathology. However, SCD can also develop secondary to other heterogeneous etiologies, including other neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, personality traits, physical conditions, and medication use. Several clinical and biomarker features were proposed to predict risk of conversion to AD in subjects with SCD. Further longitudinal studies are needed to support the validity of these high-risk features. PMID:28243102

  18. White matter hyperintensities, executive function and global cognitive performance in vascular mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Kenji Sudo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI represents an early symptomatic stage of vascular cognitive impairment and might be associated to fronto-executive dysfunction. Methods Twenty-six individuals (age: 73.11±7.90 years; 65.4% female; schooling: 9.84±3.61 years were selected through neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging. Clinical and neuroimaging data of VaMCI individuals (n=15 were compared to normal controls (NC, n=11 and correlated with Fazekas scale. Results VaMCI performed significantly worse than NC in Trail-Making Test (TMT B, errors in TMT B, difference TMT B-A and Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG final scores. Correlations were found among scores in modified Fazekas scale and performances in TMT B (time to complete and errors, difference TMT B-A and CAMCOG total score. Conclusion Extension of white matter hyperintensities might be correlated to poorer global cognition and impairments in a set of fronto-executive functions, such as cognitive speed, set shifting and inhibitory control in VaMCI.

  19. Daily stressors and emotional reactivity in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and cognitively healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Condeelis, Kristen L; Haley, William E

    2015-06-01

    Daily experiences of stress are common and have been associated with worse affect among older adults. People with mild cognitive impairment (PWMCI) have measurable memory deficits in between normal cognition and dementia and have been identified as having greater psychological distress than cognitively healthy older adults (CHOAs). Little is known about whether daily stressors contribute to distress among PWMCI. We hypothesized that compared with CHOAs, PWMCI would have higher daily negative affect and lower daily positive affect, report greater numbers and severity of daily stressors, and experience greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Fifteen clinically diagnosed PWMCI and 25 CHOAs completed daily reports of stressors, stressor severity, and positive and negative affect over an 8-day period. PWMCI reported higher daily negative affect, lower daily positive affect, and higher numbers and greater severity of memory stressors but did not differ from CHOAs in numbers or severity of general stressors. Cognitive status was a moderator of the daily stress-affect relationship. Days with greater numbers and severity of general daily stressors were associated with higher negative affect only for PWMCI. The numbers and severity of memory stressors were not associated with negative affect. In addition, more severe general daily stressors and memory stressors were associated with lower positive affect for all participants. Results suggest that PWMCI are less resilient in the face of daily stress than are CHOAs in terms of negative affect, perhaps because of declines in reserve capacity. The study presents a promising approach to understanding stress and coping in predementia states of cognition.

  20. Validation of the Dutch version of the quick mild cognitive impairment screen (Qmci-D).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bunt, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from dementia is important, as treatment options differ. There are few short (<5 min) but accurate screening tools that discriminate between MCI, normal cognition (NC) and dementia, in the Dutch language. The Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen is sensitive and specific in differentiating MCI from NC and mild dementia. Given this, we adapted the Qmci for use in Dutch-language countries and validated the Dutch version, the Qmci-D, against the Dutch translation of the Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE-D).

  1. Whole-brain functional networks in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hyun Seo

    Full Text Available The conceptual significance of understanding functional brain alterations and cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD process has been widely established. However, the whole-brain functional networks of AD and its prodromal stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, are not well clarified yet. In this study, we compared the characteristics of the whole-brain functional networks among cognitively normal (CN, MCI, and AD individuals by applying graph theoretical analyses to [(18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET data. Ninety-four CN elderly, 183 with MCI, and 216 with AD underwent clinical evaluation and FDG-PET scan. The overall small-world property as seen in the CN whole-brain network was preserved in MCI and AD. In contrast, individual parameters of the network were altered with the following patterns of changes: local clustering of networks was lower in both MCI and AD compared to CN, while path length was not different among the three groups. Then, MCI had a lower level of local clustering than AD. Subgroup analyses for AD also revealed that very mild AD had lower local clustering and shorter path length compared to mild AD. Regarding the local properties of the whole-brain networks, MCI and AD had significantly decreased normalized betweenness centrality in several hubs regionally associated with the default mode network compared to CN. Our results suggest that the functional integration in whole-brain network progressively declines due to the AD process. On the other hand, functional relatedness between neighboring brain regions may not gradually decrease, but be the most severely altered in MCI stage and gradually re-increase in clinical AD stages.

  2. Classifying Cognitive Profiles Using Machine Learning with Privileged Information in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmadi, Hanin H.; Shen, Yuan; Fouad, Shereen; Luft, Caroline Di B.; Bentham, Peter; Kourtzi, Zoe; Tino, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ) classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a “Learning with privileged information” approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task. The resulting classifier operates solely on the cognitive data while it incorporates the fMRI data as privileged information (PI) during training. This novel classifier is of practical use as the collection of brain imaging data is not always possible with patients and older participants. MCI patients and healthy age-matched controls were trained to extract structure from temporal sequences. We ask whether machine learning classifiers can be used to discriminate patients from controls and whether differences between these groups relate to individual cognitive profiles. To this end, we tested participants in four cognitive tasks: working memory, cognitive inhibition, divided attention, and selective attention. We also collected fMRI data before and after training on a probabilistic sequence learning task and extracted fMRI responses and connectivity as features for machine learning classifiers. Our results show that the PI guided GMLVQ classifiers outperform the baseline classifier that only used the cognitive data. In addition, we found that for the baseline classifier, divided attention is the only relevant cognitive feature. When PI was incorporated, divided attention remained the most relevant feature while cognitive inhibition became also relevant for the task. Interestingly, this analysis for the fMRI GMLVQ classifier suggests that (1) when overall fMRI signal is used as inputs to the classifier, the post

  3. Classifying cognitive profiles using machine learning with privileged information in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanin Hamdan Alahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dementia is critical for assessing disease progression and potential treatment. State-or-the-art machine learning techniques have been increasingly employed to take on this diagnostic task. In this study, we employed Generalised Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ classifiers to discriminate patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI from healthy controls based on their cognitive skills. Further, we adopted a ``Learning with privileged information'' approach to combine cognitive and fMRI data for the classification task. The resulting classifier operates solely on the cognitive data while it incorporates the fMRI data as privileged information (PI during training. This novel classifier is of practical use as the collection of brain imaging data is not always possible with patients and older participants.MCI patients and healthy age-matched controls were trained to extract structure from temporal sequences. We ask whether machine learning classifiers can be used to discriminate patients from controls based on the learning performance and whether differences between these groups relate to individual cognitive profiles. To this end, we tested participants in four cognitive tasks: working memory, cognitive inhibition, divided attention, and selective attention. We also collected fMRI data before and after training on the learning task and extracted fMRI responses and connectivity as features for machine learning classifiers. Our results show that the PI guided GMLVQ classifiers outperform the baseline classifier that only used the cognitive data. In addition, we found that for the baseline classifier, divided attention is the only relevant cognitive feature. When PI was incorporated, divided attention remained the most relevant feature while cognitive inhibition became also relevant for the task. Interestingly, this analysis for the fMRI GMLVQ classifier suggests that (1 when overall fMRI signal for structured stimuli is

  4. The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Episodic Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Do Episodic Memory Deficits Identified at Classification Remain Evident When Later Examined with Different Memory Tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Zofia Klekociuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI have been criticised for using the same battery of neuropsychological tests during classification and longitudinal followup. The key concern is that there is a potential circularity when the same tests are used to identify MCI and then subsequently monitor change in function over time. The aim of the present study was to examine the evidence of this potential circularity problem. The present study assessed the memory function of 72 MCI participants and 50 healthy controls using an alternate battery of visual and verbal episodic memory tests 9 months following initial comprehensive screening assessment and MCI classification. Individuals who were classified as multiple-domain amnestic MCI (a-MCI+ at screening show a significantly reduced performance in visual and verbal memory function at followup using a completely different battery of valid and reliable tests. Consistent with their initial classification, those identified as nonamnestic MCI (na-MCI or control at screening demonstrated the highest performance across the memory tasks. The results of the present study indicate that persistent memory deficits remain evident in amnestic MCI subgroups using alternate memory tests, suggesting that the concerns regarding potential circularity of logic may be overstated in MCI research.

  5. The Characterization of Biological Rhythms in Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Elisabet Ortiz-Tudela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease, present several circadian impairments related to an accelerated perturbation of their biological clock that is caused by the illness itself and not merely age-related. Thus, the objective of this work was to elucidate whether these circadian system alterations were already present in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, as compared to healthy age-matched subjects. Methods. 40 subjects (21 patients diagnosed with MCI, 74.1 ± 1.5 y.o., and 19 healthy subjects, 71.7 ± 1.4 y.o. were subjected to ambulatory monitoring, recording wrist skin temperature, motor activity, body position, and the integrated variable TAP (including temperature, activity, and position for one week. Nonparametrical analyses were then applied. Results. MCI patients exhibited a significant phase advance with respect to the healthy group for the following phase markers: temperature M5 (mean ± SEM: 04:20 ± 00:21 versus 02:52 ± 00:21 and L10 (14:35 ± 00:27 versus 13:24 ± 00:16 and TAP L5 (04:18 ± 00:14 versus 02:55 ± 00:30 and M10 (14:30 ± 00:18 versus 13:28 ± 00:23. Conclusions. These results suggest that significant advances in the biological clock begin to occur in MCI patients, evidenced by an accelerated aging of the circadian clock, as compared to a healthy population of the same age.

  6. {alpha}4 {beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a study with 5-[I-123]iodo-A-85380 SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    It has been reported that the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the degree of cholinergic deficit is correlated with cognitive impairment. We examined neuronal nAChR distribution of AD patients using 5-[I-123]iodo-A85380 (5-IA) SPECT and correlated it with the pattern of cerebral glucose metabolic impairment and the severity of cognitive impairment. Five clinically diagnosed AD patients, 5 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were studied with 5-IA SPECT and brain FDG PET. 5-IA SPECT was performed for 30 min at 120 min after radiotracer injection. FDG PET was done within one month interval. Neuropsychological tests were done for cognitive evaluation. A nAChR parameter DV was calculated in brain regions using cerebellum as reference tissue. All scan images were analyzed using SPM2 and ANOVA was done for group comparison. P value less than 0.005 was considered significant. 5-IA SPECT images of AD patients revealed significantly reduced nAChR distribution in the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and the left temporal cortex. MCI patients demonstrated decreased receptor distribution mainly in the subcortical areas. Cortical nAChR distribution showed correlation with cortical glucose metabolism and subcortical with that of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Episodic memory and semantic verbal fluency showed significant correlation with nAChR distribution of periventricular white matter (PVWM), visuospatial function evaluated with RCFT with that of PCC, left temporoparietal cortex, and frontal lobe white matter, and MMSE with that of PVWM, frontal cortex, and striatum. These data demonstrate reduction of nAChR distribution in patients with AD, which has significant correlation with cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive impairment. It might be useful for diagnosis of AD, and for monitoring individualized treatments targeted at nAChRs.

  7. Multimodal Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia: A Multi- Center, Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Won; Lee, Hyeonggon; Hong, Jong Woo; Kim, Kayoung; Kim, Taehyun; Byun, Hye Jin; Ko, Ji Won; Youn, Jong Chul; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Lee, Nam-Jin; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Ki Woong

    2017-01-01

    We developed and evaluated the effect of Multimodal Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (MCET) consisting of cognitive training, cognitive stimulations, reality orientation, physical therapy, reminiscence therapy, and music therapy in combination in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia. This study was a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over study (two 8-week treatment phases separated by a 4-week wash-out period). Sixty-four participants with MCI or dementia whose Clinical Dementia Rating was 0.5 or 1 were randomized to the MCET group or the mock-therapy (placebo) group. Outcomes were measured at baseline, week 9, and week 21. Fifty-five patients completed the study. Mini-Mental State Examination (effect size = 0.47, p = 0.013) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (effect size = 0.35, p = 0.045) scores were significantly improved in the MCET compared with mock-therapy group. Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist frequency (effect size = 0.38, p = 0.046) and self-rated Quality of Life - Alzheimer's Disease (effect size = 0.39, p = 0.047) scores were significantly improved in the MCET compared with mock-therapy. MCET improved cognition, behavior, and quality of life in people with MCI or mild dementia more effectively than conventional cognitive enhancing activities did.

  8. The occurrence of aggression in children with mild and moderate developmental cognitive disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Radivojević, Monika

    2012-01-01

    My thesis entitled “The occurrence of aggression in children with mild and moderate developmental cognitive disabilities” is divided into two parts. The first part introduces the phenomenon of aggression and the development of children with mild and moderate dysfunctions in cognitive development, whereas the focus of the second part is on the empirical research, the results acquired through questionnaire survey and the summary results. The essence of my thesis lies in determining the occur...

  9. The PACE Study: A randomised clinical trial of cognitive activity (CA for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flicker Leon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence from observational studies suggests that cognitive activity reduces the risk of cognitive impairment in later life as well as the rate of cognitive decline of people with dementia. The Promoting Healthy Ageing with Cognitive Exercise (PACE study has been designed to determine whether a cognitive activity intervention decreases the rate of cognitive decline amongst older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods/Design The study will recruit 160 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years of age or over with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Participants will be randomly allocated to two treatment groups: non-specific education and cognitive activity. The intervention will consist of ten 90-minute sessions delivered twice per week over a period of five weeks. The primary outcome measure of the study is the change from baseline in the total score on the Cambridge Cognitive Score (CAMCOG. Secondary outcomes of interest include changes in memory, attention, executive functions, mood and quality of life. Primary endpoints will be collected 12, 52 and 104 weeks after the baseline assessment. Discussion The proposed project will produce the best available evidence on the merits of increased cognitive activity as a strategy to prevent cognitive decline among older adults with MCI. We anticipate that the results of this study will have implications for the development of evidence-based preventive strategies to reduce the rate of cognitive decline amongst older people at risk of dementia. Trial registration ACTRN12608000556347

  10. Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of aerobic exercise or vitamin B supplementation on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design: Randomised placebo-controlled trial. Setting: General community. Participants: Community-dwelling adults aged 70-80 with MCI. Interve

  11. Poor decision making is a consequence of cognitive decline among older persons without Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Boyle

    Full Text Available Decision making is an important determinant of health and well-being across the lifespan but is critical in aging, when many influential decisions are made just as cognitive function declines. Increasing evidence suggests that older adults, even those without dementia, often make poor decisions and are selectively vulnerable to scams. To date, however, the factors associated with poor decision making in old age are unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that poor decision making is a consequence of cognitive decline among older persons without Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment.Participants were 420 non-demented persons from the Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal, clinical-pathologic cohort study of aging in the Chicago metropolitan area. All underwent repeated cognitive evaluations and subsequently completed assessments of decision making and susceptibility to scams. Decision making was measured using 12 items from a previously established performance-based measure and a self-report measure of susceptibility to scams.Cognitive function data were collected over an average of 5.5 years prior to the decision making assessment. Regression analyses were used to examine whether the prior rate of cognitive decline predicted the level of decision making and susceptibility to scams; analyses controlled for age, sex, education, and starting level of cognition. Among 420 persons without dementia, more rapid cognitive decline predicted poorer decision making and increased susceptibility to scams (p's<0.001. Further, the relations between cognitive decline, decision making and scams persisted in analyses restricted to persons without any cognitive impairment (i.e., no dementia or even mild cognitive impairment.Poor decision making is a consequence of cognitive decline among older persons without Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment, those widely considered "cognitively healthy." These findings suggest

  12. Parkinson's disease-cognitive rating scale: psychometrics for mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Ramón; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Martínez-Horta, Saül; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Campolongo, Antonia; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    Lack of validated data on cutoff scores for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and sensitivity to change in predementia stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) limit the utility of instruments measuring global cognition as screening and outcome measures in therapeutic trials. Investigators who were blinded to PD-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) scores classified a cohort of prospectively recruited, nondemented patients into a PD with normal cognition (PD-NC) group and a PD with MCI (PD-MCI) group using Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale-2 (MDRS-2). The discriminative power of the PD-CRS for PD-MCI was examined in a representative sample of 234 patients (145 in the PD-NC group; 89 in the PD-MCI group) and in a control group of 98 healthy individuals. Sensitivity to change in the PD-CRS score (the minimal clinically important difference was examined with the Clinical Global Impression of Change scale and was calculated with a combination of distribution-based and anchor-based approaches) was explored in a 6-month observational multicenter trial involving a subset of 120 patients (PD-NC, 63; PD-MCI, 57). Regression analysis demonstrated that PD-CRS total scores (P < 0.001) and age (P = 0.01) independently differentiated PD-NC from PD-MCI. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis (AUC, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.90) indicated that a score ≤ 81 of 134 was the optimal cutoff point on the total score for the PD-CRS (sensitivity, 79%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 59%; negative predictive value, 91%). A range of change from 10 to 13 points on the PD-CRS total score was indicative of clinically significant change. These findings suggest that the PD-CRS is a useful tool to identify PD-MCI and to track cognitive changes in nondemented patients with PD.

  13. Exercise-related changes of networks in aging and mild cognitive impairment brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging and mild cognitive impairment are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and mild cognitive impairment populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and mild cognitive impairment population, and physical exercise could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective physical exercise programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions.

  14. Decreased cerebral {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease assessed with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendziorra, Kai; Meyer, Philipp Mael; Barthel, Henryk; Hesse, Swen; Becker, Georg Alexander; Luthardt, Julia; Schildan, Andreas; Patt, Marianne; Sorger, Dietlind; Seese, Anita; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Wolf, Henrike [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany); University of Zurich, Department of Old Age Psychiatry and Psychiatry Research, Psychiatric University Hospital (PUK) Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Gertz, Herman-Josef [University of Leipzig, Department of Psychiatry, Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Postmortem studies indicate a loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to establish whether these changes in the cholinergic system occur at an early stage of AD, we carried out positron emission tomography (PET) with a specific radioligand for the {alpha}4{beta}2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}4{beta}2* nAChR) in patients with mild to moderate AD and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), who have a high risk to progress to AD. Nine patients with moderate AD, eight patients with MCI and seven age-matched healthy controls underwent 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380) PET. After coregistration with individual magnetic resonance imaging the binding potential (BP{sub ND}) of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 was calculated using either the corpus callosum or the cerebellum as reference regions. PET data were analysed by region of interest analysis and by voxel-based analysis. Both patients with AD and MCI showed a significant reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} in typical AD-affected brain regions. Thereby, the corpus callosum was identified as the most suitable reference region. The 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND} correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment. Only MCI patients that converted to AD in the later course (n = 5) had a reduction in 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 BP{sub ND}. 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET appears to be a sensitive and feasible tool for the detection of a reduction in {alpha}4{beta}2* nAChRs which seems to be an early event in AD. In addition, 2-[{sup 18}F]FA-85380 PET might give prognostic information about a conversion from MCI to AD. (orig.)

  15. Fully Automated Atlas-Based Hippocampus Volumetry for Clinical Routine: Validation in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment from the ADNI Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Per; Hampel, Harald; Spies, Lothar; Fiebach, Jochen B; Dubois, Bruno; Buchert, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampus volumetry based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been translated into everyday clinical diagnostic patient care, at least in part due to limited availability of appropriate software tools. In the present study, we evaluate a fully-automated and computationally efficient processing pipeline for atlas based hippocampal volumetry using freely available Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software in 198 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI1). Subjects were grouped into MCI stable and MCI to probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) converters according to follow-up diagnoses at 12, 24, and 36 months. Hippocampal grey matter volume (HGMV) was obtained from baseline T1-weighted MRI and then corrected for total intracranial volume and age. Average processing time per subject was less than 4 minutes on a standard PC. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of the corrected HGMV for identification of MCI to probable AD converters within 12, 24, and 36 months was 0.78, 0.72, and 0.71, respectively. Thus, hippocampal volume computed with the fully-automated processing pipeline provides similar power for prediction of MCI to probable AD conversion as computationally more expensive methods. The whole processing pipeline has been made freely available as an SPM8 toolbox. It is easily set up and integrated into everyday clinical patient care.

  16. Physical activity and executive functions in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, EJA; Van Paasschen, J; Deijen, JB; Van der Knokke, S; Orlebeke, JFK; Burgers, [No Value; Devriese, PP; Swaab, DF; Sergeant, JA

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the effect of physical activity measured directly following treatment, was reflected in an improvement in cognitive functioning in general or in executive functions (EF) in particular. S

  17. Physical activity and executive functions in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, E.J.A.; Paasschen, J. van; Deijen, J.-B.; Knokke, S. van der; Orlebeke, J.F.K.; Burgers, I.; DeVriesse, P.-P.; Swaab, D.F.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to examine whether in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the effect of physical activity measured directly following treatment, was reflected in an improvement in cognitive functioning in general or in executive functions (EF) in particular. S

  18. Parkinson's disease mild cognitive impairment: application and validation of the criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, G.J.; Hoogland, J.; Goldman, J.G.; Schmand, B.A.; Tröster, A.I.; Burn, D.J.; Litvan, I.

    2014-01-01

    Dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a serious health issue and a major concern for many patients. In most cases mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered a transitional stage between normal cognitive functioning and dementia which is of potential importance in the early identification of pat

  19. Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Volkers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years. Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.

  20. How well do caregivers detect mild cognitive change in Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Sharon L; Pereira, Marilia; Shine, James M; Lewis, Simon J G

    2011-01-01

    Using the Cambridge Behavior Inventory-Revised, this study evaluated the relationship between caregiver ratings of cognitive change and neuropsychological performance. In sixty-one nondemented patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD; mean age = 64.5 years, MMSE = 28.7), 62% met criteria for mild cognitive impairment. This group were rated as having more overall change as well as memory and behavior change. Caregiver ratings were related to poorer psychomotor speed, learning/memory, language, and executive functioning. The capacity for caregivers to rate mild cognitive change in PD may be useful to assist in early screening and intervention approaches.

  1. Teaching Tai Chi to elders with osteoarthritis pain and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jason Y; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Woods, Sheery; Beck, Cornelia; Roberson, Paula K; Rosengren, Karl

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the authors' experience and strategies in teaching Tai Chi, a gentle exercise derived from an ancient Chinese martial art, to mildly cognitively impaired elders to relieve osteoarthritic knee pain. The 12-form Sun-style Tai Chi, a set of Tai Chi forms endorsed by the American Arthritis Foundation, was used in the program. Teaching Tai Chi to elders with mild cognitive impairment requires particular strategies tailored to their physical and cognitive frailty. When effectively taught, Tai Chi can be a unique and cost-effective intervention for elders with knee pain caused by osteoarthritis.

  2. Beta-amyloid deposition and cognitive function in patients with major depressive disorder with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment: {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kuan-Yi; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Lee, Chin-Pang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Psychiatry, Tao-Yuan (China); Chen, Cheng-Sheng [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital and College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung (China); Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Kuei Shan Hsiang, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Tao-Yuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the amyloid burden, as assessed by {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) positron emission tomography PET, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the relationship between amyloid burden and cognition in MDD patients. The study included 55 MDD patients without dementia and 21 healthy control subjects (HCs) who were assessed using a comprehensive cognitive test battery and {sup 18}F-florbetapir PET imaging. The standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) in eight cortical regions using the whole cerebellum as reference region were determined and voxel-wise comparisons between the HC and MDD groups were performed. Vascular risk factors, serum homocysteine level and the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype were also determined. Among the 55 MDD patients, 22 (40.0 %) had MCI, 12 (21.8 %) non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) and 10 (18.2 %) amnestic MCI (aMCI). The MDD patients with aMCI had the highest relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake in all cortical regions, and a significant difference in relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake was found in the parietal region as compared with that in naMCI subjects (P < 0.05) and HCs (P < 0.01). Voxel-wise analyses revealed significantly increased relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake in the MDD patients with aMCI and naMCI in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital areas (P < 0.005). The global cortical SUVR was significantly negatively correlated with MMSE score (r = -0.342, P = 0.010) and memory function (r = -0.328, P = 0.015). The negative correlation between the global SUVR and memory in the MDD patients remained significant in multiple regression analyses that included age, educational level, ApoE genotype, and depression severity (β = -3.607, t = -2.874, P = 0.006). We found preliminary evidence of brain beta-amyloid deposition in MDD patients with different subtypes of MCI. Our findings in MDD patients support the

  3. Three-month stability of the CogState brief battery in healthy older adults, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease: results from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle-rate of change substudy (AIBL-ROCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yen Ying; Jaeger, Judith; Harrington, Karra; Ashwood, Tim; Ellis, Kathryn A; Stöffler, Albrecht; Szoeke, Cassandra; Lachovitzki, Rebecca; Martins, Ralph N; Villemagne, Victor L; Bush, Ashley; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Ames, David; Darby, David; Maruff, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Large prospective studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have sought to understand the pathological evolution of AD and factors that may influence the rate of disease progression. Estimates of rates of cognitive change are available for 12 or 24 months, but not for shorter time frames (e.g., 3 or 6 months). Most clinical drug trials seeking to reduce or modify AD symptoms have been conducted over 12- or 24-week periods. As such, we aimed to characterize the performance of a group of healthy older adults, adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and adults with AD on the CogState battery of tests over short test-retest intervals. This study recruited 105 healthy older adults, 48 adults with aMCI, and 42 adults with AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle study and administered the CogState battery monthly over 3 months. The CogState battery of tests showed high test-retest reliability and stability in all clinical groups when participants were assessed over 3 months. When considered at baseline, the CogState battery of tests was able to detect AD-related cognitive impairment. The data provide important estimates of the reliability, stability, and variability of each cognitive test in healthy older adults, adults with aMCI, and adults with AD. This may potentially be used to inform future estimates of cognitive change in clinical trials.

  4. Computer mouse movement patterns: A potential marker of mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Seelye, Adriana; Hagler, Stuart; Mattek, Nora; Diane B Howieson; Wild, Katherine; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Subtle changes in cognitively demanding activities occur in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but are difficult to assess with conventional methods. In an exploratory study, we examined whether patterns of computer mouse movements obtained from routine home computer use discriminated between older adults with and without MCI. Methods Participants were 42 cognitively intact and 20 older adults with MCI enrolled in a longitudinal study of in-home monitoring technologies. Mouse pointe...

  5. Predictors of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Hanna-Pladdy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to identify mild cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD prior to extensive neurodegeneration and to evaluate the extent to which dopamine depletion and other disease-related predictors can explain cognitive profiles. Methods: Neuropsychological performances of 40 nondemented early-stage PD patients and 42 healthy controls were compared across on or off dopaminergic medications. Stepwise regression evaluated cognitive predictors of early-stage PD and disease-related predictors of PD cognition (levodopa dose, disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score, sleep, quality of life, and mood across on and off states. Results: Neuropsychological performance was lower in PD patients across cognitive domains with significant memory, naming, visuomotor, and complex attention/executive deficits, but with intact visuospatial, simple attention, and phonemic fluency functions. However, medication effects were absent except for simple attention. Regression analyses revealed age, working memory, and memory recall to be the best cognitive predictors of PD, while age, quality of life, disease duration, and anxiety predicted PD cognition in the off state. Conclusion: Nondemented early-stage PD patients presented with extensive mild cognitive deficits including prominent memory impairment. The profile was inconsistent with expected isolated frontostriatal dysfunction previously attributed to dopamine depletion and this highlights the need to further characterize extranigral sources of mild cognitive impairment in PD.

  6. Diabetes mellitus Type II and cognitive capacity in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Christina; Toro, Pablo; Schönknecht, Peter; Sattler, Christine; Schröder, Johannes

    2016-06-30

    While diabetes mellitus (DM) Type II has repeatedly been linked to Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), longitudinal research is scarce and disease duration has not always been taken into account. In a birth cohort born between 1930 and 1932 we investigated the influence of DM Type II and disease duration on neuropsychological functioning (memory/learning, attention, verbal fluency, visuospatial thinking and abstract thinking) across 14 years. Subjects who developed MCI or AD performed significantly poorer on all neuropsychological tests applied. While significant main effects DM Type II did not arise, its presence led to a significant deterioration of performance in the digit symbol test and visuospatial thinking over time. Additionally, in visuospatial thinking this change was more pronounced for individuals suffering from MCI/AD. We found that, as a concomitant disease DM Type II does not affect memory functioning, which is typically compromised in MCI and early AD. Rather, it may lead to deficits in cognitive flexibility and visuospatial thinking. DM Type II can be considered a frequent comorbid condition which can aggravate the course of MCI and AD. In this respect it may serve as a model for other comorbid conditions in AD.

  7. Volume changes in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: cognitive associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Matthew C.; Barnes, Josephine; Nielsen, Casper; Clegg, Shona L.; Blair, Melanie; Douiri, Abdel; Boyes, Richard G.; Fox, Nick C. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); Kim, Lois G. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Leung, Kelvin K.; Ourselin, Sebastien [UCL Institute of Neurology, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Centre for Medical Image Computing, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    To assess the relationship between MRI-derived changes in whole-brain and ventricular volume with change in cognitive scores in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control subjects. In total 131 control, 231 MCI and 99 AD subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort with T1-weighted volumetric MRIs from baseline and 12-month follow-up were used to derive volume changes. Mini mental state examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale (ADAS)-cog and trails test changes were calculated over the same period. Brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between subject groups (p < 0.0005) and in MCI and AD were associated with MMSE changes. Both measures were additionally associated with ADAS-cog and trails-B in MCI patients, and ventricular expansion was associated with ADAS-cog in AD patients. Brain atrophy (p < 0.0005) and ventricular expansion rates (p = 0.001) were higher in MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months of follow-up compared with MCI subjects who remained stable. MCI subjects who progressed to AD within 12 months had similar atrophy rates to AD subjects. Whole-brain atrophy rates and ventricular enlargement differed between patient groups and healthy controls, and tracked disease progression and psychological decline, demonstrating their relevance as biomarkers. (orig.)

  8. Neural correlates of true and false memory in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Riddell, Patricia M; Ellis, Judi A; Freeman, Jayne E; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer's disease, which has been described as a 'disconnection syndrome'.

  9. Neural correlates of true and false memory in mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Sweeney-Reed

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer's disease, which has been described as a 'disconnection syndrome'.

  10. 3D maps from multiple MRI illustrate changing atrophy patterns as subjects progress from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Przybelski, Scott A; Weigand, Stephen D; Knopman, David S; Boeve, Bradley F; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R

    2007-07-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), particularly the amnestic subtype (aMCI), is considered as a transitional stage between normal aging and a diagnosis of clinically probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aMCI construct is particularly useful as it provides an opportunity to assess a clinical stage which in most subjects represents prodromal AD. The aim of this study was to assess the progression of cerebral atrophy over multiple serial MRI during the period from aMCI to progression to AD. Thirty-three subjects were selected that fulfilled clinical criteria for aMCI and had three serial MRI scans: the first scan approximately 3 years before the diagnosis of AD, the second scan approximately 1 year before, and the third scan at the time of the diagnosis of AD. A group of 33 healthy controls were age and gender-matched to the study cohort. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess patterns of grey matter atrophy in the aMCI subjects at each time-point compared to the control group. Customized templates and prior probability maps were used to avoid normalization and segmentation bias. The pattern of grey matter loss in the aMCI subject scans that were 3 years before the diagnosis of AD was focused primarily on the medial temporal lobes, including the amygdala, anterior hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, with some additional involvement of the fusiform gyrus, compared to controls. The extent and magnitude of the cerebral atrophy further progressed by the time the subjects were 1 year before the diagnosis of AD. At this point atrophy in the temporal lobes spread to include the middle temporal gyrus, and extended into more posterior regions of the temporal lobe to include the entire extent of the hippocampus. The parietal lobe also started to become involved. By the time the subjects had progressed to a clinical diagnosis of AD the pattern of grey matter atrophy had become still more widespread with more severe involvement of the medial temporal lobes and the

  11. Cognitive deficits in patients with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Correa Miotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the most frequent causes of brain damage. Cognitive deficits reported in the literature after moderate to severe TBI include memory, language, executive functions, attention and information processing speed impairments. However, systematic studies on patients with mild TBI are scarce although neuropsychological changes are present. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cognitive functioning of patients with mild to moderate TBI. METHOD: We evaluated 12 patients with mild to moderate TBI using a comprehensive protocol (PN01 of neuropsychological tests. RESULTS: There were significant deficits of episodic memory including immediate and delayed verbal memory recall, verbal recognition, immediate and delayed visual memory recall, naming, verbal fluency and information processing speed. CONCLUSION: These results emphasize the importance of comprehensive neuropsychological assessments even in cases of mild TBI in order to identify impaired and preserved functions providing adequate managing including rehabilitation programs for each case.

  12. Depressive Symptom Clusters and Neuropsychological Performance in Mild Alzheimer's and Cognitively Normal Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Hall; Sid E O'Bryant; Johnson, Leigh A; Barber, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Determine the relationship between depressive symptom clusters and neuropsychological test performance in an elderly cohort of cognitively normal controls and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design. Cross-sectional analysis. Setting. Four health science centers in Texas. Participants. 628 elderly individuals (272 diagnosed with mild AD and 356 controls) from ongoing longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease. Measurements. Standard battery of neuropsychological tests and the 30-item...

  13. Application and Revision of Montreal Cognitive Assessment in China's Military Retirees with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhai

    Full Text Available In an effort to accommodate MOCA to better fit for the Chinese context, this study was designed to employ the MOCA criteria to screen mild cognitive impairment (MCI and analyze associated risk factors in military retirees.Three hundred and four retired military cadres were recruited using a random cluster sampling technique with information collected including personal, prevalence, MOCA scale, and related neuropsychiatry scale. Thirty retirees were randomly chosen to be further analyzed one month later using the revised MOCA scale.①Our data indicated an incidence rate of 64.8% for mild cognitive impairment in retired military cadres. The incidence rate for MCI was significantly higher in those aged 80 or above compared with those 80 years of age or younger (P<0.05. The incidence rate of MCI was significantly higher in those with fewer than 6 years of education compared with those with over 7 years of education (P<0.05. The MCI incidence was higher for those with little exercise than those taking regular exercise (P<0.01. Moreover, the MCI incidence was higher in stroke patients than those who never had a stroke episode (P<0.05. ②There was a significant correlation between MOCA and MMSE scale scores (r = 0.81. MOCA scale scores were negatively correlated with ADL and CES-D scores (although not PSQI scores. ③ MOCA recension Cronbach's alpha value was 0.862. The related coefficient of MOCA and MOCA recension was 0.878(P<0.01. When the Score of cut-off -point of the MOCA recension was 28, the area in ROC curve analyses was 0.859, as well as the largest area.Retired cadres exhibited a greater incidence of MCI (than general population, which was closely associated with age, level of education and physical exercise and cerebral apoplexy. Revised MOCA scale displays a better validity and reaction degree of reliability and is more suitable for screening and diagnosis of MCI in the elderly in China.

  14. Improving the accuracy and precision of cognitive testing in mild dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hans; Appels, Bregje; van der Flier, Wiesje M; van Campen, Jos; Klein, Martin; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Schmand, Ben; van Gool, Willem A; Scheltens, Philip; Lindeboom, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The CAMCOG, ADAS-cog, and MMSE, designed to grade global cognitive ability in dementia have inadequate precision and accuracy in distinguishing mild dementia from normal ageing. Adding neuropsychological tests to their scale might improve precision and accuracy in mild dementia. We, therefore, pooled neuropsychological test-batteries from two memory clinics (ns = 135 and 186) with CAMCOG data from a population study and 2 memory clinics (n = 829) and ADAS-cog data from 3 randomized controlled trials (n = 713) to estimate a common dimension of global cognitive ability using Rasch analysis. Item difficulties and individuals' global cognitive ability levels were estimated. Difficulties of 57 items (of 64) could be validly estimated. Neuropsychological tests were more difficult than the CAMCOG, ADAS-cog, and MMSE items. Most neuropsychological tests had difficulties in the ability range of normal ageing to mild dementia. Higher than average ability levels were more precisely measured when neuropsychological tests were added to the MMSE than when these were measured with the MMSE alone. Diagnostic accuracy in mild dementia was consistently better after adding neuropsychological tests to the MMSE. We conclude that extending dementia specific instruments with neuropsychological tests improves measurement precision and accuracy of cognitive impairment in mild dementia.

  15. Dual Tasking for the Differentiation between Depression and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Florian G.; Hobert, Markus A.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Hasmann, Sandra E.; Hahn, Tim; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Berg, Daniela; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Maetzler, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of mild cognitive impairment from depression in elderly adults is a clinically relevant issue which is not sufficiently solved. Gait and dual task (DT) parameters may have the potential to complement current diagnostic work-up, as both dementia and depression are associated with changes of gait and DT parameters. Methods: Seven hundred and four participants of the TREND study (Tübinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of NeuroDegeneration) aged 50–80 years were assessed using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Plus test battery for testing cognition and Beck's Depression Inventory for evaluation of depression. Based on these results, four groups were defined: acute depressed (N = 53), cognitively mildly impaired (N = 97), acute depressed, and cognitively mildly impaired (N = 15), and controls (N = 536). Participants underwent a 20 m walk and checking boxes task under single (ST) and DT conditions. ST and DT performance and dual task costs (DTC) were calculated. Due to the typical age of increasing incidence of depressive and also cognitive symptoms, the 7th decade was calculated separately. Results: ST speeds of gait and checking boxes, DT walking speed, and walking DTC were significantly different between groups. Healthy controls were the fastest in all paradigms and cognitively mildly impaired had higher DTC than depressed individuals. Additionally, we constructed a multivariate predictive model differentiating the groups on a single-subject level. Conclusion: DT parameters are simply and comfortably measureable, and DTC can easily be determined. The combination of these parameters allows a differentiation of depressed and cognitively mildly impaired elderly adults.

  16. Multi-modal MRI analysis with disease-specific spatial filtering: initial testing to predict mild cognitive impairment patients who convert to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi eOishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alterations of the gray and white matter have been identified in Alzheimer’s disease (AD by structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. However, whether the combination of these modalities could increase the diagnostic performance is unknown.Methods: Participants included 19 AD patients, 22 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients, and 22 cognitively normal elderly (NC. The aMCI group was further divided into an aMCI-converter group (converted to AD dementia within three years, and an aMCI-stable group who did not convert in this time period. A T1-weighted image, a T2 map, and a DTI of each participant were normalized, and voxel-based comparisons between AD and NC groups were performed. Regions-of-interest, which defined the areas with significant differences between AD and NC, were created for each modality and named disease-specific spatial filters (DSF. Linear discriminant analysis was used to optimize the combination of multiple MRI measurements extracted by DSF to effectively differentiate AD from NC. The resultant DSF and the discriminant function were applied to the aMCI group to investigate the power to differentiate the aMCI-converters from the aMCI-stable patients. Results: The multi-modal approach with AD-specific filters led to a predictive model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.93, in differentiating aMCI-converters from aMCI-stable patients. This AUC was better than that of a single-contrast-based approach, such as T1-based morphometry or diffusion anisotropy analysis. Conclusion: The multi-modal approach has the potential to increase the value of MRI in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD.

  17. [Mild cognitive disorders in railway locomotive crew workers (review of literature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhogina, O A; Zakrevskaya, A A; Serikov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Functional reliability of engine operator and engine operator's assistant is one of the most important factors in railway safety. Ability to railway locomotive operation is determined via suitability criteria of occupationally important qualities of operator and operator's assistant, and of nervous system functional state. Lower reliability manifested in worse functional state of engine operator or in lost occupationally important qualities can be connected with various diseases of which most prevalent are cardiovascular disorders. Transitory brain circulatory disorders can cause cognitive disturbances varying in severity. When mild cognitive disorders, precise diagnosis leads to effective prevention of the diseases development and preserved occupationally important qualities in engine operators. Neuropsychologic methods for mild cognitive disorders help not only to diagnose presence and intensity of cognitive defect, but to suggest a mechanism of its development, that eventually increases efficiency of correction.

  18. Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uemura K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Uemura,1,3 Hiroyuki Shimada,1 Hyuma Makizako,1,3 Takehiko Doi,1 Daisuke Yoshida,1 Kota Tsutsumimoto,1 Yuya Anan,1 Takao Suzuki21Section for Health Promotion, Department for Research and Development to Support Independent Life of Elderly, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 2Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, 3Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability.Results: In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = -0.354, P = 0.027 and MMSE at baseline (r = -0.321, P = 0.034. A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (ß = -0.322, P = 0.026 and MMSE score (ß = -0.295, P = 0.041, controlling for age and gender.Conclusion: General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in

  19. Associative and Implicit Memory Performance as a Function of Cognitive Reserve in Elderly Adults with and without Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarabel, Salvador; Sales, Alicia; Pitarque, Alfonso; Meléndez, Juan C; Escudero, Joaquín; Mayordomo, Teresa

    2016-02-18

    This study aims to analyze implicit and explicit memory performance as a function of cognitive reserve (CR) in a healthy control group (N = 39) and a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group (N = 37). Both groups were subdivided into high and low cognitive reserve, and were asked to complete an explicit and implicit associative recognition tasks. The results showed that the control group was able to learn both tasks (η2 = .19, p association task. Participants diagnosed with MCI showed little plasticity in learning associations regardless of CR (η2 = .12, p < .01).

  20. Cognitive reserve and Aβ1-42 in mild cognitive impairment (Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paula; Fernandez Suarez, Marcos; Surace, Ezequiel I; Chrem Méndez, Patricio; Martín, María Eugenia; Clarens, María Florencia; Tapajóz, Fernanda; Russo, Maria Julieta; Campos, Jorge; Guinjoan, Salvador M; Sevlever, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive reserve and concentration of Aβ1-42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with mild cognitive impairment, those with Alzheimer’s disease, and in control subjects. Methods Thirty-three participants from the Argentina-Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database completed a cognitive battery, the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire (CRQ), and an Argentinian accentuation reading test (TAP-BA) as a measure of premorbid intelligence, and underwent lumbar puncture for CSF biomarker quantification. Results The CRQ significantly correlated with TAP-BA, education, and Aβ1-42. When considering Aβ1-42 levels, significant differences were found in CRQ scores; higher levels of CSF Aβ1-42 were associated with higher CRQ scores. Conclusion Reduced Aβ1-42 in CSF is considered as evidence of amyloid deposition in the brain. Previous results suggest that individuals with higher education, higher occupational attainment, and participation in leisure activities (cognitive reserve) have a reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Our results support the notion that enhanced neural activity has a protective role in mild cognitive impairment, as evidenced by higher CSF Aβ1-42 levels in individuals with more cognitive reserve. PMID:26504392

  1. Principal component analysis of FDG PET in amnestic MCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobili, Flavio; Girtler, Nicola; Brugnolo, Andrea; Dessi, Barbara; Rodriguez, Guido [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Medical Sciences, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Alzheimer Evaluation Unit, Genoa (Italy); S. Martino Hospital, Head-Neck Department, Genoa (Italy); Salmaso, Dario [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Imaging Diagnostics, Genoa (Italy); Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Padua (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the combined accuracy of episodic memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET in identifying patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) converting to Alzheimer's disease (AD), aMCI non-converters, and controls. Thirty-three patients with aMCI and 15 controls (CTR) were followed up for a mean of 21 months. Eleven patients developed AD (MCI/AD) and 22 remained with aMCI (MCI/MCI). {sup 18}F-FDG PET volumetric regions of interest underwent principal component analysis (PCA) that identified 12 principal components (PC), expressed by coarse component scores (CCS). Discriminant analysis was performed using the significant PCs and episodic memory scores. PCA highlighted relative hypometabolism in PC5, including bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole, and in PC7, including the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, both in MCI/MCI and MCI/AD vs CTR. PC5 itself plus PC12, including the left lateral frontal cortex (LFC: BAs 44, 45, 46, 47), were significantly different between MCI/AD and MCI/MCI. By a three-group discriminant analysis, CTR were more accurately identified by PET-CCS + delayed recall score (100%), MCI/MCI by PET-CCS + either immediate or delayed recall scores (91%), while MCI/AD was identified by PET-CCS alone (82%). PET increased by 25% the correct allocations achieved by memory scores, while memory scores increased by 15% the correct allocations achieved by PET. Combining memory performance and {sup 18}F-FDG PET yielded a higher accuracy than each single tool in identifying CTR and MCI/MCI. The PC containing bilateral posterior cingulate and left temporal pole was the hallmark of MCI/MCI patients, while the PC including the left LFC was the hallmark of conversion to AD. (orig.)

  2. Investigations into mild electric foot shock stress-induced cognitive enhancement: possible role of angiotensin neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2013-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of angiotensin neuropeptides in mild electric foot shock stress-induced cognitive enhancement in mice. Mild stress was induced by applying mild electric foot shocks of 0.15 mA intensity for 0.5 s. The stress-induced alteration in cognition was assessed using a Morris water maze test. The animals were subjected to mild electric foot shocks 5 min before we recorded escape latency time (ELT), an index of learning, during the first 4 days of a 5-day trial in the Morris water maze. The time spent in target quadrant (TSTQ), an index of retrieval, was noted on the fifth day without prior administration of electric foot shock. The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), and telmisartan (1, 2 and 5 mg/kg), an angiotensin II receptor blocker, were employed to assess the role of angiotensin neuropeptides. The application of mild electric shocks significantly decreased ELT and increased TSTQ, indicating enhancement in stress-induced learning and memory. However, administration of lisinopril and telmisartan significantly attenuated the stress-induced decrease in ELT and increase in TSTQ. It may be concluded that mild electric foot shock-induced stress triggers the release of angiotensin neuropeptides that may be responsible for memory enhancement.

  3. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  4. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  5. Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jekel, K.; Damian, M.; Wattmo, C.; Hausner, L.; Bullock, R.; Connelly, P.J.; Dubois, B.; Eriksdotter, M.; Ewers, M.; Graessel, E.; Kramberger, M.G.; Law, E.; Mecocci, P.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Nygard, L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Pasquier, F.; Peres, K.; Salmon, E.; Sikkes, S.A.; Sobow, T.; Spiegel, R.; Tsolaki, M.; Winblad, B.; Frolich, L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a growing body of evidence that subtle deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may be present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not clear if there are IADL domains that are consistently affected across patients with MCI. In this systematic r

  6. Cognitive complaints after mild traumatic brain injury: things are not always what they seem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, M.; Vos, P.E.; Bleijenberg, G.; Werf, S.P. van der

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare nonreferred, emergency department (ED)-admitted mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients with and without self-reported cognitive complaints on (1) demographic variables and injury characteristics; (2) neuropsychological test performance; (3) 12-day self-monitoring of percei

  7. COMT Val 158 Met polymorphism is associated with nonverbal cognition following mild traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Winkler (Ethan A.); J.K. Yue (John); T.W. McAllister (Thomas W.); N.R. Temkin (Nancy); S.S. Oh (Sam S.); E.G. Burchard (Esteban); D. Hu (Donglei); A.R. Ferguson (Adam); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); J.F. Burke (John F.); M.D. Sorani (Marco); J. Rosand (Jonathan); E.L. Yuh (Esther); J. Barber (Jason); P.E. Tarapore (Phiroz E.); R.C. Gardner (Raquel C.); S. Sharma (Sourabh); G.G. Satris (Gabriela G.); C. Eng (Celeste); A.M. Puccio (Ava); K.K.W. Wang (Kevin K. W.); P. Mukherjee (Pratik); A.B. Valadka (Alex); D. Okonkwo (David); R. Diaz-Arrastia (Ramon); G. Manley (Geoffrey)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in variable clinical outcomes, which may be influenced by genetic variation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme which degrades catecholamine neurotransmitters, may influence cognitive deficits foll

  8. Various MRS application tools for Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F; Barker, P B

    2014-06-01

    MR spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique that allows the detection of several naturally occurring compounds (metabolites) from well-defined regions of interest within the human brain. Alzheimer disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. During the past 20 years, multiple studies have been performed on MR spectroscopy in patients with both mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Generally, MR spectroscopy studies have found decreased N-acetylaspartate and increased myo-inositol in both patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease, with greater changes in Alzheimer disease than in mild cognitive impairment. This review summarizes the information content of proton brain MR spectroscopy and its related technical aspects, as well as applications of MR spectroscopy to mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. While MR spectroscopy may have some value in the differential diagnosis of dementias and assessing prognosis, more likely its role in the near future will be predominantly as a tool for monitoring disease response or progression in treatment trials. More work is needed to evaluate the role of MR spectroscopy as a biomarker in Alzheimer disease and its relationship to other imaging modalities.

  9. Brain Substrates of Learning and Retention in Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosis and Progression to Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Bondi, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; McEvoy, Linda K.; Hagler, Donald J., Jr.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Dale, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the underlying qualitative features of memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can provide critical information for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study sought to investigate the utility of both learning and retention measures in (a) the diagnosis of MCI, (b) predicting progression to AD, and (c)…

  10. Psychosis associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of psychosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia, and to characterize the associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Method: A cross-section

  11. Depression in Mild Cognitive Impairment is associated with Progression to Alzheimer's Disease : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Fransen, Erik; Struyfs, Hanne; Luyckx, Jill; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD) belong to the core symptoms of dementia and are also common in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objective: This study would like to contribute to the understanding of the prognostic role of BPSD in MCI for the progression

  12. (Social) Cognitive Skills and Social Information Processing in Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…

  13. Spatial Working Memory in Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Effects of Task Load and Contextual Cueing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is characterized by episodic memory deficits, while aspects of working memory may also be implicated, but studies into this latter domain are scarce and results are inconclusive. Using a computerized search paradigm, this study compares 25 young adults, 25 typically a

  14. Spatial working memory in aging and mild cognitive impairment: effects of task load and contextual cueing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is characterized by episodic memory deficits, while aspects of working memory may also be implicated, but studies into this latter domain are scarce and results are inconclusive. Using a computerized search paradigm, this study compares 25 young adults, 25 typically a

  15. Anxiety is related to Alzheimer cerebrospinal fluid markers in subjects with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, I.H.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Scheltens, P.; Hampel, H.; Soininen, H.; Aalten, P.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.; Verbeek, M.M.; Spiru, L.; Blennow, K.; Trojanowski, J.Q.; Shaw, L.M.; Visser, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety, apathy and depression are common in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and may herald Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether these symptoms correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers for AD in subjects with MCI. Method Subjects with MCI (n=268) were

  16. Quality of life and mild cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease: does subtype matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rachael A; Yarnall, Alison J; Duncan, Gordon W; Khoo, Tien K; Breen, David P; Barker, Roger A; Collerton, Daniel; Taylor, John-Paul; Burn, David J

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the association between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes and quality of life (QoL) in 219 newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease (PD) patients without dementia. Participants completed neuropsychological tests of attention, executive function, visuospatial function, memory, and language, and reported QoL using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire. Impairments were most common in executive function, memory and attention. MCI subtypes were classified according to Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria. More severe cognitive impairment was associated with poorer quality of life (p = 0.01), but subtype of impairment was not (p > 0.10), suggesting that the nature of cognitive impairment is less significant than its severity.

  17. Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease: A Review of Current Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Palavra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease (PD-MCI is common and may be associated with accelerated progression to dementia. Considering the importance of this emerging entity, new diagnostic criteria have recently been proposed. Early recognition and accurate classification of PD-MCI could offer opportunities for novel therapeutic interventions. This review discusses current definitions for PD-MCI, the screening tools used, the pattern of cognitive deficits observed, and the predictors of cognitive decline and transition to Parkinson’s Disease Dementia. Emerging biomarkers, which may aid diagnosis, are also explored and the role of novel treatment options is considered.

  18. [Ceraxon (citicoline) in the treatment of the mild cognitive impairment syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilova, S I; Fedorova, Ia B; Gantman; Kalyn, Ia B; Kolykhalov, I V

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study efficacy and safety of ceraxon (citicoline) used perorally in dose 1000 mg daily in the treatment of cognitive disturbances in patients with amnesic type of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Twenty patients, aged from 50 to 90 years, received ceraxon in dose 1000 mg twice a day during 90 days. The state of patients was assessed with a battery of scales and tests with the following statistical data analysis. The significant results on the clinical effect of the drug on cognitive disturbances and good tolerability of ceraxon have been obtained. The authors recommend ceraxon for long-term preventive treatment in high risk populations for Alzheimer's disease.

  19. White matter changes in 80 mild cognitive impairment patients using magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Cho; Jee-Hyun Kwon; Sun-Young Kim

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies have suggested that one possible etiology of mild cognitive impairment is small vessel cerebrovascular disease, which is associated with small subcortical infarcts and white matter abnormalities. These white matter changes have been detected as white matter hyperintensity (WMH) using magnetic resonance imaging. WMH may be associated with frontal lobe dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To examine white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment patients of different subtypes, and to evaluate the correlation between white matter changes and neuropsychological characteristics, demographic information, vascular risk factors, and mild cognitive impairment subtypes. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The neurophysiological, comparison study was performed at the Department of Neurology Memory Clinic, Ulsan University Hospital, South Korea, between March 2007 and March 2008.PARTICIPANTS: Out of a total of 83 subjects with clinically diagnosed mild cognitive impairment at the out-patient clinic, 3 subjects with severe WMH were excluded. A total of 80 subjects were included in this study. No patients suffered from cognitive impairment induced by neurological diseases, mental disorders, or somatic diseases. In accordance with magnetic resonance imaging results, the patients were assigned to two subtypes: 56 subjects without WMH and 24 subjects with WMH. METHODS: All patients were subjected to a standard neuropsychological battery using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating, and comprehensive Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. The Clinical Dementia Rating reflected general cognitive function of patients. Results from the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery reflected attention, language function, visuospatial function, verbal memory, nonverbal memory, long-term memory, and frontal/executive function. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to map changes in the brain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The association between

  20. Association between cortical thickness and CSF biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohades, Sara; Dubois, Jonathan; Parent, Maxime;

    between cortical thinning, amyloidosis or tau hyperphosphorylation depends on cortical regions and clinical stages of AD. Methods: T1-weighed MRIs and associated CSF markers from individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; 16), Alzheimer Disease (AD; n¼7) and age-matched cognitively normal subjects...... regional cortical thinning (CT) measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and brain amyloidosis (measured by CSF Ab 1-42 concentrations), or tau hyperphosphorylation (tau 181; p-tau) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients. We test the hypothesis that the association...... (CN; n¼8) were obtained from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Cortical surface reconstruction and group registration were generated using Freesurfer. A general linear model was used to conduct regressions between CSF markers and cortical thickness. Results: Correlation...

  1. Subjective Memory Complaints are Involved in the Relationship between Mood and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer A; Clare, Linda; Woods, Robert T; Matthews, Fiona E

    2015-09-24

    Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are a criterion in many definitions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there is controversy over whether this is useful and appropriate, as previous research has suggested that SMC may be a function of mood problems such as anxiety and depression. This paper aimed to establish the relationship between MCI and mood in older people and to investigate the role that SMC play in the relationship. Structured interviews were conducted with community dwelling older people in Wales to collect information regarding cognitive functioning, mood, and well-being. A widely-used algorithm was used to categorize 3,173 participants into three groups: not cognitively impaired, MCI including SMC (MCI), and MCI without SMC (MCIW). The odds of experiencing anxiety or depression were calculated for each cognitive group. Participants with MCI had increased odds of experiencing symptoms of both anxiety and depression, but the odds were not changed for participants in the not cognitively impaired or MCIW categories. A mediation analysis was performed on the whole sample using cognition as a dichotomous variable, grouped using an age-, education-, and gender-adjusted median cut off point. This showed that SMC partially mediated the relationship between anxiety and cognition, and depression and cognition. Mood problems may be related to SMC rather than objective cognitive impairment, as only participants with MCI that included SMC showed increased odds of experiencing anxiety and depression. SMC are likely to play a mediating role in the relationship between mood and cognitive functioning.

  2. Effect of acute mild dehydration on cognitive-motor performance in golf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark F; Newell, Alex J; Baker, Mistrelle R

    2012-11-01

    Whether mild dehydration (-1 to 3% body mass change [ΔBM]) impairs neurophysiological function during sport-specific cognitive-motor performance has yet to be fully elucidated. To investigate this within a golfing context, 7 low-handicap players (age: 21 ± 1.1 years; mass: 76.1 ± 11.8 kg; stature: 1.77 ± 0.07 m; handicap: 3.0 ± 1.2) completed a golf-specific motor and cognitive performance task in a euhydrated condition (EC) and dehydrated condition (DC) (randomized counterbalanced design; 7-day interval). Dehydration was controlled using a previously effective 12-hour fluid restriction, monitored through ΔBM and urine color assessment (UCOL). Mild dehydration reduced the mean BM by 1.5 ± 0.5% (p = 0.01), with UCOL increasing from 2 (EC) to 4 (DC) (p = 0.02). Mild dehydration significantly impaired motor performance, expressed as shot distance (114.6 vs. 128.6 m; p performance, expressed as the mean error in distance judgment to target increased from 4.1 ± 3.0 m (EC) to 8.8 ± 4.7 m (DC) (p dehydration (-1 to 2% ΔBM) significantly impairs cognitive-motor task performance. This study is the first to show that mild dehydration can impair distance, accuracy, and distance judgment during golf performance.

  3. An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, David A

    2012-01-01

    Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are self-maintenance abilities such as dressing or bathing. Instrumental ADL (IADL) are more complex everyday tasks, such as preparing a meal or managing finances (Lawton & Brody, 1969). IADL questionnaires play an important role in assessing the functional abilities of older adults and evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment on routine activities. This paper examined the cognitive processes that underlie IADL performance and concluded that the accurate and reliable execution of IADL likely draws upon the integrity of a wide range of cognitive processes. This review examined IADL in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) because of the controversial nature of distinguishing a significant decline in functional abilities in those with MCI versus dementia or MCI versus cognitively normal aging. The challenges of investigating IADL empirically were explored, as well as some of the reasons for the inconsistent findings in the literature. A review of questionnaire-based assessments of IADL indicated that: MCI can be distinguished statistically from healthy older adults and dementia, individuals with multiple domain MCI are more impaired on IADL than those with single domain MCI, mild IADL changes can be predictive of future cognitive decline, and the ability to manage finances may be among the earliest IADL changes in MCI and a strong predictor of conversion to dementia. This paper concluded with recommendations for more sensitive and reliable IADL questionnaires.

  4. Mild cognitive impairment (part 1: clinical characteristics and predictors of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes V. Forlenza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To critically review and evaluate existing knowledge on the conceptual limits and clinical usefulness of the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and the neuropsychological assessment and short- and long-term prognosis thereof. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases, limited to articles published in English between 1999 and 2012. Based on the search terms mild cognitive impairment or MCI and epidemiology or diagnosis, we retrieved 1,698 articles, of which 248 were critically eligible (cross-sectional and longitudinal studies; the abstracts of the remaining 1,450 articles were also reviewed. Results: A critical review on the MCI construct is provided, including conceptual and diagnostic aspects; epidemiological relevance; clinical assessment; prognosis; and outcome. The distinct definitions of cognitive impairment, MCI included, yield clinically heterogeneous groups of individuals. Those who will eventually progress to dementia may present with symptoms consistent with the definition of MCI; conversely, individuals with MCI may remain stable or return to normal cognitive function. Conclusion: On clinical grounds, the cross-sectional diagnosis of MCI has limited prognostic relevance. The characterization of persistent and/or progressive cognitive deficits over time is a better approach for identification of cases at the pre-dementia stages, particularly if these cognitive abnormalities are consistent with the natural history of incipient Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Adding Recognition Discriminability Index to the Delayed Recall Is Useful to Predict Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María J.; Campos, Jorge; Vázquez, Silvia; Sevlever, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ongoing research is focusing on the identification of those individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are most likely to convert to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether recognition memory tasks in combination with delayed recall measure of episodic memory and CSF biomarkers can predict MCI to AD conversion at 24-month follow-up. Methods: A total of 397 amnestic-MCI subjects from Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiative were included. Logistic regression modeling was done to assess the predictive value of all RAVLT measures, risk factors such as age, sex, education, APOE genotype, and CSF biomarkers for progression to AD. Estimating adjusted odds ratios was used to determine which variables would produce an optimal predictive model, and whether adding tests of interaction between the RAVLT Delayed Recall and recognition measures (traditional score and d-prime) would improve prediction of the conversion from a-MCI to AD. Results: 112 (28.2%) subjects developed dementia and 285 (71.8%) subjects did not. Of the all included variables, CSF Aβ1-42 levels, RAVLT Delayed Recall, and the combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime were predictive of progression to AD (χ2 = 38.23, df = 14, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The combination of RAVLT Delayed Recall and d-prime measures may be predictor of conversion from MCI to AD in the ADNI cohort, especially in combination with amyloid biomarkers. A predictive model to help identify individuals at-risk for dementia should include not only traditional episodic memory measures (delayed recall or recognition), but also additional variables (d-prime) that allow the homogenization of the assessment procedures in the diagnosis of MCI.

  6. Grey-matter volume as a potential feature for the classification of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yane; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Pan; Yao, Hongxiang; Yuan, Minshao; An, Ningyu; Dai, Haitao; Wang, Luning; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Specific patterns of brain atrophy may be helpful in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we set out to evaluate the utility of grey-matter volume in the classification of AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) compared to normal control (NC) individuals. Voxel-based morphometric analyses were performed on structural MRIs from 35 AD patients, 27 aMCI patients, and 27 NC participants. A two-sample two-tailed t-test was computed between the NC and AD groups to create a map of abnormal grey matter in AD. The brain areas with significant differences were extracted as regions of interest (ROIs), and the grey-matter volumes in the ROIs of the aMCI patients were included to evaluate the patterns of change across different disease severities. Next, correlation analyses between the grey-matter volumes in the ROIs and all clinical variables were performed in aMCI and AD patients to determine whether they varied with disease progression. The results revealed significantly decreased grey matter in the bilateral hippocampus/parahippocampus, the bilateral superior/middle temporal gyri, and the right precuneus in AD patients. The grey-matter volumes were positively correlated with clinical variables. Finally, we performed exploratory linear discriminative analyses to assess the classifying capacity of grey-matter volumes in the bilateral hippocampus and parahippocampus among AD, aMCI, and NC. Leave-one-out cross-validation analyses demonstrated that grey-matter volumes in hippocampus and parahippocampus accurately distinguished AD from NC. These findings indicate that grey-matter volumes are useful in the classification of AD.

  7. Cognitive Interventions in Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Therapy-Evaluation Study on the Interaction of Medication and Cognitive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schecker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Many studies have shown that not only pharmacological treatment but also cognitive stimulation in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD improves language processing and (other cognitive functions, stabilizes Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL functions and increases the subjective quality of life (wherein a combination of pharmacological intervention and cognitive stimulation could provide greater relief of clinical symptoms than either intervention given alone. Today, it is no longer the question of whether cognitive stimulation helps but rather what kind of stimulation helps more than others. Methods: A sample of 42 subjects with mild AD (all medicated with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and well adjusted underwent clinical and cognitive evaluation and participated in a 6-month study with 2 experimental groups (i.e. ‘client-centered' global stimulation vs. cognitive training and a control group. Since the test performance also depends on the individual test, we used a wide variety of tests; we z-transformed the results and then calculated the mean value for the global cognitive status (using the Mini-Mental State Examination as well as for the single functional areas. Results: Between-group differences were found, they were overall in favor of the experimental groups. Different functional areas led to different treatment and test patterns. Client-centered, global, cognitive therapy stimulated many cognitive functions and thus led to a better performance in language processing and ADL/IADL. The subjective quality of life increased as well. The cognitive training (of working memory improved only the ADL/IADL performance (more, however, than client-centered, global, cognitive stimulation and stabilized the level of performance in the other three functional areas.

  8. Novel Virtual User Models of Mild Cognitive Impairment for Simulating Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Segkouli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual user modeling research has attempted to address critical issues of human-computer interaction (HCI such as usability and utility through a large number of analytic, usability-oriented approaches as cognitive models in order to provide users with experiences fitting to their specific needs. However, there is demand for more specific modules embodied in cognitive architecture that will detect abnormal cognitive decline across new synthetic task environments. Also, accessibility evaluation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs requires considerable effort for enhancing ICT products accessibility for older adults. The main aim of this study is to develop and test virtual user models (VUM simulating mild cognitive impairment (MCI through novel specific modules, embodied at cognitive models and defined by estimations of cognitive parameters. Well-established MCI detection tests assessed users’ cognition, elaborated their ability to perform multitasks, and monitored the performance of infotainment related tasks to provide more accurate simulation results on existing conceptual frameworks and enhanced predictive validity in interfaces’ design supported by increased tasks’ complexity to capture a more detailed profile of users’ capabilities and limitations. The final outcome is a more robust cognitive prediction model, accurately fitted to human data to be used for more reliable interfaces’ evaluation through simulation on the basis of virtual models of MCI users.

  9. A Behavioural Approach to Helping an Older Adult with a Learning Disability and Mild Cognitive Impairment Overcome Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a considerable body of evidence to suggest that behavioural activation for depression is an equally effective but less complex treatment than cognitive behavioural therapy. It may therefore be more suitable for those who are cognitively impaired (i.e. early-stage dementia or mild cognitive impairment) or have a learning…

  10. Cognitive reserve as a moderator of postconcussive symptoms in children with complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Taryn B; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Bangert, Barbara; Dietrich, Ann; Nuss, Kathryn E; Rusin, Jerome; Wright, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of postconcussive symptoms (PCS) following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children may depend on cognitive reserve capacity. This prospective, longitudinal study examined whether the relationship between mild TBI and PCS is moderated by cognitive ability, which served as a proxy for cognitive reserve. Participants included 182 children with mild TBI and 99 children with orthopedic injuries (OI), ranging from 8 to 15 years of age when injured. Mild TBI were classified as complicated (n = 32) or uncomplicated (n = 150) depending on whether they were associated with trauma-related intracranial abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging. PCS were assessed initially within 3 weeks of injury, and again at 1, 3, and 12 months post injury. The initial assessment also included standardized tests of children's cognitive skills and retrospective parent ratings of pre-injury symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that ratings of PCS were moderated jointly by cognitive ability and injury severity. Children of lower cognitive ability with a complicated mild TBI were especially prone to cognitive symptoms across time according to parents and to high acute levels of PCS according to children's self-ratings. Cognitive reserve is an important moderator of the outcomes of mild TBI in children and adolescents.

  11. Anxiety and behavioural disturbance as markers of prodromal Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2011-02-01

    Depression and anxiety have been reported to be independently predictive of conversion to Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Anxiety symptoms have been less well studied and findings in this regard have been inconsistent. The objectives of this study are to determine which symptoms among a range of neuropsychiatric symptoms known to commonly occur in patients with MCI are predictive of later conversion to AD. We also wish to determine whether these symptoms track existing measures of declining cognitive and functional status or may be considered distinct and sensitive biomarkers of evolving Alzheimer\\'s pathology.

  12. Adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to examine the associations of these markers with clinical and cognitive parameters. A biochemical evaluation was performed of 62 seniors with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and MCI, and 132 seniors with T2DM but without MCI (controls). Serum leptin and IL-1 β levels were higher and adiponectin concentration was lower in MCI patient...

  13. Dependence and caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2011-03-01

    The dependence scale has been designed to be sensitive to the overall care needs of the patient and is considered distinct from standard measures of functional ability in this regard. Little is known regarding the relationship between patient dependence and caregiver burden. We recruited 100 patients with Alzheimer\\'s disease or mild cognitive impairment and their caregivers through a memory clinic. Patient function, dependence, hours of care, cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and caregiver burden were assessed. Dependence was significantly correlated with caregiver burden. Functional decline and dependence were most predictive of caregiver burden in patients with mild impairment while behavioral symptoms were most predictive in patients with moderate to severe disease. The dependence scale demonstrated good utility as a predictor of caregiver burden. Interventions to reduce caregiver burden should address patient dependence, functional decline, and behavioral symptoms while successful management of the latter becomes more critical with disease progression.

  14. Dosimetry of patients submitted to cerebral PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de; Bernardes, Felipe Dias; Mamede, Marcelo, E-mail: pridili@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mourao, Arnaldo Prata [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Teogenes Augusto da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the effective radiation dose in patients submitted to PET/CT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Materials and methods: TLD-100 detectors inserted into an Alderson Rando® anthropomorphic phantom were utilized to measure the absorbed dose coming from the CT imaging modality. The anthropomorphic phantoms (male and female adult versions) were submitted to the same technical protocols for patients’ images acquisition. The absorbed dose resulting from the radiopharmaceutical injection was estimated by means of the model proposed by the ICRP publication 106. Results: the effective dose in patients submitted to this diagnostic technique was approximately (5.34 ± 1.99) mSv. Conclusion: optimized protocols for calculation of radioactive activity injected into patients submitted to this diagnostic technique might contribute to reduce the effective radiation dose resulting from PET/CT in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. (author)

  15. Treating vascular mild cognitive impairment by acupuncture: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the effect and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of vascular mild cognitive impairment(VMCI).Methods Recruited were China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database(CNKI)(1979—2012),Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database(VIP)(1989—2012),Chinese Biomedical Database(CBM),Wanfang degree and conference papers database(1985—2012),PubMed Database(1966—2012),and The Cochrane Library(Issue 1,2012).The search date ended in

  16. Factors Influencing Cognitive Functioning Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in OIF/OEF Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 19 (2004), 825–834. [5] H.G. Belanger, T. Kretzmer, R. Yoash-Gantz, T. Pickett and L.A. Tupler...Poppe, N. Davis, B. Schmaus and S.E. Hobbs, Cognitive functioning and postconcussive symptoms in trau- ma patients with and without mild TBI, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 21...Koffler, C.R. Reynolds and C.H. Silver, Neuropsychological evalua- tion in the diagnosis and management of sports-related con- cussion, Archives of

  17. Complexity analysis of electroencephalogram in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐梅松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Lemple-Zie complexity (LZC) characteristics in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) ,mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly,and the possibility of differentiating AD,MCI and normal elderly by LZC.Methods Electroencephalogram (EEG) of 30 AD patients,30 MCI patients and 20normal elderly with eyes closed in rest state were recorded.In acquired EEG data,2 048 points (10.14 s) of

  18. Mnemonic strategy training partially restores hippocampal activity in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Learning and memory deficits typify patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and are generally attributed to medial temporal lobe dysfunction. Although the hippocampus is perhaps the most commonly studied neuroanatomical structure in these patients, there have been few attempts to identify rehabilitative interventions that facilitate its functioning. Here, we present results from a randomized, controlled, single-blind study in which patients with MCI and healthy elderly controls (HEC) we...

  19. Cognitive Improvement after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Measured with Functional Neuroimaging during the Acute Period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Wylie

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI have been largely limited to patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, utilizing images obtained months to years after the actual head trauma. We sought to distinguish acute and delayed effects of mild traumatic brain injury on working memory functional brain activation patterns < 72 hours after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI and again one-week later. We hypothesized that clinical and fMRI measures of working memory would be abnormal in symptomatic mTBI patients assessed < 72 hours after injury, with most patients showing clinical recovery (i.e., improvement in these measures within 1 week after the initial assessment. We also hypothesized that increased memory workload at 1 week following injury would expose different cortical activation patterns in mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, compared to those with full clinical recovery. We performed a prospective, cohort study of working memory in emergency department patients with isolated head injury and clinical diagnosis of concussion, compared to control subjects (both uninjured volunteers and emergency department patients with extremity injuries and no head trauma. The primary outcome of cognitive recovery was defined as resolution of reported cognitive impairment and quantified by scoring the subject's reported cognitive post-concussive symptoms at 1 week. Secondary outcomes included additional post-concussive symptoms and neurocognitive testing results. We enrolled 46 subjects: 27 with mild TBI and 19 controls. The time of initial neuroimaging was 48 (+22 S.D. hours after injury (time 1. At follow up (8.7, + 1.2 S.D., days after injury, time 2, 18 of mTBI subjects (64% reported moderate to complete cognitive recovery, 8 of whom fully recovered between initial and follow-up imaging. fMRI changes from time 1 to time 2 showed an increase in posterior cingulate activation in the mTBI subjects

  20. Roles of Education and IQ in Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Armstrong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The role of cognitive reserve in Parkinson’s disease (PD-mild cognitive impairment (MCI is incompletely understood. Methods: The relationships between PD-MCI, years of education, and estimated premorbid IQ were examined in 119 consecutive non-demented PD patients using logistic regression models. Results: Higher education and IQ were associated with reduced odds of PD-MCI in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, a higher IQ was associated with a significantly decreased odds of PD-MCI, but education was not. Conclusion: The association of higher IQ and decreased odds of PD-MCI supports a role for cognitive reserve in PD, but further studies are needed to clarify the interaction of IQ and education and the impact of other contributors such as employment and hobbies.

  1. The relationship between associative learning, transfer generalization, and homocysteine levels in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Hewedi, Doaa H; Eissa, Abeer M; Myers, Catherine E; Sadek, Hisham A

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that high total homocysteine levels are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, we test the relationship between cognitive function and total homocysteine levels in healthy subjects (Global Dementia Rating, CDR = 0) and individuals with MCI (CDR = 0.5). We have used a cognitive task that tests learning and generalization of rules, processes that have been previously shown to rely on the integrity of the striatal and hippocampal regions, respectively. We found that total homocysteine levels are higher in MCI individuals than in healthy controls. Unlike what we expected, we found no difference between MCI subjects and healthy controls in learning and generalization. We conducted further analysis after diving MCI subjects in two groups, depending on their Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) scores: individuals with very mild cognitive decline (vMCD, GDS = 2) and mild cognitive decline (MCD, GDS = 3). There was no difference among the two MCI and healthy control groups in learning performance. However, we found that individuals with MCD make more generalization errors than healthy controls and individuals with vMCD. We found no difference in the number of generalization errors between healthy controls and MCI individuals with vMCD. In addition, interestingly, we found that total homocysteine levels correlate positively with generalization errors, but not with learning errors. Our results are in agreement with prior results showing a link between hippocampal function, generalization performance, and total homocysteine levels. Importantly, our study is perhaps among the first to test the relationship between learning (and generalization) of rules and homocysteine levels in healthy controls and individuals with MCI.

  2. Remembering a visit to the psychology lab: Implications of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Patrick S R; Cooper, Lara; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-09-01

    Morris Moscovitch has emphasized the importance of sensitively and carefully measuring cognition in the real world. With this lesson in mind, we examined the real-world episodic memory problems of older adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). MCI patients often complain of episodic memory problems and perform poorly on standardized neuropsychological measures, but we still do not know enough about their actual difficulties remembering real experiences. A few days after their visit to the laboratory for an experimental session, we telephoned 19 MCI patients and 34 healthy participants without warning to ask what they could recollect about 16 elements of their visit. The patients had difficulty remembering the details of their visit, and reported lower ratings of memory vividness compared to healthy participants. Patients' memory for the visit was commensurate with their performance on three standard clinical memory assessment measures (delayed 5 word recall from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, long delay free recall from the California Verbal Learning Test-II and recall of the details of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Logical Memory stories), providing evidence for the generalizability of the clinical measures. Putting these findings together with those from Moscovitch and colleagues (Murphy et al., 2008) can help us better understand the real-world memory implications of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

  3. Cognitive Reserve in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Importance of Occupational Complexity as a Buffer of Declining Cognition in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldberg Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve is the ability to optimize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks, which may reflect the use of alternative cognitive strategies. Work is one of the most important sources of cognitive stimulation during adulthood. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents an intermediate status between normal aging and dementia. As a consequence, this is considered a risk group regarding cognition. In order to study the probable association between occupational complexity and cognitive performance in a group of patients with MCI, a non-probabilistic intentional sample was dispensed on a group of 80 patients. Occupational complexity was explored by the Questionnaire on Agency of Labor Activity (CAAL, according to its acronym in Spanish and a set of neuropsychological tests, which assessed cognitive performance in different areas: memory, attention, language and executive function, were administered. Results reveal that occupational complexity is associated to cognitive performance of elderly adults with MCI. With respect to working with Data, an increase in neuropsychological tests that demand high levels of attention and imply processing speed and working memory can be noted. Regarding the complexity of working with People, an association between the level of occupational complexity and an increase in verbal abilities and verbal reasoning can be seen. On the other hand, working with Things could be associated with better performance in specific areas of cognition such as visuospatial abilities. These results add up as empirical evidence to the fields of cognitive neurology and gerontology and to the cognitive reserve hypothesis, showing how complex environments can enhance cognition in old age. It adds evidence that help to understand which psychological, social and labor factors intervene in the cognitive reserve of an elder adult in cognitive risk.

  4. Cognitive functioning and postconcussive symptoms in trauma patients with and without mild TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landre, Nancy; Poppe, Christopher J; Davis, Nancy; Schmaus, Brian; Hobbs, Susan E

    2006-05-01

    Although there is a large body of research on mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), the portion that pertains to acute patients (those less than 1 month postinjury) is relatively small and yields inconsistent findings. The potential contribution of non-neurological factors, such as pain and emotional distress, to the clinical picture in this population is also lacking. To address these issues, the cognitive performance and symptom complaints of 37 hospitalized MTBI subjects were compared to those of 39 hospitalized trauma subjects, averaging 4.5 days postinjury. MTBI subjects performed significantly worse on all cognitive measures, but did not differ from trauma subjects in their report of postconcussive symptoms. Analyses also revealed that cognitive performance was unrelated to pain severity and emotional distress. Postconcussive symptoms were similarly unrelated to pain severity, but were consistently related to emotional distress. Results are discussed in terms of their etiological and treatment implications.

  5. Mild cognitive impairment. Diagnostic value of different MR techniques; ''Mild cognitive impairment''. Diagnostische Wertigkeit verschiedener MR-Techniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, T.; Stieltjes, B.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Abteilung E010 Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Thomann, P.A. [Zentrum fuer Psychosoziale Medizin, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, AG Strukturelle Bildgebung, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Psychiatrie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    In view of an increasingly aging population the prevalence of dementia is also expected to increase rapidly. As well as clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia which is important in the precursor stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). On the one hand this stage is associated with an increased risk of dementia and on the other hand an early treatment in this stage could attenuate development of the disease. In addition to morphological changes different functional MRI techniques can help in the early diagnosis of dementia and the precursor stages. Moreover, it is important to detect those MCI patients who are at particularly risk for developing dementia. In the differentiation of converters to non-converters initial studies suggest that particularly voxel-based morphometry, MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide important additional information. (orig.) [German] Angesichts einer immer aelter werdenden Bevoelkerung sind wir mit dem Problem einer zunehmenden Zahl an Patienten mit Demenzerkrankungen konfrontiert. In der Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz spielen neben klinischen, neuropsychologischen und laborchemischen Untersuchungen nichtinvasive Bildgebungsverfahren wie die MRT eine bedeutende Rolle. Wichtig ist dabei die Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz bereits im Vorstadium der leichten kognitiven Beeintraechtigung (''mild cognitive impairment'', MCI), da dieses Krankheitsbild mit einem deutlich erhoehten Demenzrisiko einhergeht und durch eine fruehzeitige Therapie der Krankheitsverlauf abgemildert oder deutlich verzoegert werden kann. Neben morphologischen Veraenderungen helfen verschiedene funktionelle MR-Verfahren bei der Fruehdiagnostik einer Demenz. Darueber hinaus ist es von grosser Bedeutung, diejenigen MCI-Patienten zu detektieren, die in besonderem Masse von einer Demenz bedroht sind. Bei der Differenzierung von

  6. Effect of mild cognitive impairment and APOE genotype on resting cerebral blood flow and its association with cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina E; Dev, Sheena I; Shin, David D; Clark, Lindsay R; Bangen, Katherine J; Jak, Amy J; Rissman, Robert A; Liu, Thomas T; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2012-08-01

    Using whole-brain pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging, resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured in 20 mild cognitive impairment (MCI; 11 ɛ3 and 9 ɛ4) and 40 demographically matched cognitively normal (CN; 27 ɛ3 and 13 ɛ4) participants. An interaction of apolipoprotein (APOE) genotype (ɛ3 and ɛ4) and cognitive status (CN and MCI) on quantified gray-matter CBF corrected for partial volume effects was found in the left parahippocampal and fusiform gyri (PHG/FG), right middle frontal gyrus, and left medial frontal gyrus. In the PHG/FG, CBF was elevated for CN ɛ4 carriers but decreased for MCI ɛ4 carriers. The opposite pattern was seen in frontal regions: CBF was decreased for CN ɛ4 carriers but increased for MCI ɛ4 carriers. Cerebral blood flow in the PHG/FG was positively correlated with verbal memory for CN ɛ4 adults (r=0.67, P=0.01). Cerebral blood flow in the left medial frontal gyrus was positively correlated with verbal memory for MCI ɛ4 adults (r=0.70, P=0.05). Findings support dynamic pathophysiologic processes in the brain associated with Alzheimer's disease risk and indicate that cognitive status and APOE genotype have interactive effects on CBF. Correlations between CBF and verbal memory suggest a differential neurovascular compensatory response in posterior and anterior cortices with cognitive decline in ɛ4 adults.

  7. Aberrant cerebral network topology and mild cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana B; Aarsland, Dag; Ginestet, Cedric E; Lebedev, Alexander V; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Simmons, Andrew; Volpe, Giovanni; Westman, Eric

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with disruption in large-scale structural networks in newly diagnosed, drug-naïve patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Graph theoretical analyses were applied to 3T MRI data from 123 PD patients and 56 controls from the Parkinson's progression markers initiative (PPMI). Thirty-three patients were classified as having Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) using the Movement Disorders Society Task Force criteria, while the remaining 90 PD patients were classified as cognitively normal (PD-CN). Global measures (clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, global efficiency, small-worldness) and regional measures (regional clustering coefficient, regional efficiency, hubs) were assessed in the structural networks that were constructed based on cortical thickness and subcortical volume data. PD-MCI patients showed a marked reduction in the average correlation strength between cortical and subcortical regions compared with controls. These patients had a larger characteristic path length and reduced global efficiency in addition to a lower regional efficiency in frontal and parietal regions compared with PD-CN patients and controls. A reorganization of the highly connected regions in the network was observed in both groups of patients. This study shows that the earliest stages of cognitive decline in PD are associated with a disruption in the large-scale coordination of the brain network and with a decrease of the efficiency of parallel information processing. These changes are likely to signal further cognitive decline and provide support to the role of aberrant network topology in cognitive impairment in patients with early PD.

  8. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept and diagnostic entity in need of input from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Mark W; Smith, Glenn E

    2014-02-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individuals with subtle cognitive declines or mis-diagnose MCI in those who are otherwise cognitively normal on a broader neuropsychological battery of tests. The assembled articles highlight the perils of relying on these conventional criteria for MCI diagnosis and reveal how the reliability of diagnosis is improved when sound neuropsychological approaches are adopted. When these requirements are met, we illustrate with a second series of articles that neuropsychological measures associate strongly with biomarkers and often reflect pathology beyond or instead of typical AD distributions. The final set of articles reveal that people with MCI demonstrate mild but identifiable functional difficulties, and a challenge for neuropsychology is how to incorporate this information to better define MCI and distinguish it from early dementia. Neuropsychology is uniquely positioned to improve upon the state of the science in MCI research and practice by providing critically important empirical information on the specific cognitive domains affected by the predominant neurodegenerative disorders of late life as well as on the diagnostic decision-making strategies used in studies. When such efforts to more comprehensively assess neuropsychological functions are undertaken, better characterizations of spared and impaired cognitive and functional abilities result and lead to more convincing associations with other biomarkers as well as to prediction of clinical outcomes.

  9. An Overview of Systematic Reviews of Ginkgo biloba Extracts for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Huang, Li-Bo; Zhong, Yan-Biao; Zhou, Qi-Hui; Wang, Hui-Lin; Zheng, Guo-Qing; Lin, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBEs) have been recommended to improve cognitive function and to prevent cognitive decline, but earlier evidence was inconclusive. Here, we evaluated all systematic reviews of GBEs for prevention of cognitive decline, and intervention of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Six databases from their inception to September 2015 were searched. Ten systematic reviews were identified, including reviews about Alzheimer's disease (n = 3), about vascular dementia (n = 1), about both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia (n = 2), about Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and mixed dementia (n = 3), and a review about MCI (n = 1). Based on the overview quality assessment questionnaire, eight studies were scored with at least 5 points, while the other two scored 4 points and 3 points, respectively. Medication with GBEs showed improvement in cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and daily activities, and the effect was dose-dependent. Efficacy was convincingly demonstrated only when high daily dose (240 mg) was applied. Compared with placebo, overall adverse events and serious adverse events were at the same level as placebo, with less adverse events in favor of GBE in the subgroup of Alzheimer's disease patients, and fewer incidences in vertigo, tinnitus, angina pectoris, and headache. In conclusion, there is clear evidence to support the efficacy of GBEs for MCI and dementia, whereas the question on efficacy to prevent cognitive decline is still open. In addition, GBEs seem to be generally safe. PMID:27999539

  10. Clinical Relevance of Specific Cognitive Complaints in Determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a Study of Healthy Elderly Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Villanueva, Marina; Rebollo-Vázquez, Ana; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M; Valentí, Meritxell; Medina, Miguel; Fernández-Blázquez, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Item Response Theory (IRT) were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI. Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely Forgetfulness of Immediate Information (FII), Executive Functions (EF) and Prospective Memory (PM) proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10). Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to use the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints.

  11. Clinical Relevance of Specific Cognitive Complaints in Determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a Study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Villanueva, Marina; Rebollo-Vázquez, Ana; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M.; Valentí, Meritxell; Medina, Miguel; Fernández-Blázquez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Item Response Theory (IRT) were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI. Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely Forgetfulness of Immediate Information (FII), Executive Functions (EF) and Prospective Memory (PM) proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10). Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to use the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints. PMID:27757082

  12. 轻度认知障碍患者多模态磁共振特征%Multi-modality magnetic resonance imaging features of cognitive function in mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华丽; 袁慧书; 苏敏莹; 朱玥; 廖晶; 张关燕; 李涛; 于欣

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨轻度认知损害者(MCI)和阿尔茨海默病(AD)患者多模态磁共振成像特征与认知功能的关系.方法 共纳入9例遗忘型MCI,15例轻度AD及11例正常对照,以简明精神状况检查(MMSE)和认知功能筛查测验(CASI)评估总体认知功能,对高分辨率结构像进行基于体素形态学分析(VBM),测量扩散张量成像(DTI)图像、各脑区白质各向异性比值(FA)和平均表观弥散系数(ADC),分析脑结构萎缩及白质DTI指标与认知评分的相关性.结果 MMSE和CASI评分与颞、额、顶、扣带回、海马旁回等结构灰质体积改变呈正相关(P<0.001),MMSE和CASI总分与颞、顶叶以及海马旁回的FA值呈正相关,与ADC值呈负相关(P<0.05).结论 MCI和AD患者认知功能与颞、顶、海马旁回等脑区萎缩及白质微观结构损伤密切相关,多模态影像技术可作为认知损害脑机制研究的重要技术手段.%Objective To investigate the association of multi-modality neuroimaging features and cognitive function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD).Methods Nine individuals with amnestic MCI (aMCI), fifteen patients with mild probable AD, and eleven age-controlled cognitively normal controls (NC) were recruited.All participants were administered with mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and Cognitive assessment screening instrument (CASI) to assess general cognitive function.Optimized voxel-based morphometry ( VBM ) was used for the analysis with 3-D high resolution anatomical images.Values of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean apparent diffusivity coefficient (ADC) were measured from different brain regions on diffusion-tensor images ( DTI) .The relationship between structural atrophy and DTI-based measurements in the selected brain regions was examined.Results The scores of MMSE and CASI were correlated with the volumetric changes in such areas as temporal, frontal and parietal lobes, and cingulate gyrus and hippocampal

  13. Prevalence, Distribution, and Impact of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Latin America, China, and India: A 10/66 Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Blossom C. M.; Dewey, Michael; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K. S.; Jiménez-Velázquez, Ivonne Z.; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J.; Salas, Aquiles; Williams, Joseph; Acosta, Isaac; González-Viruet, Maribella; Guerra Hernandez, Milagros A.; Shuran, Li; Prince, Martin J.; Stewart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid demographic ageing is a growing public health issue in many low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a construct frequently used to define groups of people who may be at risk of developing dementia, crucial for targeting preventative interventions. However, little is known about the prevalence or impact of MCI in LAMIC settings. Methods and Findings Data were analysed from cross-sectional surveys established by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group and carried out in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Mexico, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, China, and India on 15,376 individuals aged 65+ without dementia. Standardised assessments of mental and physical health, and cognitive function were carried out including informant interviews. An algorithm was developed to define Mayo Clinic amnestic MCI (aMCI). Disability (12-item World Health Organization disability assessment schedule [WHODAS]) and informant-reported neuropsychiatric symptoms (neuropsychiatric inventory [NPI-Q]) were measured. After adjustment, aMCI was associated with disability, anxiety, apathy, and irritability (but not depression); between-country heterogeneity in these associations was only significant for disability. The crude prevalence of aMCI ranged from 0.8% in China to 4.3% in India. Country differences changed little (range 0.6%–4.6%) after standardization for age, gender, and education level. In pooled estimates, aMCI was modestly associated with male gender and fewer assets but was not associated with age or education. There was no significant between-country variation in these demographic associations. Conclusions An algorithm-derived diagnosis of aMCI showed few sociodemographic associations but was consistently associated with higher disability and neuropsychiatric symptoms in addition to showing substantial variation in prevalence across LAMIC populations. Longitudinal data are needed to confirm findings—in particular, to investigate the predictive

  14. Effects of a multidisciplinar cognitive rehabilitation program for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane F. Viola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program on cognition, quality of life, and neuropsychiatry symptoms in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. METHOD: The present study was a single-blind, controlled study that was conducted at a university-based day-hospital memory facility. The study included 25 Alzheimer's patients and their caregivers and involved a 12-week stimulation and psychoeducational program. The comparison group consisted of 16 Alzheimer's patients in waiting lists for future intervention. INTERVENTION: Group sessions were provided by a multiprofessional team and included memory training, computer-assisted cognitive stimulation, expressive activities (painting, verbal expression, writing, physiotherapy, and physical training. Treatment was administered twice a week during 6.5-h gatherings. MEASUREMENTS: The assessment battery comprised the following tests: Mini-Mental State Examination, Short Cognitive Test, Quality of Life in Alzheimer's disease, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and Geriatric Depression Scale. Test scores were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study by raters who were blinded to the group assignments. RESULTS: Measurements of global cognitive function and performance on attention tasks indicated that patients in the experimental group remained stable, whereas controls displayed mild but significant worsening. The intervention was associated with reduced depression symptoms for patients and caregivers and decreased neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's subjects. The treatment was also beneficial for the patients' quality of life. CONCLUSION: This multimodal rehabilitation program was associated with cognitive stability and significant improvements in the quality of life for Alzheimer's patients. We also observed a significant decrease in depressive symptoms and caregiver burden. These results support the notion that structured nonpharmacological interventions can yield

  15. Can outbred mice be used as a mouse model of mild cognitive impairment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Wenhua Xu; Chao Wang; Dewu Huang; Guihai Chen

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in spatial learning and memory are some of the earliest symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there are few valid MCI animal models available to evaluate putative therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to obtain a natural animal model of MCI. Outbred Kunming (aged 5 and 12.5 months) and ICR (7 and 12 months) mice were utilized in the present study. Morris water maze and radial six-arm water maze (RAWM) were simultaneously used to evaluate impaired spatial learning and memory in middle-aged mice (approximately 12 months of age). Compared with younger mice in the respective groups, the middle-aged mice suffered visible impairment of spatial memory in the Morris water maze and RAWM, and mild spatial learning deficiency occurred in the RAWM study alone. Thus outbred Kunming and ICR mice could be utilized as a natural animal model for MCI, in particular for memory impairment studies.

  16. Exercise-induced cognitive plasticity, implications for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Foster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors such as intellectual stimulation, cognitive and social engagement, nutrition, and various types of exercise appear to reduce the risk for common age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia. In fact, many studies have suggested that promoting physical activity can have a protective effect against cognitive deterioration later in life. Slowing or a deterioration of walking speed is associated with a poor performance in tests assessing psychomotor speed and verbal fluency in elderly individuals. Fitness training influences a wide range of cognitive processes, and the largest positive impact observed is for executive (a.k.a. frontal lobe functions. Studies show that exercise improves additional cognitive functions such as tasks mediated by the hippocampus, and result in major changes in plasticity in the hippocampus. Interestingly, this exercise-induced plasticity is also pronounced in APOE ε4 carriers who express a risk factor for late-onset AD that may modulate the effect of treatments. Based on AD staging by Braak et al., we propose that the effects of exercise occur in two temporo-spatial continua of events. The inward continuum from isocortex (neocortex to entorhinal cortex/hippocampus for amyloidosis and a reciprocal outward continuum for neurofibrillary alterations. The exercise-induced hypertrophy of the hippocampus at the core of these continua is evaluated in terms of potential for prevention to stave off neuronal degeneration. Exercise-induced production of growth factors such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to enhance neurogenesis and to play a key role in positive cognitive effects. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 may mediate the exercise-induced response to exercise on BDNF, neurogenesis and cognitive performance. It is also postulated to regulate brain amyloid β (Aβ levels by increased clearance via the choroid plexus. Growth factors

  17. Association of insulin-like growth factor-1 with mild cognitive impairment and slow gait speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    The decrease in serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) with aging is related to the neurobiological processes in Alzheimer's disease. IGF-1 mediates effects of physical exercise on the brain, and cognition has a common pathophysiology with physical function, particularly with gait. The aim of this study was to examine whether mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and slow gait are associated with the serum IGF-1 level. A population survey was conducted in 3355 participants (mean age, 71.4 years). Cognitive functions (attention, executive function, processing speed, visuospatial skill, and memory), gait speed, and demographic variables were measured. All cognitive functions and gait speed were associated with the IGF-1 level (p association of IGF-1 with slow gait was weakened by adjustment for covariates, but MCI and the combination of MCI and slow gait were independently related to the IGF-1 level in multivariate analysis (p association of a low IGF-1 level with reduced cognitive function and gait speed, particularly with a combination of MCI and slow gait.

  18. A Mutual Self- and Informant-Report of Cognitive Complaint Correlates with Neuropathological Outcomes in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Gifford

    Full Text Available This study examines whether different sources of cognitive complaint (i.e., self and informant predict Alzheimer's disease (AD neuropathology in elders with mild cognitive impairment (MCI.Data were drawn from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform and Neuropathology Datasets (observational studies for participants with a clinical diagnosis of MCI and postmortem examination (n = 1843, 74±8 years, 52% female. Cognitive complaint (0.9±0.5 years prior to autopsy was classified into four mutually exclusive groups: no complaint, self-only, informant-only, or mutual (both self and informant complaint. Postmortem neuropathological outcomes included amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Proportional odds regression related complaint to neuropathology, adjusting for age, sex, race, education, depressed mood, cognition, APOE4 status, and last clinical visit to death interval.Mutual complaint related to increased likelihood of meeting NIA/Reagan Institute (OR = 6.58, p = 0.004 and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease criteria (OR = 5.82, p = 0.03, and increased neurofibrillary tangles (OR = 3.70, p = 0.03, neuritic plaques (OR = 3.52, p = 0.03, and diffuse plaques (OR = 4.35, p = 0.02. Informant-only and self-only complaint was not associated with any neuropathological outcome (all p-values>0.12.In MCI, mutual cognitive complaint relates to AD pathology whereas self-only or informant-only complaint shows no relation to pathology. Findings support cognitive complaint as a marker of unhealthy brain aging and highlight the importance of obtaining informant corroboration to increase confidence of underlying pathological processes.

  19. Precuneus and Cingulate Cortex Atrophy and Hypometabolism in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: MRI and 18F-FDG PET Quantitative Analysis Using FreeSurfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Bailly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to compare glucose metabolism and atrophy, in the precuneus and cingulate cortex, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, using FreeSurfer. Methods. 47 individuals (17 patients with AD, 17 patients with amnestic MCI, and 13 healthy controls (HC were included. MRI and PET images using 18F-FDG (mean injected dose of 185 MBq were acquired and analyzed using FreeSurfer to define regions of interest in the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, and anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Regional volumes were generated. PET images were registered to the T1-weighted MRI images and regional uptake normalized by cerebellum uptake (SUVr was measured. Results. Mean posterior cingulate volume was reduced in MCI and AD. SUVr were different between the three groups: mean precuneus SUVr was 1.02 for AD, 1.09 for MCI, and 1.26 for controls (p<0.05; mean posterior cingulate SUVr was 0.96, 1.06, and 1.22 for AD, MCI, and controls, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion. We found graduated hypometabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus in prodromal AD (MCI and AD, whereas atrophy was not significant. This suggests that the use of 18F-FDG in these two regions could be a neurodegenerative biomarker.

  20. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: correlation with regional grey matter volume loss revealed by diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Takayama, Yukihisa; Kamano, Norihiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi [Kyushu University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Monji, Akira; Kawashima, Toshiro [Kyushu University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    To determine which brain regions are relevant to deterioration in abstract reasoning as measured by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) in the context of dementia. MR images of 37 consecutive patients including 19 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered the CPM. Regional grey matter (GM) volume was evaluated according to the regimens of voxel-based morphometry, during which a non-linear registration algorithm called Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra was employed. Multiple regression analyses were used to map the regions where GM volumes were correlated with CPM scores. The strongest correlation with CPM scores was seen in the left middle frontal gyrus while a region with the largest volume was identified in the left superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations were seen in 14 additional regions in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres and right cerebellum. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in AD and aMCI measured by CPM is related to GM loss in multiple regions, which is in close agreement with the results of previous activation studies. (orig.)

  1. Symptoms of apathy are associated with progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease in non-depressed subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, E.; Schmand, B.; Eikelenboom, P.; Yang, S.C.; Ligthart, S.A.; Moll van Charante, E.P.; van Gool, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Apathy is a common symptom in various neuropsychiatric diseases including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Apathy may be associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. The objective of this study was to investigate if apathy predicts the progression from MCI to Alzh

  2. Prevalence and associated behavioral symptoms of depression in mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Bekelaar, Kim; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Vermeiren, Yannick; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Marien, Peter; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical concept that categorizes subjects who are in an intermediate cognitive state between normal aging and dementia. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of significant depressive symptoms in MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pati

  3. Cognitive and neuroinflammatory consequences of mild repeated stress are exacerbated in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, J.B.; Sparkman, N.L.; Chen, J.; Johnson, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Peripheral immune stimulation as well as certain types of psychological stress increases brain levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). We have demonstrated that aged mice show greater increases in central inflammatory cytokines, as well as greater cognitive deficits, compared to adults in response to peripheral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Because aged mice are typically more sensitive to systemic stressors such as LPS, and certain psychological stressors induce physiological responses similar to those that follow LPS, we hypothesized that aged mice would be more sensitive to the physiological and cognitive effects of mild stress than adult mice. Here, adult (3–5 mo) and aged (22–23 mo) male BALB/c mice were trained in the Morris water maze for 5 days. Mice were then exposed to a mild restraint stress of 30 minutes before being tested in a working memory version of the water maze over a 3 day period. On day 4 mice were stressed and then killed for collection of blood and brain. In a separate group of animals, mice were killed immediately after one, two or three 30 min restraint sessions and blood for peripheral corticosterone and cytokine protein measurement, and brains were dissected for central cytokine mRNA measurement. Stress disrupted spatial working memory in both adult and aged mice but to a much greater extent in the aged mice. In addition, aged mice showed an increase in stress-induced expression of hippocampal IL-1β mRNA and MHC class II protein compared to non-stressed controls while expression in adult mice was unaffected by stress. These data show that aged mice are more sensitive to both the cognitive and inflammatory effects of mild stress than are adult mice and suggest a possible a role for IL-1β. PMID:18407425

  4. Global efficiency of structural networks mediates cognitive control in mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlot, R. (Rok); Metzler-Baddeley, C. (Claudia); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); Jones, D.K. (Derek K.); O'Sullivan, M.J. (Michael J.)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Cognitive control has been linked to both the microstructure of individual tracts and the structure of whole-brain networks, but their relative contributions in health and disease remain unclear. __Objective:__ To determine the contribution of both localized white m

  5. Cortical thickness and semantic fluency in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Eastman, Jennifer A.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Lazaris, Andreas; Chow, Nicole; Ramirez, Leslie; Babakchanian, Sona; Woo, Ellen; Thompson, Paul M; Apostolova, Liana G

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is declarative memory loss, but deficits in semantic fluency are also observed. We assessed how semantic fluency relates to cortical atrophy to identify specific regions that play a role in the loss of access to semantic information. Whole-brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were analyzed from 9 Normal Control (NC)(M=76.7, SD=5.6), 40 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (M=74.4, SD=8.6), and 10 probable AD (M=72.4, SD=8.0) subjects from ...

  6. Electroconvulsive stimulation reverses anhedonia and cognitive impairments in rats exposed to chronic mild stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, K; Woldbye, D P D; Wiborg, O

    2013-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy remains the most effective treatment for depression including a fast onset of action. However, this therapeutic approach suffers from some potential drawbacks. In the acute phase this includes amnesia. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) has previously been shown...... to reverse a depression-like state in the chronic mild stress model of depression (CMS), but the effect of ECS on cognition has not previously been investigated. In this study the CMS model was used to induce a depressive-like condition in rats. The study was designed to investigate the acute effect of ECS...

  7. Design of a prototype device for remote patient care with mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ocampo, M.; Segura-Giraldo, B.; Floréz-Hurtado, R.; Cortés-Aguirre, C.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a prototype telecare system, which allows to provide home care to patients with mild cognitive impairment and thus ensures their permanence in their usual environment. Telecare is oriented towards people who require constant attention due to conditions of advanced age, illness, physical risk or limited capabilities. Telecare offers these people a greater degree of independence. QFD methodology is used to develop electronic devices intended to monitor the environment and physiological state of the user continuously, providing communication between the telecare system and a monitoring center in order to take the most appropriate actions in any abnormal event.

  8. Altered oscillation and synchronization of default-mode network activity in mild Alzheimer's disease compared to mild cognitive impairment: an electrophysiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jung Hsiao

    Full Text Available Some researchers have suggested that the default mode network (DMN plays an important role in the pathological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine whether the cortical activities in DMN regions show significant difference between mild AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI, electrophysiological responses were analyzed from 21 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and 21 mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients during an eyes closed, resting-state condition. The spectral power and functional connectivity of the DMN were estimated using a minimum norm estimate (MNE combined with fast Fourier transform and imaginary coherence analysis. Our results indicated that source-based EEG maps of resting-state activity showed alterations of cortical spectral power in mild AD when compared to MCI. These alterations are characteristic of attenuated alpha or beta activities in the DMN, as are enhanced delta or theta activities in the medial temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. With regard to altered synchronization in AD, altered functional interconnections were observed as specific connectivity patterns of connection hubs in the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and medial temporal regions. Moreover, posterior theta and alpha power and altered connectivity in the medial temporal lobe correlated significantly with scores obtained on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. In conclusion, EEG is a useful tool for investigating the DMN in the brain and differentiating early stage AD and MCI patients. This is a promising finding; however, further large-scale studies are needed.

  9. Effect of high dose fish oil supplementation on cerebral blood flow and cognitive performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a proof of concept study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Claassen, J.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to examine the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cerebral blood flow and age-related loss of cognitive functioning in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design, setting and participants: A total of 20 patients with single or

  10. Trajectories of care: spouses coping with changes related to mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A; McCann, Brandy Renee; Blieszner, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to non-normative changes in memory and cognition. While researchers are beginning to address the social consequences of MCI, no investigations have tracked how married couples respond to MCI over time as symptoms stabilize or become more severe. Guided by life course and symbolic interactionist tenets, we examined how 40 older couples in the United States adjusted to daily life after one partner was diagnosed with MCI and how their marital roles and relationship changed over a three- to four-year period. Data were collected from 2004 through 2010. All couples experienced an initial period of transition in coping with MCI where they made adjustments in their daily lives and interactions. Following this adjustment period, four trajectories of care emerged depending on the extent of the older adult's decline and the spouse's response. We conclude that changes associated with MCI affect role identity and have consequences for spousal relationships.

  11. Evaluation of a Digital Companion for Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Lazar, Amanda; Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a digital companion system used by older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We utilized a commercially available system that is comprehensive in its functionalities (including conversation ability, use of pictures and other media, and reminders) to explore the system’s impact on older adults ‘ social interactions, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and acceptance of the system. Study Design: We conducted a three-month mixed methods evaluation study of the digital companion. Results: Ten female community-dwelling older adults (average age 78.3 years) participated in the study. Overall, participants utilized the tool regularly and appreciated its presence and their interactions. Participants scored higher at the end of the study in cognition and social support scales, and lower in presence of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Findings indicate the feasibility of a digital companion for people with MCI and inform the need for additional research. PMID:28269845

  12. Biochemical Markers of Physical Exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Steen; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2015-01-01

    measured before and after intervention. Seven of the eight studies found a significant effect on their selected biomarkers with a positive effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiadrosterone, and insulin in the intervention groups compared......BACKGROUND: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or mild cognitive impairment have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review...... is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to February 2015. We included intervention studies investigating the effect of physical exercise activity on biomarkers...

  13. Implementation of Segmentation Methods for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoug, S.; Abdel-Dayem, A.

    2012-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting seniors age 65 and over. When AD is suspected, the diagnosis is usually confirmed with behavioural assessments and cognitive tests, often followed by a brain scan. Advanced medical imaging is a good tool to predict conversion from prodromal stages (mild cognitive impairment) to Alzheimer's disease. Since volumetric MRI can detect changes in the size of brain regions, measuring those regions that atrophy during the progress of Alzheimer's disease can help the neurologist in his diagnostic. In the present investigation, we present an automatic tool that reads volumetric MRI and performs 2-dimensional (volume slices) and volumetric segmentation methods in order to segment gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used the MRI data sets database from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS).

  14. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: A New Strategy in Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birba, Agustina; Ibáñez, Agustín; Sedeño, Lucas; Ferrari, Jesica; García, Adolfo M; Zimerman, Máximo

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques can significantly modulate cognitive functions in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, they have been applied in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) to prevent or delay the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we review this emerging empirical corpus and discuss therapeutic effects of NIBS on several target functions (e.g., memory for face-name associations and non-verbal recognition, attention, psychomotor speed, everyday memory). Available studies have yielded mixed results, possibly due to differences among their tasks, designs, and samples, let alone the latter's small sizes. Thus, the impact of NIBS on cognitive performance in MCI and SCI remains to be determined. To foster progress in this direction, we outline methodological approaches that could improve the efficacy and specificity of NIBS in both conditions. Furthermore, we discuss the need for multicenter studies, accurate diagnosis, and longitudinal approaches combining NIBS with specific training regimes. These tenets could cement biomedical developments supporting new treatments for MCI and preventive therapies for AD.

  15. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: A New Strategy in Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birba, Agustina; Ibáñez, Agustín; Sedeño, Lucas; Ferrari, Jesica; García, Adolfo M.; Zimerman, Máximo

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques can significantly modulate cognitive functions in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, they have been applied in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) to prevent or delay the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we review this emerging empirical corpus and discuss therapeutic effects of NIBS on several target functions (e.g., memory for face-name associations and non-verbal recognition, attention, psychomotor speed, everyday memory). Available studies have yielded mixed results, possibly due to differences among their tasks, designs, and samples, let alone the latter’s small sizes. Thus, the impact of NIBS on cognitive performance in MCI and SCI remains to be determined. To foster progress in this direction, we outline methodological approaches that could improve the efficacy and specificity of NIBS in both conditions. Furthermore, we discuss the need for multicenter studies, accurate diagnosis, and longitudinal approaches combining NIBS with specific training regimes. These tenets could cement biomedical developments supporting new treatments for MCI and preventive therapies for AD. PMID:28243198

  16. Thickness in Entorhinal and Subicular Cortex Predicts Episodic Memory Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Burggren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI most likely to decline in cognition over time is a major focus in Alzheimer's disease (AD research. Neuroimaging biomarkers that predict decline would have great potential for increasing the efficacy of early intervention. In this study, we used high-resolution MRI, combined with a cortical unfolding technique to increase visibility of the convoluted medial temporal lobe (MTL, to assess whether gray matter thickness in subjects with MCI correlated to decline in cognition over two years. We found that thickness in the entorhinal (ERC and subicular (Sub cortices of MCI subjects at initial assessment correlated to change in memory encoding over two years (ERC: r=0.34; P=.003 and Sub (r=0.26; P=.011 but not delayed recall performance. Our findings suggest that aspects of memory performance may be differentially affected in the early stages of AD. Given the MTL's involvement in early stages of neurodegeneration in AD, clarifying the relationship of these brain regions and the link to resultant cognitive decline is critical in understanding disease progression.

  17. Mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer patients display different levels of redox-active CSF iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavados, Manuel; Guillón, Marta; Mujica, María Cristina; Rojo, Leonel E; Fuentes, Patricio; Maccioni, Ricardo B

    2008-03-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies also point to redox active metals such as iron, copper and zinc in mediating oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis. However, the reactivity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) iron and its possible correlation with the severity of cognitive decline in both Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is still unknown. Here we show that different stages of cognitive and functional impairment are associated with changes in CSF reactive iron. In this work, we compared CSF samples from 56 elders, classified into 4 groups according to their scores on the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). Total CSF iron was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Redox-active iron was analyzed by a novel fluorimetric assay. One-way ANOVA was used to test differences in mean values, and Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test was used for multi group comparisons. No difference in total CSF iron was found between different groups. Significant amounts of redox-active iron were found in CSF and their levels correlated with the extent of cognitive impairment. Redox-active CSF iron levels increased with the degree of cognitive impairment from normal to MCI subjects, while AD patients showed an abrupt decrease to levels close to zero. Given the relevance of oxidative damage in neurodegeneration, it might be possible to associate the development of cognitive and functional decline with the presence of redox-active iron in the CSF. The decrease in redox-active iron found in AD patients may represent a terminal situation, whereby the central nervous system attempts to minimize iron-associated toxicity.

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy in combination with systemic family therapy improves mild to moderate postpartum depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Hou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in combination with systemic family therapy (SFT on mild to moderate postpartum depression and sleep quality. Methods: 249 primiparous women with mild to moderate postpartum depression were recruited and randomly assigned to a control group (n=128, which received conventional postpartum care, or to a psychological intervention group (n=121, which received conventional postpartum care combined with psychological intervention. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were employed to evaluate depression and sleep quality, respectively. Results: 104 patients in the intervention group and 109 in the control group completed the study. After intervention, the EPDS score, PSQI score, sleep quality score, sleep latency score, sleep duration score, habitual sleep efficiency score, sleep disturbance score, and daytime dysfunction score were significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group. The EPDS and PSQI scores of each group at different time points after intervention were markedly decreased compared with those before intervention, and the reduction in the intervention group was more evident than that in the control group. Conclusion: CBT in combination with SFT can improve depression and sleep quality in patients with mild to moderate postpartum depression.

  19. Mild cognitive impairment (part 2: biological markers for diagnosis and prediction of dementia in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes V. Forlenza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a critical review of publications reporting on the rationale and clinical implications of the use of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science electronic databases, limited to articles published in English between 1999 and 2012, and based on the following terms: mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease OR dementia, biomarkers. We retrieved 1,130 articles, of which 175 were reviews. Overall, 955 original articles were eligible. Results: The following points were considered relevant for the present review: a rationale for biomarkers research in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI; b usefulness of distinct biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of AD; c the role of multimodality biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of AD; d the role of biomarkers in clinical trials of patients with AD and MCI; and e current limitations to the widespread use of biomarkers in research and clinical settings. Conclusion: Different biomarkers are useful for the early diagnosis and prediction of AD in at-risk subjects. Nonetheless, important methodological limitations need to be overcome for widespread use of biomarkers in research and clinical settings.

  20. An evaluation of volume-based morphometry for prediction of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schmitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based morphometry from conventional T1-weighted images has proved effective to quantify Alzheimer's disease (AD related brain atrophy and to enable fairly accurate automated classification of AD patients, mild cognitive impaired patients (MCI and elderly controls. Little is known, however, about the classification power of volume-based morphometry, where features of interest consist of a few brain structure volumes (e.g. hippocampi, lobes, ventricles as opposed to hundreds of thousands of voxel-wise gray matter concentrations. In this work, we experimentally evaluate two distinct volume-based morphometry algorithms (FreeSurfer and an in-house algorithm called MorphoBox for automatic disease classification on a standardized data set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Results indicate that both algorithms achieve classification accuracy comparable to the conventional whole-brain voxel-based morphometry pipeline using SPM for AD vs elderly controls and MCI vs controls, and higher accuracy for classification of AD vs MCI and early vs late AD converters, thereby demonstrating the potential of volume-based morphometry to assist diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Emergence of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Late-Middle-Aged Adults in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Rebecca L.; Rue, Asenath La; Jonaitis, Erin M.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Sager, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim It is difficult to detect reliably the earliest signs of Alzheimer's-associated cognitive impairment. Our aim was to compare three psychometric methods of identifying amnestic MCI (aMCI) in a middle-aged longitudinal cohort enriched for AD risk. Methods Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participants with 3 waves of cognitive assessment over ~6 years were coded as meeting each of three psychometric aMCI definitions: a) ‘aMCI standard-baseline’ used published norms to establish cut-offs for baseline performance; b) ‘aMCI robust-baseline’ applied WRAP-specific robust norms to baseline; and c) ‘aMCI robust-multiwave’ applied these robust norms across 3 waves of assessment. Each group was compared to a cognitively healthy subset. Results Half the aMCI standard-baseline and one-third the aMCI robust-baseline group reverted to normal ranges at follow-up. Only the aMCI robust-multiwave method had an aMCI*age interaction showing significantly worse age-related memory declines in the aMCI group compared to the cognitively healthy group over six years of follow-up. Conclusion Both cross-sectional methods showed instability over time, with many reverting to normal performance post-baseline. The multiwave approach identified a group who showed progressive memory declines over 3 visits. Being able to detect progressive decline in late-middle-age is a critical step in improving prevention efforts. PMID:24556849

  2. Use of cognitive enhancers for mild cognitive impairment: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricco Andrea C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly individuals who have memory problems without significant limitations in activities of daily living are often diagnosed as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Some of these individuals progress to dementia. Several cognitive enhancers (for example donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, memantine have been approved for use in people with Alzheimer’s dementia but their use in patients with MCI is unclear. We aimed to determine the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of cognitive enhancers for MCI through a systematic review and network (that is, indirect comparisons meta-analysis. Design/Methods We will include studies that examine the use of cognitive enhancers compared to placebo, supportive care, or other cognitive enhancers among patients diagnosed with MCI. Outcomes of interest include cognition and function (primary outcomes, as well as behavior, quality of life, safety, and cost (secondary outcomes. We will include all experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, quasi-experimental studies (controlled before-after, interrupted time series, and observational studies (cohort, case–control. Studies will be included regardless of publication status (that is, we will include unpublished studies, year, or language of dissemination. To identify potentially relevant material, we will search the following electronic databases from inception onwards: MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Ageline. The electronic database search will be supplemented by scanning the reference lists of included studies, searching Google and organization websites for unpublished or difficult to locate material literature, and contacting experts. Two reviewers will independently screen the studies for inclusion using the eligibility criteria established a priori and independently extract data. Risk of bias will be assessed

  3. Are NSAIDs useful to treat Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment?

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    Bruno P Imbimbo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiological studies suggest that long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may protect subjects carrying one or more ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 against the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The biological mechanism of this protection is not completely understood and may involve the anti-inflammatory properties of NSAIDs or their ability of interfering with the β-amyloid (Aβ cascade. Unfortunately, long-term, placebo-controlled clinical trials with both non-selective and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 selective inhibitors in mild-to-moderate AD patients produced negative results. A secondary prevention study with rofecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, in patients with mild cognitive impairment was also negative. A primary prevention study (ADAPT trial of naproxen (a non-selective COX inhibitor and celecoxib (a COX-2 selective inhibitor in cognitively normal elderly subjects with a family history of AD was prematurely interrupted for safety reasons after a median period of treatment of 2 years. Although both drugs did not reduce the incidence of dementia after two years of treatment, a 4-year follow up assessment surprisingly revealed that subjects previously exposed to naproxen were protected from the onset of AD by 67% compared to placebo. Thus, it could be hypothesized that the chronic use of NSAIDs may be beneficial only in the very early stages of the AD process in coincidence of initial Aβ deposition, microglia activation and consequent release of pro-inflammatory mediators. When the Aβ deposition process is already started, NSAIDs are no longer effective and may even be detrimental because of their inhibitory activity on chronically activated microglia that on long-term may mediate Aβ clearance. The research community should conduct long-term trials with NSAIDs in cognitively normal APOE ε4 carriers.

  4. MRI markers for mild cognitive impairment: comparisons between white matter integrity and gray matter volume measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of assessing white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and prediction of cognitive impairments in comparison to brain atrophy measurements using structural MRI. Fifty-one patients with MCI and 66 cognitive normal controls (CN underwent DTI and T1-weighted structural MRI. DTI measures included fractional anisotropy (FA and radial diffusivity (DR from 20 predetermined regions-of-interest (ROIs in the commissural, limbic and association tracts, which are thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease; measures of regional gray matter (GM volume included 21 ROIs in medial temporal lobe, parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significant group differences between MCI and CN were detected by each MRI modality: In particular, reduced FA was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and fornix; increased DR was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and bilateral uncinate fasciculi; reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, left entorhinal cortex, right amygdala and bilateral thalamus; and thinner cortex was found in the left entorhinal cortex. Group classifications based on FA or DR was significant and better than classifications based on GM volume. Using either DR or FA together with GM volume improved classification accuracy. Furthermore, all three measures, FA, DR and GM volume were similarly accurate in predicting cognitive performance in MCI patients. Taken together, the results imply that DTI measures are as accurate as measures of GM volume in detecting brain alterations that are associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, a combination of DTI and structural MRI measurements improves classification accuracy.

  5. Coffee Consumption Habits and the Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Panza, Francesco; Imbimbo, Bruno P; D'Introno, Alessia; Galluzzo, Lucia; Gandin, Claudia; Misciagna, Giovanni; Guerra, Vito; Osella, Alberto; Baldereschi, Marzia; Di Carlo, Antonio; Inzitari, Domenico; Seripa, Davide; Pilotto, Alberto; Sabbá, Carlo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Scafato, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Coffee, tea, or caffeine consumption may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia. We estimated the association between change or constant habits in coffee consumption and the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We evaluated 1,445 individuals recruited from 5,632 subjects, aged 65-84 year old, from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, a population-based sample from eight Italian municipalities with a 3.5-year median follow-up. Cognitively normal older individuals who habitually consumed moderate amount of coffee (from 1 to 2 cups of coffee/day) had a lower rate of the incidence of MCI than those who never or rarely consumed coffee [1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR): 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.211 to 1.02 or 1-2 cups/day: HR: 0.31 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.75]. For cognitively normal older subjects who changed their coffee consumption habits, those increasing coffee consumption (>1 cup of coffee/day) had higher rate of the incidence of MCI compared to those with constant habits (up to ±1 cup of coffee/day) (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.92) or those with reduced consumption (2 cups of coffee/day) and the incidence of MCI in comparison with those who never or rarely consumed coffee (HR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.03 to 2.11). In conclusion, cognitively normal older individuals who increased their coffee consumption had a higher rate of developing MCI, while a constant in time moderate coffee consumption was associated to a reduced rate of the incidence of MCI.

  6. Evidence-based medical research on diagnostic criteria and screening technique of vascular mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-wei LIU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI is the prodromal syndrome of vascular dementia (VaD and key target for drug treatment. There is controversy over the diagnostic criteria and screening tools of VaMCI, which affects its clinical diagnosis. This paper aims to explore the clinical features, diagnostic criteria and screening technique of VaMCI.  Methods Taking "vascular mild cognitive impairment OR vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" as retrieval terms, search in PubMed database from January 1997 to March 2015 and screen relevant literatures concerning VaMCI. According to Guidance for the Preparation of Neurological Management Guidelines revised by European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS in 2004, evidence grading was performed on literatures. Results A total of 32 literatures in English were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, including 3 guidelines and consensus and 29 clinical studies. Seven literatures (2 on Level Ⅰ, 5 on Level Ⅱ studied on neuropsychological features in VaMCI patients and found reduced processing speed and executive function impairment were main features. Two literatures reported the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI, including VaMCI criteria published by American Heart Association (AHA/American Stroke Association (ASA in 2011 and "Diagnostic Criteria for Vascular Cognitive Disorders" published by International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG in 2014. Fifteen literatures (4 on LevelⅠ, 11 on Level Ⅱ described the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI used in clinical research, from which 6 operational diagnostic items were extracted. Fourteen literatures (4 on Level Ⅰ, 10 on Level Ⅱ described neuropsychological assessment tools for VaMCI screening, and found the 5-minute protocol recommended by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN was being good consistency with other neuropsychological

  7. Assessment of strategic processing during narrative comprehension in individuals with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Creamer, Scott

    2010-07-01

    A think-aloud protocol was used to examine the strategies used by individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) during text comprehension. Twenty-three participants with MCI and 23 cognitively healthy older adults (OA) read narratives, pausing to verbalize their thoughts after each sentence. The verbal protocol analysis developed by Trabasso and Magliano (1996) was then used to code participants' utterances into inferential and non-inferential statements; inferential statements were further coded to identify the memory operation used in their generation. Compared with OA controls, the MCI participants showed poorer story comprehension and produced fewer inferences. The MCI participants were also less skilled at providing explanations of story events and in using prior text information to support inference generation. Poorer text comprehension was associated with poorer verbal memory abilities and poorer use of prior text events when producing inferential statements. The results suggest that the memory difficulties of the MCI group may be an important cognitive factor interfering with their ability to integrate narrative events through the use of inferences and to form a global coherence to support text comprehension.

  8. Driving Competence in Mild Dementia with Lewy Bodies: In Search of Cognitive Predictors Using Driving Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Yamin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving is a multifactorial behaviour drawing on multiple cognitive, sensory, and physical systems. Dementia is a progressive and degenerative neurological condition that impacts the cognitive processes necessary for safe driving. While a number of studies have examined driving among individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, less is known about the impact of Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB on driving safety. The present study compared simulated driving performance of 15 older drivers with mild DLB with that of 21 neurologically healthy control drivers. DLB drivers showed poorer performance on all indicators of simulated driving including an increased number of collisions in the simulator and poorer composite indicators of overall driving performance. A measure of global cognitive function (i.e., the Mini Mental State Exam was found to be related to the overall driving performance. In addition, measures of attention (i.e., Useful Field of View, UFOV and space processing (Visual Object and Space Perception, VOSP, Test correlated significantly with a rater’s assessment of driving performance.

  9. Increased iron and free radical generation in preclinical Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Zhu, Xiongwei; Tabaton, Massimo; Liu, Gang; McKeel, Daniel W; Cohen, Mark L; Wang, Xinglong; Siedlak, Sandra L; Dwyer, Barney E; Hayashi, Takaaki; Nakamura, Masao; Nunomura, Akihiko; Perry, George

    2010-01-01

    It is now established that oxidative stress is one of the earliest, if not the earliest, change that occurs in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consistent with this, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the clinical precursor of AD, is also characterized by elevations in oxidative stress. Since such stress does not operate in vacuo, in this study we sought to determine whether redox-active iron, a potent source of free radicals, was elevated in MCI and preclinical AD as compared to cognitively-intact age-matched control patients. Increased iron was found at the highest levels both in the cortex and cerebellum from the pre-clinical AD/MCI cases. Interestingly, glial accumulations of redox-active iron in the cerebellum were also evident in preclinical AD patients and tended to increase as patients became progressively cognitively impaired. Our findings suggests that an imbalance in iron homeostasis is a precursor to the neurodegenerative processes leading to AD and that iron imbalance is not necessarily unique to affected regions. In fact, an understanding of iron deposition in other regions of the brain may provide insights into neuroprotective strategies. Iron deposition at the preclinical stage of AD may be useful as a diagnostic tool, using iron imaging methods, as well as a potential therapeutic target, through metal ion chelators.

  10. Orthostatic intolerance predicts mild cognitive impairment: incidence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia from the Swedish general population cohort Good Aging in Skåne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmståhl S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sölve Elmståhl, Elisabet Widerström Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Introduction: Contradictory results have been reported on the relationship between orthostatic hypotension (OH and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Objective: To study the incidence of MCI and dementia and their relationship to OH and subclinical OH with orthostatic symptoms (orthostatic intolerance.Study design and setting: This study used a prospective general population cohort design and was based on data from the Swedish Good Aging in Skåne study (GÅS-SNAC, they were studied 6 years after baseline of the present study, with the same study protocol at baseline and at follow-up. The study sample comprised 1,480 randomly invited subjects aged 60 to 93 years, and had a participation rate of 82% at follow-up. OH test included assessment of blood pressure and symptoms of OH. Results: The 6-year incidence of MCI was 8%, increasing from 12.1 to 40.5 per 1,000 person-years for men and 6.9 to 16.9 per 1,000 person-years for women aged 60 to >80 years. The corresponding 6-year incidence of dementia was 8%. Orthostatic intolerance during uprising was related to risk for MCI at follow-up (odds ratio [OR] =1.84 [1.20–2.80][95% CI], adjusted for age and education independently of blood pressure during testing. After stratification for hypertension (HT, the corresponding age-adjusted OR for MCI in the non-HT group was 1.71 (1.10–2.31 and 1.76 (1.11–2.13 in the HT group. Among controls, the proportion of those with OH was 16%; those with MCI 24%; and those with dementia 31% (age-adjusted OR 1.93 [1.19–3.14]. Conclusion: Not only OH, but also symptoms of OH, seem to be a risk factor for cognitive decline and should be considered in the management of blood pressure among the elderly population. Keywords: orthostatic blood pressure, epidemiology, elderly

  11. Cognitive deficits in the rat chronic mild stress model for depression: relation to anhedonic-like responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kim; Andreasen T., Jesper; Bouzinova, Elena V.

    2009-01-01

    The chronic mild stress (CMS) protocol is widely used to evoke depressive-like behaviours in laboratory rats. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic stress on cognitive performance. About 70% of rats exposed to 7 weeks of chronic mild stress showed a gradual reduction...... in consumption of a sucrose solution, indicating an anhedonic-like state. The remaining rats did not reduce their sucrose intake, but appeared resilient to the stress-induced effects on sucrose intake. Cognitive profiling of the CMS rats revealed that chronic stress had a negative effect on performance...

  12. The Risk Factors of Mild Cognitive Impairment%轻度认知障碍的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丹丹; 邢小芳

    2014-01-01

    轻度认知障碍是指介于正常衰老与阿尔茨海默病之间的过渡阶段,有轻度的记忆力损害,但其他功能保持完好。文章对轻度认知障碍的危险因素进行综述。%Mild cognitive impairment is an unstable clinical stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease, and is deemed to convert mostly to dementia while other functions remain intact. This paper reviewed the risk factors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

  13. Amyloid-β deposition in mild cognitive impairment is associated with increased hippocampal activity, atrophy and clinical progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbers, Willem; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Schultz, Aaron P; Wigman, Sarah; Ward, Andrew M; Larvie, Mykol; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Marshall, Gad A; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A

    2015-04-01

    Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using a memory task in patients with mild cognitive impairment have produced discordant results, with some studies reporting increased hippocampal activity--consistent with findings in genetic at-risk populations--and other studies reporting decreased hippocampal activity, relative to normal controls. However, previous studies in mild cognitive impairment have not included markers of amyloid-β, which may be particularly important in prediction of progression along the Alzheimer's disease continuum. Here, we examine the contribution of amyloid-β deposition to cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity, hippocampal volume, global cognition and clinical progression over 36 months in 33 patients with mild cognitive impairment. Amyloid-β status was examined with positron emission tomography imaging using Pittsburg compound-B, hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was assessed using an associative face-name memory encoding task, and hippocampal volume was quantified with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Finally global cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and clinical progression was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (Sum of Boxes). At baseline, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment showed increased hippocampal activation, smaller hippocampal volumes, and a trend towards lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher Clinical Dementia Ratings compared to amyloid-β negative patients with mild cognitive impairment. Longitudinally, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment continued to show high levels of hippocampal activity, despite increasing rates of hippocampal atrophy, decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination and faster progression on the Clinical Dementia Ratings. When entered simultaneously into the same linear mixed model

  14. Amyloid-β deposition in mild cognitive impairment is associated with increased hippocampal activity, atrophy and clinical progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Wigman, Sarah; Ward, Andrew M.; Larvie, Mykol; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Marshall, Gad A.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using a memory task in patients with mild cognitive impairment have produced discordant results, with some studies reporting increased hippocampal activity—consistent with findings in genetic at-risk populations—and other studies reporting decreased hippocampal activity, relative to normal controls. However, previous studies in mild cognitive impairment have not included markers of amyloid-β, which may be particularly important in prediction of progression along the Alzheimer’s disease continuum. Here, we examine the contribution of amyloid-β deposition to cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity, hippocampal volume, global cognition and clinical progression over 36 months in 33 patients with mild cognitive impairment. Amyloid-β status was examined with positron emission tomography imaging using Pittsburg compound-B, hippocampal functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was assessed using an associative face-name memory encoding task, and hippocampal volume was quantified with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Finally global cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and clinical progression was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating (Sum of Boxes). At baseline, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment showed increased hippocampal activation, smaller hippocampal volumes, and a trend towards lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher Clinical Dementia Ratings compared to amyloid-β negative patients with mild cognitive impairment. Longitudinally, amyloid-β positive patients with mild cognitive impairment continued to show high levels of hippocampal activity, despite increasing rates of hippocampal atrophy, decline on the Mini-Mental State Examination and faster progression on the Clinical Dementia Ratings. When entered simultaneously into the same linear mixed model

  15. Choroidal Thickness in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Type Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bulut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To asses both choroidal thickness differences among Alzheimer’s type dementia (ATD patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients, and healthy control (C subjects and choroidal thickness relationships with cognitive performance. Methods. A total of 246 eyes of 123 people (41 ATD, 38 MCI, and 44 healthy C subjects were included in this study. Complete ophthalmological and neurological examination was performed in all subjects. Choroidal thicknesses (CT were measured at seven locations: the fovea, 500-1500-3000 μm temporal and 500-1500-3000 μm nasal to the fovea by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT. Detailed neurological examination including mini mental state examination (MMSE test which evaluates the cognitive function was applied to all participants. Results. The ages and genders of all participants were similar in all groups. Compared with healthy C subjects, the CT measurements at all regions were significantly thinner both in patients with ATD and in patients with MCI than in healthy C subjects (p<0.05. The MMSE scores were significantly different among ATD patients, MCI patients, and healthy C subjects. They were 19.3±1.8, 24.8±0.9, and 27.6±1.2 in ATD, MCI, and healthy controls, respectively (p<0.001. There were also significant correlation between MMSE score and choroidal thickness at each location (p<0.05. Conclusions. CT was reduced in ATD patients and MCI patients. Since vascular structures were affected in ATD patients and MCI patients, they had thin CT. Besides CT was correlated with degree of cognitive impairment. Therefore CT may be a new biomarker in diagnosis and follow-up of MCI and ATD patients.

  16. Choroidal Thickness in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Type Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Mehmet; Yaman, Aylin; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Kurtuluş, Fatma; Toslak, Devrim; Doğan, Berna; Turgut Çoban, Deniz; Kaya Başar, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To asses both choroidal thickness differences among Alzheimer's type dementia (ATD) patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and healthy control (C) subjects and choroidal thickness relationships with cognitive performance. Methods. A total of 246 eyes of 123 people (41 ATD, 38 MCI, and 44 healthy C subjects) were included in this study. Complete ophthalmological and neurological examination was performed in all subjects. Choroidal thicknesses (CT) were measured at seven locations: the fovea, 500-1500-3000 μm temporal and 500-1500-3000 μm nasal to the fovea by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Detailed neurological examination including mini mental state examination (MMSE) test which evaluates the cognitive function was applied to all participants. Results. The ages and genders of all participants were similar in all groups. Compared with healthy C subjects, the CT measurements at all regions were significantly thinner both in patients with ATD and in patients with MCI than in healthy C subjects (p < 0.05). The MMSE scores were significantly different among ATD patients, MCI patients, and healthy C subjects. They were 19.3 ± 1.8, 24.8 ± 0.9, and 27.6 ± 1.2 in ATD, MCI, and healthy controls, respectively (p < 0.001). There were also significant correlation between MMSE score and choroidal thickness at each location (p < 0.05). Conclusions. CT was reduced in ATD patients and MCI patients. Since vascular structures were affected in ATD patients and MCI patients, they had thin CT. Besides CT was correlated with degree of cognitive impairment. Therefore CT may be a new biomarker in diagnosis and follow-up of MCI and ATD patients. PMID:26925259

  17. Acute caffeine administration effect on brain activation patterns in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Sinanaj, Indrit; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that acute caffeine administration enhances task-related brain activation in elderly individuals with preserved cognition. To explore the effects of this widely used agent on cognition and brain activation in early phases of cognitive decline, we performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during an n-back working memory task in 17 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to 17 age-matched healthy controls (HC). All individuals were regular caffeine consumers with an overnight abstinence and given 200 mg caffeine versus placebo tablets 30 minutes before testing. Analyses included assessment of task-related activation (general linear model), functional connectivity (tensorial-independent component analysis, TICA), baseline perfusion (arterial spin labeling, ASL), grey matter density (voxel-based morphometry, VBM), and white matter microstructure (tract-based spatial statistics, TBSS). Acute caffeine administration induced a focal activation of the prefrontal areas in HC with a more diffuse and posteromedial activation pattern in MCI individuals. In MCI, TICA documented a significant caffeine-related enhancement in the prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, ventral premotor and parietal cortex as well as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The absence of significant group differences in baseline ASL perfusion patterns supports a neuronal rather than a purely vascular origin of these differences. The VBM and TBSS analyses excluded potentially confounding differences in grey matter density and white matter microstructure between MCI and HC. The present findings suggest a posterior displacement of working memory-related brain activation patterns after caffeine administration in MCI that may represent a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance a frontal lobe dysfunction.

  18. Altered regional homogeneity of prefrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DeZhi Kang; FuXiang Chen; FuYong Chen; Ying Liu; Gang Wu; LiangHong Yu; YuanXiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background:Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common non-motor symptom of early Parkinson's disease (PD),but the neural mechanisms underlying it remain poorly understood.The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of cognition-related brain activities in the PD patients with MCI.Methods:The brain fMRIs and cognition tests were acquired in 39 PD patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) from September 2013 to January 2015.The patients were divided into two groups:PD-MCI (n--18) and PD with normal cognition (PDNC,n =19).we used resting state fMRI and a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to explore patterns of intrinsic brain activity in patients with PD-MCI as compared with PDNC subjects and HC.Results:Compared with the PDNC group,the PD-MCI group exhibited significantly increased ReHo in parts of the prefrontal cortex regions (e.g.right superior frontal gyrus,right middle frontal gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex).Compared to the HC group,a decrease of ReHo value in left thalamus was found in PD-MCI.However,this reduction was not found in the left thalamus of PDNC group,but in the above prefrontal regions (p < 0.05,with Bonferroni correction).Conclusions:These results demonstrate that the ReHo of prefrontal cortex in resting state is changed in PD patients with MCI.The presence of MCI in PD may be attributed to abnormal regional activity in prefrontal cortex regions.

  19. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Relationship to Caregiver Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kelly A.; Weldon, Anne; Persad, Carol; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Barbas, Nancy; Giordani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background Caregivers of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) need similar levels of support services as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) caregivers, but it is unclear if this translates to increased caregiver burden. Methods 135 participants and their caregivers (40 MCI, 55 AD and 40 normal controls, NC) completed questionnaires, and the patients were administered neuropsychological tests. Results The MCI caregivers reported significantly more overall caregiving burden than the NC, but less than the AD. They showed similar levels of emotional, physical and social burden as the AD caregivers. Among the MCI caregivers, the neuropsychiatric symptoms and executive functioning of the patients were related to a greater burden, and the caregivers with a greater burden reported lower life satisfaction and social support, and a greater need for support services. Conclusion These results indicate that MCI caregivers are at increased risk for caregiver stress, and they require enhanced assistance and/or education in caring for their loved ones. PMID:23128102

  20. [Working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerer, Manuela; Marksteiner, Josef; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Mazzola, Guerino; Kemmler, Georg; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    A variety of studies demonstrated that some forms of memory for music are spared in dementia, but only few studies have investigated patients with early stages of dementia. In this pilot-study we tested working memory for music in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a newly created test. The test probed working memory using 7 gradually elongated tone-lines and 6 chords which were each followed by 3 similar items and 1 identical item. The participants of the study, namely 10 patients with MCI, 10 patients with early stage AD and 23 healthy subjects were instructed to select the identical tone-line or chord. Subjects with MCI and early AD showed significantly reduced performance than controls in most of the presented tasks. In recognizing chords MCI- participants surprisingly showed an unimpaired performance. The gradual increase of the impairment during the preclinical phase of AD seems to spare this special ability in MCI.

  1. ISOMAP induced manifold embedding and its application to Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin

    2012-04-04

    Neuroimaging data are high dimensional and thus cumbersome to analyze. Manifold learning is a technique to find a low dimensional representation for high dimensional data. With manifold learning, data analysis becomes more tractable in the low dimensional space. We propose a novel shape quantification method based on a manifold learning method, ISOMAP, for brain MRI. Existing work applied another manifold learning method, multidimensional scaling (MDS), to quantify shape information for distinguishing Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal. We enhance the existing methodology by (1) applying it to distinguish mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal, (2) adopting a more advanced manifold learning technique, ISOMAP, and (3) showing the effectiveness of the induced low dimensional embedding space to predict key clinical variables such as mini mental state exam scores and clinical diagnosis using the standard multiple linear regression. Our methodology was tested using 25 normal, 25 AD, and 25 MCI patients.

  2. Brain Metabolism Correlates of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, Paolo; Ghetti, Caterina; Ruffini, Livia; Spallazzi, Marco; Spotti, Annamaria; Barocco, Federica; Guzzo, Caterina; Marchi, Massimo; Gardini, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) measures immediate and delayed episodic memory and cueing sensitivity and is suitable to detect prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed at investigating the segregation effect of FCSRT scores on brain metabolism of memory-related structures, usually affected by AD pathology, in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage. A cohort of forty-eight MCI patients underwent FCSRT and 18F-FDG-PET. Multiple regression analysis showed that Immediate Free Recall correlated with brain metabolism in the bilateral anterior cingulate and delayed free recall with the left anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, whereas semantic cueing sensitivity with the left posterior cingulate. FCSRT in MCI is associated with neuro-functional activity of specific regions of memory-related structures connected to hippocampal formation, such as the cingulate cortex, usually damaged in AD.

  3. Are Guidelines Needed for the Diagnosis and Management of Incipient Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Palmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research is aiming to push the boundaries of the point at which a diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease (AD can be made. Clinical syndromes such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and various clinical and biological markers of AD may help to identify people in the early stage of AD, before a full dementia syndrome is present. In the first part of this paper, we discuss whether MCI represents incipient AD, and examine some of the methods currently used in research to identify AD patients in the preclinical phase. In the second part, we discuss whether specific guidelines are needed for the diagnosis and management of MCI and incipient AD, and consider the potential impact of this on clinical practice and public health from the perspective of patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers.

  4. Optimizing the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Koikkalainen, Juha

    2012-01-01

    of the disease. Several studies have analyzed data of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, showing that conversion from MCI to AD can be predicted with a classification accuracy of 60-80%. This accuracy may not be high enough for influencing diagnostic decisions. In this work, the prediction problem...... is approached differently; a target prediction accuracy is defined first and is then used for identifying MCI patients for whom the required accuracy can be reached. The process uses a novel disease state index method in which patient data are statistically compared to a high number of previously diagnosed...... cases. It is shown that the disease index values derived from heterogeneous patient data can be used for identifying groups of patients for whom the prediction accuracy reaches the previously set target level. The results also show that 12 months before receiving clinical AD diagnoses, approximately...

  5. Apathy is associated with increased amyloid burden in mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Lorius, Natacha; Gidicsin, Christopher M.; Maye, Jacqueline; Pepin, Lesley C.; Becker, J. Alex; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Apathy is the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. We sought to determine whether apathy is associated with cortical amyloid burden measured by Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) and regional hypometabolism measured by 18F-fluorodeoxyglocuse (FDG) PET in MCI. We found a significant association between increased apathy (lower Apathy Evaluation Scale score) and greater cortical PiB retention independent of age (prs=−0.46, p=0.03), but no significant association between apathy and regional FDG metabolism. These results suggest that increased apathy is associated with greater amyloid burden but not regional hypometabolism in MCI. PMID:24247857

  6. Mild cognitive impairment in elderly users of municipal centers of the Region of Murcia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Escarbajal de Haro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article of investigation tries to know the issue of mild cognitive impairment (MCI in elderly users of municipal centres to measure the importance of psycho-educational dimension like preventive alternative. For this reason, we have used a qualitative methodology (semistructurated interview after a selection of people applying quantitative scales (e.g. MMSE, EUROTEST and Lawton. We selected a sample of 148 people for the scales, out of which 30 people were considered suitable for the interviews. The results show that despite the fact that elderly people have a MCI , they are able to practice activities for improving their quality of life. Within this investigation, new lines of work based in the free time, lonely, self esteem and self are opened to elderly people with MCI.

  7. Effectiveness and safety of citicoline in mild vascular cognitive impairment: the IDEALE study

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    Cotroneo AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antonino Maria Cotroneo,1 Alberto Castagna,2 Salvatore Putignano,3 Roberto Lacava,2 Fausto Fantò,4 Francesco Monteleone,5 Filomena Rocca,2 Alba Malara,6 Pietro Gareri21ASL 2 Turin, Piedmont, 2Elderly Health Care, Ambulatory Center for Dementia, ASP Catanzaro, Calabria, 3ASL Napoli 1, Campania, 4University Hospital Orbassano, Turin, Piedmont, 5Regina Margherita Hospital, Rome, 6Nursing Home S Domenico Lamezia Terme, ASP Catanzaro, Calabria, ItalyBackground: The studio di intervento nel decadimento vascolare lieve (IDEALE study was an open multicenter Italian study, the aim of which was to assess the effectiveness and safety of oral citicoline in elderly people with mild vascular cognitive impairment.Methods: The study was performed in 349 patients. The active or citicoline group was composed of 265 patients and included 122 men and 143 women of mean age 79.9 ± 7.8 years selected from six Italian regions. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 65 years, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score ≥ 21, subjective memory complaints but no evidence of deficits on MMSE, and evidence of vascular lesions on neuroradiology. Those with probable Alzheimer's disease were excluded. The control group consisted of 84 patients, including 36 men and 48 women of mean age 78.9 ± 7.01 (range 67–90 years. Patients included in the study underwent brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and plasma dosage of vitamin B12, folate, and thyroid hormones. Functional dependence was investigated by scores on the Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL scales, mood was assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, and behavioral disorders using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory scale. Comorbidity was assessed using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. An assessment was made at baseline (T0, after 3 months (T1, and after 9 months (T2, ie, 6 months after T1. The main outcomes were an improvement in MMSE, ADL, and IADL

  8. Differences in the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment and cognitive functions between early and delayed responders in a community-based study of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2013-01-01

    Significant differences exist in demographic characteristics between responders and non-responders in population-based studies on mental health and cognitive status, but much less is known regarding differences in the prevalence of dementia and cognitive dysfunction between them. Here we compared the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment between early responders of a mass brain function examination and delayed responders (non-responders of the mass brain function examination) in a survey of elderly Japanese citizens (≥65 years) to evaluate non-responder bias. All residents in an area of Nakajima, Japan, were considered as potential candidates (n = 783). Participants of a mass brain function examination were considered as "early responders." The cognitive functions of delayed responders were assessed by home visits. To assess the correlation between sociodemographic characteristics and cognitive functions, the early and delayed responders completed the same questionnaires and neuropsychological tests. Delayed responders (n = 320) were significantly older and less educated than the early responders (n = 307). The delayed responders also exhibited a higher frequency of dementia and mild cognitive impairment than the early responders, even when the groups were restricted to the age group 65-89 years. Our results suggest that population-based studies likely underestimate the prevalence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment, especially if the participation rate is low.

  9. Effects of medial temporal lobe degeneration on brain perfusion in amnestic MCI of AD type: deafferentation and functional compensation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedj, Eric [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [CNRS - Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, UMR-5549, Toulouse (France); Didic, Mira; Poncet, Michel; Ceccaldi, Mathieu [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Felician, Olivier [CHU Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Laboratoire de Neurophysiologie et Neuropsychologie, Inserm U751, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France); Centre Saint-Charles, Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Integrative et Adaptative, UMR CNRS 6149, Marseille (France); Laforte, Catherine de; Mundler, Olivier [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J. [Universite de la Mediterranee Aix-Marseille II, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR CNRS 6612, Faculte de Medecine, Marseille (France)

    2009-07-15

    Cortical atrophy is correlated with the progression of neuropathological lesions within the medial temporal lobes (MTL) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to determine which local and remote functional changes result from MTL volume loss at the predementia stage. We studied the relationship between entorhinal and hippocampal MR volumes and whole-brain SPECT perfusion via a voxel-based correlative analysis in 19 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment with a memory profile suggestive of early AD. Right MTL volumes were positively correlated with remote posterior perfusion of the posterior cingulate cortex, and negatively correlated with remote anterior perfusion of the right medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was no local correlation between volumes and perfusion within the MTL. These findings provide further insight into functional changes that result from MTL volume loss during the predementia stage of AD. The positive correlation between MTL volumes and posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect the deafferentation of a temporocingulate network due to mediotemporal degeneration. The paradoxical negative correlation between MTL volumes and prefrontal perfusion may result from recruitment of an alternative anterior temporofrontal network. It remains to be investigated how the ''net sum'' of this perfusion modulation affects memory and other cognitive domains through a possible compensatory perspective. (orig.)

  10. Callosal atrophy in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: different effects in different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Margherita; Luders, Eileen; Di Iulio, Fulvia; Cherubini, Andrea; Passafiume, Domenico; Thompson, Paul M; Caltagirone, Carlo; Toga, Arthur W; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects grey matter (GM). Nevertheless, a number of investigations have documented white matter (WM) pathology associated with AD. The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest WM fiber bundle in the human brain. It has been shown to be susceptible to atrophy in AD mainly as a correlate of Wallerian degeneration of commissural nerve fibers of the neocortex. The aim of this study was to investigate which callosal regions are affected and whether callosal degeneration is associated with the stage of the disease. For this purpose, we analyzed high-resolution MRI data of patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=20), mild AD (n=20), severe AD (n=10), and of healthy controls (n=20). Callosal morphology was investigated applying two different structural techniques: mesh-based geometrical modeling methods and whole-brain voxel-based analyses. Our findings indicate significant reductions in severe AD patients compared to healthy controls in anterior (genu and anterior body) and posterior (splenium) sections. In contrast, differences between healthy controls and mild AD patients or amnesic MCI patients were less pronounced and did not survive corrections for multiple comparisons. When correlating anterior and posterior WM density of the CC with GM density of the cortex in the severe AD group, we detected significant positive relationships between posterior sections of the CC and the cortex. We conclude that callosal atrophy is present predominantly in the latest stage of AD, where two mechanisms might contribute to WM alterations in severe AD: the Wallerian degeneration in posterior subregions and the myelin breakdown process in anterior subregions.

  11. Apraxia for differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from subcortical vascular dementia and mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Serhat Ozkan,1 Demet Ozbabalik Adapinar,1 Nese Tuncer Elmaci,2 Didem Arslantas31Department of Neurology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, Turkey; 2Department of Neurology, Marmara University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Public Health, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Eskisehir, TurkeyAbstract: Although ideomotor limb apraxia is considered to be a typical sign of cortical pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, it has been also reported in subcortical neurodegenerative diseases and vascular lesions. We aimed to investigate the difference between AD, subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients by means of ideomotor limb apraxia frequency and severity. Ninety-six AD, 72 SVaD, and 84 MCI patients were assessed with the mini-mental status examination (MMSE, clinical dementia rating (CDR and the apraxia screening test of TULIA (AST. Apraxia was significantly more frequent in the AD patients (32.3% than in both of the SVaD (16.7% and MCI (4.8% patients. The frequency of apraxia was also significantly higher in SVaD patients than in MCI patients. AD patients had significantly lower apraxia scores than both SVaD and MCI patients. In addition, a significant difference was found between SVaD and MCI patients in terms of apraxia scores. These results suggest that the widespread belief of the association between apraxia and cortical dementias is not exactly correct. The significant difference between both of the dementia groups and the MCI patients suggests that the absence of apraxia can be an indicator for MCI diagnosis.Keywords: apraxia, Alzheimer’s disease, subcortical vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment

  12. Memory concerns, memory performance and risk of dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

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    Steffen Wolfsgruber

    Full Text Available Concerns about worsening memory ("memory concerns"; MC and impairment in memory performance are both predictors of Alzheimer's dementia (AD. The relationship of both in dementia prediction at the pre-dementia disease stage, however, is not well explored. Refined understanding of the contribution of both MC and memory performance in dementia prediction is crucial for defining at-risk populations. We examined the risk of incident AD by MC and memory performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI.We analyzed data of 417 MCI patients from a longitudinal multicenter observational study. Patients were classified based on presence (n = 305 vs. absence (n = 112 of MC. Risk of incident AD was estimated with Cox Proportional-Hazards regression models.Risk of incident AD was increased by MC (HR = 2.55, 95%CI: 1.33-4.89, lower memory performance (HR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.56-0.71 and ApoE4-genotype (HR = 1.89, 95%CI: 1.18-3.02. An interaction effect between MC and memory performance was observed. The predictive power of MC was greatest for patients with very mild memory impairment and decreased with increasing memory impairment.Our data suggest that the power of MC as a predictor of future dementia at the MCI stage varies with the patients' level of cognitive impairment. While MC are predictive at early stage MCI, their predictive value at more advanced stages of MCI is reduced. This suggests that loss of insight related to AD may occur at the late stage of MCI.

  13. Increased synchronization and decreased neural complexity underlie thalamocortical oscillatory dynamics in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes; Cruz-Vadell, Abel; Suarez-Gonzalez, Aida; Gil-Neciga, Eulogio

    2009-07-15

    Abnormal patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha oscillations in preclinical stages of dementia reveal a selective vulnerability of thalamocortical circuits to the cascade of neurodegenerative events heralding Alzheimer's disease (AD). EEG-alpha slowing characterizes both mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy aging, but it remains ambiguous whether different neural mechanisms underlie this oscillatory behavior in normal and pathological senescence. In this study, we show that the strength of phase coupling and the level of phase predictability between thalamocortical and cortico-cortical EEG sources of low alpha frequency are abnormally facilitated in MCI patients when compared to healthy elderly subjects. Additionally, we found a loss of neural complexity intrinsic to both thalamic and cortical generators of lower alpha in MCI patients, which likely influenced the aberrant phase synchronization behavior between EEG-alpha sources in this high risk group of AD. Taken together, these results suggest that different neural mechanisms account for the well known slowing of alpha rhythm present in normal aging and MCI patients. Whether these anomalous neural coding mechanisms of lower alpha generation in MCI patients represent a potential electrophysiological marker of mild AD is a topic for future research.

  14. Acetylcholine esterase activity in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, Karl [University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Clinical Neuroscience, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Impairment of cholinergic neurotransmission is a well-established fact in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is controversy about its relevance at the early stages of the disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In vivo positron emission tomography imaging of cortical acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as a marker of cholinergic innervation that is expressed by cholinergic axons and cholinoceptive neurons has demonstrated a reduction of this enzyme activity in manifest AD. The technique is also useful to measure the inhibition of cerebral AChE induced by cholinesterase inhibitors for treatment of dementia symptoms. A reduction of cortical AchE activity was found consistently in all studies of AD and in few cases of MCI who later concerted to AD. The in vivo findings in MCI and very mild AD are still preliminary, and studies seem to suggest that cholinergic innervation and AChE as the main degrading enzyme are both reduced, which might result in partial compensation of their effect. (orig.)

  15. Contribution of the Cholinergic System to Verbal Memory Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jessica; Lahr, Jacob; Minkova, Lora; Lauer, Eliza; Grothe, Michel J; Teipel, Stefan; Köstering, Lena; Kaller, Christoph P; Heimbach, Bernhard; Hüll, Michael; Normann, Claus; Nissen, Christoph; Reis, Janine; Klöppel, Stefan

    2016-06-18

    Acetylcholine is critically involved in modulating learning and memory function, which both decline in neurodegeneration. It remains unclear to what extent structural and functional changes in the cholinergic system contribute to episodic memory dysfunction in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), in addition to hippocampal degeneration. A better understanding is critical, given that the cholinergic system is the main target of current symptomatic treatment in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. We simultaneously assessed the structural and functional integrity of the cholinergic system in 20 patients with MCI and 20 matched healthy controls and examined their effect on verbal episodic memory via multivariate regression analyses. Mediating effects of either cholinergic function or hippocampal volume on the relationship between cholinergic structure and episodic memory were computed. In MCI, a less intact structure and function of the cholinergic system was found. A smaller cholinergic structure was significantly correlated with a functionally more active cholinergic system in patients, but not in controls. This association was not modulated by age or disease severity, arguing against compensational processes. Further analyses indicated that neither functional nor structural changes in the cholinergic system influence verbal episodic memory at the MCI stage. In fact, those associations were fully mediated by hippocampal volume. Although the cholinergic system is structurally and functionally altered in MCI, episodic memory dysfunction results primarily from hippocampal neurodegeneration, which may explain the inefficiency of cholinergic treatment at this disease stage.

  16. Cholinesterase inhibitors in mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review of randomised trials.

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    Roberto Raschetti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI refers to a transitional zone between normal ageing and dementia. Despite the uncertainty regarding the definition of MCI as a clinical entity, clinical trials have been conducted in the attempt to study the role of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs currently approved for symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD, in preventing progression from MCI to AD. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of ChEIs (donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine in delaying the conversion from MCI to Alzheimer disease or dementia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The terms "donepezil", "rivastigmine", "galantamine", and "mild cognitive impairment" and their variants, synonyms, and acronyms were used as search terms in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, PsycINFO and three registers: the Cochrane Collaboration Trial Register, Current Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Published and unpublished studies were included if they were randomized clinical trials published (or described in English and conducted among persons who had received a diagnosis of MCI and/or abnormal memory function documented by a neuropsychological assessment. A standardized data extraction form was used. The reporting quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Three published and five unpublished trials met the inclusion criteria (three on donepezil, two on rivastigmine, and three on galantamine. Enrolment criteria differed among the trials, so the study populations were not homogeneous. The duration of the trials ranged from 24 wk to 3 y. No significant differences emerged in the probability of conversion from MCI to AD or dementia between the treated groups and the placebo groups. The rate of conversion ranged from 13% (over 2 y to 25% (over 3 y among treated patients, and from 18% (over 2 y to 28% (over 3 y among those in the placebo groups. Only for two studies was it possible to derive point

  17. Comparing Cognitive Failures and Metacognitive Beliefs in Mild Traumatic Brain Injured Patients and Normal Controls in Kashan

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    Zargar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Head trauma is associated with multiple destructive cognitive symptoms and cognitive failure. Cognitive failures include problems with memory, attention and operation. Cognitive failures are considered as a process associated with metacognition. Objectives This study aimed to compare cognitive failures and metacognitive beliefs in mild Traumatic Brain Injured (TBI patients and normal controls in Kashan. Patients and Methods The study was performed on 40 TBI patients referred to the Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan city and 40 normal controls in Kashan. Traumatic brain injured patients and normal controls were selected by convenience sampling. Two groups filled out the demographic sheet, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ and Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30. The data were analyzed by the SPSS-19 software with multivariate analysis of variance. Results The results of this study showed that there were no significant differences between TBI and controls in total scores and subscales of CFQ and MCQ (F = 0.801, P = 0.61. Conclusions Based on these findings, it seems that mild brain injuries don't make significant metacognitive problems and cognitive failures.

  18. Associative memory and underlying brain correlates in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Ching; Chang, Yu-Ling

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated associative recognition memory by using unique features of the Chinese language and the underlying neuroanatomical correlates. The study participants were 22 Chinese speakers with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 25 cognitively normal (CN) Chinese speakers. The results revealed that the MCI group demonstrated impaired associative memory performance, despite exhibiting item memory performance comparable with that of the CN group, and that associative memory performance in older adults was associated with gray matter integrity in the medial temporal regions as well as executive function. An abnormal elevation was also observed in false-positive errors related to features unique to Chinese characters, namely orthographical errors, in addition to rearranged and semantic errors in the MCI group relative to the CN group, and the three error subtypes were differentially associated with gray matter integrity in the hippocampus or lateral prefrontal regions. Overall, these results demonstrate the value of evaluating associative memory in people with prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD), and further elucidate the underlying neural substrates related to associative recognition memory in older adults.

  19. The influence of age and mild cognitive impairment on associative memory performance and underlying brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oedekoven, Christiane S H; Jansen, Andreas; Keidel, James L; Kircher, Tilo; Leube, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Associative memory is essential to everyday activities, such as the binding of faces and corresponding names to form single bits of information. However, this ability often becomes impaired with increasing age. The most important neural substrate of associative memory is the hippocampus, a structure crucially implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main aim of this study was to compare neural correlates of associative memory in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an at-risk state for AD. We used fMRI to investigate differences in brain activation and connectivity between young controls (n = 20), elderly controls (n = 32) and MCI patients (n = 21) during associative memory retrieval. We observed lower hippocampal activation in MCI patients than control groups during a face-name recognition task, and the magnitude of this decrement was correlated with lower associative memory performance. Further, increased activation in precentral regions in all older adults indicated a stronger involvement of the task positive network (TPN) with age. Finally, functional connectivity analysis revealed a stronger link of hippocampal and striatal components in older adults in comparison to young controls, regardless of memory impairment. In elderly controls, this went hand-in-hand with a stronger activation of striatal areas. Increased TPN activation may be linked to greater reliance on cognitive control in both older groups, while increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the striatum may suggest dedifferentiation, especially in elderly controls.

  20. Living With Ambiguity: A Metasynthesis of Qualitative Research on Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Tim; Astell, Arlene; Nygård, Louise; Sixsmith, Andrew; Mihailidis, Alex; Hwang, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a diagnosis proposed to describe an intermediate state between normal cognitive aging and dementia. MCI has been criticised for its conceptual fuzziness, its ambiguous relationship to dementia, and the tension it creates between medical and sociological understandings of “normal aging”. Design and Methods: We examined the published qualitative literature on experiences of being diagnosed and living with MCI using metasynthesis as the methodological framework. Results: Two overarching conceptual themes were developed. The first, MCI and myself-in-time, showed that a diagnosis of MCI could profoundly affect a person’s understanding of their place in the world. This impact appears to be mediated by multiple factors including a person’s social support networks, which daily activities are affected, and subjective interpretations of the meaning of MCI. The second theme, Living with Ambiguity, describes the difficulties people experienced in making sense of their diagnosis. Uncertainty arose, in part, from lack of clarity and consistency in the information received by people with MCI, including whether they are even told MCI is the diagnosis. Implications: We conclude by suggesting an ethical tension is always at play when a MCI diagnosis is made. Specifically, earlier support and services afforded by a diagnosis may come at the expense of a person’s anxiety about the future, with continued uncertainty about how his or her concerns and needs can be addressed. PMID:26315317

  1. Screening for Sleep Apnoea in Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Utility of the Multivariable Apnoea Prediction Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is considered an “at risk” state for dementia and efforts are needed to target modifiable risk factors, of which Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is one. This study aims to evaluate the predictive utility of the multivariate apnoea prediction index (MAPI, a patient self-report survey, to assess OSA in MCI. Methods. Thirty-seven participants with MCI and 37 age-matched controls completed the MAPI and underwent polysomnography (PSG. Correlations were used to compare the MAPI and PSG measures including oxygen desaturation index and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC curve analyses were performed using various cut-off scores for apnoea severity. Results. In controls, there was a significant moderate correlation between higher MAPI scores and more severe apnoea (AHI: r=0.47, P=0.017. However, this relationship was not significant in the MCI sample. ROC curve analysis indicated much lower area under the curve (AUC in the MCI sample compared to the controls across all AHI severity cut-off scores. Conclusions. In older people, the MAPI moderately correlates with AHI severity but only in those who are cognitively intact. Development of further screening tools is required in order to accurately screen for OSA in MCI.

  2. Screening for sleep apnoea in mild cognitive impairment: the utility of the multivariable apnoea prediction index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Georgina; Terpening, Zoe; Wong, Keith; Grunstein, Ron; Norrie, Louisa; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered an "at risk" state for dementia and efforts are needed to target modifiable risk factors, of which Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is one. This study aims to evaluate the predictive utility of the multivariate apnoea prediction index (MAPI), a patient self-report survey, to assess OSA in MCI. Methods. Thirty-seven participants with MCI and 37 age-matched controls completed the MAPI and underwent polysomnography (PSG). Correlations were used to compare the MAPI and PSG measures including oxygen desaturation index and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI). Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were performed using various cut-off scores for apnoea severity. Results. In controls, there was a significant moderate correlation between higher MAPI scores and more severe apnoea (AHI: r = 0.47, P = 0.017). However, this relationship was not significant in the MCI sample. ROC curve analysis indicated much lower area under the curve (AUC) in the MCI sample compared to the controls across all AHI severity cut-off scores. Conclusions. In older people, the MAPI moderately correlates with AHI severity but only in those who are cognitively intact. Development of further screening tools is required in order to accurately screen for OSA in MCI.

  3. Reduced mismatch negativity in mild cognitive impairment: associations with neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowszowski, Loren; Hermens, Daniel F; Diamond, Keri; Norrie, Louisa; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a transitory state between healthy aging and dementia. Biomarkers are needed to facilitate early identification of MCI and predict progression to dementia. One potential neurophysiological biomarker, mismatch negativity (MMN), is an event-related potential reflecting fundamental, pre-attentive cognitive processes. MMN is reduced in normal aging and dementia and in neuropsychiatric samples and is associated with verbal memory deficits and poor executive functioning. This study aimed to investigate auditory MMN and its relationship to neuropsychological performance in MCI. Twenty-eight MCI participants and fourteen controls, aged ≥50 years, underwent neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessment, and completed questionnaires pertaining to disability. Relative to controls, the MCI group demonstrated reduced temporal MMN amplitude (p < 0.01). Reduced right temporal MMN was significantly associated with poorer verbal learning (r = 0.496; p < 0.01) and reduced left temporal MMN was significantly associated with increased self-reported disability (r = -0.419; p < 0.05). These results indicate that patients with MCI exhibit altered pre-attentive information processing, which in turn is associated with memory and psychosocial deficits. These findings overall suggest that MMN may be a viable neurophysiological biomarker of underlying disease in this 'at risk' group.

  4. Recollection and familiarity in aging individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Dorothee; Gauthier, Serge; Pruessner, Jens C

    2014-09-01

    Memory impairment is a central cognitive symptom in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD). Recognition tasks are often used to characterize and define the nature of memory deficits. Dual-process theories posit that familiarity and recollection are independently involved in the recognition of previously encountered material and both contribute to successful recognition. Recent evidence indicates that there is a double dissociation in the neuronal substrates of those two processes. More precisely, it has been suggested that perirhinal and entorhinal areas are selectively involved in familiarity-based recognition, while the hippocampus is associated with recollection. Interestingly, these regions are among the first to be targeted by neurofibrillary tangles, one of AD's neuropathological hallmarks. Impairment in recognition performance can occur in the very early stages of AD, such as MCI. To define the nature of recognition impairment in these clinical populations, we reviewed the current literature on familiarity and recollection performance in individuals with MCI and AD. Together with clinical features, methodological factors are taken into consideration in the interpretation of findings.

  5. Non-Gaussian diffusion MRI assessment of brain microstructure in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falangola, Maria F; Jensen, Jens H; Tabesh, Ali; Hu, Caixia; Deardorff, Rachael L; Babb, James S; Ferris, Steven; Helpern, Joseph A

    2013-07-01

    We report the first application of a novel diffusion-based MRI method, called diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI), to investigate changes in brain tissue microstructure in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD and in cognitively intact controls. The subject groups were characterized and compared in terms of DKI-derived metrics for selected brain regions using analysis of covariance with a Tukey multiple comparison correction. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess the utility of regional diffusion measures, alone and in combination, to discriminate each pair of subject groups. ROC analyses identified mean and radial kurtoses in the anterior corona radiata as the best individual discriminators of MCI from controls, with the measures having an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.80 and 0.82, respectively. The next best discriminators of MCI from controls were diffusivity and kurtosis (both mean and radial) in the prefrontal white matter (WM), with each measure having an AUC between 0.77 and 0.79. Finally, the axial diffusivity in the hippocampus was the best overall discriminator of MCI from AD, having an AUC of 0.90. These preliminary results suggest that non-Gaussian diffusion MRI may be beneficial in the assessment of microstructural tissue damage at the early stage of MCI and may be useful in developing biomarkers for the clinical staging of AD.

  6. Biochemical markers of physical exercise on Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia; systematic review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Steen Jensen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cognitive effects of physical exercise in patients with dementia disorders or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI have been examined in various studies; however the biochemical effects of exercise from intervention studies are largely unknown. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the published results on biomarkers in physical exercise intervention studies in patients with MCI or dementia.Methods: The PubMed database was searched for studies from 1976 to February 2015. We included intervention studies investigating the effect of physical exercise activity on biomarkers in patients with MCI or dementia. Results: A total of eight studies were identified (n= 447 patients evaluating exercise regimes with variable duration (single session - 3 sessions pr week for 26 weeks and intensity (light resistance training – high intensity aerobic exercise. Various biomarkers were measured before and after intervention. Seven of the eight studies found a significant effect on their selected biomarkers with a positive effect of exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cholesterol, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiadrosterone and insulin in the intervention groups compared with controls.Conclusion: Although few studies suggest a beneficial effect on selected biomarkers, we need more knowledge of the biochemical effect of physical exercise in dementia or MCI.

  7. Systemic Oxidative Stress and Conversion to Dementia of Elderly Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cervellati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is regarded as a prodromal phase of late onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD. It has been proposed that oxidative stress (OxS might be implicated in the pathogenesis of LOAD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a redox imbalance measured as serum level of hydroperoxides (i.e., by-products of lipid peroxidation and/or serum antioxidant capacity might be predictive of the clinical progression of MCI to LOAD. The levels of these two markers were measured in 111 patients with MCI (follow-up: 2.0 ± 0.6 years, 105 patients with LOAD, and 118 nondemented healthy controls. Multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, gender, smoking, and comorbidities, showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in baseline levels of OxS in MCI and LOAD as compared to cognitive healthy controls. No differences in either of OxS markers were found by comparing MCI patients who converted (n = 29 or not converted (n = 82 to LOAD. Overall, these results suggest that systemic OxS might be a precocious feature of MCI and LOAD. However, the role of OxS as an early prognostic marker of progression to LOAD needs further investigations.

  8. Plasma and brain fatty acid profiles in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Schneider, Julie A; Tangney, Christine; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Fortier, Mélanie; Bennett, David A; Morris, Martha Clare

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is generally associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid intake from fish but despite numerous studies, it is still unclear whether there are differences in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma or brain. In matched plasma and brain samples provided by the Memory and Aging Project, fatty acid profiles were quantified in several plasma lipid classes and in three brain cortical regions. Fatty acid data were expressed as % composition and as concentrations (mg/dL for plasma or mg/g for brain). Differences in plasma fatty acid profiles between AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and those with no cognitive impairment (NCI) were most apparent in the plasma free fatty acids (lower oleic acid isomers and omega-6 fatty acids in AD) and phospholipids (lower omega-3 fatty acids in AD). In brain, % DHA was lower only in phosphatidylserine of mid-frontal cortex and superior temporal cortex in AD compared to NCI (-14% and -12%, respectively; both p < 0.05). The only significant correlation between plasma and brain fatty acids was between % DHA in plasma total lipids and % DHA in phosphatidylethanolamine of the angular gyrus, but only in the NCI group (+0.77, p < 0.05). We conclude that AD is associated with altered plasma status of both DHA and other fatty acids unrelated to DHA, and that the lipid class-dependent nature of these differences reflects a combination of differences in intake and metabolism.

  9. Unspeakable motion: Selective action-verb impairments in Parkinson's disease patients without mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Lopera, Francisco; Pineda, David; Baena, Ana; Ospina, Paula; Alzate, Diana; Buriticá, Omar; Moreno, Leonardo; Ibáñez, Agustín; Cuetos, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show marked impairments in processing action verbs, and to a lesser extent, concrete (specially, manipulable) nouns. However, it is still unclear to what extent deficits in each of these categories are influenced by more general cognitive dysfunctions, and whether they are modulated by the words' implied motility. To examine these issues, we evaluated 49 non-demented PD patients and 49 healthy volunteers in an oral production task. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). Participants named pictures of actions varying in motion content (low and high) and of objects varying in manipulability (low and high). The PD-MCI group showed deficits across all four categories. However, PD-nMCI patients exhibited a selective difficulty for high-motion action verbs. This finding corroborates and refines previous results suggesting that disturbances of action-related lexico-semantic information in PD constitute a sui generis alteration manifested early in the course of the disease's physiopathology. Moreover, it suggests that the grounding of action verbs on motor circuits could depend on fine-grained intracategorical semantic distinctions.

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)/repetitive TMS in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, R; Tezzon, F; Höller, Y; Golaszewski, S; Trinka, E; Brigo, F

    2014-06-01

    Several Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) techniques can be applied to noninvasively measure cortical excitability and brain plasticity in humans. TMS has been used to assess neuroplastic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), corroborating findings that cortical physiology is altered in AD due to the underlying neurodegenerative process. In fact, many TMS studies have provided physiological evidence of abnormalities in cortical excitability, connectivity, and plasticity in patients with AD. Moreover, the combination of TMS with other neurophysiological techniques, such as high-density electroencephalography (EEG), makes it possible to study local and network cortical plasticity directly. Interestingly, several TMS studies revealed abnormalities in patients with early AD and even with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), thus enabling early identification of subjects in whom the cholinergic degeneration has occurred. Furthermore, TMS can influence brain function if delivered repetitively; repetitive TMS (rTMS) is capable of modulating cortical excitability and inducing long-lasting neuroplastic changes. Preliminary findings have suggested that rTMS can enhance performances on several cognitive functions impaired in AD and MCI. However, further well-controlled studies with appropriate methodology in larger patient cohorts are needed to replicate and extend the initial findings. The purpose of this paper was to provide an updated and comprehensive systematic review of the studies that have employed TMS/rTMS in patients with MCI and AD.

  11. Visuospatial-visuoconstructional ability in mild cognitive impairment%轻度认知损害患者的空间结构能力障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志秀; 郭起浩; 赵倩华; 洪震

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究轻度认知损害(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)患者空间结构能力的缺损与保持状况.方法 将被试者分为3组:健康对照组122名,其中男51名、女71名;MCI组205例,男95例、女110例,其中遗忘型MCI(aMCI)133例,非遗忘型MCI(naMCI)72例;阿尔茨海默病(AD)组75例,男36例、女39例.全部进行Rey-Osterrieth复杂图形测验(CFT)、画钟测验(CDT)、搭火柴测验3个结构能力测验,同时完成简易精神状态量表(MMSE)等测验.健康对照组、MCI组和AD组MMSE平均得分分别为28.24±1.74、27.39±1.83和19.98±3.23.采用SPSS for windows 11.5统计软件,计数资料采用卡方检验,3组间比较采用One-way方差分析,然后采用Bonferroni(LSD)法进行多重比较.结果(1)以健康组为对照,CFT模仿得分和CDT总分与年龄、教育年限没有显著相关性,搭火柴测验-旋转部分(STR)与年龄有相关性(r=-0.179,P<0.05),与教育年限没有显著相关性.(2)CFT模仿得分与CDT总分(r=0.337)、STR(r=0.232),CDT总分与STR(r =0.235),均有显著相关性(均P<0.01).(3)CFr模仿和CDT总分分别与反映执行功能的连线测验B、Stroop色词测验卡片C耗时数的相关性最高,而STR与反映记忆的指标听觉词语学习测验的相关性高.CFT模仿、CDT总分和STR在健康对照组、MCI组和AD组之间差异有统计学意义.(4)在识别MCI方面,经过对3组结构测验表现的比较得出STR优于CFT模仿、CDT总分.结论 结构能力损害是MCI的表现之一,空间旋转能力的评估在识别MCI方面优于CFT模仿、CDT总分.%Objective To investigate visuospatial-visuoconstructional ability in patients with mild cognitive impairment(MCI).Methods The subjects were divided into three groups:122(51 males and 71 females)in the normal control group; 205(95 males and 110 females)in the MCI group,including 133 amnestic MCI(aMCI)and 72 non-amnestic MCI(naMCI),and 75(36 males and 39 females)in the Alzheimer' s disease

  12. The related factors to mild cognitive function impairment in community elderly people in 4 areas of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋美

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the related factors to mild cognitive function of community elderly people above 60years in 4 areas of Hebei Province.Methods Multi-stage cluster random sampling method were used to conduct a survey of elderly people above 60 years old in four areas of Hebei Provinice form January to December 2010,

  13. Multicenter Standardized 18F-FDG PET Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Other Dementias

    OpenAIRE

    Mosconi, Lisa; Tsui, Wai H.; Herholz, Karl; Pupi, Alberto; Drzezga, Alexander; Lucignani, Giovanni; Reiman, Eric M; Holthoff, Vjera; Kalbe, Elke; Sorbi, Sandro; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Perneczky, Robert; Clerici, Francesca; Caselli, Richard; Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    This multicenter study examined 18F-FDG PET measures in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from normal aging and from each other and the relation of disease-specific patterns to mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

  14. 轻度认知障碍的研究进展%Progress of the research on mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹昌浩; 郭艳芹

    2012-01-01

    With the arrival of an aging population, the prevalence of dementia increases every year. The breakthrough of the treatment for dementia in recent years is rare, so early prevention of dementia has become the focus of the current study. Mild cognitive impairment, which is an unstable clinical stage between normal aging and dementia, is deemed to convert mostly to dementia. Therefore , mild cognitive impairment is at high risk of dementia. The study on mild cognitive impairment is very important to dementia prevention and treatment. Here the clinical epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment, scale screening, imaging and laboratory diagnosis, new drug treatment progress and new features are reviewed.%轻度认知障碍是处于正常脑老化与痴呆之间的一种不稳定的认知损害的临床状态,大部分患者将转化为痴呆.故轻度认知障碍是痴呆的高危人群,研究轻度认知损害对痴呆的预防和治疗具有非常重大意义.文中对轻度认知障碍的临床流行病学、量表筛查、影像及实验室诊断、药物治疗的新进展和新特点作一综述.

  15. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy from the Perspective of Clients with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Investigation of Process Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pert, C.; Jahoda, A.; Stenfert Kroese, B.; Trower, P.; Dagnan, D.; Selkirk, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinicians working with clients who have mild intellectual disabilities (IDs) have shown growing enthusiasm for using a cognitive behavioural approach, amid increasing evidence of good treatment outcomes for this client group. However, very little is known about the views and experiences of clients with IDs who have undergone cognitive…

  16. Discerning Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease from Normal Aging: Morphologic Characterization Based on Univariate and Multivariate Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, W.; Long, X.; Jiang, C.; Diao, Y.; Liu, X.; Zheng, H.; Zhang, L.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer Disease (AD) from healthy aging remains challenging. This study aimed to explore the cerebral structural alterations of subjects with MCI or AD as compared to healthy elderly based on the individual and collectiv

  17. Feasibility and effectiveness of a walking program for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, J.G.Z. van; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility and effect on aerobic fitness of a 1-yr, twice-weekly, group-based moderate-intensity walking program (MI-WP, n = 77) compared with a low-intensity activity program (LI-AP, n = 75) for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty pa

  18. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida;

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods:...

  19. BrainAGE in Mild Cognitive Impaired Patients: Predicting the Conversion to Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gaser

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common form of dementia, shares many aspects of abnormal brain aging. We present a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based biomarker that predicts the individual progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI to AD on the basis of pathological brain aging patterns. By employing kernel regression methods, the expression of normal brain-aging patterns forms the basis to estimate the brain age of a given new subject. If the estimated age is higher than the chronological age, a positive brain age gap estimation (BrainAGE score indicates accelerated atrophy and is considered a risk factor for conversion to AD. Here, the BrainAGE framework was applied to predict the individual brain ages of 195 subjects with MCI at baseline, of which a total of 133 developed AD during 36 months of follow-up (corresponding to a pre-test probability of 68%. The ability of the BrainAGE framework to correctly identify MCI-converters was compared with the performance of commonly used cognitive scales, hippocampus volume, and state-of-the-art biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. With accuracy rates of up to 81%, BrainAGE outperformed all cognitive scales and CSF biomarkers in predicting conversion of MCI to AD within 3 years of follow-up. Each additional year in the BrainAGE score was associated with a 10% greater risk of developing AD (hazard rate: 1.10 [CI: 1.07-1.13]. Furthermore, the post-test probability was increased to 90% when using baseline BrainAGE scores to predict conversion to AD. The presented framework allows an accurate prediction even with multicenter data. Its fast and fully automated nature facilitates the integration into the clinical workflow. It can be exploited as a tool for screening as well as for monitoring treatment options.

  20. Motivational reserve: motivation-related occupational abilities and risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Maier, Wolfgang; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Pentzek, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Bickel, Horst; Tebarth, Franziska; Luppa, Melanie; Wollny, Anja; Wiese, Birgitt; Wagner, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Midlife motivational abilities, that is, skills to initiate and persevere in the implementation of goals, have been related to mental and physical health, but their association with risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not yet been directly investigated. This relation was examined with data from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). A total of 3,327 nondemented participants (50.3% of a randomly selected sample) aged 75-89 years were recruited in primary care and followed up twice (after 1.5 and 3 years). Motivation-related occupational abilities were estimated on the basis of the main occupation (assessed at follow-up II) using the Occupational Information Network (O* NET) database, which provides detailed information on worker characteristics and abilities. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relative risk of developing MCI and AD in relation to motivation-related occupational abilities, adjusting for various covariates. Over the 3 years of follow-up, 15.2% participants developed MCI and 3.0% developed AD. In a fully adjusted model, motivation-related occupational abilities were found to be associated with a reduced risk of MCI (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64-0.92). Motivation-related occupational abilities were associated with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers (HR: 0.48; CI: 0.25-0.91), but not in noncarriers (HR: 0.99; CI: 0.65-1.53). These results suggest that midlife motivational abilities are associated with reduced risk of MCI in general and with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers. Revealing the mechanisms underlying this association may inform novel prevention strategies for decelerating cognitive decline in old age.

  1. Functional Disability in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbergh, Cutter A; Dishman, Rodney K; Miller, L Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the pre-dementia syndrome mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by decrements in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The current review was a quantitative synthesis of the available literature to objectively characterize IADL disability in MCI while clarifying inconsistencies in findings across studies. It was hypothesized that individuals with MCI would display significantly greater functional impairment relative to cognitively intact controls. Candidate moderators specified a priori included functional assessment approach, MCI subtype, depressive symptoms, and language conducted. Online databases (PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and reference lists were searched to identify peer-reviewed publications assessing IADL in MCI compared to normal aging. A total of 151 effect sizes derived from 106 studies met inclusionary criteria (N = 62,260). Random effects models yielded a large overall summary effect size (Hedges' g = 0.76, 95 % confidence interval: 0.68 - 0.83, p < .001) confirmed in multi-level analyses adjusted for nesting of effect sizes within studies (g = 0.78, 95 % confidence interval: 0.69 - 0.87). Functional assessment strategy and MCI subtype were significant moderators of effect size, whereas depressive symptoms and language were not. Results convincingly demonstrate that MCI is associated with significant difficulties in the performance of complex everyday tasks. It appears that functional decline, like cognitive decline, exists on a continuum from healthy aging to dementia onset. Implications for clinical practice and research priorities are discussed.

  2. The Apathy Evaluation Scale: A Comparison of Subject, Informant, and Clinician Report in Cognitively Normal Elderly and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Brendan; Donovan, Nancy J.; Munro, Catherine E.; Aghjayan, Sarah L.; Wigman, Sarah E.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Detecting apathy accurately may facilitate earlier diagnosis of AD. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is a promising tool for measurement of apathy in prodromal and possibly preclinical AD. Objective To compare the three AES sub-scales—subject-reported (AES-S), informant-reported (AES-I), and clinician-reported (AES-C)—over time in individuals at risk for AD due to MCI and advanced age (cognitively normal [CN] elderly). Methods Mixed effects longitudinal models were used to assess predictors of score for each AES sub-scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess which AES sub-scales predict progression from MCI to AD dementia. Results Fifty seven MCI and 18 CN subjects (ages 53–86) were followed for 1.4±1.2 years and 0.7±0.7 years, respectively. Across the three mixed effects longitudinal models, the common findings were associations between greater apathy and greater years in study, a baseline diagnosis of MCI (compared to CN), and male sex. CN elderly self-reported greater apathy compared to that reported by informants and clinicians, while individuals with MCI under-reported their apathy compared to informants and clinicians. Of the three sub-scales, the clinician-reported AES (AES-C) best predicted transition from MCI to AD dementia. Conclusion In a sample of CN elderly and elderly with MCI, apathy increased over time, particularly in men and those with MCI. Self-reported AES scores may be more sensitive than informant and clinician-report when subjects are CN, but less reliable if subjects have MCI. Moreover, the clinician-reported AES sub-scale predicted progression from MCI to AD dementia. PMID:26401564

  3. A précis of recent advances in the neuropsychology of mild cognitive impairment(s) in Parkinson's disease and a proposal of preliminary research criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröster, Alexander I

    2011-05-01

    Cognitive changes of Parkinson's disease (PD) manifest earlier and are more heterogeneous than previously appreciated. Approximately one-third of patients have at least mild cognitive changes at PD diagnosis, and subtle changes might be appreciable among those at risk for PD. Executive dysfunction is the most common cognitive change, but other phenotypes exist. Pathobiologic and potential prognostic differences among cognitive phenotypes remain poorly understood. Progress in the neuropsychology, epidemiology and pathobiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in PD is hampered by lack of diagnostic criteria. This study proposes preliminary research criteria for two categories of PD non-dementia cognitive impairment.

  4. Mild Cognitive Impairment as a single sign of brain hemiatrophy in patient with Localized Scleroderma and Parry-Romberg Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimiec, Elzbieta; Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Neurologic involvement is well recognized in Systemic Scleroderma and increasingly reported in Localized Scleroderma. MRI brain abnormalities are often associated with symptoms such as seizures or headaches. In some cases they may be clinically silent. We describe a 23 years old female with head, trunk and limbs scleroderma who developed Parry-Romberg Syndrome. Brain MRI showed ipsilateral temporal lobe atrophy without any prominent neurologic symptoms. Neuropsychological examination revealed Mild Cognitive Impairment. During the 7 years of follow up we have noticed progression of face atrophy but no progression of brain atrophy. Cognitive functions have been stable. This case highlight that major MRI brain abnormalities in LS may occur with only subtle clinical manifestation such as Mild Cognitive Impairment.

  5. Association of pancreatic polypeptide with mild cognitive impairment varies by APOE ε4 allele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosebud O. Roberts

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary case-control investigation of the association of pancreatic polypeptide (PP with mild cognitive impairment (MCI in 202 MCI cases (mean age, 81.6 years and 202 age- and sex-matched cognitively normal controls in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Plasma PP was measured and examined as the natural logarithm or dichotomized at the median. The OR (95% CI of MCI increased with increasing PP (1.46 [1.04-2.05]. There was a negative interaction of PP with APOE ε4 allele; compared to the reference group (no APOE ε4 allele and low PP, the OR (95% CI for combinations of ε4 and PP were: 2.64 (1.39-5.04 for APOE ε4 plus low PP; 2.09 (1.27-3.45 for no APOE ε4 plus high PP; and 1.91 (1.04-3.53 for no APOE ε4 plus high PP (P for interaction = .017. There was also a trend toward a negative interaction with type 2 diabetes (P for interaction=.058. Compared to no diabetes and low PP, the OR (95% CI was 3.02 (1.22-7.46 for low PP plus diabetes but 1.80 (1.01-3.22 for high PP plus diabetes. Participants with high PP had a greater mean weight loss (kilograms per decade than persons with low PP (-2.26 [4.08] vs. -1.72 (5.28; P=.034. MCI cases had a non-significantly greater weight loss per decade compared to controls. These findings suggest that high PP alone or jointly with APOE e4 allele or type 2 diabetes is associated with MCI, and that high PP may mitigate some effects of APOE e4 allele and type 2 diabetes on cognition. Potential mechanisms may involve PP-related weight loss and centrally mediated effects of PP on cognition. These findings remain to be validated in other studies.

  6. Diagnostic value of serum cystatin C on newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment

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    Can-can MA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of expression level of serum cystatin C (Cys-C on early diagnosis of newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI.  Methods A total of 101 PD patients were divided into 2 groups: PD-MCI gruop (N = 43 and PD with normal cognition group (control group, N = 58. The levels of serum Cys-C, lipid, creatinine (Cr and uric acid (UA were tested. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA were used to evaluate cognitive function, and Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between PD-MCI and the level of serum Cys-C. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to detect the sensitivity and specificity of early diagnosis.  Results The expression level of serum Cys-C in PD-MCI group [(1.12 ± 0.10 mg/L] was higher than that of control group [(1.00 ± 0.15 mg/L, P = 0.000]. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that serum Cys-C was the independent risk factor for PD-MCI (OR = 4.285, 95% CI: 1.301-14.112; P = 0.017; Spearman rank correlation analysis showed the expression level of serum Cys-C was negatively correlated with MMSE total score (rs = -0.831, P = 0.000, MoCA total score (rs = -0.848, P = 0.000, visuospatial/executive function (rs = -0.495, P = 0.001, attention/counting (rs = -0.339, P = 0.026 and delayed recall (rs = -0.307, P = 0.045. ROC curve analysis showed that area under the curve (AUC was 0.707 (95%CI: 0.603-0.811, P = 0.000. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 53.50% and 82.80% respectively, and the critical value of serum Cys-C level was 1.105 mg/L.  Conclusions Increased expression level of serum Cys-C maybe closely related with newly diagnosed PD-MCI, and has a certain value to the early diagnosis of PD-MCI. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.007

  7. Poor physical fitness is independently associated with mild cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Han, J H; Jin, Y Y; Lee, I H; Hong, H R; Kang, H S

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical fitness and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly Koreans. This was a cross-sectional study that involved 134 men and 299 women aged 65 to 88 years. Six senior fitness tests were used as independent variables: 30 s chair stand for lower body strength, arm curl for upper body strength, chair-sit-and-reach for lower body flexibility, back scratch for upper body flexibility, 8-ft up-and-go for agility/dynamic balance, and 2-min walk for aerobic endurance. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Potential covariates such as age, education levels, blood lipids, and insulin resistance (IR) markers were also assessed. Compared to individuals without MMSE-based MCI, individuals with MMSE-based MCI had poor physical fitness based on the senior fitness test (SFT). There were significant positive trends observed for education level (p=0.001) and MMSE score (pphysical fitness in this study population. Individuals with moderate (OR=0.341, p=0.006) and high (OR=0.271, p=0.007) physical fitness based on a composite score of the SFT measures were less likely to have MMSE-based MCI than individuals with low physical fitness (referent, OR=1). The strength of the association between moderate (OR=0.377, p=0.038) or high (OR=0.282, p=0.050) physical fitness and MMSE-based MCI was somewhat attenuated but remained statistically significant even after adjustment for the measured compounding factors. We found that poor physical fitness was independently associated with MMSE-based MCI in elderly Koreans.

  8. Brain structural substrates of semantic memory decline in mild cognitive impairment.

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    Gardini, Simona; Cuetos, Fernando; Fasano, Fabrizio; Pellegrini, Francesca Ferrari; Marchi, Massimo; Venneri, Annalena; Caffarra, Paolo

    2013-05-01

    Semantic memory decline has been found in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study performance on a range of semantic tasks and structural brain patterns were examined in a group of MCI patients. Fourteen MCI and sixteen healthy elderly controls underwent semantic memory assessment and MRI brain scanning. The cognitive battery included visual naming and naming from definition tasks for objects, actions and famous people, semantic fluency for animals, fruits, tools, furniture, singers, politicians, actions, word-association task for early and late acquired words and a reading task. MCI patients performed worse on semantic fluency in all categories except for tools, produced a smaller number of words associated with early acquired nouns and a smaller total number of word-associations. Patients scored more poorly in all tasks of naming, naming of famous people, overall reading and reading of famous people's names. MCIs had fewer correct immediate recalls and more correct responses with cue in famous people naming, made more errors in naming and in the naming from definition task for famous people. Grey matter reduction in parahippocampus, frontal and cingulate cortices and amygdala was found in the MCI sample when compared with controls. Patients presented a different pattern of brain areas correlated with semantic tasks from that seen in controls, with more extensive involvement of subcortical regions in semantic fluency and word-association and more contribution of frontal than temporo-parietal areas in visual naming. This evidence suggests a reorganization of cortical associations of semantic processes in MCI that, following damage in the semantic circuit, explains its progressive breakdown.

  9. Adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with mild cognitive impairment.

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    Gorska-Ciebiada, Malgorzata; Saryusz-Wolska, Malgorzata; Borkowska, Anna; Ciebiada, Maciej; Loba, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and IL-1 β in elderly diabetic patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to examine the associations of these markers with clinical and cognitive parameters. A biochemical evaluation was performed of 62 seniors with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and MCI, and 132 seniors with T2DM but without MCI (controls). Serum leptin and IL-1 β levels were higher and adiponectin concentration was lower in MCI patients than controls. In MCI subjects, adiponectin level was negatively correlated with leptin, IL-1 β levels and BMI. Leptin concentration was correlated with IL-1 β level. Univariate logistic regression models revealed that the factors which increased the likelihood of diagnosis of MCI in elderly patients with T2DM were higher levels of HbA1c, leptin, IL-1 β and triglycerides, as well as lower levels of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol. Similarly, previous CVD, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, retinopathy, nephropathy, hypoglycemia, longer duration of diabetes, increased number of co-morbidities, older age, fewer years of formal education were found to be associated with MCI. The multivariable model indicated fewer years of formal education, previous CVD, hypertension, increased number of co-morbidities, higher HbA1c and IL-1 β levels and lower adiponectin level. Elderly diabetic patients with MCI have higher levels of leptin and IL-1 β and lower levels of adiponectin. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the role of these markers in the progression to dementia.

  10. Brain glucose metabolism and neuropsychological test in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秋云; 江开达; 张明园; 刘永昌; 肖世富; 左传涛; 黄红芳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the features of regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) in patients with mild cognitive impairment(MCI) by positron emission-tomography and its relationship with neuropsychological test.Methods Positron emission tomography, mini-mental state examination and Wechsler memory scale were applied in 10 patients with MCI and 10 healthy volunteers as the control group.Results Scores of mini-mental state examination and Wechsler memory scale in MCI patients were lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). rCMRglc of the left orbital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus and right putamen was lower in the MCI group than in the control group (P<0.05). Correlation analysis in the MCI group indicated that rCMRglc of many brain regions such as the orbital gyrus, putamen, left hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, left amygdaloid body, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and medial occipitotemporal gyrus in MCI patients, were correlated negatively with age; while the rCMRglc of many parts of the brain such as the left putamen, temporal lobe, anterior cingulate gyrus, left insular lobe, amygdaloid body, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and medial occipitotemporal gyrus were correlated positively with mini-mental state examination; and rCMRglc of the left putamen, temporal lobe, left insular lobe, precentral gyrus and postcentral gyrus were correlated positively with Wechsler memory scale. The right putamen, the right inferior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and left postcentral gyrus were correlated positively with the length of education. However, only rCMRglc of the left amygdaloid body were correlated positively with gender. Conclusion The rCMRglc was lower in the orbital gyrus and putamen of MCI patients. Their rCMRglc were correlated with their cognitive impairment severity, age, length of education and sex.

  11. Changes of cognitive function and their predictive value to different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment among the elderly%老年人认知功能对不同亚型MCI预测作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋芝月; 黄文湧; 杨敬源; 杨星; 汪俊华; 邓厚才

    2013-01-01

    subtypes of mild cognitive impairment(MCI) among the elderly in Guiyang city.Methods Using multistage sampling,2 197 people aged 60 years and older were selected from urban communities in Guiyang for a baseline survey in 2004-2005 and followed up in 2008.The subjects were divided into normal cognitive (NC)and different subtypes of MCI groups according to the outcomes of follow-up examination.The cognitive function was assessed by using the Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSE),and logistic regression model was used to analyze the predictive value of cognitive function for different subtypes of MCI.Results A total of 1 409 participants completed follow-up examination,with a follow-up rate of 64.13 %.Among the elderly,there were 1 279 with normal cognitive function,72 cases of amnestic mild cognitive impairment(aMCI),34 cases of nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment(naMCI),and 24 cases of dementia.The aMCI cases had a lower score (3.65 ± 0.56) in using vocabulary compared with the normal control group(3.78 ±0.46)in baseline study.The naMCI cases had lower scores in memory,computing power,visual-spatial ability,and overall cognitive function compared with the normal control group.The scores of memory,computing power,visual-spatial ability,and overall cognitive function in aMCI group decreased to 3.33 ± 2.17,2.26 ± 1.56,0.27 ± 0.63,and 3.97 ± 2.98,respectively.The scores of orientation,ability of using vocabulary,the understanding of language,and overall cognitive funciton in naMCI group declined to 1.59 ± 1.81,0.41 ± 0.70,0.62 ± 1.18,and 3.82 ± 2.61,respectively.After controlling for age,education level and occupation,the memory and ability of using vocabulary showeda value for prediction to aMCI,and so did the computing power and visual-spatial ability to naMCI.Conclusion There are different changes in cognitive functions among the elderly with different subtypes of MCI and the changes show early predicting value to different subtypes of MCI.

  12. Fornix White Matter is Correlated with Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Thalamus and Hippocampus in Healthy Aging but Not in Mild Cognitive Impairment – A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Elizabeth G.; Farrell, Dervla; Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Lawlor, Brian A.; Kenny, Rose Anne; Lyons, Declan; McNulty, Jonathan P.; Mullins, Paul G.; Coyle, Damien; Bokde, Arun L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we wished to examine the relationship between the structural connectivity of the fornix, a white matter (WM) tract in the limbic system, which is affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer’s disease, and the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of two key related subcortical structures, the thalamus, and hippocampus. Twenty-two older healthy controls (HC) and 18 older adults with aMCI underwent multi-modal MRI scanning. The fornix was reconstructed using constrained-spherical deconvolution-based tractography. The FC between the thalamus and hippocampus was calculated using a region-of-interest approach from which the mean time series were exacted and correlated. Diffusion tensor imaging measures of the WM microstructure of the fornix were correlated against the Fisher Z correlation values from the FC analysis. There was no difference between the groups in the fornix WM measures, nor in the resting-state FC of the thalamus and hippocampus. We did however find that the relationship between functional and structural connectivity differed significantly between the groups. In the HCs, there was a significant positive association between linear diffusion (CL) in the fornix and the FC of the thalamus and hippocampus, however, there was no relationship between these measures in the aMCI group. These preliminary findings suggest that in aMCI, the relationship between the functional and structural connectivity of regions of the limbic system may be significantly altered compared to healthy ageing. The combined use of diffusion weighted imaging and functional MRI may advance our understanding of neural network changes in aMCI, and elucidate subtle changes in the relationship between structural and functional brain networks. PMID:25698967

  13. Functional integrity of thalamocortical circuits differentiates normal aging from mild cognitive impairment.

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    Cantero, Jose L; Atienza, Mercedes; Gomez-Herrero, German; Cruz-Vadell, Abel; Gil-Neciga, Eulogio; Rodriguez-Romero, Rafael; Garcia-Solis, David

    2009-12-01

    Resonance in thalamocortical networks is critically involved in sculpting oscillatory behavior in large ensembles of neocortical cells. Neocortical oscillations provide critical information about the integrity of thalamocortical circuits and functional connectivity of cortical networks, which seem to be significantly disrupted by the neuronal death and synapse loss characterizing Alzheimer's disease (AD). By applying a novel analysis methodology to overcome volume conduction effects between scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements, we were able to estimate the temporal activation of EEG-alpha sources in the thalamus and parieto-occipital regions of the cortex. We found that synaptic flow underlying the lower alpha band (7.5-10 Hz) was abnormally facilitated in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as compared to healthy elderly individuals, particularly from thalamus to cortex (approximately 38% higher). In addition, the thalamic generator of lower alpha oscillations was also abnormally activated in patients with MCI. Regarding the upper alpha subdivision (10.1-12.5 Hz), both controls and patients with MCI showed a bidirectional decrease of thalamocortical synaptic transmission, which was age-dependent only in the control group. Altogether, our results suggest that functional dynamics of thalamocortical networks differentiate individuals at high risk of developing AD from healthy elderly subjects, supporting the hypothesis that neurodegeneration mechanisms are active years before the patient is clinically diagnosed with dementia.

  14. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond Marra, Hellen Livia; Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Maia Memória, Cláudia; Arnaut, Débora; Leite Ribeiro, Philip; Sardinha Mansur, Carlos Gustavo; Lancelote Alberto, Rodrigo; Boura Bellini, Bianca; Alves Fernandes da Silva, Adriano; Tortella, Gabriel; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS) on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen's MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th) and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction (p = 0.05), favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration. PMID:26160997

  15. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Address Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Livia Drumond Marra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique with potential to improve memory. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI, which still lacks a specific therapy, is a clinical syndrome associated with increased risk of dementia. This study aims to assess the effects of high-frequency repetitive TMS (HF rTMS on everyday memory of the elderly with MCI. We conducted a double-blinded randomized sham-controlled trial using rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Thirty-four elderly outpatients meeting Petersen’s MCI criteria were randomly assigned to receive 10 sessions of either active TMS or sham, 10 Hz rTMS at 110% of motor threshold, 2,000 pulses per session. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline, after the last session (10th and at one-month follow-up, was applied. ANOVA on the primary efficacy measure, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, revealed a significant group-by-time interaction p=0.05, favoring the active group. The improvement was kept after one month. Other neuropsychological tests were heterogeneous. rTMS at 10 Hz enhanced everyday memory in elderly with MCI after 10 sessions. These findings suggest that rTMS might be effective as a therapy for MCI and probably a tool to delay deterioration.

  16. Variables associated with hippocampal atrophy rate in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheny, Rachel L; Insel, Philip S; Truran, Diana; Schuff, Norbert; Jack, Clifford R; Aisen, Paul S; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Weiner, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify factors contributing to hippocampal atrophy rate (HAR) in clinically normal older adults (NC) and participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Longitudinal HAR was measured on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and the contribution of age, gender, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 status, intracranial volume, white matter lesions, and β-amyloid (Aβ) levels to HAR was determined using linear regression. Age-related effects of HAR were compared in Aβ positive (Aβ+) and Aβ negative (Aβ-) participants. Age and Aβ levels had independent effects on HAR in NC, whereas gender, ApoE ε4 status, and Aβ levels were associated with HAR in MCI. In multivariable models, Aβ levels were associated with HAR in NC; ApoE ε4 and Aβ levels were associated with HAR in MCI. In MCI, age was a stronger predictor of HAR in Aβ- versus Aβ+ participants. HAR was higher in Aβ+ participants, but most of the HAR was because of factors other than Aβ status. Age-related effects on HAR did not differ between NC versus MCI participants with the same Aβ status. Therefore, we conclude that even when accounting for other covariates, Aβ status, and not age, is a significant predictor of HAR; and that most of the HAR is not accounted for by Aβ status in either NC or MCI.

  17. Mental State Inferences Abilities Contribution to Verbal Irony Comprehension in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    G. Gaudreau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study examined mentalizing capacities as well as the relative implication of mentalizing in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions among 30 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 30 healthy control (HC subjects. Method. Subjects were administered a task evaluating mentalizing by means of short stories. A verbal irony comprehension task, in which participants had to identify ironic or sincere statements within short stories, was also administered; the design of the task allowed uniform implication of mentalizing across the conditions. Results. Findings indicated that participants with MCI have second-order mentalizing difficulties compared to HC subjects. Moreover, MCI participants were impaired compared to the HC group in identifying ironic or sincere stories, both requiring mental inference capacities. Conclusion. This study suggests that, in individuals with MCI, difficulties in the comprehension of ironic and sincere assertions are closely related to second-order mentalizing deficits. These findings support previous data suggesting a strong relationship between irony comprehension and mentalizing.

  18. Olfaction and Apathy in Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Older Adults

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    Seligman, Sarah C.; Kamath, Vidyulata; Giovannetti, Tania; Arnold, Steven E.; Moberg, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Apathy is a prevalent neuropsychiatric manifestation in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that is associated with decreased social functioning and increased caregiver burden. Olfactory deficits are also commonly observed in AD, and prior work has indicated a link between increased apathy and olfactory dysfunction in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Here, we examined odor identification performance in patients with probable AD (n = 172), individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 112), and neurologically and psychiatrically healthy older adults (n = 132) and its relation to apathy, depression, and overall psychopathology. Method Participants were administered the Sniffin’ Sticks odor identification test and measures assessing severity of apathy, depression, and overall neuropsychiatric symptomatology. Results Consistent with previous research, AD and MCI patients were significantly worse at identifying odors than healthy older adults. Additionally, a sex by diagnosis interaction was observed. AD patients had significantly higher levels of apathy relative to MCI and control participants. Of note, across the entire sample odor identification deficits were correlated with level of apathy at the level of p < 0.01, but not with depression or neuropsychiatric symptom severity, when controlling for MMSE score. Conclusion Collectively, these data suggest that olfactory disturbance and apathy in AD may result from the progression of disease pathology in shared neural substrates. PMID:23398350

  19. Discrimination of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Using Transfer Entropy Measures of Scalp EEG

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    Joseph McBride

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a neurological condition related to early stages of dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD. This study investigates the potential of measures of transfer entropy in scalp EEG for effectively discriminating between normal aging, MCI, and AD participants. Resting EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years—15 normal controls, 16 MCI, and 17 early AD—are examined. The mean temporal delays corresponding to peaks in inter-regional transfer entropy are computed and used as features to discriminate between the three groups of participants. Three-way classification schemes based on binary support vector machine models demonstrate overall discrimination accuracies of 91.7— 93.8%, depending on the protocol condition. These results demonstrate the potential for EEG transfer entropy measures as biomarkers in identifying early MCI and AD. Moreover, the analyses based on short data segments (two minutes render the method practical for a primary care setting.

  20. Quantitative EEG Markers in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Degenerative versus Vascular Brain Impairment

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    D. V. Moretti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between brain rhythmicity and both the cerebrovascular damage (CVD and amygdalohippocampal complex (AHC atrophy, as revealed by scalp electroencephalography (EEG in a cohort of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. All MCI subjects underwent EEG recording and magnetic resonance imaging. EEGs were recorded at rest. Relative power was separately computed for delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 frequency bands. In the spectral band power the severity of CVD was associated with increased delta power and decreased alpha2 power. No association of vascular damage was observed with alpha3 power. Moreover, the theta/alpha1 ratio could be a reliable index for the estimation of the individual extent of CV damage. On the other side, the group with moderate hippocampal atrophy showed the highest increase of alpha2 and alpha3 power. Moreover, when the amygdalar and hippocampal volumes are separately considered, within amygdalohippocampal complex (AHC, the increase of theta/gamma ratio is best associated with amygdalar atrophy whereas alpha3/alpha2 ratio is best associated with hippocampal atrophy. CVD and AHC damages are associated with specific EEG markers. So far, these EEG markers could have a prospective value in differential diagnosis between vascular and degenerative MCI.

  1. Voxel-based morphometry to detect brain atrophy in progressive mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Anne; Tervo, Susanna; Grau-Olivares, Marta; Niskanen, Eini; Pennanen, Corina; Huuskonen, Jari; Kivipelto, Miia; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tapiola, Mia; Vanhanen, Matti; Hallikainen, Merja; Helkala, Eeva-Liisa; Nissinen, Aulikki; Vanninen, Ritva; Soininen, Hilkka

    2007-10-01

    Recent research has shown an increased rate of conversion to dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to controls. However, there are no specific methods to predict who will later develop dementia. In the present study, 22 controls and 56 MCI subjects were followed on average for 37 months (max. 60 months) and studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline to assess changes in brain structure associated to later progression to dementia. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter atrophy. During the follow-up, 13 subjects progressed to dementia. At baseline, no differences were detected in age or education between the control and MCI subjects, but they differed by several neuropsychological tests. The stable and progressive MCI subjects differed only by CDR sum of boxes scores and delayed verbal recall, which were also significant predictors of conversion to dementia. At the baseline imaging, the MCI subjects showed reduced gray matter density in medial temporal, temporoparietal as well as in frontal cortical areas compared to controls. Interestingly, the progressive MCI subjects showed atrophy in the left temporoparietal and posterior cingulate cortices and in the precuneus bilaterally, and a trend for hippocampal atrophy when compared to the stable MCI subjects. We conclude that widespread cortical atrophy is present already two and a half years before a clinical diagnosis of dementia can be set.

  2. Automated MR morphometry to predict Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Schlindwein, Sarah; Bruggen, Thomas van; Meinzer, Hans-Peter [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Medical and Biological Informatics, Heidelberg (Germany); Stieltjes, Bram; Essig, Marco [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but essential for early treatment. This study aims to investigate the use of hippocampal atrophy markers for the automatic detection of MCI converters and to compare the predictive value to manually obtained hippocampal volume and temporal horn width. A study was performed with 15 patients with Alzheimer and 18 patients with MCI (ten converted, eight remained stable in a 3-year follow-up) as well as 15 healthy subjects. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and evaluated with an automated system for scoring of hippocampal atrophy. The predictive value of the automated system was compared with manual measurements of hippocampal volume and temporal horn width in the same subjects. The conversion to AD was correctly predicted in 77.8% of the cases (sensitivity 70%, specificity 87.5%) in the MCI group using automated morphometry and a plain linear classifier that was trained on the AD and healthy groups. Classification was improved by limiting analysis to the left cerebral hemisphere (accuracy 83.3%, sensitivity 70%, specificity 100%). The manual linear and volumetric approaches reached rates of 66.7% (40/100%) and 72.2% (60/87.5%), respectively. The automatic approach fulfills many important preconditions for clinical application. Contrary to the manual approaches, it is not observer-dependent and reduces human resource requirements. Automated assessment may be useful for individual patient assessment and for predicting progression to dementia. (orig.)

  3. Hierarchical interactions model for predicting Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI to Alzheimer's Disease (AD conversion.

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    Han Li

    Full Text Available Identifying patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI who are likely to convert to dementia has recently attracted increasing attention in Alzheimer's disease (AD research. An accurate prediction of conversion from MCI to AD can aid clinicians to initiate treatments at early stage and monitor their effectiveness. However, existing prediction systems based on the original biosignatures are not satisfactory. In this paper, we propose to fit the prediction models using pairwise biosignature interactions, thus capturing higher-order relationship among biosignatures. Specifically, we employ hierarchical constraints and sparsity regularization to prune the high-dimensional input features. Based on the significant biosignatures and underlying interactions identified, we build classifiers to predict the conversion probability based on the selected features. We further analyze the underlying interaction effects of different biosignatures based on the so-called stable expectation scores. We have used 293 MCI subjects from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI database that have MRI measurements at the baseline to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Our proposed method achieves better classification performance than state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we discover several significant interactions predictive of MCI-to-AD conversion. These results shed light on improving the prediction performance using interaction features.

  4. Is the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale appropriate to detect Mild Cognitive Impairment?

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    Anabel Belaus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have tried to assess the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS capability to detect incipient dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, but the results are not clear. The aim of this research was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the MDRS, and to localize the optimal cutoff score for MCI. Methodology. A neuropsychological battery that included the MDRS was administered to 60 older adults of both genders (Mean age=68.38, SD=6.80 in Cór- doba, Argentina, who were then classified as “Control” (34 cases or “MCI” (26 cases according to performance in the neuropsychological evaluation, excluding the MDRS. The criteria used were those stated by the Sociedad Española de Neurología. We performed mean comparisons in order to evaluate if the MDRS was able to detect the group differences. Then, a logistic regression with the MDRS total score as the predictor variable and the group as the criterion variable was performed to determine the cutoff score. Results. Even though the mean comparisons showed a significant difference in the MDRS (p=.004, the diagnostic accuracy was only 63% with a 133 points cutoff score. The sensitivity was 42% and the specificity was 79%. Conclusions. The MDRS does not seem to be a useful tool to detect MCI since it generates numerous misclassified cases. The development of more accurate tools becomes fundamental in order to detect MCI.

  5. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between Healthy Aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Back ground: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of dementia, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer's or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments.

    Methods: Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fMRI imaging in differentiating between Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Healthy Aging. To prove fMRI's ability, we compared resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects using Independent Component Algorithm (ICA. We examined 40 age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer's subjects.

    Results: The results show that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer's group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network.

    Conclusion: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer's disease (AD, MCI and Healthy Aging.


    Keywords: fMRI, Default Mode Network, Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Resting-State

  6. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality and architecture as well as sleep's homeostatic and circadian controls change with healthy aging. Changes include reductions in slow-wave sleep's (SWS) percent and spectral power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), number and amplitude of sleep spindles, rapid eye movement (REM) density and the amplitude of circadian rhythms, as well as a phase advance (moved earlier in time) of the brain's circadian clock. With mild cognitive impairment (MCI) there are further reductions of sleep quality, SWS, spindles, and percent REM, all of which further diminish, along with a profound disruption of circadian rhythmicity, with the conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sleep disorders may represent risk factors for dementias (e.g., REM Behavior Disorder presages Parkinson's disease) and sleep disorders are themselves extremely prevalent in neurodegenerative diseases. Working memory , formation of new episodic memories, and processing speed all decline with healthy aging whereas semantic, recognition, and emotional declarative memory are spared. In MCI, episodic and working memory further decline along with declines in semantic memory. In young adults, sleep-dependent memory consolidation (SDC) is widely observed for both declarative and procedural memory tasks. However, with healthy aging, although SDC for declarative memory is preserved, certain procedural tasks, such as motor-sequence learning, do not show SDC. In younger adults, fragmentation of sleep can reduce SDC, and a normative increase in sleep fragmentation may account for reduced SDC with healthy aging. Whereas sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy can impair SDC in the absence of neurodegenerative changes, the incidence of sleep disorders increases both with normal aging and, further, with neurodegenerative disease. Specific features of sleep architecture, such as sleep spindles and SWS are strongly linked to SDC. Diminution of these features with healthy aging

  7. Spatial patterns of brain amyloid-beta burden and atrophy rate associations in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Duygu; Schuff, Norbert; Mathis, Chester A; Jagust, William; Weiner, Michael W

    2011-04-01

    Amyloid-β accumulation in the brain is thought to be one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease, possibly leading to synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration and cognitive/functional decline. The earliest detectable changes seen with neuroimaging appear to be amyloid-β accumulation detected by (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography imaging. However, some individuals tolerate high brain amyloid-β loads without developing symptoms, while others progressively decline, suggesting that events in the brain downstream from amyloid-β deposition, such as regional brain atrophy rates, play an important role. The main purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between the regional distributions of increased amyloid-β and the regional distribution of increased brain atrophy rates in patients with mild cognitive impairment. To simultaneously capture the spatial distributions of amyloid-β and brain atrophy rates, we employed the statistical concept of parallel independent component analysis, an effective method for joint analysis of multimodal imaging data. Parallel independent component analysis identified significant relationships between two patterns of amyloid-β deposition and atrophy rates: (i) increased amyloid-β burden in the left precuneus/cuneus and medial-temporal regions was associated with increased brain atrophy rates in the left medial-temporal and parietal regions; and (ii) in contrast, increased amyloid-β burden in bilateral precuneus/cuneus and parietal regions was associated with increased brain atrophy rates in the right medial temporal regions. The spatial distribution of increased amyloid-β and the associated spatial distribution of increased brain atrophy rates embrace a characteristic pattern of brain structures known for a high vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease pathology, encouraging for the use of (11)C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography measures as early indicators of

  8. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Piccini, Alessandra [Cell Biology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa (Italy); Caroli, Anna [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy); Mario Negri Institute, Medical Imaging Unit, Biomedical Engineering Department, Bergamo (Italy); Frisoni, Giovanni [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  9. Psychotropic medication use and cognition in institutionalized older adults with mild to moderate dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H. P.; de Vries, Kerst; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most studies examining psychotropic medication use Oil cognition in older persons with dementia include measures of global cognitive function. The present study examined the relationship between different types of psychotropic medication and specific cognitive functions in older people w

  10. [11C]PIB, [18F]FDG and MR imaging in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brück, A; Virta, J R; Koivunen, J

    2013-01-01

    Cortical glucose metabolism, brain amyloid β accumulation and hippocampal atrophy imaging have all been suggested as potential biomarkers in predicting which patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) will convert to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic...... ability of [11C]PIB PET, [18F]FDG PET and quantitative hippocampal volumes measured with MR imaging in predicting conversion to AD in patients with MCI....

  11. White matter hyperintensities and medial temporal lobe atrophy in clinical subtypes of mild cognitive impairment: the DESCRIPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, van de, Jaco; Verhey, F.; Frisoni, G.B.; Tsolaki, M; Papapostolou, P.; Nobili, F.; Wahlund, L. O.; Minthon, L.; Frolich, L.; Hampel, H.; Soininen, H.; Knol, D.L.; Barkhof, F; Scheltens, P.; Visser, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Clinical subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may represent different underlying aetiologies. In a European, multi-center, memory-clinic based study (DESCRIPA) of non-demented subjects we investigated whether MCI subtypes have different brain correlates on MRI and whether the relation between subtypes and brain pathology is modified by age. Using visual rating scales medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) (0-4) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) (0-30) were assesse...

  12. Hippocampal volumes among older Indian adults: Comparison with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Dhikav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippocampal volume data from India have recently been reported in younger adults. Data in older adults are unknown. The present paper describes hippocampal volume from India among older adults and compares the same with patients having Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 cognitively normal subjects, 20 patients with AD, and 13 patients with MCI were enrolled. Patients were evaluated for the diagnosis of AD/MCI using the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Related Disorders Association criteria and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR Scale (score = 0.5, respectively. Hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI machine by manual segmentation (Megnatom Symphony 1.5T scanner three-dimensional (3D sequences. Results: Age and duration of illness in the MCI group were 70.6 ± 8.6 years and 1.9 ± 0.9 years, respectively. In the AD group, age and duration of illness were 72 ± 8.1 years and 3.1 ± 2.2 years, respectively. In cognitively normal subjects, the age range was 45-88 years (66.9 ± 10.32 years. Mean mini–mental status examination (MMSE score of healthy subjects was 28.28 ± 1.33. In the MCI group, MMSE was 27.05 ± 1.79. In the AD group, MMSE was 13.32 ± 5.6. In the healthy group, the hippocampal volume was 2.73 ± 0.53 cm3 on the left side and 2.77 ± 0.6 cm3 on the right side. Likewise, in MCI, the volume on the left side was 2.35 ± 0.42 cm3 and the volume on the right side was 2.36 ± 0.38 cm3. Similarly, in the AD group, the volume on the right side was 1.64 ± 0.55 cm3 and on the left side it was 1.59 ± 0.55 cm3. Post hoc analysis using Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD showed, using analysis of variance (ANOVA that there was a statistically significant difference between healthy and AD (P ≤ 0.01, and between healthy and MCI (P ≤ 0.01 subjects. There was a correlation between

  13. Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in employable patients after acute coronary event in cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzwedel A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Annett Salzwedel,1 Maria-Dorothea Heidler,1,2 Kathrin Haubold,1 Martin Schikora,2 Rona Reibis,3 Karl Wegscheider,4 Michael Jöbges,2 Heinz Völler1,5 1Center for Rehabilitation Research, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, 2Brandenburg Klinik, Bernau, 3Cardiological Outpatient Clinic, Am Park Sanssouci, Potsdam, 4Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, 5Klinik am See, Rüdersdorf, Germany Introduction: Adequate cognitive function in patients is a prerequisite for successful implementation of patient education and lifestyle coping in comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR programs. Although the association between cardiovascular diseases and cognitive impairments (CIs is well known, the prevalence particularly of mild CI in CR and the characteristics of affected patients have been insufficiently investigated so far. Methods: In this prospective observational study, 496 patients (54.5 ± 6.2 years, 79.8% men with coronary artery disease following an acute coronary event (ACE were analyzed. Patients were enrolled within 14 days of discharge from the hospital in a 3-week inpatient CR program. Patients were tested for CI using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA upon admission to and discharge from CR. Additionally, sociodemographic, clinical, and physiological variables were documented. The data were analyzed descriptively and in a multivariate stepwise backward elimination regression model with respect to CI. Results: At admission to CR, the CI (MoCA score < 26 was determined in 182 patients (36.7%. Significant differences between CI and no CI groups were identified, and CI group was associated with high prevalence of smoking (65.9 vs 56.7%, P = 0.046, heavy (physically demanding workloads (26.4 vs 17.8%, P < 0.001, sick leave longer than 1 month prior to CR (28.6 vs 18.5%, P = 0.026, reduced exercise capacity (102.5 vs 118.8 W, P = 0.006, and a shorter 6-min walking distance

  14. Learning and using technology in intertwined processes: a study of people with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lena; Nygård, Louise

    2014-09-01

    People with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are likely to be challenged by the multitude of everyday technology in today's society. The aim of this study was to explore how they try to prohibit, avoid or solve problems in everyday technology use, maintain skills, and learn to use new technology. To explore how the participants applied and reasoned about using everyday technology in real-life situations interviews were conducted while the participants used their own technology in their homes. Interviews were conducted with 20 participants with mild cognitive impairment (n = 10) or Alzheimer's disease (n = 10). The analyses were inspired from grounded theory and resulted in one core category and three sub-categories that represent sub-processes in the core. The core finding presents a continuous, intertwined process of learning and using everyday technology, highlighting how the context was interwoven in the processes. The participants used a rich variety of management strategies when approaching technology, including communication with the everyday technologies on different levels. The findings underscore that it is important to support continued use of everyday technology as long as it is valued and relevant to the person with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. The intertwined process of learning and using everyday technology suggests how support could target different sub-processes.

  15. Cortical thickness and semantic fluency in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jennifer A; Hwang, Kristy S; Lazaris, Andreas; Chow, Nicole; Ramirez, Leslie; Babakchanian, Sona; Woo, Ellen; Thompson, Paul M; Apostolova, Liana G

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is declarative memory loss, but deficits in semantic fluency are also observed. We assessed how semantic fluency relates to cortical atrophy to identify specific regions that play a role in the loss of access to semantic information. Whole-brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were analyzed from 9 Normal Control (NC)(M=76.7, SD=5.6), 40 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (M=74.4, SD=8.6), and 10 probable AD (M=72.4, SD=8.0) subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). They all were administered the Category Fluency (CF) animals and vegetables tests. Poorer semantic fluency was associated with bilateral cortical atrophy of the inferior parietal lobule (Brodman areas (BA) 39 and 40) and BA 6, 8, and 9 in the frontal lobe, as well as BA 22 in the temporal lobe. More diffuse frontal associations were seen in the left hemisphere involving BA 9, 10, 32, 44, 45, and 46. Additional cortical atrophy was seen in the temporoparietal (BA 37) and the right parastriate (BA 19, 18) cortices. Associations were more diffuse for performance on vegetable fluency than animal fluency. The permutation-corrected map-wise significance for CF animals was pcorrected=0.01 for the left hemisphere, and pcorrected=0.06 for the right hemisphere. The permutation-corrected map-wise significance for CF vegetables was pcorrected=0.009 for the left hemisphere, and pcorrected=0.03 for the right hemisphere. These results demonstrate the profound effect of cortical atrophy on semantic fluency. Specifically, tapping into semantic knowledge involves the frontal lobe in addition to the language cortices of the temporoparietal region.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of disease progression in a longitudinal mild cognitive impairment cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtti, Hilkka; Mattila, Jussi; van Gils, Mark; Koikkalainen, Juha; Soininen, Hilkka; Lötjönen, Jyrki

    2014-01-01

    Several neuropsychological tests and biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been validated and their evolution over time has been explored. In this study, multiple heterogeneous predictors of AD were combined using a supervised learning method called Disease State Index (DSI). The behavior of DSI values over time was examined to study disease progression quantitatively in a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cohort. The DSI method was applied to longitudinal data from 140 MCI cases that progressed to AD and 149 MCI cases that did not progress to AD during the follow-up. The data included neuropsychological tests, brain volumes from magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid samples, and apolipoprotein E from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Linear regression of the longitudinal DSI values (including the DSI value at the point of MCI to AD conversion) was performed for each subject having at least three DSI values available (147 non-converters, 126 converters). Converters had five times higher slopes and almost three times higher intercepts than non-converters. Two subgroups were found in the group of non-converters: one group with stable DSI values over time and another group with clearly increasing DSI values suggesting possible progression to AD in the future. The regression parameters differentiated between the converters and the non-converters with classification accuracy of 76.9% for the slopes and 74.6% for the intercepts. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that quantifying longitudinal patient data using the DSI method provides valid information for follow-up of disease progression and support for decision making.

  17. Multimodal Classification of Mild Cognitive Impairment Based on Partial Least Squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingyue; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Hu, Bin; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Jiacai; Ye, Qing; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-08-10

    In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the identification of the conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain neuroimaging techniques have been widely used to support the classification or prediction of MCI. The present study combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET), and 18F-florbetapir PET (florbetapir-PET) to discriminate MCI converters (MCI-c, individuals with MCI who convert to AD) from MCI non-converters (MCI-nc, individuals with MCI who have not converted to AD in the follow-up period) based on the partial least squares (PLS) method. Two types of PLS models (informed PLS and agnostic PLS) were built based on 64 MCI-c and 65 MCI-nc from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The results showed that the three-modality informed PLS model achieved better classification accuracy of 81.40%, sensitivity of 79.69%, and specificity of 83.08% compared with the single-modality model, and the three-modality agnostic PLS model also achieved better classification compared with the two-modality model. Moreover, combining the three modalities with clinical test score (ADAS-cog), the agnostic PLS model (independent data: florbetapir-PET; dependent data: FDG-PET and MRI) achieved optimal accuracy of 86.05%, sensitivity of 81.25%, and specificity of 90.77%. In addition, the comparison of PLS, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF) showed greater diagnostic power of PLS. These results suggested that our multimodal PLS model has the potential to discriminate MCI-c from the MCI-nc and may therefore be helpful in the early diagnosis of AD.

  18. Promising Role of Neuromodulation in Predicting the Progression of Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naro, Antonino; Corallo, Francesco; De Salvo, Simona; Marra, Angela; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Muscarà, Nunzio; Russo, Margherita; Marino, Silvia; De Luca, Rosaria; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    The differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not always straightforward, and the rate of progression of MCI to dementia is not negligible. Thus, there is a need for para-clinical approaches that can improve the differential diagnosis and identify patients that are at risk of progression. There is a growing interest, at present, in the role of the deterioration of brain oscillations as a predictor of MCI-to-AD conversion. For this reason, we experimentally modulated γ-band oscillations (GBO) in a sample of MCI and AD patients and an age-matched healthy elderly group, using a transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) protocol that was applied to different cortical sites. We correlated the after-effects of tACS on the GBO and the neuropsychological data, in an attempt to differentiate MCI from AD patients and identify, among the MCI patients, those that could be at potential risk of MCI-to-dementia conversion. MCI patients showed a partial GBO increase and improvement in some neuropsychological tests whereas AD individuals did not show significant tACS after-effects. Notably, some MCI subjects lacked significant neuropsychological and electrophysiological after-effects, similar to AD individuals. In a two-year follow-up, such MCI individuals had converted into AD. Therefore, our data suggest that tACS may support the clinical differential diagnosis of MCI and AD and identify MCI patients who could be at risk of developing dementia. This prediction index may help the clinician to adopt a better prevention/follow-up strategy in such a disabling neurodegenerative disease.

  19. Changes in white matter integrity before conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Defrancesco

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI may represent an early stage of dementia conferring a particularly high annual risk of 15-20% of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD. Recent findings suggest that not only gray matter (GM loss but also a decline in white matter (WM integrity may be associated with imminent conversion from MCI to AD.In this study we used Voxel-based morphometry (VBM to examine if gray matter loss and/or an increase of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC reflecting mean diffusivity (MD are an early marker of conversion from MCI to AD in a high risk population.Retrospective neuropsychological and clinical data were collected for fifty-five subjects (MCI converters n = 13, MCI non-converters n = 14, healthy controls n = 28 at baseline and one follow-up visit. All participants underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI and T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline to analyse changes in GM density and WM integrity using VBM.At baseline MCI converters showed impaired performance in verbal memory and naming compared to MCI non-converters. Further, MCI converters showed decreased WM integrity in the frontal, parietal, occipital, as well as the temporal lobe prior to conversion to AD. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive correlation of gray matter atrophy with specific neuropsychological test results.Our results suggest that additionally to morphological changes of GM a reduced integrity of WM indicates an imminent progression from MCI stage to AD. Therefore, we suggest that DWI is useful in the early diagnosis of AD.

  20. Association between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Neuropsychological Performance in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpening, Zoe; Lewis, Simon J G; Yee, Brendon J; Grunstein, Ron R; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing in middle-age and older adults has been shown to be linked to a range of neuropsychological deficits, but the extent to which these relationships are evident in older people 'at risk' of developing dementia in unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine whether changes in sleep-disordered breathing and sleep fragmentation during nocturnal sleep were related to neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Forty-six patients with MCI (mean age = 66.1 y, sd = 8.4) and 40 age-matched healthy controls (mean age = 63.5 y, sd = 8.9) underwent psychiatric, medical, and neuropsychological assessment, in addition to overnight polysomnography and self-report questionnaires. Measures of hypoxemia, sleep fragmentation, and sleep quality were derived including the apnoea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index, percentage of total sleep time spent below 90% oxygen saturation, arousal index, sleep efficiency, and wake after sleep onset. Patients with MCI did not differ from healthy aging on any measure of sleep-disordered breathing or sleep fragmentation. In MCI, processing speed was negatively correlated with greater sleep time spent below 90% oxygen saturation and a higher apnoea-hypopnea index. In contrast, in the healthy aging, processing speed was negatively correlated with an increased oxygen desaturation index and the arousal index. Sleep-disordered breathing is evident in both healthy aging and MCI with associated decrements in processing speed. Future research is needed to determine the unique and synergistic effects of these differential associations, their potential to inform disease trajectory, and possible therapeutic interventions.

  1. Group-constrained sparse fMRI connectivity modeling for mild cognitive impairment identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Chong-Yaw; Yap, Pew-Thian; Zhang, Daoqiang; Wang, Lihong; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-03-01

    Emergence of advanced network analysis techniques utilizing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) has enabled a more comprehensive understanding of neurological disorders at a whole-brain level. However, inferring brain connectivity from R-fMRI is a challenging task, particularly when the ultimate goal is to achieve good control-patient classification performance, owing to perplexing noise effects, curse of dimensionality, and inter-subject variability. Incorporating sparsity into connectivity modeling may be a possible solution to partially remedy this problem since most biological networks are intrinsically sparse. Nevertheless, sparsity constraint, when applied at an individual level, will inevitably cause inter-subject variability and hence degrade classification performance. To this end, we formulate the R-fMRI time series of each region of interest (ROI) as a linear representation of time series of other ROIs to infer sparse connectivity networks that are topologically identical across individuals. This formulation allows simultaneous selection of a common set of ROIs across subjects so that their linear combination is best in estimating the time series of the considered ROI. Specifically, l 1-norm is imposed on each subject to filter out spurious or insignificant connections to produce sparse networks. A group-constraint is hence imposed via multi-task learning using a l 2-norm to encourage consistent non-zero connections across subjects. This group-constraint is crucial since the network topology is identical for all subjects while still preserving individual information via different connectivity values. We validated the proposed modeling in mild cognitive impairment identification and promising results achieved demonstrate its superiority in disease characterization, particularly greater sensitivity to early stage brain pathologies. The inferred group-constrained sparse network is found to be biologically plausible and is highly

  2. Cortical Amyloid β Deposition and Current Depressive Symptoms in Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Ku; Plitman, Eric; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Caravaggio, Fernando; Gerretsen, Philip; Iwata, Yusuke; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequently seen in patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Evidence suggests that there may be a link between current depressive symptoms and Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated pathological changes, such as an increase in cortical amyloid-β (Aβ). However, limited in vivo studies have explored the relationship between current depressive symptoms and cortical Aβ in patients with MCI and AD. Our study, using a large sample of 455 patients with MCI and 153 patients with AD from the Alzheimer's disease Neuroimaging Initiatives, investigated whether current depressive symptoms are related to cortical Aβ deposition. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-depression/dysphoria. Cortical Aβ was quantified using positron emission tomography with the Aβ probe(18)F-florbetapir (AV-45).(18)F-florbetapir standardized uptake value ratio (AV-45 SUVR) from the frontal, cingulate, parietal, and temporal regions was estimated. A global AV-45 SUVR, defined as the average of frontal, cingulate, precuneus, and parietal cortex, was also used. We observed that current depressive symptoms were not related to cortical Aβ, after controlling for potential confounds, including history of major depression. We also observed that there was no difference in cortical Aβ between matched participants with high and low depressive symptoms, as well as no difference between matched participants with the presence and absence of depressive symptoms. The association between depression and cortical Aβ deposition does not exist, but the relationship is highly influenced by stressful events in the past, such as previous depressive episodes, and complex interactions of different pathways underlying both depression and dementia.

  3. Brain-wide slowing of spontaneous alpha rhythms in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eGarcés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI include an increase in low frequency activity, as measured with electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (MEG. A relevant property of spectral measures is the alpha peak, which corresponds to the dominant alpha rhythm. Here we studied the spatial distribution of MEG resting state alpha peak frequency and amplitude values in a sample of 27 MCI patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Power spectra were reconstructed in source space with linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer. Then, 88 Regions of Interest (ROIs were defined and an alpha peak per ROI and subject was identified. Statistical analyses were performed at every ROI, accounting for age, sex and educational level. Peak frequency was significantly decreased (p< 0.05 in MCIs in many posterior ROIs. The average peak frequency over all ROIs was 9.68±0.71 Hz for controls and 9.05±0.90 Hz for MCIs and the average normalized amplitude was (2.57±0.59•10-2 for controls and (2.70±0.49•10-2 for MCIs. Age and gender were also found to play a role in the alpha peak, since its frequency was higher in females than in males in posterior ROIs and correlated negatively with age in frontal ROIs. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of peak parameters with hippocampal volume, which is a commonly used marker of early structural AD-related damage. Peak frequency was positively correlated with hippocampal volume in many posterior ROIs. Overall, these findings indicate a pathological alpha slowing in MCI.

  4. Brain metabolic maps in Mild Cognitive Impairment predict heterogeneity of progression to dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cerami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [18F]FDG-PET imaging has been recognized as a crucial diagnostic marker in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, supporting the presence or the exclusion of Alzheimer's Disease (AD pathology. A clinical heterogeneity, however, underlies MCI definition. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the predictive role of single-subject voxel-based maps of [18F]FDG distribution generated through statistical parametric mapping (SPM in the progression to different dementia subtypes in a sample of 45 MCI. Their scans were compared to a large normal reference dataset developed and validated for comparison at single-subject level. Additionally, Aβ42 and Tau CSF values were available in 34 MCI subjects. Clinical follow-up (mean 28.5 ± 7.8 months assessed subsequent progression to AD or non-AD dementias. The SPM analysis showed: 1 normal brain metabolism in 14 MCI cases, none of them progressing to dementia; 2 the typical temporo-parietal pattern suggestive for prodromal AD in 15 cases, 11 of them progressing to AD; 3 brain hypometabolism suggestive of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD subtypes in 7 and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB in 2 subjects (all fulfilled FTLD or DLB clinical criteria at follow-up; and 4 7 MCI cases showed a selective unilateral or bilateral temporo-medial hypometabolism without the typical AD pattern, and they all remained stable. In our sample, objective voxel-based analysis of [18F]FDG-PET scans showed high predictive prognostic value, by identifying either normal brain metabolism or hypometabolic patterns suggestive of different underlying pathologies, as confirmed by progression at follow-up. These data support the potential usefulness of this SPM [18F]FDG PET analysis in the early dementia diagnosis and for improving subject selection in clinical trials based on MCI definition.

  5. Mild cognitive disorders are associated with different patterns of brain asymmetry than normal ageing: the PATH through life study

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    Nicolas Cherbuin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Defining how brain structures differ in pre-clinical dementia is important to better understand the pathological processes involved and to inform clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify significant brain correlates (volume and asymmetry in volume of mild cognitive disorders when compared to normal controls in a large community-based sample of young-old individuals who were assessed for cognitive impairment. Methods: Cortical and sub-cortical volumes were measured using a semi-automated method in 398 participants aged 65-70 years who were selected from a larger randomly sampled cohort and who agreed to undergo an MRI scan. Diagnoses were reached based on established protocols for MCI and a more inclusive category of any Mild Cognitive Disorder (any-MCD: which includes AAMI, AACD, OCD, MNC, CDR, MCI. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between volume and asymmetry of theoretically relevant cerebral structures (predictors and MCI or any-MCD while controlling for age, sex, and intra-cranial volume. Results: The main correlates of cognitive impairment assessed in multivariate analyses were hippocampal asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.83, 95%CI 0.71-0.96, p = .013; MCD: OR 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.97, p = .011, lateral ventricle asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99, p = .009; MCD: OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.92-0.98, p = .004, and cerebellar cortex asymmetry (more to left, MCI: OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13-2.01, p = .005. Conclusions: In this population-based cohort stronger associations were found between asymmetry measures, rather than raw volumes in cerebral structures, and mild cognitive disorders.

  6. S-TOFHLA in mild Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment patients as a measure of functional literacy: Preliminary study

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    Maira Okada de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The greatest difficulty in diagnosing cognitive loss in our population is the diversity of its education which has a broad spectrum ranging from illiteracy, functional illiteracy and different degrees of literacy, even in those with the same level of schooling. Objectives: To verify whether there is impairment on the S-TOFHLA among individuals with AD and MCI compared with healthy controls, and to compare performance on the S-TOFHLA performance with neuropsychological tests and the scores achieved on the Raven's Colored Matrices and Vocabulary and Block Design (WAIS-III as a measure of estimated intellectual level. Methods: 59 subjects: controls (n=23; age 70.96±8.31y; schooling 10.2±5.87y; 6 men, MCI patients (n=11; age 74.18±8.12y; schooling 7.55±4.32y; 5 men and AD patients (n=25; age 76.16±4.96y; schooling 7.32±4.78y; 10 men were submitted to neuropsychological assessment, S-TOFHLA and functional evaluation. Results: Differences on BD, Raven and Estimated IQ were found between controls and MCI patients as well as controls and AD patients. On the S-TOFHLA, differences were found between MCI and AD patients, controls and AD patients, but not between control and MCI groups. S-TOFHLA performance correlated strongly with schooling and all neuropsychological tests, except Clock Drawing. Conclusions: The S-TOFHLA seems to be a useful measure for determining the level of literacy in MCI patients, but not in AD patients. S-TOFHLA performance was more closely associated with neuropsychological test scores than were years of education and seems to be a good predictor of level of literacy. The Vocabulary subtest proved to be uninfluenced by the disease process in early stages and preserved in both MCI and AD patients, showing that semantic memory and crystallized intelligence are preserved.

  7. Examination of Variables That May Affect the Relationship Between Cognition and Functional Status in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

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    Mcalister, Courtney; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Lamb, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to improve understanding of the heterogeneity in the relationship between cognition and functional status in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Demographic, clinical, and methodological moderators were examined. Cognition explained an average of 23% of the variance in functional outcomes. Executive function measures explained the largest amount of variance (37%), whereas global cognitive status and processing speed measures explained the least (20%). Short- and long-delayed memory measures accounted for more variance (35% and 31%) than immediate memory measures (18%), and the relationship between cognition and functional outcomes was stronger when assessed with informant-report (28%) compared with self-report (21%). Demographics, sample characteristics, and type of everyday functioning measures (i.e., questionnaire, performance-based) explained relatively little variance compared with cognition. Executive functioning, particularly measured by Trails B, was a strong predictor of everyday functioning in individuals with MCI. A large proportion of variance remained unexplained by cognition. PMID:26743326

  8. Vascular Risk as a Predictor of Cognitive Decline in a Cohort of Elderly Patients with Mild to Moderate Dementia

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    Pedro K. Curiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The purpose of our study was to evaluate